Understanding Isl¯ m Through a H¯ d¯ a is

Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries

Ram Swarup

Voice of India, New Delhi



Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very specific view of the world peopled by infidels. Since most of the world is still infidel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is different. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯fi, whose mystical teachings a a u

ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy fifth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacrifices, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insignificant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most prolific source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At first the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two

D.in short. H. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. 810ail ai 870). Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. Sa’d utilized their power effectively. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. There were many motives at play behind this development.000. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. Spurious traditions were coming into being. There were also more personal motives at work. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A.000 of them as authentic. great passions were generated.800 traditions out of a total of 500. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably sufficient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. Under these circumstances. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. in the practice a of the Prophet. the Ummayads. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. In this struggle. Soon after Muhammad’s death. a serious effort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. 819-875). so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. D. D. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. H.000 names were mentioned in different chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . H. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. 824-892). or what they thought were the right theological views. They were sources of prestige and profit. It is said that he collected 600. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. There was an even more pressing reason. This was found in the Sunn¯h. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. drowning the genuine one’s.iii other reasons.000 traditions but accepted only 7. 817-888) u a¯ and others. A hundred years after Muhammad. 204-261=A. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. and under their influence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. 209-279=A. and later on the Abbasides. 194-256=A. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. 202-275 = A. D. H. It is also u a¯ said that 40.was a great thing. particularly the Alids.

Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. who was born in Medina in A. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a different frame of mind. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. It ih provides the base. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. reveals their more earthly motives. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the flavor of the original. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. The of the Had is. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them.“the two authentics. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. is rather unedifying. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for filling up this gap and giving Therefore. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . rather all too human. about a man. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. a is Had¯ gives flesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. 85 and died in A. H. narrated. To the infidel with his critical faculty still intact. which were in vogue died away in due course. The lapse of time helps the process. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. 768) a in Baghdad. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. Over a thousand collections. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. we must thank Dr. almost the very first definitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. To clarify certain points. The believers have handled. 151 (A. In fact. which only the Had¯ provides. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. 32). his forehead. but they contain much that is factual and historical. the hero looms larger. and only six collections. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. Of these. H. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. or collections. a became authentic Sah¯ ihs.” they are called. Muhammad Ashraf). though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. 1958). As the distance grows. a i. D. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind.000 as genuine. H. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad.iv accepted only 2. the Had¯ the context.

Arab support has made the task still more difficult. having been dormant for several centuries. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. or “countries of peace. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. Sidd¯ ¯ translation.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship.081 footnotes. If anything. In fact. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism.” i. a i. and install in their place their own godling. we have also quoted from the notes . ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. a Even in the best of circumstances. and even India. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. the old mission is being revived. is again a on the march. Indonesia. in Malaysia. infidel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. In a Sah¯ containing 7. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. When we read Dr. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. Isl¯m. In India. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. it is difficult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. Dr. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. with a large Muslim population. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. They buy local politicians.e.. In ih a is. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of . Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. Here and there.e.about forty-five times . Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs.v whose mother tongue is English..to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. All¯h. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda.

we have discussed none in full. motivated by a compulsive atavism. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. But on calm reflection. It is a weapon of self-defense.243 chapters. was unavoidable. is In this volume. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity.190 traditions divided into 1. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. Isl¯m claims to have defined human thought and behavior a for all time to come. Indeed. Wherever it triumphs. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. While we have in this way touched on many points. On the other hand. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. it resists any change. It has one drawback. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. it fruitfully defines the field of our study and inquiry. a is. a is a is .vi the country. and it feels justified in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. And. and thus. similarly. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims find most fascinating. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. derived from the available symbols of their culture. According to some thinkers. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the confines of this particular Sah¯ ih. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddafi. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with different chains of transmission. dictatorship comes in its wake. Therefore. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. This we find the Had¯ literature most fitted to do. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. it is also something more. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. For this purpose. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. in many cases. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. both of commission and omission. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. though. It gives us 7.

but his actions determine and define morality. no cosmetics. comprising 180 traditions. One is also left to wonder how the believers. praying. There is no makeup. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. “may All¯h be pleased with him. Here one comes to know him. the moral is whatever he did. An infidel in his fundamental misguidance may find the Prophet rather sensual and cruel .” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. generation after generation. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. For example. Similarly. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . hating.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness.but the believers look at the whole thing differently. eating. mating. they were All¯h’s own acts. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. could have found this story so inspiring. like other Had¯ collections. containing 583 traditions. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much.” A similar formula. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. “may peace be upon him. In our quotations from this literature. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. dispensing justice. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). and one is left wondering why in the first instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. . no posturing for posterity. although such instances are rather rare. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. The picture that emerges is hardly flattering. The Sah¯ Muslim. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. In regard to the title of the book. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions.

ain. but we have made it do also for another sound. For example. Jain. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. te (soft dental) and toe by t. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. Dr. in order to avoid them as far as possible. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. for they do not affect the substance of the book. Therefore. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. both have to be learned by ear. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. z¯l. a by the English s. Shri A.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. they have preferred to remain anonymous. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Shri P. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. and zw¯d by z. now both resident in America. Shri H. RAM SWARUP . one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. the Arabic alphabet’s se. and Mrs. Shri L. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. P. C. I thank them all gratefully. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. Gupta. C. Sisir Kumar Ghose. ze.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . .

SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . GIFTS . . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . Greetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi- . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES.

. . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . 150 B¯ AL . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . MU’AZ . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . ’AFFAN . .

. . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . Hell. . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . 170 HOURIS . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . . .

A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). pay Zak¯t. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to affirm belief in All¯h alone. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. in the hereafter. 1 This is the very first had¯ narrated by ’Umar. and you establish prayer. inform me about al-Isl¯m. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. yet without any sign of fatigue. faith in His Book.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. ifa. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. when the inquirer is gone. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. we give their numbers in parentheses. 1 1 . and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not sufficient. ih In quoting them.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very first book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). in His angels. and says: “Muhammad.” Later on. in the resurrection. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered.

and “that you pay one-fifth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. This can be confidently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. to name the more important ones. Ramz¯n. and khums (the holy one-fifth). and they establish prayer.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “five pillars” of Isl¯m. Muhammad and his God . that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. his father and the whole mankind. . and many teachers. is. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. FAITH (IM AN) ah. Doomsday. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). Hell. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are.” Other things mentioned are prayer. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. zak¯t. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become significant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. . Paradise. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z.) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). zak¯t. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indifference but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. In the same vein. All¯h and his Messenger . . whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. Ramz¯n. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). in the history of Isl¯m. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. and if they accept this. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t.rather. many philosophies. Sah¯ Muslim. Similarly. .prayer. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. “I have been commanded to fight against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists.

Ab¯ Zarr. and jizy¯.can prevent his entry. sincerity is a universal human value.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. He has no obligations. “Jih¯d.e. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a . When asked. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. nation. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). Jar¯ b. spoils. monotheism. But in Isl¯m. For example. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. except to convert them by sword. but these do not doom the offender to the a eternal hell. is the best of virtues. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. u if the man committed adultery and theft. very little to others. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. But no morally wicked act . toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. In fact. His Book. by the same token. The translator clarifies the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious offences in Isl¯m . the narrator of the had is. Muhammad at one place defines al-d¯ (“the religion.” i. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past.” which should be a good definition for any religion. one’s past crimes are obliterated.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clarification..” but who were ready to join him. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. but moral values are not altogether neglected.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. moral or spiritual. Muhammad replies: “Yes. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. and a future ones hold no great terror.” a “What next?” he is asked.” he replies (148).3 In the eyes of Muhammad. . it is a limited to Muslims. If polytheism is the worst of crimes.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156).not even adultery and theft . a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. . “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h. But on being asked. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist.

other moral values are given the same twist. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of fire or two laces of fire” (210). a . . . Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious purification . They are no longer wasted. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and fighting against him is unbelief” (122). Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary.” On hearing this. and the universal is turned into the sectarian. This means. THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. FAITH (IM AN) Again. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses.4 Muslim” (102). there will be two columns of fire like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. it is a a different story. We are told that one Hak¯ b. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. Thanks to this approach. but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal fire. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. as another text puts it. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). To rob a whole people is piety. some people were greatly perturbed. a God-ordained mission. but if he embraces Isl¯m. a revelation. in the state of ignorance” (222). One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). Everything good began with Muhammad. ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity.

MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283). he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. “the a . This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself.” the translator tells us (note 2967). and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise.we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat differently and in more psychological terms . and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there.” a Muhammad tells us (6668). Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. This would also. . I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. The hellfire will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad. incidentally. for the hellfire is on his side. The Jews and Christians will suffer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. “O womenfolk . .5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. Muhammad says. his future is assured. And understandably so. the Peoples of the Book. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us. His past is forgotten a unless it is good. but does not affirm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses.

Deva ¯ Prakash. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. . 3 Along with its attendant concepts. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. 1971. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not offer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. (16) the fact that if women are profligate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. and even her differential biological constitution and functions. In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. In the Qur¯n. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. India). Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. ’Aisha. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-five synonyms. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . 1058-1111). pp. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. D. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. (6) a lesser share in inheritance. it seems. He be praised. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. naked.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. (5) not having control over her own person. (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. Ratlam. But. (14) disqualification for rulership and judgeship. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. but for a woman to have only one husband. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. (4) pregnancy.that is one of the signs of Doom. only one of which is attributable to women.that is one sign. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. Paradise and Hell. a famous Arab divine of his time. In short. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). 164-165). (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). says that “All ah. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. The dreaded day (yaum). (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. as he tells them. or of “separation” (fasl). deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . (2) childbirth.6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. when you see barefooted. London: University of Durham Publications. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. the Prophet’s wife. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. and the proof of their failing in religion. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir).

He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. of course. and with it is decided their fate. but he will reply: “I am not fit to do this. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). the water is no more than a mirage. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. If this is true. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited.” He will appeal to All¯h. “You tell a lie. I have. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. Unbelievers.” Then they will come to Muhammad.26). They will say: “Thirsty we are. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418).” All¯h will tell them. All¯h “will gather people. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. Muhammad a .” They will go to Jesus. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son.” He will reply: “I am not fit to do this. Thanks to his special role.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. for example. “I am not fit to do this. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). O our Lord! Quench our thirst. for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. On this day. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. “Jesus. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testified as I have been testified” (383). and it is really hell. but go to Moses. and his intercession will be granted a (377).” Muhammad tells us that on this day. but you go to Jesus. infidels. a you better go to Muhammad. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there.” They will go to a Moses. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). and polytheists are strictly kept out. the son of All¯h. Considering that unbelievers. they will find that they have been misguided.” They will be given a certain direction.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the first to pass over it” (349). and he will say: “I am in a position to do that.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. For example.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. and he will reply: “I am not fit to do this. a a im. however. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). Christians will be summoned and asked. “What did you worship?” When they reply.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). The translator makes this statement clearer for us.” Then they will be asked what they want.

Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suffering. . the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. On the Day of Resurrection. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). . But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. Ri’l Zakw¯n. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). their good works will not avail them. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). that Muhammad was consistent. Ab¯ T¯lib. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. fed the poor.8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. are not my friends. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. even though they were their kith and kin. . About him. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). .” declares Muhammad (417).” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. the Prophet’s young wife.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). but needst not go out of your way to save them. For example. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. a In any case. a a a Usayya. therefore. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. ’Aisha. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. Regarding his father. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. . when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. however. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). he told a questioner: “Verily. and a a a in his own apostleship.

he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. But on the advice of Moses. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. In any case. a One night. In fact. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. But if we look at the matter closely. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). riding on al-Bar¯q. “an animal white and long.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. kill swine. Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. Adam he met in the first heaven. on the way meeting different apostles. this belief.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the different regions. and Abraham in the seventh. Similarly.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. “Five and at the same time fifty” . Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to five. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. Visions like this can flit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). of heaven. we find it was more a motivated belief.one prayer will now count for ten . When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. Moses in the sixth. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). Then he met All¯h. Jesus in the second. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. a .” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. So nothing was really lost in efficacy. He will break crosses. who enjoined on the Muslims fifty a prayers a day. and five will do the work of fifty. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. the flesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. Many in his day scoffed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. and abolish jizy¯. or “circles” (as Dante called them). such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith.

“the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. as the translator explains. Jesus will. For. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. therefore. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288).10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. a .

Some broad injunctions on the subject of purification are given in the Qur¯n (e. literally “nature. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). (4) fitra. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness.Chapter 2 Purification (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Purification”. and childbirth (nif¯s). cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). a verses 4:43 and 5:6). the minor purification with dust in a the place of water. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). (2) ghusl. the major.. or impure: coitus (jim¯). But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. and abstersion.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. (5) tath¯ the purification of objects which have ir.g. defecation. It deals with such matters as ablution. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. become ritualistically unclean. a a menses (hayz). prescribed before each of the five daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. physical and ritualistic. The main topics discussed in Muslim fiqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. He 11 . that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. (3) tayammum.

According to Muslim canon scholars. . CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. . There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). . and clipping the moustache. . THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on five acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. then washed his left foot. then washed his left arm like that. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. plucking the hair under the armpits. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. This became the standard ablution. . shaving the pubes.” and so on. cutting the nails. then wiped his head. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . .I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. . all his previous sins are expiated” (436). trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times.12 ¯ CHAPTER 2. Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . he must clean his nose three times. . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. . For the a identification of faces. He then washed his face three times. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. About the moustache and the beard. The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘fire-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. and offered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . .” he said (487). so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471).

while taking his bath. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. in combing. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). my clothes.. But God vindicated him. i. but the rock moved away. in wearing shoes. Moses put his clothes on a rock.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose.e. Moses does not suffer from any ailment” (669).” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). wash it seven times.e. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). When they asked him about their provision of food. O stone.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suffered from scrotal hernia. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy.. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504). ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. In this connection. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with flesh. DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. a . Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). but Moses took his bath alone. Once. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. and said: “By All¯h. my clothes. and in performing ablution” (515). he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them.

“I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. who was sitting by him.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. I scratched it off with my nails” (572). And on yet another occasion.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you find any mark of fluid on your clothes?” He said: “No. One of them came to ’Aisha for clarification. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. The translator . you can take to tayammum. The man said yes. BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. and that should be as good as ablution with water.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. pointing to ’Aisha. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. The Prophet. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but ablution is binding” (676). and then perform ablution and offer prayer” (677). having experienced orgasm. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). bathing is not obligatory for you. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha.. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). There is another had¯ of similar import. i. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. but it also narrates some material of Freudian significance. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685).e.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission.

and when it was referred to the Apostle. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. some cross-reference is inevitable. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. . and you find no water. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . in some respects. but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. Muhammad’s practice appears. On the subject of menstruation. There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. for except for coitus all . But later on this command was abrogated. . . So keep away from women in their course. The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. and the people reminded him about ablution. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available .15 explains why. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. O Commander is a of the Faithful. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not find water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). in fact. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. . and he was presented with a some food. Therefore. This chapter too. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and offered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). or you have touched women. . Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by fire” (686). he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718).

The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation.16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. But Muhammad did not go that far. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). or scriptural studies. and drink. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating.” ’Aisha reports (584). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. this question to Muhammad directly. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. For example. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). His problem was mazi (prostatic fluid) and not man . Umm Salama reports the same (581). and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the flesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). and I would eat flesh from a bone when I was menstruating. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud.

the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. “You humiliated the women. had¯ 124). then purify yourselves” (5:6).17 ¯ (semen). he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. ” (616). and sometimes he performed ablution only. a believers (603). “sometimes he took a bath and then slept. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. . “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. The same obligation lay on women. puerperium. he a first washed his hands. (605). i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse.” they told her (610. 611).” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. I. there should be an ablution” u is. he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. coitus. SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. . In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is.” he was told (593). and pollutio nocturna. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. .

u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. i. they took their bath in pitch darkness. had¯ 1584). I. which. Muhammad was not bound by them. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. Two other wives of Muhammad. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). is . is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. II. moreover.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a purification with the intention of warming up. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. He had his Apostle’s privilege. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. 631). had¯ 108). CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual defilement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. There were no glaring lights. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. in this case. and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625).

the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. a who was very loud-throated. the system of the human voice was introduced. and so on. Bil¯l. there is also one Prayer. who later became blind. as the Christians did. In the beginning. and ’Abdullah b. one Book. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. 741). 737.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. some suggested using a bell. the Christians. prostrating and rising. postures like bowing. But in all these pages. the prayer relating to the dead. To make the Muslim practice different from that of the Jews. the a merits of prayers at different times. the prayer for rain. the a number and times of the different prayers. as the Jews did. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). others a horn. u were the first mu’azzin (callers) (735. There is not even a remote hint of different men endowed with different natures taking different paths toward a divinity differently figured. with 1. and the Fireworshippers. one Guide. 19 .Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). As there is one All¯h. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. in Medina. As a means of calling people to prayer at fixed times. All these methods were ruled out. Umm Makt¯m. caught and fixed in a a single formula. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. Some even suggested that a fire should be lighted. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. It is the longest.

a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. This the a a commentator finds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. “When Satan hears the call to prayer. “Apostle of All¯h. . In a variation on this theme. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very effective. BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. he stopped” (745). if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisfied with All¯h as my Lord. with Muhammad as Messenger. The Holy Prophet. it meant that everything was a not kufr (infidelity). He who blesses me once.20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. will be assured of my intercession. These have been codified on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad.” says Muhammad (747). how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. sitting or standing. and his wives and his offspring . it is accompanied by many bodily movements. d in In seeking blessings for himself. 808). “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. which is a rank in Paradise a ila fitting for only one of All¯h’s servants. therefore. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). He would listen to the Az¯n. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600).” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). Another saw his “hands lifted . so if he heard an Az¯n. and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). . One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. Where it was heard.

you a should also prostrate. . Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. palm to palm. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. one of them should lead them” (1417). when there is a valid reason for doing so. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . and then lifted them . you should also rise up. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. he prayed facing .” he tells them (817). . Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together.” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). . he prostrated between the two palms” (792). when-he rises up. THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “first set up on the earth. “When he prostrates.21 opposite to ears. otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). And when prostrated.” The seven bones are: “The hands. and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991).” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. And when he was about to bow down. 1057). Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). . the knees. Also. and then to put them between one’s thighs. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. he brought out his hands from the cloth. when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. When someone once a did this. In the beginning. He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). It should be led by an im¯m.

2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. “I have been helped a is by terror. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. I have been sent to all mankind. foe or friend. . But later on. 2 u is That is. This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. . . they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. is which other prophets lack (1058). This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). . One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without fighting. The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . Immediately 1 . In Isl¯m we find all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures.” says Muhammad. . a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the first mosques. and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). The followers had no difficulty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. Someone told them that the qibla had been changed.22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-five years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coffers of Medina. Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. For example. 1 . . spoils have been made lawful to me . . .

established by ¯ ’Umar specified that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. 4. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. pp. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). Officers of the Arab occupation armies in the different cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. 2.000 dirhams a year.000 to 9. II. after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. For a fuller account of the Civil List. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133).000 dirhams a year. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145).23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i.. DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. 476-479. Every Muslim had a a place in this classification. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. The diw an. and their children. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden). he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front.000 dirhams a year. But within two decades everything changed. . vol. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. a privilege not denied to men who can afford it. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. or Civil List. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the first year and 20 dirhams for the next year. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. For example. According to another tradition. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not afford proper clothing.000 dirhams a year. 5.000 dirhams.

24 ¯ CHAPTER 3. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. “We were guided a aright to Friday. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. there are different forms of prayer for sixteen specific dangerous situations.” they “shall be the first on the Day of Resurrection. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. People left the Prophet and flocked toward the caravan.” says Muhammad (1134). he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. . ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . during a war. . For example. one group prays while the other one fights (1824-1831). they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. a An interesting story is reported in this connection. “On it Adam was created. . one should first take food. on it he was made to enter Paradise. PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). One Friday. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). But though Muslims “are the last. First things first.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. Qur¯n a 62:11).

he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a flame of fire to put it in my face. . and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed fight.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. Muhammad. and it was the day of Id” (1942). he did not retreat. DANCE. “Thereafter. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938). and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too.’ and he would join his forefinger and middle finger (just as there is no other finger between these two. his eyes became red. leave them alone” (1946). ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. his voice a rose. MUSIC.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. On the same occasion. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. I meant to seize him. And the most evil affairs are their innovations.” a is But even though cursed. make the most of this had¯ a is. but the sufi schools of Isl¯m.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. in which music plays an important role.

I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. However. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its effect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. “Exhort to recite. WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. ‘There is no god but All¯h. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. what evil it contains. When you visit the sick or the dead. PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3.” ’Aisha a tells us. to whom she had borne many children. and Muhammad married her four months later. She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). supplicate for good.’ So I said this. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. u He died at Uhud. Ab¯ Salama has died.” says a the Prophet (1996). Ub¯da. “If the dead person was good. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying.’ to those who are dying. and the good of that which it was sent for. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. and the good which it contains. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies.

but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. and He granted it to me” (2129). I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. This was a fine gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulfillment of the demand for theological consistency. over his expiring child. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. had¯ 912. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. according to certain traditions. 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. Life of Mahomet. is . i. p.27 the heart feels. 165. vol. who was only eighteen months old.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. I. IV. a but He did not grant it to me. also William Muir. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead.


an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. or way.” a a 29 . those who paid zak¯t were resentful. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. and most of them.” All these are a in].Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The fifth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. an old Arab practice. “in the service. and for the wayfarers. the first phrase. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. being migrants. and to be spent by its representatives. In this form. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. or zak¯t. and everyone else was excluded on principle. ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. of All¯h. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. But with him it became a tax. conventional recipients of charity. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60).” those who collect and administer the funds. In the begina ning.

When he reported that Khal¯ b. ’Umar was appointed the collector. ’Abb¯s. parties of collectors were sent out in different directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. on less than five camel heads and on less than five uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on five wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. who shared the burden of the tax but not its benefits. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. They had to be ransomed. This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious offensive and diplomacy. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). After is the conquest of Mecca.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. women. I shall be responsible a a . or jih¯d. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. bear in mind. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. . or reconciling. who took the tribe by surprise and brought fifty men. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). as it still has for his followers. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). hearts. Aslam. and children back to Medina as hostages. and several other tribes. The resentment against zak¯t was general. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. equipment. Faz¯r. and after this the tax collection became smoother. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. . Also.30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. when the power of Muhammad became supreme. and as for ’Abb¯s. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. “gaining over. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. or 1 pound]” (2134). Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. a Ghif¯r. The second phrase. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). a heavenly sanction. a had refused to pay the tax. ’Umar. a a and horses. . . a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. it had for the Prophet. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of fifty Arab horsemen.

the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. then on relatives and friends. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). When Muhammad heard this. and in some ways wisely. plates of fire would be beaten out for him. when the Day of Resurrection would come. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a fine. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. But he taught. during a day the extent of which would be fifty thousand years. Following a common practice. “a sandy plain would be set for him. For example. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. he called him and asked him if he had any other . that charity should begin at home. And when these cool down.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. then on one’s wife and children. .” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. .” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). and then on other good deeds. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. In fact. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. as extensive as possible.

A lady set her slave-girl free. but it agrees with the general practice. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the glorification of All¯h 1 [i. The man replied no. you would have a greater reward” (2187). and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. And even then it should not conflict with the well-being of the family of the believer. URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving.the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. there is a Sadaqa . and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. gave the money to the owner. not polytheistically or pantheistically. . There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. Nor was it really revolutionary. When informed about it. and a good word is a Sadaqa.32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. And. ¯ 1 .e. or helping him load his luggage upon it. of course. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). ¯ (2197-2204). . and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. Among those whom God affords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248).. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). In the same vein. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). is a Sadaqa. and if anything is left. it should be spent on your family. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. .” There is another story that makes the same point. All ah can only be glorified monotheistically. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. . and ¯ the glorification of All ah must include glorification of Muhammad too.

For example. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. then to a a thief. Muhammad left him to go some other place. first to an adulteress.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. What does this mean? The translator finds the statement truly prophetic.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. THEFT. he remembered his command and remained where he was. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). One of them says: O All¯h. A man is gives charity. then to a rich man. is but are not visited by two angels. Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. FORNICATION.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). a . By citing the male and female population figures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. give him more who spends. This is true. CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. with praise to All¯h. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). for instance. a and the other says: O All¯h. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would find no one to accept it from him. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. Was not the a first part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). When Muhammad returned. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds.

il. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. freed slave. whether as zak¯t for the poor. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). gifts were welcome. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. or as gifts for his Companions. and Haris b. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. When it is a acquired.e. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. but on the other. it is zak¯t.” said the Prophet (2340).. zak¯t became secondary.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. They went a to Muhammad with their request. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. it is still war booty. it is zak¯t. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. But though sadaqa was not permitted. ’Abb¯s. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best.” i. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. when it is distributed among the ummah. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. has two aspects. He took it. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. On the one hand.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). a al-Muttalib and their posterity. Its distribution created a lot of a . or on the “Path of All¯h. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. In fact. it is war booty. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. the one-fifth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. the distinction between the two was soon lost. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. ’Abd i. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). a Khums.

Tufail” (2319).35 heart-rending among his followers. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneficiaries. so that I may incline them to truth. GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. I often bestow something on a person. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Aqra. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing.than they got. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. Harb. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). Ulasa (2303-2314). “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. Many of them thought they deserved more . Zaid al-Khail. in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim.” says Muhammad (2303). and ’Alqama b. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. H¯bis. There are other instances of the same type. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. Hisn. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. justice. . a . . both mundane and celestial. or merit. . ’Abdullah b. Umayya. Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. Aqra’ b.or at any rate that others deserved less . Muhammad made effective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. ’Uyaina b. Muhammad had other considerations as well. combined with threats. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the fire” (2300). To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. that is. Safw¯n u a a b. The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421).

i Muhammad showed favoritism. Mird¯s.” On hearing this. after the conquest of Mecca. who would do justice if I do not do . ’Uyaina. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. Muhammad added other words of flattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. In other cases when similar complaints were made. To cajolery. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad “was deeply angry . thick beard. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. u a Safw¯n. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). When some people complained. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters.” This angered a a Muhammad. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils.. . but one of them. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. while the Quraish. stood up. ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad.36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. prominent cheekbones. and his face ¯ became red”. . he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. but he showed patience” (2315). The ans¯rs a were happy. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and flattery to pacify them. were merely his “outer garments”. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. fear All¯h and do justice. he added theology. and Aqra. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. In its distribution. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n. a man with deep-sunken eyes. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition.e. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h.” a canal in heaven (2313). and shaven head. were closer to him).” This silenced the men. who had received the spoils.

These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m.” Though the man was spared. . he and his posterity were denounced. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. These men. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . It was about them. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. who was present. . for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). them. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. If I were to find them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327). kill them.37 justice?” ’Umar. but it would not go beyond their throat.” . who later on were called the khw¯rij. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h.


” says Muhammad (2413).Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). “The difference between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians.” a 39 . waiting for the stars to appear. Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. the gates of mercy are opened. who ate early and broke their fasts late. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. it is compulsory. This has its disciplinary role. “Take meal a little before dawn. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this difference. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather different from fasting in many other religious traditions. and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. In Isl¯m. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy.

and Salama.40 CHAPTER 5. a a . he should still go on with his fast.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). Prior to Isl¯m. but when the matter was clarified by ’Aisha and Salama. ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. . Muhammad’s wives. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. failing that. It has a divine sanction. In fact. “They have better knowledge. failing that. and would observe fast” a (2454). . ’Aisha and Salama. Hafsa. Muhammad’s wives. SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the first step towards prosperity of any nation.” and retracted his previous position (2451). even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. by observing a two-month fast or. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . . . At first Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought differently. by feeding sixty poor men . Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). ’Aisha. . he said.” In addition. There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). in the month of Ramz¯n. the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast.

but a I could not do it . but after a . OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. while the husband is present. ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n.e. so break the fast.e. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. .” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488).. . “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387)..” Muhammad tells the believers (2486).” i. “Fast if you like and break it if you like. and in the pre-Isl¯mic days. For example.41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). in the act of jih¯d. a a she could not find it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. i. but with his permission” (2238). ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. And she should not admit any mahram in his house. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. a fast during a journey could be broken. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). One is the Ashura fast. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts.

FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk.” After some time. but nothing was available. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. Even the very first Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a . Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. and ’Aisha offered it to Muhammad. but we need not go into them here.42 CHAPTER 5. On the Day of a Resurrection. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. He may spend it if he likes. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570).” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. some food came as gift. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast. a a a because of this day.” He said: “Bring that. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clarified butter]. THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts.and when the last of them has entered. All¯h would remove. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. One day. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise.” Muhammad tells us. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food.

or hajj. It was also.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. In the sixth year of the Hijra. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. for no booty was promised and they thought. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. a Two years later.” until. the number of participants swelled. a call to submission. ih p. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. partially armed. Two years later. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). they knew. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12).” she adds in another had¯ (2685).” Great preparations were made for the occasion.” After the fall of Mecca. In order to swell the number. In this year of victory. “The best of perfume. D. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. in March A. 612). For his dress. but not before and after. or trouser or cap” (2647). and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. Even so. Thus. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. was declared one of the five fundamentals of Isl¯m. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him.” says ’Aisha (2683). their response on this occasion was great. at their own convenience and for their own gods.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. it reached more than 130. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. Mecca succumbed. and a victory it turned out to be. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. pilgrimage. unlike the last time. 632. is . but their response was lukewarm. fifteen hundred was an impressive number. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. as the Qur¯n puts it. “As the caravan moved on. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. He headed a pilgrim force of fifteen hundred men. ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. by a kind of delayed action. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. the very first after coming to Medina. according to some of the narrators.

he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the infidels.” Muhammad never relaxes. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. .” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks. its flesh is acceptable to a muhrim. For the same reason. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. and he should be conspicuous” (2919). He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. the two “Signs of All¯h. but he declined it. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). . we would have accepted it from you” (2704). Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the flesh of a wild ass. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. crow. he should not shave or pare his nails. CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. and then kissing the stick. “Talbiyah. He hath performed His promise. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. . . two seamless wrappers. .44 CHAPTER 5.. so that people should see him. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to flight the hosts of infidels by Himself alone.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). rat and voracious dog. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. After arriving a a in Mecca. At every turn.e. ’Umar said: “By All¯h. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). O All¯h”).

on the 11th .” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). The pebbles should be small . Their number should be odd. and then he marked them. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. Abraham. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). Cows and goats should be sacrificed after making them lie down. The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacrifice a goat or a a a sheep. he chants: “In the name of a ir. “The Messenger of All¯h sacrificed a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacrifice of a cow or a camel (30243031). and then sent them to the House. . One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacrificial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. a is and on the best time for throwing them. on their size and number. and garlanded them. and Ishmael. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). and after that . God. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. I do this. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). While sacrificing the camel. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacrifice of the ’idu’l-azh¯.” says the Prophet (2982). the casting of the pebbles. On the tenth a day.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. or a cow or a camel. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. the Almighty. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacrificial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. While doing this. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979).45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. also the “Day of Sacrifice.“All¯h’s Messenger flung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacrifice . 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). therefore.

46 CHAPTER 5. Thus we find in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacrifice that we find in some measure in most cultures. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. Muhammad said: “I have sacrificed the animals here. II. Muhammad took part of the content. declining the offer of a cleaner and purer one. had declared that He “desired mercy. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . nab¯ a soft drink. he sacrificed sixty camels. the God of the Jews. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. he said: “Draw water. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacrificial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment.by spitting into it.” To his followers. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s offering sacrifices is that sacrificing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. vol. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacrificed them . then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. the scale of his sacrifices also increased. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacrifice. I would have drawn it along with you. . Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). and when it was cooked. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s affluence increased. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each i animal sacrificed should be put in a pot. iz offered him had been fouled by many hands. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. we are told by J¯bir. so sacrifice your animals at your places” (2805). and not sacrifice” (Hosea 6:6). and sacrificed sixty-three camels with his own hands. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacrifice. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. he took it. a Even Jehovah. 241-244). DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. gives us one further detail which a a i. a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. he sacrificed seventy camels at Hodeibia. Though the nab¯ iz. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. his biographers tell us. pp. . .

the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). and take them and besiege them. . and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. and prepare for them each ambush . until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. This was All¯h’s own command. . Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger. kill the idolaters wherever you may find them. and sacrificed the animal. But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. All¯h. turning his right side to him. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. .” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. Before a returning home. . There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. a Now the pilgrimage is over. .” it was declared on his behalf (3125). 1 . their trade would be ¯ affected. p. let him shave him. . The difference is striking. He then called a for a barber and. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the purified spirit. Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. 29). Before leaving Mecca.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacrifice. Shaving should begin from the right side. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. 620). whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. All ah will enrich you from His grace . He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. from others. after which he turned his left side. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times.


for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. “I will not eat meat”. I observe fast and suspend observing them.Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. “I will not lie down in bed. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. he has no a relation with me” (3236). one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). another said. 146). so when one of you see a woman. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. “I will not marry women”. he is the best who has the largest a i. A woman is a great safety valve. We are all too ready to see the devil in others.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. Zainab. vol. II. but not in our own selves. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. he should come to his wife. 1 In fact. ¯ 1 49 . a Muhammad forbids celibacy. and yet another said. p. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). he should come home and cohabit with his wife. One of his Companions said. number of wives” (Tabaq at.

but it is not entirely so. And it is allowed you. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). besides this. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and flour a as a dower” (3249). the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. . Later on. We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. God is knowing. and do not transgress. etc. He told another group: “Yes. this restriction a was relaxed.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. religion.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. This is the law. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualified match a . and without fornication. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. rank. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). Verily. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. H. we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. . Salama reports. For example. with modest conduct. Generally speaking. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. except those who are your hands as slaves . ’Abdullah b. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. though what is rank is differently understood by different people. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. Qur¯n 5:87). but the Shias differ and still practice it in Persia. Also. . A. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. affinity. consanguinity. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. on the authority of his father. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. IYas b.

” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. .” But the man possessed nothing. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. he was sexually weak). . thrice) before severing it. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. p.” he told her (3354). Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. part II. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. But man is inventive. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. The new dispensation led to another abuse. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother.e.. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. not even an iron ring for a dowry. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. 2 . vol. 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. and he disposes what Allah proposes.51 by Muhammad himself. I. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. Aff¯n. a One should also not outbid one’s brother. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. but made no decision” about her. F¯timah. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact.” reports Usm¯n b. “A believer is the brother of a believer. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. “Your wives are your tilth. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . Seeking the Prophet’s permission. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). marry her to me if you have no a need for her. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. But this point is controversial. hired by the first husband from among the ugly ones. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). The man said yes. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). Rauzat-us-Safa. 269). A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband.

Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . and we desired them . “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. . but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. which means vagina only. or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. .52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. a woman has her rights.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it.” that is. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. . but it should be through one hole” (3365).” They consulted Muhammad. . but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. The father and the grandfather are i). if the husband fails to provide it. . WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. those women. for that is in the hand of All¯h. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. Theoretically. . And a virgin should also be consulted. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). and took some excellent Arab women. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. ¯ According to some schools. for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). and her silence implies her consent” (3307). but we also desired ransom for them. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. she can seek a divorce. She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. as the commentators tell us. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law.

“For four Uqiyas. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives. “Did you cast a a glance at her. He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. but All¯h now gave a new one. and Muhammad talked to her. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432).” They saw each other. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .” Muhammad inquired.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion.53 whether married or unmarried.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. She was “sitting with her head downcast. based on an old moral code. .” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). It is in this had¯ that one finds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424). “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. .” the man replied. serve us drink” (4981). There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the benefit of a is his Companions.” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. from “head to foot”. a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. the daughter of one Jaun. All¯h.” Muhammad asked. A a Qur¯nic verse fortifies this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). so he commanded an official of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. . . She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. Most High. Then. We have nothing which we should give you. The a man replied: “Yes.” “For what dower did you marry her. A believer came to Muhammad. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. or holy war. An Arab woman named ’Umra. But this permission actually originated in a different incident.

’Aisha. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499).” When the morning prayer was announced. and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. when Zainab came there. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). one of the servants of Muhammad. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. come u a for prayer. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . . one of the wives of Muhammad. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). When he intended to leave. .54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. a believer should visit his wives by turn. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. hearing their voices. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. for whose benefit He really a a spoke. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. tells us that when Muhammad married her. he is allowed to have his other wives around. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. All¯h is very accommodating. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. she “caught hold of his garment”. Anas. Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. . he spent three nights with her. Umm Salama. one wife could make over her day to another. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. One of the problems. . But while he is in bed with one of them. for example. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. In order to be impartial. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often.

Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. 3464). Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks. which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made effective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when .’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. a beautiful girl of seventeen years. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336).” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. have you married?’ I said. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. a a a ‘yes. you have the enjoyment” (3462).’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464).” the Prophet tells us (3471). But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. and when you enter. THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coffers. Saf¯ iyya. they also swelled his harem.

Dihya was strikingly handsome. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails.56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. was more considerate. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. “We took Khaibar by force. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. p. Gabriel or no Gabriel. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. and her people. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. The latter “kindled a fire with flint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. Then. in violation of his own command. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. the daughter of Huyayy b. “Torture him until you extract a what he has.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. And she shall put off her captive’s garb. you shall let her go where she will. 4 a Anas continues: “She first fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. Kin¯na. her husband. and till recently she was in unbelief. many people were butchered. spades and strings driving their cattle along. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. 517). which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. Saf¯ iyya. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. and many others were taken prisoners. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. Akhtab. a In any case. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. was put to a cruel death (3325). 515). if you have no delight in her. Many other women. you shall not treat her as a slave. of them. so I was afraid for you on her account. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. and be her husband. and she shall be your wife. In the morning.” according to Anas. and you take them captive. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). ¯ ¯ 4 . 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. Her husband. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. after that you may go in to her. p. but you shall not sell her for money. whom Muhammad often followed. al-’Aww¯m. then you shall bring her home to your house.” (Incidentally. Maslama and he struck off his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.

again Jewish. 493. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. I detested her. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid.57 concubine. II. fearing a public scandal. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. whose affair was not cruel but scandalous. but it is more fitting that thou should fear God”. Suspecting something wrong. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. saw her in a state of seminudeness. in the eyes of the Arabs. and was aroused. and He revealed His plan. in order that in future there may be no difficulty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). who had seen her father. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. told him to keep his wife for himself. as good as his own daughter-in-law. Mustaliq. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. he offered to divorce her. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. p. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. man or woman. Zaid. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. present and future. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. vol. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. but Muhammad. When Zaid heard about it. iya a In the division of the booty. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not fitting for a believer. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. 252-255). a pp. Muhammad spat out the very first morsel. and uncle killed. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. He was saved.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. She was captured in the fifth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. On that very day. ¯ ¯ . named Zainab.” And indeed. There was another girl. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. husband. and she was immediately put to death. and therefore.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest.

“All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. According to the translator. With such easy conditions of divorce. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. People in his day called him the Divorcer. who do not count. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. Yet there are certain restrictions. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. the son of ’Umar. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). after three successive menses. Ab¯ Bakr. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. and friend of Muhammad. The procedure is not difficult. adviser. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot.times. ’Abdullah. and ’Umar. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured. a senior Compana ion. According to the Shias. Hasan. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. . For example. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back.” but in Isl¯mic law. Muhammad. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. the divorce becomes operative. But opinions differ as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). exclusive of slave concubines. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. Wives were constantly replaced. two of whom were bondswomen. or whether three times at one sitting is enough.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.some say ninety . Somewhat later. married seventy . The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity.

In zih¯r. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. The broken vow could be expiated. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. In this sense of the term. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. or the vow might be taken in a fit of anger. II. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a specified period. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. As they sat together at a supper. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. . Life of Mahomet. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. if not. on emigrating to Medina. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. For example. . In the pre-Isl¯mic period.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. a In due course. a a i. 272-273. and according to some traditions. Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. In this form. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. “that a which covers a sin”). pp. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. . “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . vol. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaff¯rah (literally. son of Rabi. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. . Muir.

Soon the harem was filled with gossip. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. Muhammad was very angry.” ’Umar decided a to find out what was actually happening. the beautiful Coptic concubine.” so he tried to calm him down. we take them up. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. In visiting his numerous wives.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. verily All¯h is with you. In fact. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. “O Rah¯b. He was admitted. Gabriel. promised never to visit Mary again. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. “In my room. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza].” he told Rah¯b. who had even given Muhammad a son. and jeering. excitement. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. a As ’Umar entered. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . but he insisted. a “I have nothing to do with you. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. Muhammad. By All¯h. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and significant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). a a kept himself away from his wives. however. In fact. trying to pacify her. and a if you had divorced them. The request was disregarded. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. Muhammad’s doorman.” he told her. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. and very soon everybody knew about it. and soon the news was afloat that he was divorcing them all. He separated himself from them. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. I entered the mosque. So our women began to learn from their women. what trouble do you feel from your wives.” she shouted. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. but instead she found him with Mary. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. She wept bitterly. His angels. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. Mika’il.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. on my day and in my own bed.” Muhammad relaxed. Hafza was furious. let us provide some background information. Hafza. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. a a I would certainly do that. told ’Aisha.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business.

These must have occurred in the early days at Medina. had¯ 3507). the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). . being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. . the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if . and the angels after that will back him up. .” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. when Muhammad lacked funds. craving to please thy wives? .” ’Umar narrates. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. and Gabriel. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. ¯ The matter blew over. . and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. they broadcast it.” All¯h warned them. [but] he visited them. they were under two of our righteous servants. . a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. and they became his wives again.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. In this new mood.but if you back each other up against him. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506). threatening his wives with divorce.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. or to those charged with authority among them. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God.for your hearts have swerved! .61 on his face . He is the sovereign.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle.” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. asking for extra money. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. verily. On this occasion. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. and it was said. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. All¯h. and he laughed. some of them centering round money. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. and the righteous of the a believers. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives.

‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. he beat his wives). Zaid. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce effective. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. one of Muhammad’s wives. and the latter was poor. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. The wives chose the latter. a mere woman. and could get rid of their wives so easily. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. for the former did “not put down his staff from his shoulder” (i. Once ’idda has ended.” But he mercifully helped her to find another husband. Zaid (3512).62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. observing: “By All¯h. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very difficult.. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). . but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. u a Muhammad advised against them both.e. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). the son of his slave and adopted son. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. but when it is really intended. died. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). In their place. She had two suitors. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. Thus.

Slaves continued to suffer under the same old disabilities. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. and if he speaks about it. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. he shall have to consume anger. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). The Prophet himself possessed at least fifty-nine slaves at one stage or another. They were the property of their master (saiyid). sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. but this closes the chapter. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. But the fact remains that Muhammad. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. This may be due to a faulty method of classification. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. was no more than a chattel. a close companion of the Prophet. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. One of a them must be lying. for unless he has four witnesses. besides thirty-eight servants.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. both male and female. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. the Prophet’s fifteenth-century biographer. tribute. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. and if he keeps quiet. owned one thousand slaves when he died. you would lash him. The word a a literally means “oath. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. for that is forbidden. Zubair.a slave. which is most likely in such a case. which is on business transactions . nor can he make an accusation against his wife. and if he kills. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man finds his wife in adultery. Mirkhond. even in a their wildest dreams. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person finds his woman along with a man. you will kill him. Similarly. . he cannot kill the adulterous man. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. after all. The fact is that slavery. solve this problem” (3564).

We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. 4:25. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq).” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. selling them. 23:6) permitted this. he said: “Bring her to me. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. and marriage. In the second.” says Muhammad (129). Slaves had no property rights.these are some of the signs of Doom.” She was brought. “The slave who fled from his master committed an act of infidelity so long as he would not return to him. when the naked. of course. hiring them out. One way. lending them. and a very common one. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. not a matter of justice. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. wanted to free her. 4:24. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. On the whole.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. however.” according to him (4). On the other hand. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. gifting them away. To Muhammad. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. In any case. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. inheritance. When Muhammad was consulted. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. In the first. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. in contrition. mortgaging them. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim.

“When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities.” she answered. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. Bar¯ ira. It has its own reward.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). she is a a believing woman” (1094). nor can he offer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be fixed. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. the condition of a slave is no great evil. and emancipate her. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. even his private parts a for his” (3604). He cannot seek any new alliance. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. but must not be overburdened” (3582). Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her.” But the owner.65 of All¯h. WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. though ready to free her for cash money. .

there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). . who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. says: “He is. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a different subject but interesting. i. and it also records the words of the prophet . . This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. .66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.

were also made unlawful. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. so his views on the subject should be of interest. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). Gifts. his injunctions became state policy. Because of their speculative nature. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. a 67 .” reports Sulaim¯n (3652).Chapter 7 Business Transactions. ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. Sal¯ b. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Bequests. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands. Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). Inheritances. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation.


Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).

Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).

Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not find it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).

Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the fifth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them first on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this offer differed. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).


Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets offered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).

In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some fine dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such fine quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of fine dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).

Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuffed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.


The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.

Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).

Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a

The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite

71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).

Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the first charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not sufficient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).

On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is sufficient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.

The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indifferent a to his inflicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).

” observes Muhammad. I would see better than it. “Do not a a swear by idols.” But only one of them became a pregnant. a I would not swear. particularly if the oath-taker finds something better to do. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. but he found something else better than that. Muslim jurists differ as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i.” But immediately after they were gone. Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. “He who took an oath.e. BEQUESTS. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulfilled. “He who has to take an oath. and she gave birth to a premature child.72CHAPTER 7. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath.” says Muhammad (4057). should do that which is better and break his oath. . a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. if He so wills. but if later on. But he allows you to swear by God. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and fight in the cause of All¯h. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. something which Jesus forbade. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulfilled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. he called them back and offered them camels to ride. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not.” says Muhammad (4043). I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044).” Muhammad says (4038). nor by your father. I cannot provide you a a mount. One day he said. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). a An oath can be broken. GIFTS. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. INHERITANCES.. by All¯h. the vow a a must be fulfilled.

Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and defined in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). only half of the blood-price is due. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. Qur¯n 5:38-39).Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. Though the Qur¯n a 73 .e.. or retaliation. one hundred lashes for is. a ¯ Qis¯s. but since a slave is a piece of property. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. fifteenth. a i. and taz¯ Hadd a ir. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. and death by sword or crucifixion for robbery accompanied by murder. (pl. cutting a off of feet and hands for highway robbery. mutilated. For the death of a woman. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. Had ud) a The fourteenth. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. accusing her of adultery. but according to one school. the procedure of investigating them. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). cutting off the right hand for theft (sariqah. The law also permits qis¯s. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). or killed another. If a slave is killed. qis¯s. only one-third is permissible in such cases. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). Muslim fiqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. a ihs In cases of murder.

ih . He gave us their names.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews.is death. and the identity of his killer is unknown. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. for to torture by fire is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). 1357). For example. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. 2 i. The a punishment for apostasy . “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. wash their hands over the heifer. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. fifty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. I. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. ih ¯ i if. The climate of Medina did not suit them.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. he said: If I had been in his place. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. Once a Muslim was found slain. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). and Muhammad adopted a it. though not by burning. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). But when we went to him to take his leave. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. Muhammad told them: “Let fifty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them.for giving up Isl¯m . ‘Don’t burn them in fire but put them to sword. he said. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. and he would be surrendered to you. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by fifty of them taking this oath. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. Another had¯ specifically tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). ’Ali burnt them to death. This establishes their innocence. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. QIS AS. break its neck. when a man is found slain. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah).

took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m.. but technically.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). it is retaliatory punishment. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138). The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut off. they killed the shepherds. or if he has killed someone (i. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justification and rationale for it (note 2132). a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. according to many jurists). bloodwite was allowed. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155).e. but they were not given water” (4132). . The apostates were brought back. Away from the control of the Prophet. and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. When the case was brought to Muhammad. She had broken someone’s teeth. and put out their eyes. and their feet. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. in Muslim a law. someone who is a Muslim. But in another case. an eye for an eye. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law.

a a The translator. QIS AS. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. stoning to death for adultery. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. the penal law of Isl¯m. “Hers was a good repentance. he fixed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. is dealt with in the fifteenth book. her hand was cut off. Although Us¯ma b. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment defined either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. cut off their hand as a punishment for what they have done.” ’Aisha adds (4188). HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174).76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. . ¯ HAD UD Had ud. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut off. a interceded in her behalf. which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. as we have already seen. causing her to have a miscarriage. an exemplary punishment from All¯h. The Had¯ merely confirms the Qur¯n. nor made any noise. and death for apostasy. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150).” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. and also for drinking wine. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. a hundred stripes for fornication. ’Aisha reports a similar case. Zaid. who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut off the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). and steals a a rope and his hand is cut off” (4185). the beloved of Muhammad. in a long two-page note. Thus. a woman committed some theft.

Upon finding that the man was married and also not mad. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. ’Abdullah. “The whore and the whoremonger. the term includes adultery as well as fornication. “I was one of those who stoned him. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . She was spared till she had given birth to her child. the people may forget it and may say.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. a woman of Gh¯mid. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). though there is one for the larger category of zin¯. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. In this sense. . receive teaching from me. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. Therefore. .77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished.” says J¯bir b. He repeated his confession four times. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). .” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). All¯h has ordained . as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. and gave a small quantity of milk. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. a branch of Azd. with the lapse of time. in case I get hold of him. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. ‘We do not find the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. By All¯h. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. Similarly.

in fact. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the first stone.” The woman was punished for adultery. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). QIS AS. followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10).” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. . No such hole need be dug for a man. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . but when the case was brought before Muhammad. participating believers.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). . Another had¯ tells us how it was done. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. And then the multitudes follow. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. the first stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. . CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. iya. a chest-deep hole is dug for her. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not offended. FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). When a woman is to be stoned.

she was liable to half the penalty (fifty strokes). by the time of Muhammad. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). then avoid it. and if she was unmarried.” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. then accept it. then flog her and if she commits adultery again.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. the son of ’Umar. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction. stoning had fallen into disuse. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such offenses. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that flogging might kill her. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. I am the first to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). 47). the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. then flog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). and he committed me to flog her. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I flogged her I might kill her. A slavewoman. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. “I was one of those who stoned them. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. ’Al¯ says: “O people. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. . According to one tradition. a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. but if he gives verdict for stoning. The Prophet was a merciful a man.” says ’Abdullah. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. even if she was married. those who i are married and those not married.79 Among the Jews themselves. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. was not to be stoned to death. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). if he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging as punishment.” he adds (4211). But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger.

and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. In such ir. the third Khal¯ a ifa.80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think differently. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. class of punishment. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). depending on the physical condition of the offender. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. several days. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. While ’Abdullah was flogging the victim. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). When the i number forty was reached. cases. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. and ¯ to lash him. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. They hold that the number of stripes is to. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. he has two rewards. PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. and if he is sick. be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). he still has . HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that flogging can be spread over is. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. QIS AS. If he does his best but errs.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. the flogging can be postponed until he recovers. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231).

Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. are also discussed in this book. and carpets from mosques. Nor is the testimony of Jews. 1981). is not covered by Isl¯mic law. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). glass. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. birds. Christians. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. cement. and bread. mats. According to some. Fresh vegetables. In a dispute regarding property or debt. but a apparently this is not really so. marble. Also exempt are bricks.81 one reward (4261). and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). a fruit and firewood. the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. In cases involving had ud. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. such as books. recently published in Pakistan. According to the Qur¯n. . November 15. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. such as hospitality.


.e. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. if they do so. accept it from them a . If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. . a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. demand from them the Jizy¯ . . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . . . they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. If they refuse to migrate. . it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. All¯h. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. seek All¯h’s help and fight them” (4294). if they respond to you. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and profitably interwoven. the spoils of war. do not embezzle the spoils.Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). Historically. Medina.” He also told them to offer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. Theologically. a a trying to be universal through conquest. . 83 . Make a holy a a a war. and inform them that. All¯h. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. If they refuse to a a pay the tax. Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. . . . Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. .

As the Prophet a says. this shocked the Arabs. it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. or. So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319).” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d. is Fortified by this revelation. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. it is lawful and pure. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. Sa’b b. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. If need be. al-Madina. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). “Eat ye the spoils of war. unknown to the Arabs before. But if they are killed. All is fair in love and war. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9. as some others have translated it. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir.” says the Qur¯n a . All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. “war is a stratagem” (4311). no song need be made about it. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or offer options in advance. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. this requirement can be waived.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of infidels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. “cunning. had¯ 4324).

“The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. “Ye shall by no means follow us. in commenting on i. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. as administered by his Apostle. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone.. Muhammad told them that the next time. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). he fought from wrong motives. when it would be easy to win booty. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. in this case the cause of God. Muhammad fully satisfied this motive and constantly appealed to it. For example. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. DIVISION Essentially. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. a In fact. i. 1934). the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. he a a is given a share in it. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). It belongs to the Cause. where resistance was expected to be stiff.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. and their dwellings.” but he would answer. If he fought for such accessory rewards. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. ¯ . “Permit us to follow you. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. material incentives had to be provided. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh.85 (8:69). Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. and also as a favor and extra incentive. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid fights to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. In fact. and if in this fight he gets a share in the spoils of war. they would say. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229).

on the Day of Judgment.-161).86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. had¯ 868). he shall. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. Commenting on this verse. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). and supernal intervention had i. and accusations. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. ¯ ¯ . . You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and fights against the Muslims] one-fifth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). restore what he misappropriated.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. which he took by surprise. The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. and was full of claims. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. If any person is so false. 594. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome. . The booty was very large. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were.” said All¯h (3. grievances. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. suspicion. p. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without offering resistance. after the capture of Hunain. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. in fact. then if you obey. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. Muhammad was mobbed by the men.” the muj¯hids demanded. Within a few months. recriminations. . “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. pretty rough. II. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . believed in by any sensible person. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. The first includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conflict. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’.

the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codified by the various fiqh schools. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. the traveller a . The fai’. all prisoners. as the victim’s head was struck off. except for a few who were killed. part II. A Muslim combatant. belongs wholly to the Prophet. including the cattle. During a retreat. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. His Apostle. And at his command. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. In due course. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. This will be a source of strength to us against the infidels. Such property must be carried away and four-fifths of it distributed among the soldiers. his family. 338-339). and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. when they are no more. . This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. pp. .” (8:41). He advised that they should be put to death. the poor. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. i fellow was Utbah.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. O ’Al¯ arise and strike off his [Nassar’s] head. . From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. According to this code. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. whether men. “They are our kith and kin. the poor. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). orphans. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. the orphans. Another unfortunate i. The economic view prevailed. a fifth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The fire of hell!” Muhammad replied. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. his family. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. any such property that cannot be carried away. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. vol. at least in this case. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. it is entirely at his disposal.” he advised.” which ’Al¯ readily did. on the other hand. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. I. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad fled Mecca. should be destroyed. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the infidels. Along with the khums. to His Apostle. Alh¯ris. When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. women. or children. 3 . gains from a war not actively fought. and a the traveller” (59:7). to the Muslims in general. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. One of these was Nassar b. Muqd¯d. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom.

those to whom the Book has been brought. . These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . and for the building of bridges.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . and . Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. and mosques). they cannot engage in public worship. but later on. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. Another imposition. such a as their public prayers and festivals. Imperialism has the same is. they are not to do anything that would display their infidelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. it was extended to other subject peoples. in short. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings.” as the translator puts it (note 2230). p. also belongs to the fai’. They are not to build new churches and temples. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. 889). THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762). language in every age. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. At first this benefit was limited to the Jews and Christians. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. though they can repair old ones. This was the first property I acquired u . It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and officers. they are not to ride is on horseback. they are not to give offense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. II. but more often this was not done. as the Muslim empire grew. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. . forts. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. called jizy¯.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims.

he also had the first choice in everything. Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. They were raided and captured and their property confiscated. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. a but kept a large part for himself. They got a large number of camels as booty. ¯ One plot of land from the confiscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty.” his Coptic slave-wife. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. were confiscated by Muhammad. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. he had properties at Khaibar. . the Prophet received a fifth of all the spoils taken from the enemy.” he says (4340). “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had finished the war with the people . a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). . to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. . He also had seven other gardens in Medina. . As a chief. So did the others. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375).89 after embracing Isl¯m. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). . u ir. according to others were a portion of the confiscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every fighter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. whether slaves or women or property. As the amount of war booty increased. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. He u ir. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews.

and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). Arqam. The denial a i. u Prophet.” But. u a Many battles. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. or as it is popularly known. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. treacherous. more or less in confirmation of the above. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. i]. the number a was twenty-one. Instead. though. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. Zaid (4469). two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. According to J¯bir b. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. the Prophet’s uncle. raids. The conquest of .” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. According to Zaid b. ghazw¯t and sariya. There are other traditions too. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. not always in the order in which they were fought. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). the Battle of T¯’if (4393). These are of two kinds. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. are described by name. for example. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). of this property so angered F¯tim¯. 4465).” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. decide between me and this sinful. and battles of the Muslims. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). what we leave behind is charity” (4351). in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. They took their dispute to ’Umar. the Battle of Azh¯b. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conflicts. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and fifty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). “Commander of the Faithful. ’Abdullah. the Prophet’s daughter. the Battle of Badr a (4394). that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). In due course. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. It was not much of charity.

. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. at the Battle of Badr. and invited Muhammad to a humble repast.” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). 467). . We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). Muhammad came with a the whole army. Either he prayed or spat into the well. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. a The water welled up. O All¯h.” they found that the water in the local well was insufficient for such a large company. People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. .” and the meat and the loaves sufficed for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. J¯bir b.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. .” When the answer a . During the Battle of the Ditch. On many an occasion. We went out . then ground one measure of barley into flour and leavened it. Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. I would do that. II. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. In most of the battles. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. vol. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its flesh in a a pot. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. several miracles are mentioned. Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. numbering one thousand men. For example. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. . part II. p. On another occasion. “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. .

and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. [they] spent the night in prayer. Muir in his Life of Mahomet.” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-five nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. and distributed their women. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. . [so that] some ye slew. . we have arrived. gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of five and six at a time. According to ’Aisha. until they too fought against him. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. We give the story as summarized by W. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. And He made you heirs of their lands. III. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. During the night graves or trenches . He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. pp. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. . . Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). By God. the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. repeating passages from their scriptures. a where they had gathered for shelter. .” we are told by ’Abdullah. . himself a spectator of the tragedy. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. were dug in the market-place . . All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. So march against them. He first “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. . A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. the son of ’Umar (4364). . He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. and some ye made prisoners. . Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. and granted favour to them u ir. children and properties among the Muslims . their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). their houses. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . when these were ready in the morning. they surrendered . and exhorting one another in constancy.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. Each company was made to sit down . those of them who can a fight [were] killed. and cast terror into their hearts. vol. we haven’t laid down ours. . 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . Mahomet. Then he killed their men.” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. . .

provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. of female slaves and servants. . The Quraiza were allied to the Aus.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . and gave him over to another. I entreat thee. of Ozz¯l.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. . The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. of Huwey. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. pp. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of efficient horses. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. . The booty was divided into four classes .” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. and butchered in cold blood. Having sated his revenge. There were (besides little children.” S¯bit refused. indeed. it is sharp.of K¯b. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. an aged Jew. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. Tabari a i. He received to each inquiry the same reply . . I. . to the effect that Muhammad’s biographers. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. from his share of these. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. a i. till the whole were slain . For Zoheir. Here take my sword. . . ¯ ikh i. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . but she declined. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. . having refused marriage. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. . who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. in exchange for horses and arms. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . took his seat there. . 303-304. . and Muhammad took a fifth of each.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. another biographer. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains.” Ibn Ish¯q adds.land.But slay me also. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. and chose to remain (as. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. strike high and hard. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . chattels. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. and there beheaded. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conflicts to his own advantage. . “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. He invited her to be his wife. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . cattle. and slaves. He replied.they had all been slain already .

a Jewish leader. saying. . with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. Huyayy b.94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. p. 464. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so finish him off. They must be hardened in the difficult school of Isl¯m. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. to take off my robe from my body. . p. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent.” He too was brought before Muhammad. when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. was known affectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. Besides the aged Zoheir. . The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. but God the most High has given thee victory. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. Thus. 7 In fact. and at a signal from Muhammad. II. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. . He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. u the “Khazraj began to cut off their heads with great satisfaction.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. vol. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. A book and a decree.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown.” Then he sat down. . Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. and there is no remedy . He who forsakes God will be forsaken .” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. 465. They must become parties to an act which is effective in the measure that it is compromising. God’s command is right. before dying. p. ¯ ¯ . at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. Rauzat-us-Safa. his head was struck off.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. Akhatab. part II. p. 476. 752. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. . u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. . he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. and has made me thy judge. ’Aisha says of her.

a u a a and Sa’d b. A little later. to demolish the idol of All at. p. their goddess.” he prayed to All¯h. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not fight the Arabs around them. Shu’ba. pp. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. 480. in A. therefore. I. one of u a ira their kin. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. i a ¯ vol. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently.. “O God. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. 484-486). if. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. His people killed him. H. Deserted by Her servants.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. 9. who were from Medina. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. 546. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. He took Mecca by surprise. Umro b. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. ¯ ira. 544. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. pp. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. do you see the ruffians of the Quraish? a a . pp. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. wipe them out. . Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. and. In fighting the Meccans. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. struck the idol with his pickaxe. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and not to the Emigrants. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. . He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. .” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. Kh¯lid b. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. When you meet them tomorrow. I. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. 12 ibid.

96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. but more difficult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. went to Ka’b’s house at night.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his confidence. According to the Yogas. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. the Exalted. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). Through them. True. a After the conquest of Mecca. ASSASSINATION Assassination. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. Wonderful! To say the least. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. a more psychological and mystical religion. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. u Similarly. “Who will kill Ka’b b. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. the real difference is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. A fixed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. has a source deep in our being. like jih¯d. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . and His Messenger. he lured his intended victim outside. Spiritual darkness. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. asmit a). it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). self-shedding. whether Jehovah or All¯h. The permission was given. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. . self-discovery. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diffused mind. Then the assassin. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. or falsehood. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. accompanied by some accomplices. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. in egoistic life (aham. selfa a churning.” said Muhammad. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth.

a poet. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. u Some.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). 14 . Further details are available in various other accounts. as we have seen.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews.. Ab¯ M¯’ila. p. describes the assassins “bold as lions.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. 368-369. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. Very soon. Maslama and his foster brother.” He went down and was killed (4436). pp.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Another Ka’b. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. Ka’b’s head was flung at the feet of the Prophet. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. travelling by night a with their light swords. On learning this. another poet. 369. 15 ibid. 368. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear.97 like the voice of murder. Sabit. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. he should respond to the call. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. p.. 13 Hass¯n b. ¯ ¯ ibid. the unlucky victims of his aggression. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event.

Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. For example. Muhammad a declined his offer till he corrected his theology. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). and a both were polytheists. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is.98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a offered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. When the man said he did not. According to the translator. Safw¯n b. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. . (4472).

It includes all his beliefs and affairs. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. in all matters. dress. rather. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. non-Muslims. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. So in a Muslim polity. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. and pilgrimage. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . In Isl¯m. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. is. The spirit and informing principles are very different.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. zak¯t. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). general morality. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning affairs” (Qura an 14:17). food. political and intellectual. marriage. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. and so on.

for six hundred years. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis.” Muhammad says (4476). the Prophet’s daughter. a As a result. are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. 1299-1326). A branch of them. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad.100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. the Saiyids. and Ruler of the Faithful. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the affairs of my people and is hard upon them . and the disbelievers among them. may one day revive this idea. financial tycoons. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. Thanks to Muhammad. Later. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. and i.be Thou hard upon him. and he who acquires control over the affairs of my people and is kind to them . though the Shias limit the office still further to the descendants of Muhammad. necessary foundations. In another version. and scholars.” says Muhammad (4473-4474). though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism.be Thou kind to him. and specifically to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. The present-day Sauds. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. At present they are busy laying the first. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). D. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. emerged in Egypt. his wife F¯tima. “O God. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. helped by petrodollars. ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. rulers. a . the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. the holy lands of Isl¯m). They were warriors. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku.

“When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). for as we know. and to his moral and spiritual sense. . In fact. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. gifts are given to the office. but misappropriation of booty is a serious offense. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). Very thorough. a Qur¯n 4:59). As he lay dying. not to the officer. An official should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). His Apostle. But other ah¯d¯ try to fill this gap. OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). it is a religious obligation. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). then that person is designated as the .101 There are other conventional exhortations. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. a Some exceptions are mentioned. “O you a who believe. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). and this is a gift presented to me. “I shouldn’t find that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . This is a big loophole which was fully used. If the electors choose someone unanimously. “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. obey All¯h. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). . have to invoke God at every step. a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn first has a supremacy over the others” (4543). War booty is sacred. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. and should appeal to me for help.

Ghaffari. . In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. even if your back is flogged ir and your wealth is snatched. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. answering a follower. you should listen and obey” (4554). “Kill him. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). 68. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. 1 All four points are taken from S.” Under the circumstances. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader.” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. then those two should be killed. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. p. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the affairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. ¯ CHAPTER 10. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. If any five of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. If there is an equal division. his own son and one of the electors. ’Umar. men of authority. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). 3. 4.102 Khal¯ ifa. Shiaism. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders.

” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). for purposes of marriage. That decided the issue. there will appear a number of impostors. The son of ’Umar went to fight in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. Similarly. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority differs with different a conditions and circumstances. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). One of fifteen years is considered an adult. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). “Beware. strength consists in a is archery. You are to guard against them” (4483). “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a . a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. For example. and one below fifteen is a minor (4605). the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. which is also an a important subject of this book. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suffice you. Is not Muhammad the final prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. The next year. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. when he was fifteen. and this time he was accepted. or pregnancy (note 2331). the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. Yet again. but the Prophet did not accept him. he went to fight in the Battle of Khandaq. nocturnal emission. Again. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. This is understandable. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714).

if he dies in the Way of All¯h. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inflicted . “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. they became desperate. there is no Isl¯m. but since this is not always practical.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651).” In fact. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. According to some fiqh schools. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. . “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. Without jih¯d. Having no home and no livelihood. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. . Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the affairs of one who goes out to fight in His way a believing in Him and affirming the truth of His Apostles. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. Muhammad had the same desire for himself.104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. After a the conquest of Mecca. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. “I love to fight in the . one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). So the rules were changed. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear fidelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. his body will not decay.

if after embracing Isl¯m. THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. . . ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of different virtues. . One said: “I do not care. a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to offer. . . “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). and going on pilgrimage.105 way of All¯h and be killed. [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. . to fight and again be killed and to fight and again be killed” a (4626). All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). . and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a .” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. had¯ 4638). Therefore. The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. praying. a such as fasting. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. What is that act? . but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. Muhammad was consulted. .

The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. go to hell but never “gathered together. both go to Paradise. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. one the slayer and the other the slain. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. But there is still a great difference between the two. [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. Two men. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers.” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. Another puzzle seeking a solution. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. In the engagement. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. . and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. But how? The translator clarifies: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. We may give here another paradox. Asked to explain why. p. .106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. without having had the time to say a single prayer.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. Two men. . Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). a stone struck him and he died a martyr. 519 ¯ ¯ . he too fights in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having offered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad.

” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. let them not be taken by surprise. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. In such instances. Give them time to separate. II. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. Homely wisdom. i. is . and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. had¯ 571). and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their fidelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). Two men did not heed this command.


GAME There are similar restrictions on game. with the help of a particular incantation. even if the game is killed. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. When slaughtering an animal. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets off to catch a game animal (4732-4734).” says the Qur¯n (2:172). and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten.Chapter 11 Hunting. All¯h is great”). Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. some mub¯h (permitted). one should draw the knife across its throat. a its flesh is not lawful. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 . some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). a a a However. for their flesh to be lawful food. cutting the windpipe. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). and softened them a good deal. When someone asks: What “if I find along with my dog another dog. a “When you set off your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden).

a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. they ate a a even the dead animal.” he says. “When you shoot your arrow. . and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. .” and as they were hard pressed. ASSES It is unlawful to eat the flesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). recite the name of All¯h. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. But if it cannot be avoided. do not eat from their utensils. and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . During the journey. then wash them before using them” (4743). The beast was dead. and their flesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). except when a you find it [the prey] fallen into water. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. It fed them. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). .” for a month till they grew bulky. They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. There is a story behind this particular permission. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. HUNTING. “three hundred of them. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. a cheetah. CHAPTER 11.” J¯bir tells us. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting .a falcon. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. . “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired.

saying: “I neither eat it. Some thought at first that the prohibition was temporary. “since one-fifth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. So every one of you should sharpen his knife. “Throw away your pots. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the flesh of domestic asses. LIZARDS. caught and slaughtered it. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger .111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. a a HORSES The flesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). u a u Similarly. To illustrate. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). narrated by R¯fi b. The eating of locusts is permissible. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. as is legally required” (4768). LOCUSTS. and he accepted them” (4801). He did not accept it. . . KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts.” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. the flesh of hares is lawful. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-fifth made over to the treasury. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels.” came the order. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the flesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). Shadd¯d b. we give another tradition. HARES The flesh of lizards is not forbidden. so when you kill. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. . but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). nor do I prohibit it. slaughter in a good way. Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare.

112 CHAPTER 11. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacrifice. animal sacrifice is highly meritorious. They were only required to “abstain from meats offered to idols. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude flesh food. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. In Isl¯m. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacrificed. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. HUNTING. the “Book of Sacrifices” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacrificing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. the sacrifice should be made to All¯h. which means “to split or pierce. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. too. is But in order to be meritorious. except for flesh of a particular kind and flesh obtained in a particular way. are those a “who sacrificed for anyone besides All¯h. and hence derivatively for the sacrifice itself.” Muhammad tells us. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer.” Another word used is nahr. and from blood. and from things strangled. i. which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all fife. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. In many religious traditions. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. had¯ 1392). before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). In Muhammad’s lifetime. People “should not sacrifice an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacrificed [his animal]” a (4837). I. . Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacrifice.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878).

“he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. the translator explains. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). Muhammad said: a u “He who can afford sacrifice but does not offer it. is “As for the nail. he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). This is understandable. . “he placed it on the ground and then sacrificed it” (4845). accept [this saca a rifice] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). but more than six months’ age]” (4836). for is not animal sacrifice All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacrificial camels. and when they are a . According to Ab¯ Huraira.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood flow. so there is also a proper age for the sacrificial animal. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians.” He then said to ’Aisha. black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. “Sacrifice only a grown-up animal.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacrificing.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. While sacrificing.” When she did. unless it is difficult for you. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacrifice on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. O All¯h. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . but we have no knives with us. he took the knife and the ram. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacrifice. . PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacrifice the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacrificed rams. “Give me the large knife. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs. in which case sacrifice a ram [of less than a year. it is bone.

We made animals subject to you.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. people said. . a a Let it be so if you like. Mu’¯z b. who put on his mantle. We realize that an animal sacrifice can never be a fitting and acceptable offering to any god worthy of man. the Prophet’s uncle. that reaches All¯h. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. and came out” (4881). Ab¯ Duj¯na. all this changes. We experience a new togetherness. Ka’b drinking. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the fifth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . We offer to our gods what we ourselves eat. Jabal. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. but when he returned.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). and Ubayy b. a new reverence for all living beings. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God.114 CHAPTER 11. “It is not their meat nor their blood. ’Abd al-Muttalib. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. esting story. and began to reprimand him. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. He tied them up outside. In animal sacrifice. Baiad¯.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. DRINKS The twenty-first book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. . Liquor was forbidden. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. HUNTING. a and he thus turned upon his heels. narrates an interi. the flesh comes to us. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. and he a i a brought his camels along. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacrifice. went to where Hamza i was. “Hamza’s eyes were red. . We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. . he found their “humps were chopped off and their haunches had been cut off and their livers had been taken out. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). Ab¯ Ubaida. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad.

How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. . there is not even a disapproval. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. In another tradition. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. . or hollow stumps (4913-4995). “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). it is not forbidden. he tells ’Umar.115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). gourds. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971). . a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . together (4896-4912). green pitchers. the Prophet’s cousin. . a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). the son of his wife Umm Salama by her first husband: “Boy. Ibn ’Abb¯s. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). mention the name of All¯h. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk.” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf.

In fact. and thanks for the mothers. In ordinary course. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). HUNTING. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three fingers. one “must vomit” (5022). PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. he ate it and if he did not like it. for feeding 130 persons (5105). sisters and wives. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. he left it” (5121). if one drinks water standing. .116 CHAPTER 11. DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not find fault with the food served to you. A laudable practice. FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. thanks for the farmer who produced it. with the blessing of the Prophet. ’Abdullah b. but it is permissible for other Muslims. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suffice. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). because Muhammad did so (5072). and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040). Still. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. It is also meritorious to lick one’s fingers after taking one’s food. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too.

That way we really profane Him. Be a meat-eater if you like. ¯ a negate Him. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. Similarly. .117 However. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. no God can legitimize it. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight.


“He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the fire of Hell” (5126). A man was wearing clothes dyed in saffron. Poetry. Visions. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). SILK Silk is also forbidden. Greetings. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). The mantles of Yemen.Chapter 12 Clothing. on the other hand. Decorations. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). Magic. finding that the Prophet disapproved of them. were considered excellent (5179-5180). General Behavior. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). “Do not wear silk. for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). These were striped and made of coarse cloth. 119 . he promised to wash them.

His head and his beard were white like hyssop. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). one of the wives of the Prophet (5248).120CHAPTER 12. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). . On seeing portraits on a curtain. . he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). so oppose them” (5245). he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. GREETINGS. In fact. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. They effectively keep out the angels. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields [or big gardens]. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. . whether of birds or animals or men. The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). the father of Ab¯ Bakr. DECORATIONS. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). HAIR Not only clothes. but the hair too should not be dyed in saffron (5241).” reports Maim¯na.” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. . CLOTHING. The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. “Then on that very morning. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. MAGIC. Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. Ab¯ Quh¯f¯.

iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310). Rab¯h (“profit”). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. having the same meaning (5338).. and N¯fi a a a (“beneficial”) (5327). He forbade women to add false hair to their head. Muhammad took great a interest in this matter.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). Barra means “pious. ’Abdullah. a .e. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). i. or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautification changing what God has created” (5301).” and it is a perfectly good name. GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven.121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). Yas¯r (“wealth”). But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aflah (“successful”). We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. the son of ’Umar.

. When a man seeks permission three times. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). . The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). Q¯sim.122CHAPTER 12. “he should come back” (5354). He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. he went to Muhammad for clarification. . the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. The first thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . MAGIC. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. and it is not granted. CLOTHING. a a When other Muslims objected. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. . Asm¯. DECORATIONS. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. gave birth to a baby. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. GREETINGS. it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. Muhammad called for some dates. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367).

when he seeks your counsel give him. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). went out to the a fields in the dark to ease herself. When you meet him.” “But what about the husband’s brother. . and when he falls ill visit him. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. One day. “Husband’s brother is like death. . ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) offer you salutations. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”. Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”).123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim .” the Prophet replied a (5400). or if that cannot be helped. and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). The Prophet himself followed this practice. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. but Muhammad did not respond.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. offer him greetings. “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). we recognize you. And all should greet the children (5391-5392).” says ’Aisha a (5397). “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women.” His hope was fulfilled.’ you say. the Exalted and Glorious. “All¯h. and when he dies follow his bier” (5379).” an ans¯r asked. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. Also. FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should first greet the pedestrian. But it is different with the People of the Book. . when he invites you to a feast accept it. who was tall in stature.

Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness.” and that “it was Lab¯ b.e. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. and according to some traditions. The effect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . A’sam id [who cast the spell]. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. In fact. p.. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. I. 1 On another occasion.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. a is The Prophet believed that “the influence of an evil eye is a fact. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). “could not come at his wives. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classification. but the poison had a delayed effect. 1 Tabaq at. poisons. of course. but. DECORATIONS. by All¯h. you should take a bath” (5427). tied in eleven knots around a palm branch.e. As the knots were untied. MAGIC. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. ¯ . it caused his last illness. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen.” a And under the influence of the charm. and the way they did it. and incantations. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. or. During this period. it had no power over him (5430). he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters.124CHAPTER 12. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. This saved him for the time being. He had just taken a morsel and finding the taste unusual spat it out.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. and deposited at the bottom of a well. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). he lost his appetite and even became impotent.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has affected him. 156. the Prophet got well. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. CLOTHING. vol. a u In the same S¯ra. those who had brought it about.. “When you are asked to take a bath from the influence of an evil eye. spells. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. medicine. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. GREETINGS.

it is a wonder drug.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579).e. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. Among others. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. Cool it down with water. and when it has broken out in the land where you are. . no ghouls.” and “no star promising rain. so you may go” (5541). and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show.125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. He says that according to some Muslim scholars. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). According to the Arab belief of that time. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell.” Muhammad says (5484). no epidemic disease. i. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. It has a sexual potential. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. NO HAMA. don’t run out of it” (5493). don’t go to it. the Apostle of All¯h placed his forefinger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). On another occasion.. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459).

i. CLOTHING. no divination. “There is no transitive [i. soothsayers. According to the translator. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today.” he says (5519).” the translator assures us (note 2603). Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536).are very different. but good omens please me. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). epidemic] disease.e.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . nature. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn.. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. he believed in good omens and luck. The two worlds . and fortune-tellers. MAGIC. the woman and the house” (5526). GREETINGS. augurs.e. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. and the law of causality. including India. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. then it is in a horse.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does.. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we find true. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies. a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins. Muhammad corrected . and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. DECORATIONS. a belief found in the lore of many countries. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man.126CHAPTER 12.

the jinn has his chance. and Jinn (72:8-10). The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18).” When these different orders communicate with each other. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends.” So they too should be killed (5545). I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. Like snakes. had¯ 1963). the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. . His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientific nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. Their sight filled him with fear.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. a is SNAKES.” She asked him: “I find people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. but I find that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. ANTS. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5).127 this belief and provided another explanation. the Exalted and the Glorious. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. for it affects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). dogs too “cause miscarriage and affect the eyesight adversely. S¯ff¯t (37:7-10). but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538).

he did not think highly of them.” he advised. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. warned him of the fate suffered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else.” Muhammad commanded. POE Ants fared better. Ka’b b. The book ends on a compassionate note. If you do not do that. GREETINGS. then get to some safe place. according to Ibn Ish¯q. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). his brother. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. “O Apostle. One relates to the use of correct words. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. MAGIC. CORRECT WORDS. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. a u had already fled in all directions. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. .” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). At first Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. . among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. ¯ ¯ . True. CLOTHING. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. POETRY. 597. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. p. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. the daughter of a Marw¯n. Ab¯ Wahb. When Mecca was conquered. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). “Catch the Satan. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. who was already a convert.128CHAPTER 12. VISIONS The next three books are very small. even by the method of assassination. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuffing his brain with poetry.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. DECORATIONS. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. the only status he cared to claim. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer.

129 Prophet. Receiving an affirmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took off his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.

Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the flesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).

The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The differa is

130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the difference in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisfied statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).

Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.

Chapter 13

Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a

The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the first intercessor and the first whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an effective simile to show the difference between himself and the five or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that final brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the edifice of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to finalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131



message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The first are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of benefit to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the benefit of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellfire, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the fire and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making efforts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from fire, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).

A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaff¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to find “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.

We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u

But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulfilled even posthumously. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. embrace Isl¯m. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large flock of sheep and goats. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain.133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. He punishes it through His living Apostle. many of them by Anas. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. This was called his charitable disposition. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679).” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. provided it was no sin” (5752). . “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. most courageous.” the beneficiary tells us (5731). the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. however. The man was overwhelmed. ’Aisha. I counted them as five hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. He found Muhammad most valorous. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). I would give you so much. Ummaya. but when it did.” the recipient said (5730). It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). “He asked me to count them.

In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa.134 CHAPTER 13. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. One is called jih¯d. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. “He put on a red mantle over him. His perspiration “shone like pearls. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. a is complexion. a is He used to part his hair. Rob Peter to pay Paul. He a also found his face very handsome. appearance. and even heels. or charity. the other sadaqa. The Prophet’s body was soft.” His body a was also fragrant. eyes.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). so All- . hair. “Do not be angry. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair.

. once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). J¯bir. Salama. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639).135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. Umm i. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). . . . when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. that a revelation was involved in the matter. the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). His hair was collected. Furthermore. under its influence. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . ” (5765). according to the translator. In fact. Another man. THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. According to Ub¯da. a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). Muhammad’s wife. . “his forehead perspired” (5764). to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . and his head was lowered (5767). i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. ’Abdullah b. younger u than he. .

a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. a practical man. Muhammad a gave his decision. i. is. I do not think this approach can go very far. It sufficed him . and do not go after my personal opinion. had¯ 5817). in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). But he has two options to offer about the number of people seeking ablution. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. When Muhammad.” As a result. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. On another occasion. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. and find in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65.e. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. Muhammad said: “I do not find it of any use. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. everyone was enabled to perform ablution.his father’s sister’s son. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). In one place. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. learned this. in another three hundred (5658). a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas.. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. then they should do it. he said: “If there is any use of it. he tells us that their number was “between fifty and eighty” (5656). Sometimes.136 CHAPTER 13. “I saw water spouting from his fingers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. then do accept it. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. by the Lord. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay.

a dispute rose. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. the Jew said: “By All¯h. Their religion is. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. when an ans¯r offered a a price that was not acceptable to him.” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. the neighboring Jews and Christians. Recognizing the other prophets. and therefore they were as good as apostates. and Moses. Muhammad’s world was not very large. He knew his own people. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. a is Abraham. On the battlefield. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. and supplicated him. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. “Had you not weighed it. however. a Jew was selling goods. To the Jews and Christians. though on his own terms. Therefore. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book. the Arab Bedouins. Speaking of himself and Jesus. served a still greater purpose. the tribes allied with them.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. he offered his leadership. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. having different mothers. on the day of Uhud. Who chose Moses amongst mankind.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). But he could not . a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. But when he failed in his bid.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854). saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. For example. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). narrated the whole story. During the dispute. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best.

seldom both. . for they all express the same Truth. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. don’t make a distinction between different gods. for one is also the other. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. for they are all part of one human brotherhood. an attitude of either/or.138 CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between different ummahs.

Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa.” the maiden being ’Aisha. it is enough to be subservient. To be saved. members of his family like F¯tima. ’Al¯ Hasan. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s first Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. and ’Usm¯n. Salama. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the fire of hell). he answered: “ ’Aisha. ’Umar. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best.” Muhammad said u a (5873). his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. but he soon came to be known by another name. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. and u a a i. The followers need have no other. and Zainab. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. ’Aisha’s 139 . Ab¯ i a u Bakr.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. Husain. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. “the father of the maiden. D. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend.

529). during the conflict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. 1 2 . and you are our Wazeers. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i.” Muhammad answered (5878). “To Ab¯ u Bakr. The next day. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. Even ’Aisha. Ab¯ Bakr. p. u Zubair. ‘God kill him. ’Ali a respectively.140 CHAPTER 14. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. I said. made the most of his dead body. p. and her brother too. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. struggle for power began in earnest. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. as the u a a chief. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. “In doing this. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. 279. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. with a sword in his hand. we jumped on Sa’d b.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). “Either take the i. I. even half-believingly. his favorite wife.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. or I shall put this house to fire and burn you all. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. Eventually. Outside. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father. As soon as Muhammad died.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. pp. was kept in the dark about it . her father.. ’Ub¯da. u so that he might write a document. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. 527-528). they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. one of their own tribesmen. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle.” ’Umar threatened them. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there.

Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. narrow-minded.” When he inquired. and in case of the prisoners of a im. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. In fact. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. nor stand at his grave.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. ’Umar was fanatical. The Muslim doctors mention fifty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. during the first fifteen months of their stay in Medina. Later on. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. are a a you going to offer prayer. The first instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. by a divine injunction. Once Muhammad was persuaded to offer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. as he prayed. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. the place of the Jewish Temple. KHATTAB ’Umar b. while asleep. Badr” (5903). Had it not been for a previous . All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. . for they rejected God and His Apostle. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. however. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. ’Umar. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. and ’Umar that they be a killed. the direction was changed to Mecca. . All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. whereas All¯h has forbidden to offer prayer for him?” (5904). “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. a But Muhammad persisted.” Muhammad observed (5885). ’Umar wept when he was told about it. and that his first duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . Once. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. ’Abb¯s. Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. . modestly mentions a only three. And lo. and strong in his hatred.

and said to him tauntingly. An Arab. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut off his head. a True.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive infidel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut off his head with his sword. He forged new instrumentalities. But after him. 3 On another occasion. we find that ’Umar needed no great provocation to flourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battlefield. vol. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. spread of Muslim hegemony. a founder par excellence. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. . and the necessary religious rhetoric.” This was also the most effective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate.” he told Muhammad. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is.” The man said.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. by L¯t and Uzza. a continuing motive. its real founder was Muhammad himself. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut off their heads. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. In the Muslim annals. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. there was also “weakness in his drawing.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. himself drawing water from a tank. III. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. “Nay. it was something to be proud of. “Well. even including newborn babes. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h.142 CHAPTER 14. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. you are beaten now. provided a new taste for booty. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. on the state’s payroll. a new incentive. as we have already seen. on another occasion.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. who provided it with a theory. a i.” he said (4360). and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut off his head. he made it clear. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. He put every Arab. Life of Mahomet. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. the son of Soheil. but u he drew only “two buckets”. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. his name appears only once. an ideology. p. 110. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. These ah¯d¯ we are told. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket.

al-Rab¯ his son-in-law.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. After she died. and also to spare his uncle. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. ¯ ¯ . he was much troubled. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellfire. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. if I a a meet him I will flash my sword in him. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Ab¯ Huzayfa. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. who was taken prisoner i. Only a few decades ago. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. so contrary to human nature and custom.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. 507. “Let me off with his head! By All¯h. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. vol. who replied. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. did not like this. in the Battle of Badr. But one Muslim. Rauzat-us-Safa. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. But there is nothing unusual about it. 5 id’s It is difficult to accept this attitude. Umm Kuls¯m. 301. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. p. al-Mugh¯ a ira. p. the man is a false Muslim. part II. the family to which u a he belonged. In the same battle. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. a ¯ ’USMAN B. whom he married. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah.” Those who indulged in such unfilial behavior were honored as heroes. II. u According to Muslim tradition. in Russia and even in China. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them.” he said. al-’Abb¯s. p. Hash¯m b.” he said aloud. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. releasing him without any ransom. “O Ab¯ Hafs. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. 739. ’Aff¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. al-’As. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them.

” Other doctors of theology and law. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. they are my i. . reclining against a pillow . . ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. “O All¯h. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. is such that it excluded . did not agree with this conclusion. and Husain. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). at the hands of his brethren in faith. In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians.144 CHAPTER 14. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. . was a burdened with work that was too heavy.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. therefore. the Book of All¯h .” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). the order of truth it deals with. ’ALI B. saying. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. a a family. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head.” he said (5915). one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. From the arguments advanced on both sides. . with great ingenuity. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.” The definition of “the members of my family. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. and its concerns are mostly with trifles. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). and its way of arriving a at truth. Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit difference that there is no prophet after me” (5913). a convert from the proletarian strata. Hasan. [and] the members of a my household. it was Ab¯ Bakr. But when ’Usm¯n came. is receiving a visitor.

’Al¯ is from me. On the day of Khaibar. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. The Prophet was furious. for himself even before the holy one-fifth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. Wal¯ the second-ina id. ¯ ¯ ikh i. p. II. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. I. i saying: “I shall never do it. Let us.” But ’Al¯ declined. had¯ 1582). All¯h is partial. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i different for him.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. involving a complaint of a similar nature. people will never give us the Caliphate again. thou hast deceived me. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived.. 456. Ja’far. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. ’Amr i b. he took a slave-girl i. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. “his face becoming red with anger. At one i point in the contest. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the first report? In a battle.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. During the Battle of the Ditch. 8 On another occasion. had¯ 1569). it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. vol. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. i. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.” ’Umar says (5917).” at the complaint. and ’Abb¯s and their offspring (5920).” The story is given by Mirkhond. p. 521). his own saliva as a cure. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. and applied i. II. 7 . vol. Kh¯lid b. his uncle. II. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. ’Abdu Wudd. II. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inflamed. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. vol. thy brother i is coming behind thee. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. complained to Muhammad.” (Tabaq at. pp. part II. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. When Muhammad was dying. a man of ninety years. 9 After Muhammad’s death. 5918). ’Abb¯s. i i” i. command. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will fight them until they are like us” (5915.e. 292-293. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. a i.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. therefore. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa.

was the old polytheistic morality. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. following the old Arab custom. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. . .146 CHAPTER 14. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid.. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. After he was appointed to this responsibility. We give one example. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. and when the night set in. by order of his lordship i the apostle .” This. however. 10 ¯ SA’D B. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking off their heads. HARIS Zaid b. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). He was i asked to flog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). had¯ 5933). Until now. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. . . 112). He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. 477-478. obey them not” (29:8. . AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. ’Aisha tells us. pp. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. but after this marriage. . eight hundred strong. he was also his executioner. a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses.

At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides five more to whom proposals were made but without success.147 natural father. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. and Zainab. in a fit of jealousy. though senior to ija him in age by fifteen years. . his first wife. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. For example. perfumes. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. Another woman. the daughter of Imran. The marriage was consummated when she was nine. 147-164). and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. II. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was fifty.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. Salama. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. newly married. According to Muhammad. she was also the first to encourage him in his apostolic mission. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. and his Lord . Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. Once. i With some women. I often heard him praise her. ija. vol. She was turned out. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s first employer and. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. ¯ . THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. therefore. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. Ibr¯h¯ died. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. was the best of the women of her time (5965). dispatched home. Muhammad himself says that “women.” Muhammad said (5966). the marriage was not consummated. I il ate from it. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. pp. had¯ 5956). a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness.” (Tabaq at. and food. . just as Mary. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971).

THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). though a strict code might call this bribery. in the words of ’Aisha. as luck would have it. I will never talk a to him about this matter. Even during his last illness. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. She said yes. . Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. but all very convenient. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. verily. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy. by the Lord of Muhammad. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. A rule within a rule. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. . Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. But.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Once.’ and when you are annoyed with me. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted.” Muhammad made no answer. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him.” “O daughter. On another occasion.” ’Aisha generously agreed. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). you say: ‘No. his daughter. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. she went back. When people want to please an official or any person in authority. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima. A time-honored a practice. “Where I would be . “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991).” a as ’Aisha puts it. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha.” ’Aisha narrates. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984).” About Muhammad’s own behavior. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. and having been thus silenced. they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. to him.148 CHAPTER 14. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. .

until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. “the virgin. his cousin. “The Prophet died in my room. i. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. his wife. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. took the twig from her brother’s hand. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. for my daughter is part of me. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. In fact. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. Muhammad looked at it intently. vol. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired. if. complained about it to Muhammad. “And when it was my turn. and in my bosom. Fat¯ u u ima. and even. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. After Mecca was conquered. ¯ ¯ 12 . the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter].149 tomorrow. She had two surviving sons. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife.” ’Aisha adds. here is Gabriel offering you greetings. our salivas mingled. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. 282). known as the Saiyids. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache.” Stating the position of Muslim theology.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). 678-679. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his first wife. pp. I would not allow them. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. on my day. just a few days before his death. put it in her mouth. ’Aisha took the hint. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. I. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. Tabaq at. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). He Just before Muhammad died.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. in the last moment of his death. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. Hasan and Husain. and they agreed. meaning “masters. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. During his last illness. p.

Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035).” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. Mu’az. Sa’d was a a fat man. p. she had the influence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands.150 CHAPTER 14. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who offends her offends me” (5999). for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. 469. she was his only wife while she lived. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. Therefore. ¯ There are other traditions about him. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. During the Battle of Uhud. MU’AZ When Sa’d b. sitting on a camel. So it seems that if the father of a woman had sufficiently strong influence. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. one Marw¯n b. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i).a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was fifteen or sixteen. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. the third Khal¯ a ifa. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. but his bier was very light to carry. In the case of Khad¯ ija. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. Hakam in revenge. Thanks to his political connections. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. ¯ ¯ . THE MERITS OF SA’D B. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. In the battle over the succession that raged later on.

.” he said. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Umayya. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. . “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n.” Muhammad said to him. Khalaf. he said.” he replied. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression.” he added. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. Mu’az. Khalaf and his son. p. the Aus. The next a day. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. “By God. in Mecca.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the first pledge at Al-’Aqaba. Umayya b. a carrying coats of mail” which. Seen through less-believing a eyes. more kind a and compassionate. Consistent with his lowly position. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. On the day of the Battle of Badr. 301. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. it is the first defeat that God brought on the infidel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. the poet. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that purification what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). “Yes.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. an important Companion. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exemplifies a certain moral. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. he “had looted. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. a “won’t you take me a prisoner.

611-612). a strong opponent of Isl¯m. “By God. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. whose husband. 302-303. ¯ ¯ W. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. and brother had just been murdered. pp. But organized conversions are now. pp.” The Muslims gathered. They bring no change in the individual. Bil¯l kept shouting. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. Life of Mahomet. 16 17 .” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. ’Akrama. They cried in pain and horror.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. often they make him worse.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. part of an aggressive politics. p. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. by their hands. IV. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. the son of Ab¯ Jahl. II. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-infidel. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battlefield. Umayya a b. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. Just then. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my infidelity. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. father. as they have always been. now his prisoners. I will. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. after the great carnage of the day. vol. 18 In fact. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). 68. At the Battle of Khaibar. There is a telling example. When Mecca was conquered.152 CHAPTER 14.” In later days. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulfil a u a its rights. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulfil its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. Sim¯k b. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. decided to become a Muslim. vol. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. Muir.

” he said to Muhammad.” And to All¯h Himself. . The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. . Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. . ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. Gabriel is with you” (6074). . and Huraira. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. One of them was the son of ’Umar. and commissioned them to write satires.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). . Sabit. . who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail .” With that end in view. I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . . On another occasion. But there was a difficulty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). . Muhammad sent for two poets. Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. the daughter of Bakr. the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. u a which he knew very well. Unsatisfied with their compositions. . ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. he petitioned: “O All¯h. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. M¯lik. S¯bit. According to her. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. Understanding the intricacies. .” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish.

He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . According to one important opinion. H. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims.154 CHAPTER 14.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. H. but when they were in his service. as the last Companion died in A. 6081).” says ’Aisha (6079. . I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the flour. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. ’Aisha was the first to excuse Hass¯n. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. but as they proceed further away from him. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. they become better. As things converge toward Muhammad. At the end of the book. 170). 120 years. H. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity.. then come his Companions. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. . do not revile my Companions” (6167). then those nearest to them” (6150).” she said a a (6075). the Prophet comes first. 110). Then those nearest to them. though all the participants were flogged. the first period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i.e. it was a different matter. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). . 220). “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. In this ranking and ordering.

it is a reward. While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. All Muslims are one body. all Muslims should help each other. In short. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. “When a Muslim falls ill. Monday and Thursday. stand by each other. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). and feel for each other. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). . “All¯h elevates him in rank or effaces his sins because a of that” (6238). “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. Knowledge. the whole 155 . He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . Destiny. If he suffers pain. . if his head aches. his wealth and his honour” (6219). “A believer is like a brick for another believer. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. . Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. the one supporting the other” (6257). Good Manners. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). “The believers are like one person. even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. And.Chapter 15 Virtue. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. of course.

he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. All¯h would a meet his needs. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. spoils. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. a Similarly. “When any one of you fights with his brother. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. It is meritorious to speak the truth. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). in fact. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. DESTINY. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). 1 The face should be avoided because. KNOWLEDGE. Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. should help him. 1 . VIRTUE. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). he should spare his face” (6325). He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. and he who meets the need of a brother. who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek.156 CHAPTER 15. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. as the Prophet himself explains. and 6306). 6265. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim.

157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the definition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a

Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the sufferers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, purification and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.

The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the first time that All¯h lets a man off so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellfire for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).


Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-fifth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of fine Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Sufis. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the infidels was not only a pious act a is but a profitable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).

The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were off guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.



The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conflicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an infidel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and filial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.

For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the flames of hellfire. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.

160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful effort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4

Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably flowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the infidels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the first to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians first (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the five or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should offer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
5 4

violence. p. murders. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. a DESTINY The thirty-first book. as might be expected. “This I have power to do. it imposes only an outer code. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. there can be no higher ethical life. But. vol. but thou. True. fornications. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. O Lord. II. as Muhammad called him. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer.All¯h demanding the blood of the a infidels. his deeds. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. though the Buddhist influence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. adulteries.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. his livelihood. war booty. blasphemies. Each person passes through a series of stages. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. For example. contains only fifty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). his death. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. after which it becomes a lump of flesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . garbing itself in pious clothing. it gives the theology of a Moloch . but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. theft. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. false witness. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. ¯ . his fortune and misfortune. An unpurified heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). 280. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. Without inner purification.” As a result.” But Muhammad failed to benefit from this source. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). . and prurience. . and tribute. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion.” he said. he found it burdensome to observe this practice.

the reverse may also happen (6390). REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No.” and do not dispute about it . And. by seeking to explain them. He also warns against hair-splitting. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. “Verily. KNOWLEDGE.that is knowledge. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has fixed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421).” On the other hand. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm).162 CHAPTER 15. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. he says” (6450). even smaller than the previous one. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. do perform good deeds. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. But in spite of these warnings. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). VIRTUE. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We affirm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). the Prophet warns the believers” (6443).” he remonstrates with the believers. a a “Verily. you would follow them in this also. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. of course.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. The book also includes a flattering reference to scholars. Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. One day. KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). It means the knowledge that we find in the Qur¯n. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. “Recite the Qur¯n. DESTINY. If everything of men is decreed in advance. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard.

and earnestness. I draw near him a by the cubit. and empire if we succeed. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. in brotherliness. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. Muhammad explains” (6476).163 away the scholars” (6462). Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. In the mystic tradition. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. Muhammad’s god.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. it means walking toward the Light within. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. conquest. and so on. like his moral teaching. the infidels. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. in wisdom. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. and Paradise if we fall. in purity.” Muhammad a tells us (6475). a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. in conciliation. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. I rush towards him” (6471). “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. in compassion.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. slaves. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). he retained His audible names. polytheist. faith. where it has a meaning very different from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. In the prophetic tradition. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. our reward is booty. infidel. And if he walks towards Me. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. and forced conversions.

KNOWLEDGE. the daughter of Hil¯l. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. 593.164 CHAPTER 15. p. and the second to ’Umar. as a gift. All¯h’s name did not always suffice as a substitute for a servant. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. VIRTUE. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. one to ’Usm¯n. Demonology is the other side of theology.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. ¯ ¯ . who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. DESTINY. For example.

Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. 165 . Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). On the other hand. In book thirty-four. According to another tradition. “amongst the inmates of Paradise. If they so wish. they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. Hell.Chapter 16 Paradise. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). Their Inmates. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597).” women will “form a minority” (6600). called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606).

HELL. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. Muhammad said.166 CHAPTER 16.e. will take in His grip the earth . giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day . . . Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. PARADISE.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. On this day. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. . and of Paradise and Hell. THEIR INMATES.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”.” “With b¯l¯m and fish.” he told them. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). “the earth would turn to be one single bread . the Exalted and Glorious. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. i. All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). between afternoon and night” (6707). THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). . the nonbeliever “finds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). . NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. The believer will be doubly blessed. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above.. Thanks to his reward in this world. B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and fish from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710).

even the one least tormented. the “moon was split into two. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. On the Day of Resurrection. . THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). . “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting fire by paying all that gold. THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse.167 Either way. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). . so they were a afflicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellfire? Nothing. and heedless. it is cheating. The nonbeliever will answer yes. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. no Jew . But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suffering. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. whether. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. it is still not a fair deal. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. In fact. afflict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity].” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. Allah will ask the nonbeliever. For example.

THEIR INMATES. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. In the Qura an. the word means “the one in united” (pl. in the Sunn¯h. PARADISE. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man.” Muhammad declared (6711). A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. also see 41:25). HELL. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. a devil. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. pandemonic. more precisely. but it finds its full development in the Sunn¯h. the latter is pandaimonic or. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. Literally. quran¯). the demons are only attached to infidels.168 CHAPTER 16. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. “Verily. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. a prophetic one. .” 43:36. SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief.” Muhammad declared (6752).

Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. . Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. O Lord. Then those who would be next to them. he advises. . A man is justified by faith. “Observe moderation” in your doings. then after them others in ranks” (6796). . HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. A constant Bower of Bliss. An-N¯r. It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. Its Description. but if you fail. appears with still greater frequency . The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a fine and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). which appears 76 times. a “In Paradise. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell.121 times. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). Its Bounties. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770).” Muhammad says (6760). Paradise and Hell go together. they would be like the most significantly glittering stars . In the Qur¯n.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. moral action occupies a secondary place. a “the Fire. “The first group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night.169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . and Its Inmates”. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). In the Prophet’s eschatology. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born.

THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. THEIR INMATES. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. “All¯h. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. his length being sixty cubits. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. HABITATION.170 CHAPTER 16. rivers of wine. a joy to those who drink. ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the flesh” (6797). created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . . less than ih on earth. “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). “they will have fruits. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). PARADISE. . the Exalted and a Glorious. HELL. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). The immeasurable is measured. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. For food. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. nor void excrement. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). nor will they suffer from catarrh. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. any that they may desire” (56:2021). incidentally. the height of Adam and even of God. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. .” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). nor will they spit” (6795). and the shades of the Garden will come low .

a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. houris with swelling bosoms. 9:111. a 56:15-40. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. with whom he will make love successively. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. 10:9-10. 52:17-24. ’Umar. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. 76:12-22. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. and others. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. retiring glances. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. will dwell his wives. so he will have women galore in Paradise. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. describe the a i. . 47:15. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). which we have already mentioned. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. For example. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. wine. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). HOURIS Houris are promised. the bunches of fruits will hang low.171 over them. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). 55:46-76. a i. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. We can only mention the subject here. According to ’Abdullah b. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. upon them will be green garments of fine silk and heavy brocade. golden vessels. 4:13. 66:8. for ever virgins.

According to Anas. these women will put on see-through dresses. ’Umar. THEIR INMATES. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. holding the train of her robe. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. 112. and she will have a crown on her head. when a believer embraces any such houri. still furu ther. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. and seventy-two women. According to another tradition.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. Each houri will u have seventy garments. PARADISE. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. . in the Muslim Paradise. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any specifics about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. p. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. HELL. every room will have seventy couches. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. the number of slaves is ten thousand. though rather mathematically expressed.172 CHAPTER 16. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal five hundred houris. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. and eight thousand women who have known men. According to ’Abdullah b. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. According to him. 1980). four thousand virgins.

173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. “I saw ’Amr b. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. ’Amr was the first Khozaite king (A. and as-s¯’iba. his senior. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically significant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also fifteen years ija. According to Muslim thinking. dragging his intestines in Fire. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. to some up to their knees. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). u a 4:57). Luhayy b. ira. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. But as his harem swelled. the fire we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816).” He was the first to dedicate animals to deity. .” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. Khinzif. In caloric heat. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. Cam’a b. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. In Hell. are severely punished. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. In the S¯ras from this period.D. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. to some up to their waists.” as the translator explains (note 2999). a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). Similarly. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831). The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suffer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. the son of Abraham.

the chapter is closed forever.” somebody replied. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. there is no death for you. they would break my head . . thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. THEIR INMATES. HELL.” Muhammad told him. Verily. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. what I am saying to them. And I sent the Book to you . . The Prophet and his Companions sighted five or six graves during a journey. and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. . And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. . . but they lack the power to reply. . Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. Muhammad said: “Behold. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . Then he sat by the side of the bodies. . and addressing each of them by name. You would live forever therein” (6829). O inmates of Hell. . “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. . PARADISE. . . there is no death for you. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day.” Muhammad revealed (6859). Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . . “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. I said: My Lord. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. . You send an army and I would send an army five times greater than that. Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died.174 CHAPTER 16. “As polytheists. . said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. you fight against them and We shall help you in this . THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. It begins immediately after their death.

the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. more blazing. and inmates. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of infidelity and unbelief.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. and more scorching are conceived. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha.e. even Muslims must go to Hell.. The is. i.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha. In a . Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellfire to his followers. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. But woe unto the unbeliever. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. naked and uncircumcised. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). thermodegree. that should be of interest to Freudians. So hells increasingly more smoky. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. each with a its own potency. Hell has many names. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger. “the Fire. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted.

toiling.176 CHAPTER 16. The fire in Hell knows no rival in fierceness. 17:60. infidels. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents . . if not the spirit. In other S¯ras (e. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. is for the Christians. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. the still more intense fire of Hutamah is for the Jews. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. 56:52. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellfire. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. Saqar for the Magi. “If the infidels complain of thirst. and polytheists of different hues and degrees. loathsome in smell. the Day of Judgment).. polytheists.” There are other traditions in the same vein. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. of fire so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. another terrible food.e. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. in the language of u the last S ura. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. . Jah¯ for idolaters.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m.” i. and never has any light. THEIR INMATES.” is mentioned. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). each tree there having seventy thousand branches. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. The blazing fire of Laz¯. . . they shall be given water like molten copper . .” According to some commentators. It is called Jahanam. the infidels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. hypocrites. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. . like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. idolaters. Similarly. THE LAST DAY order to fulfill the letter. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red.. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. of All¯h’s command. PARADISE. weary. which shall burst their bowels . . Christians. fire which “permits nothing to endure.g. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. i u 44:43-46). there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. HELL.

“There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. but in the case of . And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). Arabia.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. but He did not grant it” (6904. killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellfire. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. . All these are the tormentors of the infidels and the hypocrites. . And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). “He granted me two. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). . THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is.177 and an equal number of scorpions. 6906). a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends.” he said (6881). While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords.

a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). come and kill him. It will not come “until fire emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). THEIR INMATES. red in complexion. PARADISE. or the servant of All¯h. ” (7039). this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuffs and their money]” iz (6961). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship. a Before the Last Hour comes. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . the Dajj¯l . According to the translator. THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conflict with one another” (note 3009).178 CHAPTER 16. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. the smoke. a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. . who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. blind in the left eye and a a is. ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. with the word k¯fir inscribed on his forehead. . there is a Jew behind a me. HELL. which is painful to touch.

” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. Pointing to a young boy.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). . permit me that I should kill him.179 him. ‘He only chanted dhukh. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. According to another story. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children. in fact. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. a a made the very same claim for himself. “Thereupon ’Umar b. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. Muhammad “did a not like it. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.” the translator tells us (note 3037). dukh. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. ready to do his bidding. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). Like the early Christians.” Then there was a competition between the two. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. That gave point to his claim.


All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). . and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. and All¯h. In fact. and All¯h responded in the same way.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). forgive me my sin. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. forgive me my sin. . It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater.” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. the Exalted and High. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). but now a He added: “O servant. do what you like. Sin is doubly blessed. I We now take up the thirty-fifth book. It helps him as well as his Maker.” The servant committed yet a third sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . “If a you were not to commit sins. 181 . said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. According to Muhammad. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord.



All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the fire of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the infidels, or k¯firs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a

A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an offence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments defined in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious offense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the first hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.

The next five ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a

183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a

The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the fifth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the fields to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much flesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after finding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-



ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the flour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I find nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad pacified them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a

185 Coming out of his prophetic fit or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, flog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye first heard of the affair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a

S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯

Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 33). by One. and make not a dazzling display. like that of the former times of Ignorance. “Hallowed be All¯h. Also. p. in Whose hand is my life. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and though young he died soon a after. For example.186 CHAPTER 17. According to another tradition. ¯ ¯ . I in a poem. Of course. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. p. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675).” he said. I have never unveiled any a woman. we no longer find ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this affair. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. 499. “And a stay quietly in your houses. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it difficult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. In retaliation. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. according to ’Aisha. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. 498). your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct.

see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. 1 187 . it was combined with other. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. negative as well as positive. The fear of divine hellfire was distant. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. 2/18 Ansari Road. and the disloyal. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. Apostasy was severely punished.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. constia is. M¯lik. and ideological untouchability. New Delhi . but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. Even in Muhammad’s time. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. But from the beginning. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. Islam was not all theology.Chapter 18 Repentance. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. He used the carrot as well as the stick. political boycott. the indifferent. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. but the For a fuller discussion.110 002). II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. more secular appeals. spiritually speaking.

II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. They gave generously. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. besides inviting more concrete punishments. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Difficulties”.) ¯ ¯ . or party. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. p. now others do the same in turn. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. ’Abdullah . In planning other campaigns. ’Usm¯n. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. it was his largest and also his last. which were now reduced to submission. Sa’d. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. and the weather was dry and hot. S¯lim b. his own son-in-law. He collected tithes from the tribes. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). 789. in fact. is. 630. was ever present. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. Muhammad ibn Maslama. you offended ’Umar. This could be a very coercive phenomenon.the i. REPENTANCE. the boss. you not only offended All¯h . Talha. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. and traders. Muheiasa. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. ’Al¯ Zubair. I got to him first with tongue and hand.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. the toughs of the ummah. MALIK) fear of the strongman.but even worse. for he died soon afterward. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to effect the maximum surprise. But this campaign was to be of long duration. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. ’Amr ibn Omeya. In offending the Prophet. who were now rich and powerful. generals. and so on. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. Umayar. One had oneself played safe in the past. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. D. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. They had become governors. Because of its unusually arduous nature. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life.an offense which many could take a in stride . a lordly sum. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. contractors.

All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). say to them that the Fire of Hell is fiercer in heat. ‘Go not forth in the heat. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . Twice shall we punish them.” All¯h said of them (9:97). The worst offenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. Though they were sent back. But Him you would not harm in the least. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats.189 soldiers. In the Islamic tradition. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39).’ Muhammad. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. That is best for you. if only they could understand” (9:81).’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). in the cause of All¯h. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. Thou knowest them not. but We know them. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. . . the whole Arab world. at least nominally. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. and when you said. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. For example. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. ‘I can find no mounts for you. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . and strive and struggle. “Go ye a forth. But even so. so they put forward many excuses for not going. whether equipped lightly or heavily. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. they would all without doubt have followed thee. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. Of such people. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). their spirit was considered praiseworthy. which now included. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. He also took more secular measures. with your goods and your persons. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. They hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. and journey easy.

¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. . or else pay tribute. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. one-third of which was cavalry. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. But eventually he did not go. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. . But if you oppose and displease them. was also there in consida erable force. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. although many of its members were still disgruntled. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. sang: a My salams to you. This effectively dealt with them. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. . because the Byzantine army. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina.” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. I will not accept from you a single thing. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . Believe. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. Ru’ba. According to some traditions. it found there was not much to do. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. Are you not content. p. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. the Christian prince of Ayala. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. . which was easily done with such a large show of force. He whom fire surrounds is burned. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. Al-Dahh¯k. 783. One of the victims. Muhammad pacified him by saying: “They lie. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. was nowhere in sight. To Yuhanna b. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). so go back and represent me in my family and yours. According to some traditions. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. I will not fight against you until I have written thus unto you. This satisfied ’Al¯ i. ¯ ¯ . I left you behind because of what I had left behind. . . The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. REPENTANCE. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid.

” he said to himself. . I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. the Byzantine Empire]”. Of the many who had remained behind. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. he says the expedition was big. .. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . D. Ka’b.” he says. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. neither age nor health nor lack of means. he kept it as a secret. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. he decided to speak the truth. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. “more than ten thousand people. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day.e. Hil¯l.” But this expedition was a different thing.” Though eminently qualified to participate. to his dismay. The next day Muhammad arrived. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina.” But later.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. and Ka’b. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. 4 . “I was shocked to find that I did not find anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition. that the Prophet had departed. who was a poet. he was determined to deal firmly with those who had failed to accompany him.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind.

MALIK) persons. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b. he sent his wife . so I burnt it. and I had the greatest love u a for him.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. by All¯h. “As I read that letter I said. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. . “By All¯h. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. I greeted him but. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. He replied.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. as I had when I stayed behind. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began. and he was my cousin. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot find your right honour.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. .” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. REPENTANCE.” This communication could be very incriminating.” Ka’b says. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. he did not respond to my greetings. When Ka’b’s turn came. a While he was enduring this mental torture.” When forty days had thus passed. “No. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. We spent fifty nights in this very state and my two friends confined themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. This also is a calamity. . whether He would punish them. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n.) Later. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. . I never possessed so good means .” a Muhammad dismissed him. .” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. . or turn in mercy” [9:106]. “Verily. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da.” This comforted him somewhat.” As Ka’b was young. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him.

he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. Prophet’s biographer. ¯ .” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. Muir. On the morning of the fiftieth day.” he says. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). and the latter received him with a smiling face. “By All¯h. p. I. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. Meanwhile. And they perceived that there is no fleeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them.” she replied.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. 201. as he was a “a senile person”.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. Life of Mahomet. 505. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. when Muhammad heard this. Some of them even began to sell their arms. IV. vol. even until Antichrist appear. Then He turned to them. By All¯h. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. p. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. there is glad a tiding for you. he spends his time in weeping. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions).193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. vol. “But don’t go near him. he has no a such instinct in him.” 5 5 W. that they might repent. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended. and so did their souls become straitened within them.” Muhammad told her. The same message was sent to the other two. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. M¯lik. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). also Tabaq at.

who belonged to the Quraish blue blood.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. I. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. Peace was eventually restored.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. . II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Mary. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals.) a ikh i. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike off his neck. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. p. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. 504. REPENTANCE. the center of great jealousy in the harem. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. but in order to avoid further complications. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations.

But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. a a ocrites very often (twenty-five times). named after ¯ ¯ them. such doubts were morally the most heinous. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. or S ura. and the rejecters of Faith. others out of chivalry. They were doubters. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellfire. and some out of spite for the Meccans. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. men and a a women. It is a small book. skeptics. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. .Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯fiq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. Some of the citizens saw. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . But in the peculiar theology of Islam. men of incomplete faith. a bottomless pit of scorching fire. a H¯wiyah. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had offered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. called Mun¯fiq in. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. the Fire of Hell. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. . therein shall they dwell . Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯fiq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim).some out of conviction. and there is a whole chapter.

Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut off the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. D. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. His victory at Badr in January A. said in a poem that the different a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯fiq¯ the disillusioned a in. converts. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and much of it could also be bought. Muhammad (Pelican Books.” she sang. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. They could put their ideas into verses.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them effectively. and soon they seized a whole yard. Auf. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. Muhammad detested them. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. 1973). 1 . If we had kept our own for ourselves. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. The opposition could now be intimidated. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. many of them believed in war spoils. 676). related to Aws Man¯t. for though they did not believe in Muhammad.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. p. 157-158. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. 624 brought him the opportunity. they a would have gone somewhere else. then by All¯h. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. But the realization came too late. pp. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept off their feet by the new religious fad.

676. vol. because of his open sedition and verses. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. a new equation. Life of Mahomet. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. p. p. Most of the local converts. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. ¯ ¯ . Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. We have already mentioned his case. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. Also. This turned out to be only too true.” he told them. including the two assassins named above. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. There was something new in the atmosphere. . Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. Muir. and when they returned after fulfilling their task. They were too cowed. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome.” he prayed. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. W.” he told the departing assassins. When he a replied in the affirmative.” Muhammad had assured him. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. . The assassin had a powerful patron. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. III.he spat on it and it was healed. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. 132. had not fought at Badr. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. look ye here. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another influential half-Jewish poet. offered to assassinate her. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 368. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . “Lord. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. This they did by these perfidious acts.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. p. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. but nothing a happened. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. a new apprehension. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the five sons of ’Asm¯.

369. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. but the opposition was badly divided. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. Muhammad picked different groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. a common goal. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. a Jewish merchant. But this period of caution did not last long. 676. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. The killer’s brother. Mas’¯d. chided him: “You enemy of God. . The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. D. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoffed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . They have made their oaths a screen .” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. but they are indeed liars . did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. . ¯ ¯ . “By God. and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. 622. Huwayyisa. He exclaimed. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. Furtive in action. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. Ibn Ish¯q. They had promised each other a u ir. a Muslim convert.. p. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same effect. I would have cut your head off. . . a common ideology and passion. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary offense in the beginning. .” says Ibn Ish¯q. They are enemies. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). the doubters among the local converts. it said one thing and did another. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. p. they say. a 5 6 ibid. As his power increased. . The demoralization was complete. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. . . HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. common interests. A seal is set on their hearts .” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them.

If they be driven forth. He was once the leading citizen of Medina. and loyalty are qualities. and his importance declined fast. When they surrendered. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of five or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. . because of his influence. . We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. leaving their goods behind to the victor. It is said that just before Muhammad came. and if to save is better than to kill. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. D. but if patriotism. and his appeal was also a threat. 624. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. (See pp. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. the Medinan opposition had already lost its influence and Muhammad had a field day. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. independence of judgment. by God. But even then. 627. . his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. would you cut them down in one morning? By God.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . 363. But God bears witness that they are liars. ¯ ¯ . It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). . a new force entered the scene. in March-April A. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. and if you be fought against we will help you . S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. but their hearts are separated. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. and if they be fought against.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . Thou dost reckon them as one body. he was not an unworthy man. . But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. Three years later.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. This was in February A. these will not help them. 92. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam.) 7 Ibn Ish¯q. Muhammad besieged this tribe. these will not go forth with them. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. p. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. But after the arrival of Muhammad. D.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still influential in the affairs of Medina. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. .

200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. about ’Abdullah. He had an image to protect. he consulted Usaid b. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. he gave it serious thought. the stronger will drive out the weaker. so he accepted the denial. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves.” 8 Later. You have let them occupy your country. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted. On this occasion.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. when confronted with this statement. he was spared. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. two thousand camels. at a more opportune moment. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. p. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position.’ But when we return to the Medina city. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. 491. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. and later. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. a fanatic Muslim. But Muhammad was cautious. Tempers were frayed on both sides. On the way back. But wiser counsels prevailed. Ibn Ubayy. Since ’Abdullah was an influential citizen. with his usual weakness. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. and five thousand sheep and goats. Aws and Khazraj. . a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. Huzair. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. denied it.” he advised. a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. The booty included two hundred families. He went to Muhammad and offered to kill his father with his own hands. and you have divided your property among them . I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. . Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. also heard about it. but it rankled in his mind. With all the proposals and consultations. ¯ ¯ . All¯h confirmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n.

“gave him his shirt which he would use as a coffin for his father. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. according to Ibn Ish¯q.” ’Umar submitted. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. Now. p. with this background.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. The latter. ¯ ¯ . Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth.D. on oath. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. Muhammad at first accepted this denial at its face value. he had u already become a back number.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. denied having said any such thing. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. at his a is son’s request. Zaid b. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). 625). the Prophet. and he was isolated from his people and allies. 492. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). Some of the persons who were with them came back. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. who questioned ’Abdullah. who narrates the whole story.201 Later on. they heard ’Abdullah b. By this time. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him.

People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. the owner of a red camel. . HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups.” All were pardoned except one man. . who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. but the earth again threw him out. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). this should not be done” (6684).” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul. AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. so far as I am concerned the finding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. who was forbidden to divulge the information. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a . One group said: We would a kill them. and he remained busy in finding out his lost thing” (6691). . They again dug the grave .202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. The hereafter will take care of itself. they were twelve men. and “there was a ceaseless flow of persons. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. this hill. and the other one said: No. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. Other traditions identify him as Harr b. the hill of Mur¯r. . The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. According to Huzaifa. At last they left him unburied” (6693). certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliff. But the man replied: “By All¯h. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Sufficient unto the day is the work of the day. but the earth again threw him out . Either you fight for us or we fight you. Thus intimidation had started quite early. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. . This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. Qays. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. . his sins would be obliterated.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. They again dug .

She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). but that the trances of a passionate. According to other traditions. . but with the a . reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two flocks. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). hereafter. It is feverish in tone. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruffaa. dvesa.. merely an exaggerated. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the first tribes to suffer at the hands a of Muhammad. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. Ruffaa had been the first to receive ’Umar and offer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina.behind them often a . for it is very different from them in a temper and subject matter.e. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. sensuous copy of the here. who had already chosen his pastures. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). india a vidual men. and moha) are not to be trusted .203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. Ibn ’Umar. and all such details of little larger spiritual significance. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. the place. it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. and deluded mind (i. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-first and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). incidents in the life of the Prophet. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. it threatens and promises. angry. the circumstances of their revelation. It tells us about the time. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events.

was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. The information throws no particular light on this revelation. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. had¯ 899). ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. or “Banish¯ ment”). ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. It contains only fifty traditions. ¯ the very last. then in her forties. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). a completed favour upon you. For example. But I want to be there.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). Resurrection Day was far off. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. among your wives. and do even now. . the fifty-ninth S ura. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. but chronologically it is one of the last . The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife.according to Sir William Muir. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superficial manner. the eighth S ura. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). on the Day of Resurrection. It is entirely fitting that a S ura of such bitterness. I yield my turn to ’Aisha. II. and adds nothing essential to its subject. This is understandable. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. in the first five ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”).204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. the majority of men and women in the world.” Muhammad agreed. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). ¯ condemnation. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. which makes such a tall claim.

Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. Lal Kuan. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Reprint of English translation by Dr. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes.. Muhammad Ashraf. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m. H. 205 . Qur¯n Majeed. Palmer. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Urdu translation in 2 vols. Glorious Qur¯n. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. New York. James Robson. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Muhammad Ashraf.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n. ih a if. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. popular and much in use. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Lahore: ih Sh. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. Lahore: Sh. London. Abridged Urdu ih a i. 1973-1975. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. 1973. 1980. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. translation. Translation by E. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. i if. Delhi: Kitab Khana.

Ibn Sa’d. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. E. 1980. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. H. a Shiaism by S. Khavendshah b. and his S¯ of Muhammad. Elder & Co. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. Scholarly and pioneering study. The Life of Muhammad. Tehran: Shahpur Square. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. 3rd ed. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. . Karachi: Nafees Academy. 310 (A. by Syed a i. 922). & T.. D. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. 1973. A fifteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. 4 vols. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Urdu translation in 8 vols. Ghaffari.206 CHAPTER 20. by Tabar¯ The first volume. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed fifteen volumes on a a i. Ali Raza. different classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. Mahmud. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. New York. trans. reprinted. S¯ a ikh i. Tehatsek. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. The very first definitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. popularly known as Mirkhond. Pelican Books. Guillaume. 1976. letters. Karachi: Nafees Academy. Urdu translation in 11 vols. ¯ died in A. Delhi-6. edited by James Hastings. vols. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. India. Selections from sermons. Oxford. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. London: Royal Asiatic Society. 1861. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. i. Edinburgh and New York: T. Scholarly. 1 and 2. translated and edited by A. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. Clark.. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. London: Smith. 1976. 1885. English translation. 1893.

discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash.P. reprinted. Among other things. 2005. Hindi publication in 3 vols. New Delhi.] . New Delhi: Impex India. 1st ed.. S. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. Publishing House. 1980. Ratlam (M. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. All¯habad: R. Rupa & Co. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. 3rd impression.)-India. 1897.

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