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INTRODUCTION

The circuit basically works on the photo sensitive transistor which is the most sensitive photo transistor. Unlike the conventional alarms which requires a constant aligned light beam source to sound up that uses light dependent resistors (LDR¶s) based on the opto-interruption technique. This circuit works even in a dim lighting in the room or where ever the alarm is placed. The circuit is so deigned that it can be used by the shopkeepers at night to avoid cases of theft and robbery with added improvement in the circuit to operate a door using a dc motor.

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2. DECSRIPTION

2.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FIG 2.1.1: Circuit diagram of Shadow alarm

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Pin 4 of IC2 is connected to resistance (R5) and capacitor (C1).2. Op-amp A741 (IC1) is used as a voltage comparator. The inverting input of the IC1 is connected to the photo sensitive transistor and the non-inverting input is connected to potential divider resistance (R2 ) and potentiometer (VR1). The output of Pin 3 is connected to the LED2 and further to the piezoelectric buzzer which sounds whenever the circuit detects any shadow. also activating the dc motor which pulls the door down. A dim lighting is required in the room to detect the moving shadow. The circuit has a 9 volt battery and uses most sensitive photo sensor to detect shadows.2 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The opto-sensitive circuit sounds up whenever a shadow falls on it.The output of this IC (pin 6) is connected to pin 2 of IC2 which also connects resistance (R4 & R3) and LED1. Unlike opto-interruption alarms based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). it does not require an aligned light beam to illuminate the photo-sensor. 3 . Pin 6 and 7 is connected to resistance (R6) and capacitor (C3).

The output of IC2 is used to light up the LED2 and sounds up the buzzer. The potentiometer can be adjusted till the LED2 stops glowing and the buzzer stops beeping. When the photo transistor detects the shadows the output of IC1 is low and this low pulse triggers IC2 which is designed for a delay of 51 sec using resistor (R6) and capacitor (C3). WORKING In presence of ambient light in the room the phototransistor conducts the inverting input of IC1 (pin 2) gets a low voltage than its non inverting input (pin 3) thus making the output of IC1 high and the LED1 glows. This is the position of VR1 which is to be maintained for that particular intensity of light.3. 4 .LED1 continues to glow even when the circuit detects shadows which further provides a voltage to operate a dc motor to control the door.

-65-125 °C.4. 1 (0. 3-6 mA 47 K Red. COMPONENTS 4.01µF) Peizo electric 9V DC Simple On-Off 5-9 V D C Motor 5 .1 LIST OF COMPONENTS S.16 V supply.2(10 K). No 1 COMPONENTS Photo sensor transistor (L14F1) QUANTITY 1 SPECIFICATION Operating temp. Yellow 1(100K). 4.2(100Ÿ).5.1(4. VCEO 25 V 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 IC (741) IC (NE555) Potentiometer LED Resistor Capacitor Buzzer Battery Connecting wires Switch 1 1 1 2 7 3 1 1 3 1 1 Input voltage 12-13 V. 1(1M) 2(47µF).7 K).

and general feedback applications. the 741 type of internally compensated op-amp was originally manufactured by Fairchild and is sold as the µA741 IC which we are using in our circuit.1.2.1. The high gain and wide range of operating voltage provides superior performance in integrator.2. Each manufacturer uses a specific code and assigns a specific type number to the ICs it produces. summing amplifier.2: INTERNAL CIRCUITARY OF IC 741 6 .1 741 IC Data Sheet In the United States alone there are well over 30 IC manufacturers producing millions of ICs per year. High common mode voltage range and absence of latch up tendencies make the µA741 ideal for the use as a voltage follower. It is intended for a wide range of analog applications. For example.1: 741 IC FIG 4.2 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION 4. The µA741 is a high performance monolithic operational amplifier constructed using the Fairchild Planar epitaxial process.2.4. 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 FIG 4.

8.Absolute Maximum Ratings: Supply Voltage= ±22V Power Dissipation= 500 mW Differential Input Voltage= ±30V Input Voltage =±15V Output Short Circuit Duration: Continuous Operating Temperature Range =í55°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range= í65°C to +150°C Junction Temperature= 150°C Soldering Information: N-Package (10 seconds) = 260°C J.80 mA Input Resistance= 6 MŸ Input Voltage range= ± 12.or H-Package (10 seconds) = 300°C M-Package Vapor Phase (60 seconds) = 215°C Infrared (15 seconds) = 215°C Electrical Characteristics: Input offset voltage= 0.±13 V 7 .0 mV Average input offset Voltage drift = 15 µV/ºC Input offset Current = 3.30 nA Input Bais Current= 30.3.

The operating temperature is upto +70°C with an astable operation.2 NE555 IC Data Sheet The LM555/NE555/SA555 is a highly stable controller capable of producing accurate timing pulses.2. the frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled by two external resistors and one capacitor.2.4. With a mono stable operation. the time delay is controlled by one external resistor and one capacitor.1: TWO KINDS OF CONFIGURATIONS OF NE555 IC 8 .2. 8-DIP 8-SOP FIG 4. It is available in two kinds 8-DIP and 8-SOP.

‡ Timing from sec to hours ‡ Turn off time less than 2 Sec Applications: ‡ Precision timing ‡ Pulse generation ‡ Time delay generation ‡ Sequential timing Absolute Maximum Ratings: Supply Voltage =16 V Lead Temperature (Soldering 10sec) = 300 °C Power Dissipation = 600 mW Operating Temperature Range = 0 ~ +70°C Storage Temperature Range = -65 ~ +150 °C 9 . ‡ Adjustable duty cycle. ‡ Temperature stability of 0.Features: ‡ High current drive capability (200mA).005%/°C.

7V Reset Current= 0.6 mA Control Voltage= 9.1.2.11 V Threshold Voltage= 10 V Threshold Current=0.Electrical Characteristics: Supply Voltage= 4.25 µA Trigger Voltage= 1.2 V Trigger Current= 0.1.2 µA Reset Voltage= 0.1 mA Internal Block Diagram: FIG 4.5.01.2.2: INTERNAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF NE555 IC 10 .16 V Supply Current= 3.0.2.

2.3 Potentiometer 1) It is a variable resistor 2) Wiper moves between two leads. 7) Some other variable resistors include heat sensors. FIG 4. and trimpot form. 4) Comes in dial. 5) With linear pots resistance varies directly with the rotation of the knob. Resistance between wiper and lead determines resistance 3) Resistance between leads is maximum resistance of potentiometer. photoresistors and bend sensors.3. 6) With logarithmic pots resistance varies exponentially with the rotation of the knob. slider.4.1 : POTENTIOMETER 11 .2.

4.2.2.4 LI4F1 PHOTO TRANSISTOR Data Sheet The L14F1/L14F2 are silicon photodarlingtons mounted in a narrow angle.010 with operating temperature -65 to +125 °C. They are also the most sensitive photosensors which also detects the moving shadows.1: L14F1 PHOTO TRANSISTOR 12 .4. The collector to emitter breakdown voltage and collector to emitter voltage both are 25 V. FIG 4. It¶s tolerance limit is ±.

Absolute Maximum Ratings: Operating Temperature= -65 to +125 °C Storage Temperature= -65 to +150 °C Soldering Temperature (Iron) = 240 °C Collector to Emitter Breakdown Voltage VCEO= 25 V Collector to Base Breakdown Voltage VCBO= 25 V Emitter to Base Breakdown Voltage VEBO= 12 V Power Dissipation = 300 mW Power Dissipation= 600 mW Electrical Properties: Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage=25 V Emitter-Base Breakdown Voltage= 12 V Collector-Base Breakdown Voltage= 25 V Collector-Emitter Leakage Current=100 nA Reception Angle at 1/2 Sensitivity = ±8 Degrees On-State Collector Current = 7.FEATURES: ‡ Hermetically sealed package.5 mA 13 . ‡ Narrow reception angle.5 mA On-State Collector Current = 2.

2. and to the strength of the external magnetic field. and brushes. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -.this includes the motor casing.5 DC MOTOR Principle of operation In any electric motor.1: DC MOTOR magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. In most common DC motors .. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field.a.2. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the FIG 4.k. as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. field magnet(s).with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. armature). stator. the external magnetic field is produced by highstrength permanent magnets.axle. rotor (a. it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor.5. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core). operation is based on simple electromagnetism. the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. when this is then placed in an external magnetic field. commutator.4. 14 . Every DC motor has six basic parts -.

5. The printed circuit boards (PCBs) consist of an insulating substrate material with metallic circuitry photo chemically formed upon that substrate. 15 . Thus PCB provides sufficient mechanical support and necessary electrical connections for an electronic circuit. PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS The use of miniaturization and sub miniaturization in electronic equipment design has been responsible for the introduction of a new technique in inters component wiring and assembly that is popularly known as printed circuit.

Now put the door of the machine down for not more than 8 seconds and push the switch ON. 4. The lith film is now placed in the lith making machine with readable part on the upper side. 16 . Lith film is a sheet with two sides. The lith film is now cut to an approximate size of the layout at least half cm more than the size of layout. 3. STAGE 2: LITH FILM MANUFACTURE Before beginning with the steps we prepare 3 trays of solutions: Tray 1: A+B tray which is Butyl + Sodium Carbonate with concentration 1 teaspoon in 1 litre of water both added in same ratio. 1. 2. one side is brown and the other is gray. Tray 2: Ordinary water Tray 3: It consists of fixer (developer). The layout can be prepared by either using soft wares like PCB Artist or PCB Express or can be done manually on a plane paper using marker with proper spaces between components. We can only use red light. 6. Remove the lith film and wash it in the first tray continuously in movement till the complete circuit is developed. The brown side of the lith film should touch the layout.5. the chemical is made by dissolving 2 teaspoons in 1 litre of water.1 PCB MANUFACTURING PROCESS STAGE 1: PREPROCESSING The first step to manufacture PCB requires a preparation of a layout. 5. NOTE: All the processes for the manufacture of lith film are performed in the dark room under minimal amount of light. Minimum time required is 2-3 minutes.

7. STAGE 3: Photolithography After preparing the negative. Clean it by metallic jute to see the shiny copper surface. After a layer of photo resist material is applied on the board surface. First of all we take a single sided copper clad board and cut it in size of the layout. The negative is ready to be processed further. Now dip the PCB in the dip coating machine so that a layer photo resist material is coated on the PCB. 6. 5. 9. In dip coating copper clad board is clamped with the machine and when the machine is switched on the copper clad gets dipped in the material. Now the copper clad board along with the layout is placed in the UV light machine to film (lith film) kept in glass frame. NOTE: All the processes for the manufacture of lith film are performed in the dark room under minimal amount of light. PCB consists of an insulating substrate material. The basic purpose of applying photo resist material is that when this material is subjected to UV light and the circuit gets imprinted on the board. 1. The circuit after the first tray appears transparent and the rest of the film turns black. 4. Now. the next stage is photolithography. dry the film in air/oven at normal temperature say 40 degrees till the film dries. The steps performed under this are mentioned below. we dry the copper the oven at 50° . Now shift the lith film in second tray and wash it for 2-3 minutes. 10. Photo resist is an organic solution which when exposed to light of particular wavelength change their solubility in the developer. 3. 2. Lastly wash the lith film in the fixer tray for the same time interval. for (2-3) minutes and after the time interval the circuit becomes partially visible on the board. 8. clad in 17 .

The different solutions used are as etchants and the most commonly used is FeCl3. 9. The next step is to wash the copper clad in simple water after which the circuit becomes completely visible on the board. fix the sheet in the jaws and set the timer for 10 minutes 2. STAGE 3: Etching The next step after photolithography is etching The etching process is performed by exposing the surface of the board to an etchant solution which dissolves away the exposed copper areas other than the one deposited on the circuit . we put the copper board in blue dye for approximately one minute.7. If not then fix the sheet again and set the timer again For 5 minutes. Ultimately we drop the copper board in the machine which consists of white die and blue die in separate tanks. 8. After the above step. 4. 18 . Extra copper is removed from the copper clad either manually or by a process called tinning. The blue dye covers the entire copper clad board. Now wash the etched sheet in ordinary water and dry it in air for 10-15 minutes. 3. Switch on the etching machine. After say about 8 minutes take out the sheet and check whether it¶s is well etched or not. 5. Now dip the prepared copper clad or the sheet in etchant. We immerse the copper board first in white die for approximately one minute for the visibility of the circuit.The steps involved in etching are: 1.

STAGE 4: Drilling Drilling is used to create the component lead holes in a PCB . 19 . STAGE 5: Component mounting and Soldering Once the drilling has been done the components are mounted on their appropriate position and the soldering is done.The drilling can be done before or after the track defined for the components. STAGE 6: PCB Testing After complete manufacturing PCB is tested for continuity.

2.5.1 : Layout of the circuit 20 .2 PCB LAYOUT Fig 5.

it starts beeping. 21 . This circuit may be very useful to guard some of the very costly belongings and it might be useful to the shopkeepers who keep their jewelries in their shops. APPLICATIONS Shadow alarm features a very sensitive light sensor which helps the circuit to detect shadows. proving that someone is near and can be caught inside till some action is taken. The moment someone comes in between the light source and the sensor of the circuit which is placed near the safe.6.

As a better implementation using a door with the alarm makes it more effective in serving the cause. It is implemented and tested by casting shadow on the sensor which makes the alarm run.7. 22 . CONCLUSION We were able to make the circuit of Shadow alarm.

electronicdesignworks. 75 and 91 23 .com/led.com/electronic components/resistance.breadboards Op-amps and linear integrated circuits (III edition).8.wikipedia.google.com/circuit /circuit images/NE555/IC 741 www.com/shadow alarm/images and components www. REFERENCES y y y y y www.electronicsforyou. Ramkant A.capacitance www. Gayakwad Pearson Publication. III edition Page No.

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