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Linear Elastic Waves (Cambridge Texts in Applied Mathematics) (John G. Harris) 0521643686|Views: 110|Likes: 1

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09/24/2011

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- Simple Wave Solutions
- 1.1 Model Equations
- 1.1.1 One-Dimensional Models
- 1.1.2 Two-Dimensional Models
- 1.1.3 Displacement Potentials
- 1.1.4 Energy Relations
- 1.2 The Fourier and Laplace Transforms
- 1.3 A Wave Is Not a Vibration
- 1.4 Dispersive Propagation
- 1.4.1 An Isolated Interaction
- 1.4.2 Periodic Structures
- References
- Kinematical Descriptions of Waves
- 2.1 Time-Dependent Plane Waves
- 2.2 Time-Harmonic Plane Waves
- 2.3 Plane-Wave or Angular-Spectrum Representations
- 2.3.1 A Gaussian Beam
- 2.4 Asymptotic Ray Expansion
- 2.4.1 Compressional Wave
- 2.4.2 Shear Wave
- Appendix: Spherical and Cylindrical Waves
- Reﬂection, Refraction, and Interfacial Waves
- 3.1 Reﬂection of a Compressional Plane Wave
- 3.1.1 Phase Matching
- 3.1.2 Reﬂection Coefﬁcients
- 3.2 Reﬂection and Refraction
- 3.3 Critical Refraction and Interfacial Waves
- 3.4 The Rayleigh Wave
- 3.4.1 The Time-Harmonic Wave
- 3.4.2 Transient Wave
- 3.4.3 The Rayleigh Function
- 3.4.4 Branch Cuts
- Green’s Tensor and Integral Representations
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Reciprocity
- 4.3 Green’s Tensor
- 4.3.1 Notes
- 4.4 Principle of Limiting Absorption
- 4.5 Integral Representation: A Source Problem
- 4.5.1 Notes
- 4.6 Integral Representation: A Scattering Problem
- 4.6.1 Notes
- 4.7 Uniqueness in an Unbounded Region
- 4.7.1 No Edges
- 4.7.2 Edge Conditions
- 4.7.3 An Inner Expansion
- 4.8 Scattering From an Elastic Inclusion in a Fluid
- Radiation and Diffraction
- 5.1 Antiplane Radiation into a Half-Space
- 5.1.1 The Transforms
- 5.1.2 Inversion
- 5.2 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression I
- 5.3.1 Watson’s Lemma
- 5.4 Buried Harmonic Line of Compression II
- 5.4.1 The Complex Plane
- 5.5 Diffraction of an Antiplane Shear Wave at an Edge
- 5.5.1 Formulation
- Guided Waves and Dispersion
- 6.1 Harmonic Waves in a Closed Waveguide
- 6.1.1 Partial Waves and the Transverse Resonance Principle
- 6.1.2 Dispersion Relation: A Closed Waveguide
- 6.2 Harmonic Waves in an Open Waveguide
- 6.2.1 Partial Wave Analysis
- 6.2.2 Dispersion Relation: An Open Waveguide
- 6.3 Excitation of a Closed Waveguide
- 6.3.1 Harmonic Excitation
- 6.3.2 Transient Excitation
- 6.4 Harmonically Excited Waves in an Open Waveguide
- 6.4.1 The Waveﬁeld in the Layer
- 6.4.2 The Waveﬁeld in the Half-Space
- 6.4.3 Leaky Waves
- 6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide
- 6.6 Dispersion and Group Velocity
- 6.6.1 Causes of Dispersion
- 6.6.2 The Propagation of Information
- 6.6.3 The Propagation of Angular Frequencies
- Index

Wehaveconsideredbothopenandclosedwaveguideswhosegeometryhascon-

formed to a rectangular coordinate system. Moreover we have only considered

a very simple variation in the propagation environment with depth, namely the

layeronahalf-space.Thislastexampleofwaveguidingconsidersapropagation

environmentthatchangesslowlyinthepropagationorlateraldirection.Wecon-

sider a slow variation, with respect to wavelength, in the thickness of a closed

guide whose unperturbed geometry is that given in Fig. 6.1. We construct an

asymptotic approximation that makes use of rays to describe the propagation in

the lateral direction and modes to take account of the variation in the transverse

one.

6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide

147

The equation of motion remains (6.1). To clarify the scales we introduce

scaled coordinates ¯x1=kx1 and ¯x2=kx2. The slow variable y1=δkx1 is in-

troduced to describe the slow lateral variation. Also we set ¯u3=ku3. Having

scaled the problem, we omit the overbar and reintroduce the variables x2 and

u3 with the understanding that these are now scaled variables. The equation of

motion becomes

δ2 ∂2

u3/∂y2

1

+

∂2

u3/∂x2

2

+u3=0.

(6.93)

The boundary conditions require the vanishing of the normal traction. This is

the second way in which the small parameter δ enters the problem. The top and

bottom surfaces are given by

x2=±H±(x1)=±h0+h±(y1).

(6.94)

[H±(x1+2π)−H±(x1)]/2π ≈δ[dh±/dy1], where we assume that dh±/

dy1= O(1); δ then measures the change in the thickness of the guide over

a wavelength. The outward unit normal vectors are

ˆ**n**±=

−δ

dh±

dy1

ˆ**e**1±ˆ**e**2+O(δ2

)

.

(6.95)

We now seek an asymptotic solution in the form

u3∼eiθ(y1)/δ

ν≥0

Aν

3(y1,x2)δν

,

(6.96)

where

Aν

3(y1,x2)=

n≥0

an

ν(y1)un

3(y1,x2),

(6.97)

and un

3(y1,x2) is the nth mode for a waveguide whose thickness is determined

at y1. This asymptotic construction is often called the JWKB technique. Note

thattheexpansionhastheformofamodulatedgroupsuchasweencounteredin

(6.74). For simplicity, assume from now on that the guide is symmetric so that

h±=h and H±=H. Then the un

3(x2, y1) are the cosine or sine functions ﬁrst

given in (6.3), with h replaced by H(x1) and γn replaced by kγn, γn=nπ/2H.

The boundary conditions at x2=±H become

µ

−δ2 dh

dy1

∂u3

∂y1

±∂u3

∂x2

=0.

(6.98)

Note that the boundary conditions are homogeneous, so that this equation is

exact.

148

6 Guided Waves and Dispersion

Now (6.96) is substituted into (6.93) and (6.98), and the coefﬁcient of each

power of δ set to zero. We are then led to the sequence of equations

L−

dθ

dy1

2 Aν

3+i

d2

θ

dy2

1

+2 dθ

dy1

∂Aν−1

3

∂y1

+∂2

Aν−2

3

∂y2

1

=0, (6.99)

with their accompanying boundary conditions. We have introduced the opera-

tor L, where L:=∂2

/∂x2

2+1, to make the structure of the equations clearer.

The terms for which the superscripts are negative are zero. The equation corre-

sponding to ν=0 is

L

A0

3

=β2

n A0

3,

(6.100)

with

∂A0

3

∂x2

(y1,±H)=0.

(6.101)

To arrive at (6.100) we have set

(dθ/dy1)2

=β2

n.

(6.102)

This is an eikonal equation, similar in some respects to (2.43).

Equations (6.100) and (6.101) constitute an eigenvalue problem, identical to

that solved in Problem 6.1. Note that βn of (6.4) has become kβn and that now

βn=

1−γ2

n (y1) 1/2

,

(6.103)

where γn=nπ/[2h0+2h(y1)]. Further,

un

3(y1,x2)=Nn

cos

sin (γnx2),

(6.104)

where Nn are constants, often determined by a normalization condition. The

solution to (6.100) and (6.101) is then A0

3=an

0(y1)un

3(y1,x2), with β2

n as the

corresponding eigenvalue. Note that y1 enters βn through h(y1). The reader is

asked to recall the earlier comments in Problem 6.1 as to what the eigenvalue

of interest is. The eikonal equation, (6.102), is integrated to give θ(y1).

To ﬁnd an

0 we need to go to the next order in δ. This equation is

−L

A1

3

+β2

n A1

3=i d2

θ

dy2

1

A0

3+2i

dθ

dy1

∂A0

3

∂y1

, (6.105)

6.5 A Laterally Inhomogeneous, Closed Waveguide

149

with boundary conditions, at x2=±H,

±∂A1

3

∂x2

=i dh

dy1

dθ

dy1

A0

3.

(6.106)

Weshallnotseektermsoforderhigherthanν=0here.BurridgeandWeinberg

(1977) indicate how higher-order terms are gotten.

Examining (6.105) and (6.106), we note that to have a bounded solution for

A1

3 it must not resonate with the A0

3 forcing term. That is, it must be orthogonal

in some sense to un

3. We use this fact to ﬁnd an

0. First we introduce the inner

product

[a,b] :=

H+

H−

a(x2)b∗(x2)dx2

(6.107)

and agree to normalize the eigenfunctions such that [un

3,um

3 ]=δnm. The Nn are

then given by

Nn={ n[h0+h1(y1)]}−1/2

(6.108)

with n=2 for n=0, and n=1, otherwise. Calculating the inner product

[L(A1

3),un

3]andusing(6.105)and(6.106)givesthefollowingtransportequation

for an

0, namely

dθ

dy1

dan

0

dy1

+1

2an

0

d2

θ

dy2

1

+an

0

dθ

dy1

∂un

3/∂y1,un

3

+1

2

dh

dy1

un+

3

2

+

un−

3

2

=0, (6.109)

where the superscript plus and minus signs mean that these terms are evaluated

at x2=±H, respectively. Note that

un

3,

∂un

3

∂y1

=−

∂un

3

∂y1

,un

3

− dh

dy1

un+

3

2

+

un−

3

2 . (6.110)

Taking the complex conjugate of (6.109) and adding the two gives the much

simpler equation

1

2

d

dy1

ln

dθ

dy1

dθ∗

dy1

+ d

dy1

an

0an∗

0

=0.

(6.111)

From this it follows immediately that

dθ

dy1

an

0

2

=constant.

(6.112)

150

6 Guided Waves and Dispersion

Equation(6.112)isastatementofenergyconservation.Inotherwords,tolowest

order, no waves are reﬂected by the slowly changing width. The unknown

constant would be determined from an initial condition at x1=0.

To determine the argument θn

0 of an

0 =|an

0|eiθn

0

, substitute this into (6.109).

It is readily determined that θn

0 is a constant. Thus

an

0 =cn

0eiθn

0

β1/2

n ,

(6.113)

wherecn

0 isarealconstant.Bringingthepiecestogether,weﬁndtheapproximate

expression for the nth mode is

u3∼exp

i

δ

y1

βn(s)ds

an

0(y1)Nn(y1)cos

sin (γnx2). (6.114)

The βn is given by (6.103), Nn by (6.108), and an

0 by (6.113).

This particular approach can be extended to inplane elastic waves (Folguera

and Harris, 1999). Among several newer features, arising when this is done is a

reformulationoftheinplaneeigenvalueproblemandtheuseofaninnerproduct

for the orthogonality condition that is not the norm of the space in which the

problem is set.

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