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Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
H. D. They were sources of prestige and proﬁt.000 traditions but accepted only 7. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. 202-275 = A. particularly the Alids. 209-279=A. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. 817-888) u a¯ and others. There was an even more pressing reason. It is also u a¯ said that 40. H. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. H. Spurious traditions were coming into being. 194-256=A. Soon after Muhammad’s death. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. drowning the genuine one’s. the Ummayads. or what they thought were the right theological views. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs.000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers.800 traditions out of a total of 500. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. Under these circumstances. 204-261=A. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. In this struggle. D. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad.000 of them as authentic. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. There were many motives at play behind this development. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions.000. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. D. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. 824-892). 819-875). H. in the practice a of the Prophet. This was found in the Sunn¯h.in short. It is said that he collected 600. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. 810ail ai 870). and later on the Abbasides. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b.iii other reasons.was a great thing. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . A hundred years after Muhammad. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. D. great passions were generated. a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. There were also more personal motives at work.
the Had¯ is a collection of stories. the Had¯ the context. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . which were in vogue died away in due course. Of these. we must thank Dr. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. As the distance grows. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. but they contain much that is factual and historical.iv accepted only 2. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. who was born in Medina in A. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. reveals their more earthly motives. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. is rather unedifying. H. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. The of the Had is. In fact. Muhammad Ashraf). his forehead. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. and only six collections. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . To clarify certain points. rather all too human. D. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. H. It ih provides the base. The believers have handled.“the two authentics. 768) a in Baghdad. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. a i. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. narrated. about a man. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. or collections. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m.000 as genuine.” they are called. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). H. 32). a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. which only the Had¯ provides. 1958). 151 (A. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. 85 and died in A. The lapse of time helps the process. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. the hero looms larger. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. Over a thousand collections.
their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. a Even in the best of circumstances. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of .to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. or “countries of peace. a i.. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. They buy local politicians.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. In India. In fact. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. the old mission is being revived..e. All¯h. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak.” i. in Malaysia. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. When we read Dr. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. we have also quoted from the notes . with a large Muslim population. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . is again a on the march. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. Dr. Sidd¯ ¯ translation.about forty-ﬁve times . Here and there. and install in their place their own godling.081 footnotes.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. If anything. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m.e. and even India. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. In a Sah¯ containing 7. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. Isl¯m. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. Indonesia. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. In ih a is. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is.v whose mother tongue is English. having been dormant for several centuries. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship.
we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. It has one drawback. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. though. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. dictatorship comes in its wake. motivated by a compulsive atavism. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. Indeed. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. similarly. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity.vi the country. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. While we have in this way touched on many points. According to some thinkers. For this purpose. we have discussed none in full. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. On the other hand. was unavoidable. both of commission and omission. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. Therefore. it resists any change.190 traditions divided into 1. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. is In this volume. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. It gives us 7. it is also something more. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. It is a weapon of self-defense. a is. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. derived from the available symbols of their culture. But on calm reﬂection. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. and thus. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. in many cases.243 chapters. And. Wherever it triumphs. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. a is a is .
no cosmetics. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. but through his more workaday ideas and actions.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. . Similarly. praying. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . a it is accompanied by a standard blessing.” A similar formula. In our quotations from this literature. eating.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. containing 583 traditions. Here one comes to know him. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. The Sah¯ Muslim. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. comprising 180 traditions. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. One is also left to wonder how the believers. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. “may All¯h be pleased with him. the moral is whatever he did. dispensing justice. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. like other Had¯ collections. There is no makeup. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. generation after generation. In regard to the title of the book. no posturing for posterity. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. For example.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality .but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. could have found this story so inspiring. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. they were All¯h’s own acts.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. “may peace be upon him. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. hating. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. mating. although such instances are rather rare. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”.
one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. the Arabic alphabet’s se. For example. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. Shri P. ze. Sisir Kumar Ghose. ain. P. RAM SWARUP . C. Gupta. but we have made it do also for another sound. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. Dr. both have to be learned by ear. Jain. C. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. in order to avoid them as far as possible. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. Therefore. Shri A. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. Shri H. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. and zw¯d by z. they have preferred to remain anonymous. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. te (soft dental) and toe by t. Shri L. a by the English s. I thank them all gratefully. now both resident in America. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. and Mrs. z¯l.
. . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . .
. . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . POSTURE DURING PRAYER .
. . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . .
. . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE .
. 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi- . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hell. . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . 172 HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . LAVATION . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 . . . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . .
inform me about al-Isl¯m. when the inquirer is gone. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. pay Zak¯t. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. and you establish prayer.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. ifa. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar. A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. and says: “Muhammad.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. in the resurrection. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. yet without any sign of fatigue. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. 1 1 . in His angels. ih In quoting them. we give their numbers in parentheses. faith in His Book. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone. in the hereafter. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators.” Later on. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient.
a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. his father and the whole mankind. Muhammad and his God . “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h.” Other things mentioned are prayer. to name the more important ones. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Ramz¯n.rather. zak¯t. and they establish prayer. and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). All¯h and his Messenger . but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. . that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . Doomsday. FAITH (IM AN) ah. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. . But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. Hell. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. and many teachers. Similarly. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). Ramz¯n.) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. Sah¯ Muslim. in the history of Isl¯m. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. In the same vein. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. many philosophies. whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. is. and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth).prayer. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. . We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. and if they accept this. Paradise. zak¯t. .
His Book. But in Isl¯m. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind.” but who were ready to join him. and jizy¯. He has no obligations.3 In the eyes of Muhammad. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. Muhammad replies: “Yes. by the same token. but moral values are not altogether neglected. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). sincerity is a universal human value. . Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. moral or spiritual. u if the man committed adultery and theft. “Jih¯d. except to convert them by sword. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past.” i. If polytheism is the worst of crimes.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. one’s past crimes are obliterated. But on being asked.” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion. is the best of virtues. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. Ab¯ Zarr.. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. and a future ones hold no great terror. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. When asked. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. monotheism. Jar¯ b. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. In fact. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion.” a “What next?” he is asked. very little to others.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m . it is a limited to Muslims. But no morally wicked act . the narrator of the had is.can prevent his entry. . ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a . spoils. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. nation.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). For example.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). toward non-Muslims as part of the human race.” he replies (148).not even adultery and theft .e.
but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre. but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. in the state of ignorance” (222). THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. Thanks to this approach. as another text puts it. but if he embraces Isl¯m. Everything good began with Muhammad.” On hearing this. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. it is a a diﬀerent story. FAITH (IM AN) Again. To rob a whole people is piety. ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. some people were greatly perturbed. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. and the universal is turned into the sectarian. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). a revelation. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. . other moral values are given the same twist. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. We are told that one Hak¯ b. there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. They are no longer wasted. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). a . a God-ordained mission. This means. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. .4 Muslim” (102). THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223).
solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. . The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad.5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. his future is assured. This would also. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). for the hellﬁre is on his side. “O womenfolk . but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us.we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms . Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses.” the translator tells us (note 2967).” a Muhammad tells us (6668). His past is forgotten a unless it is good. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. “the a . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283). the Peoples of the Book. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. incidentally. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. . Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. Muhammad says. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. And understandably so. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good.
(16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. Ratlam. India). and the proof of their failing in religion. the Prophet’s wife. D. (6) a lesser share in inheritance. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). 1971. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. only one of which is attributable to women. (2) childbirth. But. In short. (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her.6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. 164-165). 1058-1111). it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. Deva ¯ Prakash. as he tells them. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. says that “All ah. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. In the Qur¯n. ’Aisha. The dreaded day (yaum). FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. He be praised. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. (5) not having control over her own person. but for a woman to have only one husband. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). it seems. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. or of “separation” (fasl). (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. Paradise and Hell. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. London: University of Durham Publications. . pp. when you see barefooted.that is one sign. (4) pregnancy.that is one of the signs of Doom. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. naked. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. a famous Arab divine of his time. and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth .
but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. They will say: “Thirsty we are. Considering that unbelievers.” They will go to a Moses.” Then they will be asked what they want.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. On this day.” They will go to Jesus.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. The translator makes this statement clearer for us. Thanks to his special role. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. inﬁdels. If this is true. Unbelievers. “You tell a lie. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. For example. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. the water is no more than a mirage. “I am not ﬁt to do this. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. “Jesus.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349). and with it is decided their fate. of course. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. and polytheists are strictly kept out. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396).” They will be given a certain direction.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. and it is really hell. All¯h “will gather people. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383).” He will appeal to All¯h.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. the son of All¯h. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son.” All¯h will tell them. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. but you go to Jesus. “What did you worship?” When they reply. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. but go to Moses.26).” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. a you better go to Muhammad. for example. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided.” Then they will come to Muhammad.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited. a a im. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. Muhammad a . and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. Christians will be summoned and asked. I have. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. however. and his intercession will be granted a (377). for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389).
. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). . . and a a a in his own apostleship. he told a questioner: “Verily. On the Day of Resurrection. Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers .” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. Regarding his father. . ’Aisha. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering. but needst not go out of your way to save them. are not my friends. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. a In any case. however. About him. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. the Prophet’s young wife. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. fed the poor. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. a a a Usayya.8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. that Muhammad was consistent. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). For example. FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). therefore. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. their good works will not avail them. . Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. Ab¯ T¯lib. Ri’l Zakw¯n. even though they were their kith and kin. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion.” declares Muhammad (417).
When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection.one prayer will now count for ten . Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. Similarly. on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. kill swine. But if we look at the matter closely. Moses in the sixth. In any case. riding on al-Bar¯q. and Abraham in the seventh. or “circles” (as Dante called them). such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. of heaven. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. a . “an animal white and long. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” . the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). a One night.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. He will break crosses. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief. Jesus in the second. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven. and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty. Then he met All¯h. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. this belief. But on the advice of Moses. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy. and abolish jizy¯. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. In fact. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians.
10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288). “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. as the translator explains. a . For. Jesus will. therefore.
prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution.g. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). (5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. and childbirth (nif¯s). or impure: coitus (jim¯). the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. (2) ghusl. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. (4) ﬁtra. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). and abstersion.. It deals with such matters as ablution. (3) tayammum. literally “nature.Chapter 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. become ritualistically unclean. He 11 . Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). a a menses (hayz). defecation. physical and ritualistic. the major. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers.
.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. then wiped his head. CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. . .” he said (487).” and so on. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. For the a identiﬁcation of faces. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). . the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . . PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. plucking the hair under the armpits. then washed his left foot.12 ¯ CHAPTER 2. CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. . He then washed his face three times. then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. . all his previous sins are expiated” (436). this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. he must clean his nose three times. There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). then washed his left arm like that. . so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). and clipping the moustache. About the moustache and the beard. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . shaving the pubes. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . This became the standard ablution. trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). . cutting the nails. and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . According to Muslim canon scholars. .
. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy. but the rock moved away. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination.e.. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551).e.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts.” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. in combing. In this connection. my clothes. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia. while taking his bath. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. in wearing shoes. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). O stone. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669). and said: “By All¯h. But God vindicated him. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. When they asked him about their provision of food. i. but Moses took his bath alone. and in performing ablution” (515). Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460).” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). a . Moses put his clothes on a rock. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504). my clothes. wash it seven times. Once. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act.
“He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. “he should wash the secretion of his wife.e. but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance. The man said yes. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”).” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. having experienced orgasm. but ablution is binding” (676). a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. The Prophet. and that should be as good as ablution with water. The translator .” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. you can take to tayammum. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing.. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. There is another had¯ of similar import. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). pointing to ’Aisha. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). And on yet another occasion. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. i. and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. bathing is not obligatory for you. who was sitting by him.
On the subject of menstruation. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. . “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. So keep away from women in their course. and when it was referred to the Apostle. but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). Muhammad’s practice appears. in fact. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. O Commander is a of the Faithful. There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. . and you ﬁnd no water. But later on this command was abrogated. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. . Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. .15 explains why. He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . some cross-reference is inevitable. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. and he was presented with a some food. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686). does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. in some respects. This chapter too. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). Therefore. . for except for coitus all . The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. or you have touched women. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. and the people reminded him about ablution. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). for both have to do with ritualistic purity.
Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. this question to Muhammad directly. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. For example. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution.16 ¯ CHAPTER 2.” ’Aisha reports (584). Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. or scriptural studies. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. and drink. especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. Umm Salama reports the same (581). and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. But Muhammad did not go that far. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man .
’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. a believers (603). 611). Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. ” (616). had¯ 124). and sometimes he performed ablution only. The same obligation lay on women.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept. coitus. and pollutio nocturna. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. . puerperium. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. In the words of Ab¯ Bakr.17 ¯ (semen). when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. then purify yourselves” (5:6). there should be an ablution” u is. “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. “You humiliated the women. he a ﬁrst washed his hands. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse.” they told her (610. (605). he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . . . the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). I.” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer.” he was told (593).
he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. I. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. He had his Apostle’s privilege. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. they took their bath in pitch darkness. 631). The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. is . many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up. There were no glaring lights. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. Muhammad was not bound by them. II. i. in this case. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. which. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. had¯ 1584). it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. moreover. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). had¯ 108). and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. Two other wives of Muhammad. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id.
people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. and so on. as the Christians did. Bil¯l. 19 . 737. As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). with 1. a who was very loud-throated. the Christians. There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured. and ’Abdullah b. postures like bowing. who later became blind. caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula.Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). others a horn. As there is one All¯h. Umm Makt¯m. and the Fireworshippers. as the Jews did. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. 741). one Book. prostrating and rising. there is also one Prayer. in Medina. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers. All these methods were ruled out. the prayer for rain. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735. the system of the human voice was introduced. some suggested using a bell. In the beginning. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. But in all these pages. To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. one Guide. It is the longest.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. the prayer relating to the dead. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began.
One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). Where it was heard. he stopped” (745). All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. In a variation on this theme. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. . a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. d in In seeking blessings for himself. 808). so if he heard an Az¯n. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very eﬀective. “When Satan hears the call to prayer. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject.20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. will be assured of my intercession. He who blesses me once. it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity). He would listen to the Az¯n. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. sitting or standing. Another saw his “hands lifted . He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. with Muhammad as Messenger. The Holy Prophet. and his wives and his oﬀspring . POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600).” says Muhammad (747). how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. “Apostle of All¯h. therefore. . and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749).
Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. . . . otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him.” he tells them (817). .21 opposite to ears. he brought out his hands from the cloth. In the beginning. 1057). you a should also prostrate. He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). when there is a valid reason for doing so. and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). you should also rise up. And when he was about to bow down. Also. When someone once a did this. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997).” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. one of them should lead them” (1417).” The seven bones are: “The hands. Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. when-he rises up. And when prostrated. and then to put them between one’s thighs. “When he prostrates. he prostrated between the two palms” (792). the knees. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). palm to palm. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. he prayed facing . The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. and then lifted them . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . It should be led by an im¯m.
their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate.22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. 2 u is That is. ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. spoils have been made lawful to me . The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. . 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). . the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. . the narrator of this had¯ (1063). “I have been helped a is by terror. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. . 1 . they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. . It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting. a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). is which other prophets lack (1058). Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). . For example. foe or friend. . But later on. . and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. I have been sent to all mankind. the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina. Immediately 1 .” says Muhammad. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them.
thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year. vol. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). But within two decades everything changed. Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation. a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. For a fuller account of the Civil List.000 dirhams a year. and their children. established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. II. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i.000 dirhams a year. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). The diw an. but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. pp. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. . DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. 4. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. According to another tradition. 476-479. after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate.000 to 9. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). 2.000 dirhams. For example. or Civil List.000 dirhams a year. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden).000 dirhams a year.23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). 5. The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665)..
on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). during a war.24 ¯ CHAPTER 3. . . For example. First things ﬁrst. one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. Qur¯n a 62:11).” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. a An interesting story is reported in this connection. . a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. on it he was made to enter Paradise. PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. One Friday. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan. there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. But though Muslims “are the last. one should ﬁrst take food. “We were guided a aright to Friday. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins.” says Muhammad (1134). “On it Adam was created. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863).
I meant to seize him. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. leave them alone” (1946). ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. and it was the day of Id” (1942). One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. DANCE. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. MUSIC.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. “Thereafter. On the same occasion. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad.’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face. Muhammad. make the most of this had¯ a is. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938). and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). . his voice a rose. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. he did not retreat.” a is But even though cursed. in which music plays an important role. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. his eyes became red. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something.
‘There is no god but All¯h.” says a the Prophet (1996).’ So I said this. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. supplicate for good.” ’Aisha a tells us. Ab¯ Salama has died. “If the dead person was good. When you visit the sick or the dead. and the good of that which it was sent for. and Muhammad married her four months later. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. what evil it contains. and the good which it contains. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). to whom she had borne many children. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. However.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology.’ to those who are dying. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. “Exhort to recite. Ub¯da. u He died at Uhud. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. He regarded clouds and winds with terror.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds.
a but He did not grant it to me. according to certain traditions. and He granted it to me” (2129). over his expiring child. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency. had¯ 912. who was only eighteen months old. p. 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. also William Muir. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. I. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). is . vol. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. i. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. 165. IV. Life of Mahomet.27 the heart feels. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue].
PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.
Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. being migrants. But with him it became a tax. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. and for the wayfarers. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. In this form. In the begina ning. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. the ﬁrst phrase. “in the service. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling. an old Arab practice. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. Muhammad had many followers who were needy.” a a 29 . of All¯h. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. and most of them. conventional recipients of charity. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. or way. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60).” those who collect and administer the funds.” All these are a in]. and everyone else was excluded on principle. or zak¯t. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. and to be spent by its representatives. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention.Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming.
a a and horses. hearts. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. . This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. women. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). Aslam. as it still has for his followers. Also. Faz¯r. and as for ’Abb¯s. . a had refused to pay the tax. or reconciling. I shall be responsible a a . The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. ’Abb¯s. The resentment against zak¯t was general. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. it had for the Prophet. and children back to Medina as hostages. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. and after this the tax collection became smoother. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. When he reported that Khal¯ b. . the collection of the tithe became aggressive. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. They had to be ransomed. when the power of Muhammad became supreme. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. or jih¯d. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). a heavenly sanction.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. “gaining over. or 1 pound]” (2134). a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. The second phrase. equipment. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148).” means “bribes” in unadorned language. ’Umar. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful.30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. a Ghif¯r. bear in mind. on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. and several other tribes. ’Umar was appointed the collector. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. After is the conquest of Mecca. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. .
But he taught. and in some ways wisely.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. that charity should begin at home. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. and then on other good deeds. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. . the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). “a sandy plain would be set for him. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. then on relatives and friends. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. For example.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . as extensive as possible. then on one’s wife and children. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. he called him and asked him if he had any other . This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). In fact. Following a common practice. . And when these cool down. plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. when the Day of Resurrection would come. When Muhammad heard this. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self.
not polytheistically or pantheistically. . and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. ¯ (2197-2204). . there is a Sadaqa” (2198). of course. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). A lady set her slave-girl free. is a Sadaqa. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). And.32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. or helping him load his luggage upon it. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. The man replied no. . Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . but it agrees with the general practice. and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. you would have a greater reward” (2187). it should be spent on your family.the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer. . gave the money to the owner. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. ¯ 1 . and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i. Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248).. All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically.” There is another story that makes the same point.e. there is a Sadaqa . and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. Nor was it really revolutionary. and a good word is a Sadaqa. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. and if anything is left. When informed about it. In the same vein. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h].
is but are not visited by two angels. then to a rich man.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. For example. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. a . PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. When Muhammad returned. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174).” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207).33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. then to a a thief. a and the other says: O All¯h. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. FORNICATION. THEFT. CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. This is true. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. with praise to All¯h. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. A man is gives charity. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. ﬁrst to an adulteress. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. for instance. give him more who spends. By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. he remembered his command and remained where he was. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. Muhammad left him to go some other place. One of them says: O All¯h.
or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. has two aspects. il.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. when it is distributed among the ummah. it is zak¯t. or on the “Path of All¯h. but on the other. But though sadaqa was not permitted. ’Abb¯s. whether as zak¯t for the poor. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us.” said the Prophet (2340). saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). zak¯t became secondary. it is still war booty. They went a to Muhammad with their request. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. a Khums. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). Its distribution created a lot of a . two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. In fact. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. When it is a acquired. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. ’Abd i.e. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. a al-Muttalib and their posterity.. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. and Haris b. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. it is war booty. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. freed slave. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. the distinction between the two was soon lost. On the one hand. gifts were welcome. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. He took it. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. or as gifts for his Companions. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people.” i. it is zak¯t. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing.
H¯bis. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. a . I often bestow something on a person. . ’Uyaina b. Zaid al-Khail. Aqra. whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. and ’Alqama b.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Tufail” (2319). The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). both mundane and celestial. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing. or merit. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. so that I may incline them to truth.or at any rate that others deserved less . in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). Safw¯n u a a b. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). Many of them thought they deserved more . Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. . Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b.” says Muhammad (2303). Muhammad had other considerations as well. Umayya. justice. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m.35 heart-rending among his followers. ’Abdullah b. Hisn. Harb. that is. Ulasa (2303-2314). “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. combined with threats. . but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). Aqra’ b. GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. There are other instances of the same type.than they got. like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b.
” On hearing this. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition. and shaven head. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. . and his face ¯ became red”. who would do justice if I do not do .36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. but he showed patience” (2315). ’Uyaina. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. i Muhammad showed favoritism. were merely his “outer garments”. and Aqra. he added theology.” a canal in heaven (2313). One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. a man with deep-sunken eyes. thick beard.” This silenced the men. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. prominent cheekbones. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. but one of them. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. stood up. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). who had received the spoils.” This angered a a Muhammad. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. Mird¯s. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. fear All¯h and do justice. When some people complained. Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. Muhammad “was deeply angry . they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils.e. In its distribution. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. after the conquest of Mecca.. The ans¯rs a were happy. were closer to him). To cajolery. u a Safw¯n. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them. In other cases when similar complaints were made. while the Quraish.
said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. who later on were called the khw¯rij. These men. . they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . but it would not go beyond their throat. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. kill them. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. who was present. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328).37 justice?” ’Umar.” . took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327).” Though the man was spared. It was about them. . them. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. he and his posterity were denounced.
38 ¯ CHAPTER 4. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .
In Isl¯m. Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435).” a 39 .Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. “Take meal a little before dawn. it is compulsory. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise.” says Muhammad (2413). who ate early and broke their fasts late. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence. This has its disciplinary role. the gates of mercy are opened. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. waiting for the stars to appear. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412).
There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). he should still go on with his fast.” and retracted his previous position (2451). Muhammad’s wives. . . ’Aisha and Salama. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . It has a divine sanction. ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting.40 CHAPTER 5. in the month of Ramz¯n. . “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation. This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). “They have better knowledge. Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. . and would observe fast” a (2454). SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). In fact. Muhammad’s wives. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama. Hafsa. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). a a . and Salama. Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). failing that. the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. ’Aisha. Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. Prior to Isl¯m. At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently. .but during the Prophet’s lifetime. he said.” In addition. by observing a two-month fast or. failing that. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. by feeding sixty poor men . all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting.
i. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons..e. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). but with his permission” (2238). but a I could not do it . menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h.” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). a fast during a journey could be broken. A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. in the act of jih¯d. while the husband is present. a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). . so break the fast. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts.41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. . “Fast if you like and break it if you like. One is the Ashura fast. And she should not admit any mahram in his house. and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). For example. “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength..” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488).e. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned.” i. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. but after a . “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. and in the pre-Isl¯mic days.
but nothing was available. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk.” After some time.” Muhammad tells us. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. some food came as gift. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a .” He said: “Bring that. On the Day of a Resurrection. All¯h would remove.42 CHAPTER 5.and when the last of them has entered. He may spend it if he likes. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. but we need not go into them here. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). a a a because of this day. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening.” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts. One day. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast.
it reached more than 130. He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men.” she adds in another had¯ (2685).” until.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. a Two years later. or trouser or cap” (2647).” After the fall of Mecca. 632. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. but not before and after. or hajj. ih p. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). a call to submission. and a victory it turned out to be. for no booty was promised and they thought. “As the caravan moved on. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. Even so. pilgrimage. It was also. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. 612). In the sixth year of the Hijra. Mecca succumbed.” Great preparations were made for the occasion. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. is . ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. their response on this occasion was great. “The best of perfume. Two years later.” says ’Aisha (2683). It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. but their response was lukewarm. In order to swell the number. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina. partially armed. D. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. unlike the last time. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). at their own convenience and for their own gods. as the Qur¯n puts it. For his dress. In this year of victory. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. in March A. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. according to some of the narrators. the number of participants swelled. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. they knew. by a kind of delayed action. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. Thus. was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims.
he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. He hath performed His promise. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). O All¯h”). run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. For the same reason. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). “Talbiyah. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite.. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). so that people should see him.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). he should not shave or pare his nails. After arriving a a in Mecca. . and he should be conspicuous” (2919). we would have accepted it from you” (2704).” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks. .44 CHAPTER 5. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. . Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio.e.” Muhammad never relaxes. the two “Signs of All¯h. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous. its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. but he declined it. . ’Umar said: “By All¯h. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. and then kissing the stick. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. . rat and voracious dog. At every turn. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. crow. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. two seamless wrappers. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass. then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f).
This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. While doing this. . he chants: “In the name of a ir. It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce . One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. Abraham. or a cow or a camel. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). on their size and number. Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). the Almighty. Their number should be odd. and Ishmael.45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. a is and on the best time for throwing them.” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. I do this. While sacriﬁcing the camel. therefore. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. On the tenth a day. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030).” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs.” says the Prophet (2982). and garlanded them. and then he marked them.on the 11th .“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. The pebbles should be small . the casting of the pebbles. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). and after that . God. ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. and then sent them to the House. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven).
Though the nab¯ iz. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. pp. . his biographers tell us. Muhammad took part of the content. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. and when it was cooked. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6).46 CHAPTER 5. the God of the Jews. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one. . vol. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. gives us one further detail which a a i. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). I would have drawn it along with you. and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands. we are told by J¯bir.” To his followers. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. II. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. he took it. a Even Jehovah. so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805). DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. he said: “Draw water. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). had declared that He “desired mercy. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. 241-244). iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. .by spitting into it. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased. he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. nab¯ a soft drink. he sacriﬁced sixty camels. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m.
the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. and sacriﬁced the animal. There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . He then called a for a barber and. Before leaving Mecca. after which he turned his left side. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. 29). and prepare for them each ambush . after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). All¯h. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them. turning his right side to him. The diﬀerence is striking. This was All¯h’s own command. p. 1 . 620). “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. from others. . Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacriﬁce. . . But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. Before a returning home. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. let him shave him.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. . . All ah will enrich you from His grace . Shaving should begin from the right side. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). a Now the pilgrimage is over. . Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. and take them and besiege them. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times.
48 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .
as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. II. vol. “I will not marry women”. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. he has no a relation with me” (3236). one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). I observe fast and suspend observing them. ¯ 1 49 . so when one of you see a woman. he is the best who has the largest a i.Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. but not in our own selves. number of wives” (Tabaq at. “I will not eat meat”. A woman is a great safety valve. “I will not lie down in bed. and yet another said. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. 1 In fact. p. Zainab. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). a Muhammad forbids celibacy. One of his Companions said. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. he should come to his wife. We are all too ready to see the devil in others. another said. he should come home and cohabit with his wife. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. 146).
one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. with modest conduct. this restriction a was relaxed. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. and do not transgress. H. Also. God is knowing. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. and without fornication. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. except those who are your hands as slaves . on the authority of his father. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a . Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. consanguinity. We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. . we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. For example. a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. . Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). He told another group: “Yes. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). A. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). . This is the law. Salama reports.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). Qur¯n 5:87). And it is allowed you. but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). rank. but it is not entirely so. Generally speaking. etc. to seek out wives by means of your wealth.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. IYas b. religion. though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. Later on. besides this. Verily. aﬃnity. ’Abdullah b. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413).
vol. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. he was sexually weak). 269). and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. not even an iron ring for a dowry. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him.” reports Usm¯n b. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). thrice) before severing it. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . and he disposes what Allah proposes. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. but made no decision” about her. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage.. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha.” he told her (3354). a One should also not outbid one’s brother. p. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. “Your wives are your tilth. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. But man is inventive. Rauzat-us-Safa. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. F¯timah.51 by Muhammad himself. . I. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). 2 . The man said yes. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. part II. The new dispensation led to another abuse. . which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). “A believer is the brother of a believer.” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. Aﬀ¯n.e. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter.” But the man possessed nothing. But this point is controversial.
¯ According to some schools. but in practice it is her nearest kinsman.” They consulted Muhammad. a woman has her rights. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. for that is in the hand of All¯h.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority.52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. . . and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. . a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. as the commentators tell us. WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. and we desired them . and took some excellent Arab women. . and her silence implies her consent” (3307). but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. she can seek a divorce. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . those women. The father and the grandfather are i). She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. Theoretically. . but it should be through one hole” (3365). And a virgin should also be consulted. but we also desired ransom for them. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). . which means vagina only. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). if the husband fails to provide it.” that is.
. the daughter of one Jaun. serve us drink” (4981). “Did you cast a a glance at her. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. The a man replied: “Yes. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s . A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. but All¯h now gave a new one. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives.” “For what dower did you marry her.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). based on an old moral code. . so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. Then. a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. All¯h.53 whether married or unmarried. from “head to foot”.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger.” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. An Arab woman named ’Umra. Most High. . the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. We have nothing which we should give you.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. She was “sitting with her head downcast.” the man replied.” Muhammad asked.” They saw each other. But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident. . who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. or holy war. and Muhammad talked to her.” Muhammad inquired. A believer came to Muhammad. “For four Uqiyas. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions. It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424).” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315).
But while he is in bed with one of them. he spent three nights with her. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often.” When the morning prayer was announced. In order to be impartial. Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. One of the problems. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). . One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). ’Aisha. he is allowed to have his other wives around. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. All¯h is very accommodating.54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. a believer should visit his wives by turn. Anas. taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. When he intended to leave. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). for example. tells us that when Muhammad married her. one of the servants of Muhammad. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . she “caught hold of his garment”. one of the wives of Muhammad. . one wife could make over her day to another. when Zainab came there. . He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. come u a for prayer. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. hearing their voices. Umm Salama. .
and when you enter.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. 3464). THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. you have the enjoyment” (3462). Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband.” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926).” the Prophet tells us (3471). was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. they also swelled his harem. Saf¯ iyya. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when . a beautiful girl of seventeen years. a a a ‘yes. have you married?’ I said.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336).
” according to Anas.” (Incidentally. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. so I was afraid for you on her account. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). you shall let her go where she will. 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. Akhtab. and she shall be your wife.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329).” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. Dihya was strikingly handsome.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. in violation of his own command. And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb. al-’Aww¯m. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). her husband. then you shall bring her home to your house. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. and you take them captive. Many other women. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception. many people were butchered. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. Her husband. and till recently she was in unbelief. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. and be her husband. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. “We took Khaibar by force.56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. ¯ ¯ 4 . of them. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. if you have no delight in her. after that you may go in to her. and many others were taken prisoners. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. but you shall not sell her for money. p. 517). Gabriel or no Gabriel. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. Then. and her people. whom Muhammad often followed. Saf¯ iyya. Kin¯na. was put to a cruel death (3325). the daughter of Huyayy b. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. spades and strings driving their cattle along. was more considerate. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 515). preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. a In any case. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. you shall not treat her as a slave. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. p. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. In the morning. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women.
he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. in the eyes of the Arabs. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. again Jewish.57 concubine. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel. ¯ ¯ . Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. and she was immediately put to death. iya a In the division of the booty. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. as good as his own daughter-in-law. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. When Zaid heard about it. told him to keep his wife for himself. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer. named Zainab. a pp. man or woman. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. 252-255). husband. p. Zaid. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. I detested her. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”. 493. but Muhammad. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he oﬀered to divorce her. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. On that very day. He was saved. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). present and future.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. There was another girl.” And indeed. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. Mustaliq. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. and therefore. fearing a public scandal. II. Suspecting something wrong. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. vol. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. saw her in a state of seminudeness. and uncle killed. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. who had seen her father. and was aroused. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. and He revealed His plan.
a senior Compana ion. exclusive of slave concubines. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. According to the Shias.times. For example. adviser.” but in Isl¯mic law. Hasan. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). Yet there are certain restrictions. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. According to the translator. married seventy . once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. With such easy conditions of divorce. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. and friend of Muhammad. “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. who do not count. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). Muhammad. But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. Ab¯ Bakr. the son of ’Umar. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). People in his day called him the Divorcer. Somewhat later. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. two of whom were bondswomen. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). The procedure is not diﬃcult. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. the divorce becomes operative. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. . after three successive menses.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Wives were constantly replaced. ’Abdullah. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q.some say ninety . and ’Umar. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad.
The broken vow could be expiated. son of Rabi. In this form. . In this sense of the term. a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. Life of Mahomet. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. a In due course. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. .59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. As they sat together at a supper.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. and according to some traditions. a a i. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period. if not. . the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. on emigrating to Medina. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. In zih¯r. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. “that a which covers a sin”). but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. II. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. For example. Muir. pp. 272-273. vol. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . Muslims also took it during the period of fasting.
So our women began to learn from their women.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. however.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. a a I would certainly do that. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. let us provide some background information. but he insisted. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. She wept bitterly. In fact. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip. and jeering. He was admitted. but instead she found him with Mary. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). trying to pacify her. on my day and in my own bed. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. I entered the mosque. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. the beautiful Coptic concubine. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . Muhammad was very angry. He separated himself from them. excitement. Muhammad.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. Hafza. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. By All¯h. Muhammad’s doorman. “O Rah¯b. The request was disregarded. what trouble do you feel from your wives. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. In a long had¯ ’Umar b.” he told Rah¯b. and very soon everybody knew about it. In fact. a a kept himself away from his wives. a “I have nothing to do with you. promised never to visit Mary again. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. Hafza was furious. and a if you had divorced them. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. In visiting his numerous wives. we take them up. told ’Aisha. a As ’Umar entered. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all. who had even given Muhammad a son.” Muhammad relaxed.” he told her.” she shouted. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them.” so he tried to calm him down. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza]. “In my room. verily All¯h is with you. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. Mika’il. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. Gabriel. His angels.
the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if .” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. and he laughed. they were under two of our righteous servants. and they became his wives again. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. and the righteous of the a believers. had¯ 3507). particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. verily. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. asking for extra money. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. or to those charged with authority among them. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h.61 on his face . and Gabriel. and the angels after that will back him up. when Muhammad lacked funds.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot.but if you back each other up against him.” All¯h warned them. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. He is the sovereign. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). On this occasion. . . threatening his wives with divorce. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506).” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month.” ’Umar narrates. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. the famous verses descended on the Prophet.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. . All¯h. a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. craving to please thy wives? . In this new mood. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. [but] he visited them. . ¯ The matter blew over. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. some of them centering round money. . but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina. and it was said.for your hearts have swerved! . they broadcast it.
I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). died. Once ’idda has ended. and the latter was poor.e.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. and could get rid of their wives so easily. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child.” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima. In their place. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). observing: “By All¯h. Thus. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. the son of his slave and adopted son. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). but when it is really intended. Zaid. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. u a Muhammad advised against them both.. a mere woman. he beat his wives). Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. one of Muhammad’s wives.62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. She had two suitors. . “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). The wives chose the latter. Zaid (3512). She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks.
by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. One of a them must be lying. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. you will kill him.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. tribute. you would lash him. even in a their wildest dreams. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. They were the property of their master (saiyid). or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. but this closes the chapter. The fact is that slavery. But the fact remains that Muhammad. Similarly. which is most likely in such a case. besides thirty-eight servants. which is on business transactions . A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. was no more than a chattel. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). owned one thousand slaves when he died. The word a a literally means “oath. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. and if he keeps quiet.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. solve this problem” (3564). for that is forbidden. and if he speaks about it. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. after all. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. both male and female. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another.a slave. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. . a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. he cannot kill the adulterous man. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. Zubair. a close companion of the Prophet. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. Mirkhond. he shall have to consume anger. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities. and if he kills. for unless he has four witnesses. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy.
was that they were ransomed by their relatives. One way. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. 4:24. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . however. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. in contrition. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. On the other hand. he said: “Bring her to me. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. and a very common one. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. and marriage.these are some of the signs of Doom. To Muhammad. not a matter of justice. selling them. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. when the naked. Slaves had no property rights. On the whole.” according to him (4). Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. 23:6) permitted this. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him. gifting them away. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale.” says Muhammad (129). lending them. hiring them out. In any case. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. wanted to free her. inheritance. In the ﬁrst. 4:25.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. When Muhammad was consulted. In the second.” She was brought. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. of course.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. mortgaging them.
but must not be overburdened” (3582). nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. He cannot seek any new alliance. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. she is a a believing woman” (1094).65 of All¯h.” But the owner.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). the condition of a slave is no great evil.” she answered. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. It has its own reward. and emancipate her. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. . a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done. Bar¯ ira. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. even his private parts a for his” (3604). though ready to free her for cash money. a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance.
i. and it also records the words of the prophet . .66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. . This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. . . says: “He is. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie.
Bequests. were also made unlawful. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. Sal¯ b. Gifts. The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). Inheritances. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). his injunctions became state policy. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. a 67 . He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system).Chapter 7 Business Transactions. so his views on the subject should be of interest.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). Because of their speculative nature. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands.
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. something which Jesus forbade. I would see better than it. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. by All¯h. but he found something else better than that. “He who has to take an oath. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). BEQUESTS. INHERITANCES. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. . In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. but if later on. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h.” But only one of them became a pregnant..” says Muhammad (4043).” says Muhammad (4057). I cannot provide you a a mount. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. the vow a a must be fulﬁlled.72CHAPTER 7. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled. nor by your father.e. But he allows you to swear by God.” Muhammad says (4038). a An oath can be broken. and she gave birth to a premature child. a I would not swear. “He who took an oath. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i. should do that which is better and break his oath. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). GIFTS.” But immediately after they were gone. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. if He so wills. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet.” observes Muhammad. “Do not a a swear by idols. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. One day he said.
a i.e. For the death of a woman. Had ud) a The fourteenth. a ¯ Qis¯s. ﬁfteenth. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. qis¯s. or killed another. the procedure of investigating them. one hundred lashes for is. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. accusing her of adultery. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). mutilated. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. or retaliation. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. If a slave is killed. (pl.Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. only half of the blood-price is due. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). and taz¯ Hadd a ir. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. but according to one school. cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah.. only one-third is permissible in such cases. Qur¯n 5:38-39). Though the Qur¯n a 73 . a his owner must be compensated with his full value. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. a ihs In cases of murder. The law also permits qis¯s. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. but since a slave is a piece of property. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists).
Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. 2 i. he said: If I had been in his place. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. though not by burning. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. and the identity of his killer is unknown. For example. Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). when a man is found slain. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. ’Ali burnt them to death. Once a Muslim was found slain. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). and Muhammad adopted a it. wash their hands over the heifer.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. I. ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword.is death. ih . “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. The a punishment for apostasy . The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. ih ¯ i if. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. But when we went to him to take his leave. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. and he would be surrendered to you.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). he said. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. QIS AS. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. break its neck. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. This establishes their innocence. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. 1357). ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. The climate of Medina did not suit them.for giving up Isl¯m . it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. He gave us their names. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs.
it is retaliatory punishment. which involved the sister of one of the Companions.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. they killed the shepherds. and put out their eyes. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). but technically. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. Away from the control of the Prophet. according to many jurists). Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. and their feet.. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138). She had broken someone’s teeth. or if he has killed someone (i.e. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. The apostates were brought back. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. But in another case. but they were not given water” (4132). and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. When the case was brought to Muhammad. . or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. someone who is a Muslim. an eye for an eye. in Muslim a law. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132). bloodwite was allowed.
and also for drinking wine. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. Thus. who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). a hundred stripes for fornication. ’Aisha reports a similar case. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. ¯ HAD UD Had ud. Zaid. QIS AS. in a long two-page note. and death for apostasy. a a The translator.” ’Aisha adds (4188). nor made any noise. a woman committed some theft. “Hers was a good repentance. the penal law of Isl¯m. an exemplary punishment from All¯h.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. as we have already seen. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb.76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Although Us¯ma b. when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. the beloved of Muhammad. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185). . The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. stoning to death for adultery. causing her to have a miscarriage. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). a interceded in her behalf. her hand was cut oﬀ. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ. which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175).
‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. ’Abdullah. “I was one of those who stoned him. in case I get hold of him. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯. Therefore. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). the people may forget it and may say. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. All¯h has ordained . “The whore and the whoremonger. Similarly. . a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. receive teaching from me. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198).” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). a woman of Gh¯mid. He repeated his confession four times.” says J¯bir b. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). . . is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. the term includes adultery as well as fornication. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. a branch of Azd. By All¯h. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. and gave a small quantity of milk. In this sense. Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. with the lapse of time.77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery.
Another had¯ tells us how it was done. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). And then the multitudes follow. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone. iya. FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. a chest-deep hole is dug for her. participating believers. but when the case was brought before Muhammad. No such hole need be dug for a man. QIS AS. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). and let a party of the believers witness their torment. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. . The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. . Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). in fact. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes.” The woman was punished for adultery. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). .” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. When a woman is to be stoned. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h.
So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. . The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses. if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes). A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her. even if she was married.” says ’Abdullah. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. those who i are married and those not married.79 Among the Jews themselves.” he adds (4211). The Prophet was a merciful a man. then avoid it. and he committed me to ﬂog her. by the time of Muhammad. According to one tradition. “I was one of those who stoned them. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. and if she was unmarried. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. then accept it. ’Al¯ says: “O people. then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. stoning had fallen into disuse. but if he gives verdict for stoning. was not to be stoned to death. 47). A slavewoman. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41).” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). the son of ’Umar. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad.
JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). When the i number forty was reached. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. several days. the third Khal¯ a ifa. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. They hold that the number of stripes is to. and if he is sick. While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime.80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. he still has . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). QIS AS. ’Al¯ counted the stripes.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. In such ir. class of punishment. cases. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). he has two rewards. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. and ¯ to lash him. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. If he does his best but errs. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264).
such as hospitality. . According to some. marble. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. In a dispute regarding property or debt. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. Fresh vegetables. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. November 15. mats. a fruit and ﬁrewood. recently published in Pakistan. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. and bread. According to the Qur¯n. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. and carpets from mosques. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. 1981). the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. Nor is the testimony of Jews. but a apparently this is not really so. Also exempt are bricks. glass. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). birds. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. In cases involving had ud.81 one reward (4261). a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. Christians. are also discussed in this book. such as books. cement. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268).
HAD U D) .82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. QIS AS.
. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. .” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. do not embezzle the spoils.Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). . Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h.e. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. Historically. . . seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294). . Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. All¯h. a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. If they refuse to migrate. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. demand from them the Jizy¯ . it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. Make a holy a a a war. a a trying to be universal through conquest. Theologically. it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven. . . accept it from them a . If they refuse to a a pay the tax. Medina.. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. All¯h. . if they do so. 83 . if they respond to you. the spoils of war. and inform them that. . By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m.
All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). unknown to the Arabs before. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). If need be.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. al-Madina. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. But if they are killed. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). it is lawful and pure. as some others have translated it. this shocked the Arabs. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. “Eat ye the spoils of war. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance. it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. this requirement can be waived. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. had¯ 4324). particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h.” says the Qur¯n a .” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d. As the Prophet a says. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. “cunning. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. no song need be made about it. Sa’b b. and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. All is fair in love and war. “war is a stratagem” (4311). or.
Muhammad told them that the next time. a In fact. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. DIVISION Essentially. “Ye shall by no means follow us. “Permit us to follow you.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. in commenting on i. Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. and their dwellings. It belongs to the Cause.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. For example. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force.. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. in this case the cause of God. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. he a a is given a share in it. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. and also as a favor and extra incentive. as administered by his Apostle. they would say. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. material incentives had to be provided.85 (8:69). and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war.” but he would answer. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. In fact. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. i. when it would be easy to win booty. If he fought for such accessory rewards. he fought from wrong motives. 1934). ¯ .
¯ ¯ . The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. . recriminations. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. after the capture of Hunain. and supernal intervention had i. and was full of claims. believed in by any sensible person. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. p. in fact. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). suspicion. Within a few months. and accusations. Commenting on this verse. he shall. 594. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. If any person is so false. had¯ 868). . pretty rough.” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. Muhammad was mobbed by the men.-161). I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue.” said All¯h (3. grievances. The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. . and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome.86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. The booty was very large. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. then if you obey.” the muj¯hids demanded. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. which he took by surprise. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. restore what he misappropriated. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16).” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. II. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. on the Day of Judgment.
except for a few who were killed.” he advised. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. the traveller a . deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. orphans. part II. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. to His Apostle. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. should be destroyed. and a the traveller” (59:7). In due course. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. And at his command. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. the poor. at least in this case.” (8:41). But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. Muqd¯d. His Apostle. A Muslim combatant. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. “They are our kith and kin. or children. to the Muslims in general. including the cattle. I. The fai’.” which ’Al¯ readily did. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied. Another unfortunate i. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers. Alh¯ris. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. 3 . when they are no more. According to this code. the poor. During a retreat. . all prisoners. any such property that cannot be carried away. vol. One of these was Nassar b. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca. i fellow was Utbah. whether men. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. his family. his family. pp. belongs wholly to the Prophet. He advised that they should be put to death. on the other hand. The economic view prevailed. 338-339). Along with the khums. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. . The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. it is entirely at his disposal. gains from a war not actively fought. O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head. . women. the orphans.
. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762).” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. they cannot engage in public worship. though they can repair old ones. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians. Imperialism has the same is. they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers. The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . p.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . Another imposition. also belongs to the fai’. “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. in short. This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u . such a as their public prayers and festivals. Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. 889). the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. those to whom the Book has been brought. language in every age. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. forts. They are not to build new churches and temples. THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. they are not to ride is on horseback. and for the building of bridges. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. but more often this was not done. and . but later on. called jizy¯. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. it was extended to other subject peoples. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. and mosques). .” as the translator puts it (note 2230). The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. as the Muslim empire grew. II. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith.
Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated.” he says (4340). So did the others. He also had seven other gardens in Medina. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. he had properties at Khaibar. Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. They got a large number of camels as booty. . Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. . part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people . He u ir. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. a but kept a large part for himself. to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. As a chief. .” his Coptic slave-wife. and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. As the amount of war booty increased. . which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. . These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. u ir. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). whether slaves or women or property. according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. were conﬁscated by Muhammad. ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary.89 after embracing Isl¯m. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews.
’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. They took their dispute to ’Umar. decide between me and this sinful. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). the Battle of the Ditch (4412).” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. In due course. ghazw¯t and sariya. According to J¯bir b. ’Abdullah. Arqam. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. It was not much of charity. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). According to Zaid b. i]. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). u a Many battles. the Battle of Badr a (4394). the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. These are of two kinds. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. for example. though. are described by name. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. the number a was twenty-one. u Prophet. not always in the order in which they were fought.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. 4465). Zaid (4469). there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. Instead. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s.” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). “Commander of the Faithful. The denial a i. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. or as it is popularly known. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). and battles of the Muslims. the Prophet’s daughter. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. The conquest of . who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. the Prophet’s uncle. There are other traditions too. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. what we leave behind is charity” (4351).” But. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. the Battle of Azh¯b. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). treacherous. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. raids. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina.
” When the answer a . People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. 467). and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. During the Battle of the Ditch. . Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. p. .” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). We went out . accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well.” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. numbering one thousand men. I would do that. . the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. II. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. . In most of the battles. . . Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. several miracles are mentioned. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. Muhammad came with a the whole army. at the Battle of Badr. J¯bir b.” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . Either he prayed or spat into the well. On many an occasion. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. vol. a The water welled up.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). On another occasion. a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. part II. For example. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. O All¯h. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography.
the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. And He made you heirs of their lands. . . and exhorting one another in constancy. . and granted favour to them u ir. . repeating passages from their scriptures. they surrendered .” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. III. those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. vol. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. and cast terror into their hearts. .” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. when these were ready in the morning. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. So march against them. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. until they too fought against him. a where they had gathered for shelter. According to ’Aisha. . and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. By God. we have arrived. their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). . gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. pp. himself a spectator of the tragedy. Each company was made to sit down . [they] spent the night in prayer. He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . We give the story as summarized by W. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. .92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. . A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. were dug in the market-place . . and some ye made prisoners. [so that] some ye slew. . All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. and distributed their women. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. Then he killed their men. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. During the night graves or trenches .” we are told by ’Abdullah. their houses. . Mahomet. the son of ’Umar (4364). children and properties among the Muslims . . Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. we haven’t laid down ours. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them .
and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. and gave him over to another. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. . provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. There were (besides little children. I. and chose to remain (as. . The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj.But slay me also. strike high and hard. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . of Ozz¯l. chattels.of K¯b. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. it is sharp. cattle.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. .” Ibn Ish¯q adds.they had all been slain already . The booty was divided into four classes . they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. Tabari a i. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. from his share of these.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m.land. an aged Jew. . “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. Here take my sword. another biographer. but she declined. and slaves. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. I entreat thee. . pp. . and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. till the whole were slain . 303-304. and butchered in cold blood. took his seat there. . for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses.” S¯bit refused. . For Zoheir. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. . Having sated his revenge. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. He invited her to be his wife.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. . ¯ ikh i. . and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . a i. to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. having refused marriage. of Huwey. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . and there beheaded.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . in exchange for horses and arms. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. of female slaves and servants. He replied. indeed. . He received to each inquiry the same reply .” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith.
Thus. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. He who forsakes God will be forsaken .” He too was brought before Muhammad. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. p. The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. p. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction. . u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory.” Then he sat down. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. . part II. Besides the aged Zoheir. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. . his head was struck oﬀ. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. but God the most High has given thee victory. They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. saying. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. Huyayy b. and at a signal from Muhammad. p. and has made me thy judge. p. vol. 464. Rauzat-us-Safa. II. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. ’Aisha says of her. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. God’s command is right. Akhatab. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. . and there is no remedy . 476. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed.94 ¯ CHAPTER 9.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. 465. 7 In fact.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. before dying. . A book and a decree. 752. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. ¯ ¯ . .” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . a Jewish leader. . when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope.
His people killed him. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. to demolish the idol of All at. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba.” he prayed to All¯h. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. H. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. A little later. 9. 12 ibid. if. 546. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. 544. their goddess. When you meet them tomorrow. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. “O God. I. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. .” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). He took Mecca by surprise. one of u a ira their kin. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. a u a a and Sa’d b. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. in A. Shu’ba. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. In ﬁghting the Meccans. Umro b. 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. i a ¯ vol. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. and not to the Emigrants. .” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. 434-435) ¯ ikh i.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. pp. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. Kh¯lid b. Deserted by Her servants. wipe them out. struck the idol with his pickaxe. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. therefore. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . ¯ ira. 480. 484-486). I. p. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca.. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. . and. who were from Medina. pp. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. pp.
do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). a Volunteered one Muhammad b. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. whether Jehovah or All¯h. The permission was given. and His Messenger. or falsehood. selfa a churning. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). True. “Who will kill Ka’b b. asmit a). in egoistic life (aham. . According to the Yogas. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. Spiritual darkness. a After the conquest of Mecca. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. accompanied by some accomplices. has a source deep in our being. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. u Similarly. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. Then the assassin. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. the Exalted. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. ASSASSINATION Assassination.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . self-shedding. went to Ka’b’s house at night. he lured his intended victim outside.96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. self-discovery. like jih¯d.” said Muhammad. Wonderful! To say the least. a more psychological and mystical religion. Through them. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims.
describes the assassins “bold as lions.. ¯ ¯ ibid. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. a poet.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. the unlucky victims of his aggression.” He went down and was killed (4436). 369. Very soon.. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. Further details are available in various other accounts. travelling by night a with their light swords. Ab¯ M¯’ila.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. 13 Hass¯n b. On learning this. Another Ka’b.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. Sabit. Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet. Maslama and his foster brother.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. u Some. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. he should respond to the call. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. p. another poet. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. pp. 368-369. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. 15 ibid. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer.97 like the voice of murder.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. 14 . p. as we have seen. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. 368.
and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). and a both were polytheists. (4472). The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. According to the translator.98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. Safw¯n b. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology. . For example. When the man said he did not.
and so on. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. food. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. rather. zak¯t. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. in all matters.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). general morality. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. non-Muslims. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. is. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). and pilgrimage. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . marriage. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. political and intellectual. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). In Isl¯m. The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. dress. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. So in a Muslim polity. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind.
the Prophet’s daughter. “O God.be Thou hard upon him. In another version. necessary foundations.100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. the holy lands of Isl¯m). But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). They were warriors. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. and the disbelievers among them. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. may one day revive this idea.” says Muhammad (4473-4474). the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad. A branch of them. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them . for six hundred years. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world.” Muhammad says (4476). a As a result. D. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. The present-day Sauds. helped by petrodollars.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. the Saiyids. his wife F¯tima. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst. Later. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. Thanks to Muhammad. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. emerged in Egypt. ﬁnancial tycoons. 1299-1326). RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. rulers. and i. Successor of the a a Apostle of God.be Thou kind to him. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. a . and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. and scholars. and Ruler of the Faithful.
kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). In fact. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. “O you a who believe. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). for as we know. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. a Qur¯n 4:59). and should appeal to me for help. have to invoke God at every step. An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas.101 There are other conventional exhortations. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. This is a big loophole which was fully used. it is a religious obligation.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). then that person is designated as the . . . and this is a gift presented to me. But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. obey All¯h. but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense. His Apostle. gifts are given to the oﬃce. If the electors choose someone unanimously. and to his moral and spiritual sense. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. War booty is sacred. not to the oﬃcer. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. a Some exceptions are mentioned. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). As he lay dying. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). Very thorough. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment .
In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. 4. 3. ¯ CHAPTER 10. answering a follower. 68. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. you should listen and obey” (4554).” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). his own son and one of the electors. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. then those two should be killed. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree.102 Khal¯ ifa. “Kill him. If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. .” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). ’Umar. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched. WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. Ghaﬀari. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders.” Under the circumstances. If there is an equal division. 1 All four points are taken from S. Shiaism. p. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. men of authority.
The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a . a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. for purposes of marriage.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. when he was ﬁfteen. which is also an a important subject of this book. or pregnancy (note 2331). and this time he was accepted. Yet again. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you. there will appear a number of impostors. The next year. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. This is understandable. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). For example. “Beware. nocturnal emission. That decided the issue. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). but the Prophet did not accept him. You are to guard against them” (4483). But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances. Again. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq. Similarly. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. strength consists in a is archery. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611).
there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). Without jih¯d. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. his body will not decay. when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). So the rules were changed. there is no Isl¯m. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. but since this is not always practical. “I love to ﬁght in the .104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. if he dies in the Way of All¯h.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. . a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. they became desperate.” In fact. Having no home and no livelihood. . one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. According to some ﬁqh schools. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted . All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. After a the conquest of Mecca. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. Muhammad had the same desire for himself.
a such as fasting. One said: “I do not care. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . . ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues. if after embracing Isl¯m. to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). . a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer. “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . . . I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. What is that act? . ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. . All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. and going on pilgrimage.” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior.105 way of All¯h and be killed. had¯ 4638). and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. . Muhammad was consulted. . Therefore. The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. praying. .
Two men. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. . a stone struck him and he died a martyr. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two. he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever.” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. both go to Paradise. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. . one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. p. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. Two men. one the slayer and the other the slain. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. go to hell but never “gathered together. In the engagement. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. 519 ¯ ¯ . . The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). without having had the time to say a single prayer. We may give here another paradox. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. Asked to explain why. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. Another puzzle seeking a solution. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m.
and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. is . let them not be taken by surprise. II. Give them time to separate. Two men did not heed this command. In such instances.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men.” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. had¯ 571). Homely wisdom. i. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb.
108 ¯ CHAPTER 10. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .
a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. When slaughtering an animal. ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. cutting the windpipe.Chapter 11 Hunting. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning.” says the Qur¯n (2:172). Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). even if the game is killed. a a a However. with the help of a particular incantation. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. a its ﬂesh is not lawful.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). and softened them a good deal. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). one should draw the knife across its throat. All¯h is great”). GAME There are similar restrictions on game. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 . One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734). When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog. some mub¯h (permitted). and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you.
It fed them. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians].” for a month till they grew bulky.” and as they were hard pressed. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. HUNTING. During the journey. The beast was dead. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. “When you shoot your arrow. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. a cheetah.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water. recite the name of All¯h. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). ASSES It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). “three hundred of them. . a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. they ate a a even the dead animal. . . FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755).” he says.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call.” J¯bir tells us. “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes. But if it cannot be avoided.a falcon. do not eat from their utensils. Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting . . then wash them before using them” (4743). CHAPTER 11. There is a story behind this particular permission.
“We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). To illustrate. a a HORSES The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). we give another tradition. u a u Similarly. LIZARDS. saying: “I neither eat it. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. HARES The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. so when you kill. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). and he accepted them” (4801). A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. . Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. So every one of you should sharpen his knife. caught and slaughtered it. narrated by R¯ﬁ b.” came the order. the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger .” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. . The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. . nor do I prohibit it. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. as is legally required” (4768). LOCUSTS. He did not accept it. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). Shadd¯d b. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. “Throw away your pots.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. The eating of locusts is permissible. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. slaughter in a good way. when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803).
is But in order to be meritorious. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. In Muhammad’s lifetime. animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. In Isl¯m. THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. had¯ 1392). and from things strangled. which means “to split or pierce. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837). and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. and from blood.” Muhammad tells us. HUNTING.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God.112 CHAPTER 11. In many religious traditions. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh.” Another word used is nahr. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. i. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. too. except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. . the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h. I. They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book.
Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs. “Give me the large knife. it is bone. so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal. . a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845). but we have no knives with us. he took the knife and the ram. PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. unless it is diﬃcult for you. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce. O All¯h. . but more than six months’ age]” (4836). he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). While sacriﬁcing. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it.” When she did. The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. the translator explains. accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. and when they are a . is “As for the nail. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams.” He then said to ’Aisha.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. According to Ab¯ Huraira.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. This is understandable.
a and he thus turned upon his heels. We experience a new togetherness. a a Let it be so if you like. Liquor was forbidden. Ka’b drinking. Ab¯ Ubaida.114 CHAPTER 11.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. “Hamza’s eyes were red. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. ’Abd al-Muttalib. . and he a i a brought his camels along. and came out” (4881). The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. Jabal.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. narrates an interi. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. a new reverence for all living beings. Ab¯ Duj¯na. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. the ﬂesh comes to us. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. . and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. “It is not their meat nor their blood. HUNTING. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. and Ubayy b. DRINKS The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). Baiad¯. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. . FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. all this changes. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. people said. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. the Prophet’s uncle. who put on his mantle. Mu’¯z b. and began to reprimand him. esting story. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. that reaches All¯h. . We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. We made animals subject to you. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). but when he returned. We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. In animal sacriﬁce. He tied them up outside. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). went to where Hamza i was.
We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. In another tradition. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). it is not forbidden. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. . the Prophet’s cousin.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). gourds. mention the name of All¯h. or hollow stumps (4913-4995). a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971). he tells ’Umar. Ibn ’Abb¯s. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. there is not even a disapproval. green pitchers. . together (4896-4912). u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. .” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . . “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982).115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz.
In fact. one “must vomit” (5022). FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). thanks for the farmer who produced it. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. In ordinary course. The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. ’Abdullah b. he left it” (5121). DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). and thanks for the mothers. A laudable practice. because Muhammad did so (5072). and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040). so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). for feeding 130 persons (5105). Still. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. he ate it and if he did not like it. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). HUNTING.116 CHAPTER 11. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). . it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. with the blessing of the Prophet. a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. if one drinks water standing. but it is permissible for other Muslims. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). sisters and wives. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything.
it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.117 However. no God can legitimize it. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. That way we really profane Him. ¯ a negate Him. .” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. Be a meat-eater if you like. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. Similarly.
118 CHAPTER 11. HUNTING. FOOD AND DRINK .
for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). on the other hand. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). Decorations. SILK Silk is also forbidden. General Behavior. Poetry. Greetings. ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). The mantles of Yemen. Visions. These were striped and made of coarse cloth. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). “Do not wear silk. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). Magic. were considered excellent (5179-5180). “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). 119 .Chapter 12 Clothing. he promised to wash them.
[they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). . DECORATIONS. “Then on that very morning. J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. the father of Ab¯ Bakr. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. . whether of birds or animals or men. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. On seeing portraits on a curtain. . The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. In fact. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268).” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). . a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230).” reports Maim¯na. Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. HAIR Not only clothes. CLOTHING. MAGIC. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . On the day of the conquest of Mecca. The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended.120CHAPTER 12. GREETINGS. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. They eﬀectively keep out the angels. so oppose them” (5245).
e. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam).” and it is a perfectly good name. those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). the son of ’Umar. Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309).. But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”). He forbade women to add false hair to their head.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. Rab¯h (“proﬁt”).121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. ’Abdullah. he “would have never slept with her in the bed. having the same meaning (5338). Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. Barra means “pious. iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”). ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). Yas¯r (“wealth”). and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). a .” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310). i.
All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. . it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). . a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. GREETINGS. MAGIC. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. . DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. DECORATIONS. Q¯sim. He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. a a When other Muslims objected. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. CLOTHING. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. “he should come back” (5354). Asm¯. and it is not granted. Muhammad called for some dates. Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). . When a man seeks permission three times. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad.122CHAPTER 12. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). gave birth to a baby.
“All¯h. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. . ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’.” “But what about the husband’s brother. when he seeks your counsel give him. VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations. we recognize you. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book. but Muhammad did not respond. then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). when he invites you to a feast accept it. When you meet him. Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). .” His hope was fulﬁlled. the Exalted and Glorious.’ you say.” an ans¯r asked.123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim .” says ’Aisha a (5397). Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”. “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian. and when he falls ill visit him. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). Also. who was tall in stature. And all should greet the children (5391-5392). “Husband’s brother is like death. . and when he dies follow his bier” (5379).” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed.” the Prophet replied a (5400). “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). oﬀer him greetings. or if that cannot be helped. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. One day. The Prophet himself followed this practice. went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself.
he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. and according to some traditions. and deposited at the bottom of a well. 156. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect. and incantations. 1 Tabaq at. a u In the same S¯ra. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. vol.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. This saved him for the time being. CLOTHING. those who had brought it about. p.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha.e. ¯ . the Prophet got well. 1 On another occasion. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him. it caused his last illness. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428).” and that “it was Lab¯ b. MAGIC.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. and the way they did it. He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). you should take a bath” (5427). During this period. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. or. spells. of course. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. DECORATIONS. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch.. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. In fact. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. it had no power over him (5430). by All¯h. As the knots were untied. “could not come at his wives.” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. medicine.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact. A’sam id [who cast the spell].[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. I.e. but. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm .124CHAPTER 12. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classiﬁcation. poisons. GREETINGS.
i. Cool it down with water. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. and when it has broken out in the land where you are. don’t run out of it” (5493). so you may go” (5541). On another occasion. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show.. NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. no epidemic disease. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. don’t go to it. He says that according to some Muslim scholars. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). it is a wonder drug. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit.” and “no star promising rain. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). . Among others. the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457).” Muhammad says (5484). NO HAMA. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection.125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). It has a sexual potential. According to the Arab belief of that time. no ghouls. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha.e. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers.
The two worlds . no divination. he believed in good omens and luck. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). Muhammad corrected . nature. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact.126CHAPTER 12. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. soothsayers. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world.. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. augurs. and fortune-tellers.are very diﬀerent. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain. epidemic] disease. GREETINGS.” the translator assures us (note 2603). a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins.e. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. DECORATIONS.e. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . i.. POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. “There is no transitive [i. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. but good omens please me. a belief found in the lore of many countries. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. MAGIC. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true. including India. the woman and the house” (5526). The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. According to the translator. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies.” he says (5519). and the law of causality. CLOTHING. then it is in a horse.
Their sight ﬁlled him with fear. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18). I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. ANTS. for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). a is SNAKES. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”.” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. Like snakes. and Jinn (72:8-10). ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. the Exalted and the Glorious. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”.” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other.” So they too should be killed (5545). but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). . the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. had¯ 1963). the jinn has his chance. dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely.127 this belief and provided another explanation.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10).
The book ends on a compassionate note. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. he did not think highly of them. DECORATIONS. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. VISIONS The next three books are very small. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. . he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). “An ant had a bitten a prophet . Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). When Mecca was conquered. “O Apostle. True. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). Ka’b b. One relates to the use of correct words. If you do not do that. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. even by the method of assassination. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. “Catch the Satan. GREETINGS. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. CORRECT WORDS. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. Ab¯ Wahb. MAGIC. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. the only status he cared to claim. CLOTHING. then get to some safe place. and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. ¯ ¯ . POETRY. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. his brother. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left.” Muhammad commanded. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. the daughter of a Marw¯n. .128CHAPTER 12. according to Ibn Ish¯q. p.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. who was already a convert. POE Ants fared better. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry. 597.” he advised. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. a u had already ﬂed in all directions.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
He punishes it through His living Apostle. embrace Isl¯m. . “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717).133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. “He asked me to count them. provided it was no sin” (5752). many of them by Anas. Ummaya. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. ’Aisha.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679).” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. He found Muhammad most valorous. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. however. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. but when it did. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. The man was overwhelmed. But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me.” the recipient said (5730). This was called his charitable disposition. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. most courageous.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats.” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. I would give you so much. the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m.
“Do not be angry. eyes. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. or charity.” His body a was also fragrant. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. a is complexion. and even heels. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. “He put on a red mantle over him. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. the other sadaqa. The Prophet’s body was soft. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771).” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. His perspiration “shone like pearls. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub.134 CHAPTER 13. so All- . a is He used to part his hair. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. Rob Peter to pay Paul. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. hair. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). One is called jih¯d. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. appearance. He a also found his face very handsome.
. and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). ” (5765). . According to Ub¯da. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). that a revelation was involved in the matter. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). . also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). ’Abdullah b. . J¯bir. Umm i. The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. Another man. when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. under its inﬂuence. In fact. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. younger u than he. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. Furthermore. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . Salama. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. His hair was collected. . and his head was lowered (5767). “his forehead perspired” (5764). according to the translator. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. .135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. Muhammad’s wife. Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it.
Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. It suﬃced him . Muhammad a gave his decision. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. I do not think this approach can go very far. by the Lord.e. Sometimes. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. When Muhammad. he said: “If there is any use of it. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. On another occasion. in another three hundred (5658). MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. and do not go after my personal opinion. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. is. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r.his father’s sister’s son. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830).” As a result. In one place. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). then do accept it. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. had¯ 5817).. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. i. then they should do it. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. learned this. a practical man. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet.136 CHAPTER 13.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. mostly patterned after those of Jesus.
Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). the Jew said: “By All¯h. On the battleﬁeld. Speaking of himself and Jesus. he oﬀered his leadership. Who chose Moses amongst mankind. For example. the tribes allied with them. Their religion is. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. Recognizing the other prophets. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him. Muhammad’s world was not very large. on the day of Uhud. served a still greater purpose. a Jew was selling goods. To the Jews and Christians.” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. a is Abraham. Therefore. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. though on his own terms. having diﬀerent mothers. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. But when he failed in his bid. a dispute rose.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854). you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). “Had you not weighed it. however. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. the neighboring Jews and Christians. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book. But he could not . the Arab Bedouins. narrated the whole story.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. and supplicated him. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. During the dispute. and therefore they were as good as apostates. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. and Moses. He knew his own people. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles.
An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. for they are all part of one human brotherhood. for they all express the same Truth. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. an attitude of either/or.138 CHAPTER 13. . for one is also the other. seldom both. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs.
’Al¯ Hasan. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. members of his family like F¯tima.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet.” the maiden being ’Aisha. he answered: “ ’Aisha. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. and ’Usm¯n. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. and u a a i. To be saved.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. ’Umar. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. but he soon came to be known by another name. “the father of the maiden. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. The followers need have no other. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. ’Aisha’s 139 . D.” Muhammad said u a (5873). and Zainab. it is enough to be subservient. Husain. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. Salama. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija.
As soon as Muhammad died. p.” Muhammad answered (5878). A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. her father.. u so that he might write a document. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. ’Ali a respectively. I. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. Ab¯ Bakr.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs.” ’Umar threatened them. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. 1 2 . Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. 279. “Either take the i. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. as the u a a chief. 527-528). with a sword in his hand. Eventually. even half-believingly. 529). “To Ab¯ u Bakr. p. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. struggle for power began in earnest. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. “In doing this. ’Ub¯da. Outside. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. I said. ‘God kill him. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. one of their own tribesmen. was kept in the dark about it .she was sleeping in another hut at this time. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. and her brother too. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. pp. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. made the most of his dead body.140 CHAPTER 14. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. u Zubair. Even ’Aisha. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. The next day. and you are our Wazeers. his favorite wife. we jumped on Sa’d b.
KHATTAB ’Umar b. And lo. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. for they rejected God and His Apostle. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84).” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier.” Muhammad observed (5885).141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. . In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. ’Umar was fanatical. The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. and ’Umar that they be a killed. Once. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. the direction was changed to Mecca. . nor stand at his grave. ’Umar wept when he was told about it.” When he inquired. In fact. whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904). narrow-minded. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. a But Muhammad persisted. ’Umar. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Later on. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. as he prayed. . and in case of the prisoners of a im. by a divine injunction. ’Abb¯s. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. and strong in his hatred. during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. however. Had it not been for a previous . Badr” (5903). while asleep. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. modestly mentions a only three. the place of the Jewish Temple. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad.
’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. “Nay. Life of Mahomet. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. its real founder was Muhammad himself. vol. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. his name appears only once.” The man said. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. by L¯t and Uzza. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. spread of Muslim hegemony. there was also “weakness in his drawing. an ideology. provided a new taste for booty. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. . had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. “Well. on another occasion. and the necessary religious rhetoric. 110. even including newborn babes. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir.” he told Muhammad. 3 On another occasion. He forged new instrumentalities. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. on the state’s payroll. it was something to be proud of. we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. who provided it with a theory. but u he drew only “two buckets”. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. p. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. a True. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h. a new incentive. a i. he made it clear. as we have already seen. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. III. the son of Soheil. But after him. These ah¯d¯ we are told.142 CHAPTER 14.” he said (4360). In the Muslim annals. himself drawing water from a tank. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68).” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head. An Arab. and said to him tauntingly. a continuing motive. He put every Arab. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. you are beaten now. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). a founder par excellence.
’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. p. whom he married. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. In the same battle. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. vol. 739. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. releasing him without any ransom. Hash¯m b. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. and also to spare his uncle. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. Rauzat-us-Safa. al-’Abb¯s. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. Only a few decades ago. p. ¯ ¯ . I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. But there is nothing unusual about it. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. But one Muslim. al-Mugh¯ a ira. so contrary to human nature and custom. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. the man is a false Muslim. in the Battle of Badr.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b.” he said. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. a ¯ ’USMAN B. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. part II. al-’As. Ab¯ Huzayfa. “O Ab¯ Hafs. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. 507.” he said aloud. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. Umm Kuls¯m. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. who was taken prisoner i. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. in Russia and even in China. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. the family to which u a he belonged. u According to Muslim tradition. did not like this. II.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes. he was much troubled. p.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. who replied. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. 301. After she died. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression.
There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. [and] the members of a my household. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died. it was Ab¯ Bakr.144 CHAPTER 14. did not agree with this conclusion. is receiving a visitor.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). they are my i. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. a convert from the proletarian strata. .a person came asking for the gate to be opened. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. is such that it excluded .” he said (5915). According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is.” Other doctors of theology and law. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. with great ingenuity.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). and its way of arriving a at truth. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. . . . Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. the order of truth it deals with. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. But when ’Usm¯n came. a a family. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. therefore. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. and Husain. and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913). “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. Hasan. the Book of All¯h . reclining against a pillow . Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. saying. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor.” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima.” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family. “O All¯h. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. ’ALI B. From the arguments advanced on both sides. at the hands of his brethren in faith. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. was a burdened with work that was too heavy.
The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. a man of ninety years. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. therefore.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. he took a slave-girl i. complained to Muhammad. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar].” As ’Amr looked to his rear. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. 9 After Muhammad’s death. vol. During the Battle of the Ditch. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived.” The story is given by Mirkhond.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). pp. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. “his face becoming red with anger. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. On the day of Khaibar. vol. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. had¯ 1582). thy brother i is coming behind thee. I.” But ’Al¯ declined. part II. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol.” ’Umar says (5917). Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. i. i saying: “I shall never do it. Ja’far. his uncle. II. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. ’Abb¯s. II. vol. had¯ 1569). 292-293. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle. 5918). ¯ ¯ ikh i. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. Wal¯ the second-ina id.” (Tabaq at.. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. thou hast deceived me. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. II. 456. his own saliva as a cure. The Prophet was furious. p. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i.” at the complaint. II. When Muhammad was dying. 8 On another occasion. Let us. p. ’Amr i b. All¯h is partial. people will never give us the Caliphate again. ’Al¯ is from me. At one i point in the contest.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. 7 . 521).e. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. i i” i. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. and applied i.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. command. a i. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. ’Abdu Wudd. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. involving a complaint of a similar nature. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. Kh¯lid b. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man.
But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. HARIS Zaid b. 112). After he was appointed to this responsibility. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. but after this marriage. eight hundred strong. by order of his lordship i the apostle . . Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676).146 CHAPTER 14. he was also his executioner. Until now. . “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this.. he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. We give one example. had¯ 5933). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). . he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. and when the night set in. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . . . a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. . pp. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. 10 ¯ SA’D B. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. was the old polytheistic morality. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. obey them not” (29:8. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. following the old Arab custom. however.” This. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. 477-478. ’Aisha tells us. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B.
she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission. his ﬁrst wife. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. therefore. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. and Zainab. had¯ 5956). For example. and food. i With some women. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. dispatched home. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. 147-164). ija. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. According to Muhammad. perfumes.” (Tabaq at. Once. Salama. . and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. in a ﬁt of jealousy. vol. She was turned out. pp. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. newly married. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. the daughter of Imran. . though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. ¯ . The marriage was consummated when she was nine. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. I il ate from it. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women.” Muhammad said (5966).147 natural father. Ibr¯h¯ died. I often heard him praise her. Muhammad himself says that “women. and his Lord . developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. just as Mary. THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. was the best of the women of her time (5965). a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty. II. the marriage was not consummated. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. Another woman. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr.
Once. But. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima. his daughter. “Where I would be . When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority.” a as ’Aisha puts it. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). you say: ‘No.” ’Aisha narrates. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. verily. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me .” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. A time-honored a practice. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No.” About Muhammad’s own behavior.” Muhammad made no answer.” “O daughter. in the words of ’Aisha.” ’Aisha generously agreed. On another occasion. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. I will never talk a to him about this matter. though a strict code might call this bribery. to him.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). and having been thus silenced. as luck would have it. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. but all very convenient. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. She said yes. A rule within a rule. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. by the Lord of Muhammad. she went back. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. . ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.148 CHAPTER 14. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). Even during his last illness. .’ and when you are annoyed with me. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). . don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion.
chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. He Just before Muhammad died. our salivas mingled. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). and in my bosom. After Mecca was conquered. his cousin. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. vol.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. and even. She had two surviving sons.149 tomorrow. “the virgin. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. i. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. complained about it to Muhammad. p. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. Muhammad looked at it intently. Fat¯ u u ima. 282). in the last moment of his death. and they agreed.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). his wife. here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings. In fact. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. I would not allow them. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. Tabaq at. on my day. just a few days before his death. meaning “masters. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. if. 678-679. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. “The Prophet died in my room. ¯ ¯ 12 . During his last illness. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. Hasan and Husain. put it in her mouth. took the twig from her brother’s hand. pp.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. I. “And when it was my turn. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired. for my daughter is part of me. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. known as the Saiyids. ’Aisha took the hint. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m.” ’Aisha adds.
Therefore. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence. Thanks to his political connections.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. Hakam in revenge. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. In the battle over the succession that raged later on. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. sitting on a camel. ¯ There are other traditions about him. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . but his bier was very light to carry. MU’AZ When Sa’d b. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. During the Battle of Uhud. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. one Marw¯n b. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. the third Khal¯ a ifa. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). Mu’az.150 CHAPTER 14. THE MERITS OF SA’D B. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). p. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. Sa’d was a a fat man. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. In the case of Khad¯ ija. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. 469. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. ¯ ¯ . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). she was his only wife while she lived.
Umayya b. the poet. p.. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. he “had looted. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza.” he said. 301. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. Mu’az. more kind a and compassionate. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. “By God. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. Seen through less-believing a eyes. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. a carrying coats of mail” which.” Muhammad said to him. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. the Aus. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. Consistent with his lowly position. in Mecca. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. “Yes.” he replied. Khalaf.” he added. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. Khalaf and his son. On the day of the Battle of Badr. he said. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. an important Companion. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. The next a day. Umayya. .
often they make him worse. 18 Most conversions are of this kind.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. 68. part of an aggressive politics.” The Muslims gathered. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. II. whose husband. ’Akrama. I will. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. p. “By God. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. 611-612). and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld. and brother had just been murdered. Muir. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. Bil¯l kept shouting. There is a telling example.152 CHAPTER 14. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. Just then. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. They cried in pain and horror. decided to become a Muslim. 302-303. as they have always been. IV. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. ¯ ¯ W. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). after the great carnage of the day. pp. pp. Sim¯k b. At the Battle of Khaibar. Life of Mahomet. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. father. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. 16 17 . he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. vol. vol. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. by their hands. But organized conversions are now. When Mecca was conquered.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners.” In later days. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. Umayya a b. They bring no change in the individual. now his prisoners. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. 18 In fact. the son of Ab¯ Jahl.
and Huraira. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. Muhammad sent for two poets. Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. . Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. M¯lik. . ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. . The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. One of them was the son of ’Umar. .” With that end in view. Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083).” And to All¯h Himself. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. u a which he knew very well. . the daughter of Bakr. Understanding the intricacies. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . . On another occasion. give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions.” he said to Muhammad. Gabriel is with you” (6074). help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). . who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. . the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. . I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar .” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. and commissioned them to write satires. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. According to her. . Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. S¯bit. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . Sabit. for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. . He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . he petitioned: “O All¯h.
154 CHAPTER 14. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . H.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour. 6081). “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. it was a diﬀerent matter. In this ranking and ordering. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. then come his Companions. As things converge toward Muhammad. 110). MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. then those nearest to them” (6150). do not revile my Companions” (6167). the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. a u Muslim divines have not been idle.. though all the participants were ﬂogged. H. 170). Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. . According to one important opinion. they become better. 220). and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. Then those nearest to them. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). as the last Companion died in A. .” she said a a (6075). 120 years. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. H. the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. .” says ’Aisha (6079. ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. but when they were in his service. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). the Prophet comes ﬁrst. but as they proceed further away from him. At the end of the book. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity.e. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha.
. All Muslims are one body. . if his head aches. and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). A Muslim should visit his sick brother. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. In short. the whole 155 . Good Manners. Monday and Thursday. it is a reward. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . stand by each other. and feel for each other. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. “The believers are like one person. If he suﬀers pain. And. the one supporting the other” (6257). All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. of course. all Muslims should help each other. “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. Knowledge. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222).Chapter 15 Virtue. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. . “When a Muslim falls ill. Destiny. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. his wealth and his honour” (6219). Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. even to the extent of stepping on a thorn.
It is meritorious to speak the truth. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. All¯h would a meet his needs. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. and he who meets the need of a brother. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). should help him. DESTINY. 1 . the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). KNOWLEDGE. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). VIRTUE. All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. in fact. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. spoils. a Similarly. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. he should spare his face” (6325). and 6306). NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. 1 The face should be avoided because.156 CHAPTER 15. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). 6265. as the Prophet himself explains.
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
as might be expected. “This I have power to do.” he said. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. and tribute. . The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. and prurience. his death.” As a result. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . But. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). theft. p. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. vol. it imposes only an outer code. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. Without inner puriﬁcation. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. True.” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source. violence. a DESTINY The thirty-ﬁrst book. Each person passes through a series of stages. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. his fortune and misfortune. blasphemies. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation.All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. there can be no higher ethical life. adulteries. but thou. For example. his deeds. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. ¯ . as Muhammad called him. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). murders. II. garbing itself in pious clothing. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. his livelihood. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. . false witness. it gives the theology of a Moloch . but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. war booty. fornications. O Lord. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). 280.
KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book. The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). by seeking to explain them.that is knowledge. One day. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. of course. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). do perform good deeds.” he remonstrates with the believers. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). the reverse may also happen (6390). “Verily. If everything of men is decreed in advance. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. And. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421).” On the other hand. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. he says” (6450). Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking .162 CHAPTER 15. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them.” and do not dispute about it .” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. He also warns against hair-splitting. But in spite of these warnings. even smaller than the previous one. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. DESTINY. KNOWLEDGE. you would follow them in this also. a a “Verily. “Recite the Qur¯n. VIRTUE. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action.
All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. slaves. conquest. in purity. Muhammad explains” (6476). “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). I draw near him a by the cubit. and earnestness. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. I rush towards him” (6471). and Paradise if we fall. and empire if we succeed. he retained His audible names. in wisdom. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions.” Muhammad a tells us (6475). Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. faith. inﬁdel. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. in brotherliness. In the mystic tradition.163 away the scholars” (6462). the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. In the prophetic tradition. and so on. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. like his moral teaching. polytheist. And if he walks towards Me. and forced conversions. in conciliation. Muhammad’s god. it means walking toward the Light within. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). in compassion. the inﬁdels. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. our reward is booty.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness.
Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. VIRTUE. DESTINY. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant. and the second to ’Umar. as a gift. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. For example. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. the daughter of Hil¯l. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). Demonology is the other side of theology. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. p. KNOWLEDGE. ¯ ¯ . But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. 593. so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. one to ’Usm¯n. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta.164 CHAPTER 15.
So avoid the allurement of women: verily. the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. Their Inmates. they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). In book thirty-four. According to another tradition.Chapter 16 Paradise. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). On the other hand. Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). “amongst the inmates of Paradise. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. 165 . Hell. If they so wish.” women will “form a minority” (6600). and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour.
will take in His grip the earth . and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. the Exalted and Glorious. “the earth would turn to be one single bread . the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. . HELL. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). THEIR INMATES. Thanks to his reward in this world. B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). . while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. between afternoon and night” (6707).e. PARADISE.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). Muhammad said. On this day. . The believer will be doubly blessed. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day .” he told them. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). . i. the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). . and of Paradise and Hell. Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise.166 CHAPTER 16. All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740)..” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment.
” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing. it is still not a fair deal. aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. Allah will ask the nonbeliever. no Jew . The nonbeliever will answer yes. it is cheating. the “moon was split into two. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. On the Day of Resurrection. even the one least tormented. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. . and heedless. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). For example. . In fact. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suﬀering. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. .167 Either way. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse. THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. whether. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers.
with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. quran¯). in the Sunn¯h. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief.” Muhammad declared (6752). Literally. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. HELL. In the Qura an. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger.” 43:36. “Verily. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. the latter is pandaimonic or. PARADISE. . the word means “the one in united” (pl. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man.” Muhammad declared (6711). they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). the demons are only attached to inﬁdels. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. a devil. pandemonic. a prophetic one.168 CHAPTER 16. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. also see 41:25). more precisely. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. THEIR INMATES. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper.
with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. moral action occupies a secondary place. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. . “Observe moderation” in your doings. Paradise and Hell go together. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. which appears 76 times. “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). A man is justiﬁed by faith. appears with still greater frequency . there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784).169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars . when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). In the Qur¯n. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. A constant Bower of Bliss. Its Description.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born.121 times. . O Lord. HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. a “In Paradise. then after them others in ranks” (6796). Its Bounties. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. and Its Inmates”. . An-N¯r.” Muhammad says (6760). The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. but if you fail. In the Prophet’s eschatology. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. he advises. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. Then those who would be next to them. a “the Fire.
his length being sixty cubits. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). a joy to those who drink. The immeasurable is measured. . Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. and the shades of the Garden will come low . “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). the height of Adam and even of God. HELL.170 CHAPTER 16. nor void excrement. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. . nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). For food. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. “they will have fruits. THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. any that they may desire” (56:2021). HABITATION. nor will they spit” (6795). less than ih on earth.” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). . PARADISE. LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. “All¯h. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. incidentally. THEIR INMATES. So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. rivers of wine. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. the Exalted and a Glorious. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797).
but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. and others. 4:13. ’Umar. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. with whom he will make love successively. 10:9-10. for ever virgins. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). 55:46-76. describe the a i. a i. 47:15. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. 66:8. For example. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. According to ’Abdullah b. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. the bunches of fruits will hang low. 76:12-22. which we have already mentioned. retiring glances. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). HOURIS Houris are promised. golden vessels. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. so he will have women galore in Paradise. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. 52:17-24. We can only mention the subject here.171 over them. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. a 56:15-40. will dwell his wives. wine. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. . in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. houris with swelling bosoms. 9:111. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. ‘couches’ means ‘women’).
According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. 1980). each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. and she will have a crown on her head. 112. holding the train of her robe. still furu ther. According to him. four thousand virgins. ’Umar.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet.172 CHAPTER 16. According to another tradition. and seventy-two women. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. According to Anas. in the Muslim Paradise. every room will have seventy couches. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. the number of slaves is ten thousand. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. Each houri will u have seventy garments. when a believer embraces any such houri. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. . HELL. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. these women will put on see-through dresses. p. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. and eight thousand women who have known men. PARADISE. According to ’Abdullah b. THEIR INMATES. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. though rather mathematically expressed.
Luhayy b. Cam’a b.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. “I saw ’Amr b. to some up to their knees. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). In Hell. are severely punished. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. Khinzif. In the S¯ras from this period. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. ira. and as-s¯’iba. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. u a 4:57). Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity.” as the translator explains (note 2999). Similarly. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. In caloric heat. . According to Muslim thinking. his senior.D. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). the son of Abraham. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). to some up to their waists. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). dragging his intestines in Fire. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. But as his harem swelled. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831).
but they lack the power to reply. . thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). PARADISE. . “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. and addressing each of them by name. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. . THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. . but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. . what I am saying to them. Verily. Muhammad said: “Behold. there is no death for you. . said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed.” Muhammad told him. . All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. THEIR INMATES. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . Then he sat by the side of the bodies. Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. . . you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this . The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey. . I said: My Lord. . .” somebody replied. . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). You would live forever therein” (6829). It begins immediately after their death. they would break my head . “As polytheists. there is no death for you. . You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. the chapter is closed forever. “By Him in Whose Hand is my life.” Muhammad revealed (6859). HELL. And I sent the Book to you .174 CHAPTER 16. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . O inmates of Hell.
.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. The is. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. i. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. even Muslims must go to Hell.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. In a . and more scorching are conceived. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. Hell has many names. thermodegree. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. But woe unto the unbeliever. and inmates. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. that should be of interest to Freudians. more blazing. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. “the Fire.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one.e. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. each with a its own potency. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). So hells increasingly more smoky. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. naked and uncircumcised.
which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness.” There are other traditions in the same vein. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. Christians. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews.” i. toiling. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure. . idolaters. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. PARADISE. “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. which shall burst their bowels . a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary.g.” is mentioned. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. another terrible food. of All¯h’s command. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. . Jah¯ for idolaters. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24).e. is for the Christians. . Similarly. inﬁdels. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. polytheists. THEIR INMATES. in the language of u the last S ura. HELL. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents . “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red.176 CHAPTER 16.. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. THE LAST DAY order to fulﬁll the letter. . Saqar for the Magi. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. 56:52. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. they shall be given water like molten copper . the Day of Judgment). In other S¯ras (e.” According to some commentators. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. . which leaves nothing a unconsumed. . 17:60. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. . and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees. hypocrites. loathsome in smell. if not the spirit.. It is called Jahanam. weary. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. i u 44:43-46). “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. and never has any light.
a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. Arabia.177 and an equal number of scorpions. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). 6906). a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893).” he said (6881). but in the case of . . referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. . THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). but He did not grant it” (6904. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. . killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre. “He granted me two. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand.
” (7039). the smoke. with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. PARADISE.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. blind in the left eye and a a is. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009). the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). there is a Jew behind a me. red in complexion. “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). which is painful to touch. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. . come and kill him. It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . . a Before the Last Hour comes. According to the translator. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961). the Dajj¯l . SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs.178 CHAPTER 16. or the servant of All¯h. a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. HELL. THEIR INMATES. a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship.
Like the early Christians.179 him. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). ‘He only chanted dhukh. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. in fact. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). According to another story. ready to do his bidding. “Thereupon ’Umar b. Muhammad “did a not like it.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. That gave point to his claim. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered. . Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children.” Then there was a competition between the two.” the translator tells us (note 3037). and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. dukh. permit me that I should kill him. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. Pointing to a young boy. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). a a made the very same claim for himself.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust.
180 CHAPTER 16. THE LAST DAY . HELL. PARADISE. THEIR INMATES.
It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. forgive me my sin. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). According to Muhammad. and All¯h responded in the same way. and All¯h. forgive me my sin. pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). Sin is doubly blessed. In fact. 181 . and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). “If a you were not to commit sins. I We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. the Exalted and High. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer.” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). do what you like. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . but now a He added: “O servant. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h.” The servant committed yet a third sin. . It helps him as well as his Maker. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. .
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
(S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. like that of the former times of Ignorance. “Hallowed be All¯h. For example. Of course. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. I in a poem. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. 498). 33). in Whose hand is my life. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30.186 CHAPTER 17. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. Also. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. 499. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. by One. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. “And a stay quietly in your houses.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. ¯ ¯ . Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. according to ’Aisha. and make not a dazzling display. According to another tradition. I have never unveiled any a woman. p. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly.” he said. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. p. and though young he died soon a after. In retaliation.
and ideological untouchability. the indiﬀerent. New Delhi .” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. constia is. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. 1 187 . political boycott. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. But from the beginning. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. Apostasy was severely punished. 2/18 Ansari Road. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. and the disloyal. M¯lik. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils.Chapter 18 Repentance. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. Islam was not all theology. Even in Muhammad’s time. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. negative as well as positive. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. more secular appeals.110 002). for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. it was combined with other. spiritually speaking. He used the carrot as well as the stick. but the For a fuller discussion.
Umayar. generals.the i. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. ’Usm¯n. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. In oﬀending the Prophet. MALIK) fear of the strongman. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. S¯lim b. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. you oﬀended ’Umar. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. One had oneself played safe in the past. ’Amr ibn Omeya. and traders. Muheiasa. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. 630. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. and so on. He collected tithes from the tribes. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. in fact. I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand. But this campaign was to be of long duration. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. In planning other campaigns. who were now rich and powerful. ’Abdullah . As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. or party. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. ’Al¯ Zubair. They gave generously. contractors. was ever present. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. REPENTANCE. besides inviting more concrete punishments. now others do the same in turn. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. for he died soon afterward. Sa’d. They had become governors. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. Muhammad ibn Maslama. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. it was his largest and also his last. is. and the weather was dry and hot. Because of its unusually arduous nature.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. D. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. p. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. you not only oﬀended All¯h .) ¯ ¯ . the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. the toughs of the ummah.but even worse. a lordly sum. 789.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . his own son-in-law. Talha. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. the boss. which were now reduced to submission.
say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. Though they were sent back. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. He also took more secular measures. which now included. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. and strive and struggle. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. But even so. and journey easy. Twice shall we punish them. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you. For example. But Him you would not harm in the least. their spirit was considered praiseworthy. “Go ye a forth. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. . and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. and when you said. whether equipped lightly or heavily.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). That is best for you. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). many had to be sent away for lack of funds. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. In the Islamic tradition. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). in the cause of All¯h. the whole Arab world. Thou knowest them not.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). They are obstinate in hypocrisy. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal.’ Muhammad. they would all without doubt have followed thee. with your goods and your persons. but We know them. . Of such people.” All¯h said of them (9:97). Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . at least nominally. ‘Go not forth in the heat. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march.189 soldiers. so they put forward many excuses for not going. if only they could understand” (9:81).
The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. . I left you behind because of what I had left behind. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. because the Byzantine army. But eventually he did not go. To Yuhanna b. Are you not content. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. . was also there in consida erable force. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. was nowhere in sight. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. Believe. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. According to some traditions. although many of its members were still disgruntled. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. I will not accept from you a single thing. p.” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . it found there was not much to do. . Ru’ba. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. But if you oppose and displease them. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. the Christian prince of Ayala. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. . probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). sang: a My salams to you. ¯ ¯ . REPENTANCE. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. 783. one-third of which was cavalry. This eﬀectively dealt with them. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. According to some traditions. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. Al-Dahh¯k.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. or else pay tribute. which was easily done with such a large show of force. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . . Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. . One of the victims. This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i.
he says the expedition was big. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. he decided to speak the truth. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. he kept it as a secret.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter.” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. who was a poet. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. the Byzantine Empire]”. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. D. Hil¯l. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. 4 .” he said to himself. Of the many who had remained behind. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth.” he says. neither age nor health nor lack of means. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. . three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. The next day Muhammad arrived. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides.” But later. “more than ten thousand people. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. .191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina. to his dismay. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so. that the Prophet had departed. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. Ka’b. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. and Ka’b..e. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A.
and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. he sent his wife . KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began.” When forty days had thus passed. “By All¯h.” This comforted him somewhat. . a While he was enduring this mental torture. so I burnt it. some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. as I had when I stayed behind. “Verily. and he was my cousin. We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. REPENTANCE.” As Ka’b was young.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. “As I read that letter I said.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b.” Ka’b says. MALIK) persons. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . or turn in mercy” [9:106]. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h.” a Muhammad dismissed him.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. He replied.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. “No. .” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. . Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us .) Later. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. by All¯h. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. When Ka’b’s turn came.” This communication could be very incriminating. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. whether He would punish them. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. . saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. . . The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. he did not respond to my greetings. I greeted him but. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. This also is a calamity. and I had the greatest love u a for him. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. I never possessed so good means . but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me.
as he was a “a senile person”. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. he spends his time in weeping. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. there is glad a tiding for you. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. The same message was sent to the other two. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. vol. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118).” she replied. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). His followers heaved a sigh of relief. 201. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. ¯ . he has no a such instinct in him. I. Muir.” Muhammad told her. Then He turned to them. IV. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. that they might repent. “By All¯h. also Tabaq at. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. Meanwhile. even until Antichrist appear. “But don’t go near him. and so did their souls become straitened within them. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day. vol.” 5 5 W. p. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). p. and the latter received him with a smiling face.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. Life of Mahomet. M¯lik. Some of them even began to sell their arms. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. 505. Prophet’s biographer.” he says.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. By All¯h. when Muhammad heard this.
REPENTANCE. 504. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676).¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. but in order to avoid further complications. I. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. . This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. Mary. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck.) a ikh i.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. p. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. Peace was eventually restored. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. the center of great jealousy in the harem.
a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. such doubts were morally the most heinous. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. Some of the citizens saw. They were doubters. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. a H¯wiyah. the Fire of Hell. men and a a women. It is a small book.Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. But in the peculiar theology of Islam. and there is a whole chapter. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. . men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. others out of chivalry. . We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). and the rejecters of Faith. named after ¯ ¯ them. men of incomplete faith. therein shall they dwell . “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). skeptics. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre.some out of conviction. or S ura. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . called Mun¯ﬁq in. and some out of spite for the Meccans. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times). that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown.
Muhammad (Pelican Books. If we had kept our own for ourselves. and much of it could also be bought. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in. 157-158. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. The opposition could now be intimidated. converts. they a would have gone somewhere else. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. They could put their ideas into verses.” she sang. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. 1973). the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. His victory at Badr in January A. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. then by All¯h. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. But the realization came too late. many of them believed in war spoils.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. Muhammad detested them. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively. D. related to Aws Man¯t. pp. and soon they seized a whole yard. p. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. 676). Auf. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. 624 brought him the opportunity. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. 1 . 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak.
” he prayed. oﬀered to assassinate her. We have already mentioned his case. a new apprehension. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. . because of his open sedition and verses. Muir.” Muhammad had assured him. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . 676. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. The assassin had a powerful patron. p. They were too cowed. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. 368. but nothing a happened. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. including the two assassins named above. III. . Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet. Most of the local converts.” he told them.” he told the departing assassins. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. p. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. “Lord. This turned out to be only too true. W. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. There was something new in the atmosphere. 132. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. look ye here. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. a new equation. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. This they did by these perﬁdious acts. vol. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. had not fought at Badr.he spat on it and it was healed. ¯ ¯ . and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. Life of Mahomet. p. Also.
The demoralization was complete. p. . They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. but the opposition was badly divided. D. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. the doubters among the local converts. Huwayyisa. ¯ ¯ . now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. a 5 6 ibid. But this period of caution did not last long. A seal is set on their hearts . Mas’¯d. . 622. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. . now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. I would have cut your head oﬀ. 676. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. a common goal. . and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. . Muhammad entered Medina in April A. but they are indeed liars . All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. . it said one thing and did another. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. chided him: “You enemy of God. He exclaimed.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. “When the Hypocrites come to thee.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. a Jewish merchant. a common ideology and passion. Ibn Ish¯q. The killer’s brother. As his power increased. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ .. a Muslim convert. They are enemies. They have made their oaths a screen . u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. common interests.” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. . he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. 369.” says Ibn Ish¯q. Furtive in action. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect. they say. “By God. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. . They had promised each other a u ir. p. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them.
and his appeal was also a threat. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. by God. 363. . a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. . Three years later. but if patriotism. his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. . It is said that just before Muhammad came. If they be driven forth. I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. But after the arrival of Muhammad. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. 627. he was not an unworthy man. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 624. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. This was in February A. and if they be fought against. Muhammad besieged this tribe. but their hearts are separated. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). . We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. because of his inﬂuence. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. in March-April A. 92. When they surrendered. But even then. . But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. (See pp. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name.) 7 Ibn Ish¯q.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina. Thou dost reckon them as one body. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. and his importance declined fast. these will not go forth with them. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. D. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . and if to save is better than to kill. and if you be fought against we will help you . leaving their goods behind to the victor. a new force entered the scene. ¯ ¯ . He was once the leading citizen of Medina. But God bears witness that they are liars. p. these will not help them. D. and loyalty are qualities. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. .” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. independence of judgment.
But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. Ibn Ubayy. But wiser counsels prevailed. On the way back. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others.” he advised. about ’Abdullah. 491. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. but it rankled in his mind. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. he gave it serious thought. when confronted with this statement. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. On this occasion. Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. Huzair. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. so he accepted the denial. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. and you have divided your property among them .’ But when we return to the Medina city. denied it. at a more opportune moment. All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. also heard about it. a fanatic Muslim. p. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. two thousand camels. and later. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted. he consulted Usaid b. But Muhammad was cautious. With all the proposals and consultations. He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. . Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. The booty included two hundred families. You have let them occupy your country. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. Tempers were frayed on both sides. . a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. the stronger will drive out the weaker. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. ¯ ¯ . He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. Aws and Khazraj. he was spared. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah.” 8 Later. with his usual weakness. He had an image to protect.
S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. The latter. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. Some of the persons who were with them came back. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. 625). which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). By this time. p. denied having said any such thing. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. they heard ’Abdullah b. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. ¯ ¯ .” ’Umar submitted.D. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value. on oath. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. he had u already become a back number. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. with this background. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Now. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. at his a is son’s request. Zaid b. the Prophet.201 Later on. according to Ibn Ish¯q. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677).” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. who narrates the whole story. who questioned ’Abdullah. 492. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father. and he was isolated from his people and allies. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b.
certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). They again dug the grave . this should not be done” (6684). Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed.202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. . According to Huzaifa. Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. . and the other one said: No. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. One group said: We would a kill them. but the earth again threw him out. the owner of a red camel. they were twelve men. At last they left him unburied” (6693). . Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. Other traditions identify him as Harr b.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein.” All were pardoned except one man. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). the hill of Mur¯r. The hereafter will take care of itself. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. . HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a . so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. but the earth again threw him out . . who was forbidden to divulge the information. his sins would be obliterated. But the man replied: “By All¯h. They again dug . AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions. Thus intimidation had started quite early. Qays. . but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. this hill. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day.
Ibn ’Umar. It is feverish in tone. dvesa. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. but that the trances of a passionate. incidents in the life of the Prophet. the place. It tells us about the time. She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. it threatens and promises.. sensuous copy of the here. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). who had already chosen his pastures. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina.e. india a vidual men. and deluded mind (i. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). According to other traditions. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. merely an exaggerated. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. and moha) are not to be trusted . Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. but with the a . . u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa.behind them often a . the circumstances of their revelation. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. angry. hereafter. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks.
Resurrection Day was far oﬀ.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. which makes such a tall claim. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. ¯ the very last. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. among your wives. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). II. then in her forties. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i.204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. the majority of men and women in the world. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. had¯ 899). on the Day of Resurrection. . but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. It contains only ﬁfty traditions. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). and do even now. but chronologically it is one of the last . but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. I yield my turn to ’Aisha. But I want to be there. or “Banish¯ ment”). The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. the ﬁfty-ninth S ura.according to Sir William Muir. and adds nothing essential to its subject. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). This is understandable. a completed favour upon you.” Muhammad agreed. ¯ condemnation. The information throws no particular light on this revelation. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. For example. the eighth S ura.
translation. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. ih a if. James Robson.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Palmer. H. Glorious Qur¯n. Delhi: Kitab Khana. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Reprint of English translation by Dr. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Qur¯n Majeed. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n. Abridged Urdu ih a i.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m.usc. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. 1980. London. 1973. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. 1973-1975. i if. Urdu translation in 2 vols. Muhammad Ashraf. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. Lahore: ih Sh.. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. New York. Lahore: Sh. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. Lal Kuan. Muhammad Ashraf. popular and much in use. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. Translation by E. 205 . Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri.
Pelican Books. trans. India. edited by James Hastings. letters. Khavendshah b. vols. 922).. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. S¯ a ikh i. New York. 3rd ed. 1885. 1976. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. Tehatsek. Selections from sermons. H. . popularly known as Mirkhond. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. Elder & Co. 1861. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. & T. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. 4 vols. Ali Raza. a Shiaism by S. Tehran: Shahpur Square. Clark.206 CHAPTER 20. reprinted. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Scholarly. Karachi: Nafees Academy. by Syed a i. A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. Ibn Sa’d. Delhi-6. London: Royal Asiatic Society. The Life of Muhammad. E. The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones.. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. London: Smith. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. 1 and 2. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. Edinburgh and New York: T. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. English translation. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. Ghaﬀari. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. Urdu translation in 8 vols. Scholarly and pioneering study. ¯ died in A. 1973. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. i. Urdu translation in 11 vols. Guillaume. 1980. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. Oxford. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. Mahmud. 1893. 1976. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. 310 (A. and his S¯ of Muhammad. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. Karachi: Nafees Academy. translated and edited by A. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. D. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d.
1st ed. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. New Delhi. 2005. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids. S. Ratlam (M. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. New Delhi: Impex India. 1897. Publishing House.)-India. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. All¯habad: R.] . Hindi publication in 3 vols.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. 3rd impression. 1980..P. reprinted. Rupa & Co. Among other things.