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[This materials overlaps with the Critical Thinking General Education requirement.] The worksheet on Binary Arithmetic With Switches showed that simple mechanical switches can carry out arithmetic. While switches are easy to understand, and were actually used in some early computers, they are, however, slow. Even though switches are no longer used, computers are still built with these and similar functions. There have been many technologies used in computers to replace switches, including vacuum tubes, transistors and different generations of microchips. However, the basic functions have remained constant. Because the technology and construction details change while the function remains constant, it is very useful to have representation or symbols for the functions, independent of the technology used to implement the function. This set of representations or symbols is called logic gates. The logic part because they represent classical logical relationships, and gates because they can steer signals to different parts of a large circuit. Here are some examples of logical relationships: 1. "If you wash the dishes and clean your room, you can go to the party." Your kid has washed the dishes but not cleaned the room. Does your kid get to go to the party under this rule? (AND) 2. "I will let you go to the party if you wash the dishes or clean your room." Your kid has cleaned their room but the dishes are still dirty. Does your kid get to go to the party under this rule? (OR) 3. Same rule as #2, but your kid both washed the dishes and cleaned up their room do they get to go? (Inclusive or, OR, includes cases where both conditions are true) 4. "I either aced that test (90 or above) or I bombed it (less than 70)." What are the chances of getting a grade that is 90 or above and below 70 at the same time? (Exclusive or, XOR, excludes case where both conditions are true) Login Gates are drawing that represent these logical relationships (AND, OR, XOR) with shapes. Logic gates are drawn with

• • •

a shape representing the function of the gate (AND, OR, XOR) two input lines on the left-hand side (sometimes more, but not here), and letters to identify the inputs one output line on the right-hand side, and a letter to identify the output

The logical function is made explicit with a truth table. In the truth table, 0 represents false and 1 represents true. Here are the most important examples. The name of the gate is its logical function that relates the inputs to the outputs. Take an AND gate, for example. Its output is true (1) if input A is true AND (2) input A is true. If you have taken Critical Thinking, you should

Page 1 of 5

The output of an XOR gate is true if (1) input A is true XOR (2) input B is true. So named because the output is true if Input A is true and Input B is true. AND gate. OR gate. otherwise the output is false (inclusive or. and end at the right with the outputs. Inclusive means that the case where both inputs are true is included in making the output true. The difference is that here. 1. or if B is true. Always start at the left with the inputs. the output is true if A is true. you need to memorize this association. As with switches. otherwise the output is false.) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C 2. The logical functions used here are: • • • The output of an AND gate is true if (1) input A is true AND (2) input B is true. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Page 2 of 5 C . the function goes with the shape of the drawing. work row by row. or XOR. Also.Logic Gates Worksheet recognize the logical functions. Notice that all of these can be summarized as follows (one thing to memorize instead of three): • The output of an XXX gate is true if (1) input A is true XXX (2) input B is true. but you must put the same thing in both XXXs. otherwise the output is false. this was the series connection. we are considering them as actual hardware. (This function carries out binary multiplication. or if both are true. In the switch worksheet. The statement above works if you put AND in for both XXXs. or OR. result is true if both A and B are true). otherwise the output is false (exclusive or). This is the normal inclusive or. The output of an OR gate is true if (1) input A is true OR (2) input B is true.

either both ends are true or both ends are false. inversion. the output is true if A is true. a line transmits a value from one end to the other end without change. This means that it changes true to false or false to true. or if B is true. Which bit (C or D) is the carry? Which one is the addition? A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C D NOTE: If you are uncertain or having trouble. The lines on the drawing shows that the input at A is delivered without change to the top input of the XOR and the top input of the AND. Any signal line (an input or output) can be inverted by placing a circle on its connection to the body of the logic gate. Combining the XOR and AND gates carries out binary addition with the carry. same as before. Exclusive or. 4. Work from left to right. Also the B input is delivered without change to the bottom input of the XOR and the top input of the XOR. right at the inputs and outputs. In this type of drawing. The circle inverts the truth of that input. Page 3 of 5 . (This function carries out binary addition.Logic Gates Worksheet 3. before it gets used by the gate itself. try writing in the 1s and 0s on the diagram. To illustrate the steering capabilities of gates. or XOR (pronounced "zor"). except for the carry in the case of 1 + 1. The circuit below has two logic gates. we need one more feature. an XOR and an AND.) A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C More complicated circuits: combinations. Do this in pencil so you can change the values for the next row. but not if both are true.

Fill in the truth table for the circuit above. complete the truth table. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C D B 0 1 0 1 Now. to show the values in between the gates. 5. A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Page 4 of 5 C . data can be steered from a multiplier to an adder. 7. In this way. we can see how gates can C A more complicated problem. draw them here both before and after the inversions. Using the two inversions in the circuit below. After you have finished. Also. notice that bit A steers bit B from C to D. since the inputs cause the outputs. HINT: Make a bigger truth table off the side. Do not try to find the output of a gate before you have found both of its inputs. we can select which binary operation (multiplication or addition) to perform. data can be steered to or from a particular memory location. 6. Fill in the truth table for this circuit. with the inversion function.Logic Gates Worksheet NOTE: If you are drawing in the 1s and 0s. Work from left to right. A 0 0 1 1 steer.

as in A = 0 and B = 1.Logic Gates Worksheet NOTE: On Quiz and the Final. More likely is a question giving a value for A and a value for B. the full truth table takes too long to fill out. This amounts to doing a single row of the truth table. Page 5 of 5 .

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