Understanding Isl¯ m Through a H¯ d¯ a is

Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries

Ram Swarup

Voice of India, New Delhi

2

i INTRODUCTION

Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very specific view of the world peopled by infidels. Since most of the world is still infidel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is different. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯fi, whose mystical teachings a a u

ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy fifth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacrifices, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insignificant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most prolific source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At first the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two

to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . There were many motives at play behind this development. H. D. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably sufficient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. Sa’d utilized their power effectively. D. 824-892). This was found in the Sunn¯h. 194-256=A. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. A hundred years after Muhammad. They were sources of prestige and profit. or what they thought were the right theological views.000 of them as authentic. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. and later on the Abbasides. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. particularly the Alids. H. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. drowning the genuine one’s. D. great passions were generated. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. 204-261=A.was a great thing. the Ummayads. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. a serious effort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. Soon after Muhammad’s death. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. It is said that he collected 600. There was an even more pressing reason. 810ail ai 870). Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. and under their influence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. Spurious traditions were coming into being. in the practice a of the Prophet. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. 202-275 = A. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. 819-875). So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. Under these circumstances. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. D. There were also more personal motives at work. H.800 traditions out of a total of 500.in short. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers.iii other reasons.000 traditions but accepted only 7.000 names were mentioned in different chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . It is also u a¯ said that 40. 817-888) u a¯ and others. 209-279=A.000. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. H. In this struggle.

Over a thousand collections. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. which were in vogue died away in due course. who was born in Medina in A. the hero looms larger. but they contain much that is factual and historical. 151 (A. D. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a different frame of mind. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. H. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. his forehead. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. The of the Had is. 32). The lapse of time helps the process. and only six collections. narrated.“the two authentics. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. 1958). 768) a in Baghdad. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. The believers have handled. Of these. reveals their more earthly motives. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. To clarify certain points.iv accepted only 2.000 as genuine. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. H. a i. rather all too human. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. As the distance grows. we must thank Dr.” they are called. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. It ih provides the base. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. is rather unedifying. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for filling up this gap and giving Therefore. To the infidel with his critical faculty still intact. a is Had¯ gives flesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the flavor of the original. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. the Had¯ the context. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. almost the very first definitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. which only the Had¯ provides. 85 and died in A. In fact. about a man. H. Muhammad Ashraf). Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . or collections.

. a i. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. Isl¯m. They buy local politicians. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere.” i. with a large Muslim population. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . When we read Dr. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. it is difficult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. a Even in the best of circumstances.e. All¯h. having been dormant for several centuries. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world.v whose mother tongue is English. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. and install in their place their own godling. Indonesia. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. Sidd¯ ¯ translation. Dr. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. In a Sah¯ containing 7. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. we have also quoted from the notes . but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right.about forty-five times . Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. infidel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims..e. their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. and even India. If anything. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. is again a on the march.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. Here and there. In fact. In India.081 footnotes. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. Arab support has made the task still more difficult. or “countries of peace.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. in Malaysia. In ih a is. the old mission is being revived. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of .

it resists any change. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddafi. Indeed. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the confines of this particular Sah¯ ih. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. It has one drawback. It is a weapon of self-defense. it is also something more. This we find the Had¯ literature most fitted to do. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. a is. On the other hand. and thus. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims find most fascinating. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. and it feels justified in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. motivated by a compulsive atavism. both of commission and omission. While we have in this way touched on many points. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. a is a is . though. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. was unavoidable. For this purpose. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with different chains of transmission. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. is In this volume. And.243 chapters. Therefore.vi the country. in many cases. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. derived from the available symbols of their culture. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. similarly. we have discussed none in full.190 traditions divided into 1. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. But on calm reflection. Wherever it triumphs. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. It gives us 7. dictatorship comes in its wake. Isl¯m claims to have defined human thought and behavior a for all time to come. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. According to some thinkers. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. it fruitfully defines the field of our study and inquiry. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion.

Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. The Sah¯ Muslim. “may All¯h be pleased with him. they were All¯h’s own acts. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. . In our quotations from this literature. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs).and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . and one is left wondering why in the first instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. the moral is whatever he did.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. mating. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. Similarly.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions.” A similar formula. eating. like other Had¯ collections. generation after generation. In regard to the title of the book. For example. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading.but the believers look at the whole thing differently. could have found this story so inspiring. although such instances are rather rare. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. hating. no cosmetics. Here one comes to know him. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. comprising 180 traditions. but his actions determine and define morality. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. praying. One is also left to wonder how the believers. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. containing 583 traditions. The picture that emerges is hardly flattering. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. “may peace be upon him. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. An infidel in his fundamental misguidance may find the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . no posturing for posterity. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. dispensing justice. There is no makeup. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism.” In devout Isl¯mic literature.

and Mrs. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. ain. Gupta. they have preferred to remain anonymous. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. z¯l. Jain. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. te (soft dental) and toe by t. a by the English s. For example. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. and zw¯d by z. Shri P. Shri A. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. the Arabic alphabet’s se. ze. C. P. Shri H. Shri L. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. Therefore. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. but we have made it do also for another sound. I thank them all gratefully. RAM SWARUP . The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. in order to avoid them as far as possible. Dr. Sisir Kumar Ghose. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. C. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. now both resident in America. for they do not affect the substance of the book.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). both have to be learned by ear.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . .

. . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 105 . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . Vi- . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . Poetry. . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . POETRY. 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . .

. 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . .

in the hereafter. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. ih In quoting them. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. we give their numbers in parentheses. and says: “Muhammad. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to affirm belief in All¯h alone.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very first book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). in the resurrection.” Later on. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. yet without any sign of fatigue. in His angels. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. 1 1 . 1 This is the very first had¯ narrated by ’Umar. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. faith in His Book. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. when the inquirer is gone. and you establish prayer. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. pay Zak¯t. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. inform me about al-Isl¯m. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not sufficient. ifa.

“None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. Ramz¯n. whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h.rather. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. FAITH (IM AN) ah. that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. in the history of Isl¯m. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . .) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists).” Muhammad tells the believers (71). There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). and they establish prayer. In the same vein. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). Hell. Muhammad and his God . and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. This can be confidently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. his father and the whole mankind. . zak¯t.prayer. to name the more important ones.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “five pillars” of Isl¯m. zak¯t. “I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. is. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indifference but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. and if they accept this.” Other things mentioned are prayer. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. and many teachers. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. Similarly. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become significant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). All¯h and his Messenger . many philosophies. Ramz¯n. and “that you pay one-fifth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). Doomsday. Sah¯ Muslim. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. and khums (the holy one-fifth). Paradise. war booty (ghan¯ a imah).

spoils. If polytheism is the worst of crimes. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a . Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. For example. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. His Book.can prevent his entry.” i. When asked. Ab¯ Zarr. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). But on being asked. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170).not even adultery and theft . To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. But no morally wicked act . Muhammad replies: “Yes. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. the narrator of the had is. .” which should be a good definition for any religion. “Jih¯d.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clarification. He has no obligations. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. sincerity is a universal human value.3 In the eyes of Muhammad. . moral or spiritual. Muhammad at one place defines al-d¯ (“the religion. one’s past crimes are obliterated. But in Isl¯m.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). very little to others. nation. and a future ones hold no great terror. except to convert them by sword. and jizy¯.” but who were ready to join him.e.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. but these do not doom the offender to the a eternal hell. The translator clarifies the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious offences in Isl¯m .” a “What next?” he is asked. it is a limited to Muslims. Jar¯ b. u if the man committed adultery and theft. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. but moral values are not altogether neglected. by the same token. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. monotheism. a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). In fact.” he replies (148). a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. is the best of virtues.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h.. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind.

Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and fighting against him is unbelief” (122). . came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. We are told that one Hak¯ b. This means. FAITH (IM AN) Again. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. there will be two columns of fire like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. Everything good began with Muhammad. but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology.” On hearing this. in the state of ignorance” (222). it is a a different story. some people were greatly perturbed. as another text puts it. other moral values are given the same twist. . thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. They are no longer wasted. H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious purification . and the universal is turned into the sectarian. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. but if he embraces Isl¯m. Thanks to this approach. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed.4 Muslim” (102). THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of fire or two laces of fire” (210). but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal fire. a revelation. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. a God-ordained mission. a . Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. To rob a whole people is piety. they become fruitful and are credited to his account.

His past is forgotten a unless it is good. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. the Peoples of the Book. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. The Jews and Christians will suffer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. Muhammad says. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. “the a . Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. incidentally.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself.we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat differently and in more psychological terms . but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us.” the translator tells us (note 2967). I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims.” a Muhammad tells us (6668). solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. The hellfire will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there.5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. This would also. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. . . his future is assured. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283). for the hellfire is on his side. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). And understandably so. “O womenfolk .

2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). He be praised. . (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. and the proof of their failing in religion.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). (5) not having control over her own person. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . naked.6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . 1058-1111). says that “All ah. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). but for a woman to have only one husband. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. it seems. when you see barefooted. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. and even her differential biological constitution and functions. Deva ¯ Prakash. (4) pregnancy. (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . that is the end of it according to Muhammad. In short. Ratlam. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. (16) the fact that if women are profligate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). (2) childbirth. only one of which is attributable to women. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. 164-165). colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. Paradise and Hell. India). In the Qur¯n. or of “separation” (fasl). In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. The dreaded day (yaum). D. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-five synonyms. the Prophet’s wife. ’Aisha. a famous Arab divine of his time.that is one sign. But. as he tells them. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya.that is one of the signs of Doom. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. (6) a lesser share in inheritance. (14) disqualification for rulership and judgeship. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. pp. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. London: University of Durham Publications. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. 1971.

He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. I have. Christians will be summoned and asked. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son. “I am not fit to do this. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited. but you go to Jesus.” Then they will come to Muhammad.” All¯h will tell them. a you better go to Muhammad. For example.26). no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. “You tell a lie. and it is really hell. If this is true.” He will reply: “I am not fit to do this. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). “Jesus.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the first to pass over it” (349). they will find that they have been misguided. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). O our Lord! Quench our thirst. and polytheists are strictly kept out. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. Considering that unbelievers. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352).” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. “What did you worship?” When they reply. All¯h “will gather people. the son of All¯h.” They will go to Jesus. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427).” Muhammad tells us that on this day. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. Unbelievers. and his intercession will be granted a (377).” They will go to a Moses. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. of course.” He will appeal to All¯h. the water is no more than a mirage. but go to Moses. for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor.” They will be given a certain direction. Thanks to his special role. and with it is decided their fate. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. a a im. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. Muhammad a . In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). infidels. On this day. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testified as I have been testified” (383). and he will reply: “I am not fit to do this. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. They will say: “Thirsty we are. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . for example. but he will reply: “I am not fit to do this.” Then they will be asked what they want. however. The translator makes this statement clearer for us.

O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. . On the Day of Resurrection. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428).” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. ’Aisha. therefore. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). About him. .” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. a a a Usayya. the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. their good works will not avail them. Regarding his father. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. even though they were their kith and kin.” declares Muhammad (417). Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. however. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). a In any case. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . are not my friends. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. . But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. Ab¯ T¯lib. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. that Muhammad was consistent. For example. and a a a in his own apostleship. he told a questioner: “Verily. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). . Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suffering.8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). Ri’l Zakw¯n. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. . but needst not go out of your way to save them. the Prophet’s young wife. fed the poor. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . He reserved his power for saving his ummah.

the flesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. Similarly. and five will do the work of fifty. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. In fact. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. Adam he met in the first heaven. Then he met All¯h. So nothing was really lost in efficacy. Jesus in the second. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). “Five and at the same time fifty” . on the way meeting different apostles. of heaven. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. a One night. or “circles” (as Dante called them). Visions like this can flit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. But on the advice of Moses. When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. “an animal white and long. who enjoined on the Muslims fifty a prayers a day. this belief.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the different regions. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. He will break crosses. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. riding on al-Bar¯q. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. But if we look at the matter closely. kill swine. Moses in the sixth. and abolish jizy¯. a . How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to five. In any case.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). Many in his day scoffed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. and Abraham in the seventh. we find it was more a motivated belief.one prayer will now count for ten .

For. a . as the translator explains. “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288). therefore. Jesus will. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad.10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1.

cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). defecation. (4) fitra. the major. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). and abstersion. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. It deals with such matters as ablution. prescribed before each of the five daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. The main topics discussed in Muslim fiqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. physical and ritualistic. a a menses (hayz). or impure: coitus (jim¯).. a verses 4:43 and 5:6).g. and childbirth (nif¯s). including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). (3) tayammum. (5) tath¯ the purification of objects which have ir. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). Some broad injunctions on the subject of purification are given in the Qur¯n (e. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. become ritualistically unclean. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. He 11 . the minor purification with dust in a the place of water. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. (2) ghusl. literally “nature. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets.Chapter 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Purification”.

then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . all his previous sins are expiated” (436). CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on five acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. then washed his left arm like that. . He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘fire-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. he must clean his nose three times. cutting the nails. . Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . . According to Muslim canon scholars. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. then wiped his head. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . This became the standard ablution. About the moustache and the beard. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . plucking the hair under the armpits. .” and so on. and clipping the moustache. trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500).I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. He then washed his face three times. then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. . For the a identification of faces. . so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). then washed his left foot. . for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462).” he said (487). . shaving the pubes. and offered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. . .12 ¯ CHAPTER 2.

in wearing shoes. When they asked him about their provision of food. wash it seven times.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903).e. Once. while taking his bath. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with flesh. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone.e. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. Moses put his clothes on a rock.. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504).” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. a . But God vindicated him. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460).. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. my clothes. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. but the rock moved away. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. but Moses took his bath alone. my clothes.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suffered from scrotal hernia. and in performing ablution” (515). There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. i. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy. In this connection. and said: “By All¯h. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). O stone. in combing. Moses does not suffer from any ailment” (669).

The Prophet. I scratched it off with my nails” (572). In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. who was sitting by him. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but ablution is binding” (676). A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you find any mark of fluid on your clothes?” He said: “No. bathing is not obligatory for you. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. and that should be as good as ablution with water. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. There is another had¯ of similar import. having experienced orgasm. you can take to tayammum. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674)..” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. The man said yes. but it also narrates some material of Freudian significance. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685).14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. and then perform ablution and offer prayer” (677).” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. One of them came to ’Aisha for clarification. i. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570).e. The translator . pointing to ’Aisha. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. And on yet another occasion.

He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . But later on this command was abrogated. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by fire” (686). does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. Muhammad’s practice appears. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). and when it was referred to the Apostle. . or you have touched women. O Commander is a of the Faithful. Therefore. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not find water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. in some respects. The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. in fact. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and offered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. . and he was presented with a some food. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy.15 explains why. On the subject of menstruation. and you find no water. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. for except for coitus all . This chapter too. . . All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . So keep away from women in their course. and the people reminded him about ablution. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). . some cross-reference is inevitable.

wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. Umm Salama reports the same (581). ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. and I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). this question to Muhammad directly. But Muhammad did not go that far. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. His problem was mazi (prostatic fluid) and not man . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577).16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the flesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating.” ’Aisha reports (584). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. or scriptural studies. For example. and drink. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers.

he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). ” (616). The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. and sometimes he performed ablution only. . or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. there should be an ablution” u is. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. (605). In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. had¯ 124). .” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution.17 ¯ (semen).” they told her (610. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. puerperium. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. coitus. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. . then purify yourselves” (5:6). when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. “You humiliated the women. 611). Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. The same obligation lay on women. he a first washed his hands. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse.” he was told (593). a believers (603). I. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . and pollutio nocturna. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. “Ablution is obligatory in such a case.

u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. they took their bath in pitch darkness. is . had¯ 1584). Muhammad was not bound by them. had¯ 108). also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a purification with the intention of warming up. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. in this case. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. which.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). Two other wives of Muhammad. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. II. i. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual defilement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. moreover. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. He had his Apostle’s privilege. There were no glaring lights. 631). I. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). Umm Salama and Maim¯na.

All these methods were ruled out. and ’Abdullah b. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. others a horn. prostrating and rising. in Medina. some suggested using a bell. In the beginning. the prayer for rain. It is the longest. Bil¯l. the Christians. and the Fireworshippers. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). Some even suggested that a fire should be lighted. As there is one All¯h. u were the first mu’azzin (callers) (735. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. 737. 741).Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). the a merits of prayers at different times. Umm Makt¯m. there is also one Prayer. as the Jews did. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. with 1. As a means of calling people to prayer at fixed times. one Book. who later became blind.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. the a number and times of the different prayers. and so on. the system of the human voice was introduced. the prayer relating to the dead. caught and fixed in a a single formula. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. But in all these pages. To make the Muslim practice different from that of the Jews. as the Christians did. There is not even a remote hint of different men endowed with different natures taking different paths toward a divinity differently figured. postures like bowing. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. a who was very loud-throated. 19 . one Guide.

” says Muhammad (747). One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. Where it was heard. .20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. 808). and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. . he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. “When Satan hears the call to prayer. All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. He who blesses me once. “Apostle of All¯h.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. which is a rank in Paradise a ila fitting for only one of All¯h’s servants. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. These have been codified on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. He would listen to the Az¯n. Another saw his “hands lifted . it meant that everything was a not kufr (infidelity). therefore. d in In seeking blessings for himself. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisfied with All¯h as my Lord. In a variation on this theme. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. he stopped” (745). This the a a commentator finds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. and his wives and his offspring . The Holy Prophet. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very effective. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. so if he heard an Az¯n. will be assured of my intercession. a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. sitting or standing. BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. with Muhammad as Messenger.

” The seven bones are: “The hands. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “first set up on the earth.21 opposite to ears. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. one of them should lead them” (1417). and then lifted them . It should be led by an im¯m. “When he prostrates. otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). the knees. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. 1057). Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me .” he tells them (817). But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). And when he was about to bow down. And when prostrated. when-he rises up.” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. Also. When someone once a did this. Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. . Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. you a should also prostrate. he prayed facing . and then to put them between one’s thighs. The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. he prostrated between the two palms” (792). you should also rise up. he brought out his hands from the cloth. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). . Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. In the beginning. . . when there is a valid reason for doing so. palm to palm. He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844).

. .22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. Immediately 1 . and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. But later on. I have been sent to all mankind.” says Muhammad. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). spoils have been made lawful to me . 2 u is That is. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. The followers had no difficulty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-five years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coffers of Medina. . For example. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . 1 . their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate. is which other prophets lack (1058). “I have been helped a is by terror.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. . my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without fighting. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). foe or friend. a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the first mosques. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. . . Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. . Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). . This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. In Isl¯m we find all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists.

pp. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the first year and 20 dirhams for the next year.23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). But within two decades everything changed. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date.000 dirhams a year. but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration.000 dirhams a year. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula..000 dirhams a year. 2. a privilege not denied to men who can afford it. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. 476-479. DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). vol. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i.000 dirhams a year.000 to 9.000 dirhams. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). 4. For example. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. 5. or Civil List. Officers of the Arab occupation armies in the different cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. and their children. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not afford proper clothing. . is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. According to another tradition. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden). after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). The diw an. For a fuller account of the Civil List. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). established by ¯ ’Umar specified that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. Every Muslim had a a place in this classification. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. II.

on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. One Friday. one group prays while the other one fights (1824-1831). a An interesting story is reported in this connection. For example. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. First things first. But though Muslims “are the last.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. . on it he was made to enter Paradise. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. “On it Adam was created. one should first take food. The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. during a war. . ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last .” they “shall be the first on the Day of Resurrection. there are different forms of prayer for sixteen specific dangerous situations. People left the Prophet and flocked toward the caravan. PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. . All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. “We were guided a aright to Friday.” says Muhammad (1134). he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. Qur¯n a 62:11).24 ¯ CHAPTER 3.

but the sufi schools of Isl¯m. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar.’ and he would join his forefinger and middle finger (just as there is no other finger between these two. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). MUSIC. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. And the most evil affairs are their innovations. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. “Thereafter. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. On the same occasion. Muhammad. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. and it was the day of Id” (1942). . ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. leave them alone” (1946). I meant to seize him. his eyes became red. DANCE.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee.” a is But even though cursed. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938). and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. make the most of this had¯ a is. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed fight. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. in which music plays an important role. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a flame of fire to put it in my face. his voice a rose. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. he did not retreat. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon.

When you visit the sick or the dead.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3.’ to those who are dying.’ So I said this. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. ‘There is no god but All¯h. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its effect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. “Exhort to recite. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. and Muhammad married her four months later. to whom she had borne many children. However. “If the dead person was good. Ab¯ Salama has died. and the good which it contains. and the good of that which it was sent for. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. what evil it contains.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. Ub¯da.” ’Aisha a tells us. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. supplicate for good. PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). u He died at Uhud. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962).” says a the Prophet (1996). the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology.

over his expiring child. vol. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead. 165. IV.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. This was a fine gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulfillment of the demand for theological consistency. p. I. also William Muir.27 the heart feels. according to certain traditions. had¯ 912. i. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. who was only eighteen months old. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. a but He did not grant it to me. Life of Mahomet. is . and He granted it to me” (2129). Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade.

PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.

and everyone else was excluded on principle. the first phrase. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina.” a a 29 .” All these are a in]. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. or zak¯t.Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The fifth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. “in the service. an old Arab practice. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. and to be spent by its representatives. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. In this form. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. or way. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. being migrants. of All¯h.” those who collect and administer the funds. and most of them. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. conventional recipients of charity. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. and for the wayfarers. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. But with him it became a tax. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. In the begina ning.

and after this the tax collection became smoother. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148).” means “bribes” in unadorned language. ’Umar. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. ’Abb¯s. on less than five camel heads and on less than five uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. as it still has for his followers. bear in mind. This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious offensive and diplomacy. a heavenly sanction. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. They had to be ransomed. . . who took the tribe by surprise and brought fifty men. When he reported that Khal¯ b. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. or 1 pound]” (2134). when the power of Muhammad became supreme. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. or reconciling. and several other tribes. women. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. Aslam. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. . “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on five wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. . a a and horses.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. it had for the Prophet. After is the conquest of Mecca. a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest.30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. equipment. The resentment against zak¯t was general. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. and children back to Medina as hostages. a Ghif¯r. a had refused to pay the tax. hearts. parties of collectors were sent out in different directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. or jih¯d. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). and as for ’Abb¯s. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of fifty Arab horsemen. “gaining over. I shall be responsible a a . Faz¯r. The second phrase. who shared the burden of the tax but not its benefits. ’Umar was appointed the collector. Also.

When Muhammad heard this. “a sandy plain would be set for him. But he taught.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a fine. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. For example. he called him and asked him if he had any other . and in some ways wisely.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. then on one’s wife and children. during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. Following a common practice. . Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. and then on other good deeds. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). and they wait a turn of fortune against you. the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. that charity should begin at home. In fact. as extensive as possible. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. then on relatives and friends. . when the Day of Resurrection would come. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self. And when these cool down. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. plates of fire would be beaten out for him. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides.

the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. is a Sadaqa. gave the money to the owner. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the glorification of All¯h 1 [i. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. When informed about it. . ¯ (2197-2204). People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. and ¯ the glorification of All ah must include glorification of Muhammad too. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. and if anything is left. . . it should be spent on your family. The man replied no. and a good word is a Sadaqa. but it agrees with the general practice. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. Nor was it really revolutionary. of course. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight.e. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). or helping him load his luggage upon it.” There is another story that makes the same point. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . Among those whom God affords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic.32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. ¯ 1 . In the same vein. And. you would have a greater reward” (2187). . ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa.. not polytheistically or pantheistically. And even then it should not conflict with the well-being of the family of the believer. The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. A lady set her slave-girl free. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). All ah can only be glorified monotheistically. there is a Sadaqa . and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa.the a a omission is supplied by the translator].

and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. first to an adulteress. give him more who spends. This is true. FORNICATION. THEFT. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. is but are not visited by two angels. with praise to All¯h. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. When Muhammad returned.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. By citing the male and female population figures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. he remembered his command and remained where he was. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. telling him to stay where he was until he returned.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. then to a a thief. Was not the a first part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. for instance. A man is gives charity.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). then to a rich man. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would find no one to accept it from him. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). a and the other says: O All¯h. What does this mean? The translator finds the statement truly prophetic. For example. Muhammad left him to go some other place. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. One of them says: O All¯h. a . Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion.

’Abd i. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. it is still war booty. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. Its distribution created a lot of a . it is zak¯t. whether as zak¯t for the poor.” i. But though sadaqa was not permitted. it is war booty. He took it. gifts were welcome. or as gifts for his Companions. a al-Muttalib and their posterity. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family.e.. or on the “Path of All¯h. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. has two aspects. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. When it is a acquired. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. and Haris b. On the one hand.” said the Prophet (2340). the one-fifth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. il. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. In fact. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). a Khums. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. it is zak¯t. but on the other. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). They went a to Muhammad with their request. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. ’Abb¯s. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. when it is distributed among the ummah. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. the distinction between the two was soon lost. zak¯t became secondary. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. freed slave. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period.

many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. Muhammad made effective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. . like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. and ’Alqama b.or at any rate that others deserved less . Aqra. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing. combined with threats. both mundane and celestial.” says Muhammad (2303). and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). justice. that is. Tufail” (2319). Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the fire” (2300). in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. ’Abdullah b. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. There are other instances of the same type. Safw¯n u a a b. . Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. Umayya. Zaid al-Khail. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. ’Uyaina b. so that I may incline them to truth. I often bestow something on a person. Harb. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim.35 heart-rending among his followers. whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. or merit. The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). Ulasa (2303-2314). Aqra’ b. . “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. Muhammad had other considerations as well. Hisn. a .than they got. Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneficiaries. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. H¯bis.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. Many of them thought they deserved more . He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina.

” This angered a a Muhammad. .” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. thick beard. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. and his face ¯ became red”.36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” On hearing this. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. and Aqra. ’Uyaina. i Muhammad showed favoritism.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). . u a Safw¯n. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. were merely his “outer garments”. he added theology. but one of them. fear All¯h and do justice. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar.. who had received the spoils. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition. and shaven head. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. Muhammad “was deeply angry . prominent cheekbones. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. who would do justice if I do not do .” a canal in heaven (2313). and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). To cajolery. while the Quraish. In its distribution. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. but he showed patience” (2315). after the conquest of Mecca. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. were closer to him). and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and flattery to pacify them. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. Muhammad added other words of flattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. The ans¯rs a were happy. Mird¯s.e. ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad.” This silenced the men. When some people complained. a man with deep-sunken eyes. stood up. In other cases when similar complaints were made.

who later on were called the khw¯rij. It was about them. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers .” . according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. permit me a to kill this hypocrite.” Though the man was spared. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. If I were to find them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327). . who was present. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. . These men. he and his posterity were denounced.37 justice?” ’Umar. them. but it would not go beyond their throat. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. kill them.

38 ¯ CHAPTER 4. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .

because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. waiting for the stars to appear.” says Muhammad (2413). and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. it is compulsory. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this difference. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). “Take meal a little before dawn. This has its disciplinary role. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. “The difference between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather different from fasting in many other religious traditions. the gates of mercy are opened. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). who ate early and broke their fasts late.Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). In Isl¯m. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417).” a 39 . but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy.

by observing a two-month fast or.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. Hafsa. and would observe fast” a (2454). a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). . and Salama. . a a . It has a divine sanction. ’Aisha and Salama. Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. . failing that. Prior to Isl¯m. Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse .” In addition. ’Aisha. Muhammad’s wives. Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. in the month of Ramz¯n. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself.40 CHAPTER 5. failing that. .” and retracted his previous position (2451). the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. . FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the first step towards prosperity of any nation. At first Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought differently. by feeding sixty poor men . even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. he said. In fact. There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). but when the matter was clarified by ’Aisha and Salama. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. he should still go on with his fast. “They have better knowledge. This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491).but during the Prophet’s lifetime. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. Muhammad’s wives.

A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. so break the fast.. One is the Ashura fast. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts.e. A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). . and in the pre-Isl¯mic days.” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission.” i. a fast during a journey could be broken. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. in the act of jih¯d. . “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. a a she could not find it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives.. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). but after a .” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). “Fast if you like and break it if you like. and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. while the husband is present. OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. but a I could not do it . The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522).e. but with his permission” (2238). ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. And she should not admit any mahram in his house.41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. For example. i.

” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. but we need not go into them here. a a a because of this day.” He said: “Bring that.and when the last of them has entered. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit.” After some time. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. Even the very first Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a . One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. He may spend it if he likes.” Muhammad tells us.42 CHAPTER 5. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. On the Day of a Resurrection. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts. some food came as gift. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. All¯h would remove. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). One day. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clarified butter]. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. but nothing was available. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. and ’Aisha offered it to Muhammad. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569).

In this year of victory.” Great preparations were made for the occasion.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. is . or trouser or cap” (2647).” says ’Aisha (2683). 632. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. He headed a pilgrim force of fifteen hundred men. For his dress.” until. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. “As the caravan moved on. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him. the very first after coming to Medina. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. D. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. according to some of the narrators. It was also. their response on this occasion was great. by a kind of delayed action. at their own convenience and for their own gods.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). unlike the last time. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. it reached more than 130. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. but their response was lukewarm. for no booty was promised and they thought. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. and a victory it turned out to be. Thus. the number of participants swelled. In order to swell the number. a call to submission. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. they knew. a Two years later. Even so. ih p. In the sixth year of the Hijra. “The best of perfume. Two years later. partially armed. as the Qur¯n puts it. was declared one of the five fundamentals of Isl¯m. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. or hajj. in March A.” she adds in another had¯ (2685). fifteen hundred was an impressive number. 612). but not before and after. Mecca succumbed. pilgrimage. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon.” After the fall of Mecca.

. and he should be conspicuous” (2919). “Talbiyah. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to flight the hosts of infidels by Himself alone. ’Umar said: “By All¯h.44 CHAPTER 5. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . At every turn. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the flesh of a wild ass. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. . run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). . the two “Signs of All¯h. two seamless wrappers.e. CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. .” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. its flesh is acceptable to a muhrim. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. rat and voracious dog. He hath performed His promise. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). crow.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. and then kissing the stick. . he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the infidels. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. O All¯h”). Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. After arriving a a in Mecca. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). we would have accepted it from you” (2704). a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous.. For the same reason. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). so that people should see him. he should not shave or pare his nails. but he declined it. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad.” Muhammad never relaxes. He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714).

The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacrificial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. While doing this. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. The pebbles should be small . “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. While sacrificing the camel. On the tenth a day. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven).45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. and after that .“All¯h’s Messenger flung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. and Ishmael. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). God.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. “The Messenger of All¯h sacrificed a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). he chants: “In the name of a ir.” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). or a cow or a camel. on their size and number. ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacrifice of the ’idu’l-azh¯.on the 11th . Their number should be odd.” says the Prophet (2982). and then sent them to the House. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). also the “Day of Sacrifice. the casting of the pebbles. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. therefore. The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacrifice . . also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. and garlanded them. and then he marked them. the Almighty. Abraham. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacrificial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacrifice of a cow or a camel (30243031). The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacrifice a goat or a a a sheep. Cows and goats should be sacrificed after making them lie down. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. a is and on the best time for throwing them. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). I do this.

so sacrifice your animals at your places” (2805). were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. Muhammad took part of the content. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each i animal sacrificed should be put in a pot.” To his followers. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . Thus we find in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacrifice that we find in some measure in most cultures. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. he sacrificed seventy camels at Hodeibia. vol. and when it was cooked. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. he sacrificed sixty camels. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. Muhammad said: “I have sacrificed the animals here. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. and sacrificed sixty-three camels with his own hands. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). gives us one further detail which a a i. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. . . “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacrificial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. 241-244). had declared that He “desired mercy. he said: “Draw water. II. he took it. iz offered him had been fouled by many hands. pp. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. . one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s offering sacrifices is that sacrificing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. I would have drawn it along with you.by spitting into it. and not sacrifice” (Hosea 6:6). and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacrifice. we are told by J¯bir. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. the God of the Jews. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s affluence increased. nab¯ a soft drink. the scale of his sacrifices also increased. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacrificed them . The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. Though the nab¯ iz. a Even Jehovah. declining the offer of a cleaner and purer one. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacrifice.46 CHAPTER 5. his biographers tell us.

Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . Before a returning home. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. 29).” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. a Now the pilgrimage is over. . let him shave him. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. This was All¯h’s own command. their trade would be ¯ affected. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. . whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). All ah will enrich you from His grace . . and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. Shaving should begin from the right side. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger. But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. . All¯h. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 620). after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. and sacrificed the animal. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. The difference is striking. turning his right side to him.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacrifice. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). from others. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. . Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. Before leaving Mecca. p. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). He then called a for a barber and. kill the idolaters wherever you may find them. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. and take them and besiege them. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the purified spirit. 1 . There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. and prepare for them each ambush . . after which he turned his left side.

48 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .

he should come home and cohabit with his wife. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. he is the best who has the largest a i. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. “I will not lie down in bed. Zainab. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). so when one of you see a woman. “I will not marry women”. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. ¯ 1 49 .Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. but not in our own selves. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). We are all too ready to see the devil in others. A woman is a great safety valve. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). 146). 1 In fact. and yet another said. I observe fast and suspend observing them. he has no a relation with me” (3236). I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. One of his Companions said. number of wives” (Tabaq at. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. p. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. II. he should come to his wife. vol. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. “I will not eat meat”. another said.

There are many restrictions on grounds of number. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). He told another group: “Yes. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and flour a as a dower” (3249). The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. and without fornication. with modest conduct. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. . Verily.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. Also. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). 8] and then forbade it” (3251). the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualified match a . And it is allowed you. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. but the Shias differ and still practice it in Persia. A. rank. consanguinity. religion. this restriction a was relaxed. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. For example. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. Generally speaking. God is knowing. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. but it is not entirely so. . Later on. affinity. IYas b. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). This is the law. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). ’Abdullah b. Qur¯n 5:87). or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). and do not transgress. H. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. . a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. though what is rank is differently understood by different people. besides this. etc. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. on the authority of his father. We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. Salama reports. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. except those who are your hands as slaves .

. But this point is controversial. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. 2 .51 by Muhammad himself. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. But man is inventive. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. part II. vol.” reports Usm¯n b. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. . The new dispensation led to another abuse. I. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). not even an iron ring for a dowry. thrice) before severing it. “Your wives are your tilth. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. a One should also not outbid one’s brother. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond.” he told her (3354). 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. hired by the first husband from among the ugly ones. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). F¯timah. p. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. 269). Aff¯n. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother.. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot .” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. The man said yes. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). “A believer is the brother of a believer. and he disposes what Allah proposes. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy.e. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. but made no decision” about her. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. he was sexually weak).” But the man possessed nothing. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. Rauzat-us-Safa.

52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. . but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. . And a virgin should also be consulted. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. The father and the grandfather are i). which means vagina only. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. but we also desired ransom for them. she can seek a divorce.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. but it should be through one hole” (3365). for that is in the hand of All¯h. those women. . or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. and took some excellent Arab women. Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition .” They consulted Muhammad. Theoretically. . for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). and we desired them .” that is. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. . She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). ¯ According to some schools. “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. and her silence implies her consent” (3307). as the commentators tell us. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. if the husband fails to provide it. . It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. a woman has her rights.

or holy war. The a man replied: “Yes. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. . the daughter of one Jaun. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). A believer came to Muhammad. and Muhammad talked to her. but All¯h now gave a new one.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. A a Qur¯nic verse fortifies this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). based on an old moral code. She was “sitting with her head downcast.” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. But this permission actually originated in a different incident.” They saw each other.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. It is in this had¯ that one finds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424). She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. “Did you cast a a glance at her. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .” Muhammad inquired. He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. . sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger.” “For what dower did you marry her. “For four Uqiyas. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. so he commanded an official of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. . An Arab woman named ’Umra. We have nothing which we should give you.” Muhammad asked. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs.” the man replied. Then.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. . Most High. serve us drink” (4981). who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. All¯h.53 whether married or unmarried. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. from “head to foot”. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the benefit of a is his Companions. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives.

54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. for example. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. hearing their voices. come u a for prayer. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha.” When the morning prayer was announced. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). she “caught hold of his garment”. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. All¯h is very accommodating. Anas. a believer should visit his wives by turn. . When he intended to leave. he spent three nights with her. tells us that when Muhammad married her. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. he is allowed to have his other wives around. But while he is in bed with one of them. for whose benefit He really a a spoke. . and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. ’Aisha. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. when Zainab came there. one of the wives of Muhammad. one wife could make over her day to another. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). Umm Salama. In order to be impartial. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). . Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. one of the servants of Muhammad. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. One of the problems. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. . He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often.

J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. have you married?’ I said. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coffers. a a a ‘yes. you have the enjoyment” (3462). THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. 3464). woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made effective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when .” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336).” the Prophet tells us (3471). and when you enter. a beautiful girl of seventeen years. they also swelled his harem. Saf¯ iyya. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean.

a In any case. Saf¯ iyya. and many others were taken prisoners. but you shall not sell her for money. Maslama and he struck off his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. The latter “kindled a fire with flint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. al-’Aww¯m. after that you may go in to her.” according to Anas. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). “Torture him until you extract a what he has. 517). and her people. Gabriel or no Gabriel. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. was more considerate. Akhtab. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. Kin¯na. ¯ ¯ 4 . 515).” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. p. many people were butchered. then you shall bring her home to your house.” (Incidentally. Then. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. whom Muhammad often followed. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. p. so I was afraid for you on her account. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. was put to a cruel death (3325). and till recently she was in unbelief. and you take them captive. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. and she shall be your wife. In the morning. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. in violation of his own command. you shall let her go where she will. Dihya was strikingly handsome. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. her husband. spades and strings driving their cattle along. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). “We took Khaibar by force. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. Her husband. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah.56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. 4 a Anas continues: “She first fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. And she shall put off her captive’s garb. Many other women. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). of them. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. and be her husband. if you have no delight in her. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. the daughter of Huyayy b. you shall not treat her as a slave.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329).

I detested her. and was aroused. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. man or woman. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. p.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Suspecting something wrong. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. and uncle killed. Mustaliq. again Jewish. When Zaid heard about it. but it is more fitting that thou should fear God”. and He revealed His plan. 252-255). whose affair was not cruel but scandalous. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. present and future. She was captured in the fifth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. and she was immediately put to death. On that very day. who had seen her father.57 concubine. There was another girl. fearing a public scandal. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not fitting for a believer. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. 493. in the eyes of the Arabs. and therefore. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. in order that in future there may be no difficulty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. Zaid. as good as his own daughter-in-law. he offered to divorce her.” And indeed. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. saw her in a state of seminudeness. told him to keep his wife for himself. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. but Muhammad. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. a pp. husband. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. named Zainab. ¯ ¯ . he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). II. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. iya a In the division of the booty.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. He was saved. Muhammad spat out the very first morsel. vol.

People in his day called him the Divorcer. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. and ’Umar. the son of ’Umar. ’Abdullah. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. For example. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. But opinions differ as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. Somewhat later. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. married seventy . The procedure is not difficult. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. after three successive menses. exclusive of slave concubines. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). According to the Shias. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). Muhammad. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. Wives were constantly replaced. Hasan. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal.” but in Isl¯mic law. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. With such easy conditions of divorce. . the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back.times. two of whom were bondswomen.some say ninety . the divorce becomes operative. a senior Compana ion. Ab¯ Bakr. Yet there are certain restrictions. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. According to the translator. and friend of Muhammad. who do not count. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. adviser.

. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”).” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. . Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. a In due course. The broken vow could be expiated. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. and according to some traditions. a a i. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. or the vow might be taken in a fit of anger. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. if not. on emigrating to Medina.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). 272-273. pp. As they sat together at a supper. a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. Life of Mahomet. In this sense of the term. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. . ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaff¯rah (literally. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). In the pre-Isl¯mic period. For example. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . son of Rabi. vol. In this form. In zih¯r. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. II. . the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. “that a which covers a sin”). which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. Muir. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a specified period. Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood.

but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. let us provide some background information. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. told ’Aisha. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation.” ’Umar decided a to find out what was actually happening. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and significant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). “In my room. a As ’Umar entered.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. He was admitted.” she shouted. I entered the mosque. The request was disregarded. who had even given Muhammad a son. Hafza. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. Soon the harem was filled with gossip. however. He separated himself from them. and very soon everybody knew about it. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. She wept bitterly. Muhammad. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. and a if you had divorced them. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. Mika’il. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. a a kept himself away from his wives.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza].” Muhammad relaxed. promised never to visit Mary again.” he told Rah¯b. Muhammad was very angry. Hafza was furious.” he told her. a “I have nothing to do with you. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. So our women began to learn from their women. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. we take them up. Muhammad’s doorman. By All¯h. In fact.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. a a I would certainly do that. and jeering. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. and soon the news was afloat that he was divorcing them all. verily All¯h is with you. In visiting his numerous wives.” so he tried to calm him down. on my day and in my own bed. trying to pacify her. “O Rah¯b. In fact. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. what trouble do you feel from your wives.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. excitement. but instead she found him with Mary. the beautiful Coptic concubine. Gabriel. but he insisted. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. His angels. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad.

In this new mood. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. and it was said. and he laughed.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. asking for extra money. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him.61 on his face . in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506). threatening his wives with divorce. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. He is the sovereign. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. and the angels after that will back him up. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). they broadcast it. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. and Gabriel. [but] he visited them. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. On this occasion. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza.for your hearts have swerved! . . but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. craving to please thy wives? . the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). when Muhammad lacked funds. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. verily. had¯ 3507).” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up.” ’Umar narrates. they were under two of our righteous servants. to which Muhammad replied: “At times.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. and they became his wives again.” All¯h warned them. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if .” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. ¯ The matter blew over. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. All¯h. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. .but if you back each other up against him. . .” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. some of them centering round money. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. or to those charged with authority among them. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. . and the righteous of the a believers. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days.

Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. a mere woman. In their place.” But he mercifully helped her to find another husband. one of Muhammad’s wives. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. died. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). and the latter was poor. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. Zaid. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. Zaid (3512). The wives chose the latter. . and could get rid of their wives so easily. for the former did “not put down his staff from his shoulder” (i. but when it is really intended. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). Once ’idda has ended.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say.62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.. u a Muhammad advised against them both. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very difficult. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). Thus. observing: “By All¯h. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. he beat his wives).” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. the son of his slave and adopted son.e. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce effective. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. She had two suitors. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women.

nor can he make an accusation against his wife. for unless he has four witnesses. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. you would lash him. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. and if he speaks about it. was no more than a chattel. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. owned one thousand slaves when he died. which is on business transactions . he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. both male and female. They were the property of their master (saiyid). An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person finds his woman along with a man. One of a them must be lying. for that is forbidden. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man finds his wife in adultery. he cannot kill the adulterous man. But the fact remains that Muhammad. a close companion of the Prophet. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. The fact is that slavery. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577).” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. and if he kills. Similarly. Slaves continued to suffer under the same old disabilities. but this closes the chapter. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. even in a their wildest dreams. besides thirty-eight servants. Mirkhond. The Prophet himself possessed at least fifty-nine slaves at one stage or another. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. Zubair. the Prophet’s fifteenth-century biographer. and if he keeps quiet. The word a a literally means “oath. which is most likely in such a case. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. tribute.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. he shall have to consume anger. This may be due to a faulty method of classification. solve this problem” (3564).a slave. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. . or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. after all. you will kill him.

slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. 4:25. gifting them away. WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. inheritance. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. When Muhammad was consulted. when the naked. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. in contrition. One way. To Muhammad. On the other hand. not a matter of justice. lending them. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. wanted to free her. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. and marriage. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . In any case. “The slave who fled from his master committed an act of infidelity so long as he would not return to him. In the second. however. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq).” says Muhammad (129). he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. On the whole.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Slaves had no property rights. hiring them out. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . of course. and a very common one. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”.” according to him (4). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. We have already seen how Hak¯ b.these are some of the signs of Doom. 4:24. selling them. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. mortgaging them. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. he said: “Bring her to me. 23:6) permitted this. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3.” She was brought. In the first.

65 of All¯h. even his private parts a for his” (3604). ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. Bar¯ ira. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). he a has two rewards for him” (4097). a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. she is a a believing woman” (1094). WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. nor can he offer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. and emancipate her. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. . He cannot seek any new alliance. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. but must not be overburdened” (3582). One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. the condition of a slave is no great evil. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be fixed. It has its own reward. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600).” she answered. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates.” But the owner. though ready to free her for cash money.

i. . who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a different subject but interesting. He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. and it also records the words of the prophet . . says: “He is. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. . ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601).66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.

Because of their speculative nature. a 67 . The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands.Chapter 7 Business Transactions. his injunctions became state policy. so his views on the subject should be of interest. ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). were also made unlawful. Gifts. Inheritances. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Sal¯ b.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). Bequests. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640).

68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA

OUTBIDDING
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).

CONTRACTS
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).

TENANCY
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not find it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).

THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the fifth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them first on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this offer differed. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).

69

IMPROPER EARNINGS
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets offered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).

BARTER DISAPPROVED
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some fine dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such fine quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of fine dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).

¯ RIBA
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuffed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.

70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA

INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.

GIFTS
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).

WAQF
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a

TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite

71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).

DEBTS
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the first charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not sufficient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).

MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is sufficient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.

VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indifferent a to his inflicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).

Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. if He so wills.72CHAPTER 7. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. INHERITANCES. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). nor by your father. a An oath can be broken. but if later on. should do that which is better and break his oath.” But immediately after they were gone. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. One day he said. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. particularly if the oath-taker finds something better to do.” Muhammad says (4038). .. a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. but he found something else better than that. the vow a a must be fulfilled. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed. and she gave birth to a premature child. “He who has to take an oath.” says Muhammad (4057). I cannot provide you a a mount. GIFTS. he called them back and offered them camels to ride. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulfilled. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. a I would not swear. Muslim jurists differ as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). “He who took an oath. something which Jesus forbade.” But only one of them became a pregnant. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and fight in the cause of All¯h. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. I would see better than it. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives.” observes Muhammad. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulfilled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. BEQUESTS. But he allows you to swear by God. “Do not a a swear by idols.e. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). by All¯h.” says Muhammad (4043). before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not.

For the death of a woman. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. qis¯s. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). and the punishments resultant from having committed them. Qur¯n 5:38-39). cutting off the right hand for theft (sariqah. accusing her of adultery. Muslim fiqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. one hundred lashes for is. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). The law also permits qis¯s. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. and taz¯ Hadd a ir. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. Had ud) a The fourteenth. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. cutting a off of feet and hands for highway robbery. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and defined in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). and death by sword or crucifixion for robbery accompanied by murder. only one-third is permissible in such cases. only half of the blood-price is due. a ¯ Qis¯s. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. (pl. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. If a slave is killed. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d).e. Though the Qur¯n a 73 . or retaliation. or killed another. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated.. but since a slave is a piece of property. a i. mutilated. but according to one school.Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. fifteenth. the procedure of investigating them. a ihs In cases of murder.

But when we went to him to take his leave. when a man is found slain. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. The climate of Medina did not suit them. ‘Don’t burn them in fire but put them to sword. he said. and Muhammad adopted a it. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. The a punishment for apostasy . the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. For example. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament.is death. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by fifty of them taking this oath. He gave us their names.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. 2 i. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. 1357).for giving up Isl¯m . and he would be surrendered to you. Once a Muslim was found slain.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. though not by burning. and the identity of his killer is unknown. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. ih ¯ i if. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. he said: If I had been in his place.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. break its neck. I. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. This establishes their innocence. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. for to torture by fire is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). fifty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. QIS AS.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. wash their hands over the heifer. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). ’Ali burnt them to death. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). Muhammad told them: “Let fifty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. Another had¯ specifically tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). ih .

She had broken someone’s teeth. The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. an eye for an eye. someone who is a Muslim. and their feet.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. they killed the shepherds. When the case was brought to Muhammad. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut off. according to many jurists). Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138). and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151).. . or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). in Muslim a law. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. but they were not given water” (4132). or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). Away from the control of the Prophet. and put out their eyes. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. The apostates were brought back.e. But in another case. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. or if he has killed someone (i. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. but technically. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. it is retaliatory punishment. bloodwite was allowed. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justification and rationale for it (note 2132).

The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment defined either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. the penal law of Isl¯m. a woman committed some theft. her hand was cut off. and also for drinking wine. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut off the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). ¯ HAD UD Had ud. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut off” (4185). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. and death for apostasy. a interceded in her behalf. The Had¯ merely confirms the Qur¯n. nor made any noise. stoning to death for adultery. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. QIS AS. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). ’Aisha reports a similar case. an exemplary punishment from All¯h.” ’Aisha adds (4188). in a long two-page note. a a The translator. cut off their hand as a punishment for what they have done. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. the beloved of Muhammad. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). a hundred stripes for fornication. as we have already seen. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut off. HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. Zaid. he fixed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman.76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. is dealt with in the fifteenth book. causing her to have a miscarriage. Although Us¯ma b.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. . when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. “Hers was a good repentance. Thus.

though there is one for the larger category of zin¯. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. . I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). a woman of Gh¯mid. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. All¯h has ordained . . a branch of Azd. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. “The whore and the whoremonger. In this sense. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. . the term includes adultery as well as fornication. “I was one of those who stoned him. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194).” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). the a narrator of this had¯ (4196).77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. By All¯h. Similarly. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. ‘We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. the people may forget it and may say. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. Upon finding that the man was married and also not mad. and gave a small quantity of milk.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. in case I get hold of him. He repeated his confession four times. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. receive teaching from me.” says J¯bir b. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. Therefore. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. with the lapse of time. ’Abdullah.

but when the case was brought before Muhammad. participating believers. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. iya. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. And then the multitudes follow. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). . so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not offended.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. When a woman is to be stoned. . “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). in fact. . “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. the first stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . a chest-deep hole is dug for her. QIS AS.” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy.” The woman was punished for adultery. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the first stone. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. No such hole need be dug for a man.

was not to be stoned to death. and he committed me to flog her. “I was one of those who stoned them. by the time of Muhammad. then flog her and if she commits adultery again. even if she was married. ’Al¯ says: “O people. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. The Prophet was a merciful a man. then accept it. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. but if he gives verdict for stoning. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. then flog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body.” says ’Abdullah. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. then avoid it. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order.” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures.” he adds (4211). a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. stoning had fallen into disuse. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. According to one tradition. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that flogging might kill her. I am the first to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. . 47). she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). the son of ’Umar.79 Among the Jews themselves. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. she was liable to half the penalty (fifty strokes).” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. those who i are married and those not married. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. A slavewoman. and if she was unmarried. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such offenses. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I flogged her I might kill her. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. if he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging as punishment. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41).

But the majority of later Muslim jurists think differently. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. QIS AS. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. In such ir. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. the flogging can be postponed until he recovers. depending on the physical condition of the offender. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. They hold that the number of stripes is to. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. class of punishment. When the i number forty was reached. While ’Abdullah was flogging the victim. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. several days. cases. HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that flogging can be spread over is. be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. and ¯ to lash him. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). If he does his best but errs. and if he is sick. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is.80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. he still has . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. the third Khal¯ a ifa. he has two rewards.

such as books. are also discussed in this book. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. Nor is the testimony of Jews. but a apparently this is not really so. Also exempt are bricks. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions.81 one reward (4261). November 15. Fresh vegetables. a fruit and firewood. birds. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. In cases involving had ud. mats. . the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. In a dispute regarding property or debt. Christians. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. recently published in Pakistan. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). 1981). CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. and carpets from mosques. marble. and bread. According to the Qur¯n. such as hospitality. glass. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. According to some. cement.

QIS AS. HAD U D) .82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.

If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. if they respond to you. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims.. . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. . living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. . and inform them that. seek All¯h’s help and fight them” (4294). . demand from them the Jizy¯ . a a trying to be universal through conquest. if they do so. Medina. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and profitably interwoven. do not embezzle the spoils. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i.Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). Make a holy a a a war. . the spoils of war. a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. 83 . If they refuse to a a pay the tax. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. . accept it from them a . but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . If they refuse to migrate. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. .e. . Theologically. All¯h.” He also told them to offer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. Historically. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. . . All¯h.

or.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. Sa’b b. “cunning. unknown to the Arabs before.” says the Qur¯n a . Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. But if they are killed. “war is a stratagem” (4311). They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. al-Madina. it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of infidels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. All is fair in love and war. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. “Eat ye the spoils of war. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). it is lawful and pure. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. as some others have translated it. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. As the Prophet a says. this shocked the Arabs. this requirement can be waived. If need be. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or offer options in advance. no song need be made about it. had¯ 4324). He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. is Fortified by this revelation.” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9.

he a a is given a share in it. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. In fact. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers.. in this case the cause of God. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. For example. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. and if in this fight he gets a share in the spoils of war. a In fact. ¯ . a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid fights to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. i. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327).” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. where resistance was expected to be stiff. “Permit us to follow you. he fought from wrong motives. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. as administered by his Apostle. It belongs to the Cause. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. DIVISION Essentially. when it would be easy to win booty. Muhammad fully satisfied this motive and constantly appealed to it. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. they would say. “Ye shall by no means follow us. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. Muhammad told them that the next time.85 (8:69). and also as a favor and extra incentive. If he fought for such accessory rewards.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. 1934).” but he would answer. in commenting on i. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. and their dwellings. material incentives had to be provided. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts.

pretty rough. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). II. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. in fact. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. 594. recriminations. which he took by surprise. . Commenting on this verse. .” the muj¯hids demanded.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. after the capture of Hunain. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. and supernal intervention had i. The first includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conflict. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and fights against the Muslims] one-fifth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346).86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. If any person is so false. ¯ ¯ .” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. believed in by any sensible person. and was full of claims. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n.-161). The booty was very large. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. grievances. . but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome. Within a few months. on the Day of Judgment.” said All¯h (3. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without offering resistance. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he shall. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. p. restore what he misappropriated. had¯ 868). You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. suspicion. then if you obey. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. and accusations.

Muqd¯d. pp. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the infidels. orphans. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. gains from a war not actively fought. Such property must be carried away and four-fifths of it distributed among the soldiers. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. . The economic view prevailed. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codified by the various fiqh schools. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad fled Mecca. When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. and a the traveller” (59:7). This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. vol. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The fire of hell!” Muhammad replied. whether men. should be destroyed. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. the poor. 338-339). In due course. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. the poor. or children. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. According to this code. Another unfortunate i. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. women. any such property that cannot be carried away. . for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). “They are our kith and kin. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner.” (8:41). provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. Along with the khums. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives.” which ’Al¯ readily did. belongs wholly to the Prophet. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. except for a few who were killed. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. the orphans.” he advised. The fai’. part II. on the other hand. including the cattle. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. at least in this case. . Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. all prisoners. a fifth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. And at his command. His Apostle. During a retreat. his family. as the victim’s head was struck off. it is entirely at his disposal.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. to the Muslims in general. One of these was Nassar b. Alh¯ris. This will be a source of strength to us against the infidels. I. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. A Muslim combatant. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. 3 . when they are no more. O ’Al¯ arise and strike off his [Nassar’s] head. the traveller a . He advised that they should be put to death. his family. to His Apostle. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. i fellow was Utbah.

such a as their public prayers and festivals. those to whom the Book has been brought. and mosques). as the Muslim empire grew. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. though they can repair old ones.” as the translator puts it (note 2230). This was the first property I acquired u . they are not to do anything that would display their infidelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. and . they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. p. forts. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and officers. they cannot engage in public worship. They are not to build new churches and temples. Another imposition. language in every age. . At first this benefit was limited to the Jews and Christians. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. II.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. 889).Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . Imperialism has the same is. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. they are not to ride is on horseback. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. also belongs to the fai’. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. . The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. called jizy¯. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762). “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. in short. it was extended to other subject peoples. but later on. they are not to give offense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. but more often this was not done. and for the building of bridges. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina.

whether slaves or women or property. he had properties at Khaibar. They got a large number of camels as booty. and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). As a chief. . As the amount of war booty increased. Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. . part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated.” he says (4340). to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). ¯ One plot of land from the confiscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had finished the war with the people . They were raided and captured and their property confiscated. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. a but kept a large part for himself. So did the others. u ir.” his Coptic slave-wife. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . the Prophet received a fifth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. . ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. were confiscated by Muhammad. He also had seven other gardens in Medina. according to others were a portion of the confiscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. he also had the first choice in everything. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every fighter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330).89 after embracing Isl¯m. . Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. He u ir. Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts.

4465).” But.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. treacherous. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. These are of two kinds. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. the Prophet’s daughter. Arqam. decide between me and this sinful.” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. “Commander of the Faithful. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. the Prophet’s uncle. and battles of the Muslims. Instead. u a Many battles. for example. The conquest of . the Battle of T¯’if (4393). Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). the Battle of Badr a (4394). They took their dispute to ’Umar. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. Zaid (4469). i]. ghazw¯t and sariya. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. According to Zaid b. ’Abdullah. more or less in confirmation of the above. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. According to J¯bir b. the number a was twenty-one.” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and fifty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). of this property so angered F¯tim¯. The denial a i. not always in the order in which they were fought. are described by name. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). raids. or as it is popularly known. There are other traditions too. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). It was not much of charity. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. the Battle of Azh¯b. though. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conflicts. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. u Prophet. In due course.

a The water welled up. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. II. vol. at the Battle of Badr. Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. . Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. Muhammad came with a the whole army. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its flesh in a a pot. For example. . and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. . author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. J¯bir b. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. During the Battle of the Ditch. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. Either he prayed or spat into the well. . numbering one thousand men. . several miracles are mentioned. “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. We went out . On another occasion. p.” and the meat and the loaves sufficed for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. On many an occasion. People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. then ground one measure of barley into flour and leavened it. We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). I would do that. O All¯h. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. 467). part II. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me.” When the answer a . In most of the battles. To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). .” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366).91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396).” they found that the water in the local well was insufficient for such a large company.

. . repeating passages from their scriptures. He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. Mahomet. All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. [so that] some ye slew. we have arrived. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. . A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. Ban¯ Qainuq¯.” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. their houses. . himself a spectator of the tragedy. So march against them. During the night graves or trenches . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. And He made you heirs of their lands. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. . and distributed their women. those of them who can a fight [were] killed. and granted favour to them u ir. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of five and six at a time. . . children and properties among the Muslims . and cast terror into their hearts. we haven’t laid down ours. He first “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. . Then he killed their men. the son of ’Umar (4364). and some ye made prisoners. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. when these were ready in the morning. and exhorting one another in constancy. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. they surrendered . Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. [they] spent the night in prayer. pp. vol.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. According to ’Aisha. their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370).” we are told by ’Abdullah. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363).” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. were dug in the market-place . . Each company was made to sit down . the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . . a where they had gathered for shelter. . III. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. We give the story as summarized by W. until they too fought against him. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. . . By God.

. provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. till the whole were slain . another biographer. Having sated his revenge. and there beheaded.” S¯bit refused. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. . She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. having refused marriage. from his share of these. took his seat there. . of Huwey. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . and Muhammad took a fifth of each.land. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs .they had all been slain already .of K¯b. it is sharp. . For Zoheir. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. in exchange for horses and arms. I. . a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. to the effect that Muhammad’s biographers. chattels. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . 303-304. The booty was divided into four classes .”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . . . I entreat thee. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. He received to each inquiry the same reply . for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of efficient horses. He invited her to be his wife. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. There were (besides little children. cattle. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd.But slay me also.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. of female slaves and servants. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. and slaves. and gave him over to another. Tabari a i. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. . . strike high and hard. but she declined. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. ¯ ikh i. an aged Jew. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. a i. Here take my sword. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. . ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. pp. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus .” Ibn Ish¯q adds. He replied. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. and chose to remain (as. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. and butchered in cold blood.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. . . of Ozz¯l. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. indeed. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conflicts to his own advantage.

¯ ¯ .” “the friend of the destitute and the poor.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. Thus. 752. p. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so finish him off. II.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. . The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. Besides the aged Zoheir. u the “Khazraj began to cut off their heads with great satisfaction. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. . 465. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 464. to take off my robe from my body. A book and a decree. vol. part II.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. 476. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. They must be hardened in the difficult school of Isl¯m. and at a signal from Muhammad. Akhatab. p.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. p. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper. . Rauzat-us-Safa. p.” Then he sat down. saying. but God the most High has given thee victory. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. was known affectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. 7 In fact. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. God’s command is right. . before dying. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. . He who forsakes God will be forsaken . and has made me thy judge.” He too was brought before Muhammad. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. a Jewish leader. .94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. his head was struck off. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. and there is no remedy . ’Aisha says of her. They must become parties to an act which is effective in the measure that it is compromising. .” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. Huyayy b.

he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. pp. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. I. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. 546. i a ¯ vol. 9. who were from Medina.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. When you meet them tomorrow. and not to the Emigrants. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. one of u a ira their kin. pp. He took Mecca by surprise. 12 ibid. and. wipe them out. therefore.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. His people killed him. 484-486). so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. 544. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. to demolish the idol of All at. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. . do you see the ruffians of the Quraish? a a . the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. Kh¯lid b. struck the idol with his pickaxe.” he prayed to All¯h. Umro b. . the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. I. pp. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. H. Deserted by Her servants. In fighting the Meccans. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology.. Shu’ba. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not fight the Arabs around them. ¯ ira. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. if. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. A little later. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. a u a a and Sa’d b. “O God. p. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. . their goddess. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. 480. in A.

” said Muhammad. but more difficult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. According to the Yogas. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. . went to Ka’b’s house at night. u Similarly. True. the Exalted. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. and His Messenger. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). selfa a churning. he lured his intended victim outside.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his confidence. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. ASSASSINATION Assassination. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. A fixed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. Wonderful! To say the least. accompanied by some accomplices. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. has a source deep in our being. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. in egoistic life (aham. “Who will kill Ka’b b. a After the conquest of Mecca. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. self-shedding. like jih¯d. whether Jehovah or All¯h. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. Through them. asmit a).” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . Spiritual darkness. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diffused mind. a more psychological and mystical religion. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. or falsehood. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. The permission was given. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. the real difference is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva).96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. self-discovery. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). Then the assassin. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h.

He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. On learning this.” He went down and was killed (4436). 14 . a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. Further details are available in various other accounts.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. 368. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer. as we have seen. Another Ka’b. Ab¯ M¯’ila.. he should respond to the call.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. ¯ ¯ ibid. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). 15 ibid. p. the unlucky victims of his aggression. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. describes the assassins “bold as lions.. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. another poet. p.97 like the voice of murder. Sabit. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. Very soon.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. a poet. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. 369. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. Ka’b’s head was flung at the feet of the Prophet. 368-369. pp. u Some. 13 Hass¯n b. Maslama and his foster brother.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. travelling by night a with their light swords. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over.

“these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. Safw¯n b. Muhammad a declined his offer till he corrected his theology. When the man said he did not. and a both were polytheists. According to the translator. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a offered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. . The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. (4472). Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain.98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. For example.

marriage. In Isl¯m. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. food. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. zak¯t. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning affairs” (Qura an 14:17). with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. is. and pilgrimage. and so on. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. general morality. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . dress. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. rather.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). are zimm¯ second-class citizens. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. political and intellectual. in all matters. So in a Muslim polity. The spirit and informing principles are very different. non-Muslims. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. It includes all his beliefs and affairs.

a As a result. “O God. rulers. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is hard upon them . who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. emerged in Egypt. A branch of them. Thanks to Muhammad. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). his wife F¯tima. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. Later. 1299-1326). and he who acquires control over the affairs of my people and is kind to them . RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). and Ruler of the Faithful. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. D. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. and i. In another version. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. financial tycoons. and scholars. They were warriors. may one day revive this idea. for six hundred years. helped by petrodollars.be Thou kind to him. The present-day Sauds.be Thou hard upon him. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. the Prophet’s daughter. the Saiyids. necessary foundations. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. a . though the Shias limit the office still further to the descendants of Muhammad. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them.” Muhammad says (4476).100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. and specifically to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. the holy lands of Isl¯m). This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. and the disbelievers among them. At present they are busy laying the first.” says Muhammad (4473-4474).

and this is a gift presented to me. .” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. In fact. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). His Apostle. OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. If the electors choose someone unanimously. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. a Qur¯n 4:59). and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). But other ah¯d¯ try to fill this gap. but misappropriation of booty is a serious offense. a Some exceptions are mentioned. “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. gifts are given to the office. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others” (4543). This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. have to invoke God at every step. This is a big loophole which was fully used. “O you a who believe. War booty is sacred. As he lay dying. not to the officer. for as we know. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533).101 There are other conventional exhortations. and should appeal to me for help. then that person is designated as the . and to his moral and spiritual sense. An official should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. obey All¯h. Very thorough. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. “I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. it is a religious obligation. .

” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders. then those two should be killed. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. 3. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. Shiaism. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. If there is an equal division.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553).” Under the circumstances. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2.102 Khal¯ ifa. even if your back is flogged ir and your wealth is snatched. . These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. you should listen and obey” (4554). WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. Ghaffari. answering a follower. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. 4. ’Umar. “Kill him. p. 68. In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. men of authority. 1 All four points are taken from S. If any five of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). his own son and one of the electors. ¯ CHAPTER 10.

Yet again. This is understandable. but the Prophet did not accept him. a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. and one below fifteen is a minor (4605). “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suffice you. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. One of fifteen years is considered an adult. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. Similarly. The next year. ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). “Beware. which is also an a important subject of this book. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. strength consists in a is archery. there will appear a number of impostors. and this time he was accepted. For example. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. You are to guard against them” (4483). In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). or pregnancy (note 2331). HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). when he was fifteen. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority differs with different a conditions and circumstances. for purposes of marriage.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. Again. he went to fight in the Battle of Khandaq. “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). nocturnal emission. for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a . That decided the issue. The son of ’Umar went to fight in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. Is not Muhammad the final prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets.

After a the conquest of Mecca. they became desperate. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. “I love to fight in the . He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626).104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. Without jih¯d. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. . it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d.” In fact. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. So the rules were changed. his body will not decay. Having no home and no livelihood. a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the affairs of one who goes out to fight in His way a believing in Him and affirming the truth of His Apostles. Muhammad had the same desire for himself. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. According to some fiqh schools. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. there is no Isl¯m. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). if he dies in the Way of All¯h. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inflicted . but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). but since this is not always practical. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear fidelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. .

Therefore. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to offer. . All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. What is that act? . Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645).” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. . . The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. praying. “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). had¯ 4638). . And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of different virtues. and going on pilgrimage. THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. if after embracing Isl¯m. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). a such as fasting. . stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). . and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. One said: “I do not care.105 way of All¯h and be killed. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. Muhammad was consulted. . to fight and again be killed and to fight and again be killed” a (4626). .

taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Two men. . So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. Two men. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. a stone struck him and he died a martyr. without having had the time to say a single prayer. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. But how? The translator clarifies: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having offered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. 519 ¯ ¯ .” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. he too fights in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). In the engagement. Asked to explain why.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. p. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. both go to Paradise. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. But there is still a great difference between the two. We may give here another paradox. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. go to hell but never “gathered together. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). Another puzzle seeking a solution. . [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. On the way to the Battle of Uhud.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. . one the slayer and the other the slain.

i. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. let them not be taken by surprise. and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. Two men did not heed this command. Give them time to separate. is . In such instances.” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. II. One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their fidelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. Homely wisdom. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727).107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. had¯ 571).

GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .108 ¯ CHAPTER 10.

repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). for their flesh to be lawful food. with the help of a particular incantation. All¯h is great”). and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. When slaughtering an animal. a its flesh is not lawful. a “When you set off your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. When someone asks: What “if I find along with my dog another dog. Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). cutting the windpipe. and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). some mub¯h (permitted). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). a a a However.” says the Qur¯n (2:172). and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 . GAME There are similar restrictions on game. one should draw the knife across its throat. and softened them a good deal. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets off to catch a game animal (4732-4734). even if the game is killed. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m).Chapter 11 Hunting.

“Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. “three hundred of them.” for a month till they grew bulky.a falcon. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742).110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat.” J¯bir tells us. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. they ate a a even the dead animal. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. . J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. a cheetah. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. ASSES It is unlawful to eat the flesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. But if it cannot be avoided. and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . There is a story behind this particular permission.” he says. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting . and their flesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes. “When you shoot your arrow. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). .” and as they were hard pressed. During the journey. then wash them before using them” (4743). HUNTING. . The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. . he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). recite the name of All¯h. The beast was dead. do not eat from their utensils. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. It fed them. except when a you find it [the prey] fallen into water. CHAPTER 11. The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow.

He did not accept it. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). . when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the flesh of domestic asses. LOCUSTS. we give another tradition. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the flesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. and he accepted them” (4801). narrated by R¯fi b. “Throw away your pots. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). . The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-fifth made over to the treasury. KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. Some thought at first that the prohibition was temporary. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. To illustrate. saying: “I neither eat it. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. as is legally required” (4768). The eating of locusts is permissible. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. u a u Similarly. a a HORSES The flesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). So every one of you should sharpen his knife.” came the order. “since one-fifth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. caught and slaughtered it.” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). LIZARDS. . Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). Shadd¯d b. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. slaughter in a good way. so when you kill. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. nor do I prohibit it. HARES The flesh of lizards is not forbidden. the flesh of hares is lawful.

People “should not sacrifice an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacrificed [his animal]” a (4837). HUNTING. are those a “who sacrificed for anyone besides All¯h. In many religious traditions. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. They were only required to “abstain from meats offered to idols. I. In Muhammad’s lifetime.” Another word used is nahr. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. . which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all fife. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacrificing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835).” Muhammad tells us. which means “to split or pierce. had¯ 1392). the “Book of Sacrifices” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacrificed. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. except for flesh of a particular kind and flesh obtained in a particular way. and from things strangled. and hence derivatively for the sacrifice itself. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacrifice.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. and from blood. the sacrifice should be made to All¯h. is But in order to be meritorious. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. too. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude flesh food. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. i. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacrifice. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. animal sacrifice is highly meritorious. In Isl¯m.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol.112 CHAPTER 11.

PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacrifice the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did.” When she did. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacrifice. Muhammad said: a u “He who can afford sacrifice but does not offer it.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood flow. “Give me the large knife.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. unless it is difficult for you. is “As for the nail.” He then said to ’Aisha. but more than six months’ age]” (4836). Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. . for is not animal sacrifice All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacrificial camels. in which case sacrifice a ram [of less than a year. “Sacrifice only a grown-up animal. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacrificed rams.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacrificing. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs. and when they are a . and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. so there is also a proper age for the sacrificial animal. “he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it” (4845). we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacrifice on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. he took the knife and the ram. According to Ab¯ Huraira.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. the translator explains. accept [this saca a rifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). This is understandable. but we have no knives with us. . The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). While sacrificing. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. it is bone. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). O All¯h. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal.

We realize that an animal sacrifice can never be a fitting and acceptable offering to any god worthy of man. that reaches All¯h. all this changes. he found their “humps were chopped off and their haunches had been cut off and their livers had been taken out. DRINKS The twenty-first book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba).” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. who put on his mantle. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. . there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacrifice. Ab¯ Ubaida. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. and began to reprimand him. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. a and he thus turned upon his heels. and Ubayy b. and came out” (4881). . and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. but when he returned. ’Abd al-Muttalib. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. Jabal. Ka’b drinking. We experience a new togetherness. a a Let it be so if you like. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. Liquor was forbidden. HUNTING. FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . and he a i a brought his camels along. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. Ab¯ Duj¯na. “It is not their meat nor their blood. went to where Hamza i was. the Prophet’s uncle. . Mu’¯z b. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). “Hamza’s eyes were red. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the fifth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. Baiad¯. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. people said. We offer to our gods what we ourselves eat. In animal sacrifice. .” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. He tied them up outside. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. We made animals subject to you. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. the flesh comes to us. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. esting story. a new reverence for all living beings. narrates an interi.114 CHAPTER 11.

Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). mention the name of All¯h. u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983).” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. together (4896-4912). MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). . or hollow stumps (4913-4995). gourds. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). . green pitchers. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). . If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. it is not forbidden. . Ibn ’Abb¯s. In another tradition. a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. there is not even a disapproval. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her first husband: “Boy. the Prophet’s cousin. We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). he tells ’Umar.115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971).

for feeding 130 persons (5105). ’Abdullah b. It is also meritorious to lick one’s fingers after taking one’s food. DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not find fault with the food served to you. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040). one “must vomit” (5022). because Muhammad did so (5072). It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). thanks for the farmer who produced it. The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suffice. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. In fact. he ate it and if he did not like it. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). A laudable practice. a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. if one drinks water standing. but it is permissible for other Muslims. he left it” (5121). Still. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three fingers.116 CHAPTER 11. . In ordinary course. and thanks for the mothers. with the blessing of the Prophet. HUNTING. sisters and wives. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it.

” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. Similarly. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. no God can legitimize it. That way we really profane Him. ¯ a negate Him. . but one ought not to feel so pious about it.117 However. Be a meat-eater if you like. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight.

FOOD AND DRINK .118 CHAPTER 11. HUNTING.

“He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the fire of Hell” (5126). A man was wearing clothes dyed in saffron. on the other hand. he promised to wash them. finding that the Prophet disapproved of them. Greetings. Visions. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). “Do not wear silk. for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150).Chapter 12 Clothing. were considered excellent (5179-5180). General Behavior. Magic. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). SILK Silk is also forbidden. The mantles of Yemen. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). Poetry. These were striped and made of coarse cloth. Decorations. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). 119 .

he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. CLOTHING. Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. . GENERAL BEHAVIOR. The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). “Then on that very morning. whether of birds or animals or men.” reports Maim¯na. . so oppose them” (5245). but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields [or big gardens]. DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268).” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. HAIR Not only clothes. DECORATIONS. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). the father of Ab¯ Bakr. . POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. In fact. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). On seeing portraits on a curtain. GREETINGS. The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). . They effectively keep out the angels. MAGIC. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). but the hair too should not be dyed in saffron (5241).120CHAPTER 12. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair.

” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. Muhammad took great a interest in this matter.e. This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aflah (“successful”).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310). the son of ’Umar. He forbade women to add false hair to their head. a . Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). Barra means “pious. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). Rab¯h (“profit”).. He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”). GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam).” and it is a perfectly good name. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). and N¯fi a a a (“beneficial”) (5327). or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. having the same meaning (5338). Yas¯r (“wealth”). ’Abdullah. those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautification changing what God has created” (5301). i.121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern.

. . CLOTHING. it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). Muhammad called for some dates. POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. . He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. “he should come back” (5354). When a man seeks permission three times. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. and it is not granted. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. . The first thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. DECORATIONS. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. GREETINGS. gave birth to a baby. Q¯sim. he went to Muhammad for clarification. a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. Asm¯.122CHAPTER 12. a a When other Muslims objected. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). MAGIC.

“All¯h. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) offer you salutations. Also.” “But what about the husband’s brother. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). . we recognize you. And all should greet the children (5391-5392). “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed.” the Prophet replied a (5400). FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should first greet the pedestrian. when he seeks your counsel give him.’ you say. but Muhammad did not respond. . then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). the Exalted and Glorious. But it is different with the People of the Book. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. offer him greetings. when he invites you to a feast accept it.” His hope was fulfilled. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”. and when he falls ill visit him. “Husband’s brother is like death.123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. who was tall in stature. and when he dies follow his bier” (5379). When you meet him. went out to the a fields in the dark to ease herself. . ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. The Prophet himself followed this practice. One day. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯.” an ans¯r asked. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). or if that cannot be helped.” says ’Aisha a (5397).

practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). poisons. a u In the same S¯ra. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has affected him. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. “could not come at his wives. and the way they did it. As the knots were untied. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. you should take a bath” (5427).124CHAPTER 12. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q.” a And under the influence of the charm. vol.. and incantations. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. CLOTHING. the Prophet got well. The effect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm .” A bath is prescribed as its remedy.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. by All¯h. of course. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. 156. but. A’sam id [who cast the spell]. a is The Prophet believed that “the influence of an evil eye is a fact. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). 1 On another occasion. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. DECORATIONS. This saved him for the time being. “When you are asked to take a bath from the influence of an evil eye. or.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha.e. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. p. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classification.e.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. MAGIC. medicine. He had just taken a morsel and finding the taste unusual spat it out. spells. but the poison had a delayed effect. it caused his last illness.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him.. and according to some traditions. During this period. it had no power over him (5430). he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters.” and that “it was Lab¯ b. 1 Tabaq at.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. ¯ . the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. In fact. and deposited at the bottom of a well. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. I. those who had brought it about. GREETINGS.

don’t run out of it” (5493). NO HAMA. 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). It has a sexual potential. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. On another occasion. and when it has broken out in the land where you are. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. it is a wonder drug. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579).. no ghouls. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance.e. Among others. i.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers. the Apostle of All¯h placed his forefinger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). . He says that according to some Muslim scholars. NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. no epidemic disease.” and “no star promising rain. According to the Arab belief of that time. so you may go” (5541). About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. don’t go to it. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459).125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed.” Muhammad says (5484). Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. Cool it down with water. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha.

There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. but good omens please me. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins. no divination. POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. nature. and the law of causality. then it is in a horse. According to the translator. soothsayers. augurs. Muhammad corrected . and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we find true. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. “There is no transitive [i. CLOTHING.. DECORATIONS.” the translator assures us (note 2603). i. MAGIC. The two worlds . personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602).e. including India. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. a belief found in the lore of many countries.” he says (5519).126CHAPTER 12. GREETINGS. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain. epidemic] disease.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. the woman and the house” (5526). a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies.are very different. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h.e. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. he believed in good omens and luck. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man.. and fortune-tellers. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable.

then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct.” When these different orders communicate with each other. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. a is SNAKES. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. for it affects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). had¯ 1963). but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538).’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. the Exalted and the Glorious. WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it.” So they too should be killed (5545). a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. Like snakes. dogs too “cause miscarriage and affect the eyesight adversely.” She asked him: “I find people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientific nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. S¯ff¯t (37:7-10). The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18).127 this belief and provided another explanation.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. ANTS. but I find that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. the jinn has his chance. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. Their sight filled him with fear. and Jinn (72:8-10). And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. .

a u had already fled in all directions. . but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. according to Ibn Ish¯q. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle.” he advised. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. CLOTHING. The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. his brother. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. POETRY. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). even by the method of assassination. “Catch the Satan. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). warned him of the fate suffered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else.128CHAPTER 12. POE Ants fared better.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. then get to some safe place. When Mecca was conquered. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. CORRECT WORDS. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. . It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. Ka’b b. At first Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. p. who was already a convert. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. Ab¯ Wahb. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. One relates to the use of correct words. 597. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). If you do not do that. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. GREETINGS. DECORATIONS. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. ¯ ¯ . MAGIC.” Muhammad commanded. The book ends on a compassionate note. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. the only status he cared to claim. the daughter of a Marw¯n. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. True.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). he did not think highly of them. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. “O Apostle. VISIONS The next three books are very small. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuffing his brain with poetry.

129 Prophet. Receiving an affirmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took off his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.

CHESS
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).

VISIONS
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The differa is

130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the difference in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisfied statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).

MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.

Chapter 13

Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a

SELF-ESTIMATION
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the first intercessor and the first whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an effective simile to show the difference between himself and the five or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that final brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the edifice of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to finalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131

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CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD

message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The first are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of benefit to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the benefit of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellfire, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the fire and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making efforts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from fire, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).

THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaff¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to find “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.

MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u

It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. Ummaya. provided it was no sin” (5752).” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large flock of sheep and goats. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. I counted them as five hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. “He asked me to count them. most courageous. But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. “He a went back to his people and said: My people.” the recipient said (5730). Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. . but when it did. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one.” the beneficiary tells us (5731). He punishes it through His living Apostle. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. however. The man was overwhelmed. Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulfilled even posthumously. He found Muhammad most valorous. many of them by Anas. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. This was called his charitable disposition.133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. ’Aisha. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). I would give you so much. embrace Isl¯m.

appearance. or charity. “Do not be angry. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. One is called jih¯d. the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. “He put on a red mantle over him. He a also found his face very handsome. the other sadaqa.” His body a was also fragrant. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). so All- . hair. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). eyes. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. and even heels. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. The Prophet’s body was soft. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761).” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. Rob Peter to pay Paul. His perspiration “shone like pearls. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770).134 CHAPTER 13. a is He used to part his hair. a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. a is complexion. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa.

“his forehead perspired” (5764). once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. Salama. the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). and his head was lowered (5767). i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. J¯bir. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). that a revelation was involved in the matter. . under its influence. Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. In fact. ” (5765). younger u than he. and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. Umm i. Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. Furthermore. ’Abdullah b. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). . according to the translator. His hair was collected. a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. . . Muhammad’s wife. According to Ub¯da. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. . Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). Another man. THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha.135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. .

I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). “I saw water spouting from his fingers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. by the Lord. In one place. Sometimes. and find in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. When Muhammad. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. and do not go after my personal opinion. he said: “If there is any use of it. But he has two options to offer about the number of people seeking ablution. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h.. learned this. is. a practical man. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. then do accept it. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. in another three hundred (5658). in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. then they should do it. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it.his father’s sister’s son.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. On another occasion. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. i. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. Muhammad a gave his decision.e. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. It sufficed him . Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. I do not think this approach can go very far. Muhammad said: “I do not find it of any use. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. had¯ 5817).136 CHAPTER 13. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair.” As a result. he tells us that their number was “between fifty and eighty” (5656). he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h.

Recognizing the other prophets. “Had you not weighed it. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. narrated the whole story. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854).” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. the Jew said: “By All¯h. the tribes allied with them. and therefore they were as good as apostates. a is Abraham. On the battlefield. For example. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. He knew his own people. Speaking of himself and Jesus. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. served a still greater purpose. Muhammad’s world was not very large. though on his own terms. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. Who chose Moses amongst mankind. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. But when he failed in his bid. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. a dispute rose. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. and supplicated him. having different mothers. During the dispute. and Moses. when an ans¯r offered a a price that was not acceptable to him. the neighboring Jews and Christians. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. To the Jews and Christians. however. But he could not . Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). on the day of Uhud. Their religion is. a Jew was selling goods. he offered his leadership.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). Therefore.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. the Arab Bedouins. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim.

. for one is also the other. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah.138 CHAPTER 13. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. for they are all part of one human brotherhood. an attitude of either/or. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between different ummahs. don’t make a distinction between different gods. seldom both. for they all express the same Truth.

members of his family like F¯tima. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. To be saved. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s first Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. ’Umar. Husain. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. Salama. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. “the father of the maiden.” the maiden being ’Aisha. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the fire of hell). ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. ’Al¯ Hasan. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A.” Muhammad said u a (5873). Ab¯ i a u Bakr. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. and Zainab. and ’Usm¯n. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. he answered: “ ’Aisha. it is enough to be subservient. and u a a i. D. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. but he soon came to be known by another name. ’Aisha’s 139 . The followers need have no other.

‘God kill him. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). Even ’Aisha. p. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. her father. was kept in the dark about it .” ’Umar threatened them. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. 1 2 . “To Ab¯ u Bakr. The next day.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. 279. his favorite wife.” Muhammad answered (5878). u so that he might write a document. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. pp. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.. “In doing this. I said.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. “Either take the i. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. Eventually. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. we jumped on Sa’d b.140 CHAPTER 14. even half-believingly. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. made the most of his dead body. ’Ali a respectively. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). and you are our Wazeers. 527-528). When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. 529). with a sword in his hand. during the conflict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. ’Ub¯da. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. or I shall put this house to fire and burn you all. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. u Zubair. As soon as Muhammad died. struggle for power began in earnest. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. Outside.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. one of their own tribesmen.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. Ab¯ Bakr. p. and her brother too. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father. I. as the u a a chief. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.

Later on. as he prayed. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. The first instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. a But Muhammad persisted. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. Had it not been for a previous . I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. And lo. Once Muhammad was persuaded to offer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. narrow-minded. while asleep. the direction was changed to Mecca. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. . and in case of the prisoners of a im. by a divine injunction. for they rejected God and His Apostle. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil.” When he inquired. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. are a a you going to offer prayer. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. . during the first fifteen months of their stay in Medina. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). whereas All¯h has forbidden to offer prayer for him?” (5904). Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. and that his first duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . KHATTAB ’Umar b. the place of the Jewish Temple. ’Umar wept when he was told about it.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. The Muslim doctors mention fifty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. . ’Umar. and strong in his hatred. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. modestly mentions a only three. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. nor stand at his grave. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar.” Muhammad observed (5885). however. In fact. and ’Umar that they be a killed. ’Abb¯s. ’Umar was fanatical. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Badr” (5903). Once.

110. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. you are beaten now. An Arab. but u he drew only “two buckets”. But after him. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). he made it clear. . even including newborn babes.” This was also the most effective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. on the state’s payroll. provided a new taste for booty. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. a new incentive. its real founder was Muhammad himself. and the necessary religious rhetoric. “Nay. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut off his head. a i.” he told Muhammad. there was also “weakness in his drawing. as we have already seen. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. it was something to be proud of. who provided it with a theory. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. Life of Mahomet. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. vol.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. a True. These ah¯d¯ we are told. spread of Muslim hegemony. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. p. on another occasion.142 CHAPTER 14. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. an ideology. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut off their heads. III. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. by L¯t and Uzza.” The man said. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). 3 On another occasion. “Well. a founder par excellence. his name appears only once. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut off his head.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive infidel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut off his head with his sword. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. In the Muslim annals. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. He forged new instrumentalities. and said to him tauntingly. a continuing motive. himself drawing water from a tank.” he said (4360). had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. the son of Soheil. He put every Arab. we find that ’Umar needed no great provocation to flourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battlefield.

S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. u According to Muslim tradition. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them. In the same battle. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. did not like this. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. al-’As. who replied. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. releasing him without any ransom. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. a ¯ ’USMAN B. 739. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. p. ’Aff¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. if I a a meet him I will flash my sword in him. and also to spare his uncle. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. p. in Russia and even in China. Rauzat-us-Safa.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. 5 id’s It is difficult to accept this attitude.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond. the man is a false Muslim. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. But one Muslim. Hash¯m b. vol. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. “Let me off with his head! By All¯h. part II. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. ¯ ¯ .143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. al-Mugh¯ a ira. Ab¯ Huzayfa. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. p.” Those who indulged in such unfilial behavior were honored as heroes. so contrary to human nature and custom. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. “O Ab¯ Hafs. who was taken prisoner i.” he said aloud. in the Battle of Badr.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. he was much troubled. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellfire. II. the family to which u a he belonged. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. After she died. 301. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. Umm Kuls¯m. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. Only a few decades ago. whom he married. But there is nothing unusual about it. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. 507. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. al-’Abb¯s.” he said.

In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. . in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. they are my i. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. a convert from the proletarian strata. the order of truth it deals with. and its concerns are mostly with trifles. From the arguments advanced on both sides. at the hands of his brethren in faith. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.” The definition of “the members of my family. . therefore. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. is such that it excluded . . was a burdened with work that was too heavy. Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit difference that there is no prophet after me” (5913). whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. and its way of arriving a at truth. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. But when ’Usm¯n came. reclining against a pillow .” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. is receiving a visitor. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. [and] the members of a my household. saying. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. the Book of All¯h . Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. a a family. did not agree with this conclusion. it was Ab¯ Bakr. and Husain. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. “O All¯h.” he said (5915). ’ALI B.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). Hasan.” Other doctors of theology and law.” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. with great ingenuity. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. .144 CHAPTER 14. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906).

“his face becoming red with anger. ’Abb¯s. he took a slave-girl i.e. All¯h is partial. complained to Muhammad. On the day of Khaibar. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. and applied i. therefore. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. 456. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. thou hast deceived me. his own saliva as a cure. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. thy brother i is coming behind thee. 5918). II. 7 . a i. people will never give us the Caliphate again.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. ’Al¯ is from me.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. During the Battle of the Ditch.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will fight them until they are like us” (5915.” The story is given by Mirkhond. At one i point in the contest. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. for himself even before the holy one-fifth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. Kh¯lid b. II. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. had¯ 1582).145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden.” (Tabaq at. II. and ’Abb¯s and their offspring (5920). Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. i saying: “I shall never do it. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. Let us. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. Wal¯ the second-ina id. vol. vol. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. ’Amr i b. ¯ ¯ ikh i. When Muhammad was dying. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inflamed. p. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod.” But ’Al¯ declined. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. command. 521). a man of ninety years. part II. ’Abdu Wudd. involving a complaint of a similar nature. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa.. 292-293. vol. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. his uncle. 9 After Muhammad’s death. pp.” at the complaint. The Prophet was furious. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the first report? In a battle. p. 8 On another occasion.” ’Umar says (5917). Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. II. i i” i. i. had¯ 1569). ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i different for him. Ja’far. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. I.

After he was appointed to this responsibility. He was i asked to flog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). . and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . by order of his lordship i the apostle . had¯ 5933). a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. obey them not” (29:8. HARIS Zaid b. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. . We give one example. Until now. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. 477-478. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. eight hundred strong. pp. ’Aisha tells us. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. following the old Arab custom. however. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. but after this marriage. . But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. . Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. 112). “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. . This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). and when the night set in.” This. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. he was also his executioner. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. 10 ¯ SA’D B. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking off their heads. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. was the old polytheistic morality. he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid.146 CHAPTER 14.. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. .

“The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s first employer and. ija. II. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. just as Mary. was the best of the women of her time (5965). Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. I often heard him praise her. Once. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. . The marriage was consummated when she was nine. and his Lord . though senior to ija him in age by fifteen years. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. and Zainab. I il ate from it. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na.” (Tabaq at. Salama. perfumes. 147-164). had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. she was also the first to encourage him in his apostolic mission. pp. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. newly married. his first wife. had¯ 5956). a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. in a fit of jealousy.” Muhammad said (5966). developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was fifty. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. For example. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. i With some women. She was turned out. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. ¯ . therefore. vol. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. Muhammad himself says that “women. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. Ibr¯h¯ died.147 natural father. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. dispatched home. Another woman. the marriage was not consummated. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides five more to whom proposals were made but without success. and food. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. the daughter of Imran. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. . According to Muhammad.

Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected.” a as ’Aisha puts it. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. in the words of ’Aisha. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. When people want to please an official or any person in authority. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority.” ’Aisha narrates.” About Muhammad’s own behavior. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. but all very convenient. his daughter. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. by the Lord of Muhammad. .” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. you say: ‘No. and having been thus silenced. .” Muhammad made no answer. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). to him. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). she went back. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see.’ and when you are annoyed with me. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. She said yes. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha.” ’Aisha generously agreed. Even during his last illness. Once. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle.” “O daughter. A rule within a rule. as luck would have it. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. though a strict code might call this bribery. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. verily. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. But. On another occasion. A time-honored a practice. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa.148 CHAPTER 14.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. “Where I would be . I will never talk a to him about this matter. . Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha.

if. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. and in my bosom. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. “the virgin.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). and they agreed. put it in her mouth.149 tomorrow. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives.” ’Aisha adds. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. for my daughter is part of me. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. In fact. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. and even.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. He Just before Muhammad died. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. on my day. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. Fat¯ u u ima. his cousin. Tabaq at. I would not allow them. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. meaning “masters. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. our salivas mingled. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. pp. known as the Saiyids. ¯ ¯ 12 . “And when it was my turn. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. 678-679. took the twig from her brother’s hand. Hasan and Husain. ’Aisha took the hint. Muhammad looked at it intently.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his first wife. complained about it to Muhammad. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. She had two surviving sons. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. in the last moment of his death. vol. 282).” Stating the position of Muslim theology. here is Gabriel offering you greetings. I. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. p. After Mecca was conquered. just a few days before his death. During his last illness. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. i. his wife. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. “The Prophet died in my room.

THE MERITS OF SA’D B. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was fifteen or sixteen. 469. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. MU’AZ When Sa’d b. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. but his bier was very light to carry. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. she had the influence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). Hakam in revenge. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. Sa’d was a a fat man. p. one Marw¯n b. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. sitting on a camel. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. So it seems that if the father of a woman had sufficiently strong influence. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i).150 CHAPTER 14. Therefore. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. ¯ ¯ . who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . In the battle over the succession that raged later on. Mu’az. Thanks to his political connections. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. During the Battle of Uhud. In the case of Khad¯ ija.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. the third Khal¯ a ifa. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. she was his only wife while she lived. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who offends her offends me” (5999). ¯ There are other traditions about him.

Khalaf and his son. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. he “had looted. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza. in Mecca. Umayya b. The next a day. On the day of the Battle of Badr. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exemplifies a certain moral. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish.. Umayya. Seen through less-believing a eyes. a “won’t you take me a prisoner.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the first pledge at Al-’Aqaba. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. an important Companion. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. he said. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. 301. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving.” he said. Khalaf. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. “Yes. Consistent with his lowly position. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom.” Muhammad said to him. the Aus. p. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. it is the first defeat that God brought on the infidel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid.” he replied. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing.” he added. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. a carrying coats of mail” which. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. . He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. more kind a and compassionate. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. the poet. “By God. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that purification what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). Mu’az.

18 Most conversions are of this kind. decided to become a Muslim. When Mecca was conquered. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulfil its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. They cried in pain and horror. father. I will. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. often they make him worse. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. pp. vol. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. Life of Mahomet. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.152 CHAPTER 14. ’Akrama.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. Umayya a b. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. a strong opponent of Isl¯m.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. whose husband. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. 16 17 . Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. At the Battle of Khaibar. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives.” In later days. Sim¯k b. the son of Ab¯ Jahl. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners.” The Muslims gathered. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. by their hands. Just then. They bring no change in the individual. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. p. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. vol. But organized conversions are now. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). II. 18 In fact. IV. 611-612). and brother had just been murdered. Bil¯l kept shouting. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulfil a u a its rights. “By God. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. as they have always been. 68. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battlefield. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. pp. Muir. after the great carnage of the day. ¯ ¯ W. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. now his prisoners. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my infidelity. part of an aggressive politics. 302-303. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. There is a telling example. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-infidel.

According to her. . and Huraira. . Unsatisfied with their compositions.” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. . give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. . “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” And to All¯h Himself. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. Gabriel is with you” (6074). the daughter of Bakr. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. One of them was the son of ’Umar. and commissioned them to write satires.” With that end in view. ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. . The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. u a which he knew very well. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . . Understanding the intricacies.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. On another occasion. Sabit. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. But there was a difficulty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. . the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). M¯lik. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. .” he said to Muhammad. he petitioned: “O All¯h. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. . I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . S¯bit. Muhammad sent for two poets. . for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. .

In this ranking and ordering. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. the Prophet comes first. H.” says ’Aisha (6079. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. the first period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. Then those nearest to them. then come his Companions. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything.e. 220). then those nearest to them” (6150). but as they proceed further away from him. 170). though all the participants were flogged. as the last Companion died in A. At the end of the book. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity.. 120 years. As things converge toward Muhammad. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n).” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. 6081). they become better. . who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. According to one important opinion. H. . the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. 110). . do not revile my Companions” (6167). but when they were in his service. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the flour. it was a different matter. H. Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger.154 CHAPTER 14. ’Aisha was the first to excuse Hass¯n. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions .” she said a a (6075). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth.

“A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. if his head aches. . All Muslims are one body. If he suffers pain. . While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. “All¯h elevates him in rank or effaces his sins because a of that” (6238). “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. Good Manners. of course. the whole 155 . And. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. Monday and Thursday. his wealth and his honour” (6219). Knowledge. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). stand by each other. “The believers are like one person. the one supporting the other” (6257). it is a reward. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. . all Muslims should help each other. In short. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . Destiny. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. and feel for each other. “When a Muslim falls ill. A Muslim should visit his sick brother.Chapter 15 Virtue. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”.

OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). 6265. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. All¯h would a meet his needs. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). VIRTUE. 1 The face should be avoided because. should help him. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. spoils. It is meritorious to speak the truth. who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. a Similarly. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. “When any one of you fights with his brother. 1 . But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). in fact. and 6306). KNOWLEDGE. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). as the Prophet himself explains. and he who meets the need of a brother. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252).156 CHAPTER 15. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. he should spare his face” (6325). All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). DESTINY.

157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the definition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a

¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the sufferers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, purification and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.

THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the first time that All¯h lets a man off so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellfire for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).

158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD

THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-fifth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of fine Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Sufis. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the infidels was not only a pious act a is but a profitable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).

The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were off guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.

2

159

THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conflicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an infidel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and filial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.

MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the flames of hellfire. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
3

160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful effort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4

LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably flowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the infidels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the first to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians first (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the five or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should offer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
5 4

But. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. his death. . it imposes only an outer code. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined.” he said. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. there can be no higher ethical life. True. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. after which it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . it gives an ethics of jih¯d. murders. false witness. Each person passes through a series of stages. p. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. his livelihood. . II. his deeds. a DESTINY The thirty-first book. it gives the theology of a Moloch . violence. his fortune and misfortune. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393).161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. as might be expected. war booty. ¯ . are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. theft.All¯h demanding the blood of the a infidels. O Lord.” But Muhammad failed to benefit from this source. though the Buddhist influence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. vol. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. “This I have power to do. as Muhammad called him. contains only fifty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). fornications. adulteries. and tribute. and prurience. but thou. Without inner purification. For example. blasphemies.” As a result. garbing itself in pious clothing. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. 280. An unpurified heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts.

If everything of men is decreed in advance. even smaller than the previous one. “Verily.” he remonstrates with the believers. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). KNOWLEDGE. Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. a a “Verily. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). And. The book also includes a flattering reference to scholars. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds.162 CHAPTER 15. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. It means the knowledge that we find in the Qur¯n. But in spite of these warnings. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension.” On the other hand. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. do perform good deeds. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . the reverse may also happen (6390). you would follow them in this also. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting.” and do not dispute about it . DESTINY. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We affirm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. of course. “Recite the Qur¯n. he says” (6450).that is knowledge. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). by seeking to explain them. VIRTUE. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). One day. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. He also warns against hair-splitting. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians.

our reward is booty. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). he retained His audible names. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. and so on. in brotherliness. I draw near him a by the cubit. polytheist. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr).” Muhammad a tells us (6475).163 away the scholars” (6462). ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. slaves. faith. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. and earnestness. I rush towards him” (6471). like his moral teaching. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . the infidels. in wisdom. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. where it has a meaning very different from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. in compassion. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. infidel. conquest. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. in conciliation. and forced conversions. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. In the mystic tradition. In the prophetic tradition. “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. and empire if we succeed. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. it means walking toward the Light within. And if he walks towards Me. Muhammad’s god. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. Muhammad explains” (6476). in purity. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. and Paradise if we fall.

Demonology is the other side of theology. All¯h’s name did not always suffice as a substitute for a servant. p. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 593. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother.164 CHAPTER 15. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. ¯ ¯ . one to ’Usm¯n. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. DESTINY. the daughter of Hil¯l. VIRTUE. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. and the second to ’Umar. For example. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. as a gift. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. KNOWLEDGE. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed.

and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. 165 . Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). In book thirty-four. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. On the other hand.” women will “form a minority” (6600). “amongst the inmates of Paradise. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). So avoid the allurement of women: verily. Hell. Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). According to another tradition. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. If they so wish.Chapter 16 Paradise. Their Inmates. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own.

The believer will be doubly blessed. THEIR INMATES. between afternoon and night” (6707). HELL. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). PARADISE. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. . All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). and of Paradise and Hell. . Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. will take in His grip the earth . THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day . and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and fish from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). Muhammad said. giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. i. . NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection.. the nonbeliever “finds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). the Exalted and Glorious. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread].e.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. On this day. Thanks to his reward in this world.” he told them.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described.” “With b¯l¯m and fish. .166 CHAPTER 16. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). . “the earth would turn to be one single bread . while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703).

THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). For example. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. The nonbeliever will answer yes.167 Either way. afflict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. Allah will ask the nonbeliever. whether. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting fire by paying all that gold. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. and heedless. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. . . no Jew . a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. it is still not a fair deal. On the Day of Resurrection. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellfire? Nothing. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). so they were a afflicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse.” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. the “moon was split into two. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. even the one least tormented. . a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suffering. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). it is cheating. In fact.

THEIR INMATES. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). a prophetic one. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. also see 41:25). particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. but it finds its full development in the Sunn¯h. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. In the Qura an. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. HELL. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). the demons are only attached to infidels. SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief.168 CHAPTER 16. more precisely.” 43:36. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. a devil.” Muhammad declared (6752). quran¯). The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. Literally. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. “Verily.” Muhammad declared (6711). and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. PARADISE. the word means “the one in united” (pl. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. the latter is pandaimonic or. . pandemonic. in the Sunn¯h. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia.

when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. Its Description. . appears with still greater frequency . there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a fine and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). moral action occupies a secondary place. which appears 76 times. O Lord. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. but if you fail. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. “Observe moderation” in your doings. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). Its Bounties.” Muhammad says (6760). and Its Inmates”.169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. . The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. then after them others in ranks” (6796). “The first group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night.121 times. he advises. In the Prophet’s eschatology. they would be like the most significantly glittering stars .” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. A man is justified by faith. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. In the Qur¯n. a “In Paradise. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792).“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. a “the Fire. Paradise and Hell go together. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. An-N¯r. . “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. Then those who would be next to them. A constant Bower of Bliss. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased.

rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. . incidentally. . PARADISE. any that they may desire” (56:2021). HABITATION. less than ih on earth. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. HELL. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . THEIR INMATES. the Exalted and a Glorious. the height of Adam and even of God. “they will have fruits. nor will they spit” (6795).” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. The immeasurable is measured. nor void excrement. LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. For food. and the shades of the Garden will come low . “All¯h.170 CHAPTER 16. ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. his length being sixty cubits. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. . rivers of wine. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the flesh” (6797). “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). a joy to those who drink. nor will they suffer from catarrh.

We can only mention the subject here. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). 9:111. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. ’Umar. with whom he will make love successively. . a 56:15-40. for ever virgins. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). For example. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. 52:17-24. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. 10:9-10. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. retiring glances. According to ’Abdullah b. the bunches of fruits will hang low. will dwell his wives. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. 4:13. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54).171 over them. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). which we have already mentioned. houris with swelling bosoms. wine. 66:8. HOURIS Houris are promised. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. so he will have women galore in Paradise. 55:46-76. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. describe the a i. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. 47:15. golden vessels. and others. upon them will be green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade. a i. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. 76:12-22. houris “unfailing and unforbidden.

every room will also have seventy tables laid out. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. p. 112. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. and seventy-two women. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. THEIR INMATES. still furu ther. According to another tradition. ’Umar. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. According to him. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any specifics about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. these women will put on see-through dresses. holding the train of her robe. though rather mathematically expressed. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. According to ’Abdullah b. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. . when a believer embraces any such houri. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color.172 CHAPTER 16. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. Each houri will u have seventy garments.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal five hundred houris. in the Muslim Paradise. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. According to Anas. four thousand virgins. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. every room will have seventy couches. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. HELL. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. 1980). and she will have a crown on her head. PARADISE. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. the number of slaves is ten thousand. and eight thousand women who have known men.

” as the translator explains (note 2999). There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831). “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). Khinzif. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. dragging his intestines in Fire. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. the fire we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). the son of Abraham. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. and as-s¯’iba.” He was the first to dedicate animals to deity.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. Similarly. to some up to their knees. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. ’Amr was the first Khozaite king (A. his senior. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). But as his harem swelled. Luhayy b. . 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. “I saw ’Amr b. Cam’a b. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. In the S¯ras from this period. In caloric heat. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. u a 4:57). HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. are severely punished. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suffer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. In Hell. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. According to Muslim thinking.D. ira. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. to some up to their waists. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically significant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also fifteen years ija.

” Muhammad revealed (6859). there is no death for you. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. . they would break my head . Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. Then he sat by the side of the bodies.” somebody replied. “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. The Prophet and his Companions sighted five or six graves during a journey. THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection.” Muhammad told him. there is no death for you. and addressing each of them by name. HELL. Verily. . O inmates of Hell. . And I sent the Book to you . . And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. THEIR INMATES. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. . . You send an army and I would send an army five times greater than that. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . but they lack the power to reply. Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). I said: My Lord. what I am saying to them. .174 CHAPTER 16. “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. . said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. . but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . You would live forever therein” (6829). “As polytheists. Muhammad said: “Behold. the chapter is closed forever. . PARADISE. you fight against them and We shall help you in this . Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. . . . thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). It begins immediately after their death.

e. that should be of interest to Freudians. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. and inmates. more blazing. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. and more scorching are conceived. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. The is.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of infidelity and unbelief. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. naked and uncircumcised. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. each with a its own potency. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. In a . even Muslims must go to Hell. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. So hells increasingly more smoky. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellfire to his followers. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874).. thermodegree. “the Fire. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. Hell has many names. i. But woe unto the unbeliever.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger.

” is mentioned. . of fire so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance.. It is called Jahanam. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. the still more intense fire of Hutamah is for the Jews. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark.g. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. infidels. “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. Saqar for the Magi. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellfire. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. toiling. and never has any light. Christians. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents . each tree there having seventy thousand branches. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. THE LAST DAY order to fulfill the letter. 56:52. another terrible food. if not the spirit.” i. Jah¯ for idolaters.176 CHAPTER 16. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. The blazing fire of Laz¯. which shall burst their bowels . in the language of u the last S ura. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. Similarly. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. THEIR INMATES. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. .. The fire in Hell knows no rival in fierceness. loathsome in smell. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. “If the infidels complain of thirst. idolaters.” According to some commentators. PARADISE. the infidels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. . like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. they shall be given water like molten copper . Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. HELL.” There are other traditions in the same vein. is for the Christians.e.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. . No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). fire which “permits nothing to endure. . hypocrites. polytheists. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. 17:60. i u 44:43-46). which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. . weary. . and polytheists of different hues and degrees. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. of All¯h’s command. the Day of Judgment). In other S¯ras (e. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24).

Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers.” he said (6881). killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellfire. a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. . I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. but He did not grant it” (6904. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). “He granted me two. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. 6906). THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. but in the case of . The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. Arabia.177 and an equal number of scorpions. All these are the tormentors of the infidels and the hypocrites. . . But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893).

Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. with the word k¯fir inscribed on his forehead. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). It will not come “until fire emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). blind in the left eye and a a is. According to the translator. the smoke. PARADISE. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). THEIR INMATES.178 CHAPTER 16. a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuffs and their money]” iz (6961). SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conflict with one another” (note 3009). It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. there is a Jew behind a me. ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. . the Dajj¯l . which is painful to touch. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. ” (7039). who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . red in complexion. a Before the Last Hour comes. “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). or the servant of All¯h. “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. come and kill him. He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship. HELL.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. .

” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. in fact. you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. Pointing to a young boy. a a made the very same claim for himself. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. That gave point to his claim. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. ready to do his bidding. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered. permit me that I should kill him. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and.” Then there was a competition between the two. ‘He only chanted dhukh. Muhammad “did a not like it. According to another story.179 him. “Thereupon ’Umar b. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. dukh.” the translator tells us (note 3037). . Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children. Like the early Christians. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger.

HELL. THEIR INMATES. PARADISE. THE LAST DAY .180 CHAPTER 16.

but now a He added: “O servant. and All¯h. and All¯h responded in the same way. pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). .” The servant committed yet a third sin. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. 181 .” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). In fact.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). forgive me my sin. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). . “If a you were not to commit sins. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. do what you like. It helps him as well as his Maker. According to Muhammad. the Exalted and High. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . forgive me my sin. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. I We now take up the thirty-fifth book. Sin is doubly blessed. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642).

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¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the fire of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the infidels, or k¯firs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a

GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an offence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments defined in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious offense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the first hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.

NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next five ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a

183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a

THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the fifth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the fields to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much flesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after finding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-

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CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I

ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the flour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I find nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad pacified them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a

185 Coming out of his prophetic fit or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, flog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye first heard of the affair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
1

S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯

Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). we no longer find ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this affair. “And a stay quietly in your houses. like that of the former times of Ignorance. by One. In retaliation. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and make not a dazzling display. Also. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. ¯ ¯ . in Whose hand is my life. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. 499. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it difficult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. p. Of course. I in a poem. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. “Hallowed be All¯h. 498).” he said. For example. and though young he died soon a after.186 CHAPTER 17. according to ’Aisha. 33). p. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. According to another tradition. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. I have never unveiled any a woman.

more secular appeals. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use.Chapter 18 Repentance. Even in Muhammad’s time. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. 2/18 Ansari Road. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. The fear of divine hellfire was distant. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. He used the carrot as well as the stick. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. 1 187 . But from the beginning. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. constia is. it was combined with other. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. and the disloyal. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”.110 002). In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. M¯lik. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. political boycott. spiritually speaking. Islam was not all theology. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. Apostasy was severely punished. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. New Delhi . and ideological untouchability. but the For a fuller discussion. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. negative as well as positive. the indifferent.

’Usm¯n. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins.an offense which many could take a in stride . for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. for he died soon afterward. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. In planning other campaigns. Muheiasa. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. and traders. contractors. One had oneself played safe in the past. In offending the Prophet. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen.) ¯ ¯ . He collected tithes from the tribes. was ever present. generals. D. p. who were now rich and powerful. ’Abdullah . Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. the boss. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. now others do the same in turn. They gave generously. REPENTANCE. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Difficulties”. Muhammad ibn Maslama. and the weather was dry and hot. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. is. in fact. you offended ’Umar. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. which were now reduced to submission. his own son-in-law.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. Talha. They had become governors. ’Amr ibn Omeya. Because of its unusually arduous nature. I got to him first with tongue and hand. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. the toughs of the ummah. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. Umayar. a lordly sum.but even worse. ’Al¯ Zubair.the i. and so on. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. you not only offended All¯h . Sa’d. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. 630. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. or party. But this campaign was to be of long duration. it was his largest and also his last. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. besides inviting more concrete punishments. 789. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to effect the maximum surprise. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. S¯lim b. MALIK) fear of the strongman.

a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. which now included. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. say to them that the Fire of Hell is fiercer in heat. . They hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said.” All¯h said of them (9:97). and strive and struggle. That is best for you. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). “If there had been immediate gain in sight. they would all without doubt have followed thee. He also took more secular measures. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). in the cause of All¯h. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92).189 soldiers. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. . if only they could understand” (9:81). and when you said. In the Islamic tradition. the whole Arab world. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. ‘Go not forth in the heat. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101).’ Muhammad. but We know them. with your goods and your persons. their spirit was considered praiseworthy. “Go ye a forth. For example. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. whether equipped lightly or heavily. ‘I can find no mounts for you.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). But even so. Thou knowest them not. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. Of such people. and journey easy. at least nominally. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. The worst offenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. Twice shall we punish them. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. so they put forward many excuses for not going. Though they were sent back. But Him you would not harm in the least.

I left you behind because of what I had left behind. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. ¯ ¯ . According to some traditions. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. Believe. He whom fire surrounds is burned. or else pay tribute. p. But eventually he did not go. I will not fight against you until I have written thus unto you. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. . sang: a My salams to you. it found there was not much to do. although many of its members were still disgruntled. the Christian prince of Ayala. But if you oppose and displease them. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. . To Yuhanna b. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. REPENTANCE. . Muhammad pacified him by saying: “They lie. . ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. Ru’ba. This effectively dealt with them. because the Byzantine army.” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. Are you not content. which was easily done with such a large show of force. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. . which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. I will not accept from you a single thing. 783. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. According to some traditions. one-third of which was cavalry. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. .¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. One of the victims. was nowhere in sight. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. This satisfied ’Al¯ i. was also there in consida erable force. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. Al-Dahh¯k. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments .

. Ka’b. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth.. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so.” But later.” Though eminently qualified to participate. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season.” he says.” he said to himself. that the Prophet had departed. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. neither age nor health nor lack of means. Hil¯l.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. D. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition. the Byzantine Empire]”. “more than ten thousand people. “I was shocked to find that I did not find anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish.e. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. he was determined to deal firmly with those who had failed to accompany him.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. he decided to speak the truth. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. 4 . “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. and Ka’b. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. he kept it as a secret.” But this expedition was a different thing. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. he says the expedition was big. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. who was a poet. . 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. Of the many who had remained behind.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina. to his dismay. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. The next day Muhammad arrived.

“Verily. he sent his wife . some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. and I had the greatest love u a for him. “As I read that letter I said. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us .” This communication could be very incriminating. . he did not respond to my greetings. .¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. . and he was my cousin. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h.” Ka’b says. so I burnt it. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. . They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b. a While he was enduring this mental torture. whether He would punish them. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot find your right honour.” a Muhammad dismissed him.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. or turn in mercy” [9:106].” This comforted him somewhat. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. MALIK) persons. as I had when I stayed behind. REPENTANCE.” When forty days had thus passed. I greeted him but.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him.) Later. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. .” As Ka’b was young. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. “By All¯h. “No. This also is a calamity. I never possessed so good means . “As I was a scribe I read that letter.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. He replied. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. We spent fifty nights in this very state and my two friends confined themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. When Ka’b’s turn came. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. . by All¯h. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made.

Then He turned to them. Meanwhile. when Muhammad heard this.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. ¯ .” she replied. Muir. 201. vol. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. “But don’t go near him.” he says.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. 505.” Muhammad told her. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. And they perceived that there is no fleeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. there is glad a tiding for you.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. Life of Mahomet. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. Prophet’s biographer. p. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. he spends his time in weeping. Some of them even began to sell their arms. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. vol. that they might repent. and so did their souls become straitened within them. I.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended. By All¯h. p.” 5 5 W. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. IV. and the latter received him with a smiling face. even until Antichrist appear. M¯lik. The same message was sent to the other two. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. also Tabaq at. “By All¯h. On the morning of the fiftieth day. as he was a “a senile person”. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. he has no a such instinct in him. His followers heaved a sigh of relief.

Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water.) a ikh i. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. REPENTANCE. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. .” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. I. the center of great jealousy in the harem. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. 504. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. Peace was eventually restored. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. p. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. but in order to avoid further complications. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike off his neck. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. Mary. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol.

men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. It is a small book. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. the Fire of Hell. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had offered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. and there is a whole chapter. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites.some out of conviction. a bottomless pit of scorching fire. men of incomplete faith. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯fiq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). But in the peculiar theology of Islam. and some out of spite for the Meccans. skeptics. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. They were doubters. and the rejecters of Faith. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves.Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . . a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. named after ¯ ¯ them. Some of the citizens saw. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellfire. For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. a H¯wiyah.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). men and a a women. others out of chivalry. . or S ura. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. such doubts were morally the most heinous. a a ocrites very often (twenty-five times). therein shall they dwell . The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. called Mun¯fiq in.

for though they did not believe in Muhammad. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. many of them believed in war spoils. then by All¯h. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them effectively. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. Muhammad (Pelican Books. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. and soon they seized a whole yard. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. said in a poem that the different a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. p. 624 brought him the opportunity. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 1973). But the realization came too late. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. They could put their ideas into verses. D. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. related to Aws Man¯t. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. His victory at Badr in January A. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. Auf. they a would have gone somewhere else. 157-158. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut off the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. The opposition could now be intimidated. Muhammad detested them. 1 . It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept off their feet by the new religious fad. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. pp. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. converts. INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯fiq¯ the disillusioned a in. 676). His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. and much of it could also be bought.” she sang. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. If we had kept our own for ourselves.

Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination.” Muhammad had assured him. p. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. had not fought at Badr. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. ¯ ¯ . but nothing a happened. This turned out to be only too true. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the five sons of ’Asm¯. Also. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. Muir.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. p. offered to assassinate her. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. We have already mentioned his case. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. a new apprehension. and when they returned after fulfilling their task. The assassin had a powerful patron. including the two assassins named above. p. Muhammad treated it in his usual way .” he prayed. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. because of his open sedition and verses. . vol. When he a replied in the affirmative. 132. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. W.” he told the departing assassins. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. 368. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. Life of Mahomet. This they did by these perfidious acts. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another influential half-Jewish poet. a new equation. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. And again there was a ready assassin at hand.he spat on it and it was healed. 676. “Lord. They were too cowed. .” he told them. Most of the local converts. III. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. There was something new in the atmosphere. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. look ye here. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i.

a Jewish merchant. I would have cut your head off. . they say. D. Ibn Ish¯q. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . p. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. . . Muhammad entered Medina in April A. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. a common goal.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. 622. He exclaimed. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. They have made their oaths a screen . . 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same effect. . did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. chided him: “You enemy of God. but the opposition was badly divided. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. .. 369. Muhammad picked different groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. a Muslim convert. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. Furtive in action. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. The demoralization was complete.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary offense in the beginning. a 5 6 ibid. ¯ ¯ . The killer’s brother. 676. a common ideology and passion. But this period of caution did not last long. common interests. A seal is set on their hearts . and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. “By God. . the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. Huwayyisa. p. . All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoffed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows.” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. it said one thing and did another. Mas’¯d. but they are indeed liars . As his power increased.” says Ibn Ish¯q. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). They had promised each other a u ir. They are enemies. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. the doubters among the local converts.

Thou dost reckon them as one body. and his importance declined fast. p. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. Muhammad besieged this tribe. by God. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. 624. .” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still influential in the affairs of Medina. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). This was in February A. Three years later. the Medinan opposition had already lost its influence and Muhammad had a field day. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. in March-April A. But even then. When they surrendered. these will not help them. . He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. leaving their goods behind to the victor. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. . independence of judgment. but their hearts are separated.) 7 Ibn Ish¯q. . He was once the leading citizen of Medina. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. these will not go forth with them. because of his influence. D. ¯ ¯ . He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. If they be driven forth. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. But God bears witness that they are liars. (See pp. 92. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. D.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. and if they be fought against. 627. and loyalty are qualities. 363. a new force entered the scene. and his appeal was also a threat. But after the arrival of Muhammad. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. but if patriotism. . Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of five or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. and if you be fought against we will help you .199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . he was not an unworthy man. It is said that just before Muhammad came. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. and if to save is better than to kill. .

a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. when confronted with this statement. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. . and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. so he accepted the denial. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. and you have divided your property among them . but it rankled in his mind. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. Since ’Abdullah was an influential citizen. He had an image to protect. about ’Abdullah. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. the stronger will drive out the weaker. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. he gave it serious thought. at a more opportune moment. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. he was spared. two thousand camels. Aws and Khazraj. The booty included two hundred families. On this occasion.” 8 Later. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. On the way back. With all the proposals and consultations. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. Ibn Ubayy.’ But when we return to the Medina city. Huzair. denied it. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. All¯h confirmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). But Muhammad was cautious. with his usual weakness. also heard about it.” he advised.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. and later. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. p. he consulted Usaid b. You have let them occupy your country. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. But wiser counsels prevailed. He went to Muhammad and offered to kill his father with his own hands. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. and five thousand sheep and goats. . Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. a fanatic Muslim. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. 491. ¯ ¯ . Tempers were frayed on both sides.

but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). who questioned ’Abdullah. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. he had u already become a back number.D. Muhammad at first accepted this denial at its face value. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. Some of the persons who were with them came back. 492. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coffin for his father. p. ¯ ¯ . PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. at his a is son’s request. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. and he was isolated from his people and allies. with this background. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. Now. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq).” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad.” ’Umar submitted. the Prophet. 625). let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. denied having said any such thing.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. By this time.201 Later on. who narrates the whole story. they heard ’Abdullah b. according to Ibn Ish¯q. The latter. Zaid b. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. on oath.

Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. and “there was a ceaseless flow of persons. The hereafter will take care of itself.” All were pardoned except one man. this should not be done” (6684). the owner of a red camel. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. the hill of Mur¯r. . but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul. . when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. Qays. but the earth again threw him out. At last they left him unburied” (6693). According to Huzaifa.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. . .202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. his sins would be obliterated. They again dug . . People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. who was forbidden to divulge the information. Thus intimidation had started quite early. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Sufficient unto the day is the work of the day.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. One group said: We would a kill them. AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. and he remained busy in finding out his lost thing” (6691). But the man replied: “By All¯h. and the other one said: No. Either you fight for us or we fight you. Other traditions identify him as Harr b. so far as I am concerned the finding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. . They again dug the grave . but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. this hill. but the earth again threw him out . A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. they were twelve men. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliff. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a .

it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. Ruffaa had been the first to receive ’Umar and offer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. angry. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. hereafter. Ibn ’Umar. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. sensuous copy of the here. it threatens and promises. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. incidents in the life of the Prophet. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the first tribes to suffer at the hands a of Muhammad. dvesa.e. . She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. and all such details of little larger spiritual significance. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two flocks. and moha) are not to be trusted . DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. but that the trances of a passionate. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. the place. for it is very different from them in a temper and subject matter. and deluded mind (i. It is feverish in tone. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind.. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-first and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). the circumstances of their revelation. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. merely an exaggerated.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. india a vidual men. but with the a . who had already chosen his pastures. According to other traditions. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. It tells us about the time. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt).behind them often a . u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruffaa.

It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). on the Day of Resurrection. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. The information throws no particular light on this revelation. It contains only fifty traditions. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). but chronologically it is one of the last . But I want to be there.” Muhammad agreed. For example. I yield my turn to ’Aisha. then in her forties. It is entirely fitting that a S ura of such bitterness. and adds nothing essential to its subject.according to Sir William Muir. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). among your wives. Resurrection Day was far off. or “Banish¯ ment”). ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. II. and do even now.204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. . The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. ¯ the very last. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). This is understandable. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). ¯ condemnation. the fifty-ninth S ura. a completed favour upon you. which makes such a tall claim. had¯ 899). ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. the majority of men and women in the world. the eighth S ura. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. in the first five ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superficial manner. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i.

edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. New York. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. London. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. H.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www.. popular and much in use. Urdu translation in 2 vols. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n.usc. Translation by E. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. Muhammad Ashraf. James Robson. Delhi: Kitab Khana. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Glorious Qur¯n. Palmer. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. ih a if. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. translation. 1973. Lal Kuan. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Lahore: Sh. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols.html] Sah¯ Muslim. 205 . 1980. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. Abridged Urdu ih a i. Lahore: ih Sh. Qur¯n Majeed. Muhammad Ashraf. 1973-1975. Reprint of English translation by Dr. i if.

1973. Ibn Sa’d. Karachi: Nafees Academy. Edinburgh and New York: T. translated and edited by A. Pelican Books. i. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. Mahmud. S¯ a ikh i. Scholarly and pioneering study. 3rd ed. The very first definitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. 1893. London: Royal Asiatic Society. London: Smith. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed fifteen volumes on a a i. 310 (A. Ghaffari. India. trans. 1885. a Shiaism by S. E. Delhi-6. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. Elder & Co. Urdu translation in 11 vols. vols. Guillaume. Selections from sermons. The Life of Muhammad. Tehatsek. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. by Syed a i. edited by James Hastings. different classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. popularly known as Mirkhond. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. and his S¯ of Muhammad. . S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. Oxford. Urdu translation in 8 vols. 1980. Ali Raza. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. reprinted. letters. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. Tehran: Shahpur Square.206 CHAPTER 20. D. Khavendshah b. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. 4 vols. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals.. 1861. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. 1 and 2. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. New York. A fifteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. & T. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. H. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics.. English translation. 1976. 922). SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. Scholarly. Clark. Karachi: Nafees Academy. 1976. by Tabar¯ The first volume. ¯ died in A.

1897.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir.)-India. Among other things. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. All¯habad: R. S.. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. Ratlam (M. 3rd impression.] .P. 1st ed. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. 1980. New Delhi: Impex India. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. Hindi publication in 3 vols. Rupa & Co. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids. New Delhi. reprinted. Publishing House. 2005. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism.

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