Progress and Recent Trends in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

Visakh R

CONTENTS 
          

What is HCCI? Importance of HCCI Pioneering Researches in HCCI Challenges Faced in HCCI Methodologies Used in Investigation of HCCI Evolution In Control Strategies Various Control Strategies Explained Dual Mode Transitions Recent Developments HCCI Prototypes Conclusion Reference

very different than the spark/gasoline burn or the compression/diesel burn. The resulting spontaneous burn produces a flameless energy release in a large zone almost simultaneously -. HCCI is characterized by the fact that the fuel and air are mixed before combustion starts and the mixture auto-ignites as a result of the temperature increase in the compression stroke.What Is HCCI?    An HCCI engine is a mix of both conventional spark-ignition and diesel compression ignition technology. .

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and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI combustion incorporates the advantages of both spark ignition (SI) engines and compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engines. natural gas. extending the operating range.gasoline.IMPORTANCE OF HCCI      Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising alternative combustion technology with high efficiency and lower NOx and particulate matter emissions. However. such as controlling the combustion phasing. Massive research throughout the world has led to great progress in the control of HCCI combustion. biofuels. there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines. . It can operate using a variety of fuels -. diesel. hydrogen. The first thing paid attention to is that a great deal of fundamental theoretical research has been carried out.

Noguchi et experimental work on al two stroke engine Investigate Diesel Ryan et al fueled HCCI.5:1 Species related to low temp auto ignition were found like O & HO2 radicals Premature ignition and knocking. Output Stable HCCI combustion between low and high loads at CR 7. NOx reduced. Used Port fuel injection.Pioneering Researches In HCCI Sl. New strategies and challenges defined 1 2 Spectroscopy on HCCI combustion. AUTHOR No Onishi et al Aim \ Input Investigate gasoline systems to increase combustion stability of two stroke engines. Unburned HC emissions high. Mingfa yao et al 3 4 Evaluate the progress Present state of and current trends research revealed . Result Reduction in emissions and improved fuel economy Ignition at numerous points & no discernable flamefront.

UHC and CO emissions Operation Range Cold Start Homogeneous Mixture Preparation .Challenges Faced by HCCI      Difficulty in Combustion phasing control. High levels of Noise.

Methodologies used in investigation of HCCI Numerical Simulation Zero Dimensional single zone model Quasi Dimensional multi zone model One Dimensional engine cycle Multi Dimensional CFD  1. Optical Diagnostics For In cylinder mixture formation For Combustion Process For Emission Process . 2.  1. 4. 3. 3. 2.

Chemical Kinetics Model .

Multi Dimensional CFD with Chemical Kinetics Models .

Optical Diagnostics For In Cylinder Mixture Formation .

Optical Diagnostics For Combustion Process .

inhomogenity is an important path to achieve clean & high efficiency combustion in engines. . HCCI combustion has little sensitivity to fuel characteristics such as lubricity and laminar flame speed. Stratification Combustion. There exists an optimum octane number that achieves the highest indicated thermal efficiency at different engine load. burning low/high octane number fuel at low/ high load mode respectively.e. although the operating conditions must be adjusted to accommodate different fuels. Fuels with any octane or cetane number can be burned.Effect Of fuels. which can impact efficiency HCCI combustion can be controlled and the HCCI operating range can be extended by burning different octane number fuel at different engine modes. i. additives and fuel modifications on HCCI chemical kinetics process    One of the advantages of HCCI combustion is its intrinsic fuel flexibility.

. EGR enhances combustion. delay auto-ignition timing. control heat release. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) into intake is the most practical means of controlling charge temperature in an HCCI engine. and thus lower peak cylinder pressure.Contd«    Ignition promoters and inhibitors are available.

Evolution In Control Strategies     The spontaneous and simultaneous combustion of fuel-air mixture need to be controlled. No direct control methods possible as in SI or CI engines. which brings the difficulty of auto-ignition by compression. high octane rating of the fuel means it needs high ignition temperature. higher viscosity and lower resistance to auto ignition of diesel fuel. In Gasoline HCCI. . In Diesel HCCI. it is difficult to prepare homogeneous mixture because of the lower volatility.

Control Methods  Various control methods are: Variable compression ratio Exhaust Gas Recirculation Variable valve actuation .

VCR changes in-cylinder pressure and density.  Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) EGR mixes with fresh air as diluter can lead to increase of specific heat capacity in the cylinder. which is beneficial in reducing NOx emissions.Control Methods Explained  Variable compression ratio method (VCR) The geometric compression ratio can be changed with a movable plunger at the top of the cylinder head. In addition. Hence. Ignition delay becomes longer. and by which the in-cylinder temperature is controlled. . flame temperature after ignition decrease. which can produce effects on auto-ignition of fuel.

the effective volume and hence compression ratio changes . If the closure is after BDC.Control Methods Explained  Variable valve actuation (VVA) This method gives finer control within combustion chamber Involves controlling the effective pressure ratio. It controls the point at which the intake valve closes.

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Dual Mode Transitions   Practical HCCI engines will need to switch to a conventional SI or diesel mode at very low and high load conditions due to dilution limits. Two modes: HCCI-DI dual mode HCCI-SI dual mode .

It dilutes the fresh charge.Recent Developments   EGR (Exhaust Gas Re-circulation) Can be adopted for higher efficiencies and lower HC and CO emissions. Reduce the CO and HC emissions . The exhaust has dual effects on HCCI combustion. delaying ignition and reducing the chemical energy and engine work.

The first. The second is called Gasoline Compression Ignition or GCI. called Combined Combustion System or CCS.HCCI Prototypes    General Motors has demonstrated Opel Vectra and Saturn Aura with modified HCCI engines. Mercedes-Benz has developed a prototype engine called Dies Otto. is based on the VW Group 2. and the company expects them to be ready for production in about 2015. It requires the use of synthetic fuel to achieve maximum benefit. Both engines have been demonstrated in Touran prototypes. . with controlled auto ignition. It was displayed in its F 700 concept car at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show Volkswagen are developing two types of engine for HCCI operation. it uses HCCI when cruising and spark ignition when accelerating.0-litre diesel engine but uses homogenous intake charge rather than traditional diesel injection.

which will be offered alongside their ecoFLEX range of smallcapacity.HCCI Prototypes  In May 2008. Official figures are not yet available. The new engine operates in HCCI mode at low speeds or when cruising. but fuel economy is expected to be in the region of 43mpg with carbon dioxide emissions of about 150 grams per kilometer. General Motors gave Auto Express access to a Vauxhall Insignia prototype fitted with a 2. switching to conventional spark-ignition when the throttle is opened . improving on the 37mpg and 180g/km produced by the current 2.2-litre petrol engine. turbocharged petrol and diesel engines when the car goes into production.2-litre HCCI engine.

Chemical kinetics has a dominating role in HCCI Various challenges to HCCI are to be overcome HCCI concept can be extended to all new engine combustion modes achieving high efficiency and low emissions.  Numerical Simulation has become a powerful tool in realizing HCCI and seeking control strategies for HCCI. . and has higher flexibility and lower cost compared with engine experiments.Conclusion  Four main results from pioneering investigations: HCCI combustion demonstrates a strong potential to improve thermal efficiency of gasoline fuelled engines and reduce NOx and soot emissions of diesel fuelled engines.

. including combustion processes and emissions formation. Utilizing charge inhomogenity is an important path to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion in engines. it is by the use of large levels of residual exhaust gases. Application of Optical Diagnostics has greatly accelerated developments in many aspects of HCCI research. Essential factor needed to achieve diesel fuelled HCCI combustion is mixture control.Contd«     HCCI can be applied to a variety of fuels types and the choice of fuel will have a significant impact on both engine design and control strategies. For gasoline fuelled HCCI. Stratification strategy has the potential to extend HCCI operation range to higher loads.

Zhaolei Zheng.REFERENCE        ³Progress and recent trends in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines´ Ming Yao.com/2004/05/keep_an_eye_on_ .org .greencarcongress. Simeon Cavadias. ³An experimental study of HCCI-DI combustion and emissions in a diesel engine with dual fuel´ Junjun Ma. Xingcai Lü. Libin Ji.org/component/content/article/1631 http://www.llnl.gov/FuelsoftheFuture/pdf_files/hccirtc.pdf http://www. Haifeng Liu ³A parametric study on the emissions from an HCCI alternative combustion engine resulting from the auto-ignition of primary reference fuels´ Hatim Machrafi . Zhen Huang http://www-erd.html wikipedia. Jacques Amouroux.ecogeek.

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