Understanding Isl¯ m Through a H¯ d¯ a is

Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries

Ram Swarup

Voice of India, New Delhi

2

i INTRODUCTION

Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very specific view of the world peopled by infidels. Since most of the world is still infidel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is different. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯fi, whose mystical teachings a a u

ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy fifth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacrifices, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insignificant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most prolific source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At first the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two

Sa’d utilized their power effectively.was a great thing. H. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. a serious effort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. It is also u a¯ said that 40. or what they thought were the right theological views. D. Soon after Muhammad’s death. There were also more personal motives at work. and under their influence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited.000 of them as authentic. They were sources of prestige and profit. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. There was an even more pressing reason. 209-279=A. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. in the practice a of the Prophet. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. H. 202-275 = A. the Ummayads. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably sufficient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. D. 824-892). 819-875). great passions were generated. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. 817-888) u a¯ and others. Spurious traditions were coming into being. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire.000. It is said that he collected 600. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. drowning the genuine one’s. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. H. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A.iii other reasons. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4.in short. In this struggle. particularly the Alids. 204-261=A. H.800 traditions out of a total of 500. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. 810ail ai 870). Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. This was found in the Sunn¯h. There were many motives at play behind this development. and later on the Abbasides. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. 194-256=A. D. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. Under these circumstances. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . D. A hundred years after Muhammad.000 names were mentioned in different chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand.000 traditions but accepted only 7.

which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. his forehead. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. or collections. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. reveals their more earthly motives. 151 (A. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a different frame of mind.iv accepted only 2. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. and only six collections. rather all too human.“the two authentics. the Had¯ the context. The of the Had is. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. Of these. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. To clarify certain points. but they contain much that is factual and historical. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. Over a thousand collections. the hero looms larger. a i. 768) a in Baghdad. To the infidel with his critical faculty still intact. H. narrated. 32). It ih provides the base.000 as genuine. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. which only the Had¯ provides. The believers have handled. H.” they are called. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. who was born in Medina in A. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. The lapse of time helps the process. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the flavor of the original. 85 and died in A. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. which were in vogue died away in due course. Muhammad Ashraf). Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. H. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. 1958). Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. D. we must thank Dr. As the distance grows. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. about a man. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for filling up this gap and giving Therefore. is rather unedifying. almost the very first definitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. a is Had¯ gives flesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . In fact. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh.

Sidd¯ ¯ translation. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of . their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. In a Sah¯ containing 7. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship.e. In fact. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. we have also quoted from the notes . dethrone the gods of their neighbors. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore.e. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. the old mission is being revived. If anything. having been dormant for several centuries. Isl¯m. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. in Malaysia. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. with a large Muslim population. a Even in the best of circumstances. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. When we read Dr. and install in their place their own godling. They buy local politicians. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. In India. In ih a is. Indonesia. Here and there. infidel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. a i.. Arab support has made the task still more difficult. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. and even India. or “countries of peace. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . is again a on the march.. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is.” i.081 footnotes. it is difficult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country.about forty-five times . Dr. All¯h.v whose mother tongue is English. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors.

243 chapters. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. and it feels justified in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. and thus. in many cases. This we find the Had¯ literature most fitted to do. It gives us 7. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddafi. On the other hand. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. Therefore. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. It has one drawback. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity.190 traditions divided into 1. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. similarly. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. is In this volume. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with different chains of transmission. it resists any change. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. Indeed. motivated by a compulsive atavism. dictatorship comes in its wake.vi the country. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims find most fascinating. it fruitfully defines the field of our study and inquiry. both of commission and omission. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. And. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. though. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. But on calm reflection. a is. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. derived from the available symbols of their culture. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the confines of this particular Sah¯ ih. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. we have discussed none in full. According to some thinkers. It is a weapon of self-defense. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. a is a is . Wherever it triumphs. Isl¯m claims to have defined human thought and behavior a for all time to come. While we have in this way touched on many points. For this purpose. it is also something more. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. was unavoidable.

but the believers look at the whole thing differently. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). but his actions determine and define morality. although such instances are rather rare. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. One is also left to wonder how the believers. generation after generation. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. “may All¯h be pleased with him. In regard to the title of the book. The picture that emerges is hardly flattering. Similarly. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. “may peace be upon him. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. could have found this story so inspiring. . An infidel in his fundamental misguidance may find the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . There is no makeup. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. the moral is whatever he did. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). hating. they were All¯h’s own acts. The Sah¯ Muslim.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . In our quotations from this literature.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. mating. like other Had¯ collections. Here one comes to know him. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. For example. containing 583 traditions. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. comprising 180 traditions. praying. no posturing for posterity. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. no cosmetics. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. eating. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. dispensing justice.” A similar formula. and one is left wondering why in the first instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness.

Dr. z¯l. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. and Mrs. for they do not affect the substance of the book. and zw¯d by z. C. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. a by the English s. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. Shri L. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. C. Shri H. I thank them all gratefully. they have preferred to remain anonymous. Shri P. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. te (soft dental) and toe by t. both have to be learned by ear. in order to avoid them as far as possible. RAM SWARUP .viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. Jain. ze. Therefore. P. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. the Arabic alphabet’s se. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. For example. Gupta. Sisir Kumar Ghose. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. Shri A. ain. now both resident in America. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. but we have made it do also for another sound.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . .

. . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . Food and Drink 109 GAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . Vi- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . 198 . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

So also are the notes and comments of the translator. and says: “Muhammad. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1).” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. when the inquirer is gone. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to affirm belief in All¯h alone. in His angels. ifa.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very first book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. in the resurrection. in the hereafter. inform me about al-Isl¯m. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. ih In quoting them. and you establish prayer. yet without any sign of fatigue. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. 1 1 . 1 This is the very first had¯ narrated by ’Umar.” Later on.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. faith in His Book. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not sufficient. we give their numbers in parentheses. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. pay Zak¯t. A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad.

“I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. zak¯t. his father and the whole mankind.) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). and if they accept this. is. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h.” Other things mentioned are prayer. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indifference but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. All¯h and his Messenger . then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. . and “that you pay one-fifth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). in the history of Isl¯m. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. and they establish prayer. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. Sah¯ Muslim.rather. Similarly. to name the more important ones. . but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. Muhammad and his God . These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. . Hell. GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “five pillars” of Isl¯m. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. In the same vein. FAITH (IM AN) ah. Paradise. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. This can be confidently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. Ramz¯n. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. and many teachers. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). many philosophies. and khums (the holy one-fifth). zak¯t. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. Ramz¯n. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). Doomsday. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become significant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218).prayer. “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. .

“Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. But in Isl¯m. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clarification. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h.” but who were ready to join him.” which should be a good definition for any religion. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). nation. Jar¯ b. The translator clarifies the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious offences in Isl¯m . . Muhammad at one place defines al-d¯ (“the religion. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a .” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). But no morally wicked act . except to convert them by sword. sincerity is a universal human value.” i. “Jih¯d. and a future ones hold no great terror. His Book. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect.e. . a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). but moral values are not altogether neglected.3 In the eyes of Muhammad. u if the man committed adultery and theft. monotheism. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. the narrator of the had is.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. it is a limited to Muslims. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. In fact.can prevent his entry. one’s past crimes are obliterated. For example. and jizy¯. When asked. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. by the same token.not even adultery and theft . Muhammad replies: “Yes.. is the best of virtues. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. Ab¯ Zarr.” he replies (148). Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. But on being asked.” a “What next?” he is asked. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. If polytheism is the worst of crimes. but these do not doom the offender to the a eternal hell. very little to others. moral or spiritual. spoils. He has no obligations. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. toward non-Muslims as part of the human race.

THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. They are no longer wasted. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. as another text puts it. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. a God-ordained mission. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal fire. came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. To rob a whole people is piety. . but if he embraces Isl¯m.4 Muslim” (102). other moral values are given the same twist. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. Everything good began with Muhammad. This means. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. it is a a different story. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). a revelation.” On hearing this. ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. there will be two columns of fire like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. . but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. Thanks to this approach. a . H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious purification . some people were greatly perturbed. We are told that one Hak¯ b. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. FAITH (IM AN) Again. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and fighting against him is unbelief” (122). Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. in the state of ignorance” (222). referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of fire or two laces of fire” (210). and the universal is turned into the sectarian. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering.

and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. The hellfire will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad.5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. “O womenfolk . solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. And understandably so.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian.” the translator tells us (note 2967). “the a . I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230).” a Muhammad tells us (6668). .we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat differently and in more psychological terms . incidentally. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. his future is assured. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. This would also. His past is forgotten a unless it is good. for the hellfire is on his side. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. . the Peoples of the Book. The Jews and Christians will suffer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us. Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283).” When a woman asks him why it should be so. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). Muhammad says.

(13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. In the Qur¯n. 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. India). 1058-1111). ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation.6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1.that is one sign. . (6) a lesser share in inheritance. The dreaded day (yaum).that is one of the signs of Doom. (5) not having control over her own person. (14) disqualification for rulership and judgeship. it seems. Deva ¯ Prakash.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. (16) the fact that if women are profligate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. London: University of Durham Publications. and even her differential biological constitution and functions. He be praised. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). or of “separation” (fasl). says that “All ah. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. the Prophet’s wife. a famous Arab divine of his time. ’Aisha. 164-165). (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. as he tells them. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. Ratlam. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. 1971. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . Paradise and Hell. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. But. (4) pregnancy. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). D. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). In short. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. naked. but for a woman to have only one husband. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). only one of which is attributable to women. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. and the proof of their failing in religion. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-five synonyms. (2) childbirth. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . pp. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. when you see barefooted. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components.

for example. they will find that they have been misguided. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testified as I have been testified” (383). Christians will be summoned and asked. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . infidels. and with it is decided their fate.” They will go to a Moses. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the first to pass over it” (349). and he will say: “I am in a position to do that.” He will reply: “I am not fit to do this. the water is no more than a mirage.” Muhammad tells us that on this day.” They will go to Jesus. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. however. but he will reply: “I am not fit to do this. “Jesus. All¯h “will gather people. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. and polytheists are strictly kept out. of course. He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. “You tell a lie. They will say: “Thirsty we are. and his intercession will be granted a (377). it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. The translator makes this statement clearer for us. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). Muhammad a . “What did you worship?” When they reply. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. a a im. and it is really hell. If this is true. and he will reply: “I am not fit to do this. On this day.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). a you better go to Muhammad. for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. “I am not fit to do this. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). Thanks to his special role.” Then they will come to Muhammad. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted.” Then they will be asked what they want. I have.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389).” He will appeal to All¯h. but you go to Jesus. Unbelievers.” All¯h will tell them. the son of All¯h. but go to Moses. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad.26). Considering that unbelievers. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427).” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better.” They will be given a certain direction. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son. For example.

Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). Regarding his father. For example. the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. therefore. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. the Prophet’s young wife. even though they were their kith and kin. their good works will not avail them.” declares Muhammad (417). FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). About him. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. . a In any case. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). and a a a in his own apostleship. ’Aisha. On the Day of Resurrection. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428).8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. but needst not go out of your way to save them.” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413).” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. . fed the poor. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. that Muhammad was consistent. Ri’l Zakw¯n. Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suffering. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. . a a a Usayya. Ab¯ T¯lib. Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. . he told a questioner: “Verily. however. . look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . are not my friends.

and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. But if we look at the matter closely. Similarly. on the way meeting different apostles. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. and abolish jizy¯. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. who enjoined on the Muslims fifty a prayers a day. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. Then he met All¯h. and Abraham in the seventh. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad.one prayer will now count for ten . Moses in the sixth. this belief. kill swine.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the different regions. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. Adam he met in the first heaven. So nothing was really lost in efficacy.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. riding on al-Bar¯q. of heaven. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. “an animal white and long. a One night. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. But on the advice of Moses. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. He will break crosses. we find it was more a motivated belief. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. In any case. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. Jesus in the second. Visions like this can flit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. or “circles” (as Dante called them). Many in his day scoffed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. the flesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. and five will do the work of fifty. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. a . Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to five. In fact. “Five and at the same time fifty” .

a . Jesus will. For.10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. as the translator explains. “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. therefore. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288).

But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. (3) tayammum. (5) tath¯ the purification of objects which have ir. He 11 . The main topics discussed in Muslim fiqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. prescribed before each of the five daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. become ritualistically unclean. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m)..” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets.Chapter 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Purification”. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). (4) fitra. defecation. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. and abstersion. (2) ghusl. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination.g. the major. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. or impure: coitus (jim¯). Some broad injunctions on the subject of purification are given in the Qur¯n (e. and childbirth (nif¯s). a verses 4:43 and 5:6). It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. the minor purification with dust in a the place of water. a a menses (hayz). cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. It deals with such matters as ablution. literally “nature. physical and ritualistic.

Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . then washed his left arm like that. . . About the moustache and the beard. . . then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times.” he said (487). the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. then wiped his head. The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘fire-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. He then washed his face three times. shaving the pubes. . There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). plucking the hair under the armpits. This became the standard ablution. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. .12 ¯ CHAPTER 2. . . CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on five acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). For the a identification of faces. . “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . According to Muslim canon scholars. Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep .I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. cutting the nails. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). and offered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . all his previous sins are expiated” (436).” and so on. trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). then washed his left foot. . PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. he must clean his nose three times. and clipping the moustache. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct .

in wearing shoes. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suffered from scrotal hernia. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. O stone. Moses does not suffer from any ailment” (669). The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with flesh. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504). in combing. i. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. but the rock moved away. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone.e. while taking his bath. But God vindicated him..e. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil.. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. Moses put his clothes on a rock.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. wash it seven times.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. Once. a . When they asked him about their provision of food. In this connection. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). but Moses took his bath alone. my clothes. my clothes. DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts.” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). and in performing ablution” (515). and said: “By All¯h. and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy.

you can take to tayammum. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. pointing to ’Aisha. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. and that should be as good as ablution with water. i. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. bathing is not obligatory for you. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha.. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684).” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). One of them came to ’Aisha for clarification. The man said yes. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. and then perform ablution and offer prayer” (677). but it also narrates some material of Freudian significance. I scratched it off with my nails” (572). BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). but ablution is binding” (676). And on yet another occasion.e. The Prophet. having experienced orgasm. who was sitting by him. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. There is another had¯ of similar import. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. The translator . Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you find any mark of fluid on your clothes?” He said: “No.

“The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by fire” (686). “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and offered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). O Commander is a of the Faithful. and you find no water. and he was presented with a some food. . Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. Muhammad’s practice appears. . . but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. But later on this command was abrogated. and the people reminded him about ablution. some cross-reference is inevitable. This chapter too. in fact. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. or you have touched women.15 explains why. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. for except for coitus all . There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. On the subject of menstruation. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. . he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). So keep away from women in their course. in some respects. The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. Therefore. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). and when it was referred to the Apostle. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not find water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. .

SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590).16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the flesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. or scriptural studies. especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. and I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. Umm Salama reports the same (581). and drink. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation.” ’Aisha reports (584). The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. For example. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). But Muhammad did not go that far. this question to Muhammad directly. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. His problem was mazi (prostatic fluid) and not man . a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577).

coitus. (605). then purify yourselves” (5:6). .17 ¯ (semen). there should be an ablution” u is. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. puerperium. when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. . The same obligation lay on women. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. had¯ 124). . ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse.” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. and pollutio nocturna. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. and sometimes he performed ablution only. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted.” he was told (593). 611).” they told her (610. “You humiliated the women. a believers (603).” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. he a first washed his hands. ” (616). SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. I. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept.

Muhammad was not bound by them. II. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a purification with the intention of warming up. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. Two other wives of Muhammad. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. had¯ 1584). he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. in this case. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. He had his Apostle’s privilege. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. I. had¯ 108). i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual defilement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). which. they took their bath in pitch darkness. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. 631). There were no glaring lights. i. moreover. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. is . and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel.

¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. In the beginning. who later became blind. there is also one Prayer. Umm Makt¯m. To make the Muslim practice different from that of the Jews. and the Fireworshippers. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. But in all these pages. the a number and times of the different prayers. as the Christians did. as the Jews did. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. the system of the human voice was introduced. 741). one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). prostrating and rising. some suggested using a bell. As a means of calling people to prayer at fixed times.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. 737. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. and so on. There is not even a remote hint of different men endowed with different natures taking different paths toward a divinity differently figured. others a horn. the a merits of prayers at different times. a who was very loud-throated. caught and fixed in a a single formula. one Book. with 1. in Medina. All these methods were ruled out. the prayer for rain. As there is one All¯h. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. u were the first mu’azzin (callers) (735. Bil¯l. 19 . the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. one Guide. It is the longest. Some even suggested that a fire should be lighted. and ’Abdullah b. the Christians.Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). the prayer relating to the dead. postures like bowing.

and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). He who blesses me once. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin.20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. He would listen to the Az¯n. so if he heard an Az¯n. The Holy Prophet. how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. Where it was heard. with Muhammad as Messenger.” says Muhammad (747). This the a a commentator finds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. which is a rank in Paradise a ila fitting for only one of All¯h’s servants. will be assured of my intercession.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). d in In seeking blessings for himself. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. 808). it meant that everything was a not kufr (infidelity). therefore. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. In a variation on this theme. . There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisfied with All¯h as my Lord. “Apostle of All¯h. These have been codified on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very effective. Another saw his “hands lifted . he stopped” (745). did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). . and his wives and his offspring . “When Satan hears the call to prayer. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. sitting or standing. POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture.

you should also rise up. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). It should be led by an im¯m. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . one of them should lead them” (1417). . “When he prostrates. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. and then to put them between one’s thighs. Also. he prostrated between the two palms” (792). and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991).” The seven bones are: “The hands. He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). he prayed facing . and then lifted them . just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. In the beginning. palm to palm. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy.21 opposite to ears. when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. you a should also prostrate. 1057). the knees. . otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863).” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. . he brought out his hands from the cloth.” he tells them (817). When someone once a did this. THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “first set up on the earth. And when prostrated. . And when he was about to bow down. when there is a valid reason for doing so. Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. when-he rises up.

the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. foe or friend. 2 u is That is. . Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. I have been sent to all mankind. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. “I have been helped a is by terror. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. . a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. . Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. is which other prophets lack (1058).” adds Ab¯ Huraira. ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the first mosques. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). . my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without fighting. Immediately 1 . . I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). For example. . It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). But later on. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. . He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-five years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coffers of Medina. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). .22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. spoils have been made lawful to me .” says Muhammad. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. In Isl¯m we find all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. The followers had no difficulty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. 1 . their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate.

pp. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden). but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. a privilege not denied to men who can afford it. and their children. According to another tradition. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). 5. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the first year and 20 dirhams for the next year. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). .. established by ¯ ’Umar specified that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. Officers of the Arab occupation armies in the different cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. II. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula.000 dirhams a year. 4. But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. vol. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date.23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. But within two decades everything changed. The diw an. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). 2. Every Muslim had a a place in this classification.000 dirhams a year.000 dirhams.000 dirhams a year. 476-479.000 to 9. or Civil List. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not afford proper clothing. For example. DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate.000 dirhams a year. For a fuller account of the Civil List.

One Friday. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. “On it Adam was created. there are different forms of prayer for sixteen specific dangerous situations. during a war. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. People left the Prophet and flocked toward the caravan. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day.24 ¯ CHAPTER 3. on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). “We were guided a aright to Friday. one group prays while the other one fights (1824-1831).” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. . but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). a An interesting story is reported in this connection. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. First things first. PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. . they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. Qur¯n a 62:11).” they “shall be the first on the Day of Resurrection. But though Muslims “are the last. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. one should first take food. For example. . The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer.” says Muhammad (1134). “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. on it he was made to enter Paradise.

but the sufi schools of Isl¯m. he did not retreat. . Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). And the most evil affairs are their innovations. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. DANCE. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a flame of fire to put it in my face. leave them alone” (1946). his voice a rose. I meant to seize him. On the same occasion. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938).” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106).” a is But even though cursed.’ and he would join his forefinger and middle finger (just as there is no other finger between these two. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. in which music plays an important role. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed fight. make the most of this had¯ a is. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee. Muhammad. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. his eyes became red. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. MUSIC. and it was the day of Id” (1942). “Thereafter. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon.

Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature.” says a the Prophet (1996). The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). to whom she had borne many children. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its effect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. u He died at Uhud. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h.” ’Aisha a tells us. supplicate for good. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds.’ So I said this. what evil it contains. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation.’ to those who are dying. “If the dead person was good. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. and Muhammad married her four months later. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. When you visit the sick or the dead. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3. Ab¯ Salama has died. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. Ub¯da. and the good of that which it was sent for. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. ‘There is no god but All¯h. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. “Exhort to recite. and the good which it contains. However.

but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. I. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. over his expiring child. also William Muir. had¯ 912. is . 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. and He granted it to me” (2129). IV.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. i. according to certain traditions. p. meaning loud lamenting” (2010).27 the heart feels. This was a fine gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulfillment of the demand for theological consistency. 165. who was only eighteen months old. vol. a but He did not grant it to me. Life of Mahomet. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead.

PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.

depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. of All¯h. the first phrase. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. or zak¯t. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. an old Arab practice. and most of them. ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling.” a a 29 . Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power.Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The fifth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax).” those who collect and administer the funds. being migrants. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. and to be spent by its representatives. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress.” All these are a in]. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. conventional recipients of charity. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. and for the wayfarers. “in the service. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. or way. In this form. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. and everyone else was excluded on principle. But with him it became a tax. In the begina ning. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith.

the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). ’Umar. Aslam. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). and after this the tax collection became smoother. When he reported that Khal¯ b. After is the conquest of Mecca. . “gaining over. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. I shall be responsible a a . a Ghif¯r. a a and horses. bear in mind. a had refused to pay the tax. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. a heavenly sanction. who shared the burden of the tax but not its benefits. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. or 1 pound]” (2134). when the power of Muhammad became supreme. They had to be ransomed. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. . This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious offensive and diplomacy. and as for ’Abb¯s. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on five wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). The second phrase. who took the tribe by surprise and brought fifty men. and several other tribes. ’Abb¯s. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. and children back to Medina as hostages. equipment. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. Faz¯r. The resentment against zak¯t was general. women. Also. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. it had for the Prophet. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. . on less than five camel heads and on less than five uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313).30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. ’Umar was appointed the collector. or reconciling. parties of collectors were sent out in different directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of fifty Arab horsemen. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. hearts. or jih¯d.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. as it still has for his followers. .” means “bribes” in unadorned language.

an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a fine. And when these cool down.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . “a sandy plain would be set for him. he called him and asked him if he had any other . But he taught. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329).31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. and then on other good deeds. as extensive as possible. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. In fact. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. then on one’s wife and children. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. For example. .” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. then on relatives and friends. When Muhammad heard this. plates of fire would be beaten out for him. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. Following a common practice. when the Day of Resurrection would come. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. and in some ways wisely. that charity should begin at home. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. .

The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity.the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211).32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. . not polytheistically or pantheistically. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h].e. ¯ 1 . and if anything is left. . Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. ¯ (2197-2204). and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the glorification of All¯h 1 [i. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight. A lady set her slave-girl free. When informed about it. it should be spent on your family. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. Among those whom God affords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). gave the money to the owner. and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . there is a Sadaqa” (2198). Nor was it really revolutionary. and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). And even then it should not conflict with the well-being of the family of the believer. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. And. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. The man replied no. but it agrees with the general practice. you would have a greater reward” (2187)..” There is another story that makes the same point. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. is a Sadaqa. there is a Sadaqa . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. All ah can only be glorified monotheistically. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). and ¯ the glorification of All ah must include glorification of Muhammad too. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. and a good word is a Sadaqa. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. . of course. or helping him load his luggage upon it. . In the same vein.

and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. When Muhammad returned. a and the other says: O All¯h. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. give him more who spends. This is true. then to a rich man. for instance. with praise to All¯h. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). For example. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. Muhammad left him to go some other place. Was not the a first part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. first to an adulteress. a . Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366).33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. then to a a thief. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. is but are not visited by two angels. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. THEFT. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. By citing the male and female population figures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. he remembered his command and remained where he was. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would find no one to accept it from him. What does this mean? The translator finds the statement truly prophetic. A man is gives charity. One of them says: O All¯h. FORNICATION. CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity.

But though sadaqa was not permitted. when it is distributed among the ummah. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). Its distribution created a lot of a . it is still war booty. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. a Khums. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. or on the “Path of All¯h. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. it is zak¯t. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. the distinction between the two was soon lost. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. whether as zak¯t for the poor. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). a al-Muttalib and their posterity. but on the other. On the one hand. zak¯t became secondary. or as gifts for his Companions.e. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. ’Abd i. gifts were welcome. has two aspects. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far.” i. In fact..” said the Prophet (2340). WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. it is zak¯t. the one-fifth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. freed slave. They went a to Muhammad with their request. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. When it is a acquired. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. He took it. il. ’Abb¯s. it is war booty. and Haris b. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own.

that is. and ’Alqama b. Harb. Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. . Muhammad made effective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. Umayya. Zaid al-Khail. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the fire” (2300).” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. Safw¯n u a a b. combined with threats. or merit. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. H¯bis.or at any rate that others deserved less . ’Abdullah b. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. Hisn. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313).” says Muhammad (2303). both mundane and celestial. so that I may incline them to truth. like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. There are other instances of the same type. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief.than they got. . Aqra. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people .35 heart-rending among his followers. Ulasa (2303-2314). whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. Many of them thought they deserved more . Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneficiaries. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Tufail” (2319). ’Uyaina b. Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing. a . He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. justice. I often bestow something on a person. Muhammad had other considerations as well. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). . Aqra’ b.

prominent cheekbones. Muhammad “was deeply angry . When some people complained. he added theology.” a canal in heaven (2313). and said: “Messenger of All¯h. ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. ’Uyaina. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). fear All¯h and do justice. In its distribution. but he showed patience” (2315). they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils.36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. . “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. To cajolery. were closer to him).e.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition.” On hearing this. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. but one of them. were merely his “outer garments”. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. after the conquest of Mecca. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. who had received the spoils. u a Safw¯n. In other cases when similar complaints were made. Mird¯s. a man with deep-sunken eyes. Muhammad added other words of flattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. stood up.. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood.” This silenced the men. while the Quraish. The ans¯rs a were happy. and Aqra. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. i Muhammad showed favoritism. Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n. who would do justice if I do not do . and shaven head. .” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). And he who is let down today would not be elevated. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. and his face ¯ became red”. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and flattery to pacify them. thick beard.” This angered a a Muhammad.

said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. It was about them.” .37 justice?” ’Umar. but it would not go beyond their throat. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. who later on were called the khw¯rij. who was present. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. he and his posterity were denounced. kill them. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). them. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n.” Though the man was spared. . . These men. If I were to find them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327). The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers .

THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .38 ¯ CHAPTER 4.

a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417).” says Muhammad (2413). It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. This has its disciplinary role. In Isl¯m. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather different from fasting in many other religious traditions. “The difference between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. who ate early and broke their fasts late. waiting for the stars to appear. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. “Take meal a little before dawn. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361).Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this difference. it is compulsory. Enjoined in the Qur¯n.” a 39 . the gates of mercy are opened. This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m.

Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. “They have better knowledge. . a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). Muhammad’s wives. At first Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought differently. ’Aisha. It has a divine sanction. . “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . by observing a two-month fast or. Muhammad’s wives. Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the first step towards prosperity of any nation. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. a a . Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. Prior to Isl¯m. Hafsa. but when the matter was clarified by ’Aisha and Salama.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). by feeding sixty poor men . Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). .” In addition. and would observe fast” a (2454).” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. and Salama. he said. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. . In fact. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. ’Aisha and Salama. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575).” and retracted his previous position (2451). failing that. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. . This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). in the month of Ramz¯n.40 CHAPTER 5. failing that. he should still go on with his fast.

The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength.e. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. . A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. so break the fast. And she should not admit any mahram in his house. “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). and in the pre-Isl¯mic days. while the husband is present.. a a she could not find it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552).” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. but after a .41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. but with his permission” (2238). . It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. One is the Ashura fast.. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. i. a fast during a journey could be broken.e. in the act of jih¯d. For example. The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). “Fast if you like and break it if you like. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h.” i. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered.” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). but a I could not do it .

through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . All¯h would remove. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts.” Muhammad tells us. some food came as gift. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). Even the very first Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a . Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clarified butter].” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). He may spend it if he likes. but nothing was available. On the Day of a Resurrection. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast.42 CHAPTER 5. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. a a a because of this day.” After some time. but we need not go into them here.” He said: “Bring that. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. One day. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. and ’Aisha offered it to Muhammad. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit.and when the last of them has entered.

¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. was declared one of the five fundamentals of Isl¯m. It was also. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. in March A. partially armed. For his dress. at their own convenience and for their own gods.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). unlike the last time. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. Thus. the number of participants swelled. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him. Two years later. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). Even so. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. pilgrimage. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. Mecca succumbed. “The best of perfume.” she adds in another had¯ (2685). it reached more than 130.” After the fall of Mecca. or trouser or cap” (2647). but their response was lukewarm.” until. D. or hajj. they knew. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. according to some of the narrators. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. a Two years later. In order to swell the number. the very first after coming to Medina.” says ’Aisha (2683). In the sixth year of the Hijra. is . 632. by a kind of delayed action. as the Qur¯n puts it.” Great preparations were made for the occasion. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. for no booty was promised and they thought.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. “As the caravan moved on. ih p. but not before and after. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. a call to submission. their response on this occasion was great. and a victory it turned out to be. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. 612). In this year of victory. He headed a pilgrim force of fifteen hundred men. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. fifteen hundred was an impressive number. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers.

44 CHAPTER 5. He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. but he declined it.e. “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). so that people should see him. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. . we would have accepted it from you” (2704). then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). two seamless wrappers. . Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the flesh of a wild ass.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). crow. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. . After arriving a a in Mecca.” Muhammad never relaxes. Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. and he should be conspicuous” (2919). “Talbiyah. the two “Signs of All¯h. ’Umar said: “By All¯h. rat and voracious dog. . O All¯h”). this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). its flesh is acceptable to a muhrim. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). I would not have a kissed you” (2912).” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous.. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). At every turn. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to flight the hosts of infidels by Himself alone. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. For the same reason. He hath performed His promise. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. he should not shave or pare his nails. and then kissing the stick. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the infidels. .” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921).

and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacrificial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. I do this. and after that . and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. or a cow or a camel.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). also the “Day of Sacrifice. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). and then he marked them. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). the casting of the pebbles.45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m.” says the Prophet (2982). the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). While sacrificing the camel. he chants: “In the name of a ir. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. Their number should be odd. and Ishmael. On the tenth a day. a is and on the best time for throwing them. and garlanded them. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacrifice of a cow or a camel (30243031). the Almighty.on the 11th . and then sent them to the House. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. . The pebbles should be small . While doing this.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). Cows and goats should be sacrificed after making them lie down. God. “The Messenger of All¯h sacrificed a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacrificial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. on their size and number. therefore. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacrifice .” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacrifice of the ’idu’l-azh¯. Abraham. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs.“All¯h’s Messenger flung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacrifice a goat or a a a sheep.

A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacrifice. declining the offer of a cleaner and purer one.” To his followers. I would have drawn it along with you. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. the scale of his sacrifices also increased.46 CHAPTER 5. a Even Jehovah. pp. II. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. his biographers tell us. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacrificed them . and not sacrifice” (Hosea 6:6). Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. so sacrifice your animals at your places” (2805). he took it. 241-244). The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . On a similar pilgrimage the next year. iz offered him had been fouled by many hands. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacrificial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacrifice. Thus we find in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacrifice that we find in some measure in most cultures. he said: “Draw water. . would be considered unhygienic by the impious. .by spitting into it. a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. he sacrificed sixty camels. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. Muhammad said: “I have sacrificed the animals here. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. Muhammad took part of the content. he sacrificed seventy camels at Hodeibia. . vol. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s affluence increased. we are told by J¯bir. nab¯ a soft drink. had declared that He “desired mercy. and sacrificed sixty-three camels with his own hands. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s offering sacrifices is that sacrificing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. and when it was cooked. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. Though the nab¯ iz. DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. the God of the Jews. gives us one further detail which a a i. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each i animal sacrificed should be put in a pot.

The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. and prepare for them each ambush . 620). 29). and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). their trade would be ¯ affected. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. after which he turned his left side. a Now the pilgrimage is over. . . 1 . The difference is striking. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. . “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. Before a returning home. Shaving should begin from the right side. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. He then called a for a barber and. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the purified spirit. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. All¯h. and sacrificed the animal. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. kill the idolaters wherever you may find them.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. . Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. Before leaving Mecca. turning his right side to him. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacrifice. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. All ah will enrich you from His grace . . p. This was All¯h’s own command. and take them and besiege them. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. let him shave him. from others. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed.

48 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .

“I will not eat meat”. “I will not lie down in bed. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). he is the best who has the largest a i. p. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). I observe fast and suspend observing them. number of wives” (Tabaq at. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. he has no a relation with me” (3236). II. We are all too ready to see the devil in others.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. another said. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. he should come to his wife. but not in our own selves. he should come home and cohabit with his wife. According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. Zainab. so when one of you see a woman. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. A woman is a great safety valve. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. 146). “I will not marry women”. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. 1 In fact.Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. One of his Companions said. ¯ 1 49 . “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. and yet another said. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). vol.

God is knowing. besides this. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. For example. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. Salama reports. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. . though what is rank is differently understood by different people. and without fornication. rank. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualified match a . etc. religion.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. Also. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). with modest conduct. We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. but the Shias differ and still practice it in Persia. Later on. but it is not entirely so. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). This is the law. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. A. on the authority of his father. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). except those who are your hands as slaves . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and flour a as a dower” (3249). and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). Verily. Qur¯n 5:87). H. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. And it is allowed you.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Generally speaking. IYas b. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. affinity. . consanguinity. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). He told another group: “Yes. this restriction a was relaxed. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. . ’Abdullah b. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). and do not transgress. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us.

and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother. Aff¯n. hired by the first husband from among the ugly ones. thrice) before severing it. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. . He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. But man is inventive. and he disposes what Allah proposes.” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar.. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. vol. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. “A believer is the brother of a believer. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. But this point is controversial. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. . The man said yes. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). but made no decision” about her. p. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. he was sexually weak). she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. 2 . A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. a One should also not outbid one’s brother.e. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316).51 by Muhammad himself. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. Rauzat-us-Safa. 269). to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. The new dispensation led to another abuse. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284).” reports Usm¯n b.” he told her (3354). “Your wives are your tilth. part II. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). F¯timah. I.” But the man possessed nothing. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). not even an iron ring for a dowry.

” They consulted Muhammad. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. but we also desired ransom for them. . as the commentators tell us. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . ¯ According to some schools. . or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. but it should be through one hole” (3365). The father and the grandfather are i). for that is in the hand of All¯h. and took some excellent Arab women. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). if the husband fails to provide it. which means vagina only. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. a woman has her rights.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it.52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.” that is. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). Theoretically. WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. she can seek a divorce. and we desired them . 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). . It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. those women. She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). And a virgin should also be consulted. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. . and her silence implies her consent” (3307). . the angels curse her until morning” (3366).

The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. . Then. But this permission actually originated in a different incident. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists.” Muhammad inquired. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). She was “sitting with her head downcast. from “head to foot”.” “For what dower did you marry her.” Muhammad asked. Most High. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the benefit of a is his Companions.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. or holy war. It is in this had¯ that one finds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424).” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. The a man replied: “Yes. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s . A believer came to Muhammad. . A a Qur¯nic verse fortifies this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. but All¯h now gave a new one. “For four Uqiyas. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty.53 whether married or unmarried.” They saw each other.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. . and Muhammad talked to her.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me.” the man replied. . An Arab woman named ’Umra. We have nothing which we should give you. serve us drink” (4981). so he commanded an official of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. “Did you cast a a glance at her. based on an old moral code. a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). the daughter of one Jaun. All¯h.

When he intended to leave. . One of the problems. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. . he said: “Messenger of All¯h. taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. come u a for prayer. one of the servants of Muhammad. when Zainab came there. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. for whose benefit He really a a spoke.” When the morning prayer was announced. one wife could make over her day to another. But while he is in bed with one of them. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). . and thou may receive a any thou pleasest.54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Anas. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. Umm Salama. . a believer should visit his wives by turn. one of the wives of Muhammad. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. All¯h is very accommodating. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. he spent three nights with her. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. In order to be impartial. tells us that when Muhammad married her. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. he is allowed to have his other wives around. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. hearing their voices. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. for example. she “caught hold of his garment”. ’Aisha. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445).

Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. they also swelled his harem. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). a a a ‘yes.” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir.” the Prophet tells us (3471). SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coffers.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336). was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. and when you enter. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. Saf¯ iyya. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made effective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. you have the enjoyment” (3462). But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. 3464). a beautiful girl of seventeen years. have you married?’ I said.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when . which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts.

you shall let her go where she will. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife.” (Incidentally. you shall not treat her as a slave. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. so I was afraid for you on her account.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. and be her husband. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. Then. p. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. her husband.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. ¯ ¯ 4 . 4 a Anas continues: “She first fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. Kin¯na. a In any case. Her husband.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). Muhammad took her away from Dihya. then you shall bring her home to your house. p. many people were butchered.” according to Anas. after that you may go in to her. in violation of his own command. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. and you take them captive. spades and strings driving their cattle along. Gabriel or no Gabriel. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. The latter “kindled a fire with flint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. if you have no delight in her. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. al-’Aww¯m. “We took Khaibar by force. and till recently she was in unbelief. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. was more considerate. In the morning. and she shall be your wife. and her people. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. of them. Akhtab. the daughter of Huyayy b. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. whom Muhammad often followed. Dihya was strikingly handsome. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. and many others were taken prisoners. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. And she shall put off her captive’s garb. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). was put to a cruel death (3325). 515).56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Many other women. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. but you shall not sell her for money. Maslama and he struck off his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. 517). They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). Saf¯ iyya. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him.

husband. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. Zaid. and uncle killed. a pp. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. vol. and He revealed His plan.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not fitting for a believer. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. iya a In the division of the booty. fearing a public scandal. She was captured in the fifth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. Muhammad spat out the very first morsel. as good as his own daughter-in-law. he offered to divorce her. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. and was aroused. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. but Muhammad. Mustaliq. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. who had seen her father. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. ¯ ¯ . again Jewish. There was another girl.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision.57 concubine. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. told him to keep his wife for himself. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. II. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. On that very day.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 252-255). He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. He was saved. When Zaid heard about it. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. Suspecting something wrong. I detested her. but it is more fitting that thou should fear God”. named Zainab.” And indeed. in order that in future there may be no difficulty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. man or woman. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. saw her in a state of seminudeness. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. and she was immediately put to death.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. present and future. 493. p. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. and therefore. whose affair was not cruel but scandalous. in the eyes of the Arabs. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee.

People in his day called him the Divorcer. the son of ’Umar. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490).some say ninety . The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. . the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). the Prophet had twenty-two wives. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. who do not count. Wives were constantly replaced. ’Abdullah. But opinions differ as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. Somewhat later. With such easy conditions of divorce. For example. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. According to the Shias. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. Muhammad. married seventy . Yet there are certain restrictions.times. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. exclusive of slave concubines. adviser. Ab¯ Bakr. after three successive menses. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). a senior Compana ion. The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. The procedure is not difficult. “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). two of whom were bondswomen. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words.” but in Isl¯mic law. Hasan. and friend of Muhammad. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. According to the translator. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. the divorce becomes operative. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. and ’Umar. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured.

59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. . ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). II. if not. a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. As they sat together at a supper. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. pp. son of Rabi.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. Life of Mahomet. and according to some traditions. on emigrating to Medina. Muir. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaff¯rah (literally. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. . “that a which covers a sin”). the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a specified period. a In due course. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. The broken vow could be expiated. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. a a i. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. In zih¯r. 272-273. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. or the vow might be taken in a fit of anger. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. vol. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. For example. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. . This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. In this sense of the term. In this form.

” he told Rah¯b. promised never to visit Mary again. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. on my day and in my own bed. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. a a kept himself away from his wives. what trouble do you feel from your wives. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. So our women began to learn from their women.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza].” ’Umar decided a to find out what was actually happening. He separated himself from them. and a if you had divorced them.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business.” Muhammad relaxed. Muhammad. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. and very soon everybody knew about it. In fact. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. “O Rah¯b.” he told her. Mika’il. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Muhammad was very angry. She wept bitterly. however. we take them up. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. the beautiful Coptic concubine. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . Hafza. In visiting his numerous wives. Gabriel. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch.” she shouted. excitement. His angels. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. let us provide some background information. By All¯h. The request was disregarded. and jeering. but he insisted. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and significant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). a “I have nothing to do with you. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. Soon the harem was filled with gossip. told ’Aisha. verily All¯h is with you. trying to pacify her. a a I would certainly do that. He was admitted. In fact. Muhammad’s doorman.” so he tried to calm him down. a As ’Umar entered. “In my room. but instead she found him with Mary. and soon the news was afloat that he was divorcing them all. Hafza was furious.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. who had even given Muhammad a son. I entered the mosque.

. verily.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. He is the sovereign.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if . Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. . freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. threatening his wives with divorce. asking for extra money. when Muhammad lacked funds. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck.for your hearts have swerved! .” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. craving to please thy wives? . a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. . some of them centering round money. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). and he laughed. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. had¯ 3507).” All¯h warned them. In this new mood. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. and the angels after that will back him up. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506).61 on his face . and they became his wives again. All¯h. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment.but if you back each other up against him. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. and Gabriel. and it was said. or to those charged with authority among them. [but] he visited them. they were under two of our righteous servants. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. On this occasion. . “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. they broadcast it. . ¯ The matter blew over.” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. and the righteous of the a believers.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. to which Muhammad replied: “At times.” ’Umar narrates. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). These must have occurred in the early days at Medina.

one of Muhammad’s wives. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce effective. and could get rid of their wives so easily. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). a mere woman.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very difficult.. but when it is really intended. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima. died. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. The wives chose the latter.e. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. Once ’idda has ended. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. for the former did “not put down his staff from his shoulder” (i. Thus. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. the son of his slave and adopted son. In their place. Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. observing: “By All¯h. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). Zaid (3512). . u a Muhammad advised against them both. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. and the latter was poor. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks.62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. Zaid. he beat his wives). She had two suitors.” But he mercifully helped her to find another husband. I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say.

which is most likely in such a case. you will kill him. Mirkhond. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). solve this problem” (3564). tribute. besides thirty-eight servants. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. This may be due to a faulty method of classification. he shall have to consume anger. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person finds his woman along with a man. owned one thousand slaves when he died. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. Slaves continued to suffer under the same old disabilities. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man finds his wife in adultery. and if he kills. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. even in a their wildest dreams.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. you would lash him. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. . for unless he has four witnesses. was no more than a chattel. But the fact remains that Muhammad. They were the property of their master (saiyid). a close companion of the Prophet. for that is forbidden. Zubair. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. The Prophet himself possessed at least fifty-nine slaves at one stage or another. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. The fact is that slavery. which is on business transactions . both male and female. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. he cannot kill the adulterous man. and if he speaks about it. Similarly. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers.a slave. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. The word a a literally means “oath. One of a them must be lying. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. the Prophet’s fifteenth-century biographer. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. and if he keeps quiet. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. after all. but this closes the chapter.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy.

“When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. 4:25. and marriage. On the whole. however. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. wanted to free her. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. To Muhammad. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. 23:6) permitted this. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . not a matter of justice.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. hiring them out. In the second. “The slave who fled from his master committed an act of infidelity so long as he would not return to him. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. of course. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. gifting them away. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. 4:24. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. Slaves had no property rights. inheritance. On the other hand. in contrition. When Muhammad was consulted. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away.” says Muhammad (129). barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . when the naked. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. selling them. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. he said: “Bring her to me. mortgaging them. In any case. In the first. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. We have already seen how Hak¯ b.these are some of the signs of Doom.” She was brought. One way. lending them. and a very common one.” according to him (4). WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom.

Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. but must not be overburdened” (3582).” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). the condition of a slave is no great evil. It has its own reward. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done.65 of All¯h. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. nor can he offer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. Bar¯ ira. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be fixed. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself.” she answered. He cannot seek any new alliance. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. though ready to free her for cash money. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. and emancipate her.” But the owner. even his private parts a for his” (3604). . she is a a believing woman” (1094). “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave.

’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. . says: “He is. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a different subject but interesting.66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. i. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. . He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. . . and it also records the words of the prophet .

Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). so his views on the subject should be of interest. were also made unlawful. He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). Sal¯ b. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). his injunctions became state policy.Chapter 7 Business Transactions. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands. Gifts. a 67 . Because of their speculative nature. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). Inheritances. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Bequests.

68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA

OUTBIDDING
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).

CONTRACTS
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).

TENANCY
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not find it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).

THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the fifth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them first on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this offer differed. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).

69

IMPROPER EARNINGS
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets offered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).

BARTER DISAPPROVED
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some fine dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such fine quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of fine dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).

¯ RIBA
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuffed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.

70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA

INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.

GIFTS
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).

WAQF
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a

TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite

71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).

DEBTS
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the first charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not sufficient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).

MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is sufficient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.

VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indifferent a to his inflicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).

One day he said. but he found something else better than that.” says Muhammad (4043). Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2).” But immediately after they were gone.” Muhammad says (4038).e. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulfilled. and she gave birth to a premature child. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and fight in the cause of All¯h. “He who took an oath. I would see better than it. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. the vow a a must be fulfilled.72CHAPTER 7. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulfilled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. if He so wills. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts.” says Muhammad (4057).” observes Muhammad. “He who has to take an oath. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). BEQUESTS. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. But he allows you to swear by God. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed. he called them back and offered them camels to ride. a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. but if later on. a An oath can be broken. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. by All¯h. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). Muslim jurists differ as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i. I cannot provide you a a mount. “Do not a a swear by idols. a I would not swear. should do that which is better and break his oath. particularly if the oath-taker finds something better to do. GIFTS. something which Jesus forbade. nor by your father.. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath.” But only one of them became a pregnant. . INHERITANCES.

accusing her of adultery. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. or retaliation. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). fifteenth. Muslim fiqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. cutting a off of feet and hands for highway robbery. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir.e. Had ud) a The fourteenth. Though the Qur¯n a 73 . qis¯s. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). and death by sword or crucifixion for robbery accompanied by murder. or killed another. but according to one school. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. If a slave is killed. and taz¯ Hadd a ir. but since a slave is a piece of property. mutilated. only one-third is permissible in such cases. a ¯ Qis¯s. The law also permits qis¯s. Qur¯n 5:38-39). and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime.. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. (pl. only half of the blood-price is due.Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. cutting off the right hand for theft (sariqah. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. the procedure of investigating them. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. For the death of a woman. one hundred lashes for is. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and defined in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). a i. a ihs In cases of murder. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d).

Another had¯ specifically tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). Muhammad told them: “Let fifty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. QIS AS. ih . His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. 1357). how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). and he would be surrendered to you. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). he said. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. and the identity of his killer is unknown. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. 2 i.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by fifty of them taking this oath.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. But when we went to him to take his leave. when a man is found slain.for giving up Isl¯m . He gave us their names. break its neck.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. wash their hands over the heifer. The a punishment for apostasy . For example. ’Ali burnt them to death. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. This establishes their innocence. he said: If I had been in his place. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). and Muhammad adopted a it. for to torture by fire is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. ‘Don’t burn them in fire but put them to sword. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. though not by burning. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. Once a Muslim was found slain. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. ih ¯ i if. I. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. The climate of Medina did not suit them. fifty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it.is death. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission.

but technically.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). Away from the control of the Prophet. She had broken someone’s teeth. . or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justification and rationale for it (note 2132). “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut off. bloodwite was allowed. or if he has killed someone (i. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. an eye for an eye. When the case was brought to Muhammad. But in another case.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). in Muslim a law. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. The apostates were brought back. The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. according to many jurists).e. and put out their eyes. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. and their feet. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. it is retaliatory punishment. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. someone who is a Muslim. but they were not given water” (4132).” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138).. and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). they killed the shepherds.

76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. ¯ HAD UD Had ud.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. Although Us¯ma b. who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). cut off their hand as a punishment for what they have done. her hand was cut off. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. and death for apostasy. is dealt with in the fifteenth book. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. a a The translator. the beloved of Muhammad. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut off. a woman committed some theft. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). an exemplary punishment from All¯h. . a hundred stripes for fornication. stoning to death for adultery. The Had¯ merely confirms the Qur¯n. he fixed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. ’Aisha reports a similar case. “Hers was a good repentance. PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut off the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). as we have already seen. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. Zaid. which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. QIS AS. the penal law of Isl¯m. a interceded in her behalf. and also for drinking wine. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut off” (4185). causing her to have a miscarriage. in a long two-page note. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate.” ’Aisha adds (4188). nor made any noise. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment defined either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. Thus. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca.

. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . Therefore.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female.77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). By All¯h. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. Upon finding that the man was married and also not mad. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. “I was one of those who stoned him. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. “The whore and the whoremonger. . the people may forget it and may say. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. a branch of Azd. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. with the lapse of time. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. in case I get hold of him. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). a woman of Gh¯mid. ‘We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. and gave a small quantity of milk. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. Similarly. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. the term includes adultery as well as fornication.” says J¯bir b. . receive teaching from me. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). All¯h has ordained . In this sense. ’Abdullah. He repeated his confession four times. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery.

“She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). but when the case was brought before Muhammad. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. . And then the multitudes follow. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated.” The woman was punished for adultery. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. iya. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. participating believers. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the first stone.” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. in fact. No such hole need be dug for a man. When a woman is to be stoned. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. QIS AS. a chest-deep hole is dug for her. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not offended. the first stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. . “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . .

The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. by the time of Muhammad. then accept it. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). and he committed me to flog her. ’Al¯ says: “O people. then avoid it. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. those who i are married and those not married. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such offenses. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I flogged her I might kill her.” he adds (4211). they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. even if she was married. The Prophet was a merciful a man. “I was one of those who stoned them.79 Among the Jews themselves. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. was not to be stoned to death. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. the son of ’Umar. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. if he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging as punishment. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that flogging might kill her. A slavewoman. .” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. she was liable to half the penalty (fifty strokes). The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. then flog her and if she commits adultery again.” says ’Abdullah. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. then flog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. 47). stoning had fallen into disuse. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. According to one tradition. and if she was unmarried. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). I am the first to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). but if he gives verdict for stoning. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad.

Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). several days. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. In such ir. When the i number forty was reached. PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. and if he is sick. class of punishment. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. QIS AS. and ¯ to lash him. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. cases. If he does his best but errs. he still has . and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think differently. While ’Abdullah was flogging the victim. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. he has two rewards. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. depending on the physical condition of the offender. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that flogging can be spread over is. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. the flogging can be postponed until he recovers. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. the third Khal¯ a ifa. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231).80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. They hold that the number of stripes is to.” So did Ab¯ Bakr.

1981). and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. are also discussed in this book. and carpets from mosques. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). cement. glass. Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. recently published in Pakistan. Christians. such as books. According to the Qur¯n. birds. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). In a dispute regarding property or debt. Fresh vegetables. Nor is the testimony of Jews. In cases involving had ud. November 15. such as hospitality. mats. but a apparently this is not really so.81 one reward (4261). the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. . meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. marble. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). and bread. a fruit and firewood. According to some. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. Also exempt are bricks.

QIS AS. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. HAD U D) .82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8.

All¯h. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. . Medina. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. a a trying to be universal through conquest.e.. the spoils of war. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. 83 . Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. If they refuse to a a pay the tax. accept it from them a . and inform them that.” He also told them to offer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. . . do not embezzle the spoils. . . Theologically. it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. Make a holy a a a war. . tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. seek All¯h’s help and fight them” (4294). If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. demand from them the Jizy¯ . . the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and profitably interwoven. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . .Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). All¯h. . if they respond to you. Historically. if they do so. If they refuse to migrate. .

it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9. it is lawful and pure. unknown to the Arabs before. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. But if they are killed. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). Sa’b b. and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. All is fair in love and war.” says the Qur¯n a . All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. is Fortified by this revelation.” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d. al-Madina. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. “Eat ye the spoils of war. this shocked the Arabs. “cunning. “war is a stratagem” (4311). this requirement can be waived. or. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of infidels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. had¯ 4324). particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or offer options in advance. As the Prophet a says. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. no song need be made about it. If need be. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292).” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. as some others have translated it. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war.

“Ye shall by no means follow us. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. i. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. he a a is given a share in it. when it would be easy to win booty. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. a In fact. If he fought for such accessory rewards. and if in this fight he gets a share in the spoils of war. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid fights to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. For example.85 (8:69). “Permit us to follow you.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. It belongs to the Cause. ¯ . This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. Muhammad fully satisfied this motive and constantly appealed to it. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric.. Muhammad told them that the next time. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. in commenting on i. and also as a favor and extra incentive.” but he would answer. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. 1934). in this case the cause of God. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. where resistance was expected to be stiff. as administered by his Apostle. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. In fact. DIVISION Essentially. he fought from wrong motives. material incentives had to be provided. and their dwellings. they would say. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual.

he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. after the capture of Hunain. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. on the Day of Judgment. II. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. and supernal intervention had i. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust.” said All¯h (3.-161). 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. recriminations. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome. If any person is so false. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. . and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). Commenting on this verse. believed in by any sensible person. Within a few months. . but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. grievances. . You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and fights against the Muslims] one-fifth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. in fact. The booty was very large. then if you obey. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n.” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. restore what he misappropriated. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. The first includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conflict. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. and was full of claims. suspicion. had¯ 868). The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. and accusations. ¯ ¯ . is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). pretty rough. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without offering resistance. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . he shall. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. which he took by surprise.86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. 594.” the muj¯hids demanded. p.

When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. gains from a war not actively fought. his family. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codified by the various fiqh schools. at least in this case. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. . 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. And at his command. This will be a source of strength to us against the infidels. to the Muslims in general. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. his family.” which ’Al¯ readily did. Muqd¯d. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad fled Mecca. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. . provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. Alh¯ris. including the cattle. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. During a retreat. “They are our kith and kin. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. According to this code. 3 . it is entirely at his disposal. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. The economic view prevailed. vol. the orphans. as the victim’s head was struck off.” (8:41). A Muslim combatant. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. belongs wholly to the Prophet. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. 338-339). Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. O ’Al¯ arise and strike off his [Nassar’s] head. the traveller a . One of these was Nassar b. The fai’. whether men. any such property that cannot be carried away. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. to His Apostle. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The fire of hell!” Muhammad replied. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. all prisoners. In due course. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. or children. I. on the other hand. part II. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the infidels. the poor. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. i fellow was Utbah. the poor. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. when they are no more. Such property must be carried away and four-fifths of it distributed among the soldiers. and a the traveller” (59:7). pp. a fifth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. orphans. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. His Apostle. He advised that they should be put to death.” he advised. should be destroyed. except for a few who were killed. Along with the khums. women. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. . Another unfortunate i. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example.

they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. in short. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. they are not to do anything that would display their infidelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and officers. 889). The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. and for the building of bridges. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. called jizy¯. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. they are not to ride is on horseback. “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. those to whom the Book has been brought. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. such a as their public prayers and festivals. language in every age.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . At first this benefit was limited to the Jews and Christians. they cannot engage in public worship. Another imposition. as the Muslim empire grew. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. .” as the translator puts it (note 2230). Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. p. also belongs to the fai’. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. . They are not to build new churches and temples. II. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. forts. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762). Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. and . The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. This was the first property I acquired u . they are not to give offense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. though they can repair old ones. but more often this was not done.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. but later on. and mosques).on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. Imperialism has the same is. it was extended to other subject peoples.

whether slaves or women or property. he had properties at Khaibar. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). . which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. he also had the first choice in everything. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every fighter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). As a chief. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had finished the war with the people . So did the others. u ir. . The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). a but kept a large part for himself. to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. They were raided and captured and their property confiscated. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). He also had seven other gardens in Medina. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. As the amount of war booty increased. MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. according to others were a portion of the confiscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly.” his Coptic slave-wife. . were confiscated by Muhammad. ¯ One plot of land from the confiscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop.” he says (4340). . the Prophet received a fifth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. They got a large number of camels as booty.89 after embracing Isl¯m. . He u ir. and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated.

that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). are described by name. 4465).” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and fifty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). There are other traditions too. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. It was not much of charity. the number a was twenty-one. They took their dispute to ’Umar. for example. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). the Battle of Badr a (4394). the Prophet’s daughter. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. According to J¯bir b. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464.” But. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. the Battle of Azh¯b. Instead. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. decide between me and this sinful. treacherous. “Commander of the Faithful. though. and battles of the Muslims. Arqam. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). These are of two kinds. According to Zaid b. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. ghazw¯t and sariya. Zaid (4469). ’Abdullah.” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. The conquest of . Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conflicts. raids. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. In due course. more or less in confirmation of the above. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. The denial a i. i]. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. u Prophet. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. or as it is popularly known. u a Many battles. the Prophet’s uncle. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). not always in the order in which they were fought. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441).

several miracles are mentioned. . a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). a The water welled up. During the Battle of the Ditch. O All¯h. .” When the answer a . The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. On many an occasion. J¯bir b. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. . To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. numbering one thousand men. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. . if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. For example. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. vol. Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews.” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). . But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396).” they found that the water in the local well was insufficient for such a large company. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. In most of the battles. On another occasion.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). . and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. Muhammad came with a the whole army. II. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. then ground one measure of barley into flour and leavened it. at the Battle of Badr. I would do that. 467). “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. p. We went out . part II. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. Either he prayed or spat into the well.” and the meat and the loaves sufficed for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its flesh in a a pot.

himself a spectator of the tragedy. III. vol. we haven’t laid down ours. . and some ye made prisoners. their houses.” we are told by ’Abdullah. ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. During the night graves or trenches . . Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. and cast terror into their hearts. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. the son of ’Umar (4364). . Mahomet. He first “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. until they too fought against him. a where they had gathered for shelter. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). Then he killed their men. . . . Each company was made to sit down . We give the story as summarized by W. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). and granted favour to them u ir. Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. when these were ready in the morning. children and properties among the Muslims . [they] spent the night in prayer. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. . and distributed their women. . He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. were dug in the market-place . . Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. [so that] some ye slew. All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them .” “Where?” Muhammad asked. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. we have arrived. . repeating passages from their scriptures. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). pp. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. By God. they surrendered . . He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. those of them who can a fight [were] killed. 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of five and six at a time. According to ’Aisha. . So march against them.” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. And He made you heirs of their lands. A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. .” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. and exhorting one another in constancy.

provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. of female slaves and servants. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . of Ozz¯l. pp. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. a i. He invited her to be his wife. . “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. Tabari a i.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. took his seat there. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them.” Ibn Ish¯q adds. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . The booty was divided into four classes . . indeed. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. till the whole were slain . . and butchered in cold blood. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. it is sharp. . . . and slaves. chattels. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . 303-304. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conflicts to his own advantage.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. . and gave him over to another.But slay me also. from his share of these. For Zoheir. He replied. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. in exchange for horses and arms. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of efficient horses. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. I entreat thee. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood .” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. of Huwey. and Muhammad took a fifth of each. an aged Jew.” S¯bit refused. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. . There were (besides little children.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. and chose to remain (as. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. another biographer. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. . and there beheaded. I.land. Here take my sword. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. He received to each inquiry the same reply . and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer.of K¯b.they had all been slain already . She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. Having sated his revenge. having refused marriage. strike high and hard. . ¯ ikh i. . a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . .” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. but she declined. cattle. to the effect that Muhammad’s biographers.

” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory.” Then he sat down. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. a Jewish leader. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. u the “Khazraj began to cut off their heads with great satisfaction. Huyayy b. He who forsakes God will be forsaken . part II. They must be hardened in the difficult school of Isl¯m. . The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. ¯ ¯ . Akhatab.94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. and at a signal from Muhammad. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. II.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. Besides the aged Zoheir. before dying. p. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. . A book and a decree. saying. and there is no remedy . vol. 752. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. 476. . to take off my robe from my body.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. Rauzat-us-Safa. ’Aisha says of her. his head was struck off. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper. but God the most High has given thee victory. They must become parties to an act which is effective in the measure that it is compromising. p. and has made me thy judge. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus.” He too was brought before Muhammad. p. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. .” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. God’s command is right. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. . . and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. 464. . “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. 465. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so finish him off. was known affectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. p. 7 In fact. Thus. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah.

546. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. and. Deserted by Her servants. I. do you see the ruffians of the Quraish? a a . Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. Shu’ba. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. their goddess. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. . a u a a and Sa’d b. When you meet them tomorrow. “O God. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. who were from Medina. I. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. p. pp. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 12 ibid. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. struck the idol with his pickaxe. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. 480. to demolish the idol of All at. i a ¯ vol. 484-486). He took Mecca by surprise. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. Umro b.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. In fighting the Meccans. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. pp. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. H. in A. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. ¯ ira. and not to the Emigrants. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not fight the Arabs around them. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. 9. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. His people killed him. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. A little later. wipe them out.” he prayed to All¯h. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. therefore. 544. one of u a ira their kin. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n.. Kh¯lid b. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. pp. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. if. . . As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce.

A fixed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. a After the conquest of Mecca. asmit a). the Exalted.96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Wonderful! To say the least. Spiritual darkness. . Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. but more difficult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. “Who will kill Ka’b b. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. accompanied by some accomplices. Then the assassin. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. a more psychological and mystical religion. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his confidence. the real difference is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. True. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). ASSASSINATION Assassination. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). he got inconvenient elements eliminated. The permission was given. According to the Yogas. u Similarly. or falsehood.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. a Volunteered one Muhammad b.” said Muhammad. self-discovery. Through them. has a source deep in our being. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. he lured his intended victim outside. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. went to Ka’b’s house at night. in egoistic life (aham. whether Jehovah or All¯h. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. self-shedding. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). selfa a churning. like jih¯d. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diffused mind. and His Messenger. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one.

97 like the voice of murder. describes the assassins “bold as lions. pp. 368-369. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. 369. he should respond to the call. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. Very soon. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer. Sabit. Another Ka’b. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. Further details are available in various other accounts.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). He beguiled him and brought him down with guile..” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. Ka’b’s head was flung at the feet of the Prophet. On learning this. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. as we have seen. travelling by night a with their light swords. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. 368.. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Maslama and his foster brother. 13 Hass¯n b. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. u Some. 14 .” He went down and was killed (4436). a poet. Ab¯ M¯’ila. p.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. 15 ibid.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. p. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. ¯ ¯ ibid. another poet. the unlucky victims of his aggression.

Safw¯n b. Muhammad a declined his offer till he corrected his theology. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. . When the man said he did not. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a offered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns.98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). and a both were polytheists. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. (4472). For example. According to the translator. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger.

is. and so on. So in a Muslim polity. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 .Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. and pilgrimage. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). food. In Isl¯m. non-Muslims. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. general morality. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. in all matters. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning affairs” (Qura an 14:17). rather. if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. political and intellectual. zak¯t. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. The spirit and informing principles are very different. marriage. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. It includes all his beliefs and affairs. dress.

Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. the Prophet’s daughter. A branch of them. and he who acquires control over the affairs of my people and is kind to them . D. his wife F¯tima. and scholars. the Saiyids. a . though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. may one day revive this idea. and the disbelievers among them.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku.be Thou kind to him. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. They were warriors. and i. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. Later.100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. financial tycoons. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. rulers. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. though the Shias limit the office still further to the descendants of Muhammad. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. The present-day Sauds. necessary foundations. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet.be Thou hard upon him. and Ruler of the Faithful. are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations.” says Muhammad (4473-4474). But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. “O God. In another version. Thanks to Muhammad. the holy lands of Isl¯m). ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is hard upon them . for six hundred years. and specifically to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law.” Muhammad says (4476). 1299-1326). At present they are busy laying the first. a As a result. emerged in Egypt. helped by petrodollars.

OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. then that person is designated as the . “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. Very thorough. War booty is sacred. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). and this is a gift presented to me. “I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . If the electors choose someone unanimously. have to invoke God at every step. . An official should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. but misappropriation of booty is a serious offense. a Qur¯n 4:59). In fact. for as we know. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. a Some exceptions are mentioned. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others” (4543). and should appeal to me for help. and to his moral and spiritual sense. This is a big loophole which was fully used. “O you a who believe.101 There are other conventional exhortations. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. But other ah¯d¯ try to fill this gap. gifts are given to the office.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. obey All¯h. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. . As he lay dying. it is a religious obligation. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). not to the officer. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). His Apostle. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you.

“When you are holding to one single man as your leader. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders.” Under the circumstances. 1 All four points are taken from S. Shiaism. 3.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). answering a follower. WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. 4. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. If there is an equal division. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567).” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. ¯ CHAPTER 10. p. then those two should be killed. even if your back is flogged ir and your wealth is snatched. “Kill him. ’Umar. his own son and one of the electors. men of authority. . 68. If any five of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). you should listen and obey” (4554). In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways.102 Khal¯ ifa. Ghaffari.

The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. Is not Muhammad the final prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). which is also an a important subject of this book. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority differs with different a conditions and circumstances. and one below fifteen is a minor (4605). There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). For example. when he was fifteen. Similarly. and this time he was accepted. “Beware. a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. for purposes of marriage. Again. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. Yet again. there will appear a number of impostors. he went to fight in the Battle of Khandaq. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. but the Prophet did not accept him. The next year. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). That decided the issue. One of fifteen years is considered an adult. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. This is understandable. nocturnal emission.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suffice you. The son of ’Umar went to fight in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a .103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. or pregnancy (note 2331). strength consists in a is archery. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). You are to guard against them” (4483).

But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the affairs of one who goes out to fight in His way a believing in Him and affirming the truth of His Apostles. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). and being uprooted from their old loyalties. After a the conquest of Mecca. .” In fact. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear fidelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. Without jih¯d. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inflicted . GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. . when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597).104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. Muhammad had the same desire for himself. if he dies in the Way of All¯h. So the rules were changed. “I love to fight in the . there is no Isl¯m. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. they became desperate. but since this is not always practical. According to some fiqh schools. Having no home and no livelihood. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. his body will not decay.

I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. . stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). if after embracing Isl¯m. [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. . . Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. to fight and again be killed and to fight and again be killed” a (4626). Muhammad was consulted. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). . “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. What is that act? . and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. Therefore. . had¯ 4638). a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to offer. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of different virtues. and going on pilgrimage. . One said: “I do not care. But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). praying. The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. a such as fasting. All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater.105 way of All¯h and be killed. ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. . a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a .” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . .

without having had the time to say a single prayer. . Asked to explain why.” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. a stone struck him and he died a martyr. he too fights in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. go to hell but never “gathered together. . We may give here another paradox. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. . [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. one the slayer and the other the slain. Two men. So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. But how? The translator clarifies: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. 519 ¯ ¯ .” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. p.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having offered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. both go to Paradise. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. Another puzzle seeking a solution. Two men. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. In the engagement. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. But there is still a great difference between the two. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678).

let them not be taken by surprise. and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). had¯ 571). he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their fidelity and spying into their lapses” (4730).” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. In such instances. Give them time to separate. is . II. i. Two men did not heed this command.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. Homely wisdom. One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected.

GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .108 ¯ CHAPTER 10.

provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733).” says the Qur¯n (2:172). Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you. one should draw the knife across its throat. When slaughtering an animal. GAME There are similar restrictions on game. cutting the windpipe. some mub¯h (permitted). Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). a “When you set off your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 . some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). for their flesh to be lawful food. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). and softened them a good deal. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets off to catch a game animal (4732-4734). a its flesh is not lawful. When someone asks: What “if I find along with my dog another dog.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. a a a However. It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it.Chapter 11 Hunting. with the help of a particular incantation. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. All¯h is great”). even if the game is killed.

“Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. CHAPTER 11.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting . The beast was dead. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes.” J¯bir tells us. Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). they ate a a even the dead animal. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). . except when a you find it [the prey] fallen into water. There is a story behind this particular permission. They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). .a falcon. recite the name of All¯h. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish.” he says. do not eat from their utensils. It fed them. HUNTING. a cheetah. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742).110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734).” for a month till they grew bulky. “three hundred of them. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. “When you shoot your arrow.” and as they were hard pressed. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. During the journey. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. . and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. . supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. ASSES It is unlawful to eat the flesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. But if it cannot be avoided. then wash them before using them” (4743). and their flesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777).

and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). so when you kill. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the flesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. . “Throw away your pots. Some thought at first that the prohibition was temporary. saying: “I neither eat it. KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. nor do I prohibit it. Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. the flesh of hares is lawful. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. The eating of locusts is permissible. To illustrate. when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the flesh of domestic asses. we give another tradition.” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. . kill in a good way and when you slaughter. . u a u Similarly. He did not accept it. slaughter in a good way. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. LIZARDS. “since one-fifth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . a a HORSES The flesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). narrated by R¯fi b. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388).” came the order. HARES The flesh of lizards is not forbidden.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-fifth made over to the treasury. as is legally required” (4768). LOCUSTS. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. caught and slaughtered it. So every one of you should sharpen his knife. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). and he accepted them” (4801). Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. Shadd¯d b. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790).111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar.

Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. and from things strangled. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart.112 CHAPTER 11. In many religious traditions.” Another word used is nahr.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacrifice. too. animal sacrifice is highly meritorious. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude flesh food. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacrifice. the “Book of Sacrifices” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). which means “to split or pierce. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. i. are those a “who sacrificed for anyone besides All¯h. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. had¯ 1392). which means “to injure the jugular vein”. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacrificing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). is But in order to be meritorious. except for flesh of a particular kind and flesh obtained in a particular way. . which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all fife. In Isl¯m. and hence derivatively for the sacrifice itself. In Muhammad’s lifetime. I. and from blood.” Muhammad tells us. People “should not sacrifice an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacrificed [his animal]” a (4837). the sacrifice should be made to All¯h. HUNTING. Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacrificed. They were only required to “abstain from meats offered to idols.

so there is also a proper age for the sacrificial animal. he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). According to Ab¯ Huraira. “Sacrifice only a grown-up animal. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs.” When she did. While sacrificing. Muhammad said: a u “He who can afford sacrifice but does not offer it. for is not animal sacrifice All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacrificial camels.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood flow. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacrificed rams. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . O All¯h.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacrifice on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. in which case sacrifice a ram [of less than a year. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. the translator explains.” He then said to ’Aisha. . and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. he took the knife and the ram. The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). . This is understandable. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. it is bone. but we have no knives with us. but more than six months’ age]” (4836).113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacrificing.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. and when they are a . [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacrifice the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. is “As for the nail. accept [this saca a rifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacrifice.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. “he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it” (4845). “Give me the large knife. unless it is difficult for you.

he found their “humps were chopped off and their haunches had been cut off and their livers had been taken out. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. went to where Hamza i was. the flesh comes to us.114 CHAPTER 11. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). who put on his mantle. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. and came out” (4881). a and he thus turned upon his heels. Mu’¯z b. a new reverence for all living beings. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. DRINKS The twenty-first book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). In animal sacrifice. Ka’b drinking. and Ubayy b. and began to reprimand him. We made animals subject to you. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacrifice. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. . Baiad¯. but when he returned. Jabal. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. people said. . a a Let it be so if you like. narrates an interi. . Ab¯ Duj¯na. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. We offer to our gods what we ourselves eat. “Hamza’s eyes were red. that reaches All¯h. Liquor was forbidden.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. esting story. “It is not their meat nor their blood. We experience a new togetherness. We realize that an animal sacrifice can never be a fitting and acceptable offering to any god worthy of man. Ab¯ Ubaida. He tied them up outside. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the fifth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. HUNTING. and he a i a brought his camels along. ’Abd al-Muttalib. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. all this changes. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. the Prophet’s uncle. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. . FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them .

MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). . We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). . gourds. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her first husband: “Boy. u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. or hollow stumps (4913-4995). How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). he tells ’Umar. the Prophet’s cousin. . a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. it is not forbidden. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). In another tradition. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it.” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. . there is not even a disapproval. Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983).115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. together (4896-4912). mention the name of All¯h. Ibn ’Abb¯s. green pitchers. or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971).

and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). In fact. A laudable practice. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. because Muhammad did so (5072). Still. and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040). FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. and thanks for the mothers. Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suffice. thanks for the farmer who produced it. he left it” (5121). thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. HUNTING. .116 CHAPTER 11. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three fingers. if one drinks water standing. for feeding 130 persons (5105). it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. ’Abdullah b. In ordinary course. sisters and wives. one “must vomit” (5022). he ate it and if he did not like it. It is also meritorious to lick one’s fingers after taking one’s food. but it is permissible for other Muslims. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). with the blessing of the Prophet. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not find fault with the food served to you. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too.

it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.117 However. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. no God can legitimize it. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. That way we really profane Him. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. Be a meat-eater if you like. Similarly.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. . ¯ a negate Him.

118 CHAPTER 11. HUNTING. FOOD AND DRINK .

finding that the Prophet disapproved of them. General Behavior. for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). These were striped and made of coarse cloth. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saffron. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). he promised to wash them. 119 . Poetry. Greetings. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). Decorations. on the other hand. were considered excellent (5179-5180). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175).Chapter 12 Clothing. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). The mantles of Yemen. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). “Do not wear silk. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). SILK Silk is also forbidden. “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the fire of Hell” (5126). Magic. Visions.

They effectively keep out the angels. so oppose them” (5245). GREETINGS. whether of birds or animals or men. CLOTHING.120CHAPTER 12. HAIR Not only clothes. “Then on that very morning. . for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). .” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. . Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. In fact.” reports Maim¯na. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields [or big gardens]. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. On seeing portraits on a curtain. DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). the father of Ab¯ Bakr. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. DECORATIONS. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. . but the hair too should not be dyed in saffron (5241). POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). His head and his beard were white like hyssop. MAGIC. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated.

Rab¯h (“profit”). He forbade women to add false hair to their head. having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven.e. the son of ’Umar. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). Yas¯r (“wealth”). Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). having the same meaning (5338). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautification changing what God has created” (5301). ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. he “would have never slept with her in the bed. tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334).121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”).” and it is a perfectly good name. Muhammad also disapproved of qaza.. GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). and N¯fi a a a (“beneficial”) (5327). We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. Barra means “pious. a .” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. i. He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. ’Abdullah. But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aflah (“successful”). The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329).

I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. . he went to Muhammad for clarification. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. . He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. CLOTHING. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. . Muhammad called for some dates. GREETINGS. Asm¯. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). and it is not granted. Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. MAGIC. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. . GENERAL BEHAVIOR. “he should come back” (5354). for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). DECORATIONS. The first thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . a a When other Muslims objected. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). Q¯sim.122CHAPTER 12. All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. When a man seeks permission three times. gave birth to a baby. POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety.

you should say: “The same to you” (5380). we recognize you. VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). . When you meet him. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. but Muhammad did not respond. “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). offer him greetings. . and when he falls ill visit him. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”.’ you say.” an ans¯r asked. who was tall in stature. Also. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. when he invites you to a feast accept it. then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377).” “But what about the husband’s brother. “All¯h. or if that cannot be helped. and when he dies follow his bier” (5379).” His hope was fulfilled. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) offer you salutations. One day. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯.” says ’Aisha a (5397). But it is different with the People of the Book.” the Prophet replied a (5400). And all should greet the children (5391-5392).123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . went out to the a fields in the dark to ease herself. the Exalted and Glorious. . Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. The Prophet himself followed this practice. FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should first greet the pedestrian. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. when he seeks your counsel give him. and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). “Husband’s brother is like death.

¯ . and deposited at the bottom of a well. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. and incantations. I.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels.e. DECORATIONS. As the knots were untied.124CHAPTER 12. spells. During this period. and the way they did it. This saved him for the time being.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy..e. vol. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. a u In the same S¯ra.” and that “it was Lab¯ b. it caused his last illness. those who had brought it about.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. by All¯h. and according to some traditions. medicine. In fact. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. “could not come at his wives. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. A’sam id [who cast the spell]. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). 1 Tabaq at.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. 1 On another occasion.” a And under the influence of the charm. you should take a bath” (5427). of course. but the poison had a delayed effect. but. The effect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . 156. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. it had no power over him (5430). He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. He had just taken a morsel and finding the taste unusual spat it out. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has affected him. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. GREETINGS. the Prophet got well.. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classification. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. p. poisons. a is The Prophet believed that “the influence of an evil eye is a fact. CLOTHING. “When you are asked to take a bath from the influence of an evil eye. MAGIC. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. or.

LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers.e.125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). and when it has broken out in the land where you are. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. it is a wonder drug. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. According to the Arab belief of that time. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). don’t go to it. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. It has a sexual potential.” and “no star promising rain. the Apostle of All¯h placed his forefinger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. NO HAMA. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. He says that according to some Muslim scholars. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. .” Muhammad says (5484). 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). i. On another occasion.. no epidemic disease. no ghouls. so you may go” (5541). Cool it down with water. Among others. don’t run out of it” (5493).

a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins.e. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). a belief found in the lore of many countries. nature. DECORATIONS. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29).e. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. and the law of causality. no divination.126CHAPTER 12.” the translator assures us (note 2603). All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man.are very different. CLOTHING. MAGIC. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. GREETINGS. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. including India. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. Muhammad corrected . GENERAL BEHAVIOR.” he says (5519). According to the translator. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. and fortune-tellers. “There is no transitive [i. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today. but good omens please me. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies.. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. then it is in a horse. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we find true. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. soothsayers. the woman and the house” (5526).the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist .” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. The two worlds . “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. epidemic] disease. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). he believed in good omens and luck. i. augurs.. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain.

a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). but I find that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. the jinn has his chance.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors.” So they too should be killed (5545). dogs too “cause miscarriage and affect the eyesight adversely. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. Their sight filled him with fear. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientific nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. Like snakes.127 this belief and provided another explanation. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. the Exalted and the Glorious. ANTS.” He replied: “ ’Aisha.” She asked him: “I find people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. S¯ff¯t (37:7-10). WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. for it affects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). a is SNAKES. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it.” When these different orders communicate with each other. and Jinn (72:8-10). had¯ 1963). for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18). . Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory.

. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). If you do not do that. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). POETRY. CORRECT WORDS.” Muhammad commanded. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. a u had already fled in all directions. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuffing his brain with poetry.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). True. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. he did not think highly of them. even by the method of assassination. p. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. who was already a convert. VISIONS The next three books are very small. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. 597. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. then get to some safe place. “O Apostle. “Catch the Satan. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). The book ends on a compassionate note. according to Ibn Ish¯q. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. At first Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. GREETINGS. Ab¯ Wahb. DECORATIONS.128CHAPTER 12. MAGIC.” he advised. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. warned him of the fate suffered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. ¯ ¯ . Ka’b b. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. the daughter of a Marw¯n. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. One relates to the use of correct words. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. When Mecca was conquered. CLOTHING. his brother. the only status he cared to claim. POE Ants fared better. .

129 Prophet. Receiving an affirmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took off his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.

CHESS
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).

VISIONS
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The differa is

130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the difference in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisfied statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).

MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.

Chapter 13

Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a

SELF-ESTIMATION
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the first intercessor and the first whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an effective simile to show the difference between himself and the five or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that final brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the edifice of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to finalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131

132

CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD

message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The first are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of benefit to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the benefit of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellfire, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the fire and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making efforts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from fire, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).

THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaff¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to find “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.

MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u

He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. He found Muhammad most valorous.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large flock of sheep and goats.” the beneficiary tells us (5731). I would give you so much. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. however. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. “He asked me to count them. . This was called his charitable disposition. Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulfilled even posthumously. ’Aisha. but when it did. provided it was no sin” (5752).” the recipient said (5730). Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). Ummaya. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. many of them by Anas.133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). I counted them as five hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. most courageous. embrace Isl¯m. The man was overwhelmed.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. He punishes it through His living Apostle. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728).” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes.

“He put on a red mantle over him. His perspiration “shone like pearls. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads.134 CHAPTER 13. hair. eyes. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). One is called jih¯d. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. He a also found his face very handsome. a is He used to part his hair. so All- . the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. “Do not be angry. appearance. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770).” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. and even heels. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. or charity. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. Rob Peter to pay Paul. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. The Prophet’s body was soft. the other sadaqa.” His body a was also fragrant. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). a is complexion. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts.

. when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). His hair was collected. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . under its influence. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). Another man. . Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. that a revelation was involved in the matter. . Muhammad’s wife. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. . The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. according to the translator. In fact. Furthermore. and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. Umm i. . THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. ’Abdullah b. “his forehead perspired” (5764). a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789).135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). younger u than he. and his head was lowered (5767). J¯bir. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). ” (5765). According to Ub¯da. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. Salama. .

he said: “If there is any use of it. then do accept it. i. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. Muhammad said: “I do not find it of any use. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. On another occasion. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. But he has two options to offer about the number of people seeking ablution. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. had¯ 5817). a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. It sufficed him . a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. in another three hundred (5658). in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). then they should do it. I do not think this approach can go very far. “I saw water spouting from his fingers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. Sometimes.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830).e. Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. he tells us that their number was “between fifty and eighty” (5656). by the Lord. and do not go after my personal opinion.. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. and find in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. In one place. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. Muhammad a gave his decision. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h.136 CHAPTER 13. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. learned this.his father’s sister’s son. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. a practical man. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. When Muhammad. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. is.” As a result. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h.

a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. Therefore. But he could not . a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. But when he failed in his bid.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854). He knew his own people. a dispute rose. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. On the battlefield. To the Jews and Christians. on the day of Uhud. the neighboring Jews and Christians. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836).” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. Their religion is. he offered his leadership. having different mothers. when an ans¯r offered a a price that was not acceptable to him. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. though on his own terms. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. however.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. Speaking of himself and Jesus. the tribes allied with them. Recognizing the other prophets. narrated the whole story. served a still greater purpose. and therefore they were as good as apostates. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. During the dispute. Muhammad’s world was not very large. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. For example. “Had you not weighed it. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. the Jew said: “By All¯h. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. a is Abraham. the Arab Bedouins. a Jew was selling goods. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). Who chose Moses amongst mankind. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. and supplicated him.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). and Moses. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles.

don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. don’t make a distinction between different gods. . for they are all part of one human brotherhood. seldom both. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. for one is also the other. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. an attitude of either/or. for they all express the same Truth. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between different ummahs.138 CHAPTER 13.

and ’Usm¯n. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. members of his family like F¯tima.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the fire of hell). whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. it is enough to be subservient. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. ’Umar.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. but he soon came to be known by another name.” the maiden being ’Aisha. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. “the father of the maiden. To be saved. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. D. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha.” Muhammad said u a (5873). and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. Husain. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s first Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. Salama. and Zainab. and u a a i. he answered: “ ’Aisha. ’Aisha’s 139 . ’Al¯ Hasan. The followers need have no other.

Even ’Aisha. “Either take the i. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. u Zubair. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. “In doing this.. p.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. I. 527-528). struggle for power began in earnest. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. Outside. ’Ali a respectively. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). I said. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. ’Ub¯da. p. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. and you are our Wazeers. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. As soon as Muhammad died.140 CHAPTER 14. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. his favorite wife. as the u a a chief. her father. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. or I shall put this house to fire and burn you all. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died.” Muhammad answered (5878). Eventually. even half-believingly. and her brother too. u so that he might write a document. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. made the most of his dead body.” ’Umar threatened them. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. Ab¯ Bakr. during the conflict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. one of their own tribesmen. pp. 1 2 . we jumped on Sa’d b. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. 279. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. “To Ab¯ u Bakr. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. with a sword in his hand. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. 529). ‘God kill him.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. was kept in the dark about it . The next day.

the place of the Jewish Temple. whereas All¯h has forbidden to offer prayer for him?” (5904). u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. ’Umar was fanatical. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. and strong in his hatred. by a divine injunction.” When he inquired. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. In fact. The Muslim doctors mention fifty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. during the first fifteen months of their stay in Medina. as he prayed. . . Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. and ’Umar that they be a killed. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. for they rejected God and His Apostle. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. KHATTAB ’Umar b. and that his first duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. . So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. Once. The first instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. a But Muhammad persisted. the direction was changed to Mecca. and in case of the prisoners of a im. however. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. ’Abb¯s. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. Once Muhammad was persuaded to offer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. narrow-minded. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. modestly mentions a only three.” Muhammad observed (5885). All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. Had it not been for a previous . ’Umar. while asleep. Later on. Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). And lo. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). are a a you going to offer prayer. Badr” (5903). ’Umar wept when he was told about it. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. nor stand at his grave. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B.

a True. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut off his head. and said to him tauntingly. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. provided a new taste for booty. the son of Soheil. an ideology. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut off his head. But after him. III. himself drawing water from a tank. Life of Mahomet. you are beaten now. on another occasion. p. 110. its real founder was Muhammad himself. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. and the necessary religious rhetoric. who provided it with a theory. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. He forged new instrumentalities. He put every Arab.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. on the state’s payroll. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. as we have already seen. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. by L¯t and Uzza. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. a continuing motive. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut off their heads. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h.” The man said.” he said (4360). his name appears only once. even including newborn babes. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. vol. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68).” he told Muhammad.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). but u he drew only “two buckets”. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive infidel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut off his head with his sword. a new incentive. 3 On another occasion.” This was also the most effective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. he made it clear. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. “Nay. it was something to be proud of. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap.142 CHAPTER 14. “Well. An Arab. . In the Muslim annals. These ah¯d¯ we are told. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. a i. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. a founder par excellence. there was also “weakness in his drawing.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. we find that ’Umar needed no great provocation to flourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battlefield. spread of Muslim hegemony.

When this reached the ears of Muhammad.” Those who indulged in such unfilial behavior were honored as heroes. whom he married. p. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. “O Ab¯ Hafs. 739. al-’As. the family to which u a he belonged. p. Ab¯ Huzayfa. in the Battle of Badr. vol. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. if I a a meet him I will flash my sword in him. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. ’Aff¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. he was much troubled.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. 507. Hash¯m b. and also to spare his uncle. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. ¯ ¯ . the man is a false Muslim.” he said aloud. Rauzat-us-Safa. “Let me off with his head! By All¯h. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. p. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. In the same battle. Only a few decades ago. II. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 5 id’s It is difficult to accept this attitude. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. But one Muslim. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. part II.” he said. a ¯ ’USMAN B. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. al-’Abb¯s. Umm Kuls¯m. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. in Russia and even in China. But there is nothing unusual about it. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. releasing him without any ransom. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. al-Mugh¯ a ira. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. who replied. so contrary to human nature and custom. After she died. 301. who was taken prisoner i. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellfire. u According to Muslim tradition. did not like this.

Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit difference that there is no prophet after me” (5913). From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. a a family. reclining against a pillow . ’ALI B. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. they are my i. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. with great ingenuity.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died.” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family.” he said (5915). ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. and its concerns are mostly with trifles. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. the order of truth it deals with. saying. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. Hasan. at the hands of his brethren in faith.” The definition of “the members of my family. is such that it excluded . . [and] the members of a my household. From the arguments advanced on both sides. is receiving a visitor. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. did not agree with this conclusion. and its way of arriving a at truth. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r.144 CHAPTER 14. But when ’Usm¯n came. and Husain.” Other doctors of theology and law. “O All¯h. . In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. the Book of All¯h . a convert from the proletarian strata. . was a burdened with work that was too heavy.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. . According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. it was Ab¯ Bakr. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. therefore.

When Muhammad was dying. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m.” The story is given by Mirkhond.. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar.” (Tabaq at. vol. 8 On another occasion.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. 7 . go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. involving a complaint of a similar nature. p. “his face becoming red with anger. thou hast deceived me. Kh¯lid b.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inflamed. II. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. ’Amr i b. ’Abdu Wudd. had¯ 1569). a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. i saying: “I shall never do it. a i. ’Al¯ is from me. Wal¯ the second-ina id. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. i. 292-293. and ’Abb¯s and their offspring (5920). part II. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive.” But ’Al¯ declined. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. vol. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. people will never give us the Caliphate again. 456. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. 9 After Muhammad’s death. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. II. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. 521). for himself even before the holy one-fifth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will fight them until they are like us” (5915. thy brother i is coming behind thee. II. a man of ninety years. I. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the first report? In a battle. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger.” at the complaint. vol. All¯h is partial. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. and applied i. Let us. had¯ 1582). Ja’far. ’Abb¯s.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. During the Battle of the Ditch. On the day of Khaibar. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i different for him. command. i i” i. II. his uncle. pp. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. ¯ ¯ ikh i.e. p. 5918). ’Al¯ ’Aqil. his own saliva as a cure. At one i point in the contest. he took a slave-girl i. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. The Prophet was furious. complained to Muhammad. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. therefore.” ’Umar says (5917).” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. for if he says ‘no’ to us now.

Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. After he was appointed to this responsibility. and when the night set in.146 CHAPTER 14. . Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. obey them not” (29:8. . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). by order of his lordship i the apostle . Until now. “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. following the old Arab custom. pp. however.. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. was the old polytheistic morality. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. eight hundred strong. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. . But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. He was i asked to flog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). We give one example. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. ’Aisha tells us. . Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking off their heads. 477-478. . the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. .” This. HARIS Zaid b. had¯ 5933). but after this marriage. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. 112). 10 ¯ SA’D B. he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . he was also his executioner.

she was also the first to encourage him in his apostolic mission. perfumes. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was fifty. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. The marriage was consummated when she was nine. According to Muhammad. the marriage was not consummated. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. i With some women. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im.” Muhammad said (5966). 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s first employer and. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. ¯ . in a fit of jealousy. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. . Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. and his Lord . THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. vol.” (Tabaq at. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. newly married.147 natural father. Ibr¯h¯ died. therefore. just as Mary. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. Another woman. For example. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. was the best of the women of her time (5965). had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. dispatched home.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. the daughter of Imran. Once. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. 147-164). I il ate from it. Salama. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. pp. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. Muhammad himself says that “women. . a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. II. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides five more to whom proposals were made but without success. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. his first wife. I often heard him praise her. though senior to ija him in age by fifteen years. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. She was turned out. and Zainab. and food. had¯ 5956). ija. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and.

they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. “Where I would be . Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted.’ and when you are annoyed with me. verily. On another occasion.” ’Aisha generously agreed. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha.” About Muhammad’s own behavior. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. Once.” Muhammad made no answer. . The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. A time-honored a practice.” “O daughter. She said yes. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). When people want to please an official or any person in authority.” ’Aisha narrates. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. to him. . you say: ‘No. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted.” a as ’Aisha puts it. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. and having been thus silenced. I will never talk a to him about this matter. A rule within a rule.148 CHAPTER 14. by the Lord of Muhammad. she went back.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . . But. as luck would have it. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. though a strict code might call this bribery. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. but all very convenient. in the words of ’Aisha. Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. Even during his last illness. his daughter.

“the virgin.” Stating the position of Muslim theology.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. known as the Saiyids. his wife. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet.” ’Aisha adds. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. In fact. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. in the last moment of his death. “The Prophet died in my room. and even. i. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751).” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired. meaning “masters.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). put it in her mouth. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. I.149 tomorrow. complained about it to Muhammad. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. He Just before Muhammad died. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. and in my bosom. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. if. here is Gabriel offering you greetings. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. She had two surviving sons. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his first wife. p. ’Aisha took the hint. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. 282). Muhammad looked at it intently. took the twig from her brother’s hand. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. 678-679.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. I would not allow them. During his last illness. ¯ ¯ 12 . but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. After Mecca was conquered. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. “And when it was my turn.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). for my daughter is part of me.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. Fat¯ u u ima. vol. pp. on my day. just a few days before his death. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. Tabaq at. his cousin. Hasan and Husain. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. and they agreed. our salivas mingled.

In the case of Khad¯ ija. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. sitting on a camel. Mu’az. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. but his bier was very light to carry. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. THE MERITS OF SA’D B. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who offends her offends me” (5999). MU’AZ When Sa’d b. ¯ There are other traditions about him. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. During the Battle of Uhud. one Marw¯n b. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. p. Therefore. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. So it seems that if the father of a woman had sufficiently strong influence. Thanks to his political connections. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. she had the influence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. ¯ ¯ .a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. In the battle over the succession that raged later on. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). Hakam in revenge. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was fifteen or sixteen. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. the third Khal¯ a ifa. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i).150 CHAPTER 14.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. Sa’d was a a fat man. she was his only wife while she lived. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . 469.

he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. p. a carrying coats of mail” which. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m.” Muhammad said to him. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. Umayya b. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. 301.” he added. he said. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. Khalaf and his son. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. Mu’az. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that purification what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015).” he said. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. “By God. Seen through less-believing a eyes. The next a day. it is the first defeat that God brought on the infidel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. . he “had looted. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the first pledge at Al-’Aqaba. more kind a and compassionate. the Aus.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. “Yes. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. Umayya.” he replied. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exemplifies a certain moral. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza.. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. Khalaf. in Mecca. Consistent with his lowly position. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. On the day of the Battle of Badr. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. an important Companion. the poet.

At the Battle of Khaibar. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. decided to become a Muslim. 18 In fact. father. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulfil its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. and brother had just been murdered. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulfil a u a its rights. Umayya a b. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. 611-612). I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. after the great carnage of the day. There is a telling example. “By God. pp. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. Muir. ¯ ¯ W. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. They cried in pain and horror. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my infidelity. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. Bil¯l kept shouting. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battlefield. part of an aggressive politics. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. Just then. I will. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. Life of Mahomet. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. often they make him worse. They bring no change in the individual. the son of Ab¯ Jahl. 16 17 . S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. whose husband. ’Akrama. 302-303. vol. 68. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. pp. as they have always been. p. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son.” The Muslims gathered. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. But organized conversions are now.” In later days. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. Sim¯k b. by their hands. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-infidel. vol. IV. When Mecca was conquered.152 CHAPTER 14. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. now his prisoners. II.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied.

The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). ’Umar after contriving to murder him. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . M¯lik. Understanding the intricacies. he petitioned: “O All¯h. Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. Gabriel is with you” (6074). Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. Muhammad sent for two poets. the daughter of Bakr. and Huraira.” With that end in view. u a which he knew very well. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). . “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. and commissioned them to write satires. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar .” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. Sabit. .” he said to Muhammad. The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. One of them was the son of ’Umar. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n.” And to All¯h Himself. . Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. .153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. . the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. . . Unsatisfied with their compositions. . But there was a difficulty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. On another occasion. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). S¯bit. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . . to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. According to her. . .

” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. . 120 years. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything. the first period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. then those nearest to them” (6150). the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. As things converge toward Muhammad. H. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). H. “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. 170).. H.e. and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. but as they proceed further away from him. do not revile my Companions” (6167). 220).” says ’Aisha (6079. . . He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . According to one important opinion. but when they were in his service. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. the Prophet comes first. as the last Companion died in A. they become better. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. ’Aisha was the first to excuse Hass¯n. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. 110). it was a different matter. In this ranking and ordering. Then those nearest to them. though all the participants were flogged. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry.154 CHAPTER 14. 6081). I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the flour.” she said a a (6075). “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. At the end of the book. then come his Companions. a u Muslim divines have not been idle.

his wealth and his honour” (6219). While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. if his head aches. and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. Monday and Thursday. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. the whole 155 . he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. . In short. of course. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. and feel for each other. . “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. All Muslims are one body. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). it is a reward. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . And.Chapter 15 Virtue. . Good Manners. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. all Muslims should help each other. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. “When a Muslim falls ill. If he suffers pain. “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. Destiny. Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. “The believers are like one person. Knowledge. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). the one supporting the other” (6257). stand by each other. “All¯h elevates him in rank or effaces his sins because a of that” (6238).

“When any one of you fights with his brother. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. and he who meets the need of a brother. and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). DESTINY. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). as the Prophet himself explains.156 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE. Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. All¯h would a meet his needs. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. 1 The face should be avoided because. he should spare his face” (6325). 6265. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). should help him. and 6306). It is meritorious to speak the truth. in fact. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. a Similarly. 1 . for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. spoils. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). KNOWLEDGE. who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship.

157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the definition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a

¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the sufferers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, purification and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.

THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the first time that All¯h lets a man off so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellfire for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).

158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD

THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-fifth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of fine Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Sufis. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the infidels was not only a pious act a is but a profitable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).

The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were off guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.

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159

THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conflicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an infidel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and filial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.

MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the flames of hellfire. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
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160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful effort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4

LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably flowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the infidels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the first to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians first (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the five or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should offer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
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garbing itself in pious clothing. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. his livelihood. war booty. it imposes only an outer code.” But Muhammad failed to benefit from this source.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. but thou. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. . there can be no higher ethical life. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. But. his death. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined.” he said. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. theft. his fortune and misfortune. as Muhammad called him. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. fornications. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. as might be expected. a DESTINY The thirty-first book. ¯ . Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. contains only fifty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441).” As a result. adulteries. An unpurified heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. For example. after which it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . p. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. it gives the theology of a Moloch . Each person passes through a series of stages. his deeds.All¯h demanding the blood of the a infidels. 280. and prurience. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. blasphemies. murders. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. Without inner purification. True. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. false witness. vol. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). II. “This I have power to do. violence. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). and tribute. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. though the Buddhist influence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. . O Lord. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity.

KNOWLEDGE. the reverse may also happen (6390). why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. do perform good deeds. “Verily.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). DESTINY. he says” (6450). He would not be questioned as to a what He does. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). The book also includes a flattering reference to scholars. VIRTUE. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book.162 CHAPTER 15. “Recite the Qur¯n. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power.that is knowledge. a a “Verily. KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book. by seeking to explain them. He also warns against hair-splitting. you would follow them in this also. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. even smaller than the previous one. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation.” he remonstrates with the believers. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. If everything of men is decreed in advance. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). those “who are sound in knowledge say: We affirm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). But in spite of these warnings.” and do not dispute about it . Here is another theological riddle and another answer. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. It means the knowledge that we find in the Qur¯n. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting.” On the other hand. One day. And. of course. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell.

In the prophetic tradition. in compassion. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. In the mystic tradition. our reward is booty. slaves. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. polytheist. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima.” Muhammad a tells us (6475). his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. and so on. in brotherliness. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. Muhammad explains” (6476). Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. And if he walks towards Me.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a .163 away the scholars” (6462). infidel. “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. and forced conversions. in wisdom. like his moral teaching. Muhammad’s god. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. I rush towards him” (6471). in purity. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. and earnestness. and empire if we succeed. in conciliation. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. faith. and Paradise if we fall. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. it means walking toward the Light within. where it has a meaning very different from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. I draw near him a by the cubit. conquest. he retained His audible names. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. the infidels. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad.

so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and the second to ’Umar. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts.164 CHAPTER 15. Demonology is the other side of theology. VIRTUE. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. as a gift. one to ’Usm¯n. the daughter of Hil¯l. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. 593. p. ¯ ¯ . you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). All¯h’s name did not always suffice as a substitute for a servant. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). KNOWLEDGE. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. DESTINY. For example. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself.

he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). So avoid the allurement of women: verily. the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). Hell. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. Their Inmates. On the other hand. According to another tradition. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). In book thirty-four. “amongst the inmates of Paradise.” women will “form a minority” (6600). If they so wish. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. 165 .Chapter 16 Paradise. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). they also tell us about the Day of Judgment.

Muhammad said. THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day . Thanks to his reward in this world. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). “the earth would turn to be one single bread .” he told them. . then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). .166 CHAPTER 16. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. i.” “With b¯l¯m and fish. HELL. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above.. and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. . giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. . THEIR INMATES. between afternoon and night” (6707). NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection. On this day. The believer will be doubly blessed. PARADISE.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. the nonbeliever “finds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and fish from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). . will take in His grip the earth . where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). and of Paradise and Hell. the Exalted and Glorious.e.

afflict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. .” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. . so they were a afflicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). the “moon was split into two. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting fire by paying all that gold. it is still not a fair deal. On the Day of Resurrection. THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse. But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. The nonbeliever will answer yes.167 Either way. whether. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. In fact. . For example. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). Allah will ask the nonbeliever. no Jew . even the one least tormented. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. and heedless. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suffering. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellfire? Nothing. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). it is cheating.

THEIR INMATES. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. Literally. quran¯). The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. In the Qura an. SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief. . MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. HELL. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. PARADISE. in the Sunn¯h. a devil. also see 41:25).” Muhammad declared (6752). the latter is pandaimonic or. “Verily. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. a prophetic one. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them.168 CHAPTER 16. the demons are only attached to infidels. the word means “the one in united” (pl. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil.” Muhammad declared (6711). A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. but it finds its full development in the Sunn¯h.” 43:36. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). more precisely. pandemonic.

when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). a “In Paradise. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. he advises.121 times. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. “The first group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. In the Qur¯n. The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). Paradise and Hell go together. An-N¯r. Its Description. Then those who would be next to them. appears with still greater frequency . “Observe moderation” in your doings. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). In the Prophet’s eschatology.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. moral action occupies a secondary place. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. A constant Bower of Bliss.169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). a “the Fire. HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. . It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. O Lord. there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a fine and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. and Its Inmates”. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. A man is justified by faith. Its Bounties. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. . then after them others in ranks” (6796). but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. but if you fail. which appears 76 times. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792).” Muhammad says (6760). they would be like the most significantly glittering stars .

PARADISE. HELL. . any that they may desire” (56:2021). “All¯h. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the flesh” (6797). less than ih on earth. “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). . and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). rivers of wine. ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. . the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). the height of Adam and even of God. nor will they suffer from catarrh. THEIR INMATES. LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. incidentally. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). and the shades of the Garden will come low . So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. his length being sixty cubits. HABITATION. For food.” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). “they will have fruits. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. The immeasurable is measured. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. a joy to those who drink. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . the Exalted and a Glorious. nor void excrement. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. nor will they spit” (6795).170 CHAPTER 16.

52:17-24. a 56:15-40. 9:111. describe the a i. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. retiring glances. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. ’Umar. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. golden vessels. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54).171 over them. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. and others. For example. 66:8. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). wine. will dwell his wives. upon them will be green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade. . 47:15. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). which we have already mentioned. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. 10:9-10. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. 4:13. 55:46-76. so he will have women galore in Paradise. the bunches of fruits will hang low. We can only mention the subject here. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. for ever virgins. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. 76:12-22. houris with swelling bosoms. a i. HOURIS Houris are promised. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. with whom he will make love successively. According to ’Abdullah b. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions.

but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. THEIR INMATES. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. four thousand virgins. According to Anas. and she will have a crown on her head. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. 1980). every room will have seventy couches. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. and seventy-two women. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any specifics about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. holding the train of her robe. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. According to another tradition. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. in the Muslim Paradise. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. though rather mathematically expressed. still furu ther. p. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. . and eight thousand women who have known men. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. 112. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. HELL. According to ’Abdullah b.172 CHAPTER 16.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal five hundred houris. when a believer embraces any such houri. Each houri will u have seventy garments. these women will put on see-through dresses. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. ’Umar. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. According to him. the number of slaves is ten thousand. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. PARADISE. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls.

the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically significant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also fifteen years ija. dragging his intestines in Fire. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. ’Amr was the first Khozaite king (A. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. and as-s¯’iba. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. ira. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. Similarly.D. the fire we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). . The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). In the S¯ras from this period. to some up to their knees. According to Muslim thinking. In Hell.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. are severely punished. to some up to their waists. But as his harem swelled. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued.” as the translator explains (note 2999). a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force.” He was the first to dedicate animals to deity. the son of Abraham. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suffer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. “I saw ’Amr b. his senior. Khinzif. u a 4:57). There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. Luhayy b. Cam’a b. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). In caloric heat. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831).

. You send an army and I would send an army five times greater than that. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. . . Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. . Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. Verily. PARADISE. It begins immediately after their death. . there is no death for you. .” somebody replied. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . . THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. Muhammad said: “Behold. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. O inmates of Hell. And I sent the Book to you . even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. but they lack the power to reply. Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves.174 CHAPTER 16. and addressing each of them by name. . what I am saying to them. thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). . . Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. You would live forever therein” (6829). Then he sat by the side of the bodies. The Prophet and his Companions sighted five or six graves during a journey. you fight against them and We shall help you in this . there is no death for you. . my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. they would break my head . . . I said: My Lord. THEIR INMATES. the chapter is closed forever. . MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. HELL. said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed.” Muhammad told him.” Muhammad revealed (6859). “As polytheists.

each with a its own potency. more blazing. that should be of interest to Freudians. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha.e. and more scorching are conceived. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell].” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. thermodegree. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. i. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. The is. “the Fire. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection.. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. naked and uncircumcised. even Muslims must go to Hell. Hell has many names. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of infidelity and unbelief. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. So hells increasingly more smoky. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. In a . there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellfire to his followers. and inmates. But woe unto the unbeliever.

nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). idolaters. and polytheists of different hues and degrees. in the language of u the last S ura.e. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. .” There are other traditions in the same vein. Saqar for the Magi. they shall be given water like molten copper . is for the Christians. “If the infidels complain of thirst. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. . “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. of All¯h’s command. Christians. hypocrites. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. which shall burst their bowels . It is called Jahanam. The fire in Hell knows no rival in fierceness. Jah¯ for idolaters. The blazing fire of Laz¯. the infidels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. . a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellfire. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.176 CHAPTER 16. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. 17:60. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. 56:52. i u 44:43-46). every branch will house seventy thousand serpents .. polytheists.” i. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. PARADISE.” is mentioned. the still more intense fire of Hutamah is for the Jews. another terrible food. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. fire which “permits nothing to endure. Similarly. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. . even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. . if not the spirit.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. THEIR INMATES.g. weary. . THE LAST DAY order to fulfill the letter.. of fire so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. loathsome in smell.” According to some commentators. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. HELL. and never has any light. the Day of Judgment). toiling. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). infidels. . In other S¯ras (e. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant.

killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellfire. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. . And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. . In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. 6906). The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. All these are the tormentors of the infidels and the hypocrites. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. . He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. Arabia.177 and an equal number of scorpions. but He did not grant it” (6904. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords.” he said (6881). “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. “He granted me two. but in the case of . While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers.

a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. with the word k¯fir inscribed on his forehead. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). red in complexion. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuffs and their money]” iz (6961). the smoke. blind in the left eye and a a is. SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. . which is painful to touch. a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). a Before the Last Hour comes. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . HELL. come and kill him. or the servant of All¯h.178 CHAPTER 16. . who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. ” (7039). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. there is a Jew behind a me. the Dajj¯l . It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conflict with one another” (note 3009). According to the translator. THEIR INMATES. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. PARADISE. It will not come “until fire emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935).

you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). The children stood up but not Sayy¯d.179 him. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. Muhammad “did a not like it. dukh.” the translator tells us (note 3037).” Then there was a competition between the two. . That gave point to his claim. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. According to another story. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). “Thereupon ’Umar b. ‘He only chanted dhukh. ready to do his bidding. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). in fact. Pointing to a young boy. permit me that I should kill him.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. a a made the very same claim for himself. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. Like the early Christians. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed.

180 CHAPTER 16. THEIR INMATES. PARADISE. HELL. THE LAST DAY .

In fact. Sin is doubly blessed. and All¯h responded in the same way. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence.” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). but now a He added: “O servant. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . According to Muhammad. 181 . said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. forgive me my sin. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). I We now take up the thirty-fifth book.” The servant committed yet a third sin. and All¯h. . the Exalted and High. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. It helps him as well as his Maker. . do what you like. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). forgive me my sin. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. “If a you were not to commit sins. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642).

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¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the fire of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the infidels, or k¯firs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a

GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an offence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments defined in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious offense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the first hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.

NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next five ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a

183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a

THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the fifth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the fields to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much flesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after finding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-

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CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I

ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the flour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I find nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad pacified them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a

185 Coming out of his prophetic fit or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, flog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye first heard of the affair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
1

S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯

For example. Also. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it difficult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. we no longer find ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this affair. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. “And a stay quietly in your houses. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. p. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). 498).186 CHAPTER 17. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. and though young he died soon a after. I have never unveiled any a woman. ¯ ¯ . In retaliation. in Whose hand is my life. according to ’Aisha. According to another tradition. 33). like that of the former times of Ignorance. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. I in a poem. 499.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. “Hallowed be All¯h. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Of course. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. p.” he said. by One. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. and make not a dazzling display.

see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. it was combined with other. more secular appeals. and ideological untouchability. But from the beginning. Apostasy was severely punished. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document.Chapter 18 Repentance. political boycott. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. Islam was not all theology. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. negative as well as positive. Even in Muhammad’s time. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. and the disloyal. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. the indifferent. but the For a fuller discussion. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. 1 187 . M¯lik. constia is. He used the carrot as well as the stick. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. 2/18 Ansari Road. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. The fear of divine hellfire was distant.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim.110 002). The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. New Delhi . spiritually speaking.

now others do the same in turn. his own son-in-law. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company.the i. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. a lordly sum. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. He collected tithes from the tribes. and traders. Because of its unusually arduous nature. p. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. who were now rich and powerful. S¯lim b. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. REPENTANCE. in fact. MALIK) fear of the strongman.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. D.but even worse. is. Talha. In offending the Prophet. Muhammad ibn Maslama.) ¯ ¯ . 789. In planning other campaigns. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). They gave generously. generals. the boss. contractors. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Difficulties”. ’Abdullah . besides inviting more concrete punishments. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. you not only offended All¯h . it was his largest and also his last. Muheiasa. or party. One had oneself played safe in the past. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. But this campaign was to be of long duration. the toughs of the ummah. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. Sa’d. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. ’Usm¯n. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. 630. ’Al¯ Zubair. Umayar. I got to him first with tongue and hand. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. ’Amr ibn Omeya.an offense which many could take a in stride . he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. and so on. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. and the weather was dry and hot. was ever present. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to effect the maximum surprise. for he died soon afterward. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. which were now reduced to submission. you offended ’Umar. They had become governors. gifting one a thousand din¯rs.

a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. with your goods and your persons.189 soldiers. at least nominally.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . “Go ye a forth. The worst offenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. their spirit was considered praiseworthy. ‘I can find no mounts for you. and when you said. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. . in the cause of All¯h. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. say to them that the Fire of Hell is fiercer in heat. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). For example.” All¯h said of them (9:97). ‘Go not forth in the heat.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). which now included. Of such people. That is best for you. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. But Him you would not harm in the least. But even so. but We know them.’ Muhammad. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. so they put forward many excuses for not going. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. . these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. Though they were sent back. they would all without doubt have followed thee. whether equipped lightly or heavily. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). Twice shall we punish them. In the Islamic tradition. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . if only they could understand” (9:81). and strive and struggle. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. and journey easy. the whole Arab world. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. He also took more secular measures. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. Thou knowest them not. They hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats.

. or else pay tribute. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. 783. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments .” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. was nowhere in sight. . although many of its members were still disgruntled. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. I will not accept from you a single thing. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. According to some traditions. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. it found there was not much to do. Ru’ba. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. I will not fight against you until I have written thus unto you. . the Christian prince of Ayala. REPENTANCE. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. p. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. Al-Dahh¯k. . For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. Are you not content. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . Believe. To Yuhanna b. ¯ ¯ . those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. But if you oppose and displease them. I left you behind because of what I had left behind. Muhammad pacified him by saying: “They lie. According to some traditions. One of the victims. The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. one-third of which was cavalry. This effectively dealt with them. . he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . . sang: a My salams to you. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). This satisfied ’Al¯ i. But eventually he did not go. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. He whom fire surrounds is burned. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. was also there in consida erable force. because the Byzantine army. which was easily done with such a large show of force. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18.

neither age nor health nor lack of means. . where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. the Byzantine Empire]”. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. Hil¯l. that the Prophet had departed.” he said to himself. to his dismay. “more than ten thousand people. The next day Muhammad arrived. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. Of the many who had remained behind.” But this expedition was a different thing. he says the expedition was big. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. he kept it as a secret. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day.. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides.” Though eminently qualified to participate. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i.e.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet.” he says. and Ka’b. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth. D.” But later. he decided to speak the truth. he was determined to deal firmly with those who had failed to accompany him. “I was shocked to find that I did not find anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. who was a poet. .” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. Ka’b. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. 4 .

“By All¯h. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. so I burnt it. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. “As I read that letter I said. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us .” This comforted him somewhat.) Later. This also is a calamity.” When forty days had thus passed. a While he was enduring this mental torture. . . He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. MALIK) persons. he sent his wife . . and I had the greatest love u a for him. whether He would punish them. by All¯h. When Ka’b’s turn came. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began.” a Muhammad dismissed him.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot find your right honour.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth.” This communication could be very incriminating.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. I greeted him but. He replied.” Ka’b says. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did. . but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. We spent fifty nights in this very state and my two friends confined themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. “Verily. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. REPENTANCE. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. and he was my cousin.” As Ka’b was young. . some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. as I had when I stayed behind. he did not respond to my greetings. “No. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. or turn in mercy” [9:106]. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b. . a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. I never possessed so good means . and the same verdict has been delivered in their case.

201. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). there is glad a tiding for you.” she replied. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). ¯ . p. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended. he has no a such instinct in him. that they might repent. On the morning of the fiftieth day. The same message was sent to the other two. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). and so did their souls become straitened within them. p. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. I. IV. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. Life of Mahomet. By All¯h. And they perceived that there is no fleeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. he spends his time in weeping. when Muhammad heard this. Prophet’s biographer. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. also Tabaq at. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. M¯lik. 505.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. Meanwhile.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness.” 5 5 W. Then He turned to them. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. and the latter received him with a smiling face. Muir.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side.” Muhammad told her. “But don’t go near him. vol. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. “By All¯h. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b.” he says. even until Antichrist appear. Some of them even began to sell their arms. as he was a “a senile person”. vol. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth.

REPENTANCE. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. 504. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. I.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike off his neck. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). Mary. p. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. . ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. but in order to avoid further complications. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. Peace was eventually restored. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza.) a ikh i. the center of great jealousy in the harem. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem.

or S ura.Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . the Fire of Hell. They were doubters. called Mun¯fiq in. and some out of spite for the Meccans. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. But in the peculiar theology of Islam. skeptics. a H¯wiyah. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯fiq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. and there is a whole chapter. therein shall they dwell . a bottomless pit of scorching fire. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. such doubts were morally the most heinous. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. and the rejecters of Faith. others out of chivalry. . named after ¯ ¯ them. men and a a women. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had offered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city .” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. Some of the citizens saw. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. a a ocrites very often (twenty-five times). . a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. It is a small book. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell.some out of conviction. men of incomplete faith. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellfire. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important.

196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. and soon they seized a whole yard. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. and much of it could also be bought. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. If we had kept our own for ourselves. converts. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯fiq¯ the disillusioned a in. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. many of them believed in war spoils. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. p. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. 1973). Muhammad (Pelican Books. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. They could put their ideas into verses. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. 676). The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. related to Aws Man¯t. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. But the realization came too late. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. The opposition could now be intimidated.” she sang. D. Muhammad detested them. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them effectively. His victory at Badr in January A. said in a poem that the different a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. then by All¯h. 624 brought him the opportunity. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. they a would have gone somewhere else. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut off the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept off their feet by the new religious fad. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. pp. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. Auf. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. 1 . 157-158.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson.

” he told the departing assassins. because of his open sedition and verses. This they did by these perfidious acts. “Lord. p. p. offered to assassinate her. This turned out to be only too true. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. They were too cowed. 368. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. We have already mentioned his case. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. When he a replied in the affirmative. W.he spat on it and it was healed. and when they returned after fulfilling their task. There was something new in the atmosphere. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. had not fought at Badr. The assassin had a powerful patron. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. look ye here. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. including the two assassins named above. 676. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. p. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. Most of the local converts. ¯ ¯ . 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month.” he prayed. . After ’Asm¯’s assassination. Life of Mahomet. vol. a new apprehension. III.” Muhammad had assured him. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another influential half-Jewish poet. a new equation. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. . One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. Muir.” he told them. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the five sons of ’Asm¯. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. 132. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. but nothing a happened.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. Also. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. And again there was a ready assassin at hand.

but the opposition was badly divided. a common ideology and passion. Muhammad picked different groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoffed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary offense in the beginning. But this period of caution did not last long. A seal is set on their hearts . now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. The killer’s brother. He exclaimed. . . 622. Ibn Ish¯q. 369. chided him: “You enemy of God. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. . common interests. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. a common goal.” says Ibn Ish¯q. did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. ¯ ¯ . HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. Mas’¯d. . a Jewish merchant. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. the doubters among the local converts. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. they say. a 5 6 ibid. They have made their oaths a screen .. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. D.” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. a Muslim convert. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. . p.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. p. it said one thing and did another. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. I would have cut your head off. They had promised each other a u ir. “By God. The demoralization was complete. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. . S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 676. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. . Huwayyisa. but they are indeed liars . . The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same effect. Furtive in action. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. They are enemies. As his power increased.

his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you .) 7 Ibn Ish¯q. and loyalty are qualities. by God. . I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. these will not go forth with them. But God bears witness that they are liars. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. D. and if to save is better than to kill. But after the arrival of Muhammad. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of five or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. He was once the leading citizen of Medina.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still influential in the affairs of Medina. D. and if they be fought against. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. . Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. but if patriotism. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. . and his appeal was also a threat. . When they surrendered. 92. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. because of his influence. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. he was not an unworthy man. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. ¯ ¯ . Muhammad besieged this tribe. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. It is said that just before Muhammad came. (See pp. . This was in February A. the Medinan opposition had already lost its influence and Muhammad had a field day. leaving their goods behind to the victor. We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). . I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. these will not help them. and if you be fought against we will help you . independence of judgment. in March-April A. p. Thou dost reckon them as one body. but their hearts are separated.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . If they be driven forth. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. a new force entered the scene. 624. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. 627. Three years later. But even then. 363. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. and his importance declined fast.

denied it. But wiser counsels prevailed. but it rankled in his mind. On this occasion. about ’Abdullah. Ibn Ubayy. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. . Aws and Khazraj. He went to Muhammad and offered to kill his father with his own hands. On the way back.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. and you have divided your property among them . Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. when confronted with this statement. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. 491. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. With all the proposals and consultations. at a more opportune moment. All¯h confirmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. also heard about it. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. he consulted Usaid b. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. ¯ ¯ . a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. You have let them occupy your country. he gave it serious thought. .” he advised. Tempers were frayed on both sides. Since ’Abdullah was an influential citizen. a fanatic Muslim. The booty included two hundred families. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. p. he was spared. so he accepted the denial. the stronger will drive out the weaker. and five thousand sheep and goats. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. He had an image to protect. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. But Muhammad was cautious. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. and later.” 8 Later. Huzair. two thousand camels. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time.’ But when we return to the Medina city. with his usual weakness.

when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. Muhammad at first accepted this denial at its face value.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. and he was isolated from his people and allies. 625). The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.D. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. with this background.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coffin for his father. Some of the persons who were with them came back. the Prophet. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. denied having said any such thing. 492. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. The latter. p. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). at his a is son’s request. Now. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. they heard ’Abdullah b. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. ¯ ¯ . Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. who narrates the whole story. according to Ibn Ish¯q.201 Later on. on oath. Zaid b. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision.” ’Umar submitted. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. who questioned ’Abdullah.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. By this time. he had u already become a back number.

but the earth again threw him out.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. The hereafter will take care of itself. the hill of Mur¯r. Qays. but the earth again threw him out . There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. and he remained busy in finding out his lost thing” (6691). They again dug . this should not be done” (6684). At last they left him unburied” (6693). . . According to Huzaifa. Either you fight for us or we fight you. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. They again dug the grave .” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. Thus intimidation had started quite early. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. . One group said: We would a kill them. who was forbidden to divulge the information. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. this hill. and “there was a ceaseless flow of persons. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. But the man replied: “By All¯h. so far as I am concerned the finding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. the owner of a red camel. and the other one said: No. they were twelve men. Other traditions identify him as Harr b.” All were pardoned except one man. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. . certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliff. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. his sins would be obliterated. .202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. . Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Sufficient unto the day is the work of the day. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a .” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree.

behind them often a . but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-first and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). for it is very different from them in a temper and subject matter. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. it threatens and promises. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruffaa. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. the circumstances of their revelation. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. who had already chosen his pastures. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. india a vidual men. angry. Ruffaa had been the first to receive ’Umar and offer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. and all such details of little larger spiritual significance. but that the trances of a passionate. It is feverish in tone. hereafter. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). dvesa. sensuous copy of the here. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two flocks.e.. and deluded mind (i. merely an exaggerated. and moha) are not to be trusted . a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the first tribes to suffer at the hands a of Muhammad. According to other traditions. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. the place. . Ibn ’Umar. but with the a . it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. It tells us about the time. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). incidents in the life of the Prophet.

The information throws no particular light on this revelation. ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. It is entirely fitting that a S ura of such bitterness. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir.204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. then in her forties. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superficial manner. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). which makes such a tall claim. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. in the first five ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. II. had¯ 899). I yield my turn to ’Aisha. ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). and adds nothing essential to its subject. the eighth S ura. . but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. But I want to be there. the majority of men and women in the world. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. For example.according to Sir William Muir. ¯ condemnation. or “Banish¯ ment”). a completed favour upon you. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). This is understandable. among your wives. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). ¯ the very last. and do even now. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. the fifty-ninth S ura. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). Resurrection Day was far off. but chronologically it is one of the last . also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). on the Day of Resurrection.” Muhammad agreed. It contains only fifty traditions.

Qur¯n Majeed. H. Lahore: Sh. i if. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. New York. Delhi: Kitab Khana. Lal Kuan. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. translation. 1973-1975. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. Urdu translation in 2 vols. popular and much in use. Abridged Urdu ih a i. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. Translation by E. Lahore: ih Sh. Muhammad Ashraf. Palmer. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. London. 205 . Muhammad Ashraf. ih a if.. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. James Robson. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m.html] Sah¯ Muslim. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. 1980. Reprint of English translation by Dr. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n. 1973.usc. Glorious Qur¯n.

Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. The Life of Muhammad. The very first definitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. letters. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. London: Smith. Mahmud. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. A fifteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. . 1893. New York. Selections from sermons. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. Karachi: Nafees Academy. 3rd ed. Scholarly. 1861. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. & T. 310 (A. Urdu translation in 8 vols. Ali Raza. Tehran: Shahpur Square.. reprinted. different classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. Tehatsek. i. by Syed a i. H. 4 vols. 1976. Clark. vols. Ibn Sa’d. English translation. Urdu translation in 11 vols. and his S¯ of Muhammad. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. 922). Ghaffari. D. 1976. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. London: Royal Asiatic Society. popularly known as Mirkhond. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. 1973. Delhi-6. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed fifteen volumes on a a i. edited by James Hastings. Elder & Co. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. Guillaume. E.206 CHAPTER 20. 1980. India. 1 and 2. Oxford. Pelican Books. ¯ died in A. translated and edited by A. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. 1885. by Tabar¯ The first volume. Edinburgh and New York: T. Karachi: Nafees Academy. trans. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Scholarly and pioneering study. S¯ a ikh i. a Shiaism by S.. Khavendshah b. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time.

Hindi publication in 3 vols. 1897. Among other things. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. reprinted.)-India. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids.P.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. S. 1st ed. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. 3rd impression. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. 1980. Publishing House.] . Ratlam (M. New Delhi: Impex India. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. 2005. Rupa & Co. New Delhi. All¯habad: R..

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