Understanding Isl¯ m Through a H¯ d¯ a is
Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
There was an even more pressing reason. 819-875). orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. in the practice a of the Prophet. There were also more personal motives at work. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. H. This was found in the Sunn¯h.000 of them as authentic. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth.000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai
. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire.000 traditions but accepted only 7. H. D. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. D. and later on the Abbasides. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. It is also u a¯ said that 40. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. In this struggle. H. 209-279=A. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. 824-892). The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. 817-888) u a¯ and others. A hundred years after Muhammad.was a great thing. 194-256=A. Under these circumstances.800 traditions out of a total of 500. 810ail ai 870). a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. D. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . They were sources of prestige and proﬁt.iii other reasons. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. Spurious traditions were coming into being. great passions were generated. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . It is said that he collected 600. D. 204-261=A. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. or what they thought were the right theological views.in short. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. Soon after Muhammad’s death.000. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. the Ummayads. 202-275 = A. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. drowning the genuine one’s. H. There were many motives at play behind this development. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. particularly the Alids. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand.
000 as genuine. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. who was born in Medina in A. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. the hero looms larger. D. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. 32). The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. about a man. H. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. Of these. The lapse of time helps the process. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before.” they are called. is rather unedifying. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. Over a thousand collections. a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. which only the Had¯ provides. his forehead. 85 and died in A. rather all too human. a i. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. or collections. In fact. but they contain much that is factual and historical. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. 1958). a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. and only six collections. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind. which were in vogue died away in due course. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . 151 (A. The believers have handled. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. To clarify certain points. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original. H. narrated. As the distance grows. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. the Had¯ the context. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. The of the Had is. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those
. 768) a in Baghdad. It ih provides the base. reveals their more earthly motives. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. we must thank Dr.iv accepted only 2. Muhammad Ashraf). is a and provides them with the necessary locale. H.“the two authentics. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford.
in Pakistan and Bangladesh. and install in their place their own godling. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. In India.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country. When we read Dr. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. having been dormant for several centuries. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. with a large Muslim population. In fact. Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. is again a on the march. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of
. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. or “countries of peace. Sidd¯ ¯ translation.e. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. dethrone the gods of their neighbors.about forty-ﬁve times . A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. and even India. we have also quoted from the notes . They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. They buy local politicians. If anything. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . All¯h.. a i. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire.v whose mother tongue is English. In ih a is. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. Indonesia..to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. In a Sah¯ containing 7.” i. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. a Even in the best of circumstances. Dr. Here and there. in Malaysia. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. the old mission is being revived. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter.e. Isl¯m.081 footnotes.
190 traditions divided into 1. motivated by a compulsive atavism. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. Indeed. derived from the available symbols of their culture. For this purpose. It gives us 7. It has one drawback. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. it is also something more. we have discussed none in full. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. is In this volume. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. Therefore. This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. similarly. But on calm reﬂection. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. It is a weapon of self-defense. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. Wherever it triumphs. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. was unavoidable. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. a is a is
. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. And. While we have in this way touched on many points.vi the country. According to some thinkers. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. and thus. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. On the other hand. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. in many cases. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. both of commission and omission. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. Arab interference has complicated matters still further.243 chapters. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. dictatorship comes in its wake. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. it resists any change. a is. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. though.
Similarly. comprising 180 traditions. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading.
. like other Had¯ collections. One is also left to wonder how the believers. the moral is whatever he did. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. although such instances are rather rare. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. There is no makeup. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. hating. praying. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. Here one comes to know him. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. In our quotations from this literature. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. containing 583 traditions. dispensing justice. mating.” A similar formula. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. generation after generation. no posturing for posterity. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering.” In devout Isl¯mic literature.but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. eating. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. The Sah¯ Muslim. In regard to the title of the book. no cosmetics. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. “may peace be upon him.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. “may All¯h be pleased with him. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. could have found this story so inspiring. For example.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . they were All¯h’s own acts. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts.
ain. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. P. now both resident in America. C. Shri L. Shri P. For example. I thank them all gratefully. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. te (soft dental) and toe by t. and Mrs. Jain. Sisir Kumar Ghose. ze. Shri H. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. they have preferred to remain anonymous. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. but we have made it do also for another sound.
. C. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. in order to avoid them as far as possible. both have to be learned by ear. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. Dr. Gupta. Therefore. Shri A. z¯l. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. the Arabic alphabet’s se.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. and zw¯d by z. a by the English s. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . .Contents
¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS
CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26
SOILED CLOTHES . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59
6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . .xii
CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . . . . .
xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72
. . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv
CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85
8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . .
xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99
¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . . . . .xvi
CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . Food and Drink
GAME . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . 106
11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . Greetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . NO INFECTION . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams
SILK . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . 123
MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii
SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
. . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165
THE POOR . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . .CONTENTS
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . SABIT . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155
OTHER VIRTUES . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx
CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 HELL . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . .CONTENTS
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . 197
THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187
¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . I 181
SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . 193
THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195
MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
. . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205
¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . .xxii
’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
So also are the notes and comments of the translator. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. and says: “Muhammad. ih In quoting them. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. in His angels.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. faith in His Book. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. ifa. pay Zak¯t. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. in the hereafter. in the resurrection. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. when the inquirer is gone. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage.
.” Later on. inform me about al-Isl¯m.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. yet without any sign of fatigue. and you establish prayer. ¯
¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH
Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone.Chapter 1
¯ a Faith (Im¯n)
The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. we give their numbers in parentheses. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla
All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered.
jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. Ramz¯n.rather. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. All¯h and his Messenger . The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. zak¯t. “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth). Hell. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. and many teachers. and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). . a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. In the same vein. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). war booty (ghan¯ a imah).prayer. FAITH (IM AN)
ah. zak¯t. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are.2
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. is. . Ramz¯n. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. .) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. Paradise. Similarly. in the history of Isl¯m. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. his father and the whole mankind. to name the more important ones. Doomsday. and if they accept this. This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety.
. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. Muhammad and his God . many philosophies. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. Sah¯ Muslim. and they establish prayer. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat.” Other things mentioned are prayer.
GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS
What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h.
“Jih¯d.” but who were ready to join him. u if the man committed adultery and theft. For example. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. monotheism.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. . toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. If polytheism is the worst of crimes. In fact. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. His Book. the narrator of the had is.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. sincerity is a universal human value. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. except to convert them by sword. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist.
Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological.” he replies (148). Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220).” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion.e.3 In the eyes of Muhammad. and a future ones hold no great terror. But no morally wicked act . . ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a
. is the best of virtues. and jizy¯. nation. very little to others. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds.” a “What next?” he is asked.not even adultery and theft . by the same token. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. Ab¯ Zarr.can prevent his entry.. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. Jar¯ b. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. it is a limited to Muslims.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). Muhammad replies: “Yes. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. moral or spiritual. When asked. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. But on being asked. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h. but moral values are not altogether neglected. a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98).” i. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). spoils. one’s past crimes are obliterated. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. But in Isl¯m. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m .” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation. He has no obligations.
a God-ordained mission. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. some people were greatly perturbed. They are no longer wasted. FAITH (IM AN)
Again. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya).
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. a revelation. but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre.” On hearing this. . Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). Everything good began with Muhammad. . but if he embraces Isl¯m. there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter.
THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS
Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . other moral values are given the same twist.4 Muslim” (102). I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. We are told that one Hak¯ b. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. Thanks to this approach. as another text puts it. a
. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. This means. To rob a whole people is piety.
THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS
No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. in the state of ignorance” (222). but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. it is a a diﬀerent story. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. and the universal is turned into the sectarian.
EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS
A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. incidentally.
MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283). Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire.” the translator tells us (note 2967). but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. his future is assured. I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. His past is forgotten a unless it is good. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284).” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. Muhammad says. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. the Peoples of the Book. “the a
. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us.we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. . . and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms . “O womenfolk . And understandably so. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad.” a Muhammad tells us (6668). for the hellﬁre is on his side. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. This would also. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad.
the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). 1058-1111). a famous Arab divine of his time. Paradise and Hell. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. In short. only one of which is attributable to women. (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. (16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. the Prophet’s wife. and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk.
2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). says that “All ah. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. when you see barefooted. D. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. He be praised. 3 Along with its attendant concepts.that is one of the signs of Doom. naked. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). In the Qur¯n. India). deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. Deva ¯ Prakash.that is one sign. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. 1971. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. 2
THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). But. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. 164-165). did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. it seems. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. ’Aisha. and the proof of their failing in religion. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. but for a woman to have only one husband. (5) not having control over her own person. (2) childbirth. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . or of “separation” (fasl). Ratlam. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). a work in Hindi (author and publisher. FAITH (IM AN)
evidence of two women is equal to one man”. pp. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . (6) a lesser share in inheritance. London: University of Durham Publications. The dreaded day (yaum). (4) pregnancy. as he tells them.6
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1.
and with it is decided their fate. He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. All¯h “will gather people. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). the water is no more than a mirage. The translator makes this statement clearer for us. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there.” Then they will be asked what they want.” They will go to Jesus. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah.” He will appeal to All¯h.” All¯h will tell them. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. for example.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. For example. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . a a im. Christians will be summoned and asked. Thanks to his special role. Unbelievers.26). Muhammad a
.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349). however. Considering that unbelievers. but you go to Jesus. but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. They will say: “Thirsty we are. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. “You tell a lie. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. and his intercession will be granted a (377). reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. inﬁdels. “Jesus. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). “What did you worship?” When they reply. but go to Moses.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. of course. the son of All¯h.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. and it is really hell.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. I have. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son. and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited.” Then they will come to Muhammad. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). and polytheists are strictly kept out. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383). for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. a you better go to Muhammad. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). If this is true.” They will be given a certain direction. On this day. “I am not ﬁt to do this.” They will go to a Moses.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396).
are not my friends. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship.
. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. but needst not go out of your way to save them. he told a questioner: “Verily. On the Day of Resurrection.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity.” declares Muhammad (417). for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). therefore. and a a a in his own apostleship. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. a In any case. FAITH (IM AN)
reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). fed the poor. a a a Usayya. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle.8
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. that Muhammad was consistent. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). . Regarding his father. their good works will not avail them. even though they were their kith and kin. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. About him. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). ’Aisha. the Prophet’s young wife. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. . however. . . Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). For example. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. Ab¯ T¯lib. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . Ri’l Zakw¯n. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. He reserved his power for saving his ummah.”
THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES
We must admit.
the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. this belief.9
MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN
Various other matters. But on the advice of Moses. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief. But if we look at the matter closely.one prayer will now count for ten . Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. kill swine. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313).” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve. Moses in the sixth. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. In fact. a One night. So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” . on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. He will break crosses. Then he met All¯h. riding on al-Bar¯q. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). In any case. of heaven. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. and Abraham in the seventh. or “circles” (as Dante called them). When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. “an animal white and long.
Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. Jesus in the second. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day. Similarly. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. and abolish jizy¯.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. a
as the translator explains. For. a
. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288). “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. Jesus will. therefore. FAITH (IM AN)
but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad.10
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1.
prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. become ritualistically unclean. physical and ritualistic.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. (3) tayammum. the major. defecation. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet.g. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. and abstersion.. a a menses (hayz). Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e. that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. literally “nature.
ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯
Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. and childbirth (nif¯s). (4) ﬁtra. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). or impure: coitus (jim¯). and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. It deals with such matters as ablution.Chapter 2
Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a
The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. He 11
. The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). (2) ghusl. (5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution.
The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. .” and so on. then wiped his head. He then washed his face three times. plucking the hair under the armpits. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer .
THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra)
There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500).
CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a
Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. then washed his left foot. and clipping the moustache. . then washed his left arm like that. cutting the nails. . For the a identiﬁcation of faces. then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. . .12
¯ CHAPTER 2. .
CLEANSING THE NOSE
The nose should be properly cleansed. all his previous sins are expiated” (436). The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. . the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457).” he said (487). so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. he must clean his nose three times. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. According to Muslim canon scholars. This became the standard ablution. shaving the pubes.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. About the moustache and the beard. .
my clothes. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him.13
Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. in combing.e. in wearing shoes. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. i. When they asked him about their provision of food. and said: “By All¯h. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. but the rock moved away. O stone. and in performing ablution” (515). or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504).
¯ TATH IR
Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. a
..” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669). The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. Moses put his clothes on a rock. while taking his bath. Once..” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. But God vindicated him. wash it seven times. but Moses took his bath alone.
DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS
Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. my clothes. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia.e. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy. In this connection. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals.
Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). The translator
. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth.
If water is not available. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570).e. you can take to tayammum.. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. having experienced orgasm.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. who was sitting by him.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. The Prophet. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation. pointing to ’Aisha. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). and that should be as good as ablution with water. There is another had¯ of similar import. I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). bathing is not obligatory for you.
BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION
There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission.14
¯ CHAPTER 2. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. The man said yes. i. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. And on yet another occasion. but ablution is binding” (676). a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance.
This chapter too. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. But later on this command was abrogated.15 explains why. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). . for except for coitus all
. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. So keep away from women in their course. or you have touched women. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. and when it was referred to the Apostle. “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689).
FOOD AND ABLUTION
Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686). a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . . in some respects. some cross-reference is inevitable.
The third book is on menstruation. in fact. There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). Therefore. and the people reminded him about ablution. and you ﬁnd no water. . for both have to do with ritualistic purity. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). On the subject of menstruation. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). Muhammad’s practice appears. The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. . O Commander is a of the Faithful. . and he was presented with a some food.
The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. or scriptural studies. But Muhammad did not go that far. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. this question to Muhammad directly. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. Umm Salama reports the same (581). For example. and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been.16
¯ CHAPTER 2. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet.
SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION
’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. and drink. The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man
. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya.” ’Aisha reports (584).
“sometimes he took a bath and then slept. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. then purify yourselves” (5:6). “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard.
. .” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. coitus. and pollutio nocturna. he a ﬁrst washed his hands.” they told her (610. . ” (616). there should be an ablution” u is. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. puerperium. and sometimes he performed ablution only. had¯ 124).” he was told (593). he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. 611). or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. (605). the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. The same obligation lay on women.17 ¯ (semen). “You humiliated the women. a believers (603). the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream.
SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS
Unlike ablution. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). I.
For the exercise of prayer.
which. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. Umm Salama and Maim¯na.18
¯ CHAPTER 2. i. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse.
CONSERVING BODY HEAT
If one lost too much body heat during the bath. had¯ 1584). had¯ 108). I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. in this case. II. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. There were no glaring lights. I. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. Two other wives of Muhammad. they took their bath in pitch darkness. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). is
. 631). Muhammad was not bound by them. He had his Apostle’s privilege. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. moreover. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up.
one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). It is the longest. 741).Chapter 3
Prayer (Sal¯t) a
The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured. there is also one Prayer. As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. In the beginning. caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula. and ’Abdullah b. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. as the Jews did.
We are told how the institution of az¯n began. some suggested using a bell. postures like bowing. with 1. the Christians. Umm Makt¯m. 19
. Bil¯l. 737. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. As there is one All¯h. and the Fireworshippers. the prayer relating to the dead. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. prostrating and rising. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. But in all these pages. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted. one Guide. in Medina. and so on. the system of the human voice was introduced. All these methods were ruled out. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. others a horn. as the Christians did. a who was very loud-throated. To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. the prayer for rain. who later became blind. one Book. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers.
He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. PRAYER (SAL AT)
Az¯n is very eﬀective. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. sitting or standing. The Holy Prophet. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity).” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). he stopped” (745). Where it was heard. He who blesses me once. “Apostle of All¯h. and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). Another saw his “hands lifted
. which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. with Muhammad as Messenger. “When Satan hears the call to prayer.
BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD
When men hear the mu’azzin.20
¯ CHAPTER 3. One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. . Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758).
POSTURE DURING PRAYER
Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. therefore. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. 808). so if he heard an Az¯n. will be assured of my intercession. and his wives and his oﬀspring . All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. d in In seeking blessings for himself. He would listen to the Az¯n.” says Muhammad (747). if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. . a
ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS
Az¯n became a great indicator. In a variation on this theme.
palm to palm. . one of them should lead them” (1417). the knees. when there is a valid reason for doing so. when-he rises up.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. “When he prostrates. he brought out his hands from the cloth. otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863).” he tells them (817). and then lifted them . when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). he prostrated between the two palms” (792). He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. 1057). you a should also prostrate.” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m.21 opposite to ears. In the beginning. . he prayed facing
.” The seven bones are: “The hands. and then to put them between one’s thighs. And when he was about to bow down. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). Also. It should be led by an im¯m. When someone once a did this. The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. you should also rise up. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . .
¯ THE IM AM
Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. . And when prostrated. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together.
THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA
Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons.
It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. PRAYER (SAL AT)
their temple in Jerusalem. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance .” adds Ab¯ Huraira. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. . For example. foe or friend. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. . the narrator of this had¯ (1063). “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075).
¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY
While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. But later on. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. . my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). . “I have been helped a is by terror. . . spoils have been made lawful to me . This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. 2 u is
That is.” says Muhammad. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). Immediately
. I have been sent to all mankind. 1 . In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. is which other prophets lack (1058). and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina.22
¯ CHAPTER 3. . It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). . they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate.
II.. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually.000 to 9. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it. but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr.
. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). 4.
DOS AND DON’TS
There are many dos and don’ts. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden).000 dirhams a year. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. 476-479. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year. Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation. established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12.000 dirhams a year. 2. The diw an. or Civil List.000 dirhams a year. pp.000 dirhams. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. 5. For a fuller account of the Civil List. According to another tradition. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). But within two decades everything changed.23
WOMEN AND MOSQUES
Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. vol. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). For example.000 dirhams a year. They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6.
after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. and their children. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668).
one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . Qur¯n a 62:11). when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. One Friday. a An interesting story is reported in this connection. . But though Muslims “are the last. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). “We were guided a aright to Friday. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport.24
¯ CHAPTER 3.
DINNER BEFORE PRAYER
This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. during a war. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. PRAYER (SAL AT)
CURSE ON THE JEWS
It is meritorious to build a mosque. The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. For example. . But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. one should ﬁrst take food. they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. on it he was made to enter Paradise.
PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER
According to Muslim jurists. People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan.
. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. “On it Adam was created.” says Muhammad (1134).
Friday is a special day. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). First things ﬁrst. on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h.
In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior.’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face. AND SPORTS
’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. he did not retreat. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. Muhammad. his voice a rose. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938).’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two.” a is But even though cursed. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). in which music plays an important role. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. DANCE. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face.
MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER
J¯bir b. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. “Thereafter. and it was the day of Id” (1942). And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. make the most of this had¯ a is. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. his eyes became red. On the same occasion. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. I meant to seize him.
.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something. leave them alone” (1946).
and the good of that which it was sent for. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. However. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy.” says a the Prophet (1996). ‘There is no god but All¯h. “Exhort to recite. PRAYER (SAL AT)
PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS
There are prayers for rain.” ’Aisha a tells us. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h.
PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD
There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002).26
¯ CHAPTER 3. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). what evil it contains. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies.’ to those who are dying. u He died at Uhud. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds.’ So I said this. supplicate for good.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. Ub¯da. and Muhammad married her four months later. “If the dead person was good. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. When you visit the sick or the dead. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a
. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961).
WEEPING OVER THE DEAD
Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. Ab¯ Salama has died. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. and the good which it contains. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. to whom she had borne many children.
but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead.” 3
MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER
Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. IV. 165. Life of Mahomet. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency.27 the heart feels. I. is
. a but He did not grant it to me. had¯ 912. also William Muir. i. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). over his expiring child. who was only eighteen months old. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. according to certain traditions. and He granted it to me” (2129). p.
Tirmiz¯ vol. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. vol.
¯ CHAPTER 3. PRAYER (SAL AT)
Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming.
¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS
According to the Qur¯n. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. an old Arab practice. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. and for the wayfarers. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. “in the service. those who paid zak¯t were resentful.Chapter 4
The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a
The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). or way. and most of them. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina.” those who collect and administer the funds. But with him it became a tax. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. and to be spent by its representatives. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. the ﬁrst phrase. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. conventional recipients of charity. and everyone else was excluded on principle. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. In the begina ning. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. In this form. of All¯h.” All these are a in]. or zak¯t.” a a 29
. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. being migrants. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling.
a a and horses. and children back to Medina as hostages. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. . Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. The resentment against zak¯t was general. Also. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). or 1 pound]” (2134). bear in mind. women. a Ghif¯r.
EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES
There was a lower exemption limit. The second phrase. equipment. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
means religious warfare. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). and several other tribes. ’Abb¯s. as it still has for his followers. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). ’Umar was appointed the collector. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. hearts. when the power of Muhammad became supreme. or jih¯d.
. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. . Aslam. Faz¯r. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. When he reported that Khal¯ b. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. or reconciling.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. and as for ’Abb¯s. “gaining over. After is the conquest of Mecca. it had for the Prophet. I shall be responsible a a . a had refused to pay the tax. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. ’Umar. and after this the tax collection became smoother. They had to be ransomed. . who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men.30
¯ CHAPTER 4. on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). a heavenly sanction. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. a
AN UNPOPULAR TAX
There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest.
the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). then on relatives and friends. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. and in some ways wisely. . plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. “a sandy plain would be set for him. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. he called him and asked him if he had any other
. then on one’s wife and children. When Muhammad heard this. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. when the Day of Resurrection would come. and then on other good deeds. For example. . In fact.
CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME
There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. that charity should begin at home. Following a common practice. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). But he taught. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. as extensive as possible. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. And when these cool down.
The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195).
and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. .the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i.
And. and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. or helping him load his luggage upon it. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic.” There is another story that makes the same point. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. is a Sadaqa. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight.
URGINGS AND PLEADINGS
Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). A lady set her slave-girl free. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
property. but it agrees with the general practice. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). . gave the money to the owner. . The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). you would have a greater reward” (2187). not polytheistically or pantheistically. ¯ (2197-2204). ¯
. and if anything is left. of course.. In the same vein.
Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast.e. and a good word is a Sadaqa. there is a Sadaqa . it should be spent on your family. Nor was it really revolutionary.32
¯ CHAPTER 4. and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. When informed about it. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. . Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). The man replied no. All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically.
for instance. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. is but are not visited by two angels. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. This is true. then to a a thief. What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. a and the other says: O All¯h. a
. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). PARADISE
Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). give him more who spends. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366).
CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION
There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. When Muhammad returned. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. For example. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. then to a rich man. Muhammad left him to go some other place. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. ﬁrst to an adulteress. with praise to All¯h. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. he remembered his command and remained where he was. A man is gives charity. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. One of them says: O All¯h. FORNICATION.
THEFT. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230).
a al-Muttalib and their posterity. zak¯t became secondary. ’Abd i. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. freed slave. when it is distributed among the ummah. a Khums.” said the Prophet (2340). They went a to Muhammad with their request.. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying.
Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY
Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. it is still war booty. the distinction between the two was soon lost.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). He took it. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). has two aspects. or as gifts for his Companions.” i. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m.34
¯ CHAPTER 4. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. it is zak¯t. it is zak¯t. il. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. but on the other. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. gifts were welcome. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. whether as zak¯t for the poor. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. In fact. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us.e. or on the “Path of All¯h. and Haris b. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. On the one hand. ’Abb¯s.
Within a very short period. Its distribution created a lot of a
. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. When it is a acquired. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. But though sadaqa was not permitted. it is war booty. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad.
or merit. Hisn. and ’Alqama b. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief.35 heart-rending among his followers. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. that is. Muhammad had other considerations as well. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. combined with threats. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before.or at any rate that others deserved less . ’Abdullah b.than they got. Many of them thought they deserved more .” says Muhammad (2303).
GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS
The principle of distribution was not always based on need. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. Tufail” (2319). whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. justice. The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). . ’Uyaina b. Aqra. H¯bis. Safw¯n u a a b. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Ulasa (2303-2314). Zaid al-Khail. a
. both mundane and celestial. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. Umayya. Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. . Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing. . Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. There are other instances of the same type. so that I may incline them to truth. Aqra’ b. Harb.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. I often bestow something on a person.
In its distribution. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. and his face ¯ became red”. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
But this course was not without its problems. were closer to him). stood up. Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n. Muhammad “was deeply angry . after the conquest of Mecca. The ans¯rs a were happy. but he showed patience” (2315). thick beard. Mird¯s. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee.36
¯ CHAPTER 4. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. and Aqra. ’Uyaina. who had received the spoils. In other cases when similar complaints were made. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils.
According to another tradition. . were merely his “outer garments”. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. . It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. who would do justice if I do not do
. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. but one of them. i Muhammad showed favoritism. while the Quraish. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. and shaven head. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. fear All¯h and do justice.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when.” On hearing this. u a Safw¯n. To cajolery. a man with deep-sunken eyes. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. And he who is let down today would not be elevated.
¯ THE KHWARIJ
’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them.. he added theology. When some people complained.” a canal in heaven (2313).” This silenced the men.” This angered a a Muhammad. Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). and said: “Messenger of All¯h.e. prominent cheekbones.
” Though the man was spared. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. . These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. them.”
. It was about them. who later on were called the khw¯rij. If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327). he and his posterity were denounced. but it would not go beyond their throat. who was present. These men. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers .37 justice?” ’Umar. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). . kill them. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property.
THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
¯ CHAPTER 4.
but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. it is compulsory. waiting for the stars to appear.” a 39
Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj)
The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence. In Isl¯m. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. the gates of mercy are opened. and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. This has its disciplinary role. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs.” says Muhammad (2413). who ate early and broke their fasts late. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). “Take meal a little before dawn. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. a
There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417).
by observing a two-month fast or. a a
. . .40
CHAPTER 5. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. failing that.” and retracted his previous position (2451). ’Aisha and Salama. Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). . Muhammad’s wives. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. he said.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). ’Aisha. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). In fact. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. and would observe fast” a (2454). report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. “They have better knowledge. he should still go on with his fast. Hafsa. by feeding sixty poor men . a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). in the month of Ramz¯n. . . It has a divine sanction. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation.
SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN
The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. Prior to Isl¯m.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. failing that. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. Muhammad’s wives. the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently. This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama.” In addition. and Salama.
but with his permission” (2238). The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). in the act of jih¯d. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. One is the Ashura fast. and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387).41
FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES
Under certain circumstances fasting was optional..
Several other fasts are mentioned. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast.” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). i. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). while the husband is present. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). so break the fast.e. “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. but a I could not do it . a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). And she should not admit any mahram in his house. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. . The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. “Fast if you like and break it if you like.. . A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry.” i. “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. and in the pre-Isl¯mic days. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons.e. A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. a fast during a journey could be broken. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. For example.” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. but after a
One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad. On the Day of a Resurrection. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . All¯h would remove. some food came as gift. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. One day.
AN IDOLATROUS IDEA
Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology.” Muhammad tells us. but we need not go into them here. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a
. but nothing was available. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. He may spend it if he likes.” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”.
The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569).42
CHAPTER 5.” After some time.
THE MERITS OF FASTING
There are many merits in observing the fasts. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h.and when the last of them has entered.” He said: “Bring that. a a a because of this day. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast.
” she adds in another had¯ (2685). that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). as the Qur¯n puts it. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. 632. their response on this occasion was great. In order to swell the number. they knew.” says ’Aisha (2683). Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. partially armed. ih p. Even so. “The best of perfume. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. pilgrimage. In this year of victory. by a kind of delayed action. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. for no booty was promised and they thought. “As the caravan moved on. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage).” Great preparations were made for the occasion. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. or trouser or cap” (2647).” After the fall of Mecca. is
. in March A. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. It was also. unlike the last time. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. but not before and after. the number of participants swelled. but their response was lukewarm. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. a call to submission. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m.
¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM
The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him.” until. according to some of the narrators. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina. For his dress. it reached more than 130. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. and a victory it turned out to be. Mecca succumbed. or hajj. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. at their own convenience and for their own gods. 612). In the sixth year of the Hijra. Thus. was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. a Two years later. D. Two years later.
The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. the two “Signs of All¯h. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. After arriving a a in Mecca. Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. . For the same reason. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). so that people should see him. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). and he should be conspicuous” (2919). FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel .” Muhammad never relaxes. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. two seamless wrappers. . he should not shave or pare his nails. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. He hath performed His promise.
CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING
After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. At every turn. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa.44
CHAPTER 5.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). . Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). . He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone. “Talbiyah. crow. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous.e. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). rat and voracious dog. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). we would have accepted it from you” (2704)..” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks.
. its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). and then kissing the stick. O All¯h”). but he declined it. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . ’Umar said: “By All¯h. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service.
While sacriﬁcing the camel. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). the casting of the pebbles. he chants: “In the name of a ir.45
CASTING THE PEBBLES
Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). and Ishmael. on their size and number.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). or a cow or a camel. One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. and then he marked them. Abraham. the Almighty. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame.
.” says the Prophet (2982). Their number should be odd. The pebbles should be small . and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. therefore. The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce .
Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). On the tenth a day. and garlanded them. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030).” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036).“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. a is and on the best time for throwing them. and after that . Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. While doing this. I do this. It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. God.on the 11th . and then sent them to the House.
so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805). Muhammad took part of the content. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures. his biographers tell us. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. he sacriﬁced sixty camels. iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. had declared that He “desired mercy. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands. . would be considered unhygienic by the impious. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). and when it was cooked. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. II. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6). On a similar pilgrimage the next year. we are told by J¯bir. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). the God of the Jews.by spitting into it. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t.
. Though the nab¯ iz. gives us one further detail which a a i. he took it. a Even Jehovah. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism.46
CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. . pp. he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. 241-244). I would have drawn it along with you. Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here. nab¯ a soft drink. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib.
Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well .” To his followers. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. he said: “Draw water. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. vol.
. All ah will enrich you from His grace . but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). This was All¯h’s own command. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . Before leaving Mecca.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and take them and besiege them. and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. and sacriﬁced the animal.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. . the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty.
There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. Shaving should begin from the right side. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. The diﬀerence is striking. .47
SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR
After the sacriﬁce. kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them. let him shave him. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. Before a returning home. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. and prepare for them each ambush .
KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS
The Ka’ba. 29). A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. a Now the pilgrimage is over. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. turning his right side to him. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. . “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. He then called a for a barber and. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. . All¯h.
. 620). that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger. p. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). . Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. from others. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. after which he turned his left side. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god.
FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
Zainab. he has no a relation with me” (3236). “I will not lie down in bed. “I will not marry women”. We are all too ready to see the devil in others. II. A woman is a great safety valve. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. I observe fast and suspend observing them.Chapter 6
Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a
The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. 1 In fact. and yet another said. he should come to his wife. but not in our own selves. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. p. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). another said. vol. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general.
According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. 146). ¯
. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. One of his Companions said. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. so when one of you see a woman. “I will not eat meat”. he is the best who has the largest a i. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. he should come home and cohabit with his wife. number of wives” (Tabaq at.
though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. rank. Verily. Later on. ’Abdullah b. but it is not entirely so. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. on the authority of his father. God is knowing.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. etc. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah)
Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. besides this. Generally speaking. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). Also. except those who are your hands as slaves .50
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). A. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). with modest conduct. we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. and without fornication. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. . This is the law. And it is allowed you. IYas b. . . We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a
. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). consanguinity. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia. He told another group: “Yes. Qur¯n 5:87). this restriction a was relaxed. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). H. aﬃnity. a
The law appears to be quite indulgent. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. For example. religion. Salama reports. and do not transgress. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother.
and he disposes what Allah proposes.” reports Usm¯n b. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. The new dispensation led to another abuse. F¯timah. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. “A believer is the brother of a believer.. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). 269). A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316).” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. . A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. The man said yes. Rauzat-us-Safa. . But this point is controversial. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a
Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. But man is inventive. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot .” he told her (3354). Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301).” But the man possessed nothing. not even an iron ring for a dowry. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. “Your wives are your tilth. but made no decision” about her.
. he was sexually weak). to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). 3
THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS
A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. part II.e. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. I. thrice) before severing it. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. Seeking the Prophet’s permission.51 by Muhammad himself. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. a One should also not outbid one’s brother. p. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. vol. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother. Aﬀ¯n.
but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. And a virgin should also be consulted. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. but we also desired ransom for them.
. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. a woman has her rights. . So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. The father and the grandfather are i). for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). but it should be through one hole” (3365). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. which means vagina only. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it.” that is. “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. as the commentators tell us. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. and took some excellent Arab women.
In return. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah).” They consulted Muhammad. and her silence implies her consent” (3307). She can a ¯ claim it when divorced.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. she can seek a divorce. and we desired them . but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. . for that is in the hand of All¯h. . . ¯ According to some schools. those women. if the husband fails to provide it. . or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24.52
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. the guardian (wal¯ who does it.
COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl)
Coitus interruptus is permitted. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). Theoretically.
She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. . . It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424). An Arab woman named ’Umra. “Did you cast a a glance at her. A believer came to Muhammad. and Muhammad talked to her. Then.
.” They saw each other. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .53 whether married or unmarried. “For four Uqiyas. but All¯h now gave a new one.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). or holy war.” Muhammad asked. . But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions. Most High. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives. A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). a
CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY
It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. serve us drink” (4981).” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics.” the man replied. the daughter of one Jaun.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl.” “For what dower did you marry her. so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. The a man replied: “Yes.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. We have nothing which we should give you. All¯h. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger.” Muhammad inquired. from “head to foot”. She was “sitting with her head downcast. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. based on an old moral code.
tells us that when Muhammad married her. he spent three nights with her. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. . .
. All¯h is very accommodating.
We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. for example. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES
Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. When he intended to leave. . Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. one of the wives of Muhammad. In order to be impartial. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. come u a for prayer. But while he is in bed with one of them. she “caught hold of his garment”. Anas. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449).54
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand.” When the morning prayer was announced. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. when Zainab came there. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. hearing their voices. Umm Salama. he is allowed to have his other wives around. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). one of the servants of Muhammad. a believer should visit his wives by turn. ’Aisha. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). one wife could make over her day to another. One of the problems. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499).
was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda.
Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion.55
ON MARRYING A VIRGIN
In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. a a a ‘yes. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. they also swelled his harem. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir.
Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336).” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926).’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). you have the enjoyment” (3462). 3464).” the Prophet tells us (3471).
THE ORIGINAL SIN
“Had it not been for Eve. have you married?’ I said. and when you enter. which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when
Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. Saf¯ iyya. Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks. a beautiful girl of seventeen years.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late.
Akhtab. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). Many other women. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. spades and strings driving their cattle along. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. you shall not treat her as a slave. and be her husband. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. whom Muhammad often followed. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. Then.” (Incidentally.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. “We took Khaibar by force. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. 517). and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. if you have no delight in her. And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father.” according to Anas. p. in violation of his own command. the daughter of Huyayy b. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. and till recently she was in unbelief. Kin¯na. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. 515). There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war.56
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. 5
¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA
Saf¯ iyya was no exception. her husband. a In any case. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. and her people. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). p. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
they had come out with their axes. In the morning. was more considerate. Saf¯ iyya. Muhammad kept her as his
Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and you take them captive. and many others were taken prisoners. of them. Gabriel or no Gabriel. and she shall be your wife. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. many people were butchered. was put to a cruel death (3325).) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. then you shall bring her home to your house. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. al-’Aww¯m. so I was afraid for you on her account. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. Her husband. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. you shall let her go where she will. after that you may go in to her. ¯ ¯
. but you shall not sell her for money. Dihya was strikingly handsome. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife.
If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. He was saved. II. 493.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. Suspecting something wrong. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. and was aroused.57 concubine. in the eyes of the Arabs. and uncle killed. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. and therefore. and He revealed His plan. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife.”
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. as good as his own daughter-in-law. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. man or woman. There was another girl. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. Mustaliq. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. vol. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. When Zaid heard about it. who had seen her father. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. and she was immediately put to death. present and future. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. I detested her. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel.” And indeed. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. On that very day. a pp. named Zainab. told him to keep his wife for himself. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). but Muhammad. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). 252-255). “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. husband. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. fearing a public scandal. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. again Jewish. saw her in a state of seminudeness. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. p. iya a In the division of the booty. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. Zaid. he oﬀered to divorce her. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls.
ZAINAB BINT JAHSH
Here we shall mention another Zainab. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer. ¯ ¯
The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). adviser.some say ninety . But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions.” but in Isl¯mic law.
. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. exclusive of slave concubines. With such easy conditions of divorce.
DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a
Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. a senior Compana ion. Muhammad. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
Thus reassured. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time.
The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). married seventy . The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. According to the Shias. For example. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. and friend of Muhammad. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). the divorce becomes operative. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. Yet there are certain restrictions. who do not count. ’Abdullah. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. Somewhat later. Wives were constantly replaced. According to the translator. Ab¯ Bakr.58
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. two of whom were bondswomen. after three successive menses. Hasan. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements.times. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. and ’Umar. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. The procedure is not diﬃcult. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. People in his day called him the Divorcer. the son of ’Umar.
son of Rabi. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. a
MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES
¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. “that a which covers a sin”). The broken vow could be expiated. 272-273. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted
K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. and according to some traditions. As they sat together at a supper. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. . on emigrating to Medina. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. . In this sense of the term.
. In zih¯r. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. Muir. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). if not. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. In this form. or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. pp. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. a In due course.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7
¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’
There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. . the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. II. Life of Mahomet. a a i. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. For example. but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. vol. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226).
Muhammad’s doorman. who had even given Muhammad a son. Mika’il. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. and jeering. “O Rah¯b. Hafza was furious. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. let us provide some background information. In visiting his numerous wives. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. Gabriel. In fact. He was admitted. verily All¯h is with you. told ’Aisha.” so he tried to calm him down.” she shouted. In fact. but instead she found him with Mary. the beautiful Coptic concubine. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. promised never to visit Mary again. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. on my day and in my own bed.60
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and a if you had divorced them. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. what trouble do you feel from your wives. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. His angels. a a I would certainly do that. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). The request was disregarded. a “I have nothing to do with you.” he told Rah¯b. excitement. trying to pacify her. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip. “In my room. we take them up. but he insisted. Hafza. She wept bitterly. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. Muhammad. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza]. He separated himself from them. however.” Muhammad relaxed. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared
. Muhammad was very angry. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
twenty-nine days. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. So our women began to learn from their women. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. I entered the mosque.” he told her. a As ’Umar entered.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. By All¯h. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. a a kept himself away from his wives. and very soon everybody knew about it. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation.
to which Muhammad replied: “At times. .” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. . and the righteous of the a believers. ¯ The matter blew over. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506). a is
OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE
It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. . and the angels after that will back him up.for your hearts have swerved! . when Muhammad lacked funds. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. they broadcast it. craving to please thy wives? . verily. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if
.” ’Umar narrates. they were under two of our righteous servants. and they became his wives again. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. and he laughed.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). and Gabriel. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10).” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. All¯h. . All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. On this occasion. threatening his wives with divorce.” All¯h warned them. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83.61 on his face .” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. asking for extra money. or to those charged with authority among them.but if you back each other up against him. In this new mood. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. had¯ 3507). .” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. some of them centering round money. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. and it was said. but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. He is the sovereign. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. [but] he visited them.
Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult. I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). She had two suitors. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days.” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). and the latter was poor. and could get rid of their wives so easily. the son of his slave and adopted son. a mere woman. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. one of Muhammad’s wives. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima.
A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period.62
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. died. but when it is really intended. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. Thus.”
NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE
F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. In their place. The wives chose the latter.
. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. he beat his wives). since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. Once ’idda has ended. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. Zaid (3512).e. Zaid.. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. u a Muhammad advised against them both. observing: “By All¯h.
Mirkhond. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth.a slave. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities.
EMANCIPATING A SLAVE
For some unexplained reason. The word a a literally means “oath.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. One of a them must be lying. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. besides thirty-eight servants. and if he speaks about it. and if he keeps quiet.63
INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a
If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. which is most likely in such a case. Similarly. and if he kills. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. after all. Zubair. The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another. which is on business transactions . never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. he shall have to consume anger. for unless he has four witnesses. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa.
. solve this problem” (3564).” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. a close companion of the Prophet. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. even in a their wildest dreams. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. he cannot kill the adulterous man. for that is forbidden. both male and female. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). but this closes the chapter. The fact is that slavery. tribute. But the fact remains that Muhammad. was no more than a chattel. They were the property of their master (saiyid). This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. you will kill him. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. owned one thousand slaves when he died. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. you would lash him. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book.
” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger
.” She was brought.64
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. not a matter of justice. 4:25. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. selling them.
EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES
The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. Slaves had no property rights. hiring them out. 23:6) permitted this. lending them. In the ﬁrst. of course. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. In any case. 4:24. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq).
WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION?
Only a believing slave deserves freedom. inheritance. he said: “Bring her to me. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. One way. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. To Muhammad. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. On the whole. gifting them away.” according to him (4). but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. wanted to free her. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. On the other hand. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. and a very common one. when the naked. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
who could dispose of them as he liked. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. and marriage. In the second. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. in contrition. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him.” says Muhammad (129). When Muhammad was consulted. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. however. mortgaging them.these are some of the signs of Doom. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people .
All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. she is a a believing woman” (1094). for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates.
WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY?
Even if a slave’s person was freed. a
SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD
Beyond all that may be said or done. It has its own reward. a
A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. even his private parts a for his” (3604). Bar¯ ira. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. but must not be overburdened” (3582). the condition of a slave is no great evil. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him.
. He cannot seek any new alliance. and emancipate her. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her.” she answered. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. though ready to free her for cash money.” But the owner.65 of All¯h. he a has two rewards for him” (4097).
’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). . He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator.
. who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. i. . . says: “He is. and it also records the words of the prophet . of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie.66
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS
We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries.
’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. were also made unlawful. so his views on the subject should be of interest. Gifts.
Muhammad forbids speculation. a 67
. Because of their speculative nature. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. his injunctions became state policy.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). Bequests. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands.Chapter 7
Business Transactions. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Sal¯ b. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. Inheritances. Vows and Oaths
The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’).
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
” says Muhammad (4057).” Muhammad says (4038). but he found something else better than that. should do that which is better and break his oath.72CHAPTER 7. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. I cannot provide you a a mount. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS.” observes Muhammad. a
ABROGATION OF AN OATH
All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be.” But only one of them became a pregnant.” But immediately after they were gone.e. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled. by All¯h. GIFTS.. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. the vow a a must be fulﬁlled. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. One day he said. But he allows you to swear by God. something which Jesus forbade. if He so wills. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. INHERITANCES.
THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE
If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story.” says Muhammad (4043). Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). and she gave birth to a premature child. a I would not swear. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). I would see better than it. but if later on. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do. BEQUESTS. nor by your father. “He who took an oath. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. “Do not a a swear by idols. “He who has to take an oath. a An oath can be broken. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers.
eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). one hundred lashes for is. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). For the death of a woman. or killed another.. a ¯ Qis¯s. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists).Chapter 8
Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). accusing her of adultery. only half of the blood-price is due. ﬁfteenth. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). or retaliation. a ihs In cases of murder. qis¯s. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. but according to one school. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. The law also permits qis¯s. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. Qur¯n 5:38-39). and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. If a slave is killed. and taz¯ Hadd a ir. and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. a i. cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah. Had ud) a
The fourteenth. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. the procedure of investigating them. Though the Qur¯n a
. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). (pl. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian.e. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. but since a slave is a piece of property. cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery. only one-third is permissible in such cases. mutilated.
1357). for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219).” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. This establishes their innocence. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. ih ¯ i if. QIS AS. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. though not by burning. I. ih
. For example. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. He gave us their names. HAD U D)
gives the broad outline. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them.for giving up Isl¯m . the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. The climate of Medina did not suit them. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). and he would be surrendered to you. 2 i. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. is
The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). wash their hands over the heifer. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. ’Ali burnt them to death. and the identity of his killer is unknown. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. he said: If I had been in his place. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission.74
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. when a man is found slain. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. The a punishment for apostasy . But when we went to him to take his leave. ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. and Muhammad adopted a it. Once a Muslim was found slain. break its neck. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it.is death. he said. a a
DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION
One can accept Isl¯m freely. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa
1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament.
and their feet. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. The apostates were brought back. or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. and put out their eyes.e. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints.
A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY
A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132).. When the case was brought to Muhammad. but they were not given water” (4132). a
¯ QIS AS
Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. someone who is a Muslim. in Muslim a law. they killed the shepherds. She had broken someone’s teeth. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138).75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative).” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151).” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. but technically. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h.
. or if he has killed someone (i. Away from the control of the Prophet. and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). bloodwite was allowed. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. according to many jurists). it is retaliatory punishment. an eye for an eye. But in another case. The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died.
causing her to have a miscarriage. a hundred stripes for fornication.
. nor made any noise. ’Aisha reports a similar case. and also for drinking wine. QIS AS. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185). a a The translator. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. “Hers was a good repentance.76
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Thus. an exemplary punishment from All¯h. stoning to death for adultery.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. in a long two-page note. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. Zaid. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. Although Us¯ma b. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170).
¯ HAD UD
PUNISMENT FOR THEFT
’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). her hand was cut oﬀ. a woman committed some theft. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. as we have already seen. he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. HAD U D)
Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. and death for apostasy. the beloved of Muhammad.” ’Aisha adds (4188). a interceded in her behalf. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). the penal law of Isl¯m. who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole.
’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. In this sense.
There are some gruesome cases. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. with the lapse of time. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death.” says J¯bir b. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). By All¯h. “I was one of those who stoned him. ‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. ’Abdullah. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. Similarly. Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a
. Therefore. All¯h has ordained . the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. the term includes adultery as well as fornication.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). She was spared till she had given birth to her child. a woman of Gh¯mid. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. . . in case I get hold of him. . a branch of Azd. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196).77
ADULTERY AND FORNICATION
Adultery is severely punished. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. He repeated his confession four times. and gave a small quantity of milk. the people may forget it and may say. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. “The whore and the whoremonger. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. receive teaching from me. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198).
. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. Another had¯ tells us how it was done.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid).
FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED
In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. QIS AS. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . in fact. a
A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED
The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. participating believers. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h.” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators.
These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). When a woman is to be stoned.” The woman was punished for adultery. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). And then the multitudes follow. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. No such hole need be dug for a man.78
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. a chest-deep hole is dug for her. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. iya. . but when the case was brought before Muhammad. HAD U D)
then stoned to death” (4025). Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone.
” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. the son of ’Umar. then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). then accept it. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. by the time of Muhammad. if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45.” he adds (4211). But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her. those who i are married and those not married. 47). but if he gives verdict for stoning. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). The Prophet was a merciful a man. ’Al¯ says: “O people. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. “I was one of those who stoned them. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction.
. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery. and if she was unmarried. a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. and he committed me to ﬂog her. A slavewoman. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. According to one tradition. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers.79 Among the Jews themselves. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad.
FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED
If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). was not to be stoned to death.
A SLAVE ADULTERESS
A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. stoning had fallen into disuse.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. then avoid it.” says ’Abdullah. she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes). even if she was married.
u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). They hold that the number of stripes is to. he still has
. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.80
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. QIS AS.
The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). several days. cases. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. class of punishment. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes.
PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING
The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. and if he is sick. When the i number forty was reached. In such ir. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. and ¯ to lash him.
PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD
At the end. the third Khal¯ a ifa. a
¯ TA’Z IR
Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. If he does his best but errs. HAD U D)
On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). he has two rewards.
the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. cement. 1981). According to some. mats. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). Also exempt are bricks. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. Fresh vegetables. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. Christians.81 one reward (4261). a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. birds. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. a fruit and ﬁrewood. and bread. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. In a dispute regarding property or debt. such as books.
CRIME WITH IMPUNITY
The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. November 15. In cases involving had ud. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). Nor is the testimony of Jews. According to the Qur¯n.
. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. marble. such as hospitality. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). glass. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. recently published in Pakistan. are also discussed in this book. but a apparently this is not really so. and carpets from mosques.
HAD U D)
. QIS AS.82
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.
the spoils of war. 83
. .. All¯h. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. and inform them that. .
Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. Historically. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven. . If they refuse to a a pay the tax. . Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. If they refuse to migrate. do not embezzle the spoils. All¯h. if they do so.Chapter 9
Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a
The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. . a a trying to be universal through conquest. . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. accept it from them a . . seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294). if they respond to you. . demand from them the Jizy¯ . Theologically. Medina.e.” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. Make a holy a a a war. . Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. . a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina.
it is lawful and pure. Sa’b b. But if they are killed. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. had¯ 4324).
SPOILS OF WAR
The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
RAID WITHOUT WARNING
It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. If need be. al-Madina. and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. or. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. this shocked the Arabs.84
¯ CHAPTER 9. no song need be made about it. All is fair in love and war. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed.” says the Qur¯n a
. as some others have translated it. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). “war is a stratagem” (4311). All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. “cunning. As the Prophet a says. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. this requirement can be waived.
JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES
Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir.”
CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS
In jih¯d. unknown to the Arabs before. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. “Eat ye the spoils of war. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia.
Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. and also as a favor and extra incentive.” 1
A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE
Despite the pious rhetoric. when it would be easy to win booty. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). “Ye shall by no means follow us. as administered by his Apostle. “Permit us to follow you. It belongs to the Cause. in commenting on i. and their dwellings. For example. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. Muhammad told them that the next time. material incentives had to be provided. Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it. ¯
.85 (8:69). and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. they would say. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1).
Essentially. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh.. If he fought for such accessory rewards. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. 1934). in this case the cause of God. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. a In fact. i. he fought from wrong motives. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war. In fact.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the
’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. he a a is given a share in it.” but he would answer. where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ.
had¯ 868). The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. . he shall. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. ¯ ¯
. pretty rough.” the muj¯hids demanded. II. believed in by any sensible person. p. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war .” 2
¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’
There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’.
MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS
The spoils of war were most welcome. The booty was very large. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. and accusations. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. restore what he misappropriated. 594. grievances. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. Commenting on this verse. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. . and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
hard way. If any person is so false. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16).” said All¯h (3. in fact. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. suspicion. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. and was full of claims.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.86
¯ CHAPTER 9. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. Within a few months. . The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. after the capture of Hunain. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. recriminations.-161). then if you obey. which he took by surprise. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. on the Day of Judgment. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. and supernal intervention had i.
“They are our kith and kin. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head. the poor. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. i fellow was Utbah.” he advised. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied. including the cattle. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. the orphans. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. his family. to the Muslims in general. gains from a war not actively fought. . When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. The fai’. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example.” which ’Al¯ readily did. He advised that they should be put to death. or children. His Apostle. pp. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. women. vol. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. Along with the khums. I. 338-339). Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. except for a few who were killed. A Muslim combatant. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. belongs wholly to the Prophet. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. During a retreat. the poor. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. all prisoners. and a the traveller” (59:7). Alh¯ris. Muqd¯d. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. it is entirely at his disposal. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. on the other hand. part II. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. One of these was Nassar b. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their
Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. According to this code. should be destroyed. as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. the traveller a . at least in this case. . The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools.” (8:41). orphans. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. whether men. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca. his family. . Another unfortunate i. In due course. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. The economic view prevailed. when they are no more. any such property that cannot be carried away.
. And at his command. to His Apostle.
The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. II. and for the building of bridges. Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. those to whom the Book has been brought. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. but more often this was not done. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. they are not to ride is on horseback. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. as the Muslim empire grew. Imperialism has the same is. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. called jizy¯. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
land on the payment of half the harvest (3762). it was extended to other subject peoples. .
THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD
After Muhammad established himself in Medina. forts. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims.88
¯ CHAPTER 9. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) .” as the translator puts it (note 2230). they cannot engage in public worship. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. and . Another imposition. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. also belongs to the fai’. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . language in every age. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. though they can repair old ones. and mosques). such a as their public prayers and festivals. but later on. This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u
.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians. . p. The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers. They are not to build new churches and temples. 889). they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. in short.
to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. u ir. So did the others.” his Coptic slave-wife. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. a but kept a large part for himself. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. he had properties at Khaibar. . Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. They got a large number of camels as booty. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . As the amount of war booty increased. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. As a chief. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people . Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). whether slaves or women or property. He u ir. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. . He also had seven other gardens in Medina. Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376).89 after embracing Isl¯m.” he says (4340). The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). . These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. . were conﬁscated by Muhammad.
In the distribution of the booty. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated.
raids. It was not much of charity. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. though. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. are described by name. “Commander of the Faithful. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. Instead. or as it is popularly known. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392).” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. Zaid (4469). for example.90
¯ CHAPTER 9. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. In due course. not always in the order in which they were fought. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. treacherous. The denial a i. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). They took their dispute to ’Umar. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES
After Muhammad died. Arqam. the Battle of Azh¯b. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa.” But.” a
RAIDS AND BATTLES
The book refers to many forays. the Battle of Badr a (4394). These are of two kinds. i]. u Prophet. the Prophet’s uncle. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. decide between me and this sinful. According to Zaid b. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). ’Abdullah. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. The conquest of
. and battles of the Muslims. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). the number a was twenty-one. the Prophet’s daughter. 4465). more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. u a Many battles. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. There are other traditions too. According to J¯bir b. ghazw¯t and sariya.
O All¯h. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. p.
EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS
“I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. . 467). . when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. . On another occasion. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. For example. and invited Muhammad to a humble repast.” When the answer a
. a The water welled up. II. .” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). In most of the battles. numbering one thousand men. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). Either he prayed or spat into the well. I would do that. Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying.
In the accounts of these battles. . People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396).” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. vol. To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). J¯bir b. . at the Battle of Badr. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. part II. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. We went out . On many an occasion. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. During the Battle of the Ditch.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. Muhammad came with a the whole army.” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. several miracles are mentioned.
pp. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). until they too fought against him. they surrendered . .” “Where?” Muhammad asked. those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. children and properties among the Muslims . Muir in his Life of Mahomet. . All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. . when these were ready in the morning. Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. a where they had gathered for shelter. So march against them. . By God. we have arrived. the son of ’Umar (4364). . Then he killed their men. And He made you heirs of their lands. and exhorting one another in constancy. repeating passages from their scriptures. . 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . III. [so that] some ye slew. . vol. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. During the night graves or trenches . we haven’t laid down ours. He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
was unsatisfactory. He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle.” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. and some ye made prisoners. and cast terror into their hearts. . their houses.” we are told by ’Abdullah. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. Mahomet. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). We give the story as summarized by W. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. and granted favour to them u ir. were dug in the market-place . and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. . . . .
¯ THE BANU QURAIZA
The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms.92
¯ CHAPTER 9. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. himself a spectator of the tragedy. [they] spent the night in prayer.” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. . According to ’Aisha. their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). Each company was made to sit down
. and distributed their women. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza.
took his seat there. Having sated his revenge. Here take my sword. another biographer. a i. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond.” Ibn Ish¯q adds.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. .” S¯bit refused. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. For Zoheir.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . of female slaves and servants. 303-304. of Ozz¯l. .” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. it is sharp. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends.they had all been slain already . strike high and hard. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . and slaves. from his share of these. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. . . an aged Jew. and gave him over to another. The booty was divided into four classes .of K¯b. but she declined. .land. indeed. He replied. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. . and butchered in cold blood. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. . cattle. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. He invited her to be his wife. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. having refused marriage. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. and there beheaded.But slay me also. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. ¯ ikh i. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man .
.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. He received to each inquiry the same reply . to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. There were (besides little children. I. till the whole were slain . . Tabari a i. I entreat thee. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . pp. . . and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. of Huwey. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. in exchange for horses and arms. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. and chose to remain (as. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. chattels. and therefore were u
4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. .
at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. Thus.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. p. . . Akhatab. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. vol. and there is no remedy . RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. a Jewish leader. Huyayy b.
Sirat Ras¯l All ah. He who forsakes God will be forsaken . A book and a decree. and has made me thy judge.” Then he sat down. 476. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. . his head was struck oﬀ. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. part II. u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction. ¯ ¯
. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. p.94
¯ CHAPTER 9. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. Rauzat-us-Safa. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. p. 465. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. Besides the aged Zoheir. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. 752.” He too was brought before Muhammad.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. . . The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. . 7 In fact. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. 464. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. and at a signal from Muhammad. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. p.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. . when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. God’s command is right. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. before dying. II. but God the most High has given thee victory. ’Aisha says of her. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. saying.
When you meet them tomorrow. 12
ibid. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. He took Mecca by surprise. I. Shu’ba. in A. wipe them out. Deserted by Her servants. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. one of u a ira their kin. if. therefore. and not to the Emigrants. and. Umro b. . Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. Kh¯lid b. ¯ ira. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. who were from Medina. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. to demolish the idol of All at.” he prayed to All¯h. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. pp. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. His people killed him.
. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. . 10
THE CONQUEST OF MECCA
Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. p. 544. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. I. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying:
We weep for our Protector. 546. 484-486). 480. “O God. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. H. pp. In ﬁghting the Meccans. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). their goddess. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. 9. pp. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t.. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. i a ¯ vol. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. a u a a and Sa’d b. struck the idol with his pickaxe. A little later. Muhammad sent ’Urwa.
it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best .even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. went to Ka’b’s house at night. Spiritual darkness. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). True. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. “Who will kill Ka’b b. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. or falsehood. Then the assassin.
Assassination. a more psychological and mystical religion. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds
This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. and His Messenger. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). accompanied by some accomplices. The permission was given. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. self-shedding. asmit a). do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. According to the Yogas. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. like jih¯d. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. Through them.” said Muhammad. in egoistic life (aham. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. self-discovery. a After the conquest of Mecca. has a source deep in our being. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding.96
¯ CHAPTER 9. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. selfa a churning. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. the Exalted. u Similarly. whether Jehovah or All¯h. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. Wonderful! To say the least. he lured his intended victim outside.
. he got inconvenient elements eliminated.
” Muhammad asked
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. 369. he should respond to the call.. 368-369.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews.97 like the voice of murder. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear.” 15
¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER
Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. u Some. describes the assassins “bold as lions. p. On learning this. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). ¯ ¯ ibid. 13 Hass¯n b. as we have seen.
¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD
The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. another poet. Maslama and his foster brother. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. travelling by night a with their light swords. the unlucky victims of his aggression. Ab¯ M¯’ila.. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. 15 ibid. pp. 368.” He went down and was killed (4436). Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet. a poet. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. p.
. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. Another Ka’b.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. Sabit. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. Further details are available in various other accounts. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. Very soon.
and a both were polytheists. For example. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. According to the translator. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. Safw¯n b. (4472). When the man said he did not.
. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns.98
¯ CHAPTER 9.
political and intellectual. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). non-Muslims. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. So in a Muslim polity. and so on. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. and pilgrimage. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense.
THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH
At the very beginning. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. general morality. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). food. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs. The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. marriage. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99
. zak¯t. in all matters. is. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. dress. rather. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. In Isl¯m.Chapter 10
Government (Al-Im¯ra) a
The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages.
emerged in Egypt. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). for six hundred years.” says Muhammad (4473-4474). helped by petrodollars. the Saiyids. rulers.be Thou hard upon him. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism.100
¯ CHAPTER 10. the holy lands of Isl¯m). who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them .
¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA
“The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. A branch of them. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. ﬁnancial tycoons. a As a result. and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. and the disbelievers among them. necessary foundations. Later. the Prophet’s daughter. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. They were warriors. In another version. and i. may one day revive this idea.be Thou kind to him. and Ruler of the Faithful. D. Thanks to Muhammad. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad. his wife F¯tima. The present-day Sauds.
Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. 1299-1326).” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. and scholars. a
. “O God. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst. a shadowy ifa Caliphate.” Muhammad says (4476). are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad.
Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. then that person is designated as the
. An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). a Qur¯n 4:59). and this is a gift presented to me. a is
WARNING AGAINST SCHISM
Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas.101 There are other conventional exhortations. for as we know.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . Very thorough. but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense. and should appeal to me for help. and to his moral and spiritual sense. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). His Apostle. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. not to the oﬃcer. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). it is a religious obligation.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). In fact. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. have to invoke God at every step. “O you a who believe. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). . and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. . obey All¯h. If the electors choose someone unanimously. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. gifts are given to the oﬃce. a Some exceptions are mentioned. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. War booty is sacred. As he lay dying. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. This is a big loophole which was fully used.
OBEDIENCE TO RULERS
Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518).
” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). If there is an equal division. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree.” Under the circumstances. ’Umar. 1
SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP
“Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565).
¯ CHAPTER 10. men of authority. answering a follower. In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. 4. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. his own son and one of the electors. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders.
All four points are taken from S. Ghaﬀari. you should listen and obey” (4554). you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). then those two should be killed.” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. p. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings.102 Khal¯ ifa. 3. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. 68. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
. “Kill him. Shiaism.
WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES
Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language.
he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq. The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. nocturnal emission. That decided the issue. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances.
Jih¯d appears again. You are to guard against them” (4483). “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you. Similarly. This is understandable. “Beware. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). there will appear a number of impostors. Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714).103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. and this time he was accepted. and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). or pregnancy (note 2331). Yet again. but the Prophet did not accept him. Again. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. strength consists in a is archery. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). For example. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). for purposes of marriage.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a
. The next year. which is also an a important subject of this book. “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. when he was ﬁfteen. a
THE AGE OF MAJORITY
Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation.
HORSES AND ARCHERY
There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses.
when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. According to some ﬁqh schools. Having no home and no livelihood. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. After a the conquest of Mecca. . So the rules were changed. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted . Without jih¯d. “I love to ﬁght in the
. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. they became desperate. All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. a
¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD
“All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. a
¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION
After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca.” In fact. “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. Muhammad had the same desire for himself. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. there is no Isl¯m. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). and being uprooted from their old loyalties. if he dies in the Way of All¯h. but since this is not always practical.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). his body will not decay. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb).104
¯ CHAPTER 10. . there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty.
” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. One said: “I do not care. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). . . and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). Muhammad was consulted. What is that act? . .105 way of All¯h and be killed. and going on pilgrimage. All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . . . praying. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater.
. and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts.
THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID
The rewards of being a Muslim are great. a such as fasting. . if after embracing Isl¯m. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues.
¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS
The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. had¯ 4638). . Therefore. The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer.
The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever.106
¯ CHAPTER 10. Two men. Another puzzle seeking a solution. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. In the engagement. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. p. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim.
Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. a stone struck him and he died a martyr. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. . GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
THE STORY OF A MARTYR
The promise of heaven was tempting. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. both go to Paradise. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. When we came back a
Sirat Ras ul All ah. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). Asked to explain why. [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). We may give here another paradox. But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two.” 2
AN EARTHLY NOTE
After all this Paradise-mongering. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. 519 ¯ ¯
. go to hell but never “gathered together. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. . . taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). one the slayer and the other the slain. Two men. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note.” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. without having had the time to say a single prayer. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris.
Homely wisdom. Two men did not heed this command. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). is
.” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. i. Give them time to separate. II. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. had¯ 571). And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. In such instances. and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. let them not be taken by surprise.
¯ CHAPTER 10. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
and softened them a good deal. a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). even if the game is killed.” says the Qur¯n (2:172). a a a However. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. one should draw the knife across its throat. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog. with the help of a particular incantation. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109
. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you.Chapter 11
Hunting. for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734).
There are similar restrictions on game.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). Food and Drink
The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). some mub¯h (permitted). cutting the windpipe. and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). When slaughtering an animal. All¯h is great”). “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. a its ﬂesh is not lawful.
There is a story behind this particular permission.
CHAPTER 11.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull .a falcon.
. then wash them before using them” (4743). supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. . “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. recite the name of All¯h.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734).” for a month till they grew bulky. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. It fed them. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. a cheetah. . they ate a a even the dead animal. except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water. FOOD AND DRINK
What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting .” and as they were hard pressed. HUNTING. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. “When you shoot your arrow. and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). “three hundred of them. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). During the journey. But if it cannot be avoided. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes.” J¯bir tells us. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. do not eat from their utensils. The beast was dead.
It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). . a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad.
FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL
The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755).” he says.
DOS AND DON’TS
“If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it.
” came the order. caught and slaughtered it. we give another tradition. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. He did not accept it.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). So every one of you should sharpen his knife. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . kill in a good way and when you slaughter. LOCUSTS. u a u Similarly. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). saying: “I neither eat it. when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses. nor do I prohibit it. . . To illustrate. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). HARES
The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. narrated by R¯ﬁ b.
KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE
The Prophet was not without compassion. The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). as is legally required” (4768).” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. “Throw away your pots.
. Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. Shadd¯d b. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. and he accepted them” (4801). The eating of locusts is permissible. the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. a a
The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782).111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar.
LIZARDS. Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. so when you kill. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. slaughter in a good way. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847).
The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced. had¯ 1392). many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer.” Another word used is nahr. is But in order to be meritorious. In Muhammad’s lifetime. I. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. and from things strangled.
THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE
The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). i. before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol. In Isl¯m. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837).” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God.
. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen.112
CHAPTER 11. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. too. animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. FOOD AND DRINK
Intimately connected with the above is the next book. In many religious traditions. and from blood. the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. HUNTING. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce.” Muhammad tells us. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. which means “to split or pierce.
he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams. black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. According to Ab¯ Huraira. accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845).) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. “Give me the large knife. he took the knife and the ram. is “As for the nail. in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year. .” He then said to ’Aisha. . “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845). “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. O All¯h.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians.”
SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY
The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. the translator explains. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. it is bone. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger.
It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. While sacriﬁcing. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. This is understandable. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce.” When she did. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . unless it is diﬃcult for you. and when they are a
. Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it.113
As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. but more than six months’ age]” (4836). but we have no knives with us. so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal.
and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. the Prophet’s uncle. Mu’¯z b. . ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. “It is not their meat nor their blood. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. Baiad¯.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. esting story. narrates an interi. We experience a new togetherness. but when he returned.
. FOOD AND DRINK
down on their sides eat of them . a
POT AND PIETY
On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. In animal sacriﬁce. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. all this changes. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. and came out” (4881). “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. a new reverence for all living beings. “Hamza’s eyes were red. a and he thus turned upon his heels. We made animals subject to you. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. Jabal. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). . Liquor was forbidden. a a Let it be so if you like. went to where Hamza i was.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. He tied them up outside. Ka’b drinking. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36).114
CHAPTER 11. ’Abd al-Muttalib. that reaches All¯h. We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. Ab¯ Ubaida. people said. who put on his mantle. HUNTING. Ab¯ Duj¯na. and began to reprimand him. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. and he a i a brought his camels along.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. . and Ubayy b. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors.
The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). the ﬂesh comes to us.
” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin .115
Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). he tells ’Umar.
MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING
There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). . the Prophet’s cousin. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. In another tradition. How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. . . or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971).
Muhammad approved of drinking milk. Ibn ’Abb¯s. or hollow stumps (4913-4995). Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. together (4896-4912). gourds. green pitchers. “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. u
Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. it is not forbidden. mention the name of All¯h. there is not even a disapproval.” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf.
CHAPTER 11. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. Still. for feeding 130 persons (5105). FOOD AND DRINK
One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022).
PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS
It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. but it is permissible for other Muslims. because Muhammad did so (5072). thanks for the farmer who produced it. It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. with the blessing of the Prophet.
Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). he ate it and if he did not like it. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. A laudable practice. HUNTING. Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). ’Abdullah b.
DO NOT FIND FAULT
Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. and thanks for the mothers. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). he left it” (5121). In ordinary course. In fact. one “must vomit” (5022). sisters and wives. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040).
Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. if one drinks water standing. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it.
it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. no God can legitimize it.
. Similarly. That way we really profane Him. Be a meat-eater if you like. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.117 However. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. ¯ a negate Him.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest.
HUNTING. FOOD AND DRINK
But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). The mantles of Yemen. Magic. Poetry. Dreams
The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). he promised to wash them. Greetings. 119
. “Do not wear silk. were considered excellent (5179-5180). The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). on the other hand. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. Visions. for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). These were striped and made of coarse cloth. Decorations. ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189).
Silk is also forbidden. General Behavior. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178).Chapter 12
” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. GREETINGS.” reports Maim¯na. Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. POE
Sandals are recommended. Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. MAGIC. CLOTHING. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it .
. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. On seeing portraits on a curtain. whether of birds or animals or men. “Then on that very morning. In fact. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). .
Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). so oppose them” (5245). They eﬀectively keep out the angels. a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. DECORATIONS. J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated.
Not only clothes. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). On the day of the conquest of Mecca. . .120CHAPTER 12. the father of Ab¯ Bakr. The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). u
PICTURES AND STATUES
The same is true of statues and pictures in any form.
Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. ’Abdullah. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334).” and it is a perfectly good name.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. ¯
FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE
Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern.. and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). Yas¯r (“wealth”). the son of ’Umar. iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310).e. a
. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329).
GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS
The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. having the same meaning (5338). Barra means “pious. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). He forbade women to add false hair to their head. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. Rab¯h (“proﬁt”). having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”). i.
All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.
. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. . He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. a
Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety.
DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE
It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. gave birth to a baby. GREETINGS. POE
NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD
People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). When a man seeks permission three times. “he should come back” (5354).122CHAPTER 12. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). a a When other Muslims objected. Muhammad called for some dates. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. MAGIC. . Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. Asm¯. and it is not granted. CLOTHING. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. DECORATIONS. Q¯sim. . a
ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE
One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent.
” His hope was fulﬁlled. and when he falls ill visit him. the Exalted and Glorious. but Muhammad did not respond. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”.
. “All¯h.’ you say. Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯.” the Prophet replied a (5400). One day.” “But what about the husband’s brother.
“The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. oﬀer him greetings. “Husband’s brother is like death. when he invites you to a feast accept it. . “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). you should say: “The same to you” (5380). we recognize you. when he seeks your counsel give him. When you meet him. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). and when he dies follow his bier” (5379). or if that cannot be helped.” says ’Aisha a (5397). ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. And all should greet the children (5391-5392). then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377).” an ans¯r asked. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations.
’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself. and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). . and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. Also. who was tall in stature.123
SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS
“Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . The Prophet himself followed this practice.
and according to some traditions. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. by All¯h. those who had brought it about. it had no power over him (5430). The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him. 1 On another occasion. poisons. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. and deposited at the bottom of a well. you should take a bath” (5427).e. vol. a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact. POE
MAGIC AND SPELLS
With rather slovenly classiﬁcation. I. He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that.
Tabaq at. MAGIC. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect. This saved him for the time being. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . but.” and that “it was Lab¯ b. spells. CLOTHING. medicine. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. ¯
. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha. a u In the same S¯ra. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.. 156. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. DECORATIONS.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. During this period. and the way they did it. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. As the knots were untied. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. of course. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. the Prophet got well.” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. GREETINGS.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n.124CHAPTER 12. and incantations. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. or. p.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. “could not come at his wives.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. it caused his last illness. In fact..e. A’sam id [who cast the spell].” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). he lost his appetite and even became impotent. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113).
which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. don’t go to it. and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. According to the Arab belief of that time. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell.
Don’t mix with lepers. He says that according to some Muslim scholars.. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite.” Muhammad says (5484). and when it has broken out in the land where you are. Cool it down with water. so you may go” (5541).
2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). don’t run out of it” (5493). The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. no epidemic disease. NO INFECTION
Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens.” and “no star promising rain. On another occasion. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). It has a sexual potential. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. Among others.
. 3 ¯ a
¯ NO EVIL OMEN. no ghouls. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). it is a wonder drug. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. NO HAMA.e. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). i.125
CURES BY INCANTATION
Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show.
The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). a
Muhammad was against k¯hins.126CHAPTER 12. epidemic] disease.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. GREETINGS. but good omens please me. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true.e. POE
Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. the woman and the house” (5526). MAGIC. and fortune-tellers.
Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain. he believed in good omens and luck. “There is no transitive [i. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). and the law of causality.are very diﬀerent. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world.” the translator assures us (note 2603). CLOTHING. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. i. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world..” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. then it is in a horse. including India. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. soothsayers. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. Muhammad corrected
.e. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. a belief found in the lore of many countries. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today.” he says (5519). The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. According to the translator. The two worlds . no divination. augurs.. DECORATIONS. nature. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet.
WINDS AND CLOUDS
The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18). CATS
’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10).’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. had¯ 1963).” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. ANTS. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). Their sight ﬁlled him with fear. but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. a is
SNAKES. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world.” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. Like snakes. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”.” So they too should be killed (5545). And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). and Jinn (72:8-10). the jinn has his chance. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing.
.” He replied: “ ’Aisha.127 this belief and provided another explanation. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. the Exalted and the Glorious. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely.
a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. When Mecca was conquered. “O Apostle. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. his brother. . CLOTHING. he did not think highly of them.128CHAPTER 12. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. . The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. If you do not do that. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. GREETINGS. even by the method of assassination. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. a u had already ﬂed in all directions. then get to some safe place. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. POETRY. p. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). One relates to the use of correct words. Ka’b b. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer.” he advised. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik.
CORRECT WORDS. ¯ ¯
. Ab¯ Wahb. DECORATIONS. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). This taught many of the a u others to behave better. who was already a convert. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). MAGIC. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. “Catch the Satan.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. VISIONS
The next three books are very small. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . GENERAL BEHAVIOR. the daughter of a Marw¯n. according to Ibn Ish¯q. 597. True. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity.” Muhammad commanded. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. the only status he cared to claim. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. The book ends on a compassionate note. POE Ants fared better. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
I would give you so much. embrace Isl¯m. He found Muhammad most valorous.
. The man was overwhelmed. the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. Ummaya. “He a went back to his people and said: My people.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. however. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years.
The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. This was called his charitable disposition. He punishes it through His living Apostle. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). “He asked me to count them. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. ’Aisha. But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins.” the recipient said (5730). a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. most courageous.133
A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE
When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats. provided it was no sin” (5752). Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h.
Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. many of them by Anas.” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). but when it did. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one.
Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. Rob Peter to pay Paul.” His body a was also fragrant. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears.
THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE
Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). so All-
. a is complexion.134
CHAPTER 13. the other sadaqa. a
THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE
There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). and even heels. appearance. One is called jih¯d. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. The Prophet’s body was soft. His perspiration “shone like pearls. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). eyes. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. hair. or charity. “He put on a red mantle over him. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. a
THE PROPHET’S HAIR
There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. a is He used to part his hair. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). “Do not be angry. the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. He a also found his face very handsome. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages.
“his forehead perspired” (5764). . and his head was lowered (5767). Another man. and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768).135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. In fact. . and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). According to Ub¯da. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. according to the translator. when a revelation descended upon Muhammad.
PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY
According to ’Aisha. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. Salama.
THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD
His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. under its inﬂuence. Furthermore. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). ’Abdullah b. a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798).
. younger u than he. ” (5765). Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). . Muhammad’s wife. . His hair was collected. once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). . J¯bir. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). that a revelation was involved in the matter. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). Umm i. Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me .
i.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). in another three hundred (5658). he said: “If there is any use of it. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). Muhammad a gave his decision. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. I do not think this approach can go very far. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. learned this. Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. by the Lord. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. On another occasion. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830).. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. In one place. But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. and do not go after my personal opinion. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. then they should do it.” As a result. Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve.his father’s sister’s son. Sometimes.
The book also reports many miracles. then do accept it. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE
The Prophet had the best knowledge. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas.e. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. had¯ 5817). is. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h.136
CHAPTER 13. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. It suﬃced him
. a practical man. When Muhammad.
“Had you not weighed it. Their religion is. a Jew was selling goods. on the day of Uhud. having diﬀerent mothers. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. served a still greater purpose.
At the end of the book. On the battleﬁeld. and Moses. Speaking of himself and Jesus. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. Muhammad’s world was not very large.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854). Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. and therefore they were as good as apostates. and supplicated him. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. But when he failed in his bid.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. For example. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. the tribes allied with them. Recognizing the other prophets. narrated the whole story. a is Abraham. Therefore. however. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. though on his own terms.” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. a dispute rose. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. the Arab Bedouins. the neighboring Jews and Christians. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him.
PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’
Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. Who chose Moses amongst mankind. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. To the Jews and Christians. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. He knew his own people. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. the Jew said: “By All¯h. he oﬀered his leadership. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714).” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). During the dispute. But he could not
. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you.
for one is also the other. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. seldom both. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t.
. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. for they all express the same Truth. for they are all part of one human brotherhood. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs.138
CHAPTER 13. an attitude of either/or.
In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. he answered: “ ’Aisha. Salama. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. “the father of the maiden. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. members of his family like F¯tima. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. ’Umar. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. Husain. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. it is enough to be subservient. ’Aisha’s 139
. but he soon came to be known by another name. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions.” the maiden being ’Aisha. ’Al¯ Hasan.” Muhammad said u a (5873). When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. and ’Usm¯n.Chapter 14
The Prophet’s Companions
The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet.
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ
The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. The followers need have no other. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. D. and u a a i. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. To be saved. and Zainab. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa.
’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. I said. with a sword in his hand. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. p. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. u ifa a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. pp. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. ’Ali a respectively. and you are our Wazeers. As soon as Muhammad died. “To Ab¯ u Bakr.140
CHAPTER 14. even half-believingly.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. we jumped on Sa’d b. struggle for power began in earnest. The next day. I.” Muhammad answered (5878). Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. 529).
. 527-528).” ’Umar threatened them. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. “Either take the i. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. u so that he might write a document.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. was kept in the dark about it . 279. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. Even ’Aisha.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. “In doing this. ’Ub¯da. Eventually. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. and her brother too. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
father.. made the most of his dead body. as the u a a chief. his favorite wife. Ab¯ Bakr. u Zubair. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. her father. one of their own tribesmen. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. ‘God kill him. p. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. Outside. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer.
’Umar. nor stand at his grave. . The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations.” When he inquired. Badr” (5903).” Muhammad observed (5885). The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. And lo. a But Muhammad persisted. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. and in case of the prisoners of a im. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Had it not been for a previous
. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. KHATTAB
’Umar b. modestly mentions a only three. and ’Umar that they be a killed. as he prayed. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). In fact. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. Later on. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). for they rejected God and His Apostle. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. ’Umar was fanatical. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. the place of the Jewish Temple. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. the direction was changed to Mecca. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. .141
¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. narrow-minded. and strong in his hatred. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. . while asleep. however. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. by a divine injunction. whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904). during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. ’Abb¯s. ’Umar wept when he was told about it. Once. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle.
successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. Life of Mahomet. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. the son of Soheil. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
ordainment from All¯h.” he told Muhammad. there was also “weakness in his drawing. on the state’s payroll. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. and said to him tauntingly. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism.” The man said. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. But after him. on another occasion. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head.” The story is quoted in full in
W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. a new incentive. “Well. and the necessary religious rhetoric.
. provided a new taste for booty. by L¯t and Uzza. p. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. 110. as we have already seen. he made it clear. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. An Arab. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. 3 On another occasion. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. a founder par excellence. These ah¯d¯ we are told. He forged new instrumentalities. you are beaten now. In the Muslim annals. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). “Nay. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. who provided it with a theory. his name appears only once.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). a i. He put every Arab. but u he drew only “two buckets”. vol. spread of Muslim hegemony. an ideology. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud.142
CHAPTER 14. himself drawing water from a tank. III. a True. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h.” he said (4360). even including newborn babes. it was something to be proud of. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. its real founder was Muhammad himself. a continuing motive.
But one Muslim. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. who replied. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. “O Ab¯ Hafs. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. After she died.” he said aloud. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. so contrary to human nature and custom. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. In the same battle. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. al-’Abb¯s. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. al-’As. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. the family to which u a he belonged. part II. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b.” he said. the man is a false Muslim. ’AFFAN
’Usm¯n b. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. Umm Kuls¯m.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. who was taken prisoner i.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. When the Emigrants a
Mirkhond. But there is nothing unusual about it.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. Only a few decades ago. u According to Muslim tradition. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. ¯ ¯
. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. Hash¯m b. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. p. p. 507. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. Rauzat-us-Safa. did not like this. p. 739. whom he married. Ab¯ Huzayfa. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. vol. in Russia and even in China. II. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. and also to spare his uncle. in the Battle of Badr. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. a
¯ ’USMAN B. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. 301. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. al-Mugh¯ a ira. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. he was much troubled. releasing him without any ransom. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them.
one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work.” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait).” he said (5915). was a burdened with work that was too heavy. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. with great ingenuity. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. they are my i. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. [and] the members of a my household. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. and Husain. it was Ab¯ Bakr. the order of truth it deals with. is such that it excluded
. . did not agree with this conclusion.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. reclining against a pillow . a convert from the proletarian strata. . Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913). Hasan. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. From the arguments advanced on both sides. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. saying.
’ALI B. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. AB¯ TALIB I
’Al¯ b. “O All¯h. and its way of arriving a at truth.” Other doctors of theology and law. But when ’Usm¯n came. . .144
CHAPTER 14. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. at the hands of his brethren in faith. In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. a a family. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. the Book of All¯h .” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. therefore. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. is receiving a visitor.
T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.” The story is given by Mirkhond. 8 On another occasion. ¯ ¯ ikh i. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. II. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. II.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. I.” ’Umar says (5917). Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. therefore. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. ’Abdu Wudd. complained to Muhammad. thy brother i is coming behind thee. II. part II. involving a complaint of a similar nature. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. At one i point in the contest. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. Kh¯lid b. i saying: “I shall never do it. a man of ninety years. All¯h is partial.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. a i. p.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. his uncle. p. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. vol. II.” at the complaint. ’Al¯ is from me. During the Battle of the Ditch. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive.. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. i i” i. and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). The Prophet was furious.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. 5918). ’Abb¯s. 456.
. On the day of Khaibar. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. When Muhammad was dying. “his face becoming red with anger.e. Let us. pp. he took a slave-girl i. vol. people will never give us the Caliphate again.” (Tabaq at. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. had¯ 1582). ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. 9
After Muhammad’s death. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. had¯ 1569). The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him.” But ’Al¯ declined. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. ’Amr i b. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. command. his own saliva as a cure. i. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. Ja’far. and applied i. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. Wal¯ the second-ina id. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. vol.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. 521). thou hast deceived me. 292-293.
He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p.146
CHAPTER 14. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith..” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. obey them not” (29:8. and when the night set in. but after this marriage. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. 112). While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. had¯ 5933). a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. After he was appointed to this responsibility. he again began to be called by the name of his
ibid. . But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. was the old polytheistic morality. 10
¯ SA’D B. eight hundred strong.” This. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). following the old Arab custom. . 477-478. . Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. is
THE MERITS OF ZAID B. Until now. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). pp.
. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. . ’Aisha tells us. We give one example. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). he was also his executioner. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. however. AB¯ WAQQAS I
Sa’d b. by order of his lordship i the apostle . HARIS
Zaid b. .
perfumes. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought
11 Muhammad married many women. just as Mary.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. ija. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. Another woman. pp. was the best of the women of her time (5965). Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. in a ﬁt of jealousy. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. Once. his ﬁrst wife. and his Lord . Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. i With some women. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. According to Muhammad. Salama. and food. II. and Zainab. For example. Ibr¯h¯ died. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. vol. 147-164). a a is
THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA
In the list of merits. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years. . The marriage was consummated when she was nine.” (Tabaq at.” Muhammad said (5966). A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr.147 natural father. newly married. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. ¯
. Muhammad himself says that “women. the marriage was not consummated. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. dispatched home.
THE MERITS OF ’AISHA
The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. She was turned out. had¯ 5956). I il ate from it. I often heard him praise her. therefore. the daughter of Imran. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. . This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise.
Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. and having been thus silenced. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. you say: ‘No. but all very convenient. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). On another occasion. verily. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. She said yes. I will never talk a to him about this matter.148
CHAPTER 14.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. . Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). his daughter. Even during his last illness. to him. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. . “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me.” a as ’Aisha puts it. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima. in the words of ’Aisha.” About Muhammad’s own behavior.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. But. When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. A rule within a rule.” ’Aisha narrates.” ’Aisha generously agreed. though a strict code might call this bribery. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. . Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. as luck would have it. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.” “O daughter. she went back. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him.’ and when you are annoyed with me.” Muhammad made no answer. A time-honored a practice. by the Lord of Muhammad. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. “Where I would be
. Once. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger.
and even.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. “The Prophet died in my room. 282).” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. In fact. for my daughter is part of me. vol. our salivas mingled.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. on my day. Muhammad looked at it intently. here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. pp. put it in her mouth. “the virgin. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. and they agreed.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. Hasan and Husain. “And when it was my turn. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. I. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. 678-679. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. p. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. his wife. He
Just before Muhammad died. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. Fat¯ u u ima. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija.” ’Aisha adds. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. in the last moment of his death. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. ¯ ¯
. She had two surviving sons. Tabaq at. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. if. known as the Saiyids. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired. complained about it to Muhammad.149 tomorrow. ’Aisha took the hint. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. took the twig from her brother’s hand. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. his cousin. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. meaning “masters. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest.
THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA
Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife. After Mecca was conquered. i. I would not allow them. During his last illness. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. and in my bosom. just a few days before his death.” ’Aisha tells us (5985).
469. Sa’d was a a fat man. Hakam in revenge. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder.
THE MERITS OF SA’D B. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. Therefore. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. who u
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. but his bier was very light to carry. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). In the battle over the succession that raged later on. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. one Marw¯n b. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. ¯ ¯
. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . sitting on a camel. she was his only wife while she lived.
THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA
Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen.150
CHAPTER 14. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. Mu’az. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. p. Thanks to his political connections. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. MU’AZ
When Sa’d b. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. the third Khal¯ a ifa.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. During the Battle of Uhud. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. ¯ There are other traditions about him. Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). In the case of Khad¯ ija. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b.
a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. he said. u
B¯ AL IL ¯
One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. Umayya b.. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. On the day of the Battle of Badr. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. the Aus. Khalaf. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. 301. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. he “had looted.” he added. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom.” he said. Khalaf and his son. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. “Yes. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. Consistent with his lowly position. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q.” he replied. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. in Mecca. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. a carrying coats of mail” which. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba.
. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you
ibid. more kind a and compassionate. “By God. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. Mu’az. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza.” Muhammad said to him. p. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. Seen through less-believing a eyes. Umayya. the poet.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). an important Companion. The next a day.
Life of Mahomet. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. ’Akrama. pp. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. At the Battle of Khaibar. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. whose husband. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose.
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA
Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. They bring no change in the individual. pp. vol. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
have. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. now his prisoners. as they have always been. Umayya a b. p. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. father. part of an aggressive politics. Muir. 611-612).” In later days. I will. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l.152
CHAPTER 14. 302-303. When Mecca was conquered. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. ¯ ¯ W. the son of Ab¯ Jahl.” The Muslims gathered. 68. But organized conversions are now. 18 In fact.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. often they make him worse. Sim¯k b.
. There is a telling example. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Just then. They cried in pain and horror. IV. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. after the great carnage of the day. II. vol.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. “By God.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. decided to become a Muslim. by their hands. and brother had just been murdered. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. Bil¯l kept shouting.
S¯bit. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. . . I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a
. the daughter of Bakr. for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. One of them was the son of ’Umar. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. . He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . he petitioned: “O All¯h. The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). On another occasion. Sabit.” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073).” And to All¯h Himself.” he said to Muhammad. Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. Understanding the intricacies. Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. According to her. and commissioned them to write satires. Gabriel is with you” (6074). ifa
THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA
On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. . . the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. and Huraira. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. Muhammad sent for two poets. give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. SABIT
An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. . He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years.
¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. . u a which he knew very well. . Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions. “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. .153
THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS
The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list.” With that end in view. The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. M¯lik. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. . . I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years.
and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. H. they become better. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. As things converge toward Muhammad. H. . it was a diﬀerent matter. According to one important opinion. 220). In this ranking and ordering. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . but when they were in his service. .” says ’Aisha (6079. ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. but as they proceed further away from him. 6081). Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n.
MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER
Muhammad is at the center of everything. as the last Companion died in A. then come his Companions. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha.154
CHAPTER 14.. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour. the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. do not revile my Companions” (6167). 110). and they have worked out the exact period of each era. though all the participants were ﬂogged. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. At the end of the book. Then those nearest to them.e.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. H. 170).
. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. 120 years. “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. then those nearest to them” (6150). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. the Prophet comes ﬁrst.” she said a a (6075). “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims.
if his head aches. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). of course. it is a reward. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. . This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. the whole 155
. and feel for each other. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. Destiny. In short. Monday and Thursday. . All Muslims are one body. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). stand by each other. all Muslims should help each other. Knowledge. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. Good Manners. . even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. Remembrance of God
The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. “When a Muslim falls ill. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. And. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. If he suﬀers pain. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). the one supporting the other” (6257). Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). “The believers are like one person. his wealth and his honour” (6219).Chapter 15
Virtue. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him .
he should spare his face” (6325). for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. 1 The face should be avoided because. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. should help him. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. and 6306). spoils. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. 6265. All¯h would a meet his needs. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle.
If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. as the Prophet himself explains. in fact. and he who meets the need of a brother.
. KNOWLEDGE. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). It is meritorious to speak the truth. who a
This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. DESTINY. VIRTUE. a
Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. a Similarly. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim.
Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264).
Nonviolence of a sort is also preached.156 CHAPTER 15. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows.
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has
Tabaq at. But. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. it imposes only an outer code. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. garbing itself in pious clothing. . ¯
. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. he found it burdensome to observe this practice.All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. violence. An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. his death. as might be expected. and prurience. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. Each person passes through a series of stages. fornications. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. it gives the theology of a Moloch . as Muhammad called him. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr).” he said. war booty. 280. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. false witness.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. True. murders. theft. . Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. adulteries. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). vol. p. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. his livelihood. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). but thou. after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. a
The thirty-ﬁrst book. Without inner puriﬁcation. II. his fortune and misfortune. and tribute. “This I have power to do. For example. O Lord. there can be no higher ethical life.” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source.” As a result. his deeds. blasphemies. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity.
LACK OF INWARDNESS
Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness.
VIRTUE. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking
The thirty-second book. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). One day.that is knowledge. do perform good deeds. But in spite of these warnings. And. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). you would follow them in this also. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation.” On the other hand. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). he says” (6450). KNOWLEDGE. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). He also warns against hair-splitting. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. “Verily. The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars.” he remonstrates with the believers. “Recite the Qur¯n. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard.” and do not dispute about it . REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. the reverse may also happen (6390). Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. even smaller than the previous one. It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. of course. a a “Verily. by seeking to explain them. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406).162 CHAPTER 15.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. If everything of men is decreed in advance. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. DESTINY. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400).
and Paradise if we fall.
¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP
’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. our reward is booty. I rush towards him” (6471). he retained His audible names. in brotherliness. conquest. and empire if we succeed. In the mystic tradition. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. in wisdom.163 away the scholars” (6462). and so on. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. the inﬁdels. in conciliation. polytheist. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. like his moral teaching. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. In the prophetic tradition. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. inﬁdel. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. and forced conversions. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. it means walking toward the Light within. Muhammad explains” (6476).” Muhammad a tells us (6475). Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. And if he walks towards Me. in purity. faith. in compassion. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. Muhammad’s god. I draw near him a by the cubit. and earnestness. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a
. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed).” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war.
¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH
The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. slaves.
REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant. Demonology is the other side of theology. For example. and the second to ’Umar. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. the daughter of Hil¯l.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). DESTINY. one to ’Usm¯n. VIRTUE. ¯ ¯
. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. as a gift. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan.164 CHAPTER 15. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. 7
¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING
We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. 593.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. KNOWLEDGE. p. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta.
If they so wish. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). 165
. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. “amongst the inmates of Paradise. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act.Chapter 16
Paradise. Their Inmates. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). On the other hand. In book thirty-four. Hell. the Last Day
The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. According to another tradition. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor.” women will “form a minority” (6600).
The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand.
. the Exalted and Glorious. The believer will be doubly blessed. THE LAST DAY
THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r).
The Last Day . B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710).
On the Day of Resurrection. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. On this day.166
CHAPTER 16. HELL.
Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703).” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. THEIR INMATES. PARADISE. between afternoon and night” (6707). . then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. Muhammad said. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). . will take in His grip the earth . All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740).
. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. Thanks to his reward in this world. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above.. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment.e. “the earth would turn to be one single bread .” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739).the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. and of Paradise and Hell.” he told them. i. .
¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE
All¯h is long-suﬀering. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. The nonbeliever will answer yes.” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth.
THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON
Besides the power to curse. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command.167 Either way. Allah will ask the nonbeliever. . On the Day of Resurrection. whether. For example. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers.
THE JEWISH SCHOLARS
While Muhammad had power over nature. But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. . it is still not a fair deal. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). In fact. no Jew
All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). and heedless. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. the “moon was split into two. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. it is cheating. . but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). even the one least tormented. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing.
they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. “Verily. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. the word means “the one in united” (pl. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers.
¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN
Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. Literally. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775).
. pandemonic. the latter is pandaimonic or.” 43:36. also see 41:25). The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. the demons are only attached to inﬁdels. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. In the Qura an.
MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS
’Abdullah b. a devil. in the Sunn¯h. PARADISE. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil].
SATAN AND THE PROPHET
Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief.” Muhammad declared (6711). quran¯).168
CHAPTER 16. THE LAST DAY
would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. a prophetic one.” Muhammad declared (6752). with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. HELL. more precisely. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). THEIR INMATES.
Then those who would be next to them. there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet.
In religions where theology is supreme. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years.
. An-N¯r. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times.“The Garden”)
The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. Its Bounties. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. he advises. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars . .
Paradise is not without its hierarchy. a “In Paradise. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. “Observe moderation” in your doings.121 times. In the Prophet’s eschatology. then after them others in ranks” (6796). which appears 76 times. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). Paradise and Hell go together. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates.169
PARADISE (Al-Janna . A constant Bower of Bliss. . A man is justiﬁed by faith. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). but if you fail. and Its Inmates”.” Muhammad says (6760). a “the Fire. O Lord. appears with still greater frequency . “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). moral action occupies a secondary place. “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). Its Description. In the Qur¯n.
any that they may desire” (56:2021). nor void excrement. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. PARADISE. So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. rivers of wine. and the shades of the Garden will come low
. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798).
¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE
The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. . less than ih on earth. the Exalted and a Glorious. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). a joy to those who drink. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. “All¯h. . The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. incidentally. nor will they spit” (6795).
For his habitation in Paradise.” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). HELL. For food. . “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . “they will have fruits. the height of Adam and even of God. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. THE LAST DAY
Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. his length being sixty cubits. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). They will be “reclining on raised thrones. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797).
The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. THEIR INMATES. The immeasurable is measured.170
The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. describe the a i. 55:46-76. and others. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. a 56:15-40. 47:15. retiring glances. We can only mention the subject here. golden vessels. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. According to ’Abdullah b. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21).
Houris are promised. 52:17-24.
. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. for ever virgins. 66:8. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. wine. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses.171 over them. 76:12-22. will dwell his wives. the bunches of fruits will hang low. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. ’Umar. 4:13. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. 9:111. a i. with whom he will make love successively. For example. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. so he will have women galore in Paradise. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. which we have already mentioned. 10:9-10.
Other traditions. houris with swelling bosoms. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54).
though rather mathematically expressed. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. THE LAST DAY
NUMBER OF SLAVES
According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. PARADISE. p. Each houri will u have seventy garments. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. four thousand virgins. every room will have seventy couches. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. According to him. the number of slaves is ten thousand. these women will put on see-through dresses. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. when a believer embraces any such houri. THEIR INMATES. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. 1980). in the Muslim Paradise. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. HELL. still furu ther.
According to Ab¯ Sa’id. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. 1
NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN
It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. and she will have a crown on her head. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the
. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. According to ’Abdullah b. 112. ’Umar. holding the train of her robe. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. According to Anas. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. and eight thousand women who have known men. According to another tradition. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley.172
CHAPTER 16. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors.”
NUMBER OF HOURIS
Anas stinted on women. and seventy-two women.
There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. and as-s¯’iba. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs.
. to some up to their waists.” as the translator explains (note 2999). “I saw ’Amr b. In caloric heat.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity. ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. are severely punished. Khinzif. Similarly. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. Luhayy b. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. According to Muslim thinking. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). the son of Abraham. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. to some up to their knees. his senior. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). ira. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831).
Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. In Hell. But as his harem swelled. dragging his intestines in Fire.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838).D. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. In the S¯ras from this period. u a 4:57). Cam’a b. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825).
It begins immediately after their death. THEIR INMATES.174
CHAPTER 16. THE LAST DAY
After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. . All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs.” Muhammad told him. .
. said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this . . there is no death for you. O inmates of Hell. You would live forever therein” (6829). Verily. . I said: My Lord. Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. . Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). “As polytheists. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. HELL. . The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey. but they lack the power to reply. You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. PARADISE. . . even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. they would break my head . And I sent the Book to you . Muhammad said: “Behold. . my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . . the chapter is closed forever. . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out.” somebody replied. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. Then he sat by the side of the bodies. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. and addressing each of them by name.
While delivering a sermon one day.
The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. there is no death for you.” Muhammad revealed (6859). thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). . . Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. what I am saying to them.
will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. even Muslims must go to Hell. thermodegree. naked and uncircumcised. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief. more blazing. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. that should be of interest to Freudians. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). Hell has many names.
THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
On the Day of Resurrection. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim.
THE SEVEN REGIONS
Curiously enough. “the Fire.e. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger..” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. The is. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. and more scorching are conceived.
¯ THE QURANIC HELL
As was also noted in regard to Paradise. i. each with a its own potency. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. But woe unto the unbeliever.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. So hells increasingly more smoky. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell].175
There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. and inmates. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. In a
Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews. “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. another terrible food. Similarly.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. 56:52. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. polytheists. each tree there having seventy thousand branches.g. in the language of u the last S ura. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. . the Day of Judgment). inﬁdels. THE LAST DAY
order to fulﬁll the letter. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). idolaters. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure.e. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. which shall burst their bowels . toiling. It is called Jahanam. hypocrites. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents
. of All¯h’s command. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. 17:60. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. HELL. . which leaves nothing a unconsumed. .. . . i u 44:43-46). “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. Jah¯ for idolaters. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. In other S¯ras (e.” According to some commentators. if not the spirit. Saqar for the Magi. weary. they shall be given water like molten copper . In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. . Christians. is for the Christians.176
CHAPTER 16. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass.. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. and never has any light. THEIR INMATES. The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness. of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven.” i.” There are other traditions in the same vein. . PARADISE. loathsome in smell. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees.” is mentioned.
In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. . All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites.
THE LAST HOUR
The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre. . He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. but in the case of
. but He did not grant it” (6904. 6906).” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature.177 and an equal number of scorpions. . “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars.
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH
Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. “He granted me two. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). Arabia. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope.” he said (6881).
a Before the Last Hour comes. red in complexion. a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). . or the servant of All¯h. According to the translator. there is a Jew behind a me. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship.
Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour.
SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR
The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. the Dajj¯l . HELL. PARADISE. a
¯ IBN SAYYAD
A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). which is painful to touch. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. THEIR INMATES.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a
. “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. . Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961). the smoke. THE LAST DAY
Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009). the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985).178
CHAPTER 16. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. blind in the left eye and a a is. who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. come and kill him. ” (7039).
Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. That gave point to his claim. ‘He only chanted dhukh. permit me that I should kill him. Muhammad “did a not like it. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. According to another story.179 him.
. “Thereupon ’Umar b. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives.” the translator tells us (note 3037). you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). dukh. in fact.” Then there was a competition between the two. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). ready to do his bidding. Pointing to a young boy. Like the early Christians. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. a a made the very same claim for himself. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.
HELL. THE LAST DAY
. THEIR INMATES.180
CHAPTER 16. PARADISE.
It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. It helps him as well as his Maker.Chapter 17
Repentance (Tauba). . It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence.
SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING
A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). . “If a you were not to commit sins. but now a He added: “O servant. and All¯h. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. forgive me my sin. I
We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater.” The servant committed yet a third sin. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. In fact. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. According to Muhammad. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. Sin is doubly blessed. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). the Exalted and High. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). 181
. do what you like. and All¯h responded in the same way. forgive me my sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins .” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622).
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. in Whose hand is my life. and though young he died soon a after. “And a stay quietly in your houses. In retaliation. 498). I have never unveiled any a woman.” he said.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). Of course. For example. according to ’Aisha. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. like that of the former times of Ignorance.
Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. p. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. “Hallowed be All¯h. ¯ ¯
in a poem. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. 33). ¯ ¯
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. by One. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. and make not a dazzling display. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. p. According to another tradition. 499.186
CHAPTER 17. we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. Also. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675).
We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. Apostasy was severely punished. He used the carrot as well as the stick.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim.Chapter 18
Repentance. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India.110 002).
. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. Islam was not all theology. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. and the disloyal. Even in Muhammad’s time. negative as well as positive. but the
For a fuller discussion. more secular appeals. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. political boycott. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. constia is. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. M¯lik. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. the indiﬀerent. 2/18 Ansari Road. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. spiritually speaking. New Delhi . But from the beginning. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. and ideological untouchability. it was combined with other. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. M¯lik) a
We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”.
was ever present.but even worse. ’Al¯ Zubair. for he died soon afterward. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. D. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. in fact. Umayar. his own son-in-law. REPENTANCE. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. Because of its unusually arduous nature. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. besides inviting more concrete punishments. One had oneself played safe in the past. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. contractors. MALIK) fear of the strongman. p.
¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN
Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. In planning other campaigns. But this campaign was to be of long duration. 789. generals. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. now others do the same in turn. Sa’d.) ¯ ¯
. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. ’Usm¯n. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. 630.the i. is. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a
He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. the toughs of the ummah.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. ’Abdullah . and the weather was dry and hot. In oﬀending the Prophet. Talha. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. it was his largest and also his last. He collected tithes from the tribes. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. and traders. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. the boss. and so on. who were now rich and powerful. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. ’Amr ibn Omeya. you oﬀended ’Umar. Muheiasa. which were now reduced to submission. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. S¯lim b. They had become governors. you not only oﬀended All¯h . I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. They gave generously. or party. a lordly sum. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad ibn Maslama.
Though they were sent back. But Him you would not harm in the least. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . Of such people. . and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. with your goods and your persons. Thou knowest them not. at least nominally.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). ‘Go not forth in the heat. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house
. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). if only they could understand” (9:81). the whole Arab world. say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. He also took more secular measures. their spirit was considered praiseworthy. so they put forward many excuses for not going. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39).” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). a a
OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN
Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. and journey easy. Twice shall we punish them. “Go ye a forth. which now included. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God.’ Muhammad. That is best for you.” All¯h said of them (9:97). All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. but We know them.189 soldiers. whether equipped lightly or heavily. and when you said. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. and strive and struggle. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. in the cause of All¯h. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. . they would all without doubt have followed thee. In the Islamic tradition. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. But even so. For example.
. which was easily done with such a large show of force. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. Al-Dahh¯k. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. or else pay tribute. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. sang: a My salams to you. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . it found there was not much to do. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. because the Byzantine army. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. 3
A LARGE ARMY GATHERED
Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. One of the victims. . I will not accept from you a single thing. ¯ ¯
. . I left you behind because of what I had left behind. To Yuhanna b. although many of its members were still disgruntled. The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. was also there in consida erable force. the Christian prince of Ayala. 783. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. Ru’ba. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. was nowhere in sight. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). p. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i. But if you oppose and displease them.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. . But eventually he did not go. Believe. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. This eﬀectively dealt with them. . he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . .” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . Are you not content. According to some traditions.
SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT
When the expedition reached its destination. one-third of which was cavalry. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. REPENTANCE. According to some traditions. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew.
” he says. .191
When Muhammad returned to Medina. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. Ka’b. and Ka’b. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day.e. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth. he kept it as a secret. The next day Muhammad arrived. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. Hil¯l. “more than ten thousand people. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion .” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty
This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. Of the many who had remained behind. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed.” he said to himself. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found.” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate. to his dismay. neither age nor health nor lack of means. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. the Byzantine Empire]”. D. he says the expedition was big. that the Prophet had departed..” But later.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. .
. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. he decided to speak the truth. who was a poet. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation.
a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us .” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye.” When forty days had thus passed. He replied. by All¯h. . Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. and I had the greatest love u a for him.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h.” a Muhammad dismissed him. MALIK) persons.” This comforted him somewhat. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did.) Later. . he did not respond to my greetings. a While he was enduring this mental torture. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. REPENTANCE.” Ka’b says. This also is a calamity. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. When Ka’b’s turn came. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. . “Verily. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b.” As Ka’b was young. “As I read that letter I said. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. “No. as I had when I stayed behind. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. . some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife.
Then the ordeal began. “By All¯h. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. he sent his wife
. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. I greeted him but. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. . whether He would punish them.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. I never possessed so good means .” This communication could be very incriminating. and he was my cousin. or turn in mercy” [9:106]. . The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . so I burnt it.
Some of them even began to sell their arms. a
At last the dark days ended.” she replied. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. also Tabaq at. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. ¯
. p. when Muhammad heard this. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). vol. Then He turned to them. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). IV. “But don’t go near him. that they might repent. By All¯h. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. p. I. 201. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. Prophet’s biographer. there is glad a tiding for you. and so did their souls become straitened within them. even until Antichrist appear. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. and the latter received him with a smiling face. he has no a such instinct in him.” Muhammad told her. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. vol. Life of Mahomet.” 5
W. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. 505.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. The same message was sent to the other two.
The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. Muir. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day. he spends his time in weeping.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. “By All¯h.” he says. M¯lik. as he was a “a senile person”. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. Meanwhile.
who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. 504. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. MALIK)
THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL
At the end of the “Book of Repentance. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Mary. Peace was eventually restored. REPENTANCE. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger.
. I.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. p.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. but in order to avoid further complications. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676).) a ikh i. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. the center of great jealousy in the harem. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him.
For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. a H¯wiyah. men of incomplete faith. therein shall they dwell .” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). or S ura. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). called Mun¯ﬁq in. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. named after ¯ ¯ them. Some of the citizens saw. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times).
MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY
Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre. They were doubters. others out of chivalry. such doubts were morally the most heinous. men and a a women. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195
. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. the Fire of Hell. and some out of spite for the Meccans. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. and there is a whole chapter.Chapter 19
Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in)
The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. . But in the peculiar theology of Islam. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. skeptics. . It is a small book. and the rejecters of Faith.some out of conviction.
1 Ab¯ ’Afak. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. many of them believed in war spoils. If we had kept our own for ourselves. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. The opposition could now be intimidated. converts. D. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. 1973).
Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
with them all that we possessed. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies.
. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. then by All¯h. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. Auf. Muhammad detested them. related to Aws Man¯t. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad. pp. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. But the realization came too late. 624 brought him the opportunity.196
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. They could put their ideas into verses. and soon they seized a whole yard. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. they a would have gone somewhere else. His victory at Badr in January A. Muhammad (Pelican Books. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action.” she sang. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug.
The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. p. 157-158. and much of it could also be bought. 676). It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina.
Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination.” he told the departing assassins. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. Muhammad treated it in his usual way .” he prayed. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. They were too cowed. This turned out to be only too true. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. The assassin had a powerful patron. This they did by these perﬁdious acts. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. “Lord.197
ASSASSINATION OF POETS
“Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. because of his open sedition and verses. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. . ¯ ¯
. but nothing a happened. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission.” Muhammad had assured him. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. 676. Also. 132. . 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. We have already mentioned his case. look ye here. W. 368. including the two assassins named above. Muir.he spat on it and it was healed. “The
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. p. oﬀered to assassinate her. Life of Mahomet. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. There was something new in the atmosphere. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. p. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. vol. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. Most of the local converts. 4
A NEW FEAR DESCENDS
According to ancient Arab custom. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. III. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. a new apprehension. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. had not fought at Badr.” he told them. p. a new equation. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived.
a common ideology and passion. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect. But this period of caution did not last long. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. but they are indeed liars . A seal is set on their hearts . . Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. p. chided him: “You enemy of God. Huwayyisa.. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. it said one thing and did another. They have made their oaths a screen . p. I would have cut your head oﬀ. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. a Jewish merchant. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. D. and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. . a common goal.” says Ibn Ish¯q. a
THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED
Muhammad’s party had a common command. . they say. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . 6
THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION
Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you.198
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. “By God. They are enemies. now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. a Muslim convert. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. ¯ ¯
. 369. He exclaimed. The killer’s brother. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. Furtive in action. Ibn Ish¯q. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. As his power increased. Mas’¯d. . 676. They had promised each other a u ir. . 622. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. . .” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. . All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. The demoralization was complete. common interests. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). but the opposition was badly divided. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. a
ibid. the doubters among the local converts.
when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. Three years later. . .)
Ibn Ish¯q. and if you be fought against we will help you . ¯ ¯
.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . But after the arrival of Muhammad. independence of judgment. 92. in March-April A. 624. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . 627. . and loyalty are qualities.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. but their hearts are separated. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. a new force entered the scene. but if patriotism. 363. these will not help them. (See pp. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. Thou dost reckon them as one body. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. Muhammad besieged this tribe. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. he was not an unworthy man. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. He was once the leading citizen of Medina. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. by God. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. . . but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. D. If they be driven forth. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. This was in February A. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. and his appeal was also a threat. It is said that just before Muhammad came. But even then. and if to save is better than to kill. p. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. and his importance declined fast. his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. When they surrendered. these will not go forth with them. and if they be fought against. But God bears witness that they are liars. D. . a
’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY
There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. leaving their goods behind to the victor. because of his inﬂuence. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies.
Ibn Ish¯q. Ibn Ubayy. Tempers were frayed on both sides. the stronger will drive out the weaker. two thousand camels.200
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES
Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted.” he advised. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. But wiser counsels prevailed. . Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. and you have divided your property among them . All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). Huzair. also heard about it. he consulted Usaid b. when confronted with this statement. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. a fanatic Muslim. 491. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. Aws and Khazraj. . an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. But Muhammad was cautious. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. with his usual weakness.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. a
THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED
’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. denied it. He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands. On the way back. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. The booty included two hundred families. but it rankled in his mind. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. He had an image to protect. a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. You have let them occupy your country. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. so he accepted the denial. ¯ ¯
. he gave it serious thought. p. On this occasion. at a more opportune moment. he was spared. about ’Abdullah.” 8 Later. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. and later. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves.’ But when we return to the Medina city. With all the proposals and consultations.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. on oath.
Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. and he was isolated from his people and allies. according to Ibn Ish¯q. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father. Some of the persons who were with them came back. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. who questioned ’Abdullah. By this time. p. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). denied having said any such thing.” ’Umar submitted. Zaid b. Now.201 Later on. the Prophet. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. ¯ ¯
. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him.D. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. at his a is son’s request. 492. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. who narrates the whole story. with this background.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. ih
’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS
Zaid b. The latter. they heard ’Abdullah b. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). he had u already become a back number. 625). ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision.
PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN
The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them.
But the man replied: “By All¯h. One group said: We would a kill them. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. . his sins would be obliterated. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day. The Prophet cursed them all (6690).” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein.
AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE
According to certain traditions. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. this hill. . so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. the hill of Mur¯r. Other traditions identify him as Harr b. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. They again dug the grave . the owner of a red camel. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. . .202
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. they were twelve men. . and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). this should not be done” (6684). At last they left him unburied” (6693). A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k.” All were pardoned except one man. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a
AN OUTSTANDING ARAB
J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. According to Huzaifa. Thus intimidation had started quite early. who was forbidden to divulge the information. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. . but the earth again threw him out . They again dug . The hereafter will take care of itself. and the other one said: No. but the earth again threw him out. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons. Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. Qays.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa.
Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. the place. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696).behind them often a . it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures.. It tells us about the time.
DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE
The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. it threatens and promises. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. It is feverish in tone.e. According to other traditions. Ibn ’Umar. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). india a vidual men. dvesa. the circumstances of their revelation. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed.
. but that the trances of a passionate. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. incidents in the life of the Prophet. but with the a . but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. angry. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. and deluded mind (i. and moha) are not to be trusted . hereafter. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad. sensuous copy of the here. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance.
“THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY”
The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. who had already chosen his pastures. merely an exaggerated. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. of a mind characterized by k¯ma.
The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. the ﬁfty-ninth S ura. But I want to be there. Resurrection Day was far oﬀ. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). ¯ the very last. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. a completed favour upon you. then in her forties. which makes such a tall claim. among your wives. the eighth S ura. II. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). on the Day of Resurrection. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). but chronologically it is one of the last . but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). The information throws no particular light on this revelation. It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. I yield my turn to ’Aisha. had¯ 899). It contains only ﬁfty traditions. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185).according to Sir William Muir. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. and do even now. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. the majority of men and women in the world.” Muhammad agreed. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura.
. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. For example. ¯ condemnation.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). and adds nothing essential to its subject. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. This is understandable. or “Banish¯ ment”). and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4).
¯ THE LAST S URA
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then.
The Kor¯n. popular and much in use. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. London. Muhammad Ashraf.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Glorious Qur¯n. 1973-1975.usc. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. Lahore: ih Sh.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. James Robson. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. translation.Chapter 20
[The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. Palmer. Reprint of English translation by Dr. ih a if. Qur¯n Majeed. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. New York. Abridged Urdu ih a i. H. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. Lal Kuan. 1980. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali.. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. 1973. Muhammad Ashraf. Urdu translation in 2 vols. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. 205
. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Delhi: Kitab Khana. i if. Lahore: Sh. Translation by E. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m.
At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. Karachi: Nafees Academy. trans. 3rd ed. i. Mahmud. 1 and 2. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. Edinburgh and New York: T. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. Ibn Sa’d. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. Clark. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. Pelican Books. English translation. Karachi: Nafees Academy. India. The Life of Muhammad. Scholarly and pioneering study.
Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. Ali Raza. ¯ died in A. 1893. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. New York. & T. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans.
Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. letters. London: Royal Asiatic Society. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. S¯ a ikh i.. Urdu translation in 11 vols. Tehatsek. Elder & Co. 1980. D. 4 vols. A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. 1885. London: Smith. 1976. 310 (A. 1861. Guillaume.
. a Shiaism by S. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. Ghaﬀari. Tehran: Shahpur Square. 1976. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. H. E. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. popularly known as Mirkhond. Selections from sermons. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Khavendshah b. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. Urdu translation in 8 vols. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. vols. translated and edited by A. Oxford. The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. 922). English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. reprinted. and his S¯ of Muhammad.206
CHAPTER 20. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. Delhi-6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD
S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q.. by Syed a i. 1973. Scholarly. edited by James Hastings.
All¯habad: R.P. 1897.207
The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. 1st ed. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. New Delhi. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. Publishing House. Ratlam (M. New Delhi: Impex India. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. 3rd impression. Among other things. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature.]
. 2005. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. 1980.)-India. S.. Hindi publication in 3 vols. reprinted. Rupa & Co. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids.