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Title General Rules Content Single Author Two Authors Three to Six Authors More Than Six Authors Author .Chinese Names Author .Malay Names (without family names) Author .Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Inherited Names Conferred titles Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Unknown Author Page 1-2 Reference List : Book Basic Format for Books Edited Book.Chinese Names with English Names Author . No Author Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Edition Other Than the First Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Multivolume Work Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Letter to the Editor Review Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Work Discussed in a Secondary Source Dissertation Abstract Government Document Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings Published Conference Paper Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished) 3 4 5-6 i .
or Report Chapter or Section of a Web Document Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Computer Software Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview. Web Page.Title Content Page 7-8 Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical Online Scholarly Journal Article Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available Article From a Database Nonperiodical Web Document. Email. and Other Personal Communications Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Television Broadcast or Series Episode Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast A Television Series Music Recording Suggested Reading Materials 9-10 Appendix ii .
H.General Rules Single Author Last name first. 213-245. K. 1034-1048. 44(3). Simulated counter-current adsorption processes. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbitan Pustaka Antara. followed by author initials. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and. Author . Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. C. Petaling Jaya: Fajar Bakti. R. Friendship quality and social development. 59-65. D. 66. (2001). R. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Chemical Engineering Journal. More Than Six Authors If there are more than six authors.Malay Names (without family names) Asmah Binti Omar Cite as Asmah Omar.. C.. followed by author initials. Sun." which stands for "and others. 65. et al. M. Author .Chinese Names with English Names Family names followed by the initials of the English name and the author initials Vincent Foo Hiap Khian Cite as Foo. M. T.Chinese Names First name first. (1991).. 56. & Petty. D. while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand (&). Cornell.. G. Current Directions in Psychological Science.. & Harlow.. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. 7-10. Cruz. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Chu Chin Ning Cite as Chu. Kernis. V.. (1994). Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. E.. Journal of Film and Writing. E. A comparison of modeling strategies. D. DeNiro. R. T. (1983). Author ." Three to Six Authors List by last names and initials. 1190-1204." Omit bin/binti Harris. list the first six as above and then "et al. P. Stacks. N. (2002). 11. commas separate author names. Kemahiran berbahasa. T.. Hoffman. (1993).. H. Sarawak: Mini episodes of the past... Wegener. Berndt. P. A. J. 1 ." Remember not to place a period after "et" in "et al. (1995). Two Authors List by their last names and initials. Karper. Berry.
s/o. (2009). Jabatan Alam Sekitar. 2 . cite as it is given Yayasan Sabah. a/p Narrayani a/p Jeganathan. a/l. American Psychological Association. (2003). (2009). If the name starts with Foundation (Yayasan).Author-Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Omit d/o. Cite as Raja Ahmad Niza. Inherited Names Cite as it is Raja Ahmad Niza. (2009). Springfield. Do not include the numbers Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Cite as Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Unknown Author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed. Conferred titles Omit title Tun Mahathir Mohamad Cite as Mahathir Mohamad Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Cite under state and followed by the name of department in Malay Pahang. Cite under state or country and followed by the name of department in English New Zealand.(1993).). Board (Lembaga). (2009). Department of External Affairs. MA: Merriam-Webster. (2009). Cite as Narrayani Jeganathan.
Cognitive learning and memory in children (pp. (Year of publication). New York: Springer-Verlag. A. In M. Memory development in cultural context. Truscott & F." before the numbers: (pp. 3 . R. Edition Other Than the First Helfer. but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state. J. (1996).). Rogoff. Kukil. No Author Duncan. B.. This abbreviation. Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title. 5-13. (F. Trans. Note: For "Location. (Original work published 1814). Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Note: When you cite a republished work in your text.. Multivolume Work Scruton. (1985).). & Drugman.). In A. (Eds. except for newspapers.. Consequences of growing up poor.D. R.). New York: Dover. Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. G.)." you should always list the city. J.). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. R. C. A. & Brooks-Gunn. & Valencia. Edited Book. Editor & B. Pressley & C.. A. (2000). 117-142). Keme. The battered child (5th ed. L. it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951). Laplace. Emory. S. R. J. Title of chapter. B. 1-21). Editor (Eds. Ed. DC: American Psychological Association. Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher. New York: Anchor.Brainerd (Eds. (Year of publication). M.V. (1997). Chicago: University of Chicago Press Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author. W.J. (1991). The unabridged journals (K. A philosophical essay on probabilities. however. The New Criterion. & Mistry. The eclipse of listening. Location: Publisher. B. does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references. A.S. R. S. Plath. P. (1951). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. (1997). R. use "pp..Reference List : Books Basic Format for Books Author.E. 15(30). & Author. .. Calfee. Washington.
g. The periodical title is run in title case. (2002. Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ]. Author. (1990.g. Scientific American. Letter to the Editor Review Moller.. S. Making the grade in today's schools. Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one. B2. III. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.... 466467.Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form The APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials. e. The New Criterion. Harlow. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. The eclipse of listening. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. followed by a period. 5-13. pp. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Baumeister. 287(2). volume number(issue number). A. and continue numbering in issue two where issue one ended. (1983). the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. C. publication year goes between parentheses. C. Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Unlike other periodicals.. and is followed by the volume number which. or pp. (2005. The title of the article is in sentence-case. 12. e. December 28). 55. 15(30). A. R. 4 . B4 or pp. Title of article. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. Author. 38. Title of Periodical. pages. A. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Henry. (1996). C3-C4. (1993). Schultz. August). 28-31. 135. with the title. C1. F. B. 1A. Scruton. multiple pages take pp. Therefore. p. The Country Today. B2. W. Single pages take p. pp. G. p. H. Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue. meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. 893-896. F. & Author.. Contemporary Psychology. is also italicized or underlined. (Year). R. 2A. Time. B. April 9)..
For example. Dissertation Abstract Yoshida. (1995).L.. (2000). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). & Haller. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. M.S. Curtis. and give a citation for the secondary source. (2001). Relativity. . 501-508). Psychological Review. list the Coltheart et al.. Washington. NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list. 589-608. E. B. 1993). if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. J.). 26. & Haller.C. Work Discussed in a Secondary Source List the source the work was discussed in: Coltheart. Boston College. 2001). 62. (1993). In the text.). M. 7741A. 100. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. and you did not read the original work. In the text. pp.Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Bergmann. (1993). D.. Atkins. P. Essays in urban transportation (Doctoral dissertation. NJ: Erlbaum. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed. Government Printing Office. P.: Author. Government Document Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings 5 . reference in the References. National Institute of Mental Health. Atkins. name the original work.. & Cunnius.L. G. (Eds. Mahwah. (1990). Y. use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. DC: U. Dissertation Abstracts International. Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning.. Curtis. Washington. Schnase. American Psychiatric Association.
Korean studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic cooperation and development in research and education: nd Proceedings of the 2 International Conference of the Korean studies Association of Southeast Asia held on 29 January – 1 February 2007 at the University of Malaya. 121-138). Paper presented at the International Association of Historians of Asia Conference. University of Malaya. The economic depression of the 1930s : Its impact on race relations in the Federated Malay State. Unpublished master’s thesis. copyright issues & burden to enforce in Malaysia. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. S.& Azizah Hamzah. Kuala Lumpur. (Ed. Kuala Lumpur (pp. International trade agreement of intellectualproperty rights (TRIPS). (2006. N. (2008). Nov). Y. Philippines. (2007). 6 . KualaLumpur: University of Malaya.Published Conference Paper Hasmah Zanuddin. Manila. Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished) Santini. In Choi K.). Nadaraja Kannan.
com/articles/cite living Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available Whitmeyer. volume number. from http://www.. from http://www.alistapart. 8(3). Social Science Research. Title of article. A. D. 8. B. A. L. A.M. B. (2002).someaddress. & Author. including an issue number in parentheses. (2000). volume number(issue number if available). B. Journal of Abnormal Eating. Parker. Article From a Database When referencing material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library). Retrieved month day. A study of enjoyment of peas. Smyth.Retrieved 20 February 2001. Title of article. A.. (Date of publication).psu.com/full /url/ If the article appears as a printed version as well. Include all information the online host makes available. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. & Pease.com/full /url/ Online Scholarly Journal Article Author. J. Title of Journal. 535-555. Kenneth. & Author. month. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. Then add information that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. the URL is not required. from PsycARTICLES database. Title of Online Periodical. 29. 149. (2002). M. (2000).someaddress. Retrieved 20 February 2003. Power through appointment [Electronic version]. A. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. year. provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). L. from http://www. Retrieved 2 May 2006.edu/jbe/twocont.. 7 . A. B. A. Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article's title. year.. from http://www.Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical / Databases Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. M. Author. 10 tips on writing the living Web. Retrieved day.html Bernstein.cac. Journal of Buddhist Ethics. (Date of publication). I.
as in other types of references. (2002). Chapter or Section of a Web Document Author.com/) Author. month.3 Documentation (Apache modules. Module mod_rewrite : URL Rewriting Engine. July 23). or discussion group. T. (1999. 2006.com/forum/messages/00025. Title of document. B. If the date is unavailable for the document use (n. Retrieved day. from http://www. Frook. month.htm. Message posted to http://groups. if the author provides a real name. Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title. year. move up the URL to http://www. A. year. A. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1.3/mod/mod_rewrite. A.Nonperiodical Web Document.somesite. Retrieved day. forum. B. A.d. NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section. the thread of the message (not in italics). D. B.org/docs/1. B. then use the screen name.somesite. Engelshcall. from http://Web address. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Follow the date with the subject line. B. and somepage. Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting. from http://httpd.. provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document. Web Page.) Retrieved March 10. Title of article. and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board.. New York: Worth.htm does not carry the information you are looking for.earthlink. & Author.com/somepage. (Date of publication). NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author. not the home page of the Web site. year. month. & Author. use their real name instead. R.apache.com/full /url/.someaddress. from http://Web address NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). include the title of the message. or Report List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information. PsychInquiry [computer software]. If there is a page such as http://www. (Date of publication). (1997). Title of document (Date of publication). html Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting For a message posted to an online newsgroup. 8 . However.ht ml Computer Software Ludwig.) for no date. S. Retrieved day.
Dude (Producer). Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Smith. S. Email. Note: If a movie or video tape is unavailable in wide distribution. (2001).F. (Director). (E. (2002). Robbins. (Available from Purdue University Pictures. The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. full address and zip code). & Turley. New York: Central Broadcasting Service. (1986). (Writer). personal communication. 2001). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture].D. P. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. W. (Director). J. (Producer). Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication. 500 Oval Drive. (Date of publication). Series title. Wendy. and Other Personal Communications No personal communication is included in your reference list.Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview. United States: Paramount Pictures Harris. November 1). M. Writer. I. In D. In P. D. 2002). A. (Producer). P. instead. (Director). & Director. Creatures and monsters. City of origin: Studio or distributor. 9 . I. & Director. City of origin: Studio or distributor. (1990. (Producer). P. (Producer). Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (Director). January 4. Producer (Producer). (Director). M. & Smithee. Television Broadcast or Series Episode Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast Important. IN 47907) Producer. & Martian. M. West Lafayette. (Producer). (Date of publication). November 3.R. add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name. (Date of broadcast or copyright). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. Los Angeles: Belarus Studios. W. Title of episode [Television series episode]. P. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. parenthetically cite the communicators name and the date of the communication in your main text only.D. Title of broadcast [ Television broadcast or Television series ]. Basic reference list format: Producer. W. D. J.D. (Writer). A. P.
(Date of copyright). Exciting action show [Television series]. (1975). D. W. London: Big Pig Music Limited. Location: Label. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. University of Malaya Library (UML) Updated 25 June 2009/SB 10 . W. B. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. Music Recording Songwriter. Taupin. (Producer). (Recording date if different from copyright date). Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company.L. Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer].A Television Series Bellisario. Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. (1992).
). (2005). Medford. Lindsay. Jariah Mohd Jan. Enjoy writing your science thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide to planning and writing dissertations and theses for undergraduate and graduate science students. Kuala Lumpur: IPS. (1991).Appendix Suggested Reading Materials Allison. London.). D. Huckin. New York: McGraw-Hill. (2003). Panduan penulisan saintifik: Manual untuk pelajar dan penyelidik. Technical writing and professional communication: For nonnative speakers of English. Buckingham: Open University Press. nd Biagioli.. The student’s guide to preparing dissertations and theses (2 ed. J. th Holloway. (1993). N. (1998). (2008). Writing at university: A guide for students.J: Information Today. Westminster. Amato. Li. B. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information. London: Imperial College Press. The world’s easiest guide to using the APA: A user-friendly manual for formatting research papers according to the American Psychological Association style guide nd (2 ed. (2003). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. . B. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis. D.). & Crane. M. (1999). New: Routledge. X. Creme. (1996). Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Holtom. CA: Stargazer Pub. Guide to the preparation of research reports: Dissertations and theses. N. Gibaldi. Routledge Falmer. B. J. C. nd Azirah Hashim. Scientific authorship: Credit and intellectual property in science (2 ed. (2008). N.). J. How to write a thesis: The thesis writing journey from start to finish.). P. New York: Modern Language Association of America. Technical writing basics: A guide to style and form (4 ed. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th ed. Kirkman. A. T. (2004). R. Punctuation matters: Advice on punctuation for scientific and technical writing th (4 ed. (2003). (2006).).
Effective writing: Improving scientific. Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposal (5 ed. E. P.). F. C. (1995). (1991). (1999). theses. Yusof Hj. Writing a successful theses or dissertation: Tips and strategies for students in the social and behavioral sciences. (1998). Science and technical writing: A manual of style (2 ed. Writing the research paper: A handbook with both the MLA and APA th documentation styles (5 ed. with an Appendix on APA style.: Houghton Mifflin. R.). F. Matthews. technical and business communication (2 ed. C. A. Trimmer. J. J. Winkler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Successful scientific writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and nd medical sciences ( 2 ed. nd Turk. The essentials of MLA style: A guide to documentation for writers of research papers. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.). and dissertations: Chicago th style for students and researchers (7 ed. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. M. J. Mass. nd Rubens.Lunenberg. & F. Panduan penyelidikan sains dan penulisan saintifik. New York: Routledge. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. (1989). Mohd. Rugg. Forth Worth.). L. The unwritten rules of PhD research. (2008). (2000). . (2007). O’Connor. TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Spon. Thousand Oaks: Sage Pub. An outline of scientific writing: For researchers with English as a foreign language. C. G. Othman. W. Singapore: World Scientific. Russey. L. (2004). T.N. (2006). Boston. (2001). England: Open University Press. Turabian. London: E. (2007). Maidenhead. A manual for writers of research papers. th Locke. (1996). K. How to write a successful science thesis: The concise guide for students. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. London: E & FN Spon. Writing successfully in science.). Yang.).