FUZZY SETS AND FUZZY LOGIC Theory and Applications
GEORGE J. KLIR AND BO YUAN
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Prentice Hail P T R Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458
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Library of Congress CataCoginginruhlication Data Klir, Georga J., 1932—
Fr. czn. Includes biblgraphival refezeivces and intlem.
fuzzy SeU and fuzzy logic: theory and applications / George J. Mir, Bo YlatISBN 043W11715 1. Fuzzy sets. 2. Fuzzy 1c. L Yuan,
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To Loyi. Zadeh, Who had the courage and thegift To begin tfiegrand para4nt shift, And to tfie many others, Whose hard workand heafthy thin6ng Have contributed to the shifting.
C O NTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE
xi
xiii
PART I: THEORY
•••
1
FROM CLASSICAL (CRISP) SETS TO FUZZY SETS; A Grand Paradigm Shift
IA
L2
13
Introduction
1
1.4 I _5
Crisp Sets: An Overview Fuzzy Sets: Basic Types Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts Characteristics and Signi.ficance of the Paradigm Shift
•1
19 30 32 33
36
No tes Exercises
2.
FUZZY SETS VERSUS CRISP SETS
2.1 Additional Properties of_ ct Cuts 2.2. Representations of Fuzzy Sets 2.3 Extension Principle for Fuzzy Sets _ No tes
Exercises
 3. OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS
35 39 44 48 49
50
3.1 3.2 33
Types of Operations Fuzzy Complements Fuzzy Intersections: tNorms
50 51 61
vi 14 3.5 3.6
Table of Contents Fuzzy Unions: t Conornis Combinations of Operations Aggregation Operations

76 88 94 95
97
Notes
Exercises
4. FUZZY ARITHMETIC
4,1 4,2 4.3 4.4 4_5 4_6
Fuzzy Numbers Linguistic Variables Arithmetic Operations on Entervals Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers Fuzzy Equations
Notes
Exericses
97 102 102 105 109 114 117 117
119
5.
FUZZY RELATIONS
5A 5,1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 17 5.8 5.9 5.10 Notes
Crisp versus Fuzzy Relations Projecfions and Cylindric Extensions Binary Fuzzy Relations Binary Relations on a Single Set Puzzy Equivalence Relations Fuzzy Compatibility Relations Fuzzy Ordering Relations Fuzzy Morphisms Supi Compositions of Fuzzy Relations Inf. col Compositions of Fuzzy Relations
Exercises
6,
119 122 124 128 132 135 137 141 144 146 149 149 153 153 134 156 162 164 166 171 173 175
FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS
5. 1
6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Notes
General Discussion Problem Partitioning Solution Method Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Supi Compositions Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Inf01 Compositions Approximate Solutions The Use of Neural Networks
Exercises
Table of Contents
7.
vil 177
loOSSIBILIT'Y THEORY
7.1
7.2 7.3
7.4 7.5 Notes Exercises 3.
Fuzzy Measures Evidence Theory Possibility Theory Fuzzy Sets and. Pcrssibilty Theory Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory
177
180
187
198
200 208 209 212 212 217 220 225 229
231
FUZZY LOGIC 8.1 Classical Logic: An Overview 8.2 Multivalued Logics 8.3 Fuzzy Propositions Fuzzy Quantifiers 84 8.5 Linguistic Hedges 8.6 Inference from Conditional Fuzzy Propos MODS 8.7 Inference from Conditional and Qualified Propositions 8.8 Inference from Quantified Propositions Notes Exercises
UNCERTA1NTY BASED INFORMATION Information and Uncertainty 9.1 9.2 Nonspecificity of Crisp Sets 93 Nonspecificity of Fuzzy Sets Fuzziness of Fuzzy Sets 9.4 9.5 'Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 9.6 Summary of Uncertainty Measures 9.7 Prirscipks of Uncertainty Notes Exercises

236 239 242
242
9.
245
243 247 250 254 258 267 269 277 278
280
280
PART IL APPLICATIONS
10. CONSTRUCTING FUZZY SETS AM) OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS 10.1 General. Discussion 10,2 Methods of Construction: An Overview 10.3 Direct Methods with One Expert 10.4 Direct Methods with Multiple Experts 10.5 Indirect Methods with One Expert 10,6 indirect Methods with Multiple Experts 10.7 Constructions from Sample Data Notes Exercises
280 281 282 283
287
288
290
300 301
viii
11_
Table of Contents
APPROXIMATE REASONING 11.1 Fuzzy Expert Systems: An Overview 11.2 Fu17y Implications 11.3 Selection of Fuzzy Implications 11.4 Multiconditional Approximate Reasoning 11.5 The Role of Fuzzy Relation Equations 11.6 IntervalValued Approximate Reasoning
Notes Exercises
12. FUZZY SYSTEMS
302 302 304 312 317 321 323 325 325
327 327 330 339 344 347 349 353 354 356
357
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7
No tes
General Discussion Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview Fuzzy Controllers: An Example Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks Fuzzy Neural Networks Fuzzy Automata Fuzzy Dynamic Systems
Exercises
13. PATTERN RECOGNITION.
13.1 13.2 13.3 114
In troduction Fuzzy Clustering Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Fuzzy Image Processing
Notes Exercises
14. FUZZY DATABASES AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS
357 358 365 374 377 378
370
14,1 General Discussion 14.2 Fuzzy Databases 14.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval No tes
Exercises
15. FUZZY DECISION MAKING
379 381 385 388 388
390
15.1 General Discussion 15_2 Individual Decision Makixig 15.3 MuItiperson Decision Making 15.4 MuIticriteria Decision Making 15.5 Multistage Decision Making 15.6 Fuzzy Ranking Methods
390 391 395 399 401 405
Table of Contents
ix
15.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming Notes Excrciscs 16_
FP/a/A/EARING APPLICAT/ONS
408 415 416 _ 418 418 419 426 432 436 439 440 440 441 443 443 443 450 452 454 459 463 465 466 467 476
481
484
16.1 Introduction 16.2 Civil Engineering 16.3 Mechanical Engineering 16.4 Indotrial Engineering 16.5 Computer Engineering 16.6 Reliability Theory 16.7 Robotics Notes Exercises 17.
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
17.1 17.2 173 17.4 17.5
17.15
17.7 Notiez Exercises
Introduction Medicine Economics Fuzzy Systems and Genetic Algorithms Fuzzy Regression Interpersonal Communication Otter Applications
APPENDIX A. NEURAL NETWORKS: An Overview APPENDIX B. GENETIC ALGORITHMS: An Overview
APPENDIX C. ROUGH SETS VERSUS FUZZY SETS APPENDIX
a
PROOFS OF SOME MATHEMATICAL TIIFOREMS
APPENDIX E. GLOSSARY OF KEY CONCEPTS APPENDIX E GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS
487
ztg 0
BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX NAME INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
494 548
552 563
FOREWORD Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a true magnum opus. fuzzy logic. the term fuzzy logic is usually used in its wide rather than narrow sense. a methodology for exploiting the tolerance for imprecision—a methodology which serves to achieve tractability..w is much broader than FLEx and subsumes FLn as one of its branches. concept of a crisp set in X and Y by that of a fuzzy set. topology. fuzzy topology. Underlying the organization of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a fundamental fact. To ine Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a remarkable achievement. Uncertainty. fuzzy probability theory and no.world problems and. robustness and lower solution cost What we are witnessing today . the title refers CO both fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. However.and Fuzzy Logic in a propel. higher expressive power. in application to applied frelcls such as neural network theory. to avoid misunderstanding. The problem is that the term fuzzy logic has two different meanings. and Information—an earlier work of Professor Klir and Tula Folgo"Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic addresses practically every signiftcant topic in the broad expanse of the union of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. But in a wider sense. it covers its vast territory with impeccable authority. An enlargement of Fuzzy Sets. namely.. stability theory. (b) the agenda of FLn is very different from the agendas of classical multivalued logics. More specifically. FL„ is almost synonymous with the theory of fuzzy sets. To view Fuzzy Set4. that any field X and any theory Y can be fuzzified by replacing the. fuzzy graph theory. and (c) at this juncture. probability theory and logic. FLn.perspective. deep insight and a meticulous attention to detail. is a logical system which may be viewed as an extension and generalization of classical multivalued logics.and what is reflected in Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic—is a growing number of _fields and theories which are undergoing fuzzification. Similarly. This is what underlines the basic paradigm shift which is discussed so insightfully in the first chapter of Fuzzy Sets and xi . fuzzy logic. fuzzification leads to fuzzy neural network theory. In application to basic fields such as arithmetic. pattern recognition and mathematical programming. most importantly. what is important ta recognize is that (a) Fl. fuzzy logic is interpreted in a sense that is close to FL. What is gained through fu2zification is greater generality. fuzzy stability theory. fuzzification leads to fuzzy arithmetic. effectively equating fuzzy logic with FL In Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic. it is necessary to clarify a point of semantics which re/ates to the meanings of fuzzy Sets and fuzzy logic. In this context. graph theory. an enhanced ability to model real . in a narrow sense. fuzzy pattern recognition and fuzzy mathematical programming. A frequent source of misunderstanding tag to do with the interpretation of fuzzy logic.
In most of the current applications of fuzzy logic in the realms of industrial systems and consumer products. It is this realization that motivates the evolution of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic and shapes their role in restructuring the foundations of scientific theories and their applications. The first part of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic provides a very carefully crafted introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of fuzzy set theory. The driving force — LoW A. The second part of Fuzzy Sets and Juzzy Logic is in the mainapplications oriented. The applications cover a wide spectrum of topica ranging from fuzzy control and expert systems to information retrieval. Zadeh December 16. Although the authors note that possibility theory can also be introduced via fuzzy set theory. wellorganized. it is possible to acquire with a low expenditure of time and effort —a working knowledge of fuzzy logic techniques. This is a complex. By focusing on this and only this methodology. An important issue which receives a great deal of attention is that of the relationship between fuzzy set theory and alternative methods of dealing with uncertainty. The book closes with a valuable bibliography of over 1. The discussion of applications is thorough and uptndate. authoritative and readorfrienctly oxposition of the methodology of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. controversial issue that is close to the heart of Professor lair and which be treats with authority and insight. 1994 . pattern recognition and decision analysis. since the two theories have altogether different agendas. what is used is a small subset of fuzzy logic centering on the methodology of fuzzy rules and their induction from observations. There is a minor point relating to possibility theory that deserves a brief comment. rigorous and uptodate. crisp set theory and crisp probability theory are inadequate for dealing with imprecision. This is motivated by the observation that in the case of nested focal sets in the DempsterShafer theory. This is not the route chosen by Professor Klir and Bo Yuan. possibility measure coincides with plausibility measure.700 papers and books dealing with various issues relating to fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. their choice of the theory of evidence as the point of departure makes possibility theory less intuitive and harder to understand. To say that Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a major contribution to the literature is an understatement. Their goals are loftier. the concept of posAibility rneaure is introduced via DempsterSteel's theory of evidence. And it is in this perspective that the contents of Fuzzy Seis caul Fuzzy Logic should be viewed. uncertainty and complexity of the real world. In Fuzzy Sets and Frizzy Log. The exposition is authoritative.xii Foreword behind this paradigm shift is the realization that traditional twovalued logical systems. I view this as merely a point of tangency between the DempsterShafer theory and possibility theory. but it also contains compact and yet insightful expositions of the calculi of fuzzy rules and fuzzy relations . they have produced a volume that presents an exceptionally thorough. Their book is eminently suitable both as a textbook and as a reference_ It should be on the desk of everyone who is interested in acquiring a solid understanding of the foundations of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic and the competence that is needed to apply them to the solution of realworld problems Fuzzy Logic.
and probability theory. for a onesemester course.PREFACE This book is a natural outgrowth of Fuzzy Sets. Although we assume that the reader is familiar with the basic notions of classical (nonftazy) set theory. are introduced in Chapter 1. fundamentals of these subject areas are briefly overviewed in the hook. Chapter 3 deals with the various aggregation operations on fuzzy sets. fuzzy unions (tconorms). Fuzzy numbers and arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers are covered in Chapter 4. classical (twovalued) logic. Basic concepts of fuzzy relations are introduced in Chapter 5 and employed in Chapter 6 for the study of fuzzy relation equations. but a broad variety of applications of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic as well. which also contains a discussion of the meaning and significance of the emergence of fuzzy set theory Connections between fuzzy sets and crisp sets are examined in Chapter 2. intensive courses of continuing education: No previous knowledge of fuzzy set theory or fuzzy logic is required for an understanding of the material in this text. Klir and Tina A. 1988). It reflects the tremendous advances that have taken place in the areas of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic during the period 19881995. It shows how fuzzy sets can be represented by families of crisp sets and how classical mathematical functions can be Razifled. Elementary concepts. according to the needs of each individual program. genetic algorithms. Theoretical aspects of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic _are covered in the first nine chapters. are provided in Appendices A—C. . which are occasionally needed in the text. where also the concepts of linguistic variables and fuzzy equations are introduced and examined. relevant material may be selected. which are designated Part I of the text. It is written as a text for a course at the graduate or upperdivision undergraduate level. an important tool for many applications of fuzzy set theory. The text is also suitable for selfstudy and for short. and averaging operations. It covers general fuzzy complements. The primary purpose of the book is to facilitate eduoation in the increasingly important areas of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Folger (Prentice Hall. including basic types of fuzzy sets. Captured in the book are not only theoretical advances in these areas. Basic ideas of neural networks. Although there is enough material in the text for a twosemester cours. fuzzy intersections (Inorms). and rough sets. This makes the book virtually selfcontained. Uncertainly. and information by George J.
Part IL which is devoted to applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Chapter 10 cgainincs various methods for constructing membership functions of fuzzy sets. as represented by fuzzy sets. and image processing are .. the last chapter in Part I. including its connection to classical naultivalued logics. is devoted to the examination of the connection between uncertainty and information. cons ists of the remaining eight chapters. The position of possibility theory within the broader framework of fuzzy measure theory is also examined. Fuzzy systems are covered in Chapter 12. or evidence theory. including fuzzy controllers. including the increasingly popular use of neural networks. fuzzy automata.xiv Preface Figure El Prerequisite dependencies among chapters of this book. The chapter shows how relevant uncertainty and uncertaintybased information can be measured and how these uncertainty measures can be utilized. It includes a thorough examination of the concept of a fuzzy implication. Chapter 8 overviews basic aspects of fuzzy logic. Fuzzy techniques in the related areas of clustering. pattern recognition. and basic types of fuzzy inference rules. and fuzzy neural networks. Chapter 11 is devoted to the use of fuzzy logic for approximate reasoning in expert systems. the various types of fuzzy propositions. A Glossary of Key Concepts (Appendix E) and A Glossary of Symbols (Appendix F) are included to help the reader to quickly find the meaning of a concept or a symbol. chapter 7 deals with possibility theory and its intimate connection with fuzzy set theory. Chapter 9. possibility theory.
Fuzzy databases. The notes are particularly important in Part II. At the graduate level. allowing the interested reader to pursue further study in the application area of concern_ When the book is used at the upperdivision undergraduate level. 451. 329330.8). It also contains a Bibliographical Index. Kiir and Bo Yuan Binghamton. on the other hand. coverage of some or all proofs of the various mathematical theorems may be omitted. pp. 13. and other remarks are incorporated in the notes that follow each individual chapter. IEEE ('The institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).) are overviewed in Chapter 17.1. virtually all bibliographical. which are intended to enhance an understanding of the material presented in the chapter. a well developed application area of fuzzy set theory. Chapter 10 and Appendix A may be studies prior to Chapter 2 and Chapters 4 through 9. Following the diagram. This index should be particularly useful for graduate. 391. 5 and 6 may be studied prior to Chapters 2 and 4. the reader has ample flexibility ill studying the material. 376 (Fig. Cambridge University Press. depending on the background of the students. The solutions to a selected subset of these exercises are provided in the instructor's manual. and applications in various other areas (medicine. pp.Preface  xv  overviewed in Chapter 13. they are: Williams & Wilkins. where they contain ample references. his bark:al. pp. pp. 31. the relevance of the material to the specific area of student interest can be emphasized with additional applicationoriented readings guided by relevant notes in Part H of the text. which also contains further suggestions for use of the text under various circumstances. which consists of reference lists for selected application areas and theoretical topics. The prerequisite dependencies among the individual chapters and some appendices are expressed by the diagram in Fig. For example. as well as for both practitioners and researchers . and Kluwer. A few excellent quotes and one figure from the literature are employed in the text and we are grateful for permissions from the copyright owners to use them. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises. etc. pp. In all cases. etc. Each book in the bibliography is emphasized by printing its year of publication in bold. Academic Press. Chapters 3. In order to avoid interruptions in the main text. These notes are uniquely numbered and are only occasionally referred to in the text. New York . Basic ideas of the various types of fuzzy decision making are summarized in Chapter 15. 451.  George I. and the related area of fuzzy retrieval systems are covered in Chapter 14. economics. 380. we encourage coverage of most of these proofs in order to effect a deeper understanding of the material. The book contains an extensive bibliography. preiectoriented courses. 3031. which covers virtually all relevant books and significant papers published prior to 1995. Engineering applications other than fuzzy control are touched upon in Chapter 16. P.
uncertainty is considered essential to science. this change bas been manifested by a gradual transition from the traditional view.) are replaced with their statistical averages.PART ONE: THEORY FROM ORDINARY (CRISP) SETS TO FUZZY SETS: A GRAND PARADIGM SHIFT 1. design of large telephone exchanges. exceed even fundamental computational limits_ That is. when physics became concerned with processes at the molecular level. which are connected with appropriate macroscopic variables. which is tolerant of uncertainty and insists that science cannot avoid it. inconsistency. one such change concerns the concept of uncertainty. science should strive• for certainty in all its manifestations (precision. and the like. a great utility. which turned out to be applicable not only to the study of molecular processes (statistical mechanics). but it has. In science. to an alternative view.1 INTRODUCTION Among the various paradigmafic changes in science and mathematics in this century. etc. vagueness. nonspecificity. According to the traditional view.) is regarded as unscientific_ According to the alternative (or modern) view. The need for a fundamentally different approach to the study of physical processes at the molecular level motivated the development of relevant statistical methods. In statistical methods. uncertainty (imprecision. hence. individual telephone sites. in fact. their actual application to the enormous number of entities involved would have resulted in computational demands that were far boyond existing computational capabilities and. The role played in Newtonian  . which insists that uncertainty is undesirable in science and should be avoided by all possible means. as we realize now. Although precise laws of _Newtonian mechanics were relevant to the study of these processes. specific manifestations of microscopic entities (molecules. these precise laws are denied applicability in this domain not only in practice (based on existing computer technology) but in principle. consistency. it is not only an unavoidable plague. etc. to a host of other areas such as the actuarial profession. specificity.). The first stage of the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty began in the late 19th century. sharpness. but. ete.
only problems that are clustered around the two extremes of complexity arid randomness scales. These problems are too  .14 x 10' sec. and environmental sciences. is replaced in statistical mechanics by probability theoty. as well as in applied fields such as modem technology or medicine. The last number1e—is usually referred to as Bremermann's limit. the other totally fails. Bremermann then calculates the total number of bits processed by a hypothetical computer the size of the Earth within a time period equal to the estimated age of the Earth. These two types of methods are thus highly complementary. unfortunately. Since the mass and age of the Earth are estimated to be less than 6 x grams and 10' years. One such lirait was determined by Hans Bremermann. Later. to transmit that many bits over one or several channels within the computing systems. which emerged in the 1960s as a branch of the general theory of algorithms. processing obtained for one gram of mass and one second of processing time. Warren Weaver [1948] refers to them as problems of organized simplicity and asorganized complexity. even though it is based on overly optimistic assumptions (more reasonable assumptions would result in a number smaller than 1093). The emergence of computer technology in World War II and its rapidly growing power in the second half of this century made it possible to deal with increasingly complex problems. and problems that require processing more than 1093 bits informatiou are called iranscomputationai problems. these types of methods cover. we continue to pursue the many problems that possess the characteristics of organized complexity. When one type excels. a theory whose very purpose is to capture uncertainty of a certain type. this naive belief was replaced with a more realistic outlook. it was the common belief of many scientists that the level of complexity we can handle is basically a matter of the level of computational power at our disposal. 10' bits. some of which began tu resemble the notion of organized complexity. He argues that these types of problems represent only a tiny fraction of all syStems problems. The limit is expressed by the proposition.56 x 2092 bits or. ' Bremermann's limit seems at first sight rather discouraging. cognitive. when rounding up to the nearest power of ten.2 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shfft Chap." To process a certain number of bits means. Despite their complernentarity. While analytic methods based upon the calculus are applicable only to problems involving a 'very small number of variables that are related to one_ another in a predictable way. Using the limit of information. which are usually nondeterrainistic. in the early 1960s. respectively. We began to understand that there are definite limits in dealing with complexity. Indeed. whether artificial or living. [1962] by simple considerations based on quantum theory. can process more than 2 x 1047 bits per second per gram of Is mass. and each year contains approximately 3. which neither our human capabilities nor any computer technology can overcome. Initially. many problems dealing with systems of even modest size exceed the limit in their informationprocessing demands The nature of these problems has been extensively studied within an area referred to as the theory of computational complexity. they are typical in life. social. Most problems are somewhere between these two extremes: they involve nonlinear systems with large numbers of components and rich interactions among the components. which involves no uncertainty. In his wellknown paper. "No data processing system. 1 mechanics by the calculus. In spite of the insurmountable computational limits. Weavercalls them problems of organized complccity. the applicability of statistical methods has exactly opposite characteristics: they require a very large number of variables and a very high degree of randomness. but not as a result of randomness that could yield meaningful statistical averages. in this statement. this imaginary computer would not be able to process more than 2.
we deal with problems in terms of systems that are constructed as models of either some aspects of reality or some desirable manmade objects. In constructing a model. The main challenge in pursuing these problems narrows down fundamentally to one question: how to deal with systems and associated problems whose complexities are beyond our information processing limits? That is. the degree to which . models of the latter type axe constructed for the purpose of prescribing operations by which a conceived artificial objcet can be constructed in such a way that desirable objective criteria are satisfied within given constraints. 1 . These theories challenge the seemingly unique connection between uncertainty and probability theory. challenge in systems modelling is to develop methods by which an. This tradeoff can then be utilized for constructing models that are maximally useful with respect to the purpose for which they are constructed. though some ideas presented in the paper were envisioned some 30 years earlier by the American philosopher Max Black [1937]. credibilily.1 Introduction a important for our well being to give up on them. which can be traded for gains in the other essential characteristics of models. which became quite explicit in the literature of the 1960s. Although usually (but not always) undesirable when considered alone. 1). we always attempt to maximize its usefulness. then represent. optimal level ofOur allowable uncertainty can be estimated for each modelling problem.Sec. but the very foundations upon which probability theory is based: Aristotelian twovalued logic. Zulett [1. A recognition of this important role of uncertainty by some researchers.965b]. respectively. distinct from probability theory. In his paper. The extreme values in this interval. to the other characteristics of systems models: in general. It is generally agreed that an important point in the evolution of the modern concept of uncertainty was the publication of a seminal paper by Lott A. We only know that uncertainty (predictive. the proposition "x is a member of A" is not necessarily either true or false. allowing more uncertainty tends to reduce complexity and increase credibility of the resulting model . and utilizing all these capabilities tor various ends.. even. learning how to control the phenomenon in any desirable way. It is most common. how can we deal with these problems if no computational power alone is sufficient? In general.  . be it natural or manmade. The purpose of constructing models of the former type is to understand some phenomenon of reality. begin the second .fc is actually a member of A. When A is a fuzzy set and x is a relevant object. but rather a matter of a degree. This relationsbip is not as yet fully understood. etc. The significance of Zadeh's paper was that it challenged not only probability theory as the sole agent for uncertainty. This stage is characterized by the emergence of several new theories of uncertainty. uncertainty becomes very valuable when considered in connection. The membership in a fuzzy set is not a matter of affirmation or denial. 0 and 1. They show that probability theory is capable of representing only one of several distinct types of uncertainty. This aim is closely connected with the relationship among three key characteristics of every systems model: complexity. which had previously been taken for granted. i.age of the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty. but not required. prescriptive. as required by two valued logic.) has a pivotal role in any efforts to maximize the usefulness of systems models. to express degrees of membership in fuzzy sets as well as degrees of truth of the associated propositions by numbers in the closed unit interval j0. Uncertainty is thus an important commodity in the modelling business. Zadeh introduced a theory whose objects—fizzy sets—are sets with boundaries that are not precise. but it may be true Linty to some degree. making adequate predictions or retrodictions. and uncertainly.
it is often mote useful. . We can see. for instance. .As already mentioned. we can consider the concept of a crisp set to be a . The capability of fu72:y sets to express gradual transitions from membership to nonmembership and vice versa has a broad utility. however. We can accept certain intermediate states. numbers much greater than one. the term sunny may introduce vagueness by allowing some sort of gradual transition from degrees of cloud cover that are considered to be sunny and those that are not. In order for a term such as sunny to a. Examples are the set of tall people. We could.4 to a cloud cover of 30%. This grade corresponds to the degree to which that individual is similar or compatible with the concept represented by the fuzzy set. in fact. But where do we draw the line? If. as sunny. many elas. a fuzzy set representing our concept of sunny might assign a degree of membership of 1 to a cloud cover of 0%. in fact. Thus.4 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. instead of describing the weather today in terms of the exact percentage of cloud cover. and the set itself models the semantic fle2cibility inherent in such a COULI11013 linguistic term. These grades signify the degree to which each percentage of cloud cover approximates our subjective concept of sunny. Because fun membership and full nonmembership in the fuzzy set can still be indicated by the values of 1 and 0. unambiguous distinction exists between the members and nonmembers of the set. precisely the basic concept of the fizzzy set. 25% or less) will also be labeled as sunny. modest profits. This is. respectively. no matter how gloomy the weather looks! In order to resolve this paradox. individuals may belong in the fuzzy set to a greater or lesser degree as indicated by a larger or smaller membership grade. a cloud cover of 100% is not sunny. a generalization of the classical or crisp set. A sharp. in essence. A fuzzy set can be defined mathematically by assigning to each possible individual in the universe of discourse a value representing its grade of membership in the fuzzy set. a concept that is both simple and intuitively pleasing and that forms. The crisp set is defined in such a way as to dichotomize the individuals in some given universe of discourse into two groups: members (those that certainly belong in the set) and nonmembers (those that certainly. since 1% of cloud cover hardly seems Like a distinguishing characteristic between sunny and not sunny. We perceive these sets as having imprecise boundaries that facilitate gradual transitions from membership to nonmembership and vice versa. and O to a cloud cover of 75%. Pluwevet. add a qualification that any amount of cloud cover 1% greater than a cloud cover already considered to be sunny (that is. does this mean that a cloud cover of 26% is not'? This is clearly unacceptable. highly contagious diseases. While the latter description is vague and less specific. For instance.8 Co a cloud cover of 20%. any cloud cover of 25% or less is considered sunny. these membership grades are very often represented by realnumber values ranging in the closed interval between 0 and 1. therefore. we can just say that it is sunny. expensive cars. however. that this definition eventually leads us to accept all degrees of cloud cover as sunny.ccotnplish the desired introduction of vagueness. Thua. 1 the total denial and affi rmation of the membership in a given fuzzy set as well as the falsity and truth of the associated proposition. or sunny days. is a cloud cover of 80%. close driving distances. but also with a meaningful representation of vague concepts expressed in natural language. we cannot use it to mean precisely 0% cloud cover_ Its meaning is not totally arbitrary. such as 10% or 20% of cloud cover.siEgation concepts we commonly employ and express in natural language describe sets that do not exhibit this characteristic. It provides us not only with a meaningful and powerful representation of measurement uncertainties. do not). however. and neither.
This set contains all the possible elements of concern in each particular context or application from which sets Can be formed. or universal set. . The following general symbols are employed. [a. respectively. rightopen. n). as needed. —I. Research on a broad vaziety of applications has also been very active and bas produced results that are perhaps even more impressive. I.. 1. 2. b). we present au introduction to the major developments of the theory as well as to some of the most successful applications of the theory. In this book. (a.2 Crisp Sets: An Overview restricted case of the more general concept of a fuzzy set for which only these two grades of membership are allowed. . the set of all real numbers. Whenever x is not an element of a set A. we refer to the latter as crisp sets. .1 )! ordered ntuple of elements xi . • n). we write x 0 A. open interval of real numbers between a and b.." and the standard symbols 9 and V are used for the existential quantifier and the universal quantifier. —2. b). ND = [0. . [a. 2.. N„ = (1. .Sec. 1. Research on the theory of fuzzy sets has been growing steadily since the inception of the theory in the mid1960s. 1. closed. In addition. throughout the text: Z (. we use "iff" as a shorthand expression of "if and only if.. To distinguish between fuzzy sets and classical (nonfuzzy) sets. we assume that the reader is familiar with fundamentals of the theory of crisp sets. = (0„ 1.2 CRISP SETS: AN OVERVIEW The aim of this text is to introduce the main components of fuzzy set theory and to overview some of its applications. 14 (a. The body of concepts and results pertaining to the theory is now quite impressive. 2. leftopen. x.1 (the set of all positive integers or natural numbers). (xi . The letter X denotes the UiliVerSe of discourse. Sets are denoted in this text by uppercase letters and their members by lowercase letters.. 2. N =11. 1. ba our presentation. IR+: the set of all nonnegative real numbers. respectively. 0. This name is now generally accepted in the literature. we write x A. The set that contains no members is called the empty set and is denoted by 0.. x2 . b]. To indicate that an individual object x is a member or element of a set A. 4 (the set of al nonnegative integers).) (the set of all integers). .. We include this section into the text solely to refresh the basic concepts of crisp sets and to introduce notation and terminology useful in our discussion of fuzzy sets. . 3.
A common notation expressing this method is A = {x[P(x)}. . "A . = IA/. that declares s which elements of X are members of the . E X If every member of set A is also a member of set B (i.e. It can be defined in the form [Aili E I]. That is. where the symbol I denotes the phrase "such that. where L and I are called the set index and the indirc set. A set is defined by a function. A. 2. x is declared as a nonmember of A. A set whose elements are themselves sets is often referred to as a famit.et and which are not. if x A implies x A is called a subset of B.). the proposition P(x) is either true of false. usually called a characteristic function. respectively. and this is written as AcEt. 3. In this text. Set A. A set is defined by naming all its members (the list method). when x A (x) = 0. of sets. when x 4 (x) = 1. Because the index t is used to reference the sets Ai . . It is required that the property P be such that for any given x E X .x ç' A. For example. A set is defined by a property satisfied by . which is formally expressed by ( 0. A is defined by this notation as the set of all elements of X for which the proposition P(x) is true. families of sets are usually denoted by script capital letters. this is denoted by A = B. a2.. and every set is a subset of the universal set. A2. then Every set is a subset of itself. This method can be used only for finite sets.6 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets. a„ is usually written as A ." and P (x) designates a proposition of the form "x has the property P!' That is. B).. X A p as follows: I0 forxeA for . the family of sets is also called an indeaxel set. then A and B contain the same members.tali a2. 1 )For each x e X. . Set A is defined by its characteristic function. whose members are a 1 . 1 There are three basic methods by which sets can be defined within a given universal set X: 1.its members (the rule method). x is declared to be a member of A. A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. the characteristic function maps elements of X to elements of the set 10. They are then called equal sets. If A c B and B C A. 1].
to set B alone. can be defined. When A is finite. or to both set A and set B. This can be written B A. When A C B.Sec. we also say that A is inciuded in R. For a family of (Ali e /1. Thus. this is defmed as iel sets UA = [XIX E Ai. the complement is absolute and is usually denoted by The absolute complement is alwayg invohitive. If the set B is the universal set. which is denoted by not a member of A. The relative complement of a set A with respect to set B is the set containing all the members of B that are not also members of A. that is. and it is usually denoted by T (A ).  0=X and = 0. The family of all subsets of 9) (A) is called a second order power set of A. 1_2 Crisp Sets: An Overview 7 To indicate that A and B are not equal. The generalization of the intersection for a family of sets Mi lt e I} is defined as . It is denoted by A n B. it is denoted by 012 (A). higher order power sets P 3 (A). A u B = {xlx E A or x G B}. Thus. 'Ile family of all subsets of a given set A is called the power set of A. A c B. or 71. The number of members of a finite set A is called the rardindity of A and is denote_di by M.81. The union of sets A and B is the set containing all the elements that belong either to set A alone. then 171 (A)] = 2 1A I IT 2 (A)I = 22w . etc. That is. taking the compleMent of a complement yields the original set. A is called a proper subset of B. we write A Blf both A C R and A 0 R. The intersection of sets A and B is the set containing all the elements belonging to both set A and set B. The absolute complement of the empty set equals the universal set. Similarly. Thus. and the absolute complement of the universal set equals the empty set. for some ie n. The union operation can be generalized for any number of sets. = A. This is denoted by A U B. B — A = lxix B and x AI. A n B = fxlx €A and x. then B cnntaim at least one individual that is In this case. which stands for Tr(0)(A)).
That is. forms a lattice in which the join (least upper bound. (Anc) A 1. The connection between the two formulations of this lattice. B P(1). respectively.1 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES A. A {I B ALB 7 2 k n 'AT by X and 0 ideality Law of contradiction. The second equation in each pair can be obtained from the first by replacing O. 1 nAl = ix[x iel E A i for all € I I.a From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to FLazy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. (Pa). that is obtained by the abovespecified replacement.. infaraum) of any pair of sets A. n). and intersection are summarized in Table 1. and U. every pair of disjoint sets. We are thus concerned with pairs of dual equations. Law of excluded middle De tvlorian's laws Elements of the power at P(X) of a universal set X (or any subset of X) can he ordered by the set inclusion c. . A and R. C) and (9) (X). LJ. TABLE 1.A)forany A. This ordering. Note that all the equations in this table that involve the set union and intersection are arranged in pairs.1) and complemented (since each set in 3)(X) has its complement in T(X)). also valid. union. satisfies the equation . U. which is only partial. it is usually called a Boolean lattice or a Boolean algebra. The most fundamental properties of the set operations of absolute complement..Au(Buc) (A n B) fl C A n (B n An(BuC)=( An .8)t. is facilitated by the following equivalence: A cBiffAUB=B(orArIB. there corresponds a dual equation. B E P(X) is given by A Li B and A n B. and n with X n.) n A U B) n UAA A n A=A U (A A r (A AU X = X n 0=0 Au ø =A nA X = A An = Au A=X . =A U B =BUA OF CRISP SET OPERATIONS volution Coramutativity Associativity thstributivity Ideittpatence Absorption Absorption AnB BnA (A u C . B. This lattice is distributive (due to the distributive properties of U and n listed in Table 1.1. and C are assumed to be elements of the power set T(X) of a universal set Z. and vice versa. Any two sets that have no common members are called disjoint. where sets A. supremum) and meet (greatest lower bound. respectively. They exemplify a general principle of dualizy: for each valid equation in set theory that is based on the union and intersection operations.
all ntuples of real numbers). For instance. is a partition on A iff Ai E 1.. .. jEI.Sec. and the Second elemmt is a member of B. Formally. then AxBOBxA. The pair (rI(A). ‹) is a lattice. . we say that r1 (A.14 )r each block of (A is included in sonie block of n2(A). n — 1. a„) € Ai for every i= 1. A2. The refinement relation on the set of all partitions of A. b)ia € A. c(A) where Ai 0 0. (22. where A x B denotes the Cartesian product. An important and frequently used universal set is the set of all points in the ndimensional Euclidean vector space IR for some n N (i. A.. x A. and the sets A1 and A. . he set fa la is a real number. They are the subject of Chapter 5. Every uncountable set is infinite.. which are subsets of A. respectively..e. This definition can easily be extended to infinite families. A and B (in this order)—is the set of all ordered pairs such that the first element in each pair is a member of A. Then. Thus. a„) such that ai € Ai(i = 1. is a partial ordering. ifAOR and A. A3.„ n). are denoted by A2. are called the innermost set and the outermost set.. If such labelling is not possible. We denote a partition on A by the symbol Tr (A). A set whose members can be labelled by the positive integers is called a countable set. „ . 2. A x B i(a. n Ai for each pair i. 2. „ 4 The Cartesian products A xA.1 be a family of sets such that Ai C Ai+i for all i 2. Subsets of Cartesian products are called relations. Given two partitions .. referred to as the partition lattice of A.2 Crisp Sets: An Oveiview A 9 n B = 0. Clearly.) is a refinement of 7e2(. 1.i0 j. b E B). The Cartesian product of two sets—say. It is written as either Ai x A2 x or ' X A. countable sets are classified into finite and countably infinite (also called denumerable). A is called a nested family. respectively.A x A xA. and icr LJAi =A. A family of painvisc disjoint nonempty subsets of a set A is callcd a partition fan A if the union of these subsets yields the original set A. the set is called uncountable. A„ } of sets is the set of all ntuples (ai. Formally. a2.Tr i (A) and n2 (A). which is denoted by rri (A) Tr2 (A) 4iu our case). 11(A). Let A = (AA.< X A1 = ((al .. Each member of A belongs to one and only one block of 7r(A).. Members of a partition It(A). are usually referred to as blocks of the partition. O< a < 1} is uncountable. B are nonerapty. The Cartesian product of a family {A1. 1. A2.A1 C A}.
Examples of convex and nonconvex sets in Irt2 are given in Fig..1 Example of sets in le that are convex (A 1—A1) or noor. . In R. all points located on the straightline segment connecting r and s are also in A. . For any set of real numbers R that is bounded above. If there is a real number r (or a real number s) such that .e [0. a set A in R" is convex iff.1.8 and 2.r < r (or x s. then r is called an upper bowid of R (or a lower bound of R). the point t Q. 1 Sets defined in terms of RR arc often required to possess a property referred to as convexity. For example.5—As).rj + (1 — E is also in A.10 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradfgrn Shift Chap. 2] U [3. respectively) for every r c R. 5] is not convex. any set defined by more than one interval that does not contain some points between the intervals is not convex. then. and 1 = 0.onvex (A.4. for every pair of points r and s in A. 1]. the set A [I. for every pair of points r (rai E NO and s = N„) in A and every real number ). a real number r is called the sziprernian of R iff: Figure 2. s = 4. as can be shown by producing one of an inflnite number of possible counterexamples: let r = I. and we say that A is bounded above by r (or bounded below by s).8 0 A. any act defined by a single interval of real numbers is convex. Let R denote a Set of real numbers (R c R). A set A in R4 is called convex iff. 1. In other words. +{1 — 1)s =2.
3 FUZZY SETS:. this distinction is not made. the same notation is used for crisp sets as well. consequently. 11 According to the first notation. In. upper bound of R. name) of the fuzzy set (A) is distinguished from the symbol of its membership function (AA). we use the second notation. the other one. AA X A [0. thereby discriminating between members and nonmembers of the crisp set under consideration. each membership function maps elements of a given universal set X. 1. The representation depends not only on the concept. which is always a crisp set. (a) s If s is the in fi rm= of R. In this case.1. but also on the context  . Each ftewery set is completely and urdquely defined by one particular membership function. In this text. but no ambiguity results from this double use of the same symbol. a tower bound of R. (b) no number greater than s is. BASIC TYPES As defined in the previous section. 1]. Since crisp sets and the associated characteristic functions may be viewed. As discussed in Sec. as special fuzzy sets and membership functions. identifier. 1.Sec 1. each fuzzy set and the associated membership function are denoted by the same capital letter. the characteristic function of a crisp set assigns a value of either 1 or 0 to each individual in the universal set. a real number s is called the infimum of R iff: is a lower bound of R. that is. 1]. That is. the symbol (label. According to the second notation. This function can be generalized such that the values assigned to the elements of the universal set fall within a speicifwd _range and indicate the membership grade of these elements in the set in question. For any set of real numbers R that is bounded below. In one of them. symbols of membership functions may also be used as labels of the associated fuzzy sets. respectively. If r is the supremunt of R. the same form: [0. we write r sup R. (b) no number less than r is an. Larger values denote higher degrees of set reembership Such a function is called a membership fimetion. the function is denoted by A and has of course. fuzzy sets allow us to represent vague concepts expressed in natural language. Two distinct notations are most commonly employed in the literature to denote membership functions. we write s = inf R. the membership function of a fuzzy set A is denoted by AA. 1 ] . The most commonly used range of values of membership functions is the unit interval [0. and the set defined by it a fuzzy set. into real numbers in [0.3 Fuzzy Sets: Bast Types 11 (a) r is an upper bound of R.
they also have to be similar in some key features. (ill) A (x) decreases monotonically from 1 to 0 with the increasing difference 12 — xi. That would also be the case. let us consider four fuzzy sets whose membership functions are shown in Fig. As an example. in this case. in a particular form. however. applying the concept of high temperature in one context to weather and in another context to a nuclear reactor would necessarily be represented by very different fuzzy sets. Each of these fuzzy sets expresses. In spite of their differences. Even for similar contexts. (II) Ai is symmetric with respect to x = 2. if the concept were applied to weather in different seasons. (I) A i (2) = 1 and A i (%) — These properties are necessary in order to properly represent the given conception. membetship functions that may be used in different C0612= Figure 12 Example. < 1 for all x 2. although to a lesser degree.12 From Crciirlary (Or[Sp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap.. at least in some climates. the four fuzzy sets are similar in the sense that the follnwing properties are possessed by each Ai (i G N4): . fuzzy sets representing the same concept may vary considerably. 12. titaL i A1(2 + = C2 x) for all x e PR. for . 1 in which it is used. For example. Any additional fuzzy sets attempting to represent the same conception would have to possess them as well. the general conception of a class of real numbers that are close to 2.s characterizing fuzzy sets of real numbers close to 2.
1. the set of real numbers. it is convenient to use a simple shape. the function decreases with the increasing difference Ir .2). according to these definitions. 1. but rather the context in which it is used. Thus.bachelor's degree 5 .master's degree 6 . and 0. 6. a person who has a bachelor's degree but no higher degree is viewed. which attempt tu capture the concepts of littleeducated.Sec.r»)/2 O when x E [r otherwise For each i e N4. that many applications are not overly sensitive to variations in the shape. 3] are virtually excluded from the associated fuzzy sets. Let us consider now. however.sets. and r =2 Fuzzy sets in Fig. and very highly educated people are defined in Fig. since their membership grades are either equal to 0 or negligible. highly educated. 1.no education 1 . The following are general formulas describing the four families of membership functions. when x E fr . The functions are manifested by very different shapes of their graphs. high. sets defined within a finite universal set that consists of seven levels of education: 0 . r + 1/Pi] 0 otherwise 1 A 2 (x) A 3 (x) A4( ) X 1 ± p2(x r) 2 e1P341. /33 = 5. three fuzzy. and pi (I G N. 1.8 and very highly educated to the degree of 03.r) +1. it turns out.4) is a parameter that determines the rate at which.2 exemplify these classes of functions for p / = 1. medium.high school 3. such as the triangular shape of il. ri pi (r . where r denotes the real number for which the membership grade is required to be one (r = 2 for ail functions in Fig. for each x. and so on are often employed to define states of a variable. Such a variable is usually called a . for example. when pi increases.2 is a member of a parametrized family of functions.)1 cos(per(x . This similarity does not reflect the conception itself. respectively. p4 =2.xl: Ai(x) ..doctoral degree Membership functions of the three fuzzy.2 are defined within.x) + 1 when x € [r. / Pi(r .twoyear college degree 4 . as a simple example.liPi. Each function in Fig.3 by the symbols 0. Several fuzzy sets representing linguistic concepts such as low. L2 are also similar in the sense that numbers outside the interval [1. In such cases. t3 Fuzzy Sets! Basic Types 13 The four membership functions In Fig. p2 = 10. as highly educated to the degree of 0. Whether a particular shape is suitable or not can be determined only in thc contcxt of a particular application.elementary school 2. the graph of Ai becomes narrower. Functions in Fig. 1.
4a. In Fig_ 1.4b. it is unrealistic in the face of unavoidable measurement errors. high. A measurement that falls into a close neighborhood of each precisely defined border between state* of a crisp variable is taken as evidential support for only one of the states. medium. highly educated (*). where any measurement should be regarded as equal evidence for the two states on either side of the border. Graphs of these functions have trapezoidal shapes. which we may refer to as crisp variables. . Although the definition of states by crisp sets is mathematically correct. very high. and it is contrasted in Fig. are 1:110St common in current applications. States of the fufiy variable are fuzzy sets representing five linguistic concepts: very low. The significance of fuzzy variables is that they facilitate gradual tr ansitions between states and4 consequently. States of the corresponding traditional variable are crisp sets defined by the rightopen intervals of real numbers shown in Fig_ 1. The uncertainty reaches its maximum at each border. which. in spite of the inevitable uncertainty involved in this decision. for example. 1 42. low. T2] is characterized as a fuzzy variable. and very highly educated (0). They are all defined by membership functions of the form fri. T2] [0. temperature within a range [T1. 3 Educational level Figure E3 Examples of folzy sets expressing the concepts of peopte that are little educated (0). ficzy variable. possess a natural capability to express and deal with observation and measurement uncertainties.4b with comparable traditional (nonfuzzy) variable. When_ dealing with crisp variables. together with triangular shapes (such as A 1 in Fig. do not have this capability. Traditional variables. 1.14 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fumy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. L2).
which was rather weak at the early stages of fuzzy set theory.y— Temperature. they are more attuned to reality than crisp variables. the one that includes the border point by virtue of an arbitrary mathematical definition. TA cipacefved inal.'. 11. set A) is defined by a function of the form A [0. in fact. is now well developed for many application areas. be expressed better than by the following statement made by Albert Einstein in 1921: So far as laws of mathematics refer to reality. Since fuzzy variables capture measurement uncertainties as part of experimental data. they do not refer to reality. And so far as they are certain. its usefuLuess depends critically on our capability to construct appropriate membership functions for various given concepts in various contexts. with more accurate evidence about teal phenomena than data based upon crisp variables.Sec. Given a relevant universal set X.1) . (b) °C a fuzzy variable: T2 _Figure 1. . It is an interesting paradox that data based on fuzzy variables provide us. However. 1.4 Temaparature in the range fr. (1. and a lot of additional research work will have to be done on it to achieve full satisfaction. the problem of constructing meaningful membership functions is a difficult MO. the uncertainty is ignored even in this extreme case. we introduced only one type of fuzzy set. any arbitrary fuzzy set of this type (say.ditienal however. We discuss the problem and overview currently available construction methods in Chapter 10_ Thus far. This important point can hardly. (a) (b) tra. This capability. they are not certain. the measurement is regarded as evidence for one of the states.3 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Types 1 (a) Very low Low Medium High Very high — i Ti (crisp) variable. Although mathematics based ou fuzzy sets has far greater expressive power than classical mathematics based on crisp sets.
1. 1.2) where 8([0. A membership function based on the latter approach does not assign to each element of the universal set one real number. but a closed interval of real numbers between the identified lower and upper bounds. several more general types of fuzzy sets have also been proposed in the literature. Membership functions of intervalvalued fuzzy sets are not as specific as their counter a X Figure 13 An example of an intervalvalued fuzzy sat (A(a) Cai n a2]). we may be able to identify appropriate membership functions only approximately. 1]) denotes the family of all closed intervals of real numbers in [0. IImyever. They require that each element of the universal set be assigned a palticafar real number. E([0. form A X >• E((O. Fuzzy sets defined by membership functions of this type are called intervalvalued fuzzy sets. We may either suppress the identification uncertainty by choosing reasonable values between the lower and upper bounds (e. These sets are defined formally by functions of the. / Fuzzy sets of this type are by far the most common in the literature as well as in the various be called ordinary fuzzy sets to distinguish them from fuzzy sets al the various generalized types.g. A(x) is represented by the segment between the two curves. . The primary reason for generalizing ordinary fuzzy sets is that their membership functions are often overly precise. A(a) az] for the example in Fig.7y SetS: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. the middle values). 1]. we ay only be able to identify meaningful lower and upper bounds of membership grades for each element of the universal set. 1j).. In such cases. For each x. clearly.5. 1]). 11) C T•10.From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fli7. or we may accept the uncertainty and include it in the definition of the membership function. successful applications of fuzzy set theory. However. which express the identified lower and upper bounds. Thus. Let fuzzy sets of the type thus far discussed An example of a membership function of this type is given in Fig. (1. we may basically take one of two possible approaches. For ex2mple. for some concepts and contexts in which they are applied.5.
Thus. It is assumed here that membership functions of all fuzzy intervals involved are of trapezoidal shapes and. hence. ci 3 .g.. 1. the fuzzy . this disadvantage of interval valued fuzzy sets usually outweighs their advantages. 1]. 11 is also called a fuzzy power set of [0. The primary disadvantage of intervalvalued fuzzy sets is that this processing. TO. 1}. Since membership grades assigned to elements of the universal set by these generalized fuzzy sets are ordinary fuzzy sets. Each interval now becomes an ordinary fuzzy set defined within the universal set [0. by which the fuzzy interval assigned to a (shown on the. lefthand side) is uniquely determined Similarly. The concept of a type 2 fuzzy set is illustrated in Fig. 11) denotes the set of all ordinary fuzzy sets that can be defined within the universal set [O. This uncertainty is involved when intervalvalued fuzzy sets are processed. 11. IA by the four curves. /33. Intervalvalued fuzzy sets can further be generalized by allowing their intervals to be fuzzy. computational demands for dealing with them are even greater than those for dealing with intervalvalued fuzzy sets. are conceptually quite appealing. 1 ]) . Their advantage is that they allow us to express our uncertainty in identifying a particular membership function. (1. we obtain numbers /3. Assume now that the membership grades assigned by a type 2 fuzzy set (e. is computationally more demanding. when compared with ordinary fuzzy sets. making results of the processing less specific but more credible. these numbers are produced by four functions. and 174 . 1. For each x. Figure L6 illustration of the comept of a fuzzy set of type 2. and the assigned fuzzy interval is shown on the righthand side. Their membership functions have the form  A : X— F([0. we obtain numbers c a2 .62.6.3) where T([O. for example.3 Fuzzy Sets: asic Types 17 parts of ordinary fuzzy sets. consequently. This seems to be the primary reason why they have almost never been utilized in any applications.Sec. represented in Fig. but this lack of specificity makes them more realistic in some applications. where fuzzy intervals assigned to x = a and x = b are explicitly shown. Fuzzy sets of type 2 possess a great expressive power and. Since most current applications of fuzzy set theory do not seem to be overly sensitive to minor changes in relevant membership functions. . if x = b. and P4. these sets are referred to as fuzzy sets' of iype 2. each of them is fully defined by four numbers. However. if x = a.
Sets to Fuzzy Sets! A Grand Paradiizrri Shift Chap. and their mem.4 . On the other hand. we do not further examine their properties and the procedures by which they are manipulated. we obtain a fuzzy set of type 3. and it is easy to see that fuzzy sets of still higher types could be obtained recursively in the sanie way. Since these generalized types of fuzzy sets have not as yet played a significant role in applications of fuzzy set theory. Except for this brief overview of the various types of generalized fuzzy sets. When we relax the requirement that membership grades must be represented by numbers in the guilt interval 10. A different generalization of ordinary fuzzy sets involves fuzzy sets defined within a universal set whose elements are ordinary fuzzy sets.5) where F(X) denotes the fuzzy power set of X (the set of all ordinary fuzzy sets of X).tion. this omission is currently of no major consequence. The generalized fuzzy sets are introduced in this section for two reasons. Their detailed coverage is beyond the scope of this text. we want . In order to determine the membership grade of some value of x in an ordinary fuzzy set A. and r is a particular real number. there is little rationale for further pursuing this line of generalization. However. r) precisely. Higherlevel fuzzy sets can be obtained recursively in the same way. Their membership functions have the form . Levol 2 fuzzy sets can be generalized into level 3 fuzzy sets by using a universal set whose elements are level 2 fuzzy sets. L fuzzy sets are very general. T(X) [0. since computational complexity increases significantly for each higher type. 1. for example. at least for the time being. (1. These fuzzy sets are known as level 2 fuzzy sets. we obtain fuzzy sets of another generalized type_ They are called Lfuzry sets. (1.18 From Ordinary (Crisp). A formal treatment of fuzzy sets of type 2 and level 2 (as well as higher types and levels) is closely connected with methods of fuzzikca. Level 2 fuzzy sets allow us to deal with situallOilS ill which elements of the universal set cannot be specified precisely.bership functions have the form  (1. Then. it allows us to obtain the membership grade for an approximate value of x. In fact. 1]. the membership grade of a value of x that is known to be close to r in the level 2 fuzzy set A is given by A (B). intervals in Fig.6) Other combinations are also possible. but only approximately. 11). 23. Assuming that the proposition "x is close to r" is represented by an ordinary fuzzy set B.4) Since set L with its ordering is most frequently a lattice. 11 and allow them to be represented by symbols of an arbitrary set L that is at least partially ordered. We can also conceive of fuzzy sets that are of type 2 and also of level 2. they capture all the other types introduced thus fax as special cases. which are discussed in Sec. Their membership functions have the form A (X) Ye. by fuzzy sets expressing propositions of the forna "x is close to r. if A is a level 2 fuzzy set. letter L was initially chosen to signify this fact_ By allowing only a partial ordering among membership grades.6) are themselves type 2 fuzzy sets. First. which may involve L fuzzy sets as well as fuzzy sets of higher types and higher levels." where x is a variable whose values are real numbers. we need to specify the value (say.
. 801 as follows: /1 (35 — x)/15 Ai (x) = when x < 20 when 20 < x < 35 when x > 35 when either . and all strong a. 1. 11. Second. 1. A3 given in Fig.  That is. and it is thus advisable that the reader be familiar with the basic ideas and terminology pertaining to them. computer representations of fuzzy sets.7. let us mcntion that ordinary fuzzy sets may also be viewed as fuzzy sets of type 1 and level I. the rest of the text is devoted to the study of ordinary fuzzy sets. we introduce some basic concepts and terminology of fuzzy sets. its explicit definition is given in Table 1. 1.13asic Concepts 19 the reader to understand that fuzzy set theory does not stand or fall with ordinary fuzzy sets. Such approximations are important because they are typical in. are the crisp sets  = fxIA(x) a) (1.x — O {0 20 or 60 Az()x = 20)/15 (60 — x)/15 1 (x when 20 <x <35 when 45 <r < 60 when 35 < x < 45 when . we consider three fuzzy sets that represent the concepts of a young. D2. "±A. We may occasionally refer to some of the generalized types of fuzzy sets later in the text. we feel that the practical significance of at least some of the generalized types will gradually increase. the acut. Given a fuzzy set A defined on X and any number a c [0. the a cut (or the strong a cut) of a fuzzy set A is the crisp set t'A (or the crisp set c'FA) that contains all the elements of the universal set X whose membership grades in A are greater than or equal to (or only greater than) the specified value of As an example. To illustrate the concepts.45 when 45 <x <60 when x > 60 0 A3(x) = I 4 .4 FUZZY SETS! BASIC CONCEPTS In this section. the following is a complete Characterization of all acuts.Sec.2. and the strong ee cut.a). a strong a cra . middleaged. "A. One of the most important concepts of fuzzy sets is the concept of an a cut and its variant.8) 'FA = fxIA(x) ›.4 Fu zzy Sets: .1c r. however. Unless otherwise stated. the term "fuzzy set" refers in thi3 text to ordinary fuzzy sets. These functions are defined on the interval [0. A2. For the sake of completeness. and old person. L7. cuts for the fuzzy sets A1. is also shown in Fig. By and large. A reasonable expression of these concepts by trapezoidal membership functions A1. and A3 is shown in Fig. 1. of function A2.7) (1. A2.45)/15 A possible discrete approximation.7: .
80 0. . 11 E (22. Formally. 501 ▪ E (32.. 80) for all [0. 1. 481 E (34. 1 o 10 20 30 40 Age:ic 50 60 70 80 Figure 1. 461 x (361 38. . naiddleaged i and old person. 60 — 15a]. 2. $0) —1.7) BY FUNCTION D2 OF THE FORM: D2 10. 11. MA) = PtIA(x) = a for some x E XI.= X.20 Frtam Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 4_ . .. 35 — 15a). 801 for all E (0. = [15a + 45. aA2 [ 15a ± 20. c"A2 = (15a ± 20.2 DISCRETE APPROXIMATION OF MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION A2 (Fn. I] that represent distinct acuts of a given fuzzy set A is called a level set of A. 1+AL = 1+A2 1+A3 = The set of all levels a c [0.10.00 0A3 0. 15a]. 581 E (24. = (0. 54) • E (28. TABLE 1.7 Membership functions representing the concept5 of a young.53 0.67.93 1. Shown discrete appsnimation 1)2 of A2 is defined numerically Ln Table L2.40 0.00 °A1 = °A2 = °A3 = [0. 0.27 0. 80] . 56] x E (26. 35 C [01 1).441 0. 521 • E (30. Œ+A3 (15a ± 45. 60 — 15a).
Sec. An important property of fuzzy s. such as S(A) or supp(A). To see the nested families more explicitly. let us consider the discrete approximation D2 of fuzzy set A2 . and A3 in Fig. and it is easy see that any other  . The height of A may also be viewed as the supremum of a for which 'TA 0. 067. clearly.2±A. 1. 1] in the classical sense (Omit is excluded here since it is always equal to Rn in this case and thus includes —CO to +00 Fig. that the intervals representing the acuts and the strong acuts of the fuzzy sets A 1 .9) This property can Aso be expressed by the equations n azA = and "i+A fl '"'±A ". 0. for any fuzzy set A and pair a l . the support of A is exactly the same as the strong acut of A for a = 0. 11 of distinct values such that a l < a2 . which is shown in Fig.13. TWO Of the acuts shown in the figure are clearly convex in the classical sense.8: for each of the discrete values of x.11) An obvious consequence of this property is that all acuts'and all strong acuts of any fuzzy set form two distinct families of nested crisp sets. °IA um% = A. For our examples. 1. This property is viewed as a generalization of the classical concept of convexity of crisp sets. of a fuzzy set A is the largest membership grade obtained by any element in that set.ets defined on IV (for some n E 19 is their convexity. h(A) sup A (x). Notice.10) (1. 1. Formally. 1. In order to make the generalized convexity consistent with the classical definition of convexity.93. the families of all acuts and all strong cecuts are in this case infinite for each of the sets. 1). The families of all acuts and all strong acuts of D2 are shown for sonae convenient values of a in Fig. is that the total ordering of values of CI in [0.27. we have '4 A D '2A and al + A D '2 +A. for example. Clearly. "L +A U "riA cf2A.8. are often used in tile literature to denote the support of A. The 1cut. A2. the inclusion in each acut or each strong acut is marked with a dot at the crossing of x and a. 0. An important property of both 0:cuts and strong 0fcuts. 0. we have: 1]. and A3 are all [0. 0.7 and defined numerically in Table 1. 1] is inversely preserved by set inclusion of the corresponding ex cuts as well as strong acnts_ That is. IA. Although special symbols. The support of a fuzzy set A within a universal set X is the crisp set that contains all the elements of X that have nonzero membership wades in A. 1. Since level sets of A 1 . (1. 1. and A(A1) = 21(A2 ) = A(A3) = A(D2 ) = {0. h(A).2. we plefer to use the natural symbol »A.12) A. The height. (1. 11.0.4 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 21 where A denotes the level set of fuzzy set A defined on X.53. it is called subnormal when h(A). it is required that acuts of a convex fuzzy set be convex for all a c (0. A2. ce2 c [0. which follows immediately from their definitions.9 illustrates a subnormal fuzzy set that is convex. is often called the core of A. fuzzy set A is called normal' when il(A) 1.4.7 shorten with increasing 1X. 0. ix (1.
22 [00 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. The lack of convexity of this fuzzy set can be demonstrated by identifying some of its a cuts (a 0) that are not convex. which are of primary interest in this text. the resulting fuzzy set is also viewed as convex. (a) acuts ("D2.500 0.. 1M (b) Strong or . membership functions of convex fuzzy sets are functions that are.mivex as well.000 20 30 40 80 (a ) c .625 0. 1 ta 11110111111111111111111111111111 mm 111111111111111110111111MININIM 11111111111011111111111111 con 1111111111OlOO1IO1111111111 moo 0375 11111111111111111O1O111111 0250 1111111111111111111O11111111111 0.375 0. For the sake of simplicity.cuts "D2 LOW 1111111111111111111011111111 MM 1111111111111111111111111 10111111111111101=1111111 111111111111M1111111 11111111111111111111111111 111111111111110111111111111 0. 1. Figurt 1.  . one such a cut is shown in the figure. according to standard definitions.cuts.000 20 30 40 50 80 A.x.875 0.strong crcuts 4D2. Fig.375 0. 1.2. ixcuts for a 0 are t. (a) .8 Compkto ataies ot cecuts and strong acut s of Vac fuziy Set D2 defined (a Table 1. In fact. note that the definiti on of convexity for fuzzy sets does not mean that the membership function of a convex fuzzy set is a convex function.. we restrict the theorem to fuzzy sets on R. We now prove a maul theorem that pro vides us with an alternative formulation of convexity of fuzzy sets. Since all the ce cuts are convex. Fig.125 1111111111111511111111111 1111111111111111111160 o 50 0.10 illustzates a noanal fuzzy set that i nut Convex. To avoid confusion.11 illustrates a normal fuzzy set defined on R2 by all its cicuts for ci > O. concave and not convex.25D 111111111111111111111 OA25 111111111O1111111111 o 0.
where min denotes the minimum operator.13). Therefore.e. moreover.. 11. Then. 11. E [0.fuzzy set theory that is preserved in all cccuts for ce E (0.)xz e 'A for any A E [0. A (xi) og. a) = i. Hence. Consequently. A (x2)]  (ii) Assume that A satisfies (1. xi. A (x2) ?. 1].4 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 23 Mx) Figure 1. A fuzzy set A on R is convex a (1. 2A is convex_ Now for any xi. x2 E R and all di. 'A is comfœi for any a e (0. bY ( 1. convex. x2 e "A and.. E 10.). A(Axt ± (1 — a = A(x1 ) = ( xi). kri I. Any property generalized from classical set theory into the domain of.13) A(Act + (1— A.13) A (Xx/ + (1 — 1)x2) min[A (x i). A is convex. A(x2)] min(er. x2 e (i.(1 — A. 1 1 by the convexity of A.9 Subnormal fu2zy set that is. and for any A. A (x2)] for all xt.Sec. We need to prove that for any et e (0. 1. Theorem LI. 11 in the classical sense is called a cutworrhy .e. ce). Proof: (1) Assume that A is convex and let a = A(xt) < A(x2). 1 1 .)x2 e A. Âxt ± (1 — A.rz) min[A (xi).
Figure 1. JA. .11 Normal ad COLIVCX fuzzy get A defined by its « cuis 1A. "5A. Norzasd &Limy tbst ig oat convex. '11A.24 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A aranti Paradigm Shift Chap. 1A. 1 A DO 1 °A Figuure 1.10.
This is easy since the equation is obviously violated for any . 1. (1.4 property.5. their standard intersection.13)(x) = max[A(x). 1.. it is called a strong. 1 ]. The full treatment of possible operations on fuzzy sets is in Chapter 3. 1. 71. (1.(x) are called equilibrium points of A. Another example based on the same sets is shown in Fig. However. has a special significance in fuzzy set theory. where B = A 1 n A2 and C = Az n A3. one particular generalization. membership grades of equilibrium points are 0.5.14) 71. A Li B. For example. also a strong cutworthy property. Furthermore . for example. A and B. these definitions can be extended to any finite number of fuzzy sets. and A3 are normal. The three basic operations on crisp sets—the complement. Convexity of fuzzy sets. we introduce only the standard operations.8 Li C and B C are not convex even though B and C are convex. that A2 = 711 ri A3. is an example of a curworthy property and as can be proven. respectively. where the special significance of the standard operations is also explained. respectively. Observe that both B and C are subnormal even though A 1 . Due to the associativity of min and max. the equilibrium points of A2 in Fig. Given two fuzzy sets. as defined above.12. A (1 8. The equation makes good sense: a person who is not young and not old is a middleaged person. The lattice is distributed and complemented under the standard fuzzy complement. 1.7.5 and 52. we need only to show that the equation rain[A (x) i—AÇx)]= 0 is violated for at least one x E X. intersection and union—can be generalized to fuzzy sets in more than one way. B(x)). A2. For the standard Elements of X for which A(x) complement. and standard union. B(x)]. in which the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union play the roles of the meet (infimum) and the join (suprernum). that the law of contradiction is violated for fuzzy sets. Applying these standard operations to the fuzzy sets in Fig. The standard complement.1 except the law of contradiction and the law of excluded middle. It satisfies all the properties of the Boolean lattice listed in Table 1.Sec.cutworthy property.are defined for all x E X by the equations (A n li)(x) = min[A(x). The construction of M n A3 is shown in Fig. we can find. Normality and convexity may thus be lost when we operate on fuzzy sets by the standard operations of intersection and complement. In the following.7 are 27. Any fuzzy power set T(X) can be viewed as a lattice. (A u . To verify. of fuzzy set A with respect to the universal set X is defined for an x E X by the equation A (x) = 1 — A(x). 1.13. Such a lattice is often referred to as a De Morgan lattice or a De Morgan algebra. clearly.16) where min and max denote the minimum operator and the maximum operator. for example.15) (1. which results_ in operations that are usually referred to as standard fuzzy set operations. Fuzzy Sets: Basfc Concepts  25 if it is preserved in all strong a cuts for a e [0.
the law of satisfied only for crisp sets. A2. As another example. . AU (A This requires showing that the equation mt4A (x).12 111ustratkm MstandAril operations on foniy sett (A i . B(x)jj A(x) contradiction is n B) A. Al are given in Fig. let us verify the law of absorption. i. 1) and is satified only for A(x) E 071. Li). Figure 1. value A(x) E (0. minfA(x).26 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 1 10 20 30 X 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 X 40 — 50  60 70 80 31. Hence.
4 Fuzzy Sets: Oasic Cancepts 27 10 20 50 60 70 (Bwq(x) 1 I — j 1 70 O 142 20 30 40 50 60 SO Figure 1.13 atuatration of standard cperation o fuzzy (1. 1. A3 are given in Fig.Sec.. A2. A1 11 A2 =43 C = A2 r1A3 . 1.7).
28 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 1 is satisfied for all X E X. (1. where C denotes a fuzzy set inclusion by which elements of T(X) are partially ordered. This equivalence makes a connection between the two definitions of the lattice.20) SO. For example. (1. rather than any sort of algebraic addition. S(A. It is easy to see that.A(x)] = in the second case. denote elements of the support °+A of A and let ai denote the grade of membership of xi in A for all i e N. x2. where the slash is employed to link the elements of the support with their grades of membership in A. let us introduce a special notation that is often used in the literature for defining fuzzy sets with a finite support.21) where n denotes the standard fuzzy intersection. we have raax[A(x). • • . X. B(x)] = 4(x) since A (x) > 13(x) in this case. B) < 1. B) = 1 —(1A1 . and the plus sign indicates. Given two fuzzy sets A .8 +. A is written as A = at/xi + a2/.53 + . let xi. we define its scalar cardinally. we say that A is a subset of B and writeAÇ B iff (1. the sca. 19) The E terni in this formula describes the sum of the degrees to which the subset inequality A(x) 13(x) is violated. c ). Other laws of the De Morgan lattice can be verified similarly. and the cardinality IAI in the denominator is a normalizing factor to obtain the range 0 < S(A. For any fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal set X.4 ± .8(x) or A (x) In the first case. B) 'Aran IA1 (1. We have to consider two cases: either A CO ‹ . the degree of subsethood.13 ± _27 ± . Then. The De Morgan lattice can also be defined as the pair (T(X).B=A and AUB=E for any A. B E F(X). max[A(x).x2 adx„. To conclude this section. the difference describes the lack of these violations..19) to the more convenient formula (1. For any pair of fuzzy subsets defined on a finite universal sct X. of A ill B is defined by the formula S(A. that . B E Y(X). B). under the standard fuzzy set operations.46. A(x) B(x) PAL by the formula lA i =EA (x).17) for all E N.lar.1CeX rux[0. wc obtain > R(x).67 + .. Given a fuzzy set A defiled on a finite universal set X.18) Some =hors refer to IA I as the sigma count of A.2 is D2 I = 2(. It is easy to convert (1. A C B iff An. A(x) B(x)]).93) + 5 12. cardinality of the fuzzy set D2 defined in Table 1.
(1. This interpretation suggests that a suitable distance be defined between fuzzy sets. 1r. the entire cube represents the fuzzy power set (X). À (x) — /3. in this notation. 1A Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 29 the listed pairs of elements and membership grades collectively form the definition of the set A. 1=1. it solely indicates ' that all the pairs of x and A (x) in the interval X collectively form A. For the ease in which a fuzzy set A is defined on a universal set that is finite or countable.. d(A. Hence. given by (LIS). A= E a i /xi or A = E I. the set of all probability distributions that can be defined on X is represented by an (n — 1)dimensional simplex of the ndimensional unit cube. It is interesting and conceptually useful to interpret ordinAry fuzzy subsets of a finite universal set X with n elements as points in the ndimensional unit cube 10. the integral sign does not have. Using. and its vertices represent the crisp power set 2(X). respectively.(x)1.Sec.22) _vaxThe cardinality Al of a 'fuzzy set A. Again. 0) of A from the empty set. the concept of the Hamming distance. can be _ then viewed as. Observe that probability distributions are represented by sets whose cardinality is I. a fuzzy set A is often written in the form A= A(x)/x. 1.14. Examples of this simplex are shown in Fig. we have . That is. . WC may write. Similarly. for example. the distance CA. B) PROBABILITY E DisrmairnoNs PFIOBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS nE2 Flware 114 dr3 Examples illustrating the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets. the usual meaning. when X is an interval of real numbers.
1. principles. which are referred to by Kahn as scientific revolutions. far retrroveA from the ideal line of pure germ:Letry_ And the "pointplanet"' of astronomy. they shire a few general characteristics. The line traced by a draftsman. standards. or the "pure species" of genetics are equally remote from exact realization.). Each paradigm. the position of its proponents is weak. of Chicago Press. ridiculed. The need to bridge the gap between a mathematical model and experience is well characterized in a penetrating study by the American philosopher Max Black [1931: It is a paradox. Indeed the unintelligibility at the atomic . let us reflect a little. Einstein (mechanics). Before embarking on deeper study of fuzzy sets. especially in the areas of biological. 1962). usually referred to as paradigm shifts. It emerged from the need to bridge the gap between mathematical models and their empirical interpretations.the field and. The paradigm eventually gAins its statais on pragmatic grounds by demonstrating that it is more successful than the existing paradigm in dealing with problems that are generally recognind as acute. which appear periodically throughout the history of science. Newton (mechanics). pace. Lavoisier (chemistry). cognitive. Some of the most visible paradigm shifts are associated with the names of Copernicus (astronomy). not very influential. and methods that are taken for granted by the scientific community in a given field. the "perfect gas" of thermodynamics. the longer it takes for the new paradigm to be generally accepted. This gap has becume increasingly disturbing. anomalies.more on the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty. when proposed. consequently. and Gödel (mathematics). it is defined as a set of theories. based upon a particular paradigm.5 rrom Ordinary (Crisp) Sete to Fuzzy Sets: A °rand Paradigm Shift CHARACTERISTICS AND SIGNIFICANCE' OF THE PARADIGM SHIFT Chao. Maxwell (electromagnetism). Since the paradigm is initially not welldeveloped.) by most scientists in the given field.30 1. whose importance familiarity fails to diminish. such as modern technology and medicine. etc. The concept of a scientific paradigm was introduced by Thomas Kuhn in his important and highly influential hook The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Univ.1. attacked. Although paradigm shifts vary from on:e. which is currently ongoing. etc. and other features. Darwin (biology). which is briefly mentioned in Sec. the greater the scope of a paradigm shift. As a rule.. la his book. no matter how accurate. It is increasingly recognized that this transition has characteristics typical of processes. Kuhn illustrates the notion of a paradigm shift by many welldocumented examples from the history of science. is initially rejected in various forms (it is ignored. The paradigm shift initiated by the concept of a fuzzy set and the idea of mathematics based upon fuzzy sets. Using this concept. that the most highly developed and weftl scientitiu theories are ostensibly expressed in terms et objects never encountered in experience. and social sciences. has similar characteristics to other paradigm shifts recognized in the history of science. is seen beneath the microscope as a kind of corrugated trench. as well as in applied sciences. Kuhn characterizes scientific development as a process in which periods of normal science. Those who usually support the new paradigm art either v cry young or very new to . are interwoven with periods of paradigm shifts. Each paradigm shift is initiated by emerging problems that are difficult or impossible to deal with in the current paradigm (paradoxes.another in their scope.
In spite of the initial lack of interest. was initially ignored. The concept of a fuzzy set. be only approximately true. and whose exact nature is in any case unknown_ This lack of exact correlation between a . the need for such mathematics is beconehts increasingly apparent even in the realm of inanimate systems. on the contrary. that to label them as subjective aberrations sets an impassable gulf between formal laws and experience and leaves the usefulness of the formal sciences an insoluble mystery. lvfathematical deduction is not useful to the physicist if interpreted rigorously. replaces the original mathematical deduction by a more complicated mathematical theory in respect of whose interpretation the same problem arises. It is necessary to know that its validity is unaltered when the premise and conclusion are only "approximately true. the usual process of a paradigm shift began. or attacked by many. On either view there remains a gap between scientific theory and its application which ought to be." But the indeterminacy thus introduced. matured significantly and gained some support in the 1970s. and began to demonstrate its superior pragmatic utility in the 1980s.. while it was supported only by a few.  The same need was expressed by Zadeli [1962]. we need a radically different kind of mathematics. The paradigm shift is still ongoing. or we can regard the geometry of spheres as a simplified and imperfect version of the spatial relations between the members of a certain class of physical objects. bridged. will invalidate the deduction unless the permissible limits of variation are specified. sets. 19651A. which underlies this new paradigm.5 Characteristics and Significance of the Paradigm Shift 31 or subatomic level of the notion of a rigidly demarcated boundary shows that such objects not merely are not but could not be encountered.Sec. or thought) is vague is a favorite method for evading the problems involved and lack of analysis has the disadvantage of tempting even the most eminent thirkers into the appearance of absurdity. or even open hostility.scientific theory and its empirical interpretation can be blamed either upon the world or upon the theory. To do so. which are generally orders of magnitude more complex than manmade systems. the mathematics of fuzzy or cloudy quantities which are not describable in teees of probability distributicins_ Indeed. much less closed. — When the new paradigm was proposed [Zadele.there is a fairly wide gap between what might be regarded as "animate" system theorists and "inanimate" system theorists at the present lime. probability measures. for coping with the acalysis of biological systems. however.. There are some who feel this gap reflects the fundamenta l inadequacy of the conventional mathematics—the mathematics of preciselydefined points. in the very nature of measurement. three years before he actually pro'posed the new paradigm of mathematics based upon the concept of a fuzzy set: . skepticism. ridiculed. that deviations from the logical or mathematical standards of precision are all pervasive in symbolism. and it is not at all certain that this gap will be narrowed. mostly young and not influential. but is not. for in most practical cases the a priori data as well as the criteria by which the performance of a manmade system is judged are far from being precisely specified or having accurately known probability distributions. While the mathematician constructs a theory in terms of "perfect" objects. and that to deal effectively with such systems. To say that all language (symboliste. We shall not assume that "laws" of logic or mathematics prescribe modes of efistence to which intelligible discourse must necessarily conform. the new paradigm persevered with virtually no support in the 1960s. etc. the experkneetel scientist eleserves objects of which the properties demanded by theory are and can. functions.We can regard the shape of an orange or a tennis ball as imperfect copies of an ideal form of which perfect knowledge is to be had in pure geometry. and it will likely take much longer than usuel to . 1. It will be argued.. it is necessary to add in criticism. in the near future.
resources for mana ging complexity and controlling computational cost. When employed in machine design. it can effectively deal with a broader class of problems. The general experience is that the more complex the problem involved. Lipschutz (Shawn. 1964). consequently. For the reasons briefly discussed in Sec. we recommend the  book Set Theory and Related Topics by S. the resulting machines are humanfriendlier.1. it has the capability to capture and deal with meanings of sentences expressed in natural language. The acceptance of such a radical challenge is surely difficult for most scientists. H. The new paradigm has considerably greater expressive power.amptes.x. For a general background on crisp sets and classical two valued logic. their counterparts obtained by processing the usual crisp data. The new paradigm has a greater capability to capture human commonsense reasoning. we recommend the bock Set Theory and Logic by R. 1961). For a more advanced treatment of the topics.2. which are based on graded distinctions among states of relevant variables. 1. A thorough investigation of properties of iiizzy sets of type 2 and higher types was done by Mizumoto and Tanaka [1976.xt and contains many spitted c. Such data. Freeman. In fact.. NOTES 1.fuzzy sets was introduced by Goguen (1967]. The new paradigm does not affect any particular field of 'science. 2. In particular. 1 complete it. R. 3. .1. New York.32 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sots to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. than. we can recognize at least four features that make the new paradigm superior to the classical paradigm: L The new paradigm allows us to express irreducible observation and measurement uncertainties in their various manifestations and make these uncertainties intrinsic to empirical data. The reader may not be able at this point to comprehend the meaning and significance of the described features of the new paradigm. are usually called fiazy data. This hopefully will be achieved after his or her study of this whole text is completed. 4. San Francisco. it challenges the most sacred element of the foundations—the Aristotelian twovalued logic. the new paradigm offer's far greater. and considerable effort to propeLly comprehend the meaning and significance of the paradigm shift involved. This is not surprising. in both epistemological and pragmatic terms. When fuzzy data are processed. and other aspects of human cognition. This capability of the new paradigm allows us to deal in mathematical terms with problems that require the use of natural language. 1. The concept cf '. the greater the superiority of fuzzy methods. enough time. At this time. their intrinsic uncertainties are processed as well. The book eovcrs an topics that are needed for this tc. it requires an open mind. since the scope of the paradigm shift is enormous. but the very foundations of science. Stoll (W. decision making. and the results obtained are more meaningful. which for millennia has been taken for granted and viewed as inviolable.
10. was proposed and developed by Vopénka and Hijek [1972] to represent sets with imprecise boundaries. What is the significance of this? 1. L Sizzy sets. 10).. 101 = X. was investigated by Gottwald [19797. semisets may be defined in terms of vague properties and not necessarily by explicit membership grade functions. . 1.4. X. An alternative set theory. 1979]. Order the fuzzy sets defined by the following membership grade functions (assuming x by the inclusion (subset) relation. which is referred to as the theory of sentisels.2.7.3. 1. (b) B 1/x ± liy ±1.4. Convex fuzzy sets were studied in greater detail by.C(x) 1 ÷ 10x (1 +110x 1. Explain why we need fuzzy set theory. Prove that 1. 1.4» +. 1. The concept of fuzzy sers of level k. and type 2 fuzzy sets. 1..2. Unlike fuzzy Sets.49 rip e. 1 Exercises 33 1981b1. Find some examples of prospective fuzzy variables in daily lift Describe the concept of a fuzzy set in your own words.Chap.5/2 + 4/y +11z. Find some examples of intervalvalued fuzzy sets. (d) (. 1. . Compute the scalar cardinalities for each of the following fuzzy sets: (a) A .4/ to + . 1. where n. LS.9.1. Consider the fuzzy sets A.C(x) = 1 (a) .8. B be fuzzy sets defined OR a universal set X.6. The geometric interpretation of ordinary fuzzy sets as points in the ndimensional unit cube was introduced and pursued by Kosico (1990. 1991. 13. 19934 1.. U are the standard fuzzy intersection and union. — 1A1 1 1B1= LAU Bi+IA fl 11[.r) = I x/10 for x {0. 10] of real numbers by the membership grade functions MX) = 1 1÷ \2 B(x) = 1+ 10(z — 2)2 ' Determine mathematical formulas and graphs of the membership grade functions of each of the following sets: • A(x) = B(x) = 2'.Lower' [1980] aict 119S5].. 1..3. they are required to be approximated by fuzzy sets in practical situations_ The relatiombip between semisets and fuzzy sets is well characterized by Nova [1992]. Explain why the law of contradiction and the law of =elusive middle are violated in fuzzy set theory under the standard fuzzy sets operations. respectively. 1.. . which is due to Zadeh [1971b]../z„ (c) C(x) for x {0. however. EXERCIS ES Explain the difference between randomness and fuzziness. The concept of selnisets leads into a formulation of an alternative (nonstandaTd) set theory piopénka. and C defmed on the interval X p. While seroisets are more general than fuzzy sets.. level 2 fuzzy sets. Let A.
(C) AnB. . 1. The difference of A and B is defined by A —B =AnTi: and the symmetric difference of A and B is cleaned by ALB =(A — B)U (B — A). 1. (e) Ane. C) for the fuzzy sets in Exercise Li c. Restricting the universal set to [0.14.11. B be two fuzzy sets of a universal set X. derive Equation (1. Let A. 0.AnC.10 for some values of a. acuts and strong acuts of the three fuzzy sets in Exercise 1.n f_.15. Calculate the degrees of subsethood 5(C. Prove that: (a) (AAB)LC = (1:01 A ABAc: = nTe. for example. a 02. 1. B C.8. (d) A UBLIC.AnBnC.34 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 1. d. Given Equation (1. 1 (b) A LI B.21).12.13.5. 0.19). A U C. D) and 5(1).10 are convex.)u n C) uanB 1.BriC.BnC. 10].Aue. Calculate the. determine which fuzzy sets in Exercise 1. 1.
This implies that x e A fl "B and. the following properties hold for all udi.Fuzzy SETS VERSUS CRISP SETS 2. play a principal role in the relationship between fuzzy sets and crisp sets_ They can be viewed as a bridge by which fuzzy sets and crisp sets are connected. 13 E [0. All these properties involve the standard fuzzy set operations and the standard fuzzy set inclusion. "(AU B) C "Ait EA U "B. =INA (x). For any x c "(A n B). we have (A n B)(x) > a arid. a or B (x) a. consequently. for any x E A ri B. which are introduced in Sec. The first one covers some fairly elementary properties. we have rnaxCA (x). which means that (A n B)(x) > a. and x(A U B) °A ŒB.4. consequently. This concludes the proof that "(A n B) = «A n "B. This nteans that A(x) > a and B (x) a. we first overview some additional properties of acuts of the two types. Conversely. Then.. that is A(x) ix and B(x) > a.1 ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES OF aCUTS The concepts of acuts and strong acuts. (iii) First equality. we have x C A or x C arB .4. a. the rest is left to the reader as an exercise. (see a notational remark on ID. For any x E B). Ce < 13 implies 'A (di) "(A n B) n (iv) "IA n B) (y) "(71) = Proof: We i6A and "+A 13+A. hence. " 144 n "+B and "+(A B) 'EA U 'ER. The various properties of acuts covered in this section are expressed in terms of four theorems. This implies that x E liaB and. prove only (a) and (v). B E Y(X). 1. "(A n B) C A n 'B. 36). we have x E crA and r e "H. B(r) ] > a. consequently. as defined in Sec_ 1. 11: ce+A Let A.1. B(x)l . hence. a or Conversely. Hence. Before examining this connection. This implies that x E "(A ri B) and. B(x)] > a and. that is A(x) ›. "A n «B C cr(A n B). Seconct equality. Theorem 2. minrA(x). for any x 35 . Mx) ›.
1 ]. Conversely. Two distinct symbas must be used here since the two sets are. Thetefore. the property follows directly from the definitions of the two types of a7cuts. ma_x[A(r). However. they are nested families of sets_ Properties (Hi) and (iv) show that the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union are both cutworthy and strong cutworthy when applied to two fuzzy sets or. (1 ')+2 1 C '(71) and. the two basic properties of the complement of crisp sets. which means that x e m(A). Observe that we denote the acut of the complement of A by a(71). ief 9ei tEi (n `Er .+ iel n arAi = (n Ai). The symbol ``71 is a convenient simplification of the symbol (1%). Property (i) is rather trivial. A(x) < 1 — a. Let Ai e y(X) for all i /. are always monotonic decreasing with respect to a. This means that x g (l . not equal.) 4 Hence.). (vi) U "Ai Lf (Li Ai) and (T. This simplification is justified since it does not introduce any ambiguity Proposition (V) shows that the standard fuzzy complement is neither cutworthy nor strong cutworthy_ That a(X) o aiT and in general. Then. we must be cautious when these operations are applied to an infirite family of fuzzy sets. consequently. 1. ill and i'+Ala [O. consequently. 2. consequently. *A L 13B a(A U B).74. Hence.1 is an index set. and 1 — AGO (r. expressing that the strong acut is always included in the acut of any fuzzy set and for any a E [0.+A and. This concludes the proof that fi(A U 3) = UA UB (v) For any x E 4'(. let us make small notational remark. To make sure that the reader understands the meaning of property (y). 2 B(x) > a. consequently. B()] > a. clearly. the law of contradiction and the law of excluded middle.we have . 71(x) > a. In spite of its negative connotation. which means that (A Li B)(x) > a. 7 ff(4 i) 7 (2'2)174. 11} of cecuts and strong acuts. respectively. . to any finite number of fuzzy sets. that is. This is not surprising since fuzzy sets violate. thig case is covered by Theorem 2. • Let us examine the significance of the properties stated in Theorem 2. we have 1 — A(x) = A(x) a.2.x V (142)+ i. Theorem 2. ' (7 C (1a) +A. A(x) < 1 — for any x E 7.36 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap.1. x c (1')+X. in general. where . That is. as illustrated in Fig. which more accurately captures the meaning of the set for which it stands. property (v) describes an interesting feature of the standard fuzzy complement: the orcut of the complement of A is always the same as the complement of the strong (1— ce)cut of A.1. by deEmition. while the complement of the acut of A is denoted by di (and we use an analogous notation for the strong acuts). due to the associativity 'of min and max. Property (ii) means that the set sequences ['Ala E [O.2. This implies that x E cç(A B) and.
Sec 2. (i. For all x X. .. That is. A(x) > or). f L. First. For all it + XE (RAJ).1 Additional Properties of aCuts 37 Figure 2. We prove now the second proposition in (vii). This inequality is satisfied sup A i (x) > I El which is equivalent to (UA) (x) > a. we prove the equality for set unions.111i) iel Hence.4 Proof: We prove only (vii) and leave (IA) to the reader. Ur% El iff there exists some io E f iff such that x E '4A.e. the equality in (vii) is satisfied. E.1 Illustration of the difference been . ) and 4.
A c B iff "A C (ix) A = B iff A = B iff A =B. (LjA i) (x) = sup Ai (x) = sup Let ei 1. Given an arbitrary universal set X. 1 A(x) = 1— — <1. Let A. B E F(X). = z because. X E utoti)..e. The following example applies only to (vi). 1 (u UAi) However. . for any x E X. (viii) A C B jffŒA c"B. 1.1. Ai (x) > a (i. MI To show that the set inclusions in (vi) and (vii) cannot be replaced with equalities. Then. for all a E [O. 2 we have (pAi)(x)> that is inf Ai (x) > a.Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap. then. a similar example can easily be found for (vii).2 establishes that the standard fuzzy intersection on infinite sets is cutworthy (but not strong cutworthy). let Ai E T(X) be defined by 1 for all x E X and all j E N. it is sufficient to find examples iu which the presumded equalities are violated. )iEN (Erg Theorem 2. Therefore. while the standard fuzzy union on infinite sets is strong cutworthy (but not cutworthy). Hence. Hence. Then. for any i E N. U 1A1=u 12F=OX Theorem 23. for any i e I. for any x eN E X. x E fie/ which concludes the proof.
the proof of the second equation is analogous.cet O. 14(x0) > icea and 8 (x0) < cea _ Hence. In each extension. Hence. which demonstrates that 1A C 1+E is not satisfied for all xo §Er B. We show in this section that each fuzzy set can uniquely be represented by either the family of all its creuts or the family of all its strong ci cuts. 13. assume A B. Now we prove the second proposition in (viii).2 Representations of Fuzzy Sets as Proof: We prove only (viii). 1] such that "riA 5 ceoft.1 Now. a <II a0 PrOaff We prove only (x).13qcg (Xi) For any A E T(1). (since —e< a). T at a A (x0). that is. B(xa) < Mx0). Hence. Now. for all x c fl OA and any > 0. . Then. To prove the arst proposition in (viii). Theorem 2. a given classical (crisp) property or operation is required to be 'valid for each crisp set involved in the representation_ As already mentioned. leaving the proof of (xi) to the reader. clearly amA C I3A. that is. This results in A(x) n 0A C "A.. For any )3 ‹ a. there exists x0 E X such that proof. 11 Theorem 2. which contradicts with A C B. Either of these representations allows is to extend various properties of crisp sets and operations on crisp sets to their fuzzy counterparts. which concludes the proof of the first equation of (x). Let es tB. such extended properties or operations are called either cutworthy or strong outworthy. Then. P. x E mhA and A(x0) ›. For the second part. Hence.Sec. there exists x0 e X such that A(x0) > ROO. which means that A(x) > ci — 6. let e (Le. then x0 e ctil and x0 ct_13. assume that there oxists ce0 E [0. Since s is an arbitrary positive number. 2.4. x E °A).3 establishes that the properties of fuzzy set inclusion and equality are both cutworthy and strong cutworthy. there exists . a+A e [0. we have x PA. The first part is similar to the previous B. • 22  REPRESENTATIONS OF FUZZY SETS The principal role of acuts and strong ctcuts in fuzzy set theory is their capability to represent fuzzy sets.4. the foliowing properties hold: <a' = U = U A. whichdemonstrates that ŒA C "II is not satisfied for all Œ E [0. assume that A et be any number between A(x0 ) and B(xo). depending on the type of representation employed. . 11.ku c X such that x0 6roA and • g' 05. Then.B(x0).
643 + .112 0/x3 + 0/x4 + 1/x5.4. properties or operations that are either cutworthy or strong cutworthy are rather rare. It applies to every fuzzy set. Furthermore.1). 2 As explained in detail laser in t b e. That is. The given fuzzy set Ais associated with only five distinct a cuts. is universal. 2A = . which is based upon strong a cuts.2/x1 ± ..40 Fuzzy Sets 'Versus Criap Sets Chap.4/12 ± .2/x1 + .84 = 0/x1 + 0/x2 + 0/x3 ± 8/14 + .6/x5 . IA . which are defined by the following characteristic fimetions (viewed here as special membership functions):  2 A 4 = 1/xi + 1/x2 .4A U . regardless of whether it is based on a finite or inflnite universal set. Our aim in this section is to prove that the representation of fuzzy sets of their acuts.6A LJ .14. example. In the following. . which are defined in terms of the acuts of A by (2. let us show how this sot eau be represented by its a cuts. as illustrated by this.12.6A 0/x1 + 0/x2 + 1/13 ± 1/x4 + . Considering the fuzzy set  A = . (2. In fact.. x51 as follows: =a  (x). 13.8/14 ± 145 as our example. However. they are of special significance since they bridge fuzzy set theory with classical set theory.6/13 ± .2/x2 + AA = +.0/13 + 1/x4 + 1/x5.1jr3 + 1/x4 A O/x 1 + 1/x2 + 1/13 ± 1/x4 + . let us begin by illustrating one of them by a simple example.2/14 ± • 2/x5. we also prove the universality of an alternative representation.8/x5 . + 0/x2 + . we formulate and prove three basic decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets. They are sort of reference points from which other fuzzy properties or operations deviate to various degrees.4/12 + . is usually referred to as a decomposition of A. not all properties and operations involving fuzzy sets are cutworthy or strong cutworthy.A.  The representation of an arbitrary fuzzy set A in terms of the special fuzzy sets G A. It is now easy to see that the standard fuzzy union of these five special fuzzy sets is exactly the originai fuzzy set A. We now convert each of the a cuts to a special fuzzy set. ILA 0/x i + 0/x2 + 0/13 + 0/14 + 1/15. . .6/14 + .8A U /A. defined for each x E X =  [X1..8A = 0/xi + 0/12 4.1) We obtain + .6A = 0/xj. text. Tu explain the two representations of fuzzy sets by crisp sets. A = •2A Li .4/13 + .= 0/x1 + 0.
if For each a e (a. 41 Theorem 2.3) where . A= U „g_A.2 Representations of Fuzzy Sets For every A E 7(X). 1].6 (Second Decomposition Theorem).2): { x —1 A (x) = 3 — x 0 For each when x € [1. III 'lk) illustrate the application of this theorem. For each particular x € X.A(x) j (u „A) (x) = sup a = a = A(x). On the other hand. 3 — a] otherwise.44 a e(a. 3 — when x Ta + 1. 3] otherwise.1] f (0 (2.J denotes the standard fuzzy union. [O. for each a E [0. 2 A) crE[0. 1J where c. a em. Then. let a = A (x). the acut of A is in this case the dosed interval A.. 11 we have A (x) a < and. a. sup nrA(x)]. 21 when x e [2.Sec. the validity of (2. (2. Then.lJ. Proof: Since the proof is analogous to the proof of Theorem 2. .. A is obtained by taking the standard fuzzy union of sets A for all a E (0.A is defined by (2. A = Lj „A .1) and u denotes the standard fuzzy union. E (0. aer01.2) is defined by the membership function = Ia 0 Examples of sets aA and A for three values of Œ are shown in Fig.a] Since the same argument is valid for each x E X.5.A(x).4) . ciElo aqa. and the special fuzzy set . For every A e Y(X). let us consider a fuzzy set A with the following membership function of triangular shape (Fig.2) = sup „A(x) = max[ sup . Theorem 2. Proof: For each particular x E X. 2. let a = A(x}. therefore. [a + 1.÷A denotes a special fuzzy set defined by (x) = a • w+A(z) and L. 2. ab we have A (x) = a > a. 2.A employed in (2. „A (x) = O.2) is established.11 (2.5 (First Decomposition Theorem). Hence. we express it in a more concise form.2_ According to Theorem 23. therefore.
(ag[0 U. A czEA(A) For every A e (X). where A(A) is the level set of A. PrOuf: AllakkgoUS (2.11i011. 2 trigure 2.r+A(x). 2. (2.11 sup a cr 11.d) ( = = A(x)_ • Theorem 2. .1).6.3.I I cr+A) (X) = sup „ +A(x) prep. 23 by the decomposition of a fuzzy set A defined by a simple stepwise membership function shown in Fig. Since A(A) = (0. A is fully represented by the three special fuzzy sets .42 FKJ77y Sets versus Crisp Sets Chap. AA.2 LUuslrarson ot Theorem 25. 13 maxi sup . 2. and 1A. sup er +MX)1 ceE[0.7 (Third Decomposition Theorem).3h. and U denotes the standard fuzzy to the proofs of the other decomposition theorems.A.3A.5) U .3a.1. 11 and (IA = 0. . . II The meaning of this theorem is illustrated in Fig. shown in Fig. „A is defined by 1.a) = ac[42.
(b) decomposition of A into A.6 Nic) V_ o. A.7: (a) given fuzzy set A.0110011ismoomilmii i 0 mirmi_ ! 1 imermn X . 2_2 Reprasentations of Ft122'y Set 43 . x . . (a) x Figure 23 Illustration of 'Theorem 2.S.. 1A .3 — — 7.
b.44 Fuzzy Sets. has the form f 3r(x) > and its inverse function. Given a ( lisp function from X to . . Extension Principle.8) and (2. denoted by f 1)(T) to TM that. we obtain U ( )] (. has the form f F(Y) F(X). (2. let us first discuss its special case.= (2. Allowing now sets A and B in (2. As a simple example illustrating the meaning of these equations. c } and Y = {1. crisp relations) is called an extension principle.9) to this function. in which the exteuticd functions aie rcstricted to crisp power sets P(X) and T(Y). respectively. 2 2. for any A E "(X). f T(X) 4. is defined by (2. 2).6) is a function from Furthermore. f.7) f (B) = [ x] f (x) E B. the extended version of the inverse of f.4b. Vorsus CrLp Sgits Chap. we obtain the extension of f shown in Fig. Any given function f X Y induces two functions.g(Y). for which the same symbol f is usually used. let X = {a. for any B ).3 EXTENSION PRINCIPLE FOR FUZZY SETS We say that a crisp function f X is fuzzified when it is extended to act on fuzzy scts defincd on X and Y. is defmed by  f (A) LAY = f (x).9) to be fuzzy sets and replacing the characteristic functions in these equations with membership functions. That is. we arrive at the following extension principle by which any crisp function can be fuzzliied.T). Expressing the sets f (A) and f 1 (R) by their characteristic functions (viewed here as special cages. of membership functions). Before introducing this principle.17. its extended version is a function from 3) (X) to T(Y) that. X E A).8) (2. 14a and the extension of f shown in Fig.9) f (x) B(f (x)).) = [f 1 (B)] (X) sup A (. and let us consider the function f 2 When applying (2.8) and (2. possibly. 2 17. This special case is well established in classical set theory. the fuzzificd function. A principle for fuzzifying crisp functions (or. 2.
11) The extension principle is illustrated in Fig. the following properties of functions obtained by the extension principle hold: (i) RA) =0iffA. Theorem 2. (2. to check his or her understanding of the extension principle.ucti by f(Y) T(X).6 (f discrete).10) with max. 2.192. (111) f (n 041 et gnf . 2. To save space. 15 (f continuous) and Fig. € T(X) and any B1 e 3'(Y) i E /. the reader should produce some of the proofs omitted here.b) la. we can replace sup in (2. When sets X and Y are finite (as in Fig.c1 {1}. which are selfexplanatory. C (B2).er. (II) if A1 g A2. fef ). Let f : X 1( he an arbitrary crisp function.6). 2.10) f (A)1(y) = for all A e 3 (1) and Erl (13)1(x) = B( f (x)) for all la G 9. for any A. sup A(x) (2.b.3 Extension Principle for Fuzzy Sets 9(i) 45 ai (W.A An example of the classical extensions of &action f i2 4 b 1.o] {a.8. f Ai) = U f (Ai). then f (A1) g f(A).c} (a) Figure 2. Fuzzifications based on the extension principle satisfy numerous properties. c I and its inve f f which arc defi. we present proofs of only some of the properties. whiLl are expressed by the following duce theorems. We select only properties that we consider most important and cluster them into three natural groups.. fc) a. (y) if B1 g then f' (B1) .(If).Sec. Then.
6 illustration of the extension principle when f is discrete. 2 Figure 2.5 Illustration inf the extension 'principle when f is continuous. . • • * : 4 • • Bi(y) Ai(x) A1 Figure 2.46 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap.
[f (A)](y)  sup A (x) A(x 0) (X) a and.* (arc E X)(y = 44r.  Hence. Let fn) ( Ia b when n < 10 when n> 10. .Sec. Then. Y = (a. y E [ f (A )j . f (A) in general. Pxo e X)(y y E f ('+A). (n Di) LEI ist = fl f0). f (A).3 Extension Principle tor Fuzzy Sets (Bi). 9 f(4)1 = f(A) (xii) If y f(4). Then. Therefore. (xii) [f(A)) Proof: (Id) F6r all y E Y. 11 the following properties of f fuz:zified by the extension principle hold: (xi) *+[ f (A)] = f ( l+A).9. Let f X Y be an arbitrary crisp function. f (x0). but not cutworthy. 2. consequently. then there EXiStR x0 EEA such that y =. for any A € (. Theorem 2. • To show that If (A)] X = N. ief f 1 (B) = f (ix) A (If). we can use the following example.X) and all a E (0. 47 (vi) f (U Bi) U f (vii)f . b ). 1 and A (n) = 1 — for all n e N. Proof: Left to the reader. g_ f1(f(A)). Y E"+ [f (A)] t• [f(A)](Y) > ziy= f (x) sup A(x)  e f (xa) and A(xo) > et) f (x0) and x0 E e 11) ' + . f(')1) u[f (A )] . (x) B f(f 1 (B)). I The following theorem shows that the exteasion principle is strong cutworthy.. Hence.
e.„„). A representation of fuzzy sets in.. x2 .4[f (A)]. '+ [f (A)] and. Theorem 2..10.1 The wension principle was introduced by Zadeh ( 1 975b].„ and. we can see that 1 [ f (A)] = [14 while f( IA) = 0 (since IA = 0).f(4). 1] when X is finite. When a given function is defined on a Cartesian product (i.12) follows now immediately. Cr ER 1) Equation (2. As can be easily proven. when' X = X x X2 X Xi ).1. fuzzy sets in (2.. Then.10) are defined on the Cartesian product. and then employ (2. 1) stand now for the n Mples x = (xi . f fuzzified by the extension principle satisfies the equation RA) = U ParA). n16= f now a = 1. The only change is that symbols x in (2. where some additional aspects of the extension principle are discussed. for any A E g(X). NOTES 2. f(4) '[f (A)] in this case.12) Proof: Applying the Second Decomposition Theorem (Theorem 2_6) to f (A).. which is a fuzzy set on Y. However. convert them to the special fuzzy sets OE+ A. crisp sets) wader function f. due to (xi) of Theorem 2. 2 9 f (JO [ f (A)] (b) = sup Mn) = 1. they are a subject of Chapt er 5. (i. the extension principle is still applicable. Hence. e[0. By definition.48 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets [f(A)] (a) = sup A (n) = ltla Chap... . A further elaboration of the principle was presented by Yager [19864 .9.10) and (2 1. we have f(A)= U . this is not a necessary condition for obtaining the equality. Y be an arbitrary crisp function. "I f (A)} = f(A) for all a E [0. Such fuzzy sets are referred to as fuzzy relations. hence. we obtain f (A) U . where _xi ï E N.12). Let f X 4.e. II The significance of Theorem 2. x. 2.11 (2.10 is that it provides us with an efficient procedure for calculating f (A): first we calculate all images of strong acuts. terms of their Zadeh [19714 in the a cuts was introduced by form of the first decomposition theorem.
12.5. and so on.standard complement is not outworthy and strong entworthy. 2. and f(C).3/7 and B(x) = . find f 1 (D). for example.6/16+ . X be defined for all x1 . 2 Exercises 49 23. 10). Given a fuzzy set D defined on (0. Prove (iv) in Theorem 2. They include. 1968. 2. 1. 2. 2.9. Explain why the .6. . B. Calculate x. and C in Exercise 1. 19841 and various fuzzy algebraic structures such as groups.8. 4. 210.1. 1. 2. 2. 2. fuzzy tapakgical spaces [Chang.. and let f(x) = x 2 • for all x L Use the on the universal set I extension principle to derive f (A)..3. 2.8.. . What arc the toles of cfrents and strong a cuts in fuzzy set theory? What is the deference between them? Describe the concepts in your own words.4.2.10 be defined (0.5. B). fuzzy metric spaces [Kaleva and Seikkala. Wong.7.. 2. 1975. Show that the set inclusions in (ix) and (1) cannot be replaced with the equalities. x2) = x .1.512+ 1/3 + . List all ixcuts and strong cfctits of A. Prove Theorem 2. Find an example to show that the set inclusion in (vii) cannot be replaced with equality. The extension principle is an important tool by which classical mathematical theories can he fuzzified. Prove Theorem 2.4. 16.5/4 + .. 100) by D = 3/44. 2. Prove (vi) in Theorem 22. Calculate f (A. Let A be a fuzzy set defined by  A = .Chap. semigtoups. 2. Lowen. x2 . x2 E Let a function f X x f(A...z. EXERCISES 2.3/5. f(B).13/x4 + lfxs.1 1. Let A and B be fuzzy se tg defined an the universal set X Z whose membership functions are given by A(t) 1/0 + _5/1 ± .7/25 + 1/100. Let f in the previous exercise be replaced with f(x x. 1976]. B). 41/x2+ .7. 9./x1 + . Prove (xi) in Theorem 2.2) X by f (x t . Fuzzy extensions of some mathematical theories are beyond the scope of this introductory text and are thus not covered here. Let the membership grade functions of fuzzy sets A.7/13+ .
different functions may be appropriate to represent these operations in different contexts. 50 . For each of the three operations. not only membership functions of hazy sets but also operations on fuzzy sets are contextdependent. B(x)].1) (3. contrary to their crisp counterparts. 3. Among the great variety of fuzzy complements. intersection. and unions. As the reader can easily see.introduced: 71.. the following special operations of fuzzy complement. the standard fuzzy operations possess certain properties that give them a special Significance. 1}. (A u B)(x) = max[A(x). That is. there exists a broad class of functions whose members qualify as fuzzy generalizations of the classical operations as well. however. where each of the classes is characterized by properly justified axioms. That is.4. Functions that qualify as fuzzy intersections and fuzzy unions are usually referred to in the literature as tnorms and tC01207771S.. respectively_ Since the fuzzy complement. B(x)] for all x E X. (3.1 TYPES OF OPERATIONS In Sec. the standard fuzzy operations perform precisely as the corresponding operations for crisp sets when the range of membership grades is restricted to the set {0. These operations are called the standard fuzzy operations.2) (3. This fundamental issue is addressed in Chapter 10.3) (A n B)(x) = min[A(x). intersections.(x) = I — A(x). the standard fuzzy operations are generalintions of the corresponding classical set operations.4. It is now well understood. intersection. and union are not unique operations.3 OPERATIONS ON Fuzzy SETS 3. that they are not the only possible generalizations. For example. These three classes of functions are examined in Secs.2 through 3. 1.. The capability to determine appropriate membership functions and meaningful fuzzy operations in the context of each particular application is crucial for making fuzzy set theory practically useful. and Uni0111 are .
while the standard fuzzy unioa is the strongest fuzzy union. by definition. (3. to use the function for determining a complement of a given fuzzy set A. — a.set among the fuzzy sets produced by all possible fuzzy unions (t conorrns).4). for any given membership grades ai . Then. the standard fuzzy operations occupy specific positions in the whole spectrum of fuzzy operations: the standard fuzzy intersection is the weakest fuzzy intersection. Most of the alternative fuzzy set operations lack this  characteristic. The class of averaging operations is examined in Sec.y. Aggregation operations that. a2. but also as the degree to which x does not belong to A. but they cover all aggregating operations that are associative.. A n B. A(x) n3a.1 and 2. Observe that function c is totally independent of etements x to which values A (x) are assigned. Similarly. . the remaining aggregating operations must be defined as functions of n arguments for each n > 2. Then. we have to keep track of elements z to make the connection ttetween A(z) and cA(x) expressed by (3. The standard fuzzy union (max operator) produces.Sec.4) c(A(x)) = cA(x) for all x € X by definition. As a notational convention. Let cA denote a fuzzy complement of A of type c./ B remains e.. If any error e is associated with the membership grades A (x) and B (x). Furthermore. . A desirable feature of the standard fuzzy operations is their inherent prevention of the compounding of errors of the operands.a1so be interpreted as the degree to which x does not belong to a.. A (x) is interpreted as the degree to which x belongs to A. a. Due to the lack of associativity. . in the following investigation of its formal properties. . we obtain cA by applying function c to values _4(x) for all x G X. The value c(A (x)) is interpreted as the value of cA (x). each of the averaging operations produces a fuzzy set that Is larger than any fuzzy intersection and smaller than any fuzzy union. Fuzzy intersections (tnorms) and fuzzy unions (tconorrns) do not cover all operations by which fuzzy sets can be aggregated. a2.2 Fuzzy Comeiements 51 they are the only operatioas that satisfy the cutworthy and strong cutworthy properties expressed by Theorems 2. a. then the maximum error associated with the membership grade of x in X. the standard tizzy intersection (min operator) produces for any given fuzzy sets the largest fuzzy set from among those produced by all possible fuzzy intersections (r norms). the smallest fuzzy.2.4.) and max(ai. and A t. we may thus ignore x and assume that the argument of c is an arbitrary number a € [0. it depends only on the values themselves. Given a fuzzy set A. 3.) are called averaging operations. That is. 3. let a complement cA be defined by a function which assigns a value c(A (x)) to each membership grade A (x) of any given fuzzy set A. cA(x) may be interpreted not only as the degree to wliich x belongs to cA. That is.2 FUZZY COMPLEMENTS Let A be a fuzzy set on X. 3. on the contrary. 1 ]. For any given fuzzy sets. However.6. produce a membership grade that lies between a2.
function c is required to produce correct complements for crisp sets. For all a. then c(a) > c(b) (nonotonicity). To produce meaningful fuzzy complements. All functions that satisfy the aXiCIMLS form the most general class of fuzzy complements. Then. and. 1]. According ta Axiom c2. Axiom c2 is essential since we intuitively expect that an increase in the degree of membership in a fuzzy set must result in either a decrease or.52 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Indeed. would include functions that do not conform to the ordinary complement for crisp sets. Moreover. we may state any intuitively justifiable properties in terms of axiomatic requirements. Now. which means that c(c(a)) = a for each a [0. each being produced by a distinct function c. In most cases of practical significance.1. in the extreme ease. Let a function C : [0. it rnay decrease or. b E [0. it is required to be monotonic decreasing: when a membership grade in A increases (by changing x). on intuitive grounds. It is rather obvious that the exclusion or weakening of either of these axioms would add to this class some functions totally imacœptable as complements. For any particular fuzzy set A. and then examine the class of functions that satisfy these requirements. the corresponding membership grade in cA must not increase as well. By AX1/111 c2. It turns out that the four axioms are not independent. 1]. c(0) = I and c (1) 0 (boundary conditions). different fuzzy sets cA can be said to constitute its complement. Axiom c2. a violation of Axiom. by Axiom c4. That is. c(c(0)) l and c(1) c(1). Axiom c4. ci. no change in the degree of membership in its complement. We have c(0) = c(c(1)) . as expressed by the following theorem. as meaningful complements of given fuzzy sets. Theorem 3. if a < 13. Two of the most desirable requirements. which are usually listed in the literature among axioms of fuzzy complements. 3 It is obvious that function c must possess certain properties to produce fuzzy sets that qualify. Hence. According to Axiom cl. 1] [0. c(0) O. c also satisfies Axioms cl and c3.  . 1. function c satisfies Axiom cl. Let Axioms cl and •c2 be called the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy complements. c is a continuous function_ c is imotutive. c(1) = O. remain the same. 1]. at least. There are many functions that satisfy both Axioms cl and c2. function c must satisfy at least the following two axiomatic requirements: Axiom cl. it is desirable to consider various additional requirements for fuzzy complements. Each of them reduces the general class of fuzzy complements to a special subclass. To characterize functions c that produce meaningful fuzzy complements. again by Axiom c4. 1 1 satisfy Axioms c2 and c4. Proof(i) Since the range of c is [0. 0 = c(c(0)) > c(1). c must be a bijective function. are the following: Aidoin c3.
1 Illustration to Theorem 3.2 FLIM Complemants 53 (ii) To prove that c is a bijective function. 11 such that c(b) = c(c(a)) = a.ss of all continuous complements. III It follows from Theorem 3. by Axiom c4. Hence. c is also a one . Assume now that c(al) = c(az). we observe that for all a E [0.Sec_ 3. then. To show this. and. which in turn forms a special subclass of all fuzzy complements. as illustrated in Fig. al = c(c(a 1 )) = c(c(e22)) = a2. That is.to .2_ . 1] such that bo > b > c(a0) for which no a l € [0.1. there must exist b1 E [0. consequently. (iii) Since c is bijective and satisfies Axiom c2. clearly.one function. Then. 1 1 there exists b = c(a) G [0.1 that all involutive complements form a special ubcla.1. c is an onto function. we have bo = Lim c(a) c(au) Flware 3. assume that c has a discontinuity at ao. 11 exists such that c(al) = Lk. 3. a bijective function. it is. This contradicts the fact that c is a bijective function. it cannot have any discontinuous points. This nested structure of the three types of fuzzy complements is expressed in Fig_ 3.
33.3b. 1). c — c4) Figure 3. Examples of general fuzzy complements that satisfy only the axiomatic skeleton are the thresholdtype complements defined by c(a ) ri = 0 for a ‹ for a > t.54 Operations on Fuzzy Sets All fuzzy Chap. For each value of the parameter X. 3. 3 cornplerliV1U. t is called the threshold at c. 1] and t [0. 3. An example of a fuzzy complment that is continuous (Axiom o3) but not involutive (Axiora 04) is the function c(a) = —(1 4. 3.7 5) = . for example. 2 which is illustrated in rig.2 Nested structure of the Nsic classes of fuzzy complements. One class of involutive fazzy complements is the Sugeno class defined by ex (a) = I— a (33) where X e (1.15 .4a for several different values of X. where a E [0. co).cos ira).tion is G1 and c:2) Cia5sleal fuzzy Lorriplcuncot (Eq_ (3_1)) AR continuous . (A . fuzzy complernien6 (Axioms c 1 — c3) Ail invOlutiv Fuzzy claMplernents (Axioms. we obtain one particular involutive fuzzy complement This class is illustrated in Fig. This function is illustrated in Fig. that c(. The failure of this function to satisfy the property of involution can be seen by noting.33) .75 but c (. Note .3a.
.6 . (6) ..1110 11 Ill ill 111111•6111 ..... 1 1 t IMPAMMEMEMMI IMINIMMEMEM =ME MM...2 .....1 ..9 a 1..s .1 1 1111111111111112..8 .111 IMMINNINEEM 11111111111M1101 1111111110111111111111....1..3 ..1.. IIMEEMERME 11111111111111011.s••s1....7 .7 ....3 A .
1 ONMEMMIft.2 ITAIM 1111 MMEMMEEMME .7 8 .0 figure 34 Examples from.4 .9 1.2 0 .4 .4 a .6 . 3 .3 a 0 .56 1.5 (a) .3 .0 .7 . a:LSE: (b) .6 .5 .2 .6 .0 .2 .7 .1 .9 1.8 .11 EOM= M MN MMOMMEM EMEMMEOMME 111111111E M ME MEW= .9 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. two classes of involutive fumiy complemeats : (a) Susan° Yagar class. 5 .5 (b) .
In order to do so. For instance. the function becomes the classical fuzzy complement defined by (3. due to our initial assumption we . Proof: Lct c be an arbitrary fuzzy complement. An e. These concern the equilibrium of a fuzzy complement c. must assume that al and a2 are two different solutions of the equation c(a) a = b such that al < a2. 3. quilfbrieni of e is a solution of the equation c(a) — a €1. c(al) c(a2) and._ Because c(ej = e„ we can rewrite these expressions as c(a) e„ c(a) = e and c(a) < e„ respectively. Then . thus demonstrating that the equation must have at most one solution.Sec. where to is a real have at most one solution. We can demonstrate that any equation c(a) a where a 10. Every fuzzy complement has at most one equilibrium. c(a) c(e) for a ‹ e„ c(a) = c(e) for a and c(a) < c(e) for a > 4. we get .6) where w E (0. 00). Assume that a given fuzzy complement c has an equilibrium e„ which by Theorem 3.1]. Another example of a class of involutive fuzzy complements is defined by — w) 11111 . the equilibrium of a complement c is that degree of membership in a fuzzy set A which equals the degree of membership in the complement cA. Theorem 3. Let us assume that a < e„ a = ec. since al < a2. .a < c(a) iff a < and > c(a) iff > Proof.3. since c(ai ) — a l = b and c(a2) — a. and a e„ in rum. Several important properties are shared by all fuzzy complements. this function becomes the classical fuzzy complement of c(a) = 1 — a. In fact.2 Fuzzy Complements 57 that the shape of the function is affected as die value of A is changed. we constant. For A = 0. Here again. Figure 3. (0.(33) However. a1 > c(a2 ) This inequOity contradicts (3.5. = b. thus proving the theorem. which is defined as any value a for which c(a) = a. changing the value of the parameter w results in a deformation of the shape of the function.1). which is the solution of the equation 1 — a = a. let us refer to it as the Yager class of fuzzy complements. In other words.7). because c is monotonic nonincreasing (by Axiom c2). When w = 1.2. (3.4b illustrates this class of functioes for various values of w. Then. since c is monotonic noninoreasing by Axiom c2. c(al) — c(ai) at c(a2) a2.2 is unique. • Theorem 3. Then.1) is .. the equilibrium value for the classical fuzzy complement given by (2.
c(0) — 0 = 1 and c(1) — 1 = —1. By Axiom cl. for A = 0 This is clearly obtained by selecting the positive solution of the equation 1 — e„ —e. respectively.110 c1ax4. The inverse implications can be shown in a similar manner. a < e. • The equilibrium for each individual fuzzy complement cl of the Sugeno class is given by ((1+ A) 112 — 1)/X for A 0 0. 1 + Xe The dependence of the equilibrium e„ on the parameter A is shown in Fig. implies c(a) > a and a ec implies c(a) < a.2 guarantees its uniqueness.1.5 Equilibria for *pc SlIge. Thus. This demonstrates the necessary existence of an equilibrium value for a continuous function. and c(a) < a. 1]. This is a special case of the more general equation c(a) — a Yr.58 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap.. of a fuzzy complement c is the solution of the equation c(a) — a = O. and Theorem 3. Proof: The equilibrium e.5. b. X Figure 3. If c is a continuous fuzzy complement.4. can further rewrite these as c(a) >. there exists at least one a such that c(a) — = b. of fuzzy contploracrits_ . 3. Since c is a continuous complement. • Theorem 3. 1] is a constant. where b E [ . 3 c(a) a. it follows from the intermediate value theorem for continuous functions that for each b e [1. then c has a unique equilibrium.
If the complement is not involutive.8) yields the functional equation e( a) — da c(c(a)) c(a).Sec. at most one dual point for cacti particular fuzzy complement c and membership grade of value a_ Moreover. 3. 11 to [0. c(a) = a and thus a — c(a) = O. 11. There is. 11. Perhaps the most important property of involutive complements is expressed by the following Iwo theorems.. restrict out further discussion to complements of this type. for 'a whose solution is d a = c(a). Then substitution of c(c(a)) for a in (3. For each a E [0.6. 1]. It follows directly from the proof of Theorem 3. Then. dci a) — d a =a — This satisfies (3. we can generate an unlimited number of fuzzy complements or classes of fuzzy complements. 11 such that c(11 a) — da = a — c(a) (3. substitution of c(a) for da in (3. if d a = ec . let c(c(a)) = a. a function from [0. let us. that is.5.da and c(d a) da = O.8) produces e(c(a)) — c(a) = a — Therefore. Hence.4 that a dual point exists for each a [O.8) is called a dual point of a with respect to c. such as the Sugeno class or the Yager class. These results associated with the concepts of the equilibrium and the dual point of a fuzzy complement are referenced in the discussion of measures of fuzziness contained in Chapter 9.8) when dual point. 1] when c is a continuous complement. By either of these theor e ms. da =. c(c(a)) = a. 1 a da e.8) has at most one solution for 'fa given c and a. when the Proof: Let d a= C(a). Since involutive fuzzy cornplemtents play by far the most important role in practical applications. Therefore.2 Puzzy CompJements 59 lf we are given a fuzzy complement c and a membership grade whose value is represented by a real number a E [0. c is a fuzzy complement (involutive) ife there exists a . Additionally. Then.2 that (3.. the dual point of any membership grade is equal to its complemented value whenever the complement is involutive.7 (First Characterization Theorem of Fuzzy Complements). then any membership grade represented by the real number d a e [O. a.c(a) iff c(c(a)) complement is invoiutive. For the reverse implication. E Thus. therefore.. either the dual point does not exist or it does not coincide with the complement point. If a complement c has an equilibrium e. Theorem 3. the equilibrium of any complement is its own Theorem 3. it follows from the proof of Theorem 3. then de = Proof: If a = e„ then by our definition of equilibrium. Let c be Theorem 3. then c (da ) =.
For the Stgeno class of fuzzy complements.9) . Each fanction g that qualifes as an increasing generator determines a fuzzy complement by (3. Then c is a fuzzy complement if there exists a continuous function f from [0.a) (1 10) for A> —1_ Note that we have to take for A = 0. the increasing generators are 1 gi (a) )11. the increasing generators are g„(a) =a (1 11) for w> 0. that is. the standard fuzzy complement can be generated by this limit. fuzzy complements can also be produced by decreasing generators. tv > 0). f is strictly decreasing. we obtain a class of fuzzy complements. let us consider the class of the increasing generators gy (a) which produce the class of fuzzy complements cy (ci) = a ±  (y >W (3. Theorem 3. the increasing generator is g(a) = a. (3. g is strictly increasing. For the Yager class. 1]. (3. and . 1] to R such that f (1) = 0. As one additional example. 1] to [0. 3 continuous function g from [0.8 (Second Characterization Theorem of Fuzzy Complements). and (19) c(a) g1 (g(1) for all a [0. 1] to II such that g(0) = 0.12) which contains the Sugeno class (for w = 1) as well as the Yager Class (for = 0) as special subclasses.q(a)) Proof: See Appendix D.14) We suggest that the reader plot function cy for several values Of y. For the standard fuzzy complement. 1 — aw 1 1w ) (1 —1. Let c be a function from [0. for A — ex ..(a) = ( 1+ ia . As expressed by the following theorem. In(1 A.0).„.13) y 2 (1 — a) (y ›. — . 11. Functions g defined in Theorem 3. It is interesting that by taking the class of twoparameter increasing genciatons 1 — 1n(1 law) x 1 and w > 0.7 are usually called increasing generators.60 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap.
and applying it to the functions where w ›• 0. let f (a) = g ( 1) increasing generator g such that c(a) = Then. generates the Yager class of fuzzy complements.15) can be rewritten as f (0) f (a).15) is a fuzzy complement.7. f is strictly decreasing.0) g (a)).3 Fuzzy intersections: rNorrns al c(a) = r (f (0) .f (a)) = g1 Cg(1) g(a)) Hence. applying (3. that is.s g(a) Then. and f f (a)) c(a) = g 1 (g(1) . . generates the standard fuzzy complement.15) Proofi According to Theorem 3.Pa)) for all a E [0. a function of the form : 0. we can cicfine an increa. (3. Now. Each function f that qualifies as a decreasing generator also deter nines a fuzzy complement by (3. since g is strictly increasing.15) to any of the strictly decreasing functions f (a) ka k. 3.g(gi (g(1)a)) since f (0) g (1) g(0) g(1). function c is a fuzzy complement if there exists an (.sing generator g a.15).8 are usually called decreasing generators. where k > 0. a. Functions f defined in Theorem 3. Moreover.a) g i (f(0) g(1)g(f 1 (a)) = g(1).f (a)). 3.g(a)) f = f (g(1) .Sec.g(a))) = f "(f (0) . f1 (a) g1 (1) . If a decreasing generator f is given.(g(a)) = a. f ( f 1 (a )) = g1 (g(1) f (a)) = g 1 (g(1) (g(I) g(a))) = g . Now.3 FUZZY INTERSECTIONS: MOWS The intersection of two fuzzy sets A and /3 is specified in general by a binary operation on the unit interval. c(a) f 3 (f(0) . f (1) = 0 and.(s(1) . 1 ] . c defined by (3. (3 . • For example. x 11 > [O.
When one argument of i is I (expressing a fir.62 Operators on Fuzzy Sets Chap.norms is now generally accepted as equivalent to the class of fuzzy intersections. (a. which have extensively been studied in the literature. the class of r . tnorms.15) In order for any function i of this form to qualify as a fuzzy intersection. 0) = 0 follows from monotonicity. 1) = 1 follow directly from the boundary condition. while i(0. b) i (a .16) for each x E X to determine the intersection of A and B based upon i. we may ignore x and assume that the arguments of i are arbitrary numbers a.]: Axiom il.norms. Axiom i2. The last axiom. which ensure that fuzzy sets produced by i are intuitively acceptable as meaningful fuzzy intersections of any given pair of fuzzy sets. I. Given a tnorm i and fuzzy sets A and B. this axiom allows us to extend the operation of fuzzy intersection to more than two sets. ensures that we can take the intersection of any number of sets in any order of pairwise grouping desired. It is easy to see that the first three axioms ensure that the fuzzy intersection defined by (3. do possess such properties. We may thus use the terms "tnctms" and "fuzzy intersections" interchangeably. n B)(x) = i[A(x).16) becomes the classical set intersection when sets A and B are crisp: (0. Axiom D. b < d implies i (a. A . b E [0. 3 For each element x of the universal set. commutativity.fra=y intersectionftnorm i is a binary operation on the uait interval that satisfies at least the following axioms for all a. this function takes as its argument the pair consisting of the elenaent's membership grades iia set A and in set B arid yied the ruernbciship gradc of the element in the set constituting the intersection of A and B. assouiativity. i Let us call this set of axioms the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy intersectionslt . This requires keeping track of each element x. 1] in the following examination of formal properties of tnorms. Hence. indifferent to the order in which the sets to be combined are considered.= a (boundary condition). d E [43. Axiom i4. It is often desirable to restrict the class of fuzzy intersections (tnorms) by considering . It turns out that functions known as. as our intuitive conception of fuzzy intersection requires. the function i is totally independent of x. 1) = 0) 0 follows then torn and i(1. it depends only on the values A (x) and B (x). it must possess appropriate properties. that the membership grade in the intersection is equal to the other argument. In fact. a) (corranutativity). that is. i b) = jay. d)) (i (a. Thus. for all x 8(x)] (3. b.11 membership). Corarantativity ensures that the fuzzy intersection is symmetric. we have to apply (3. the boundary condition and coromutativity also ensure. d) (nonatonicity). d) (associativity). 1). Monotonicity and comrautativity express the natural requirement that a decrease in the degree of membership in set A or B cannot produce an increase in the degree of membership in the intersection. However. i(a. b).
consequently. when b =: 1 la when a = 1 Drastic intersection : I (a . b) < i (a. b) = b 0 otherwise. then b = i(b. Axiom 7. 11. A continuous tnorm that satisfies subldernpotency is called an Ardzimedean tnom. for any a b g [0. a I.9. We can see from these graphs that b) max(0. b E The following are examples of some tmorms that are frequently used as fuzzy intersections (each defined for all a. i(a.3 Fuzzy triterseetion: tNorms 63 various additional requirements. Axiom 16. Algebraic product : fl a. bz) (strict monotorticity). b E [0. a) =. Graphs of these four fuzzy intersections are shown in Fig. The axiom expresses the requirement that the membership grade in An. 11.r) have the same value a. b) . b) = mio(a. lia < b. Sirrkilarly. Assume that there exists a inorm such i (a a) = a for all a g (0. then a = i(a. Axiom i7 just expresses a monger form of mono tonicity. Theorem 3.Sec. b) < i (1 . Three of the most important requirements are expressed by the following axioms: Axiom 15. Proof: Clearly. i is a continuous function (continuity). 3. it • i b) b = min(a.6.) B. Standard intersection : i(a . if > b. Hence.19 in this special case must not exceed a. b) b and. the requirement that i(a. i (a b) = a = min(a b). 1) = that by monotonicity and the boundary condition. small change in the membership grade of either set A or set B would produce a large (discontinuous) change in the membership grade is A 1. The following theorem reveals another sipiificant property of the standard fuzzy intersection. Hence.. b) = ab. i(a. a) < i(a. mil*. 171) < (a2. a) <a (subidernporertcy). we call it subidempotency. b) = max(0. r at < a2 and b1 <b implies (a1. a) = a. Since this requirement is weaker than idempotency. if it also satisfies strict monotonicity. The standarid fuzzy intersection is the only idempotent t norm. 3. b). The axiom of continuity prevents a situation in which a vet]. it is called a strict Archimedean tnorm. Bounded difference : i (a. 13). 11.b — 1) ah < min(a.a for all a E [0. Axiom_ i6 deals with a special case in which both membership grades in A and B (for some . b) < (a. a + b — 1). Then. b) b) for all a .
44 illy 4144.. 0 . 4 4 Nr I"..4 4. °4.040.11.4 Oraphs of forty min (d) intersections...4.111•4* 410'4"birikarir. 4/tealip .414 .4" ikb•41.404. 4. •III• V .NIks.4. 41%.4P. •1141Y.1 4 1NI.0 • • rnfri max (o. 0 . l'Alp 4..1._41•4#4.4 4404 4404.. 41•4 114•4". • 41p# 4...•ii•ioN. "4. 1.a+b1) (a) (13) • ab (c) Figure 3.. iv 4.4*" 4N..4.4.. . 441‘41. 44. 40..41.. 4:041. 411•_ 0 de 41. NOti• 411.4 11 46510V4**. 44. . 4...4r 44 4141.401'1.44.0..4 0 1 4444.. 411.r.AP•ii.04.* 4 irtik. 4.4..1.41. 4 04 4 4114 .41.40 '.4•NtI*411F 4.1•411*.4.4%..4111%. .4.4iNotwip°41NE 04144'4°".4141'4 4" 4. ...... 4 411."14:€.441* 44. ••/• • .04. "VP 41. 4 W 1 4''1P 44. AI* 4Ir 4 •10. 44..41 1%WO1 4 1746.4. 464.4. Aillt.de* ‘ )1. 3 NeeNtiti• 414.i..7.0•400. 461... 4..A4t40.... 74 "4111 ..4"4. .".4 0444":~kir0. 4 ..#4_4. 60. 41.. drip * **N. .. 4 4 4 441.. 4p.. 46.64 Operations on Fumy Sets Chap...6***4.p 'NW AP it* IF N...* Ast .t11$10 414 rélko.. . ii• . 11104. 41.". 0..444. 4... qrste0k0 44.rillitardeil• 41* 4." .414..
3. ilia for any a e [0.1] with f2(0) = co. Specific examples of decreasing generators are: fi (a) 12(a) = 1   aP. i(a. These inequalities can also be proven mathematically. 1 ] .1] given by I. denotes the drastic intersection. b) is the lower bound of i (a . For all a . b) 0. which provides us with a method for generating Archimedean tnorros or classes of :norms.1] for a E (1.8. b c [0. b G [0. 1) = b. By monotonicity. rnonotonicity. 0) = (0. co) where f 1 is the ordinary inverse of f. 00). lor any a € [0. b). i (a. b) b when a = 1. = to.. introduced in Theorem 3. for a C (00. a) 5. From. (a .17) Proof: Upper bound. Hence.Sec. 0) i (0.co . fi1) (a) . b) b) and i (a b) G [0. 0) for a E [0. 11. respectively. 11 (p ›. the boundary condition. b) < a and i(ab) < IN that is.3 Fuzzy Intersections: tNorms 65 for all a.10. b) = O. i (a b) < nail (a b). I 1. A decreasing generator. i (a . The full range of all fuzzy intersections is specified in the next theorem. The pseudoinverse of P decreasing generator f denoted by f (13 . b) min(a. I]. Theorem 3. b) where i mm denotes the drastic intersection. by cornmutativity. f(0)] for a E (f (0). The concept of a decreasing generator and its pseudoinverse is illustrated in Fig. Since i(a.a)tili 0 . where imn..(1 . f (b. is a continuous and strictly decreasing function f from [O. b) for any a. 1] to R such that f(1) = O. b G [0. Their pseudoinverses are. 0) for a e [0.0). By the boundary condition and and. 1 ]. clearly. ff1) (a) =_. (3. Before formulating the theorem. / f 1 (47) 0 for a e (. Lower bound. b) = a when b = 1. is a function from B to t0.7. the drastic intersection We proceed now to one of the fundamental theorems of tnorms. i (a. let us discuss relevant definitions. • Hence. 3. and j (a.
is a function from R to 10. 1]. 3 (a) f(0) Figs= 3 7  DampIc of (a)  decrenaing gcncratgr and (13) its pscuckiinverso. co) 1 are: . AO)] a f (0) for a (f (0). denoted by g ». on).66 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Examples of increasing generators 1 0 for a (00. j. introduced in Theorem 3._ such that g(0) .(1> (a) e_. O.7. and pseudoinverse f") satisfy f(1) (f (a)) = a for any An increasing generator. 0) for a E [O. is a continuous and strictly increasing function g from [1:1„ 11 to 1/. The pseudoinverse of an Lacreasing generator g. 1] defined by l 0 for a E (—CC. 0) for a E(Oco). g(1)] for a E (g(1). l for a E (—cc. 0) g1 (a) for a E [0. A decreasing generator f and its E O. where g1 is the ordinary inverse of g .
Then g must be continuous.1. Thus.b). f(C) . and such that g(0) O. 1 ] and 0 g(g(1) (a)) =fa g(1) for a E (—M. Let f be a decreasing generator.(0) f(0) = O.f(i) = f (0) since f = O. For any a. we have f (a) = f(C) . g(1)] = [0. Thus. g(1)1 = [0. g is an increasing generator. clearly f (a) > f (b) and g(a) = f(0) f (a) < f (0) f (b) = g(b).a) Proof: Since f is a decreasing generator. Then a function g defined by g(a) f (0) f (a) for any a E [0.10 l1P _ a 1 for a E (00. Their pseudoinverses are. stricdy decreasing.f (a). 00). g(1) f(0) . 00). 0) for a c [0. f ( J)1. f is continuous. b c [0.3 Fuzzy Intersections: tNorens 67 g(a) aP (p > 0) for any a O. cc). Let b = g(a) . and such that f(1) O. _ Lemma 3. el)] /0 1.Sec.11 for a E (1. g is strictly increasing and g(0) f. 1] such that a < b.a).» satisfy g{1) (g(a)) a E [0. Moreover. then. o). Thus. and its pseudoinverse g (1) is given by g(1) (a) for any a E f (0) . 1] is an increasing generator with el) = PO). g is continuous. g' (a) . for any a E [0. f(0)j. The pseudoinverse of g is defined by for a Œ (—eci. 11 with g2(1) =oc. 11.b and a = f1 ( f (0) . 0) g") (a) z= g' a) for a E p. g2(a) = . for a E (—oo. 0) e { 0 I e for a E (0. respectively.t f 1 ( f (0) . (1) — gi. . for a E (&(l) . g(1)] for a c (g(1).In(1 a) for any a E [0. a for any An increasing generator g and its pseudoinverse gi. strictly increasing. Therefore. 3. (a ). As expressed by the following two lemmas. On the other hand. a E O. 0) for a E [0. decreasing generators and increasing generators can also be converted to each other.
j is an Archimeclean tnorm iff there exists a decreasing generator f such that (3. 1965 1 . 3 1 f 1 ( f (0) — 0 { a) for a E f (G) . U Theorem 3. 1 ]. b [0.g(1) given by g(a) is a decreasing generator with f (0) = s(I) and its pseudoinverse f{1) is = g(4) (g(1) — a) for any a E R. This completes the proof. norms are described in the literature. 1 ] Let g be an increasing generator. f(0)] i(1) (f (0) — a) for f(0) — a E f (0). 1963. cc) for a E [0. Ling. Then. co) 0 Chap. f(0)] for a {0 g1 (a) 1 Therefore. Let j be a binary operation on the unit interval. Proof: [Schweizer and Sklar. for any a c [0. The following are examples of three parametrized classes of decreasing generators and the corresponding classes of tnorms.r.1. 1963]: parameter p is defmed by Then The class of decreasing generators distinguished by fj„(a) = 1 — aP (p 4 0)• 7 .11 (Characterization Theorem of tNorms). In each case.2. we identify them by their authors and relevant references.. 1. ESchweizer and Skla. the parameter is used as a subscript of Y and 1 to distinguish different generators and tnorms in each class.68 Operations on Fuzzy Sets for f (0) a E (CC.18). co). Then the function f defined by f(a) = . fo r a for a E[O g(1)] for a E (s(1). g{1) (a) = r"(f(0) — a). • Lemma 3. • Given a decreasing generator f. 13) {1 = f f (0) — a) for f(0) — a E [O. Since these classes of t.18) for ali a. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Lemma 3. we can construct a tnorm by (3.
[Yager. 3. . s 0 1).) (2 — aP — bP) { (aP ± bP — 1)I/P O (rnax(0. tNcrrns when f 1 (z) = Z Z 69 E (—CO.(v1) 0 + (1 — b)W) + (1 — b)w) 1h4' when (1 — otherwise + (1 — e [0. = Jet" f. (a) ÷ fy (b)) (sa = fs(_1) [_ — 1)(s4' — (s 1)2 = = [1 T. 1. 1980f]: Given a class of decreasing generators f. 1(1 — + (1 — 3.Sec. 19791: This class of tnorms is based on the class of decreasing generators s —1 (s 0. (1 ± (s Employing (3.)(s" — s — i. whose pseudoinverses are given by f. 0) I1 — . co) and we obtain the corresponding class of tnortn.18).(1) (z) = log. 1] when z (1. b) = f( fp(a) ÷ fp(b)) = f]. [Frank. we obtain is (a. — 6 )' Oil 0). aP bP when 2 — aP — bP E fD. 00) = f. 1)ez). we obtain f(z) =— o and b) = fw(a) f w (h)) when z E IJI1 when Z E (1. otherwise I] 2. 1] = 1 — min(1.z) i'F' (1 0 whcil [0.3 Fuzzy Intersections. (s17 I.18): ip (a.s by applying (3.(a) (1.
Since the intersection is analogous to the logical AND (conjunction). b E [O. new t norms can also be generated on the basis of known tnorms. The three classes of fuzzy intersections introduced in this section. The various t norms of the Yager class. In contrast to this. It is trivial that b) = b and i„(a. — b)/ 1/11) 3 = max[lL — a.17). b) = I . may be interpreted as perforMing fuzzy intersections of various strengths.19). Let i„ denote the class of Yager rnorms defined by (3. performed. The Yager intersection for which w= 1. it petfurnis a strung intersection with a high demand for simultaneous set membership.19) It is significant that this class covers the whoie range of tnorms eipressed by (3.70 Operations on Fuzzy Sis examine one of the three introduced classes of tnorms.) < (a b) < min(a.17. 1— hi. It is also easy to show that liraftl hence. we know that lim1iIL [(I Thus. They are identified. the table includes its definition. 3 Let us i w (a. Thus. performs a weak . (3. ± (1. lim Ml4 O b) = 0 tor all a. its decreasing generator (if applicable). by the references in which they were published.  . then. intersection that allows the lowest degree of membership in either set to dictate the degree of membership in their intersection. while other classes cover only a part of the range. it generally demands simultaneous satisfaction of the operands of A and B. In effect. which is the bounded difference. the Yager functio n for which w oci. Proof: Lower bound. + (1 — bri t!' co. b e [0. 11. 1) = a independent of w.2. We can see that some classes cover the whole range of tnorms expressed by (3. are summarized in Table 3. as well as some other classes covered in the literature. As stated in the following theorem. b). which are defined by different choices of the parameter w. returns a positive value only when the summation of the membership grades in the two sets exceeds 1.8a illustrate how the Yager fuzzy intersections increase as the value of w increases. this operation shows the least demand for simultaneous set membership. Then b. From the proof of Theorem 3. rnin(1. the value 11w can be interpreted as the degree of strength of the intersection. m b) naaK1 — a.1a and Fig.. and the resulting functions for the two extreme limits of the parameter. the Yager class Chap. Far each class. the range of its parameter. 3. Thus. Theorem 3. 1(1 — a) w ÷ (1 — 1191 1»') (it > 0).17). which concludes the proof. 1 — b] = rnin(a. This property of i stated in the following theorem. which is the standard fuzzy intersection. Table 3. b) for all a.12.1)_ Upper bound.
2.5 .5 .75 .5 . .25 0 ..5 .5 .5 .5 .5 .25 0 . 1 IIIIMEHIN Ei . 0 a .46 .75 15 w 10 .5 5 .54 .75 .25 . 25 0 .75 . !. .75 .5 .75 . .25 25 ..5 .75 0 EIMI 0 0 EN 0 0 0 0 0 0 w .71 .75 .20 0 .5 .75 .5 .75 1 .25 0 10 0 0 .5 . 1 .75 .75 .5 .25 0 0 0 .25 0 w .75 .5 Ell .5 .25 1 w 0 MMEMIRIMIII ..25 0 ° EIBECIIN o .25 .75 :25 .27 . 3.75 .5 0 25 1 .5 35 .5 .9 I . .25 0 .79 0 .25 0 .25 0 .75 1 1 (weak) .56 .25 IL 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 .9 .75 . .3 Fuzzy Intersections: (Norms EXAMPLES OF FUZZY SET OPERATIONS FROM THE YAGER CLASS i(a) Fuzzy intersections b .5 .56.75 .25 I (strong) .5 35 .79 .8 ._ .5 .75  1 1 3 1 1 1 0 1 .2.5 .5 .25 .75 .1 a= .5 .5 .s .5 o ° 1:11 0 IIIIEIEI 0 0 O 00 0 0 CI .5 .15 0 1 35 .25 .= 0 .75 I 3 1 I .75 .75 .Sec.75 .5 .5 .75 I w=2 0 1 .75 .75 11 TABLE 3.65 IN 0 Ell _29 11:1 .25 0 o (w eak) 0 1 .Z5.1 a= .5 1 .: I .25 . .25 0 CI 0 0 0 0 0 11211111111111 0 .75 b= 0 .5 .25 EIEMEIMI 0 NM .25 0 EA 0 (b) Fuzzy unions b a .75 .25 .5 1 J I .23 ' 1 1 .75 1 1 .25 1 .5 .75 I .
72 Operatiuus (JP Fuzzy Sets Chap. 3 w= 3 I (a) kigure 3.8 Eiplc cf uzzoi Midsections and fiumy.unions from the Yager classes. .
.. 3.w. .Sec... w1.c5 u w• • w1 0 (b) Figure 3..3 Fuzzy Intersections: t Norms 73 u.5 u .„: w=3 u.8 (eottrinvied) Examples of fuzzy'intersections and fuzzy micas from the Yager classes.„.
20 + b .IA wilak Schwa= & Sklar 1 [1963] lama aP Fe  1)11.i) + (T ..b) !mai (O. 'Yu [1985] ini4 0. Ca. al › 0 imin (a. = 1.1• MI. a) Dux (0. b) ab ab wheal p = 1 p>0 Oa %Own p : Yager 139801 1  ntin 11.1 Schwcizer &Sklar 3 Schwcizer &Skins 4 exP(. 1 ab as J.ta.. 111 rnin(a. a ± b .OP (1 . IWO' I a P 1 p .1 i 1 1 range converges la 0 tolor 1 x Dunbi [1982/ J. 13) ab a+bab ab as s i. b. a +b +lab 1) a e [0.  A 1 1 › .1)} _ la te 1\ s › G. IJ) as A 0 Weber [1983 ]  : 1+1 1 141 .1 max(0„ a + h . X›0 imi.ab • . 0 ...i)  ab a + 6 . (1..r1(.1) ntax[0... b) Decreasing Parameier As parameter An parainew mayerg. b) ab when p .1 wbea X = 1.lbircizcr 4 Sklar 2 .11) 61. + b + ab ..1..r().TABLE 3. 1  Hamacher [1978] ab r + (1 . 4.(a. vieTatar f (a) A.I ) i 1 I l ea..(1 . = 1 Drubola 1 Wade [19801 ab maz(a. raa. 1: .43..1) maxill.abl2  when X.. s 54 1  nail*.1) when i oh when a.r)a) r Ci ab when r = 1 max(O. Sr. a F b .1° )) al.. a ÷ b .. 1a.0 + b . 1  aP 19 0 0 all ab a + b .ar .1> 1 .)Ca + b 1)  lab] 1 I+1 3.ClinaiP +11111. [(1  a? + (1 brill  . . (1 1 .i...aej p> 0 1.1.ab) In (r 4 Oa.b)0 1) (1 101 .2 Rcromice SOME CLASSES OF FUZZY INTERSECTIONS (iNORMS) Porroula I (a.ab when I Fraglt flg791 16Kr [1+ 4A .lgrh .111 1 + Aa ' . b) (! .
where g (1) denotes the pseudoinverse of g. Whose pseudoinverse is the function g (—I} (2. the function is defined by a r h) = 1 1 '(i(S(a). Then.norn1 and let . g(b))) (3. 1) and g(0) = O. other methods for ohtnining new r riorms from given t norms.20) for all a. • a 1 To illustrate the moaning of this theorem. b) re_ax(0. 1 when z E 1] (Fig. it necessary to cover them in this text. 2 Graphs of g and e1) are shown in Fig. which Are based on various ways of combining several tnorms into one tnonn. (a + b ah — 1)/2). ti E [0. 11. we readily obtain i' (a. is also a rnorrn. Considering now another increasing geaerator defined by when a 0 1 g(41) 1 when. Givea now ga.) { 2z when z E LO.3 Fuzzy intersections: torn* 75 Theorem 3. 1] be a function such th. b) = I a when a = when b = 1 otherwise ab for the same tnorm i(a. let g(a) { 0 2 when a 0 when a = O.at is strictly increasing and continuous in (0. The pseudoinverse of g is the function { 2z — 1 when z e [0.9b)1 we obtain ig(a.13_ Let i he a r . b) = There are. but vim do not deem. 1] [0. b) = ab.  . a = 1.11.. 3. Proof: See Appendix D.9a.Sec. 3. g(1) = 1.3 [O. 1) when z [ 1. 3.
11 The argument to this function is the pair consisting of the membership grade of some element x in fuzzy set A and the membership grade of that same element in fuzzy set B. the general fuzzy union of two fuzzy sets A and B is specified by a function u [0. 1] [0. . The function returns the membership grade of the element in the set A LI B. 1] [0.zzy Sets Chap.76 OpQqatirans on Pu. Thus. Like fuzzy intersection.4 FUZZY UNIONS: tCONORMS The discussion of fuzzy unions closely parallels that of fuzzy intersections. 3 1 1/2 307 (a) (a) 5(a) (b) Figure 19 Illusiration of Theorem 3.11 3.
= u(b. 1) = u(1. b). Axiom u7. b e p. the axioms are justified on the same grounds as those for fuzzy intersections. Axiom uZ. d) (ilsonotarticRy). b2) (strict monowniciv). a) ›.5. but observe that the requirement of subidempotency for fuzzy intersections is replaced here with the requirement of superidempotency. 0) = u (1.21) all x € X. Otherwise. • The following are examples of some tconorms that are frequently used' as fuzzy unions (each defined for all a. Properties that a function u must satisfy to be intuitively acceptable as a fuzzy union are exactly the same as properties of functions that are known in the literature as tcoaarms. These axioms are analogous to Axioms 1547 for fuzzy intersections.21) becomes the classical set union when sets A and B are crisp: u (0. 1) = 1. These functions. B(x)) for (3. The following theorem shows that the standard fuzzy union is significant with respect to idempotency. u (a. d)) = u(24 (a. d E [0. u(a. We may thus use the terms "tconorms" and "fuzzy unions" interchangeably. The standard fuzzy union is the only idempotent tconorm..4 Fuzzy Unions: tCorionris 77 (A L) B)(x) tefA(x).a (superidempotency). 1]: Axiom ul. u(a Axiom u44 u (a . b1) < u(a2. a) (commutativity) Axiom u3. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. it is called strictly Archimedean. u(b. u is a continuous function (continuity).union. . we call it the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy . The most important additional requirements for fuzzy Illii0115 are expressed by the following axioms: Axiom u. 0) = a (boundary condition).Sec. Since this set of axioms is essential for fuzzy unions. capture exactly the full scope of fuzzy unions. b.14. d) (associativity). b d implies “(a b) u(a. 3.s1tconorms. if it is also strictly monotonic. Theorem 3. Any continuous and superidempoteat tconorm is called Ardarnedean. Axiom u6. Comparing Axioms ul—u4 with Axioms il14. ' ai <a2 and bi <b2 implies u(ai.9. A fuzzy unionitconorm u is a binary operation on the unit interval that satisfies at least the following axioms for all a. which are now well developed. Axioms ul through u3 ensure that the fuzzy union defined by (3. 0) = 0. we can see that they differ only in the boundary condition. u(0.
1] when z E (1. 1965]. 1 .10. when Graphs of these four fuzzy unions are shown in Fig. b). b) u m. b E (0. Then.23): .15.23). b) (a. 3 Drastic union: u (a . b E [0.16 (Characterization Theorem of rConorms). a counterpart of Theorem 3. The following are examples of three parameterized classes of increasing generators and the corresponding classes of tconorms. • Given an increasing generator g. u (a. 3. Theorem 3. 1963): The class of increasing generators is defined by gp (a) Then. 1. 1963.22) Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3.(o b). We can see from the graphs that maxta. The full range of fuzzy unions is specified in the following theorem.. 1 — (1 — a)? (pÙ). 00) and we obtain the corresponding class of tconorrns by applying (3. Theorem 3.three classes of t norms introduced in Sec. Ling. b) = max(a. b) = a ± b — ab. [Schweizer and Sklar. ] Proof: [Schweizer and Sklar. max(a. <a+b — ab < min(L a I. which provides us with a method for generating Archimedean tconorras or classes of conorm3. (3. which are counterparts of the .3. Bounded sum: tt (a. For all a. b) = { b= 0 a when a = 0 L 1 otherwise.78 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Standard union.10. we can construct a tconorre u by (3. Let 14 be a binarSr operation on the unit interval. These inequalities can also be proven mathematically.b) < 14(a b) for all a. 111 . 11. a ± b).We now proceed to a fundamental theorem of tconorms.23) u(a b) = g (1) (g(a) g(b)) for all a. Chap. 1j. u is an Archimedean tconorm iff there exists an increasing generator such that (3. Algebraic sum: u(a .11. b) = min(1. where u denotes the drastic union. b E [0. — (1 — 41) (z) = 1 1 when z E [0.
4644..49.0".4. 41. .40.4. 4 .44. 4.4r. 4.41.4 41..474T.440.4..44. 40 4 11 Att$4$4A: pr. U pray min (1 . 0 4.44714.. .azy tizious.4 4Z 4 .404. 4 4". . 4t1. 4e4tee'4 4 4100441*** 41. max (d) . • + dip4• .4.4pAir iNi• 4.4. 4.44 . .41. 41. i' 4. 4.4r • .4. 44114. 6.r 441poroVt4444.. 4..441. ." 1 Ark 44.01.u+b) (a) (b) a+bab (e) Figure 3.4..441. 444r.4.4P444 40 104.4 r 1 he 4.4"..4. 1P. . 4 11•1%..Sec 3_4 Fuzzy Unions: tConorms 79 4 alp .4.04.40 4. 4 48. 1.41.414. 4' 44 4 24 4.+040411'..21fripardpirs.4.4.110 Graphs of fr.47.41..1 .11' 44e.4. 4' . .4° . tor. 4P411.4104..4 44%. 4".4.111.
wet 3. (a w b w ) 11w ). (a' + b") 1/19 max(a b).17. the proof reduces to the demonstration that Um (a' bw ) 11w = max(a.11 otherwise 2. 3. this class covers the whole range of tconomis. 1] when z E (1.5 111 we obtain a. Proof: Lower bound.24). Let u„. (a) —1 s— 1 whose pseudoinverses are g. We have to prove that lim min[1. If a b and the min equals (aw bw) l/w. 1)(s1b — 1)1 s 1  J . b E [O. u. class of increasing generators g(a)=a u' 0). [Frank. + bw) 11") (w > 0). 1980f]: Given a.80 p (a Operations on Fuzzy Sets b) = 41) (1 — (1 —a)' 1 1 = 1 — {max(0. because the limit of 2V' as w equals 1 . (1 ± (s — (. 1979]: Using the class of increasing generators g. z e [0. . (a . (1 — a)P ± (1 — b)P — — — Chao.!1) (z) = 1 — log.24) As stated by the following theorem. max(a. Theorem 3.(a < uniza(a b) for all a. (3 a5 ) This is obvious whenever (1) a or b equal 0. 3 (1 — 17) 7) [(1 _ a)P + (1 —b) 7 1r/P when 2 — (1 — a)' —(1 —b)' E [0. Let us further examine only the Yager class of tconorms b) = min(1. (3. b). we obtain = /111' when. — log. denote the class of Yager tconorms defined by (3. oci) and b) = g » (au + VI ) = min(1. [Yager. Then.. or (2) a = b.
On the other hand. (a/b)w max(a. Hence. 0) = u independent of tv. which is the standard fuzzy union. with no loss of generality. It is trivial that u(0. Then Iit 1. 3. the i conorms of the Yager class represeut fuzzy unions that increase in strength as the value of the parameter w increases. 1. represents the strongest fuzzy union.4 Fuzzy Unions: t Conorms (a' 81 Let us assume. Hence. b) 1 for all a. 3. Upper bound.w bw) Lira > or bw > the last inequality holds if a = 1 ùr b for all to G co).  . we may interpret the value 11w as indicating the degree of interchangeability present in the union operation uw . that a < b. b) b and u(a. It is also easy to show that lint (a + b»u = oo . (3. The Yager tconorm for which u) 1.1]. and kt Q hm in Q 111. is very weak and indicates perfect interchangeability between the two arguments. (42. u w (a.1b and Fig. Table 3.0 In(a + 1. each of them is a counterpart of one of the classes of fuzzy intersections in 'rabic 3. the Yager tgoonorna for which w t7o. In fact.2. Various classes of fuzzy unions covered in the literature are summarized in Table 3. which are defined by different choices of the parameter w. which is the bounded sum. b c [0. can be interpreted as performing union operations otvasious strengths.25) is again satisfied. b [0. The notion of the set union operation corresponds to the logical OR (disjunction).f1') Using l'Hospital's rule.8b illustrate how the values produced by the Yager functions for fuzzy unions decrease as the value of ut increases. in which some interchangeability between the two arguments of the statement "A or B" is assumed. hence.2. b)).3.6. When w I (since a. In this case. we obtain urn lnQ = lirn 43 JR CC.0.60 Q 11m (a' + bw ) liw b i60 It remains to show that (3.Sec. a'Ina+bwinb a +1) 11' (a Ib)t 'ma + Inb = lirn = la b.6% bw)liw. In this sense. 11).5) is still valid when the min equals 1 . • The various functions of the Yager class.
is Ibmacher [197&) a+b+fr  Zab . b) Increasing Parameter generator g(a) range As palaraete! cooyerRes to 0 As parametzr move to 1 or 1 : Dbi [19821 .2)1P + I Ina — b)I?) 1 ) ti EWE (a.x Schweizer & Skikur 2 Schwelser & Sklar 3 Schsmizer & Sklar 4 [aP + b' . b) a + 43 .ab .ab when a Dlibois — a E [Et .ab %Alta p Mix' (1.i) A ] 1 ( b 014 _ iusir.t2}P P00 a +bab a+b2b i .TABLE 3. I. ta >o umax (a.(comx(0.v" 17 al .W . b) 1 . a + b + a wbea À = 1. a + b) raia(1. (1 .(1 .ai  2ab a+ b  ab wheal r Schweizer & Skial 1 11963j mith(1.b) .1.3 Referenœ SOME CLASSES OF FUZZY UNIONS (tCONORMS) Format u(a. 'Rehm 1 . 11 max(a.1 p>0 p>G M1512X (a. _ 1 )] Frank 119791 1 .4a + r5 ai when 1. a + i + Aai) . a + b) wittn .a). a + b . a + b).4i +b .la(1 + AO A .(! . 1 .aPbP)i In[l elf [Intl .1 .log. (a' + tcni] A aw . . yoben . p›0 a+b  ab a+b ) b 7. a+baba. i» mina. Yager [19801 & Pa& ON rain [1.a)1P (1 . > 1 min(1.0 + b .la 1 (  a ) ) r >0 a+b 1 .1 )Ø 1 .fIt a a A or Yu [ 185I mina ..OP + (1 .(1aX1. > 1 mina. a + b) 0110(1. = 1.ev(—(110(1 — .1 ab) 1. b) Weber [19831 FRIA (1.ai when p a + b . I + .
1] 4.x (a . (3.Seo. b E [0. Hence.5 COMBINATIONS OF OPERATIONS In classical set theory. 3. a + b ab. the operations of intersection and union are dual with respect to the complement in the sense that they satisfy the De Morgan laws ArIB=AUB and AUE = n B. 1] be a function such that (0.18. tcononns. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. c.e.26) for all a. we leave it to the reader as an exercise to try some of these constructions.) (max(0. Then. c(b)) and c(u(a. raia. g is strictly increasing and continuous in Let u be a tcononn and let g [0. We say that a tnorm i and a tcononn u are dual with respect to a fuzzy complement c iff c (i (a . u. Let the triple (i. 1) and g(0) 0.20). c) Several useful characteristics of the duality between tnorms and rconorms are expressed by the following six theorems. 3. new tconorrns can also be generated on the basis of known tconorrns.27) (3.[0.. c) denote that i and u are dual with respect to c. and let any such triple be called a dual triple. the function u g (43 = g(1) 014(a). c. h).26) is virtually the same as the construction of new :norms from given tnorms by (3.5 Combinations *1 Operations B3 As stated by the following theorem. The theorem is a counterpart of Theorem 3. there are additional methods for constructing new tconorrns from given tcononns. g(1) = 1.(a.11 is also a toortorm.13. The construction of new toottorms from.) b). g(b))) ug defined by (3. a + b). and fuzzy complements can satisfy the duality.N ) (ab.28) 'These equations describe the De Morgan laws for fuzzy sets. Theorem 3. a + b — 1). In analogy to tnorms. b)) = u(c(a).13.. given tconorms by (3. We can easily verify that the following are dual tnorms and tconorms with respect to the standard èomplement G (i. c(b)).e. min(1. b). It is obvious that only some combinations of tnorms. but they are not covered in this text due to space constraints. It is desirable that this duality be satisfied for fuzzy sets as well. . b). u. dual triples): (min (a . h)) = «c (a).
c) are dtiat with respect to any fuzzy complement c. u satisfies Axiom ill. u(a. Hence. c(b)) by Axiom 12. b G p. which shows that u satisfies Axiom u2. b.29). that a b. by (3. The triples (min. (c(a). 1] is a tconorm such that 0 is a:dual triple.29) and Axiom i3. c(a))) = u (b . c(b) = c(max(a. Then. b. Given a o'peration u on [0. c(d))) u(a. rnin(c(a). 0) = c(i (c (a). 1]. then c(b) > c(d). c. Proof. a) by (3. b) = c(i(c(a). 1]. 1] defined by i and an involutive fuzzy complement c(i(c(a).20. max.19.29) for all a.. c(b))) = c(i(c(b). Proof: Assume. that is. u. 1]. max(c(a). is le ft to the reader as tIICIM1 N Theorem 3. we have to show that it satisfies Axioms ul—u4. hence. d [0. we have u (a . c(a) c(b) for arty fuzzy complement and. and u adi. if b < d. 1)) (by (3. (u3) For a.29) is a t001:101M. c(b))) (i. Moreover. a Hence. c(b))) c(i(c(a). c(b)) = c(a) = c(min(a. b) = c(i(c(a). To prove that u given by (3. ( 12) For any a. c) and 0. c(0))) e(i(c(a). d). an exercise. u (a . b)).. without any Loss of generality.29)) (by Axiom cl) = c(c(a)) (by Axiom il) (by Axiom c4). (u1) For any a e [0.. [0.ny a. the binary u(a b) (3. u3. u satisfies Axiom. 14. . t)).84 Operat[OnR on Fuzzy Si Chap 3 Theorem 3. c(b)) The proof for i.
To illustrate the utility of this theorem.29)) (by (3. c(b)))). u satisfies Axiom u4 and.29) and Axiom c4. b)). ab and this tconorm are dual with. (c (i (c (b).29)). it is a tconorra. d)) = c(i(c(a). c(b)). the tnorm. consequently. By employing (3. 14. b. Hence. b) ab and the Sugeno class of fuzzy coraplements I a cA (a) = ›. we obtain the class of tconorras u x (a. d E [0. ex (b))) (a. c(u(b. c(d)))))) = c(i(c(a).29). u(b. c(b)))) = gc(a) OW).3: a ± b ± (r — 2)ab (r > 0). we obtain the Harnacher class of tconorms defined in Table 3. 3. c(d)))) c(i (i(c(a). b). ur(a ' 17) = 1+ (r 1)ab For X = 0 (and r = 1). taking r = X +1. consider the tnorm i (a. Hence. respect to the standard 2) we obtain the tconorra 1 (and r fuzzy complement.See.Xa By applying these operations to (3. .29)) (i (c(a).—1). b) = cx (i(cx (a).ab Now. For A: a+b I ab and the fuzzy complement . d)))) (by (3. c(c(b)))) = Hence.A. we obtain the standard fuzzy complement and the tconorm a ÷ b ab. ri — a 1 b 1±Xb I — I. 1 . = c(i(c(c(a)). c(d))) (by Axiom c4) (by isaioal 14) = c(i (c(c(i (c(). (c(b). (by Axiom c4) (by (3. u(a. i and u are dual with respect to c. c(d))) = u(u(a. we can now show that u satisfies the De Morgan laws: = c(e(i Ma).5 Combinations of Operations ] 05 (u4) For any a.
Given an involutive fuzzy complement c and an increasing generator g of c.  That is. c(b)) = g (1) (s(g 1 1(g(l) g(a))) g(g 1 (g(1) g(b))) g(1)) = = encs. J ab..20. Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Theorem 3. 3 a + b 1 . b) u(a . 1 ]. Proof For any a. c). 1] The following theorem enables us to generate pairs of dual tnonns and tconorms for any given involutivc fuzzy complement c and an increasing generator of c. c (14 (a .g(1)) 1) . Theorem 321.s'(g (1 (ea) = g 1 4( 1) mintg( 1 ). u. b)) = i(c(a). the binary operation i on [0.g(b)).22. b) = max (0. ea) = g(1) (g(1) g(a) . a +biÂab . 1]. (b)). Applying this theorem to the Sugeno class of fuzzy complements. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. i(c(a). we have c(a) = g1 (g(1) i (a.( cu(a. Given a tconoun u and an involutive fuzzy complement c. g(b)))) g(b))) (g (1) .86 Hence. b c [0.a\ 1+ab t 1+4 . b) g(b) g(1)). whose increasing generators g are defined by 1 g(a) = Ina + (Â > 1) for all a G [0.30) for all a. we obtain i(a. b is a tnorm such that (I. b) = c(u(c(a). the tnorm and tconorm generated by g are dual with respect to c. c(b))) (3.g(a) . 1] defined by i(a. 111 E [0. Hence. b)) = e l) Cgœ g(a) g(1) g(b) .g(b)).
These properties are formally expressed by the following two theorems. 1].22 satisfies the law of excluded middle and the law of contraction. Moreover. c) does not satisfy the distributive laws. that the Weber and Yu tnorms and conorms are identical for the standard fuzzy complement (X = 0). and 1. Note that each dual triple i.22. 11 Hence. 3.23. c) obtained by Theorem 3. u. That is. c satisfy the law 6f excluded middle and the law of contradiction. tnorms and tconorms of each of these classes are dual with respect to the standard fuzzy complement. u c) be a dual triple generated by Theorem 3.5 Combinations of Operations 87 which is the ciass of Weber :norms (Table 3. (j .. b) mina. c(a)) = g(1) (g(a) g(c(a))) g (g1 (g (1) — g(a)))) = g(1) (g(a) g(1) = ( 0)) = for all 1 a E [0. c(a)) = gti) (ea) g(c(a)) (1 )) = g(1) (g(a) eel fs(1) g(a))) g(1)) = g (1) (g(a) g(1) — g(a) el)) el) (0) = for all a E [0. +b which is the class of Yu tconorms (Table 3.1). d)) . but they do not satisfy the distributive laws of the Boolean lattice (Table 1.4(a. • Theorem 3.g(a) u (a b) = Then. however.Sec.24. «a. u. g(b) u(a. That is. d)) = u(i (a b). the law of excluded middle is satisfied. Then.. the fuzzy operations i. That is. u. Let (i. c) be a dual triple that satisfies the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction. Then. Proof: Assume that the distributive law u(b.3). (a. Theorem 3. the Weber tnorms and the Yu tconorms are dual with respect to the Sugeno complements for any X > —t Observe. we have Oa) = e(g(1) — i (a b) = euf.2). u. Proof: According to Theorem 3_22. Iet (1. the Law of contradiction is also satisfied.
Then.80 is satisfied for all a. and very low. Let c be the equilibrium of c. medium. 1) = 1 (boundary conditions). for example. . u (e e)) = u(i(e e). h(0.. (e. h must satisfy at least the following three axiomatic requirements. A(x) h(A i (x). In an analogous way. e c(0) = 1 and c(1) = 0. 3. in terms of a single fuzzy set. function h produces an aggregate When applied to fuzzy sets Al. an appropriate aggregation operation would produce a meaningful expression. Clearly. which express the essence of the notion of aggregation: Axiom hi. 1]. in all its arguments. applying e to the above distributive law. a„ b. 1]. and each of these linguistic labels is captured by an appropriate fuzzy set defined on the interval [0.1 since d e [0. very high.0). 1. the distributive law does not hold. . e N„. we i(e. E 10. 112 (X). we can prove that the dual distributive law does not hold either. ir [0. 1) = u(0.100].. 0) = 0 and h(1. e) and i(e. Hence. defined on X. c(c)) = Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. az. 11 for all i E 14„„ if ezi . 0. bi for all i Axiom h2. we obtain we have i(e. fuzzy set A by operating on the membership grades of these sets for each x E X. b2. This contradicts the requirement that e 0 0. e). e) = i(e. any aggregation operation On n fuzzy sets (n > 2) is defined by a fu. Assume. A„(x)). then b. c(e)) = O. that is. h is inonoto. a„) and (b1. For any pair (al . for each x E X.6 AGGREGATION OPERATIONS Aggregation operations on fuzzy sets are operations by which several fuzzy sets are combined in a desirable way to produce a single fuzzy set.) h(bi. substituting for u(e. which results (by Axioms il and ul) in e = O. . e)).nctiun h [0. Now. A2. obtain ti(ei e) =` u(e.). Formally. that a student's performance (expressed in %) in four courses taken in a particular semester is described as high.) of ntuples such that h(ai. In order to qualify as an intuitively meaningful aggregation function. Thus. By the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction. 3 0.nic increasing a. (e. of the overall performance of the student in the given semester. 19.
.. If this assumption is not warranted in some application contexts.) E [0. all aggregation operations between the standard fuzzy intersection and the standard fuzzy union are idempotent.31)..a2. It is significant that any aggregation operation h that satisfies Axioms h2 and h5 satisfies also the inequalities min(a a2. ] Axiom h4 reflects the usual assumption that the aggregated fuzzy sets arc equally important. That is. h is a continuous function_ Besides these essential and easily understood requirements. we may conclude that functions h that satisfy (3.. a2..ai. a. 11. that is. aggregating operations on fuzzy sets are usually expected to satisfy fwo additional axiomatic requirements. it must satisfy Axiom 115. their property of associativity provides a mechanism for extending their definitions to any number of arguments. Moreover. a. If h satisfies Axioms la and h5. 1 a) < h(a..31) are the Only aggregation operations that are idempotent. then a.. Conversely.14. These are defined by the formula =441 ( pi (3. a') = a*. a. for all a E [0..a) <max(a. for all a E [Op 1 ) = h (ap(t) ap. However.. We can easily see that fuzzy intersections and unions qualify as aggregation operations on fuzzy sets. h is a symmetrk function in all its arguments. . . the symmetry axiom must be dropped. .. 3..6 Aggregation Operations 89 Axiom 113 . h.. for any permutation p on N„. One class of averaging operations that covers the entire interval between the min and max operations consists of generalized means. for all tituples (a i . Axiom h5. that is. a) ‹ rnax(a. a. (3. a2. Observe that Axiom h5 subsumes Axiom hl. h is an idempotent function. a.31) a„). with the exception of the standard min and max operations. if h satisfies (3. an ) < h(a* . . a2 .. a)<Ia... Axiom 135 expresses our intuition that any aggregation of equal fuzzy sets should result in the same fuzzy set. These aggregation operations are usually called averagtng operations.32) . by Theorems 3_9 and 3. fuzzy intersections and unions are not idempotent..See. (a I .(2) . a*. let a21 an ) and a* = max(a l . a) < a2... Axiom 11 4. a. To see this. = h(a. Although they are defined for only two arguments. I] . . since a = min(a.
a is a parameter by which where a E TR (a 5k 0) and ai for any i e mt. a„) = max(a / . the function h. an) = . For a <O and ai O. n • = (al a2 . a. a2. • . (a t • a2 • • • To show this.) converges to O. with its lower bound a2. ai. a. consequently.s to the geometric hc. • • an. Another class of aggregation operations that covers the entire interval between the min and max operations is called the class of ordered weighted averaging operations.• • ±a) which is the arithmetic mean. 1] for all i e N. symmetric. it represents a parametrized class of continuous. a2 1 • •t = Jim h a (a i . Ina„ = ln(ai a2 • an) lin . az . it is easy to see that different means are distinguished. a —J. and Then. In a2 • + a: In an lim1nh — in al + tua2 Hence.(al./ Function h. Iim 0 Ir = a01 + OE + ard — inn Using l'Hospital's rule. a„) = lim cr4ao (al. cor_perge. an ) and its upper bound hoo(al. the acronym OWA is often used in the literature to refer to these operations. an OTVA operation associated with w is the function w2b2 + • • • + wnbn hw(ai. • 1 an) = —(at a2 . It also satisfies the inequalities (331) for all Œ E R. a2. hx(at. For a —1. a2. For a let us first determine the limit mean. we now have a! In a l ± a. .) — ai a2 + a which is the harmonic mean.„ satisfies Axioms hi through h5.SO Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. 3 0 for all if N„ when. a < 0. • . fora = 1. Let be rt iveightiag vector such that tvi [0. a„) = rnin(aL. iz_ i (ai a2. and idempotent aggregation operations. a2.
also the inequalities (3.Sec. Therefore. ljn). a. :1=1 (3.1] for all i E N.) a. Then.6. Proof: Let Mai ) tVi 0. For w 1/n. to w*. b. lr Ri" be a function that satisfies Axiom hi. + nR ica.. by varying the a. E . aft) E w1a1 . In general.1 < .4 x .6+ .(b) e Pl„.9. a„).2.9 i. is the arithmetic mean. (3. 1966]. we can cover the whole range between min and max. an). for any a. 1h2. bn ) is a permutation of vcctor i j E bg > b if i < j for any pair Given. satisfy Axioms hi through 115. That is. .31).33) ai. is the jai largest element in a!.) in which the elements are ordered: (b1 .7 t. a„) max(al.„a„ h1 (a1 ) + 1z2(a2) + = total to2a2 + E mai This compices the proof. Axiom aiD h(bi. a/. ai Let h U .) u.2. Next. w = (.. E [0.3 x . 0) for all i h i (a) 4. a2. vector where bi for any i E N.szigarrient of weights from w. for example. .2 x . That is. hi (a . . The lower and upper bounds are obtained for respectively. ft is easy to verify that the OTNA operations IN„. • • • ± b.(. and the property h (al + where ai hi . b2. . . h(0. These formulations are a subject of the following three theorems.34) 0 for all ï E N. Theorem 325.) = min (al . b2. . .2 = . Its solution is h i (a)= tvia for any a [0 IL where .4). + tin) /4314 az t2. a + b E This is a wellinvestigated functional equation referred to as Cauchy 's fialctionat equation. 3_6 Aggregation Operations 91 a„. let us formulate three classes of aggregation operations. . where [0.7) — .3. and consequently. a. a2. wi [Acz61.5 4 .1. each of which satisfies a particular compositional property. h. Then. a 1 O. we have h.
36).1 . when a l = a2 = = h (a. • . a2. consequently. an).h(0. ai .• e N. . wit For any ai e [0. nondecreasing. In this case. a2. ir h3.. bi). h. . 1 ] such that h(ai . C). hi (ai ) = hi (hi (k)) = h i (b g ) =a1 =I rain(wi . given by (137).. (3. . defuied in Theorem 3. we have if h also satisfies Axiom h5. . a2. h(0. (3. 0). b1). where wi c [0. h(11. h(bi. It remains to prove. 47. and the properties h (min(a 1 .27. Axiom 113. an ) = max(min(tui . O. h(0. Observe that h(ai. 0) for all E (3.) with max(h(0.a. 0). a) E tv•a = a E . 3 It is easy to show that function h. (3. ma_x(0. max(0. We and by (3. ai). wi = /11 (1) = hi(hi(1)) hi (w1 ) hi (ai) h(i) = wi and. Observe that function h. (ai)) 0. (a) is continuous. .( a„.26. an)1 max[h (a 1) h2(a2). .. Clearly. . and the properties h (inax(a 1 . an). [0. 11" ) [0.25. . ai ) by (:3. 0). Hence. a.j.that h (ai ) = Eairt(w ai) for all i e Nn . = max(h (ai . the range of hi is [0. ai ). a2). • • • .35) kV..)) where h1 (121) = h (O . an ) = iquaax(aI. there exists bl such that ai 114 (10 and hence. then. for any ai c (tvi. it is required that Theorem 3. . may be viewed as a weighted quasi .39) for all i E N„. 0.92 Operatiori5 on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Proof.)). 0. bn)) = min (h (a i hi (ab) . . bn)). ai .. ton )). 11 for all i N„.36). becomes a weighted averagc = a„ = a 0. h(a1 a2. € [0. the arithmetic product and sum. . _ .') . where hg (ai ) = h(1. Let h i (1) = wi . a2 . a.. hp(ni) = w i = rain(w e . max(a. . an )). .average. 0. 11 be a function that satisfies Axiom Id. Let h : . respectively.38) hi(a)hi(b) and h i (0) = 0 (3. we eventually obtain peating the same replacement with respect to a3 . a„) max[it(ai. 41. an )).. 1. h (bi. . Let h : [0. wd. an ) = rnax(h(ai. Then.. 0. • . 1] be a function that satisfies Axiom hi. . 43 3 a. at. Axiom min(an . Then. a2 . 0. . min(w„. ar. there exist numbers x.35) we obtain h(ai. and such that hi (0) = 0 and hi (hi (ai)) = hi (a0. 1). a„)) nnri recan TIOW rep1Mee h (0. a2. b.31) h(ai . .. an) = min(ap .. Theorem 3. . in which the min and max operations replace.
. b)) b) = max. Otherwise. it becomes a tconorm. 3. Due to their associativity. 1] defined by it.11 The full scope of fuzzy aggregation operations. 1). i(a. 1) = a. —4— p Yager 4.1) = 1. 1J.6 Aggregation Operations 93 Proof: Left to the reader as an exercise.eriSktar Go O.. it is an associative averaging operation. norm operations cover the whole range of aggregating operations.X t Soweizer/Sklar p S v4feir. b G [O. Hence. • A special kind of aggregation operations are binary operations h on [C).W Yager 0 w averagcs 1 I Generalized means OWA w * mire max intersection (associative) operatIons U na Union Averaging operation5 (idempotent) perat ions (associative) Figure 3.„„_ An example of a parametrized class of norm operations that are neither tnorms nor tconorrns is the class of binary operations on [0. when it has also the property h(a. 11 when a. Let these operations Dombi —). where be called . 0) a. Whent a norm operation also has the property h(a . (a . but replace the boundary conditions of tnorms and tcottornis with Weaker boundary conditions 0 and h (1.kaverages. is a tnorm and u is a tconorm.. 1] that satisfy the properties of monotonicity. b)) X when a. it becomes a tnorm. from imi„to u„. e (0. Let these aggregation operations be called norm operations. / min(A. u (a. commutativity. and associativity of tnorms arid tconorrns. b e [0.2.X Dombi 4. 17 otherwise for all a.Sao. norm operations can be extended to any finite member of arguments.
b E [X. a) in a. Let a norm operation h be continuous and idempotent. 3. and Ovnhinnikov 11981a. distributivity. b) X when a. b) and i(a. the identification of a suitable operation for a specific application is equivalent to the estimation of the parameter involved. monotonicrty. For each of these classes. b E (0. 3. and averaging operations are shown in the figure. union. Our presentation of fuzzy complements in Sec. b) = min(a. 1 ] otherwise for any a. The first axiomatic treatment of fuzzy set operations was presented by Bellman and Criertz [1973 ]. fuzzy set theory is formulated in terms of the standard operations of complement. and lower and upper bounds u (a. 3. 11 and au w> O. 11. 1983 ] . The Yager class of fuzzy complements is derived from his class of fuzzy unions. which is also motivated by the aim of developing measures of fuzziness. where A is a fuzzy set defined on X.24). the range of the respective parameter is indicated. 3. Yager (191 9b. referred in the literature as . They demonstrated the uniqueness of the max and min operators in terms of axioms that consist of our mdomatio skeleton for u and i. Proof: See Appendix D. b).. and Domingo [1981]. that the operation of a fuzzy complemgnt is not unique even when ail reasonable requirements (boundary conditions. Trilla. b) ka . Only some representative classes of 1norms. In the seminal paper by Zadeh [1965b1.94 Operations on rozzy Sets _ Chap. there exists X E [0. A thorough investigation of properties of the max 'n <1 min operators was dalle by Voxinart and Goetschel [19 8 11 3 3. The Sugeno class of fuzzy complements results from special measures (called 1measures) introduced by Sugeno 11977]. but other possibilities of combining fuzzy sets are also hinted at.  NOTES 3. a) and i(a. They concluded. This requirement can be expressed more specifically by requiring that  for all 2 c [O. 9. strict increase of u(a.5. 3 Special norms operations. and the axioms of continuity. Then. and involution) arc employed as axioms. Esteva._ The Yager class of fuzzy unions and intersections was introduced in a paper by Yager [1980f].mediPns. • The fall scope of fuzzy aggregation operations is summarized in Fig. . tconorms.2.4). which contains some additional characteristics of these classes_ Yager [19.82d] also addressed the question of the meaning of the parameter w in his class and the problem of selecting appropriate operations for various purposes. b) > max(a. defined by (3. Different approaches to the study of fuzzy complements were used by Lowen [1978]. and intersection. )61 when a.4. by requiring that A U cA = X. 3. by which their existence is established.28. continuity.1. however. Given one of these families Of operations.11. b) < nib*.2 is based upon a paper by Higashi and Mir [1982 ] . 1980g1 investigated fuzzy complements for the purpose of developing useful measures of fuzziness (Sec. 11 such that {max(a . Theorem 3. h e [0. are defined in the following theorem.
8.6.w given by (3. These are covered in Chapter 11 in the context of approximate reasoning. More general studies of rnorms and tconorms. In current literature on fuzzy set theory. Determine whether each of the following functions is an increasing generator. ( 3) g(a) t(a). denote the Yager union and complement. Ling [1965 ].Chap. Let j be a tnorm SUCEI that i(a.for 2 < a < 1. An excellent overview of the whole spectrum of aggregation operations on fuzzy sets was prepared by Dubois and Prade [1985e1.4. if it is. were undertaken by Schweizer and Sklar [1961..5. Fiird the equilibrium of the. One class of operators not covered in this chapter is the class of fuzzy implication operators.3 were iutcoduced are &iven directly in tb. Thole. 19820 ] . it covers fuzzy unions and intersections as well as averaging operations.9) is not a fuzzy complement. were originally introduced by Menger [1942] in his study of statistical metric spaces.2 and 3.1. 1] to R such that g(0) = 0. respectively.0. References to papers in which the various tnorms and tconorms listed in Tables 3. respectively. 1963.3. Frank [1979i. b c) 3. EXERCISES 3. find and plot the fuzzy complement. Find the equilibrium of the fuzzy complement cx. . 11 and all In ›. tnorm and tconorm generated by it: (a) g(a) sin (a).7. 3. The issue of which operations on fuzzy sets are suitable in various situations was studied by Zimmerraann [1978a ] .b)F i(a. 3. particularly studies of procedures by which classes of these functions can be generated. 1 a (e) g(a) la + 2 4 for 0 < a < for < a ‹ 1.2).32) is covered in a paper by Dyckhoff and Pedrycz [19841. 3. and Fodor (1991a. and chi.fuzzy complement C ygiven by (3. 3 Exerdses S5 3. the terms "rnorms" and "t_ conorrus" are used routinely.9. 3. where u .7.(1 — a ) qualify for each w > 0 as a fuzzy complement? Plot the function for smite values a. The axiomatic skeletons that we use for characterizing fuzzy intersections and unions which are known in the literature av triangular norms (or tnornts) and triangular canarmy (or tcottorms). An overview of tnorms and tcononms was prepared by Gupta and Qi [199111. a for 0 < (a) g(a) = 22. 3. tables. (c) g(a) + a.10. 3. and Yager [1979a. the function C generated by (3. 1 and some valuci w < 1. Zimmermann. strictly increasing function g from [0. Does the function c(a)=.(a c(a)) 1 for a E [0. Aisina et aL [1983]. 3.2.1. Show that 1..6. 3. 3. °lye an example to show that for a discontinuous.14). 19931. The class of genenlized means defined by (3. and Zysno [19791. Zimmermann and Zysuo [1980]. 1983 ] ..
Show that an OWA operation h ur satisties Axioms h 1 thiough /25.96 for a. i c(a) 1 — a. 3.9.32) become the min and max operations for cr >. b) max(0.function y 2 (1 — a) 3.13. c„ is a Yager complement for some tv E (0. (b) u(a.11. . b) = b for al a . 3. b (a. c c [O. Met the function for some values of y.8. Show that the. a + b — 1). with respect to ow . c(a) = 1 — a.. b Operator1s on 1. a. b) Irdn(1. 3. i. Show that the following operations satisfy the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction: (a) um.16. Demonstrate that they generalized means hOE defined by (332) are monotonia increasing with cri for fixed arguments. Do). min. and ow be the Yager fuzzy union and fuzzy complement. Find the dual fuzzy intersection of' u.27. 11. a + Y 2 (1 — a) is a fuzzy complement.10. that is 3. respectively. Find the generator of c. 3.14. Let u. CA is a Sugeno complement for some A. y > 0 . Prove Theorem 3. c(a) = 1 Show that the following operations on fuzzy sets satisfy De Morgan's laws: (a) um. 3. E [0. a + b). i (a. . 3. o3). 3 Show that I must be the algebraic product. [0. Prove Theorem 3. e (1.15. Show that the generalized means defined by (3. (c) max.12.21.—cc and a oo. 1]. respectively. 1]. (b) max.. FUZty Sets Chap. min.1) b. 3.
The fuzzy set must be uvoual since our oureeeption of a set of "real numbers close m r" is fully satisfied by r itself.to a given real number" or "numbers that are around a given interval of real numbers. (Hi) the support of A.1 FUZZY NUMBERS Among the various types of fuzzy sets. 0 +A. must be a closed interval for every a E (0. Membership functions of these sets. The inverse. is not necessarily true. a fuzzy set A on lEt must possess at least the following three properties: (1) A must be a normal fuzzy set.Fuzzy ARITHMETIC 4. a fuzzy number) must be 1. To qualty as a fuzzy number. since acuts of some convex fuzzy sets may be open or halfopen intervals. 11. (ii) M.. approximate reasoning. such as "numbers that are close. and statistics with imprecise probabilities. hence. To view them in this way. play an important role in many applications. they should capture our intuitive conceptions of approximate numbers or intervals. Since acuts of any fuzzy number are required to be closed intervals for all a E (0. 11 every fuzzy number is a convex fuzzy set." Such concepts are essential for characterizing states of fuzzy variables and. the membership grade of r in any fuzzy set that attempts to capture this conception (te. consequently. decision making. of special significance are fuzzy sets that are defined on the set R of real numbers. 97 . however. I] clearly have a quantitative meaning and may. must be bounded. under certain conditions. optimization. well established in classical interval analysis. The bounded support of a fuzzy number and all its acuts for a 0 0 must be closed intervals to allow us to define meaningful arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers in terms of standard arithmetic operations on closed intervals. be viewed as fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals. including fuzzy control. which have the form A : —› [0.
piecewisedefineci functions.2d) also qualify as fuzzy numbers.2a (symmetric) and 4. 4. membership functions of 1tizz3r numbers need not be symmetric as are those in Fig. a) to O. 4. in general. 4 Special cases of fuzzy numbers include ordinary real numbers and intervals of real numbers. 4." and (d) a fuzzy number with a flat region (a fuzzy interval).1 are luscd most often for representing fuzzy numbers. cc ).1: (a) an ordinary real number 1.1.1) for x E (17. The following theorem shows that membership functions of fuzzy numbers may be. as exemplified by the functions in Fig. a) Mem bers hip o (4. A is a fuzzy number if and only if there exists a closed interval [a bJ 0 such that for x E [a. 4. respeciivEly. where 1 is a function from (—co.98 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. Let A E F(R).20 or only decrease (Fig. Then.1 A comparison of a reL number and a crisp interval with a fuzzy number and a fuzzy interval. Fairly typical are so called "bell shaped" membership functions. They capture our conception of a large number or a small number in the context of each particular application. (c) a fuzzy number expressing the proposition "close to 1.  Theorem 4. 4. b] A(x) = I 1(x) r (x) fur x E (—cc. t Me m bers h ip (c) 0 1. continuous from the right.1. Furthermore. 4. father shapes may be preferable in some applications. w1). Observe that membership functions which only increase (Fig.25. L35].3 Mem bers hip _ 0 o Figure 4. and such that 1(x) = 0 for x E (—oc. r is a function from (kw) to . (b) an ordinary (crisp) closed interval [1.3. 1] that is monotonic increasing. Although the triangular and trapezoidal shapes of membership functions shown in Fig.2b (asymmetric).3. as illustrated in Fig.
di(x) 1 for x e [a. 'A is a closed interval for every (0. b E R such that 121 = [a. where a < b. Therefore. l(x) = A(x0 ) > a. and lim } X. 4. Then.  Proof: Necessity.1 since A is convex and A(a) = L. b].2 Basic types of fumy numbers. Hence. is a nonem. Let x < y ‹ a. That is. that is.7c C (o)p2 ! Co). 0 1(x) < 1 since O< A(x) <I for every x E a). This means that for some x0 e (—oo..Sec.pty closed interval because A is normal. there exists a pair a. . For OE 1. a). 1 is monotonic increasing. and such that r(x) = O for . also x0 E A. Now. x A for arty n since is a closed interval arid hence. [0. Lim i(x„) . b] and A(x) 1 for x g [a.00 Now. X0 . then —  A(y) iniu[A A (g2)] A(t) by Theorem 1. DO but lim A(x„) a > 1(x0) ACAD.. Hence. ›.1 Fuzzy Numbers 99 (b) Ict) Figure 4. 11. 'A. n. Since A is a fuzzy number. That is. continuous from the left. 1(y) > 1(x). /(x) is continuous from the right. b]. Assume now that 1(x) is not continuous from the right. 11 that is monotonic decreasing.x0 for any r. let 1(x) A(x) for any x ( oc. a) there exists a sequence of numbers fx„) such that x„. which is a contradiction.
1 is continuous from the right. Since . i(x) = /(lim x).25. that is. '1+A. Since A is a fuzzy number. < a and ya > b. x0 E [X. x < a} xa . this form allows us to define fuzzy numbers in a piecewise manner. x0 G tXli(X) > a. in general. that is. for each a (0.3). . We can prove that y„ E"A in a similar way. .2. x. If x0 > b. is bounded.3. if x0 < a. b = co2 = 1.of (4.00. x0 E x1r(x) > x . there exists a pair ea ' . co1 ) U (0)2. /(x) = 0 for all x (— cio.1). o. x yu a). x y. It remains to prove that yce c _ By the definition of x there must exist a sequence (x„). b] C M. Let  = inf(x[1(x) > a. We need to prove that 'IA For any xo E "A. consequently. 4 The proof that function r in (4_1) i5 monotonic decreasing and continuous from the left is similar. let us define the four fuzzy numbers in Fig. 11.Y. where x„ > xa for any n. (4 1 ). 1. then r (x0) = A(x0) > a.1)1 and.. y„3.] and hence. nat is. As an example.25). x0 < sup{xIr (x) > a.. as illustrated in Hg. oc). is bounded_ Hence.35.„. in tx fi(x) L. 41111CC C4A C Lw (621.)2 = 1_4..1): (a) col = a = b 4)2 = 1. r(x) 0 for all E (1. we have . cc). 11. Sufficiency. .1(x) = 0 for all x C ( . r(x) = 0 for all x e (1. x0 > infixii(x) > a. x. cc). x < a} such that Lim.x.. 4. Therefore. then 1(x0) = A(x 0 ) > a.) = lim 1(xn ) > a. Figure 4 3 Genend fuzzy number A expressed in the form.1 in terms of (4. Obviously. (b) cal = a = 1. x < al and. consequently. = xa.E ciA. 11k•CO Hence.1. 4. "A C [x„. It remains to provo that "A is a dosed interval for ally E (0. (c) a b= col = 1.3. n. Every fuzzy set A defined by (4. [a.35.a.3.1) is clearly normaI 5 and its support. co2 e Et of finite numbers such that A(x) = O for x e (—cc. • The implication of Theorem 4. b) sup{x1r(x) x [x„ y] for all a E (0.100 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap.1 is that every fuzzy number can be represented in the form.
for x (1. as defined in Fig.3 32. { 125(x — 1. r(x) (d) a = 1. 94». For example.28). 1. oo).5 17.1) as follows: = 90. 1.5. 90 130 Beze variatitif I Figarm 4. 1.4.4. (x) r(x) I0 0.5 . set X.4.4] for x € (1. the fuzzy number by which we express the linguistic concept very large.5(1. Given a fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal..28. tro2 = 100.2.4 An example of a linguistic variable.2c and d. co). is expressed in terms of (4. its fuzzy cardinality.4] for x E (1. .3.2) for x E 11.2.4. b 100. 4.5 45 ss v (performance) 07. oh { 0 0(1. = 1. for x E (—oo. rth 77.28) + 1 { 12. 1. for x E (1. b 1.1) is also capable of expressing fuzzy numbers of the types depicted in Figs. L3). is a fuzzy number defined on N by the fonnula Carron:Oa 10 22.2. CC).Sec. .5) for x E 177. 4. Using fuzzy numbers.2) for x E [1.32 — x) + 1 0 Observe that (4. for x E (100.32.3) + 1 for x E (—CC.5. IA).08(x — 90) ± 1 0 for x (—co 71.32. we can define the concept of a fuzzy cardinally for fuzzy sets that are defined on finite universal sets. 1.1 FLE=1 Numbers 101 /(x) = { 10(x — 1.3 — x) + 1 1 1. 4.
6/9 +.. such as very small. pressure.2). machine. An example of a linguistic variable is shown in Fig.4. such as not very small. germane to a particular application. small. etc. very large —as well as other linguistic terms generated by a syntactic rule (not explicitly shown in Fig 4. performance.8a. In a linguistic variable. temperature. is I/32 1 . linguistic terms representing approximate values. the fuzzy numbers represent linguistic concepts. which is a fuzzy set on I (i. of a base variable. we need not only the various set theoretic operations presented in Chapter 3. 4 for all Cf E A(A). voltage.. To deal with linguistic variables. 1. m(t).67/11 + . interest rate. small medium. and m is a semantic rule that assigns to each linguistic term r E T its meaning. and . as interpreted in a particular context. probability..).102 Iiii(rAD Fuzzy Arithmetic =a Chap. in T —).93/7 ± 1/5. g.3 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON INTERVALS Fuzzy arithm_etic is based on two properties of fuzzy numbers: (1) each fuzzy set. blood count. 100].53/13 + . g is a syntactic rule (a grammar) for generating linguistic terms. speed. in addition. etc) as well as arty other numerical variable. organization. are captured by appropriate fuzzy numbers. Its name is performance. method..4). m) in which is the name of the variable. very very small. X. 4. can fully and uniquely be represented by its orcuts (Sec. Each of the basic linguistic — terms is assigned one of five fuzzy numbers by a semantic rule. the range of the base variable. age. large. 2. exemplified by any physical variable (e.  4.g. are defined um the interval [0. The fuzzy numbers. A base variable is a Fariable in the classical sense. T is the set of linguistic terms of y that refer To a base variable whose values range over a universal set X.g. salary. Each linguistic variable is fully characterized by a quintuple (14 T. These are variables whose state i are fuzzy numbers. Each linguistic variable the states of which are expressed by linguistic terms interpreted as specific fuzzy numbers is defined in terms of a base variable. Each of them expresses a fuzzy restriction on this range. whose ctcuts are shown in Fig. humidity. etc. but also arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers. large or very large. medium. the values of which are real numbers within a specific range. This variable expresses the performance (which is the base variable in this example) of a goal oriented entity (a person. reliability.!f(X)). whose membership functions have the usual trapezoidal shapes. (e. the fuzzy cardinality of fuzzy set D2 defined in Table 1.2 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES The concept of a fuzzy number plays a fundamental role in formulating quantitative fuzzy variables.) in a given context by five basic linguistic terms very small. For example.13/19 + . and so on.27/17 + .4/15 + . When. and so forth.2. as shown in the figure.e. 4. the resulting construct3 are usually culled linguistic variables. and thus also each fuzzy number. The latter are examined in the rest of this chapter.
6) is deguera. 7] . 2] [—I. 2.3 Arithrnetic Operations on Intervals 103 (2) cecuts of each fuzzy number are closed intervals of real numbers for all a (0. the result of an arithmetic operation on closed intervals is again a closed interval. b]/[d. 11. 21 — [6. r ] .B + A. 4. el = ff gla :5 f fb. [6. be). When one of the intervals in (4. The following are a few examples illustrating the interval valued arithmetic operations cleHned by (4_3)44_6):  [2. provided that Ci fd. 1. section to facilitate our presentation of fuzzy arithmetic in the nextweovrithmns section. 5] — [1. ej is not defined when 0 E [d e]. [2. Let A fai a21. the properties are formulated as follows: 1. 1/d1 (4. [min (ad. e] (a. The four arithmetic operations on closed intervals are defined as follows: [a. we obtain the standard arithmetic of real numbers . ble).. 4 ] [2. 'except that [a. Using these symbols.= A 1 (identity).d g (4. 5] = (6. 3] = [1. 8].. ale. The latter operations are a subject of interval analysis. bell. A . b 4. 3. 0 CI 1 = [1. 6] . A + B .(B • C) (associativity). el and.u(ald. These properties enable us to define arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers in terms of arithmetic operations on their orcuts arithmetic operations on closed intervals). bd. A+0 1 .8)+C=A 1 (B FC) .  bl* [d.03 • Arithmetic operations on closed intervals satisfy some useful properties.ted. we obtain special operations. p. [2. B = [b1 . fa + d. (A+. h] + [d.5) [ml. ble)l. e] = [a — e. I].. b d] .3)—(4. That is.3) [a . bld. 1] + (6. [1/e. C = [c1 c21. / [2. 2] = 12. —0. 10] / [1. [4. multiplication . el.Sec. el = ra. —0..5] = 2] [0. 12] [d.B =B •A (commutativity). = [3.2) is a general property of all arithmetic operations on closed intervals.8] [2.41 t —1.51 . and division /. bd. To overview them. ma. . Then.e] (4. [3.. Let * denote any of the four arithmetic operations on closed intervals: additiori subtraction —.  . 5] + [ 1.max(ald. A —0+A . 5] = [5. bl • [d. (A B) • C A . (44) Note that a real number r may also be regarded as a special (degenerated) interval [r. b/d. a well established area of classical mathematics.14ad ae. when both of them are degenerated. ae.
C = 12.0EA—AandleA/A. a2 • c2] To show that distributivity does not bold in general. First. 5.F. A—BcEF A . B F C = 11 C (2. Hence. B = [1.11.rat • (b1 c1). a2 .1104 Fuzzy Aritianutiu Chap. let A =. If A C F.BC I? . A C 1]. then: A+B C E+F. beB. C.ce CI Flence.(B + C) = fa • (b + c)ta G A. 6. Then. then A • (B C) = [at (b2 e2) a2 =A•B±A . we have to consider the following three cases: . 1]. A (B 4. 21 =A•B+A. As an example. Then. —an. b B. 4 4.2. Furthermore. 7. 444B C E iF (inclusion monotonicity). b e B. and [ . and (—A) • (B + C) = (—A) B + (—A) . 2]. (—A) = [—a2. A (B + C) = . 2. a2 b2] + [al =a A • 3 + A c2] C.C. A (B+C)=AB+A• C.3)—(4. Most of these properties follow directly from (4. A • B 1 0. If al <O and a2 > 0.J.[al b.b.C.: and B C F. we have A . Assume now. then a • (B+C)=a•B+a.C. If al < 0 and a2 <0. Ifbc>0foreverybEBandceC. 3. then A • (B C) = A•B +AC (distributivity). without any loss of generality. if A = [a.. C.6). that b1 > 0 and c1 > O. + c2)] ra i b2. [0. A • (B+C)CAB+A.c E Cl C b a' • cra d A.C) CAB+A•C (subrlistribtaivity).then A • (B C) =. a2 • (b2 + e2)1 =.2 ] + [al c2. I1a 1 O. 2 ]. 01. we prove only the less obvious properties of subdistributivity and distributivity.c G Cj = (12 b+ ca E A. a]. then —a2 > 0.
The other method employs the extension principle.c12 40r2 1.4 Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers 105 4.7). Using (4.4 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS In this section. 4. "LTA * H).) (4.3)—(4. consider two triangularshape fuzzy numbers A and B defined as follows: for x < —1 and x > 3 fo for — 1 < x < (x + 1)/2 Mx) = (3 — x)/2 for 1 <X 3. • B) = i [ . 2 — 4a] [4a2 4.51 for a (. A * B can be expressed as g '11 A *13= U „(41 * B). 5 — 2a). We assume in this section that fuzzy numbers are represented by continuous membership functions.6a + 15 ] for a e (0. B(x) 'Their acuts are: [2cif [0 (x — 1)/2 (5 — x)/2 for x < 1 and x > 5 for 1 < x 3 for 3 < x < 5. by which operations on Ical nurctbccs are extended to operatiuns or fuzzy numbers. 4. 11.7) for all a e (0. 4Œ2 — 16a + 151 Œ(A. — 1. we obtain `(A INA B) = 14rY S B) 4ed for a E (0.?. As an example of employing (4.5. 11 (When * = b clearly.5. by defining its OEcut. Then.Sec.8). (3 — 2a)/(2a + 1)] The resulting fuzzy numbers are then: (A + B)(x) 0 x/4 (8 — x)/4 for x < 0 and x > 8 for0<x<4 for 4 < x <8 .8) for any a E (0.5] for a g [(241 — 1)/(22 + 1). as "(A B) A *"B (4. . Since Œ(A * B) is a closed interval for each a E (0.3. One method is based on interval arithmetic. — 6. we have to requite that 0 Due to Theorem 2. for a E (0. B are fuzzy numbers. n. + 1.11 for a E ( 0.7) and (4. 11. (3 — 2 a)/(2a ± 1)] [(2a 1)/(5 2a). Let A and B denote fuzzy numbers and let * denote any of the four basic arithmetic operations. 3 — 2cel. . which is overviewed in Sec. we define a fuzzy set on R. A * ?F. 11 and A. 12a —5. A * fi is also a fuzzy number. we present two methods for developing fuzzy arithmetic.
/1. (3 — x)/(2x +2) The four arithmetic operations performed in this example are illustrated in Fig. Let * denote any of the four basic arithmetic operations and. the fuzzy set A * B defined by (4. B denote fuzzy numbers.B such that z xo *yo . Then. we prove (4. we define for all z E FL (A ± B)(z) = sup nain[A (x).12) (4.10) (4.atica (A * B)(2) = sup min[A(x). B (y)] 2=X. we defuic a fuzzy set on R. and let A. x) 212.5 and x 5 <x < for 0x < 3 ‹ 15 for — [4 — (1 ± x) 1/2] /2 I 0 for 3 < x < 15.13) Although A * B defined by (4. (A I B)(z) = sup min[A(x). (A I B)(x) for x < —1 and x > 3 for — 1 < x < 0 (x + 1)/(2 — 2x) (5x + 1)/(2s +2) for 0 <x <1/3 for 1/3 <z < 3. B denote continuous fuzzy numbers. by the cqu. 3(y)] for all z R.9) (4.3). B(y)].106 Fuzzy Arithmette Chap.11) (A — B)(z) = sup min[A(x). z. B(y)J 7 z=x—Y (A • B)(z) = sup rah ][A(x). (A * B)(z) = sup inin[A(x). 4.9) is a fuzzy set on R .5. We now proceed to the second method for developing fuzzy arithmetic.Fy (4.2. let A. 4 I 0 = (x + 6)/4 (2 — x)/4 0 [3 for x < —6 and x > 2 for 6 < x < — 2 for — 2 ‹ x 2. f}.1/2 (A B)(x) = — — (1+x) 12 /2 for x < . Employing this principle. Let * E [±. B(y)J. Proof: First. Then. which is based on the extension principle (Section 2.1].Sy min[A (xu) B(y u)1 > . A * B. we have to show that it is a fuzzy number for each * e {±. This is a subject of the following theorem.9) is a continuous fuzzy number.maiy (4. . a e (0. More specifically. standard arithmetic operations on real numbers are extended to fuzzy numbers.7) by showing that B) is a closed interval for every For any z EA * . Theorem 4. Thus. B (y)]. there exist some xo g °A and yo G ".
. I 12 13 14 15 rigure 4...Sec... ..„ .4.• ce«lol AMON& 1„ApiAk I I 1 I 1 1 0 I 1.5 Mum:radon of arithmetic operatiou5 on fuzzy auxubcrN..„. 4_4 ArithrnBtiC Operations on Fuzzy Numbers 101 AVA111111bL s I•.4 I 2 3 I I 1 I 7 I I I 1 9 10 11 I i 48 atAxB) 1 I f I11 I I .
1. yo E "B such that z = xci * yo.i ) such that x 1 —> xo.. (x„. . z e a(A * B) and. yo. * 6 C * For any Z E tt(A * B). B(y„)} > a — That is. for any n > [lice] 1. jrto4 him Fli p Therefore. Thus. 4 Hence. a1. Thus. "(A *B) C *c!/3. since — 1 no and B(y„.. since * is continuous. consequently..3. Also. we have two sequences. .I1"A and c'117.a . the membership function of A * R must be of the general form depicted in Fig_ 4.Assurne A * B is not continous at zo. j * xo. consequently. *y lim irocs a I) * (NMI yr. there exist x„ and y„ such that z xi. Z E e A * 'B. BOA z.) and {NI fall into some cr.i j ) . * y„ and min[Mx„). Since the latter are closed intervals..i {yn.. i. respectively.E }. Thus. x„ y.i.108 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap.zapy CC. 1 Since n 1 n+1 ef we have a1/(11+1)A c 21(n 4 .B(v„.. from [xi. E A. y„.lim x 1.1('1+1)B Hence..•00 . That is. If we take the corresponding exists a convergent subsequence (. where [lia] denotes the largest integer that is less than or equal to lict. Moreover. then = Z. there exist xrp and. that is.1.j}. ) = fiat' . there also yo.6.i.1 and (y„).d. By Theorem 4. *B) = * Now we prove that A * B must be continuous. such that Now.j} such that xo. To the corresponding subsequence ty„. i ) and subsequence.j ) > i) = — I) lim A (x0) A( 11m Jim A (a =a and B(yo) = B( jyea y. G OE1 /116 and we may consider two sequences. fx. we have * B)(z) = sup rain[A(x). and xtt ..j) = X0 * ya. (xn ) and (y4 are bounded SelltielleC5. am= exists a convergent subsequence ( x„. i. (x„ .
B(y 0)J. which denote the usual operations of minimum and maximum on real numbers. mast be distinguished from the symbols min and max. (4. * yrt yo as n Thus. /1 is monotonic with respect to the first and. B)(2) min[A (x0). MIN and MAX. we first extend the lattice operations min and max on real numbers. <z0 for any n. Then. (4. B)(z) for all z=min(x. B) and MAX (A. and the proof. we define MIN (A. respectively. of Theorem 4.(A . For any two fuzzy numbers A and 8. which can also be expressed in terms of two lattice operations.Sec. The lineas ordering of real numbers does not extend to fuzzy numbers.18) sup rninEA(x). there must exist x0 and ye such that ze = xo * ye and Lim (A A. B(y)]. B(y)] Jim min[A(x„). y R.1 $) and (4. * yn. Observe that the symbols IYM and MAX. This completes the proof I 4. as defined by (4. which denote the introduced operations on fuzzy numbers. and x. B (y)J. 4. B) are fuzzy numbers. (y). A * B must be a continuous fuzzy number. to corresponding operations on fuzzy numbers. (437) (4.16) for every pair x. Let z.16). rain(x y) = max(x y) x y if x y y x (4.15) y if y x (4. <) is a lattice.14) Since the operation * E f+. it follows from (4. but we show in. This contradicts (434) and. B(ye)].] Z G R. respectively. therefore. For every pair of real numbers.5 LATTICE OF FUZZY NUMBERS As is well known. the second arguments.a Una (A * B)(z„) = lim sup min[A (x). . /3)(z) = MAX (A.5 Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers liril (A 109 to=x4y * B)(z) < (A * B)(z o) = sup min[A (x).18). zo as n co. either x < y or y < x_ The pair (R. B (Km y 1 )1 = naintA(x0).[A( lim x„). z—p. then z„ O. the set Tt of real numbers is linearly ordered.y) sup Irlin LA (x). B Cy = min.17).z rr lira (A * B)(z) n—wc. Since min and max are continuous operations. x and y.2 that MIN. this section that fuzzy numbers can be ordered partially in a natural way and that this partial ordering forms a distributive lattice_ To introduce a meaningful ordering of fuzzy numbers. we can always find two sequences fx„) and (y„) such that x„ xo.
C)]. B)] = A.7) and (4. Ci = MIN [A.5 for 2.= A (absorption). MAX (B <associativity).x . defined by (4. 4 It is important to realize that the operations MIN and MAX are totally different from the standard fuzzy intersection and union. A) = A (Idempotence). MAX (A. (e) MIN (A . and (e).. (d). . for x < 1 and x 4 for I < < 2 for 2 < x < 2. (b) For all z R. for any A. 4.6. MAX (b. B) = (B.9?.5 <r < 4. where Mx) = I { 0 (x + 2)/3 for x <2 and x> 4 for — 2 < x < 1 for 1 < x 4. (d) MIN [A. C E R. The following theorem.X (A . in which MIN and MAX represent the meet and join. A). B)(x) = MAX (A . A) (conunutativily). B)(x ) = Let 2 denote the set of all fuzzy numbers. MIN (A . respectively. Then. MAX [A .5 for 2. B(x) = x_ 1 for 1 < x < 2 3— 0 (x + 2)/3 (4 — x)/3 3— x 0 x 3— x (4 — 4/3 for x < 1 and x 3 for 2 < < 3."1/6. B)] . min and max. IvIAX [A . operations MIN and MAX are clearly basic properties of these operations. which establishes I I Theorern 43. MAX (A. respectively. ensures that the triple (R. MN. A) = A . Then.18). MIN (B. for x < —2 and x 3 for — 2 < x < I for 1 < x < 2. (e) miN [A NU/LX (B C)] MÉLX [MIN (A B). Let MIN and MAX be binary operations on R. 13). Proof We focus only on proving properties (b). MIN (B C)] = MIN [MAX (A. B.= MAX [A. (b) MIN [MW (A. C)j (distributivity). MAX (A. This difference is illustrated in Fig. functions of the form .X (a . proving properties (a) and (c) is rather trivial. MAX (A. the following properties hold: (a) MIN (A. B).Fuzzy Arithmetic ( tiap.1. MIN (A . MAX) is a distributive lattice. B). B) tvIA.5 < x < 3. Cl . MIN (A.
4.Sec. MAX.5 Lattice ot Fuz2y Numbers 111 2 1 o 1 1 3 4 Figure 4. max_ .6 Comparison of the operations MIN. min.
By the convexity of fuzzy numbers.y) Chap. MAX (A..y) sup lain [B (u) C (v)]] y=crstin(u . The proof of the other absorption property is similat (e) For any z E R. we have . C(u)] mr=min t my) y=min(a. MAX (A . 4 rninjA(x). MIN (B C)(y)] atirLIA (x). Mu)] min[A(x). A (z). (d) For all z R.112 MIN [A . there exists such that B(vo) = 1. B(v)i. B(u). A(u). B (u). rriin[A (x). it is easy to see that . B(u)j. v)]. right hand side of the last equation. By z = miniz max(z. MIN EA.:Ltirl(r sup u) rnin[rviiiN (A . B)(y)] min[A (x). we have z < x < max(x. A (u) 11(v)]. consequently. 13)(s). MIKA. = sup Sup sup = sup minfA(x). Cl(z) of MAX is analogoas. C)] = A._ v) s=atin(x. Thus. 13(v0)] = A (z). B (IA). max(u. B Oil y =inairCie z—taigx mroava . C)1(z) = Fuzzy Arithmetic sup z=rnin(.u) min[ sup s=1 .u)  sup ( sup mint A (x) . Since B is a fuzzy number. since z rain[x. On the other hand. MAX(B. B)1(z) = sup = g=mintr. A (z) rnin[A[min(x. MIN (B. yo)]. Ainaax(x. M min[A (z). M A(z) and. 14)]] minIA (x). C(v)] z=znia(s. = = sup er:iint ... 01.y) 2. C(0} atin[A (x).v)) Let A/ denote the E  sup rain[A(x) .anin(s m y) sup sup rain [A (u). C (tP)1 = The proof of the associativity [MIN (A B). C041 min[A(x).
n=u. we have z = ratin[x. max[roinfx. On the other hand. n). there hence. To prove that (4.20) are equal. there exist 171. Hence. there exists a rainfel(x). together with the previous result. (re) A(s) C (t) I. C)](z) =_ sup min[A(rn).20) are equal. Mx). s. consequently. min(s.))1 min[x. A (m).. 4. n). u). a E F). C(t)] = b. rain(x. For every a = min[A(x). raax(u. max(u. A (s). B (n) . zrmar .Inin(s . (u). E E). For any b F. y)] z.4t x = inin[atax(s. The proof of the second distributive law is analogous.. That is.. (4.1:).7 n) rn)]. max (. This concludes the proof of the first distributive law. MAX (B C)1(z) = min[A(x). max(u.19) and (4.1?)] 113 MIN [A. and u = t. there exists a number a in E such that b < a. (4. for any b F. n). we show that these two functions are equal by showing that for any number b in F. and t = y such that max(min(m. Next. This means that (4. we have Ettax(t m).. E c F. max(. it is easy to see that min(s. in) . . C(t)]Imax[min(nr. u)] = z}.20) (u). U =7.19) and (4. a exists In = s = x. C (v)] =Limp (5). This inequality. m). in))] = min[A(s). b Ertin[A(m) = z. 1.20) is greater than or equal to (4.Sec. max(u. in) < x < max(s.5 Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers sup z=naintx_rnax(24. MIN (A . This implles that sup F sup E. and t such that max[min(m.e. a E F and. A( s). n. B(n). n). By convexity of A. C (v)j. m). y)] = z (i. B (u). and = rain[A(x). E . I. Hence.19). v)1. we first show that E ç F. C(v)1I mink . B). C(v)] such that mink. B(u)).19) MAX [MIN (A. C(v)1 = B (n) . C(j)1 with minfx. 8(n). A (x) tuin[A(min(s. A(s).n. z= nain[max(4. A(m)]. m)). That is.. F = (tnin[A ( n). _Then. ensure that (4. max(t. there exists a E F such that b < a. 8(a). C(t)]. A(max(s. where E (inin[A(. C (t)]. y)1 = z (i. B(u). a = inin[A(x). niax(s .e.
"B) "B for any A. < ffB for all a E (0. are closed intervals (say. b and 422 If we define the partial ordering of closed intervals in the usual way.X'= B. we have A . CIA Then. inax(a2. G 09. 4. alte rn atively. D51 . the values of the linguistic variable 'performance" defined in Fig.K B iff . Due to the lack of a wellestablished theory of fuzzy equations. a2].6 are not comparable. However.  46 FUZZY EQUATIONS One area of fuzzy set theory in which fuzzy numbers and arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers play a fundamental role are fuzzy equations . MIN. their theory has not been sufficiently developed as yet.132] iff a then for any A. moreover. = [max(a/ .aB) A ‹B iff maxCA. where °A and '7. n This means. maxCA h2)}. For example. 10 2)J. Such equations have a great potential applicability . 4 The lattice (2.2? '93). MAX) can also be expressed as the pair (2. Although the set OZ is not linearly ordered. that the two fuzzy numbers. 1 . [al. contrary to the set IR. Such subsets arc most prevalent in common applications of fuzzy set theory. A and B in Fie. B E 2. values of linguistic variables in most applications are defined by fuzzy numbers that are comparable. k and a b2]). fot example. where < is a partial ordering defined as: B if MIN(4.114 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. b1 ). some of the published work in this area is rather controversial . where A and fl are fuzzy numbers. We can also define the partial ordering in terms of the relevant acuts: B 1ff znia(aA. B) = A or. 4 4 form a chain: very small small ‹ medium < large very large. c'E = [bi. Unfortunately. there are some subsets of 2 that are linearly ordered.1. B E R. and formulas are constructed by operations of fuzzy arithm etic. we only intend to characterize some properties of fuzzy equations by discussing equations of two very simple types: A + X B and A . K). [min(ai. and X is an unknown fuzzy number for which either of the equations is to be satisfied_ . These are equations in which coefficients and unknowns are fuzzy numbers. that is.. A K B iff MAX(A B) = B A for any A A.
b2 — ad and A (B — A) = [ai . A . That is. B. B = . 11. This results in two ordinary equations of real numbers. Then. Therefore. let *A = rat. 1 ] and property (ii) is satisfied. a2j [171 a2. and X in our equation. . Then.11[0. [bi.5. which are closed intervals. «b U aXcre(01. and "IX =rxi .4/(7. 5) ± .642.. . a2] and B [b t . 4) ± 1/4 ± 5/(4. the equation has a solution iff: (i) '791 — < abz (Li) a < implies cia2 for every a G (0. let us consider tvi. Since X must be an interval. x2]. which may be viewed as special fuzzy numbers.9/[3. the acuts of A.1) To illustrate the solution procedure. respectively. "B = [abi. 3) + . 10]. 1) + . it is required that x 1 < x2. Then.1/(5.5/(6. 3) + . 81 + . the solution X of the fuzzy equation is given by has a solution. arx21 denote. . 2)+ . 2) 4. lf . b zi.8/f4.ja i .1/(9. 4.7/[3. 1) + . 5] ± . b2 — = La i bi — a2. let A and B in our equation be the following fuzzy numbers: A = .2/(8. then PX C "X. Œad. a2 B. — This example illu. Ear any a e (0. then by Theorem 2. [al a2 x21 = çb1. one for each nonzero a in the level set AA U AB. the equation has a solution 1ff b t — al < b2 a2. X = B A is not a solution of the equation_ Let X = [xl. b2 ] — al l whenever a l 0 a2.6/[1. Since any fuzzy number is uniquely represented by its a cuts Crhe'orern 2_5). 6]. 9] + . 4) + .91E5 +•1/6 4. the solution is X = ai.240. b2].2/[1.strates how to solve the equation when the given fuzzy numbers A and B are closed intervals.o` closed intervals. and — 4b1 — flat < 11. To see this. 7] ± .2 fla2 < Property (I) ensures' that the interval equation dcrX = 2 Property (ii) ensures that the solutions of the interval equations for a and fir are nested. B A = [b1 a2.Sec.. ai = b li a2 x2 = whose solution is x1 = bi — al and x2 = b 2 a2 . 11. b2 a2]. The solution of our fuzzy equation can thus be obtained by solving a set of associated interval equations. b21 follows immediately from the equation.8 Fuzzy Equations 115 SquatIon A ± X = B The difficulty of solving this fuzzy equation is caused by the fact that X = B — A is not the solution. if a < 0. the described procedure can be applied tin ne cuts of  arbitrary fuzzy numbers.91171.8/[2. If a solution aX exists for every ct G (0. that is.this inequality is satisfied. which is 'X = — rbj.
Then. IL and (ii) a 5_ )3 implies c'thrai < % AIL < lib2Pa2 <ab2raz.3] Ir.6] [2. Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. the solution of the fuzzy equation exists iff: [ ab2/3z2 for each a E (0.4] fumy.41 [1.8 ] [2.2] [1.8j [1. ab2j. it has the form aeopil As u an example. 41. that A.2] [2.2) +1/2+ . 1].number X cee(0. B are fuzzy numbers on.116 reCUTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISCUSSED FUZZY EQUATION OF TYPE A I X = B TABLE 4.1 .7/11. It is easy to show that X = DIA is not a solution of the equation. 11. and X are given in Table 4.6] [5.5 ] [1.101 [1.6] [2.7j [2. + .: qR cocoCD0 C) 0 d CDd [ts] [0.2] [1.11 • U / .99 10.61 [3. B.2/(3. 4 a adi [4.4] 12. Et+. The solution of thc equation is the  I 14 [6.4] All relevant a outs of A. For each a E (0.53 [2..5] [0.4/(2.1.2] [1.6] 14. B = tb 1. Let = ra i . for the sake of simplicity.2] [2..2 ] [1.4] [0.6] [1. we obtain the interval equation  'A • 'X = Our fuzzy equation can be solved by solving these interval equations for all ce € (0.1/10.4] [3. and X = ax2]. Equation A • X B Let us assume. (1) abirtat If the solution exists.3] [1.41 (2. let A and B in our equation be the following triangularshape fuzzy f0 for x < 3 arid x > 5 for 3 < x 4 for 4 x e 5 numbers: A(x) = x 3 5x . 31+ .
Therefore. EXERCISES 4.Chap. It is easy to verify that 8a + 12 32 — 12a 5— a consequently. Determine which fuzzy sets defined by the fallowing functions are fumty au. A fuzzy differential calculus was initiated by Dubois and Prade [1982a]. for x < 4 and x > 32/5 for 4 <x < 5 for 5 < x <32/5. interval arithmetic is thoroughly covered in two books by Moore [1966. 1j. arithmetic 'was written by Kaufmann and Gupta [19851 a goad overviww fuzzy arithmetic was also prepared by Dubois and Prade [19874 4. 5 — ai and "B = fact 4. 'A = + 3. *2C = [Sor + 12 32 — 12a1 3 5— cr for each a e (0. the solution of our fuzzy equation is 0 152f C 'I for each pa ft a.1. 4 Exercises B(x) {0 (x — 12)/8 (32 — x)/12 for x < 12 and x >32 for 12 ‹ x 20 for 20 < x <32. Ji for 0 < x < 10 otherwise.1.whers: (a) A(x) = sin(x) forÙx < rr 0 otherwise. (I)) B(x) (e) C(x) = (d) Di(x) = for 0 < x < 1 otherivic. 19791 A specialized book on fuzzy.2= Fuzzy equations were investigated by Buckiey 11992d] and Buckley and Ou f1990j. 117 Then. 11. 0E611(1 ' x) 1 for for x 0 . It is also easy to check that a < fi e (0. 32 — 121. 12— 3x = sU 1 1] crX = x—8 32— 5x 12 — NOTES 4.12.
. That is. 6]. In the ordinasy arithmetic of real numbers. (b) [2. 4]. A B. 2] I.A—BcE—F. Let A. B A. 4. respectively. where CA. AIR.7 for the equation A A • (BIB). 43. b e R.= x < 0 for 0 < x <2 otherwise. ' B(x) . B.tf) aid MAX(A .9. 2. Calculate the following: (a) [1.1c . 4] .A•BCE•F and AIB c. then A + ECE±.(x) { Di for . where A is a closed interval. 4.5 and let  I(x — 6)/2 C(x) = (10 — x)/2 O for 6 < x < 8 for 8 < x < 10 otherwise. Calculate: (a) Scalar and fuzzy cardinalities of A and B (alsoylot the fuzzy cardinalities).4.: 6 otherwise. 411. sB). (b) B ▪ C_ 4. where O g'FB. and F are closed intervalg_ 4.2. Froc 0 € A — A and 1 A/A fur 00' A. . [3.1= Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap.. in this case). . A B. 4 5 otherwise.F. B be two fuzzy numbers given in Exercise 4. Consider fuzzy sets A and B whose membership functions are defined by formulas A(x) =x/(x + 1) and B(x) =1 — x/10 for all x 10. II). Let A. SA) and B = (CD. B be two fuzzy numbers whose membership functions are given by 1 (x +2)/2 A (x) =. () [3. Repeat Exercise 4. 4.7.118 (e) E. 01) and San IA D( . 4.11. 101 = X.8. where A. 2)/2 for 2 < x < 4 (6 — x)/2 for 0 c. 3].EIF (0 0. c8 are centers and sjit are spreads of A and B. the equation a = a b b holda for any a. Solve the foliovving equations for X: (a) A + X = B. (d) (4. F. 21. MI (A. (2— x)/2 O I (x — fix — 2 . 4] — [3. Prove that if A c E and B c F. 4.6.3. E. Does this equation hold for fuzzy numbers? Justify your answer and illustrate it by two symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers A (CA. 1. 3) degrees of subsethood S(Ifil. O — —  Calculate the fuzzy _numbers A FB.
.FUZZY R. X. we have R(x 1.. union. A relation among crisp sets Xi.ELAFIONS 5. . the concepts and properties of crisp relations are briefly discussed as a refresher and in order to demonstrate their generalized application to fuzzy relo X. is a subset of the Cartesian product It is denoted either by R (X i . For instance. X X „ represents the universal set.. intersection. . Arz. x„) = {1 0 iff (xl.1 CRISP AND FUZZY RELATIONS A crigp relation represents the presence or absence of association. In fact. otherwise The membership of a tupte in a relation signifies that the elements of the tuple are related to or associated with one another. x2 . X„) or by the abbreviated form R(X . the basic set concepts such as containment or subset. X. Ii ftln ). interaction or interconnectedness between the elements of two or more sets.. so that for relations among sets X1 1 12. the Cartesian product X L X 12 X . Throughout this chapter. . Denoting . Degrees of association can be represented by membership grades in a fuzzy relation in the same way as degrees of set membership are represented in the fuzzy set. let R represent the relation of marriage between 119 . X2.x„) R.. the crisp relation can be considered to be a restricted case of the fuzzy relation. Rari.  Xi X X2 X X AP„. ..a relation and its characteristic function by the same symbol R. Thus. Because a relation is itself a set. and complement can be applied without modification to relations. Thia concept can be generalized to allow for various degrees or strengths of association or interaction between elements. Each crisp relation R can be defined by a characteristic function which assigns a value of 1 to every tit& of the universal set belonging to the relation and a 0 to every tuple not belonging to it.. just as the crisp set can be viewed as a restricted case of the more general fuzzy set concept.
(English. X. (English. . France. dollar. If the ntuple (x 1 . A fuzzy relation can also be conveniently represented by an ndimensional membership  . Example 51 Let R be a relation among the three sets X = (English. a fuzzy relation is a fuzzy set defined on the Cartesian product of crisp sets Xi . Z) = «English. .1.Y. . France).120 Fuzzy Relations Chap. In general. which associates a country with a currency and language as follows: R(X. the relation is called ternary. X2. the characteristic function of a crisp relation can be generalized to allow tuples to have degrees of membership within the relation_ Thus. . dollar. Just as the characteristic function of a crisp set cart be generalized to allow for degrees of set membership. mark} and Z = (US. four. Y = (dollar. x„) E R. x2. and so . quaternary. Each row consists of IX51 individual entries distinguished from each other  by elements of X. French}. or five sets are involved. 5 set of all men and the set of all women. then if and only if (x i . Each matrix consists of 1141 rows (onedimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of X. franc. US). Each "book" consists of IX21 "pages" (three dimemiunal arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of Xz. . X2 . dollar.. Of all the possible pairings of men and women. pound. . only those pairs who are married to each other will be assigned a value of 1 indicating that they belong to this relation. 5. (French. corresponds to the element E 11x 12 of R. .. v„) may have varying degrees of membership within the relation. if thiee. a possible structure for a fivedimensional array based on sets Xj (i E N5) is shown in Fig. (French. The full array (fivedimensional) can be viewed as a "library" that consists of !Xi! "books" (fourdimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of X1 . X) involves an ndimensional membership array: Each element of the first dimension it of this array corresponds to exactly R= one member of X1 and each element of dimension i2 to exactly one member of 12. Germany). where tnples (xi . pound. Canada. This relation can also be represented with the following three dimensional membership array: US Fra Can Brit Ger. Each "page" consists of X31 matrices (hivedimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of 13. Franc. a relation defined on n sets is called n ary or n dimensional. the  r 1 1. X. 11'in =2 1 0 l otherwise. US Fra Can ' Brit Ger dollar 0 0 1 0 dollar 1 0 1. The membership grade indicates the Strength of the relation present between the elements of the tuple. on. A relation between two sets is called binary. Britain. x2 .. 0 0 0 pou d O 0 0 pound 0 0 0 1 0 0 40  franc 0 0 0 markOOD 0 0 franc 0 1 0 O 00 markOCI 0 0 00 Engiish French To illustrate the convenience of representing nary relations by ndimensional arrays (especially important for computer processing). • A relation can be written as a set of ordered tuples. Canada). Canada). Britain) . then. or quinary. Mother convenient way of representing a relation R(Xt . respectively.
1 A possitie represeatadoo t qwnary relation by ave dmeoztonal array.9/Faris. London}. NYC + .7/Paris. These entries take values representing the membership grades of the corresponding ntuples.  array whose entries correspond to ntuples in the universal set. Beijing . London + . which represents the relational concept "very far.Sec. Beijing+ 0/WC. NYC+ ." This relation can be written in list notation as R(X.Y) tablYC.]) can obviously be extended to L fuzzy relations (with an arbitrary ordered valuation set L) in the same way as fuzzy sets .6/NYC. London. This relation can also be represented by the following twodimensional membership array (matrix): NYC Paris Beijing NYC LOndat 1 0 .2 Let R be a fuzzy relation between the two sets X (New York City. 5. I.3 Ordinary fuzzy relations (with the valuation set [O.3/Paris.9 3 .1 Crisp and Fuzzy Relations 121 Figure 5. Paris} and tr Ncw York City.6 . Example 5.
tring Given a relation R(Xl. 1. X2 RD(XI.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.5 1.0 1. type t.9 0.0 1.r3) 1. L 2) and the ternary fuzzy relation on {Xi li for all X. level k. x 12 x X1 defined in Table 5. More appropriate names may be used in various specific contexts.2 PROJECTION'S AND CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS E N J. if they are strings of symbols in a formal language.1.0 1.0 0.9 0. let [R 4.5 0. if n tupies x represent states of a system.0 0.9 1.0 1. 5.0 1.9 1.1. and intervalvalued fu77y relations can be defined.9 0.11 r.3 0.2 10 0.9 0. X = {0. Xj11 and Ri = TR projections of R are given in Table 5.0 1.5 0. Similarly. y may be called a  substate of x.0 1.0 1.5 0. (5. X3) 0.0 0.0 r.2. of x. [R Jr 111 is a fuzzy relation whose membership function is defined on the Cartesian product of sets in by the equation [R 4.9 1. all possible.0 1. 1}. 5 are exte. 00 0.0 0. (Xi. detailed calculation of one of these projections.0 1.9 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.9 1.1 TERNARY RI= RELATiOM AND ITS PROJECTIONS .t rio R (Xi.4•g .0 0.8 1.0 0. Using this notation.4 ss•^1.9 1. x1 .0 1.0 05 09 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.2 1. Let y x denote that y is a subsequence of x.0 R1241.0 0.5 1.5 1. 31.0 1.9 0.9 0.8 0.2 1.5 0.R21(X2. 1A] denote the projection of R on that disregards all sets in I except those in the aroily = fdYi If ef Then. For example.fuzzy sets.5 0.9 0.0 1.0 1. XI) . R12. is shown in Table 5. Let 4. A j E (1. X3) R1(x1) R1(X2) R3{.1) Example 53 Consider the sets XL [0. Xn). 1).0 0. _ =1 14 NI 49r ri=P.0 1.1.0 05 1.5 0. whore J C Kt and 1.0 0.0 1.122 Fuzzy Relationa Chap. X2.5 1. let y be called a subsequence of x iff Yj = xi for all j c J.0 1.nded to f. X2.9 0. y may be called a subs.5 '1. r < n)  y= EJ) E i 6 X.r. Consider the Cartesian product of all sets in the family X = (Xi (ntupi e) For each sequence = Xi Nit) EA Xi and each sequence (r tupie. TABLE 5.9 1.0 1. Ifj(y) = max I? (x).0 1.2.9 1. X3 = (0.0 0.8 0.
which is in some sense an inverse to the projection. 1. 0) 5 R(0.5 1.0 0.3 X3) X2t R(ri .9 02 LO 0.2 Projections and Cylindric Extensions TABLE 5. 123 CALCULATION OF THE PROJECTION R12 IN EXAMPLE 5. Example 5. 0. Another operation on relations. is called a cylindric extension. Such a relation is the least specific of all relations compatible with the projection. 1.5 Oil 0. it guarantees that no information not included in the projection is employed in determining the extended relation. 2)1 . 2) [R= f 111 )1(0.8 03 0. 0 5 1). This means that some information was lost when the given relation was replaced by any one of its projections in this example.0 Under special circumstances.9 max [R(0.4 Membership functions of cylindric extensions of au the projections in Example 5. 2) We can see that none of the cylindric extensions (identical with the respective projections in Table 5. the projection defined by (5. and let [R 14.if• X — yJ(x) = R (y) (5 2) for each x such that x ›. R(0. 5. 2)] = 0. R(0. (J) 5 R(1 5 0.1).0 max [Rti.ssumption that their arguments are extended to (x i.Sec. 1). . 0). 1. The cylindric extension thus maximizes the nonspecificiry (see Chapter 9) in deriving the ndimensional relation from one of its rdimensional projections (r < n). For instance: frt Yyl 0. 0).1) are equal to the original fuzzy relation from which the projections involved in the cylindric extensions were determined. The cylindric extension clearly produces the largest fuzzy relation (in the sense of membership grades of elements of the extended Cartesian product) that 15 compatible with the given projection.1 under the a. 1. 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 max [R(0.3 are actually those shown in Table 5. 1. 1.0 max [R(1. R(1. x2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. the cylindric extension is totally unbiased.1. R(1. xA).1) can be generalized by replacing the max operator by another tconorm. 2) = R23 (0. 2)] . 1. Let 1 and denote the same families of sets as employed in the definition of projection_ Let R be a relation defined on the (artesian product of sets in the family t1.2 XL.y. R(1. R(0 5 05 2)1 = 0. x. X — denote the cylindric extension of R into sets Xi(i c Nn ) that are in X but are not in Then. 0. xi. 1). 0. Hence. [R . 0. x3) 0.4 0. That is.3 1:11 Riz(xt.
y) Y EY (5.9 0. each element of set X belongs to the domain of R to the degree equal to the strength of its strongest relation to any member of set Y.Y). generalized mathematical functions.5 0.9 1. We can see that none of them is the same as the original relation R. R2.5 0.0 • 5.0 0.2 1.(R12 . Some basic operations on functions. Cylindric closures of three families of projections involved in Example 5.3 are shown in Table 5.3 BINARY FUZZY RELATIONS Binary relations have a special significance among ndimensional relations since they are.5 0.(x) for each x EDC where denotes the family of sets on which Pi is defined. It is more COMM011 that a relation can. given a set of projections (Fidi E I} of a relation on X.. the cylindric I.5 0. the relation is not fully reconstructible from its projections. 5 Relations that can be reconstructed from one of their projections by the cylindric extension exist.9 0. The range of Ra. The resulting relation is usually called a cylindric closure .9 1.0 I•P" c C1 0 0. TABLE 5. the min operator is normally used for the set intersection..5 ' R23) cylIRI .0 0.9 0.3) for each x E X.3. binary relations R(X. 3.9 1.124 Fuzzy Relations Chap.51. n is a fuzzy relation on Y. R3 I 0. When projections are determined by the max operator (see Sec.t. be exactly reconstructed from several of its projections by taking the set intersection of their cylindric extensions. ran R.3 CYLINDRIC CLOSURES OF THREE FAMILIES OF PROJECT1ON$ CALCULATED IN EXAMPLE 5.2 0.9 1. Y) may assign to each element of X two or more elements of Y.1).i . such as the inverse and composition.0 0.9 1. but they are rather rare. its domain is a fuzzy set on X. Hence. cyl CYlfZ)(X) rein[ri i t X .0 0_5 0.0 0.2 0. Contrary to functions from X to Y.9 0_9 1. That is. FLCS 1::Z1 xA 14CD cy? .0 0.0 WC)MaC>Ma1+ 0. based on these projections is defined by the equation closure.5 1.3 • . x„.9 0.9 0. Given a fuzzy relation R(X. are applicable to binary relations as well.0 0_9 0. whose membership function is defined by .9 1. Hence. 0. dom R.5 0. whose membership function is defined by clorn R(x) max R(X. in some sense. R3 I cy1( R12. Ro.
y).1 representing R 1 (Y. Q =.Y).z) [Pa (2](x z) max min[P (x. Y). in addition. = n(x. Z) Q(Y.Y) [Q(Y. which is denoted by R 1 (Y.). The inverse of a fuzzy relation R(X. An example of the sagittal diagram of a binary fuzzy relation R(X. Yer (y.7) that (P (X .4) . Compositions of binary fuzzy relations can be performed conveniently in terms of membership matrices of the relations. P 1 (Y. That is. A convenient representation of binary relation R(X.2. h (R) is the largest membership grade attained by any pair (x.Y) is not welldefined when X 0 Z. A membership matrix transpose of the matrix R for R(X. the standard composition is not commutative. y) Another useful representation of binary relations is a sagittal diagram. [P(X. which is based on the standard inorm and Iconorm.Z). the height of a fuzzy relation R(X. Z) a R(Z. Z)] a R(Z. We eau then write. h(R). defined by  h (R) = max max R(x. This composition.5) That is.r e X and all z e Z.Sec_ 5. P(X. These lines. (5. Y) . 2) on X x Z defined by R(x.Y). It follows directly from (.Y) are welldefined.[gki1. Even if X = Z and Q(Y.. equal the columns of R and the columns of WI. Q (Y. we may have P(X. 5. is a relation on Y x X defined by R 1 (y. Y is represented by a set of nodes in the diagram. the standard (or maxmin) composition is associative and its inverse is equal to the reverse composition of the inverse relations_ However. y). That is.5. using this matrix notation.xGx for each y E Y. Each of the sets X. z)] (53) for all . X). Q(Y. Let P = [p al. X) is the for all x E X and all y e Y.6) Consider now two binary fuzzy relations P (X.equal the rows of R Clearly. and R = [r id be membership matrices of binary relations such that R = P Q. P(X.  nodes corresponding to one set are clearly distinguished from nodes representing the other set..Y). Z) with a common.L. yEY seX (5. because Q(Y. Y). Y) and (2 (Y.3 Binary Fuzzy Relations 125 ran R(y) = max R(x.W) = P (X . set Y. P (X. the strength of the strongest relation that each element of Y has to an element of X is equal to the degree of that element's membership in the range of ft. y) in R.. X). where 1 . produces a binary relation R(X. Y) together with the corresponding membership matrix is shown in Fig. . Y) is a number. which means that the rows of R1. The standard composition of these relations. Z)1 1 = C2 1 (Z . . R for any binary fuzzy relation.Y) a Q(Y. y) (5. x) = RIG y) = D37.Q(Y. Elements of X x Y with nonzero membership grades in R (X Y) are represented in the diagram by lines connecting the respective nodes.Y) are membership matrices R. are labelled with the values of the membership grades. Y). Z). which is denoted by P (X. is often referred to as the maxmin composition.
but the product and SUM operations are here replaGed with the min and max operations.7 [ .5 .) membership matrix.5 .6 . min(Pik.5 .10) • where r•f = (5.8) Observe that the same elements of P and Q are used in the calculation of R. (b.5 .7 .5 I [ . as would be used in the regular multiplication of matrices.7 .2_ 0 /Vat* 52 Examples of two convenient representations of a fuzzy binary relation: (a) sagittal diagram. respectively.126 Fuzzy Reations chap.4 .3 . q.5 .2 .5 .5 .3 .6 .8 1 .9 0 0 0 1 A 0 0 1 0 0 I Ys 0 0 0 .[174 .2 0 .4 .5 0 . 5 (a) Y1 y2 Y3 Y4 .5 .8) to perform the standard composition of two binary fuzzy relations represented by their membership functions: [ 3 .8 1 ..5 0 0 0 0 0 0 (b) 1 0 0 .9 .1.5 .9 1 0 . The following matrix equation illustrates the use of (5.7 . [r il ] = [pal .
3.7 . the relational join. 53 inary Fuzzy Refaticin5 127 For example. CI)] = q12). In fact. the maxrnin composition is obtained by aggregating appropriate elements of the corresponding (a) Composdtion: R P Q (x.).3). min(. .5. A similar operation on two binary relations.y) Qqy . The fact that the relational join produces a ternary relation from two binary relations is a major difference from the composition.9) for each x E X.2). . rain(033. (5.5 1 3 4 g 0 A b) ic) Figure $3 Composition and join of birovy relation. which results in another binary relation.6 . and z c Z. . q31)].9).5. corresponding to the standard maxmin composition is a ternary relation R(X Z) defined by R (x . I CA 1 2 2 0 a 0 . z) [E* Ql(x y .Sec. inin(. rnint. min(P32.Y) and Q(Y. min(P12 min(pn. 1)] max [min (P (711). .For fuzzy relations P(X. y E Y. is known as the relational join. which differs from the composition in that it yields triples instead of pairs..8(=2rui) = max[min(. min( 6.Z).5). .6 . r32) = max[min(. qn. y. P * Q. q 2 )1.4. z) min(1 2 (x.
5. [P Q](. Binary relations R(X. x) E R. that is. If either (x. however. the relation is called antireflexive. sagittal diagrams. If (x. y is also related to r. then. some applications suggest broadening these concepts by employing general tnorins and 1conorms.3a has the membership function given in Fig.51= . S(1. whenever x 74 y. Example 5. First. Formally. R(X.7. X) can be exprssed by the same forms as general binary relations (matrices. then the relation is called asymmetric.. they can be conveniently expressed in terms of simple diagrams with the following properties! (1) each element of the set X is represented by a single node in the diagram. z) max[P * 0(x. 5. y) 4 R or (y.10. 3. then the relation is called antisymynetric.r. b.5 The join S = P * Q of relations P and Q given in Fig. A crisp relation R(X. X) or R (X2 ) and is a subset of X x X = X2 . 5. where it can be compared with the other torms of representation of binary relations.9 and 5. a.xf.x. y. it is also possible to define a crisp or fuzzy binary relation among the elements of a single set X. . In addition.S(1. 5 . x) E R implies r = y. The generalized compositions are covered in Secs.3b are aggregated by the max operator. 4} is shown in Fig.10) for each x E X and z E Z . y.. y. 5. x) G R.7. symmetry. y) E R. To convert this join into the corresponding composition R = P Q by (5. let us consider crisp relations. and (3) each connection in the diagram is labeled by the actual membership grade of the corresponding pair in R. the two indicated pairs of values of S(x. 5 join by the max operator. tables). whenever an element r is related to an element y through a symmetric relation. z) y Er (5. E X. X) defined on X = (1. X) is symmetric iff for every (. X) are distinguished on the basis of three different characteristic properties: reflexivity. X) is called irreflevive. and transitivity. A crisp relation R(X.. BINARY RELATIONS ON A SINGLE SET In addition to defining a binary relation that exists between two different sets. If this is not the case for some x.126 Fuzzy Relations Chap.313. the relation is called strictly antisyrnmetric. For instance.10). A binary relation of this type can be denoted by R(X. z) in Fig. Thus. An example of this diagram for a relation R(X. X) is reflexive if (x. If both (x y) E R and (y. y. where z. g). 2. These relations are often referred to as directed graphs or digraphs. if every element of X is related to itself. jer)1 maxt. x) g R for every x E X. Various significant types of relations R(X. x) E R for each r X. Although the standard maxmin composition and the associated join are used most frequently in typical applications of fuzzy relations. it is also the case that (y. . Otherwise.4. tl) rea. (2) directed connections between nodes indicate pairs of elements of X for which the grade of membership in R is nonzero. R(1.
See. 5.4
Binary Relations on a Single Set
X
129
1 2 X 3 4
er.
1234 0
0
El o ini
a,g.ittal di .
am
x
1
y
j
Ri(x y)
.7
1 3 2 2 2 3 3 I 34 4 3 4 4 _8 Simple diagram
,1 .9 •,8 .5
Figure 5,4 Fotms of representation of a fuzzy relation R(I, X).
,
Table
A crisp relation R (X, X) is called transitive LIT (x, z, G R whenever both (X, y) G R and (y, z) R for at least one y € X. In other words, the relation of x to y and of y to z implies the relation of x to z in a transitive relation. A relation that does not satisfy this property is called nontranstave. If (x. z) R whenever both ix, y) E R and (y, z) E R, then
the relation is called antiiransitive. The properties of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity are illustrated for crisp relations X) in Fig. 5.$. We can readily see that these properties are preserved under inversion of the relation.
Reflexivity
Symmetry
Transitivity
Figare $4 Characteristic components of reflexive, symmetric, and transarm relations.
13 0
Fuzzy Relatfons
Example 5.1
Chap, 5
Let R be a crisp relation defined on X x X, where X is the set of all university courses and R represents the relation "is a prerequisite of." R is antireflexive because a course is never a prerequisite of itself. Further, if one course is a prerequisite of anOthir, the reverse will never be true, Therefore, R is antisyrnmetric. Finally, if a course is a prerequisite for a Seca Ltd course that is itself a pLezequisite for a third, then the first course is also a prerequisite for the thild Thus, the relation R is transitive_
These three properties can be extended for fuzzy relations R(X, X), by defining them in terms of the membership function of the relation. Thus, Ra X) is rejtr . ive iff
R(x .x) = 1
for all x X. If this is not the case for some x e X, the relation is called irreflexive; if it is not satisfied for all X E X. the relation is called antirefkrive. A weaker form of reflexivity, referred to as erejlerivily, is sometimes defined by requiring that
R(x,x)>
E,
where 0 < e < 1, A fuzzy relation is symmetric iff
R(x, y) = R(y,x)
for all x, y € X. Whenever this equality is not satisted for some x, y A, the relation is called asymmetric. Furthermore, when R(.. , y) > 13 and R(y,z) > 0 implies that .7c = y for all x, y € X, the relation R is called antisymmetric. A fuzzy relation R(X, X) is transitive (or, more specifically, maxmin transitive) if
R(x, z) > max min[R(x, y), R, z)1 (5.11) is satisfied for each pair ix z) e X2. A relation failing to satisfy this inequality for some members of X is called nantransitive, and if
,
R(x z) < maxnain[R(x, y), (y, z)]
ycl
for all (x, Z)
E X2,
then the relation is called antitransirive.
Example 5.7 Let R be the fuzzy relation defined on the set of cities and representing the concept very near. We may assume that a city is certainly (i.e., to a degree of 1) very near to itself. The relation is theretbre reflexive. Furthermore, if city A is very near to city lit, then B is certainly very near to A to the same degree.. Therefore, the relation is also symmetric. Finally, if city A is very 'near to city B to some degree, say .7, and city B is very near to city C to some degree, say .8, it is possible (although not necessary) that city A is very near to city C to a smaller degree, say 0.5 . Therefore, the relation is nontransitive.
Observe that the definition of the maxrain transitivity (5.11) is based upon the maxmin composition (5.7). Hence, alternative definitions of fuzzy tralisitivity, based upon other tnorms and tconorrns, are possible (Secs. 5.9 and 5.10) and useful in some applications.
Sec. 5.4
Binary Relations on a Single Set
131
By considering the four variants of reflexivity, three variants of symmetry, and three variants of transitivity defined for binary relations, we can distinguish 4 x 3 x 3 36 different types of binary relations on a single set. Some of the most important of these types are discussed in Secs, 5,5 through 5.7; their names and properties are given in Fig. 5.6.
ric
70.[XP URYI)LI V
Equivalence QuasiequivalenceCompatibility or tolerance Partial ordering
Preordering or
quasiordcring
Strkt ordering
w. .„ . II Imr, z,mil Ir ZIr Z vAM/r imr w` VA. • 1111111117 ir, .• .A1
••
eFor F #Fr
The ITIVISitiVe C1051417C of a crisp relation R(X, X) is defined as the relation that is transitive, contains R , X), a.nd has the fewest possible members. For fuzzy relations, this last requirement is generalized such that the elements of the transitive closure have the smallest possible membership grades that Still allow the first two requirements to be met. Given a relation R (X, X), its transitive closure RT(X, X) can be determined by a simple algorithm that consists of the following three steps:
1. Ri .RU(RoR). 2. If fe R, make R = ir and go to Step I_ 3. Stop: = RT.
This algorithm is applicable to both crisp and fuzzy relations. However, the type of composition and set union in Step 1 must be compatible with the defmition of transitivity employed. When max min composition and the max operator for 3 et union are used, we call RT the transitive max min closure.

No.rx aup li
:14t !l !Stitr j,
,,,r•zr„ m
,
Some important types of binary relations R(X, X).
figure 5.6
Example 5.8 Using the algorithm just given, we can determine the transitive tnax min closure fuzzy relation R (X, X) defined by the membership matrix

RT
(X, X) for a
132 .7 0 0 0 .5 0 .4 0 0 0 0 .8 I) l. 0 0
Fuzzy Reations
Chap. 5
R,
Applying Step 1 of the algorithm, we obtain
R
[
_7 0 0 0
.5 0 0 ,4
0
.8
0 0
.5 0 .4 0
R U (R., R)
=
[
.7 0 0 0
.5 0 .4 .4
0 .8 0 .8
.5 1 .4 0
Since It R. we take. R' as a new matrix R and, repeating the previous proce.dure, we obtain .7 .5 .5 .5 " .4 .8 .4 4EI .4 .4 .4 0 4 .4 .4_
R
(R. R)
.7 .5 .5 0 .4 .8 [ 0
.5 1

Since W R at this stage, we must again repeat the procedure with the new relation. If we do this, however, the last matrix does not change. Thus, [ .7 .5 .5 .5 0 .4 .8 1 0 .4 .4 .4 0 .4 .8 .4 is the membership matrix of the transitive closure Rr corresponding to the given relation
R (X, X)_.
5.5 FUZZY EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS
A crisp binary relation Ra X) that is reflexive, symmetric„ and transitive is called an
equivalence relation. For each element x in X, we can define a crisp set A, which contains all the elements of X that are related to x by the equivalence relation. Formally,
Ax =(y1(x, y) e R(X X)).
A, is clearly a subset of X. The element x is itself contained in A, due to the reflexivity of R; because R is transitive and symmetric, each member of is related to all the other members of A x . Furthcrmorc, no member of A„ is related to any element of X not included in A. This set A, is referred to as an equivalence class of R(X, X) with respect to z. The members of each equivalence class can be considered equivalent to each other and only to each other under the relation R. The family of .all such equivalence classes defined by the relations which is usually denoted by X/ R, forms a partition on X.
Example 5.9
Let X = 11, 2, , 101. The Cartesian product X x Y contains 100 members: (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), , (10, 10). Let R(X, X) = {(x, y)[x and y have the same remainder when divided by 3}. The relation is easily shown to be reflexive, symmetric, arid transitive and is therefore an equivalence relation on X. The three equivalence classes defined by this relation are:
Sec. 5.5
Fuzzy Equivalence Relatons
AL
133
= i to 7= (1, 4, 7, 10),
A4
A2
A5
As
A3
A6 A9
(2, 5, 8), (3, 6, 9).
Hence, in this example, ER = 1{1„ 4,1, 10), (2. 5, 81. {3, O. 9)}. A fuzzy binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive is known as a fuzzy equivalence relation or sim ilarity relation. In the rest of this section, let us use the latter term. While the maxmin form of transitivity is assumed in the following discussion, the concepts can be generalized to the alternative definitions of fuzzy transitivity. While an equivalence relation clearly groups elements that are equivalent under the relation imito disjoint classes, the interpretation of a similarity relation can be approached in two different ways. First, it can be considered to effectively group elements into crisp sets whose members, are "similar" to each other to some specified degree. Obviously, when this degree is equal to 1, the grouping is an equivalence class. Alternatively, however, we may wish to consider the degree of similarity that the elements of X have to some specified element x E X_ Thus, for each x E X, a similarity claxs can be defined as a fuzzy set in which the membership grade of any particular element represents the similarity of that element to the element x. If all the elements in the class are similar to r to the degree of 1 and similar to all elements outside the set to the degree of 0, then the grouping again becomes an equivalence class. The following discussion briefly elaborates on each of these approaches in turn. • Due to Theorem 2..5, every fuzzy relation R can be uniquely represented in terms of its CCcuts by the formula
R
it
U crR.
a(0.11

(5,12)
can easily be shown, if R is a similarity relation, then each a cut "R is a crisp equivalence relation. Effectively, then, we may use any similarity relation R and, by taking an acut aR for ay value a c (0, 11, create a crisp equivalence relation that represents the presence of similarity between the elements to the degree ce. Each of these equivalence relations forms a partition of X. Let r(R) denote the partition corresponding to the equivalence relation R. Clearly, two elements x and y belong to• the same block of this partition if R(x, y) > Each similarity relation is associated with the set
n(R) (nT2R)Cce E (0, 111
of partitions of X. These partitions are nested in the sense that reR) is a refinement of z(13R) if a >
ExainplE 5.10
The fuzzy relation R (X, X) represented by the membership matrix
a b C —
abcd
e
0 0 1
fg
0 0 .9 0 0
1 .8
0
.8 1
0
û
0 1
.4 .4
.4.4 0 0
f g 0 0 0 0
O
1
.9
0 / 0
0
0 1
.9
O
.9
1
.5
0
.5
.5
.5 0 .5 .5 1
134
.4
Fuzzy Relations
Chap. 5
a
.5
Œ. =
1.0
NO II
Figure 5.7 Partition tree far the
s.inailarity relation In Example 5.10.
is a similarity relation on X = {a, b, e, d, e, f, g). lb verify that R is retie/dye and symmetric is trivial. To verify its transitivity, we may employ the algorithm Pat catualating transitive Liusures introduced in Sec. 5.4. If the algorithm is applied to R and terminates after the first iteration, {0, .4„5, .8, .9, 1. Therefore, R then, clearly, R is transitive. The level set of R is A R is associated with a sequence of five nested partitions Jr('R), for a E AR and a > O. Their refatement relationship can be conveniently diagrammed by a partition tree, as shown in Fig. 5.7. The equivalence classes famed by the levels of refinement of a similarity relation can be interpreted as grouping elements that are similar to each other and only to each other to a degree not less than cr. Thus, in Example 5.10, c. e, f, and g are all similar to each other to a degree of .5, but only c and e are similar to each other to a degree of 1. Just as equivalence classes are defined by an equivalence relation, simUariey dus ses are defined by a similarity relation. For a given similarity relation R(X, X), the similarity class for each x E X is a fuzzy set in which the membership grade of each element y E X is simply the strength of that element's relation to x, or R(x, y). Thus, the similarity class for an element represents the degree to which all the other members of X arc similar to x.. Except in the restricted case of equivalence classes themselves, similarity classes are fuzzy, and therefore not generally disjoint_ Similarity classes are conveniently represented by membership matrices. Given a similarity relation R, the similarity class for each element is defined by the row of the membership matrix of R that corresponds to that element. For instance, the similarity classes for the element c and the element e of the similarity relation in Example 5.10 are equal. Therefore, the relation defines six different similarity classes. Fuzzy equivalence is a cutworthy property of binary relations RC X, X) since it is preserved in the classical sense in each a cut of R. This implies that the properties of fuzzy reflexivity, symmetry, and 1711RX131111 transitivity are also cutworthy.

Sec. 6.6
Fuzzy Compatibility Relations
135
Binary relations that are symmetric and transitive but not reflexive are usually referred tu as qua.si equivalence relations. They are, however, of only marginal 5 ignificance, and we omit a detailed discussion of them.

5.6
FUZZY COMPATIBILITY RELATIONS
A binary relation R(X, X) that is reflexive and symmetric is usually called a compatibility relation or tolerance relation. When R(X, X) is a reflexive and symmetric fuzzy relation, it is sometimes called a proximity relation. An important concept associated with compatibility relations are compatibility classes (also tolerance classes). Given a crisp compatibility relation R(X, X), a compatibility class is a subset A of X such that (lc, y) E R for all x, y E A. A maximal compatibility class or maximal compatible is a compatibility class that is not properly contained within any other compatibility class. The family consisting of all the maximal compatibles induced by R cm X is called a complete cover of X with respect to R. When R is a fuzzy compatibility relation, compatibility classes are defined in terms of a specified membership degree a. An acompatibility class is a subset A of X such that R(x, y) > a for all x, y € A. Maximal acompatibles and complete acover are obvious generalizations of the corresponding concepts for crisp compatibility relations. • Compatibility relations are often conveniently viewed as reflexive undirected graphs. In this context, reflexivity implies that each node of the graph has a loop connecting the node to itself; the loops are usually omitted from the visual representations of the graphs, although they are assumed to be present. Connections between nodes, as defined by the relation, are not directed, since the property of symmetry guarantees that all existing connections appear in both directions. Each connection is labeled with the value of the corresponding membership
grade R( x,
y) =
R(y x).
Ng
Example Sal Consider a fuzzy relation R(X, X) defined on X
1 1
2
by the following membership matrix:
7
0
2 S
1
3 0
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
8 0 0
0
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.
—1
.8
000 0
1 1 .8 .7
.5 0 0
3 4
5
6 7 8 9
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
LI
1 1 .8 0
0
,8 _S 1 .7
.5 .7 0
0 _7 .7 1
.4 0 0
0
.5
5
.4
1
.7 0
0
CI
0
0 0
0 0
1 0
Since the matrix is symmetric and all entries on the main diagonal are equal 101, the re/atiort represented is reflexive and symmetric; therefore, it is a compatibility relation. The graph of the relation is shown in Fig. 5,8; its complete acovers for cr > O and e AR {0, A. .5, .7,.8, 1) are depicted in Fig. 5.9.
136
Fuzzy Relations
Chap. 5
Figure 5.8 Graph of the compatibility ration in Example 5.1, 1,_
The complete acovers of compatibility relations R(X X) may, for some values of a, form partitions of X; in general, however, this is not the case due to the lack of transitivity. For example, the complete acovers illustrated in Fig. 5.9 form partitions of N9 for a .8. It is obvious that similarity relations are special cases of compatibility relations for which all complete acovers fOrni partitions of X. Since the lack of transitivity _distinguishes compatibility relationa from similarity relations, thy transitive closures of compatibility relations are similarity relations.
a = .4
.r3c 5
a
.g
= 1'
Pigmy 5.9 All complete ofcowers for the compact:NH1y relation R itt Exam:310e 5.11.
Sec. 5.7 5.7
Fuzzy Ordering Relations
137
FUZZY ORDERING RELATIONS
While similarity and compatibility relations are characterized by symmetry, ordering relations require asymmetry (or antisymmetry) and transitivity. There are Several types of ordering rel atioas. A crisp binary relation R , X) that is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive is called a partial ordering. The common symbol is suggestive of the properties of this class of relations. Thus, x < y denotes (x, y) E R and signifies that x precedes y. The inverse partial ordering R 1 (X, X) is suggested by the symbol ›. If y > x, indicating that (y, x) E then we say that y succeeds x. When x < y, x is also referred to as a predecessor of y, while y is called a successor of x. When r < y and there is no z such that x <z and z < y, x is called an immediate predecessor of y, and y is called an immediate successor of x. If we need to distinguish several partial orderings, such as P, Q, and R, we use the symbols <. and <, respectively. Observe that a partial ordering ‹ on X does not guaran_tee that all pairs of elements x, y in X are comparable in the sense that either x < y or y < x, Thus, for some x, y c it is possible that x is neither a predecessor nor a successor of y. Such pairs are called noncomparabire with respect to <. The following are definitions of some fundamental concepts associated with partial orderings:

FQ
• If x E X and z< y for every y E X, then x is called the first member (or minimum) of 2( with respect to the relation denoted by < • If x € X and y < x for every y E X, then x is called the last member (or maximum) of I with respect to the partial ordering relation. x implies x = y, then ../c is called a minimal member of X with • If rE X and y respect to tl)e relation. • If x c X and x < y implies x = y, then x is called a maximal member of X with respect to the relation. Using these concepts, every partial ordering satisfies the following properties: 1. There exists at most one first member and at most one last member. 2. There may exist several maximal members and several minimal rnenab ers. 3. if a first member exists, then only one minimal member exists, and it is kle'ntieal with the first member.. 4. If a last member exists, then only one maximal member exists, and it is identical with the last member. 5. The first and last members of a partial ordering relation correspond to the last and first members of the inverse partial ordering, respectively, Let X again be a set on which a partial ordering is defined, and let .41 be a subset of X(A c X). if x € X and x < y for every y 4, then x is called a lower tiound of A on X
138
Fuzzy R elatons
Chap. 5
for every y A. then r iq rallnd X and y < with respetet to the partial ordering. If x an upper bound of A on x with respect to the relation. If a particular lower bound succeeds every other lower bound of A, then it is called the greatest lower bound, or infinuttn, of A. If a particular upper bound precedes every other upper bound of A, then it is called the least upper bound, or suprernum, of A. A partial ordering on a set X that contains a greatest lower bound and a least upper bound for every subset of two elements of X is called a lattice. A partial ordering < on X is said to be connected if for all x, y G X, X 744 y implies either x < y or y < x. When a partial ordering is connected, all pairs of elements of X are comparable by the ordering. Such an ordering is usually called a linear ordering; some alternative names used in the. literature are total ordering, simple ordering, and complete ordering. Every partial ordering on a set X can be conveniently represented by a diagram in
which each element of X is expressed by a single node that is connected only to the nodes rcprzscutiug its immediate pi CLICCCSNOIS and inamcdiate suocessor3. The connections arc directed in order to distinguish predecessors from successors; the arrow indicates the inequality < Diagrams of this sort are called Hasse diagrams. Example S.12 and R on the set X = fa, b, c, e) are defumd by their their Hasse diagrams in Fig, 5.10. The underlined entries in membership matrices (crisp) and each matrix indicate the relationship of the immediate predecessor and successor employed in the corresponding Hasse diagram. P has no special properties, Q is a lattice, and R is an example of a lattice that represents a linear ordering. Three crisp partial orderings
13 Q,
A fuzzy binary relation R on a sa X is a fuzzy partial ordering iff it is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive under some form of fuzzy transitivity. Any fuzzy partial ordering based on max min transitivity can be resolved into a series of crisp partial orderings in the same way in which this is done for similarity relations, that is, by taldng a series of a
cuts that produce increasing levels of refinement. When a fuzzy partial ordering is defined on a set X, two fuzzy sets are associated with each element x in X. The first is called the dominating class of x. it is denoted by R> pl and
is defined by 1?›[x](y) R(x,
where y E X. In other words, the dominating class of x contains the members of X to the degree to which they dominate x. The second fuzzy set of concern is the class dominated by x, which is denoted by Lt../ and defined by where y e X. The class dominated by x contains the elements of X to the degree to which they are dotuinated by x. An element x c X is unclonsinated
f(x, y) = 0
Sec. 5.7
Fuzzy Orderirg Relations
c
d
N
139
a
+1
a
b
c
d
a
l3 1 1
0
0
0 0 0
al
b
0
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alOCC bi 1 I CIOC 1 0 0
I
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00 1 0
I
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00
CI
dt1010
dl
e
Li
1
1
0
11111113 1. I 1
•ss.,
eI
0101 Last and maximal element
II
I Last and
maximal
element
Last and maximal
utcnient
MiHiirial
element
element
Firat and mirjmI
element
First and
minima) element
Figure 5.10 Examples of partial cirderiag (Examplc 5.12).
for all y
EX
and x y; an element x is undominating iff
R(y) = 0
for ally e X and y Ox. For a crisp subset A of a set X on which a fuzzy partial ordering R is defined, the fuzzy upper bound for A is the fuzzy set denoted by ti (R, A) and defined by
xsA. where r1 denotes an. appropriate fuzzy intersection.. This definition reduces to that of the conventional u.pper bound when the partial ordering is crisp. if a_ least upper bound of the set A exists, it is the unique clement x in U (R, A) such that
U (R, A)
U (R, _4)(x) > 0 and R(x y) >0,
far all elements y in the support of U (R, A).
Example 513
The following membership matrix defines a fuzzy partial ordering R on the set ;IC = {a, b, e, d, e):
9 . Employing the min operator for fuzzy intersection. The columns of the matrix give the dominated class for each element. . 5.=.7 1 . the preordeling is not necessarily antisynunetrie. b)) = .5 . it can be thought of as a fuzzy preordering .7/b + . the element d is undorainated.8 0 1 b R 1 0 c dl . Unlike a partial ordering. All distinct crisp orderings captured by the given fuzzy partial erdering R Ire shown in Fig.7 a 0 1 D 0 1 I _9 Lo 0 G .11 The set of all distinct crisp orderings eapriured by the fuzzy partial ordering R in Example 5. For the subset A = b).5 a=.7 0 . Under this ordering.11. we obtain U(R.91d.8 ce. a =A o o o o a=. The unique least upper bound for the set A is the element b. aad the element e is =dominating.9 a1 Figure 5.1 The doiminating clasz for each element is given by the row of the matrix corresponding to that element. the upper bound is the fuzzy set produced by the intersection of the dominating classes for a and b. We call see that the orderings became weaker with the increasing value of n.140 Fuzzy Relations Chao. 5 a a C de I. A fuzzy weak ordering R is an ordering satisfying all the properties of a fuzzy linear ordering except untisynimetry.1a Several other concepts of crisp orderings easily generalize to the fuzzy case. A fuzzy preordering is a fuzzy relation that is reflexive and transitive. Alternatively. (a.
x2) E R implies (h (x i ).MORPRISMS If two crisp binary relations R(X. 1 with zeros for all x € X. 5.bi) = Q(yi y2) . y) > 0 or R(y x) > 0 for all x y. =. where x1 E h1 (yi) and x2 E h 1 (y2). R) to (Y. x2 e X. the function is called a strong hontornorphisin. A fuzzy sirict ordering is antirellexive.x1). X) and Q(Y. If relations R(X. Formally. Note that it is possible for a relation to exist under Q between the . for ail xl. x2 E X and their images h(x 1). Y) are defined on sets X and Y. When this is never the case under a homomorphie function h.Sec. (Xi. then the criteria that a manytoone function h must satisfy in order to be a strong homomorphism are somewhat modified. for all xi . Q) if (xi.element y1 E Y and all elements of E to some element y 2 E Y. this implication can be generalized to R(xi. and let all elements of A be mapped B b2 to some. Observe that when h is manytoone. . It satisfies the two implications. This equality must be satisfied for each pair of blocks of the partition irh. h (x2) in set Y are related under the relation Q. Let A = 1at a z. In other words. antisymmetric. X) and Q(Y. . Y) are fuzzy binary relations. the inverse of h for each element of Y is a set of elements from X instead of a single element of X. X2) E R implies (11 (x1). an } and b„} be two blocks of this partition rrh. When R(X. Thus. x2) e R for all xi . and transitive.8 FUZZY .Y) are fuzzy. h(x2)) E Q. it can clearly be derived from any partial ordering R by replacing the values R(x. Then the function h is said to be a strong homomorphism from (X.8 Fuzzy Merphisrrs 141 in which either R(x. x2) < Q (h(x1 ). X) and Q(Y. 5. The function h imposes a partition rzi. a homomorphisna implies that for every two elements of set X which are related under the relation R. R) to (Y. respectively. the strength of relation between two elements under R is equaled or exceeded by the strength of relation between their homomorphie images under Q. and (Yi y2) E Q for all Yi yz E Y. on the set X such that any two elements Il l x2 e X belong to the same block of the partition iff h maps them to the same element of Y. h(x2) e Y. then a function h X Y is said to be a hornomorphism from X.h (x2 ). homomorphic images of two elements that are themselves unrelated under R. MaXR(ai. Q) iff the degree of the strongest relation between any element of Aand any element of E in the fuzzy relation R equals the strength of the relation between Yi and y2 in the fuzzy relation Q. h (X2)) E Q implies (x 1 . their homomorphie images h(. x2 e X.
If h : X ÷ Y is a hornomorphism from (X. Q. b. b.5 0 . _ and elements e and f to element y. e. The set X is therefore partitioned into the three equivalence classes lai. Consider now alternative relations R(X.4 0 0 0 0 a Q 13 0 . then the rektion Q(Y. c. dl and le.9 0 . and if h is completely specified. Q). and the relations R and Q are equal. x2) € X < X which are members of have corresponding homomorphic images (h (r e ).6 0 0 = • .9 0 1 0 0 . This is effectively a translation or direct relabeling of elements of the set X into elements of the set Y that preserves all the properties of R in Q.142 Example 5.5 0 . Figure 5. then it is called an isomorphism. then h is called an ersdomopphisnt. X) and Q(Y. f } and Y (a. a homomorphism . f J. that are not the counterparts of any member of R. The notion of a crisp or fuzzy homomorphism can be generalized from binary relations on a single set to relations on two or more different sets. In fact.14 Fuzzy Relations Chap.9 G 1 . Note that the pair (y. and onto.9 0 0 . A function that is both an isomorphism and an endomorphism is called an automorphisnr. c.0 . fi. lb. Y) pieserves some of the properties of the relation R(X.8 = [ _7 . Q.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 . Is (x2)) GYxY which are members of Q.5 0 0 c( Cf [ fit Y o 0 . elements b. Q represents a simplification of R in which elements belonging to the same block of the partition created by the function h on the set X are no longer distinguished. and element d to element y.4 1 0 1 In this case the second relation. and 4 to element a. more properties of the relation R are preserved in the relation Q. j3) in Q does not correspond to any pair in.5 0 0 0 . R) to (Y.9 1 . onetoone. c. If Y c X.8 y . R) to (Y. Figure 5. respectively d . If a horaomorphisra exists from (X.X) — namely. however. 5  The following membership matrices represent fuzzy Refarions R(X.9 0 1 The second relation. which are represented by the following membership matrice: a . In this case.d. These fUnctions are useful for performing various kinds of simplifications of systems that preserve desirable properties in set. element c to element ft. is the homomorphie image of R under the homomorphie function h i which maps elements a and b to element a. Q). such as ordering or similarity.c.12b depicts this strong hornomorphism. the relation R. Y) defined on X = {a.3 . dI and Y = yl. This is not the case when the homomorphisra is strong. Each of these terms applies without modification w fuzzy homomorphisms. Y) de5ned on sets X = la.8 R bcdef . which maps element a to element 0. that all the pairs (xt . Here. the function maps the set X to itself. Other members of Q may exist.12a illustrates this fuzzy homomorphism. is a strong homornorphiic image of R tinder the homomorphic function h.5 d 0 0 0 0 0 . respectively. For instance. X) and Q(Y.
(b) strung rum homoznorphism ..a•• .12 Fuzzy homomorphisms (Example 5.r. 5.8 Fuzzy Morphisms 143 Ordinary fuzzy horriomorphism  ss• .s•s h (b) Strong fuzzy hornorncrphisin Q(Y.Sec. Y) Figure 5.s •• WAYF •s• .1. (a) ozdirurzy fuzzy komomorpkion.4).
PEI (5. z) sup i[P (x.The properties described earlier must then be satisfied by each of these functions. Z). (p 01 = Q1 p1 . The need to study these generalizations emerges from some applications. and R(Z .144 Fuzzy Relations Chap. and R(2. for any fuzzy relations P(X. V).13) for all x E X. where j refers to a tnorm.Z). Li. generalize the standard maxmin composition. V).Y). P j (X. .  (5. Supi composition is also monotonic increasing. Given a particular tnorm and two fuzzy relations P (X Y) and Q(17. Y . the following are under the standard fuzzy union and intersection: (P Q) R = P (0 R). y). Y). a t (Y.15) P (nQI ) s JEJ n(P ier (5. and . ). (17 . (T. Y1 ) and R2(X2. where j basic properties of the supi composition takes values in an index set J.20) (5. that is. respectively. (y. These properties follow directly from the corresponding properties of tnorms. h1 : X2 and h 2 . Y).16) (n PI) JE' Q fl (P1 Q).. Z). the sup4 composition of P and Q is a fuzzy relatiot P Q on X x Z defined by [P Q](x. if Qi C Q2 then PQ 1 Qi P QZ Q2. z)] yeY (5. such as approximate reasoning and fuzzy control. where fl and U represent the meet and join of the lattice.14) jJ (5. 5.9 SUPI COMPOSITIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS Supi compositions of binary fuzzy relations.21) R The set of all binary fuzzy relations on X' forms a complete latticeordered monoid (F (X2). and their verification is left to the reader as an exercise. Z). Z). P JQI = (P CO. When t is chosen to be the min operator. Q 2(Y. S between two relations such as R t (Xi . n. Y2) would consist of two functions. P Q becomes the standard composition Po Q. Given fuzzy relations P (X. z E Z.
5. when. Then. where R is a fuzzy relation on X and R(1) = R. y. y). Using this notation.22) for all x. To investigate properties of the itransitive closure. the fuzzy relation BT(i) = n=1. Consider now a fuzzy relation S that is itransitive and contains R(R c S). Theorem SA.9 Supi Compositions ot Fuzzy Relations 145 represents the semigroup operation of the monoid. R (1) =R RcS1P ScS and.m=1 U (leli) ROO) Ç UR (k) k=1 This means that kro) is Itransitive. y) = 0 when x y. we can now formulate two theorems regarding itransitive closure. can be generalized in terms of the supi compositions for the various tnorms i. R(y.17).(1) that is the smallest itransitive relation conmiring R. we define its itransitive closure as a relation R 2. if Rk") c S. then =RL . which is introduced in terms of the mammin composition in See. z)] (5. It is easy to show that a fuzzy relation R on 12 is itransitive iff R R c R. z) i[R(x. by (1 15) and RT(1) (5. For any fuzzy relation R on X2. Rru) = (1:IR (n) ) ( re=1 OR (*)) 'n=1 0:3 r1=1 m=1 U za. 3. The identity of is defined by the relations I. . R Q° (5.Sec. moreover.4. x = y E (x. 2. The concept of transitivity of a fuzzy relation. z E X. let Rcn ) =R for n =. Proof: First. We say that relation R on X2 is itransitive iff R(x. When a relation R is not itransitive. 5.23) is the itransitive closure of R. which may be used as an alternative definition of i transitivity.
RTy) is the smallest itransitive fuzzy relation containing R. Thus. zv4. y)] < (x. x) = Ro . we prove that R ('. 1. R ro) Let R be a reflexive fuzzy relation on X 2. It The itransitivity. can be used for defining fuzzy iequivalence.146 Fuzzy 1=1elation Chnp_ Hence. Proof: Since R is reflexive. z ? ). therefore. y) < R ('1) (x 1 y). y)] R(z i.l) (x x) = 1. zi) i[R(x. z_. Since n.°= R. Then. and so on. symmetry. where j t2kes values from an index set J. where [XI n > 2. For any x. R(z. While the tnorm i may be interpreted as logical conjunction. then.. y € X. N It follows directly from this theorem that any given fuzzy relation on X2 is itransitive if R = RT (0. R T(g) _let 1) _ kil1) . d E [O. y) for any x. R(zr_i . k'' ) follows that Roo = 1011) and. WM. Zr ). the corresponding operation (Di may be interpreted as logical implication. therefore. a 10 INFwi COMPOSITIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS Given a continuous tnorm î let . z. 11. z 1 ). referred to as operation coi . consequently. x) b) for every a. R (') (x. operation col has the following properties: For any a. R(z. E c R and R = E R Ç R R = R (2) . and other types of fuzzy relations. b e [O.. (k < n . together with reflexivity. . where r < s. coi (a b) sup[x E [0.1) fl(E. then = sup i[R(x.1). z1. For finite and reflexive fuzzy relations.. as expressed by the following theorem. y G X and. This operation. Basic properties of coi are expressed by the following theorem. the itransitive closure has a simpler form. lek) c S for any k e N and. . Assume zi. RT(i) = h 1 R(k) C That is. if x = y. 11. 11 I i (a . a Theorem 53. zn = y of n + 1 elements must contain at least two equal elements. then R ("J(x. Hence. plays an important role in fuzzy relation equations (Chapter 6).. Theorem 52. antisymmetry. icompatibility. y) Rog 1) (x. the sequence x zo._p_i). R(') c RO'÷i) for any m E N._3 . if x 0 y. but the coverage of these generalizations is beyond the scope of this text. Now. z 1). (zi.
. b)) = sup i (ajo . cl)] wi (a. Hence. xl < d <=t. codb. x) < d) (since i is continuous) d) [b. d) > (b d) and wi (d a) 5. cl ] . coi [i (a. since inf 1E1 E jEJ b) (air b) for all /0 i s ( J . 1. a i). d ]} 7. d). b). coi(s b) < inf a)1 (a 11 b). wi [sup ai . i (a x)] :5 d 0. dl. lf b < tog (a. Then. 4. 6. b) for any j f by property 4. By property 1.d)] = suptx ]i (a. b). x) < d} and. 12 ] > sup o (a j ).ig(d b). b). Let s =. 8. b < supfxli (a. isi iEJ 9. then i (a. i inf (Di (a . inf coi (a1 . if i(a • b) d. cl] = coi [a.b)) < b for alt jo E J. b) 2. x) eoi [i (a b). On the other hand. d)} = coi [a wi (b . 5. jEf 1E1 10. 7. i[a.10 infce Compositions cf Fuzzy Reiatcns 147 d iff (a. b). Hence. 3. ai s and /4(s b) < 42)(af . d)} = d. (b cl)]. f el o. x) (a. and leave the rest of the proof to the reader. Proof: We illustrate the full proof by proving only properties 1. 3. i (a. then h g fx[i (a.sup af . i(a. a1 ). 3.. i[i (a . we have (s b) > inf (ai b). JO' which completes the proof of property 7. and 7. b) < i[a. x < (b.b]. icf consequently. by property 1 we have i(a hi inf cpi (aj.Sec. inf air(a b)) b. a < b implies wi (a. x) d) = al. coi . Again by property 1. (a d). d). (sup a b) = w s b) = inf toi (a b). [inf a' . inf ai] = hit w g (b. stipai] > sup coi 0. Thus. d) > b. iJ sup(xjx :5 co i [i (a . sup{xii(a. consequently. 1. roi [cof (a .b). b] > a. ifwi (a. ill . b). co [b.. b). 6)] 15 b.4(b.x) (4] = supfi(a. wi(a. a). x) [i(a.
and Q 1 (Y. Z). Z E Z. Z).6. Let p(r. ' This theorem is instrumental in proving the two properties of monotonicity of the infcDE composition that are stated by the following theorem. the infcol composition. R (X . Q(Y. n Q2) = R by (5. 5' Given a tnolyn i and the associated operation wh. P (IIIQ 1) jent = n (15' Q. . then P Qi P az and Qi R D Q2 T5T R. pj (X.32) P 411 (UQi) 2 U(P 4°4 Q1). 2 p (2) Theorem 5. Z).29) (5 . Q2. Y). (U P1) Q = /El jJ n (F1 Y • Q) . P fuzzy relation P(X. 7).24) Basic properties of the inf coi composition are expressed by the following two theorems. 7) be fuzzy relation.31). (527) (5.31) (5. where j takes values in an index set I Then. which implies that P Q c P Q/. y). Z) is defined by the equation Q. z)] for all X E X. z) = inf wi[P(x. if 02.). y) . Q2 ti (Q t R) n (Q2 R) = (QiU f22) III R by (5. Y). Q(Y. of (P Q)(x.5. C (5. V) be fuzzy relations. and S(Z. Proof: Q g Q implies Q Qz = Qi and Qi U Q2 = (P Qi) (F 6:. Qi C Theorem 5. and R(Z. JO' (5.4. Q C P 16' R. Q 2 (Y.29). Y) and Q(Y." Q 2) = P (Qt Hence. and this implies Qi R 2 Q2 °01 R.25) (5. Then: (1) the following propositions are equivalent: PIQc R. U (Pi Q). 7). Q(y. (5. Let P (X.Y). V) be fuzzy relations.148 Fuzzy Relations Chap.3 0) t' Q P.28) p (Q S) (p Q)  Let p (X. Theorem 5.26) (Q R1)1. Since these properties follow directly from the properties of operations coi expressed by  Theorem 5.3. Q i (Y. we omit their proofs. (5.
34) (5. Q(Y.11 as . R is interpreted in terms of (5.36) R c F (F1 R).25) Similarly.dimensional crisp relations arc cluek Zadeh [1975a. SI. Theorem 5.33) and (5. compatibilzty.2. we t hence. Relational mopplasm were studied in great detail for both crisp and fuzzy relations by Bandler and Koliout [1986a. Proposition (5. which plays an important role in fuzzy relation equations based on the inf. composition (Sec.35). when the trivial proposition P 1 R c and then replaced with the equivalent proposition (5_26). (5. Q 1 D (P Q) 1 t P. The fazzy relation R is defined on sets XI = {a.34) indicate that the supi composition and infcoi composition (P 66' Q) C Q instead of are opposite compositions in the following weak sense: P 1 (P 1 R). Proof: When the trivial proposition P Q C (P 1)1 Q is interpreted in terms of (5 26) and then replaced with the equivalent propcsition (5.33) (5. C}. Or. 121. The basic ideas offazzy reiaftons and the concepts of fuzzy equivalence.25) and then replacing it with the equivalent proposition (5.34).Y). Interpreting the last have Q 1 D [P 1 . X3 (X: yl. for n .1. Note that (5.35). X2 = fellows: (S. and Ovehianiknv [1984 they are also extensively covered in one of the early books on fuzzy set theoryjKauftnann. Then. cylindric extension. these concepts are essential for procedures of approximate reasoning.36) follows then directly from (5. 5. The concepts of projection.26). EXERCISES Si.f. bi. 6. we directly obtain (5 33).25). Yager [10i1 a]. and fuzzy orderings were introduced by Zadth [19714.w. 19751. Binary fuzzy relations were further investigated by Rosenfeld 119751.Chap. b. and R(X.35) (5.5). and R c P (P' . 5 Exercises 149 This theorem and its predecessors in this section enable us to prove another theorem.I (P Q) = 42. P C (la Q) Q 1 RÇ (RQ') t' Q. we obtain (5. Yeh and Bang MIS].i! (P proposition in terms of (5. By (533).7. P . (P Q) Q. = (1. Z). Z) be fuzzy relations. Let P(X. we E obtain (5. and cylindric closure. R) instead of R NOTES 5.
8 .4.7 i . X4)1. in terms Qf a faurdimensional array.8 0 MI2 .7 .3 0 0 .2 0 0 . OR X Y = 1 0 .5 0 0 .1 o . (d) Is the cylindric closure from (c) equal to the original relation R? 52.2 M13 = .3 .3 . y. t. .2 O .7 . (e) two threedimensional arrays expressing the difference between each of the cylindric closures and the original ternary relation.2 .4.4 0 .9 1 1 .4 t (.2 0 0 .6 0 .7 0 1 .4 MATRIX REPRESENTATIONS OF FUZZY BINARY RELATONS ON X x Y EMPLOYED IN EXERCISES (ASSUME EITHER n 3.4 0 1 .1.6 6 . (R1.7 0 1 1 .3 .5 .4 .1 1 M3 = [ 0 3 .1 . 5.2 0 0 .4 . Determine: (a) ail twodimensional projections.8  . X4) = .7 0 .1 . .6 .5 1 M2 = 0 . (lb) cylindric ertensions and cylindric closure of the two dimensional projections. x + i . 7) E X (xi[i E N „) r4„1.2 0 0 0 . (c) Compute the cylindric closure from the three cylindric extensions in ().4 .2 0 .s.4/b. s. . Chap.3 t PC2.1 0 .5/a.2 0 .1 0 1 0 .6 _3 0 O 0 .3 . . (d) cylindric extensions and cylindric closure of the onedimensional projections.0 .7 0 .4 .6 1 .5 0 1 .8 .5 0 [ .6 .6 1 0 2 1 0 0 / 1 2 .5 0 .15 1 0 L.2 0 0 .3 M6 . X3 )1. 1 .3 3 .3 1 .3 J. Express the relation defined in Exercise 5. Given any nary relation.9 .2 0 .3 0 O 0 t .4 0 E.4 as pages in a threedimensional array that rcpawflis a fuzzy ternary relation.7 [ ..6 0 .9 0 .Ni.7 .6 0 0 0 .5 . 5 s. y.7 .7 0 MQ = . 5.7 .5 0 0 2 0010 .6 . and R4(b) Compute the cylindric ertensions (P 1 r7 .2 .R 0 .6 . Consider Inatrices M1 M2.150 Fumy Relatons R (X !.4.7 0 1 0 00 G 1 1 0 _7 .5 L 1 1 .4 . 0 0 0 .8 0 .6 .2 .3 .1 0 1 0 1.8 1 0 0 .3 Ms = 0 . [R4 t fXi.  TABLE 5.3 .4 3 0.6 0 0 0 G .3 .2 0 0 O M4 [ 1 • 0 . j ta) Compute the projections R0.2/c. y.8 0 0 1 1 .1 .7 0 0 O 0 1 0 A 0 . _3 0 0 .7 .8 .5 O 1 . j X3. s. X.6 0 1.6 / .i .7 0 1 .4 O O . y. M3 in Table 5.3 4 0 . (c) all onedimensional projections.8 0 . how many different projections of the relation can be taken? 53.8 0 .9/b.9 I .5/a..7 .5 .2 .5 1 1 1 .3 0 .2 .5 1 .8 O 0 / .
11 for some other maxi compositions. (b) the inverse of the relation.4.7.13. nontransilive.12. (a) the domain. For some of the binary relations given in Table 5.4 under the assumption that (r14 . range. and height of the relation. irreliexive. Using binary relations given in Table 5. reilexiviry. (a) What is the domain of R? (b) What is the range of R? (c) What is the height of R? (d) Calculate For each of the following binary relations on a single set.Chap. Dii7 are panes of a fourdimensional array that represents a fuzzy quaternary relation. 0 otherwise. transitive.4. 100) and represents the relation ". (10 M1 M2 ° M31. 5. symmetric. (d) "is the same height as".4. strictly antisymmetric. antisyminetric.s given in Table 5. determine the maxmin transitive closure for some relations given in Table 5.. 51. (a) M1 *M2 . ." It is defined by membership ffinetion R(x.14. Assuming X = Y.grant of the relation. perform the maxmin composition of some sequences of comparable relarion. irrellexive. „ 100} and Y (50. 5.9. For example: (a) Mi 4 M2 r M4 a M5/ Ma 6 M97 M12 6 M13.6. Repeat Exercise 5. 2. Repeat Exercise 5 . atitisymmetric.13.4. .16. antireflexive. asymmetric.4. 5.17.15. 5. 5.11. draw each of the following: (a) a sagittal clia. nontransitive„ or antitransitive: (a) "is a sibling or. The fuzzy binary relation R is defined OIL sets X = {I. (e) "is at least as tall as. and transitivity (or the lack of the= properties) are preserved under inversion for both crisp and fuzzy relations. 5. ereflexive (for some 0 < e < 1). 5. (c) Is smarter than".x is much Smaller than y. symmetric. 00 M4 * AG. or strictly avtisymmetric.. Repeat Exercise 5." For some of the binary relations given in Table 5 4. 5. y) = { 1 for x < y — . Prove that the maxmin composition and min join are associative operations on binary fuzzy relations.. where x X and y € Y. or antireflexive.16 for maxproduct transitive closure. 5. detmlnine . perform the following relational joins: 5. and transitive. state whether the relation is reflexive. antirsve Assuming that X Y.S. Assuming that X = Y for binary relations given in Table 5.10. 5. M4 O//f5 M6 ° M71 etc. (d) Miz * Prove that the properties of symmetry. or (assuming maxmin transitivity). (b) 'is a parent of". 5.  . M5 ) and Ms. asymmetric. (b) a simple diagram of the relation under the assumption that X = Y. (e) Ma 44 M9. 5 Exercises 151 S. determine for some of the relations whether they are reflexive.
X) and two partitions ir(*El) and 7r (°. 5.5. Determine: (a) simple diagrams of the relations. Prove (5. as Kim . the sets of undorninated and undominating elements of X are nonempty.10.19).27. X) is maxmia transitive. Given a fuzzy equivalence relation R(X. Show that for every fuzzy partial ordering on X.13.19. Assuming X Y.4 are compatibility relations (assume X = Y).22. Prove Theorem 5. for some infcoi compositions based.0. 5.20.4. where ‘‘i? and oft are acuts and o > prove that each element of 7e(u1i) is contained in some element of 71... 5 5.23. Determine its partition tree. 5. Repeat Exercise 5. 5.1?). for examples on the Yager (norms i. 5.16) is a equivalence relation. 3. Prove Theorem 5.3. (a) all complete cecovers of the relations. . for various values of the parameter co. R R 00 . 5. Prove that Rr = Lim R {k where Rck) defined recursively kpoo 5.21.11.152 Fuzzy Relations Chap. _ and Ro) R. 529. Let R he a reflexive fuzzy relation. then R R J. The transitive closure of the relation defined by matrix Mi2 ill Table 5.4 (Exercise 5. 5.23.25.24. Prove Theorem 5. Relations defined by matrices M3 and M12 in Table 5. 5. Prove ii1C following proposition: When R(X. for k = 2. construct simplifications of some of the relations given in Table 54 under appropriate homomorphie mappings defined by you. 5.14)(5.26.
for example. Q Nik1. For the sake of simplicity and clarity. In the maxmin composition. and R be denoted by respectively. 53.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION The notion of fuzzy relation equations is associated with the concept of composition of binary relations. qfk= Q(yi. in each given context. Z) and R(X. the composition of two fuzzy binary relations P(X.Y). zk). However. This means that all entries i n the fo all i E f (= Ngt ). Consider three fuzzy binary relations PC X. This form is not only viewed as the most fundamental  composition of fuzzy relations. but it is also the form that has been studied most extensively and has the highest utility in numerous applications. respectively. This operation involves exactly the same combinations of matrix entries as in the regular matrix multiplication. Q and R are real numbers in the unit interval [0. and X where we assume that I = N„. in general. which are defined on the sets X = P E f Z [zdk E 10.2k) N5 ). = r(xi. 1]. the multiplications and additions are replaced with the min and max operations. Q. R = fro]. rik = R(xi. where =N„ Let the membership matrices of P. Z) can be defined. the Triax min form of composition. in terms of an operation on the membership matrices of P and Q that resembles matrix multiplication. j e I (= MO and k e matrices P.FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS 6. the appropriate operations of fuzzy set intersection and Ulli00 1 respectively. 1 153 . Z). the multiplications and additions that are applied to these _combinations in the matrix multiplication are replaced with other operations. Y) and Q(Y. these alternative operations represent. As explained in Sec. let our further discussion in this section be limited to. Y)).. Q (Y.
Q R. Then. let us assume that a pair of specific matrices R and Q from (6.1) is given and that we wish to determine the set of all particular matrices of the form P. The use of fuzzy relation equations in some applications is illustrated in Part II of this text. the utility of any method for solving (6. It is easy to see that this problem can be partitioned... alternatively.4) denote the set of all solutions (be solution set).1) only for the first decomposition problem (given Q and R).1). Since many problems in various contexts can be formulated as problems of decomposition. The problem becomes far from trivial when one of the two matrices on the lefthand side of (6.3) for Q1 by our method and. It is solved simply by performing the maxmin multiplicationlike operation on.1). Since R in (6. it is suggestive to view the problem of determining P (or.1) where ci denotes the maxmin composition_ This means that max min (Pzi 10 qj ra (6.1] and ri E . 6. When two of the components in each of the equations are given and one is unknown.2) for all t E I and k e K.1) encompasses n x s simultaneous equations of the form (6.5) for all i e I. the solution is guaranteed neither to exist nnr to be unique.1) is unknown.1) in. That is. Clearly. the matrix equation (6. alternatively. without loss of generality. Let each particular matrix P that satisfies (61) be called its solution. these equations are referred to as fuzzy relation equations. the solution in this case exists and is unique. alternatively.2 PROBLEM PARTMOVING In the following discussion. When matrices P and Q are given and matrix R is to be determined from (6. P and Q. Assume that we have a method for solvin]g (6. the problem is trivial. as defined by (62).ihat satisfy (6.154 Assume Fuzzy Relation Lquations now that the three relations constrain each other in such a way that P. with respect to P). In this case. R and P) as a decomposition of R with respect to Q (or. we can indirectly utilize this method for solving the second decomposition problem as well. where pi [pJ E .  (6.2). R) = (PIP o Q RI (6. Chap. We can now solve (6.1) is quite high. into a set of simpler problems expressed by the mattix equations pi Q (6.3) employing transposed matrices.. and let S(Q.1) is obtained by composing P and Q.1) by (Q1 )1 = Q. (6. We simply rewrite (6. the form P1 = R1 . Q) from R and Q (or. then. obtain the solution of (6.
The first matrix in this equation is unknown.4) . for S(Q. max [rnin(pii .8). 1)1 = .7) foi some I e I and some k K. min(p13 1)] max [rnin(p u min(p12. that is. where i N2.' Let (6. min(p. and po. is only a necessary.1). respectively.3. the unknowns AI distinguished by different values oft do ttot appear together in any of the individual equations. and our problem is to determine all particular con figurations of its entries for which the equation is satisfied. condition for the existence of a solution of (6. to determine quickly that (6.2.4) can be viewed as onecolumn matrices r" pi — P2 P =Prr  where pi e (Q.1 (6. min(pu..9). that is. 155 Indeed. however. and k NI.5 [ . Q.8) for some k E K. and a fuzzy set on Z. rain(p22.11 exist (j E ) that Satisfy (6 1. max rrnin(p21 . each of the equations in (6. min(p4 .5). Observe that pi . rnin(p73 . therefore. .„ .2) contains unknown identified only by one particular value of the index i. a fuzzy set on y. . j N3.2 Problem Partitioning pi.2) that if IllaX qik <r (6. no matrix P exists that satisfies the matrix equation.5).9 .1) bas no solution.4 • [ . (pip i Q = ril denote. This proposition can be stated more concisely as follows: if max qik < max tik (€. 6. . The pen matrix represents the following four equations of the form (t5. whereas equations . for each t E I the solution set of one of the simpler problems expressed by (6. min(pu . the matrices P in (6.2 1 P211 whose general form is [NI = [rid. and ri in (6.6) (Q. ).7). R) 0 Example 61 Consider the matrix equation [ P21 Piz Ai .2): max [min(pu .5) represent. its negation.7 . P12. not sufficient. ri) fur all i /(= It follows immediately from (6. . then no values pu e [0.4)1 = 1.Sec. R) 0. Then. Observe that equations (a) and (b) contain only unknowns pii. . then S(Q. a fuzzy relation on Y x Z.8 1 . This proposition allows us.1 = . in certain cases.
1].4 . expressed by the matrix equations  (pit Piz arid LP2i Pzz [ . In fact. poz4 . First.8. and any pail 1p e P.4 P 2 31 . 1. Since (6. the given set of four equatioas can be partitioned i n to two subsets.4) Thus. = [PIT' Q = r) denote the solution sot of (6.9). 1] for all j J. p= 5. and K Ns and let S(Q.1 3' be defined as follows: for P P 1ff Pj 2 PI . We may therefore restrict our further discussion of matrix equations of the form (6. we need to introduce some additional concepts and convenient notation.1) to matrix equations of the simpler form P 4:2 = (6.12 22 . respectively. specifically. we need only methods for solving equations of the latter form in order to arrive at a solution. .5). awl and a fuzzy set on Z. a fuzzy relation on Y x Z. roax(q12. let J = N„.9). .9) where [pilj E.3 SOLUTION METHOD For the sake of consistency with our previous discussion. however. Hence.9 [ .r= frkfkc Kj.5 8 .5. max(. which is associated with I = 2. a fuzzy set on Y.156 Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap.. has no solution. or. 4722. 6 (c) arid (d) contain only unknowns pi . (6.5 . Q.Q=[qfi c if cJ. 2 . Th is means that each of these pairs of equations can be solved independent of the other. let g' denote the set of all possible vectors P = [Pfli E such that pi G [O.8 I= t. 1 let a partial ordering on 2 . . assume that p.9 pu] ° • I. let us.10) Moreover. In order to describe a method for salving (6. again r represent. that the second matrix equation.k CK]. satisfies the inequality (63) for k = 2 (and i 2) and. the given matrix equation has no solution. as prcviousEy argued.1) can be partitioned without loss of generality into a set of equations of the form (6. q32) r21.7 We see. therefore.
Rn any pair l p. Similarly. r) is not empty.1 qi'31 solutEons ' Figure 6. the meaning iof (6./ Strecture of (shaded area) of (6.. Consider now some properties of the solution set S(Q. r). for all p E S(Q. r) is fully characterized by the maximum and minimal solutions in the following sense: it consists exactly of the maximum solution Li. r). for solution. S(Q. 0 implies p = 0. and it may contain several minimal solutions_ Let r) denote the set of all minimal solutions.11) enables us to solve (6. and all elements of P that are between is and each of the minimal solutions. ([1 p. p <j implies p = solution (unique). r) 0 0.9) if. 2p ] . if. for all p e S(Q. let an element 0 of S ( D. all the minimal solutions. r). p minimal solution of (6. P] . Equation (6.9) if.3 Solution Method 157 for all j E J. r).Sec. It is known that the solution set S(Q. 2 p Y. r) of its minimal solutions. Given an arbitrary pair 1 13. it always contains a unique maximum solution.9) solely by detçrznining its unique Maximum solution 0 and the set g(Q.1. U[P.1.4 the solution set . r) be called a maximal solution of (6. 6. 2p E P such that 1 p < 2p. let ['L P. the maximum solution Maximum solution (unique) . jS p. kor fl then is is the maximum p E S(Q. (6. let an element f of S(Q.11) is illustrated visually in Fig. r). When S (Q. 6. r) be called a if. It is well established that whenever the solution set S(Q. then is the minimum all p E S(Q. For quick orientation. r). f. Employing the parti al ordering on 7". Lattice 1] . Formally.11) where the union is taken for all e 34(Q. p a. 2 P] = {P e I 1 P P 2'14is clearly a lattice.
when rk = 0 for some k E K. we simply extend them by inserting zeros at the locations that were eliminated in the reduction step. the existence of the maximum solution 13.k 0 for allkeK= ris ). r). For convenience. we must check to see if it satisfies the given matrix equation (6. When fi determined in this way does not satisfy (6. clearly./(p) by . 6 =.9).. then the equation has no solution (S(Q. of all minimal solutions of the equation. otherwise. Although this reduction is not necessary. and the set g(().9) are given.12) where Pk 1:1(4rik'rtc)—{ = if eik rk . r) = 0).9) are ordered such that ri r2 > > r.9) can be determined by the following procedure:  Determine the sets min(fii. Assume further that components of r are arranged in decreasing order. the reduced equation is easier to deal with.158 LfIj E 1 1 of (6. r. When pi = 0 for some j E J. Denote elements (stuples) of . pi = 0 implies p1 = 0 for each p e S(Q. since. Once fs is determined by (6. since each p (p E T) must satisfy. is a necessary and sufficient condition 0.e. r) of all minimal solutions of (6.9) may he reduced in some cases. This procedure clearly yields an equivalent matrix equation. the kth column of Q. as determined by (6. fi is the maximum solution of the equation. p i (J for all jeJ= N„„ and r.12). and we next determine the set j(Q.9) is a reduced equation and ift is its maximum solution (i.§(Q. then 5(Q. Furthermore. r) of its minimal solutions.9) is based on the assumption that the components of the vector r in (6. Given Q. we may eliminate this component from fl as well as the jth row from matrix Q. r) = ø . (6. Assume now that Q and r cif (6. keg (6. I.1 (IN =Ç Jk t)._ If the components are not initially ordered in this way. The method we describe here for determining all minimal solutions of (6. If it does nor. r) .4. and that i has been determined by (6.9). At this point. the max min equation represented by p. (This claim is justified in Sec. That is. we may eliminate this component from r and the kth column from matrix Q.9) is determined as follows: Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap. assume for our further discussion that (6. in this Case.) for S(Q.12). and rk = O. 6.12) and has been verified as the maximum solution of (6.9). qjk) = rk) for all k K and construct their Cartesian product MO) =U E . which has exactly the same set of solutions as the original equation. min a (tpk. When we obtain solutions of the reduced equation.. we permute them appropriately and perform the same permutation on the columns of the matrix Q. Otherwise. and that we wish to determine the set .
9). From all the mtuples g(P) generated in Step 3. 6. 1. 1. hence.§(Q.6 . j) = lk E Kii3k 3.) = tain(1. We must remember that pt . p2 . [0 .7 . . .9 [ . 1) . since r4 r. respectively.r) 0 0. 0.7 1 . select only the minimal ones by pairwise comparison. Next.4) a IC (0.5 .12): mina. For each 13 E J di). The described procedure is based on several nontrivial theorems. pi . we may make a further reduction by excluding r 4 and the fourth column uf 1:). which we do not consider essential to present here.51. and p4 of the original equation.3 Solution Method 159 a I_ For each fk E f() and each j E Lailk G .51. 1.8 _7 .Sec. o 4.1 — 0 and r 0 0 [. . determine all solutions of (6. r) of all ratatnal sohniom of this reduced /matrix equation.7 .5 01.1. 15. 1.5 .1) Thus. The redaced equation has the form [ [Pt P2 P1' 3 8 . P2 = rain(. we may reduce the matrix equation by excluding pi and the first t ow of matrix Q.134 = rain(1.8. Appropriate references are given in Note 6.2 .8 . 1.1 .€ .3 .3 . j) o 0„ otherwise.7. S(Q. .6 = (. 1.1 . generate the mtuple 03) = [gi (p)ij e J1 by taking I max rk = kcic02.5.8 .4 .7. We can easily check that # S(Q. First. and p in this reduced equation represent p2. determine the set j).2 . we apply the four steps of the procedure for determining the' set . Example 6_2 Given Q . The resulting set of mtuples is the set r) of all minimal solutions of (6. 0) 0. we determine the maximum solution fe by (6.7 1 .r).5 .1 . IC(P.9). Since 0.
and the twn Tni nimal solutions .8 0 .1(0) and all j E J are listed in Table 45.S .5. 2} .80 . .5) ( . we obtain .. and r with index k).7.J) 13.8„7.8 .5].8.5 0]. ={ 1 =j0 .7 . . we obtain the minimal solutions of the original matrix equation. These therefore comprise ail the minimal solutions of the reduced matrix equation.5) {1.1. 0) (A. Basic Procedure 1.51 of the reduced equation. max gift < utax ric :Fe" . Employing the maximum solution [.5 0]. we have S(Q.1 are minimal: (. By adding O as the Brst component to each of these triples.3).1 ILLUSMAT1ON TO EXAMPLE 6.8.5. . 3) 121 • 0=1 (31 0 (3) 3. which are also listed in Table 6. . = 1.2) (1.5]. 0) 1.0 . 3). 2} x (2. if .511. The sets K(13. (Q. 0. The set S(Q.1. 2. 2. For each 3 E J(0). 0. Partition (6. hence.8 . 2 113 122 123 i 2 3 g(0) (. = to . According to ( . . 0) and (. TAOLE 6. 20 [0 . 4.2 i KCP.5).8. 8 1. r) fp p 0) {p 31 2P P Let us now summarize concisely the described procedure for solving finite maxmin fuzzy relation equations.11). Hence. .8 . j) that we mu. J(0) (1) x { 1.1) into equations of the form (a) one for each row in P and R (p is associated with index j Q with indices j and k.3. No of the triples g(f3) in Table 6. we generate the triples g( (3). J3 (0) 12.7 . Jai) = (1.160 Fuzzy Palation Equations Chap.st determine for all 13 . 2) (1) ( 1) 131 0 (2. r) of all solutions of the given matrix equation is now fully captured by the maximum solution =[0 . For each equation (a).11 (0) (1).
this results in the solution set S(Q. Determine sets E for all k E 1C and form *I f ] rainVii J ( lj) =k6. Determine the solution set of the reduced equation (b): SOT . Repeat Steps 28 for alI equations of type (a) that are embedded in (& 1): this results in all matrices P that satisfy (6./(fe) and each j G . where we assume j E 6. 3.k) rt Tr krk t otherwise. Permute elements of r' and the corresponding columns of 42' appropriately to arrange them in decreasing order. 2. Determine all minimal solutions of the reduced equation (b) by Procedure 2: this results in 'S (Q le). 6. r) 0 and the procedure terminates. Jk(1)1 ). 7.1'.1). 5. then the equation has no solution: S(Q. 4 where a (Rik r.1] in which jI = 1. exclude these components as well as the corresponding rows j and columns k from matrix Q in (a): This results in the reduced equation p'Q1 ( 3) kE . 3. r) by zeros that were excluded in Step 5. Extend all solutions in S(Q. Determine fi by Procedure 1 . 4.3 Solution Method 161 for some k. If # is not a solution of (a). Procedure 1 Form the vector = E . proceed to Step 5. 8.Sec. cr (qjk. r) 0 and the procedure terminates. Procedure 2 1. = U[P1 te where the union is taken over all #i e JOT. proceed to Step 3. r) of equation (a). 9. otherwise. then the equation has no solution: S ( D. For each 13 G . determine the set .. othervise. For each fii 0 and rft = 0.
Chap. where i is a continuous tnorm. has the form P 4 Q R. if Ka3. .13) and P. R are matrix where denotes the supi composition.14) • where j E N„ k of the form E Ni. procedure for determining the maximum solution of (6. R).27)..13) represents the set of equations 5aZi(Pik . Proof. As in Sec. Theorem 6.13) is to be determined. F x Z.e.4. The matrix equation (6. select only the minimal ones: this results in 6. and 1 E N.4 FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS BASED ON SUPi COMPOSITIONS A matrix formulation of this kind of fuzzy relation equations. j) 5. By (5. Let S(Q.Assume that Pf have It remains E S(Q.of Theorem 5. analogous to (6. otherwise.. R) (i. R) incpnbcr of S(Q. then P (Q 1!.. based upon a tnann representations of fuzzy relations on X x Y. 6 4. R). respectively.k € Ka3. 0 for (6. qa) = r ii 4 for all j E N. and X x 2.13) provided that the equation is solvable at all. From all tuples g(13) generated in Step 4. = Q = RI denote the corresponding solution set.. Q. If S(Q. generate the tuple g(0)= fgi(P)ii gi a3) =t0 f rnaxr. The following theorem provides us with a.13). R NIL (6. we to show that ft E S(Q. ly Q C (Q R1 ) 1 = P. For each 13 by taking E J ( ) .162 IC (13. and 1 E N. we assume that Q and R are given and P that satisfies (6.1). Let T (Q = Q.)'` R1. 6. Let P LP/kb = [qki] .)1 is the greatest . j) {k Fuzzy Relation Equations j).. (6. 0.1.1.
consequently. R). we 0I (0 '2: R1)C R1' and. hence.e. by (5. we have (P iJ P2 ) g S(Q. simple: S(Q.6 Li 1 . [ . and R [ .3. Then. R).27] (= Q ‘=4.18 . Let P1.4 . (P1 Li P2) Q = (P1 Q) 1.9 [ 1 .18 .1 1 • .9 Since 1 . proofi (i) since R — rbi Q c p Q Q R.2 .12 .13) be the product.J (P2 if: Q) = R U R R.12 Q= [ .15) Let the tnorrn j employed in (6.1 . . P c S(Q. i Q = R.6 1 .Sec. (i) C P c P2 implies that P e 5(Q.9 . R) 0 0 (i.6 . (6.4 1 .6 .. T=15 QDP1 IQ= R and. _27 Then.27 • R).3 The test is very = . R).13) has a solution) if (Q 1' R 1) 1 Emunple 6. X Theorem 6_1 can be utilized for testins whether (6. where U denotes the standard fuzzy union.. that is 1'' 4 S(Q.6 . (ii) Since. r ii :1 2 8 L. we have P 4 Q R. and let . R).7.3 [ 1.13) has a Aolation. Theorem 6.4 Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on have Supi Compositions 163 By (5..9 .33) of Theorem 5.2 (. consequently.4 il # is the greatest solution of Q . T C R.9 1 .. (6.9 .17).[ J.6 . 6.2. W I ) . . On the other hand. P2 E (ii) P1 U P2 E $(0..
. R have w the same meaning as in Sec. Hence. by Theorem 5. 6. we can find minimal solutions for some particular equations. employing the method described in Sec.non n and P. 6 Unfortunately.3. R).6 and (5.S(Q. Proe AsAurne If 5(0. by (6. R) could be determined. by (5.35) of Theorem 5. i Q =R and.16) for P.7. no general method for obtaining all minimal solutions of (6. Given Q and R. 0 _1 ) cgi (R.8 .1.9 Then. we have R (R cg' Q 1) Q P Q R.11 .13) has been developed as yet. The maximum element of the solution set is given by the following theorem. and let . 6.164 Fuzzy Relation Ecii. let S(Q.S(Q..3 that (6. However.4.6) be the product. R Q'= (P Q 1 P.30 of Theorem 5. (6. • It follows directly from Theorem 6. Example 6.we have that 11 S(Q.5 FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS BASED ON INFw i COMPOSITIONS Equatiuns of this kind are expressed by the matrix form PQ = R . R). Theorem 6. R).6 and R [ . then fb R Q. 6.4 Let the tnorm i employed in (6.3. but no method is currently known by which all minimal elements of . . Then.17) fis the greatest element of . R) denote the solution set of (6. R) 0. Q.6 :8 j 9 Since .1 .Jations Chap. '03 (646) where t' denotes the infcol compositio i based upon a continuous r. P Q = Ft and.17) Moreover.L is the greatest member of 5 (0.16) has a solution for P if it.7.
It follows directly from Theorem 6.9 = { . 8.16). . when Li and ri dcuotc. Denoting the solution set of the latter problem by S(P. and let  p { . R) R.8 .1 . which is a counterpart of Theorem 6. R). Moreover.6 A . .5 9 A . 6. [ . then P1 U P2 E 5(Q.6 and (534) of Theorem 5. Proof. P1 R P1 (P Q) c Q. 2* if r1.2 .18) R P(P' R) P aeti Q = R. Qz E S(P.16) has a solution for Q if P (PI .4 . then 4::1 = P1 R is the smallest member of S (F. by Theorem 5.5 .nd P1 3.5 Let again the t norm I in (6. Then. R).5 [ . by (5. 3 . R).26 1 . no method is known for determining all maximal elements of S (P . R) a. the previous problem Since (P Q) 1 (determine P for given Q and R) cannot be directly converted to the problem in which p and R are given and Q is to be determined. R). if Example 6. thcn P E S(Q.. respectively.R). we have (6. P Q R and. P2 E R). 4. R)..5 .16) be the product.4.9 fi I.16) for the.9 ° .33) of Theorem 5.18). given Q and R Q1 P1 for the info). and R) antl e ith. the standard fuzzy union (max) and intersection (min): L if 1)1. Unfortunately.Sec. then Q Q e S (P . R). R). R). Hence. if Q1. by (6. P P2.7.5 Fuzz Relation Equations eased on I fl fwr Composltians 16.4 that (6.Assume that Q E S(P. r2 e 5(Q.9 and R = . the (unique) minimum element of this solution set is given by the following theorem. It is easy to verify the following properties of the solution sets S(Q. then E R). 0 is the smallest element of S(P. 25 1 1 Then. R) of (6.9 R Q1) is the maximum solution of (6. Theorem.9 i [ . R) 0. P = R and.7. R) and S(P. composition. we have If S (P .
Requirement I means that we pursue the approximate solution of (6. such that the equation P' 4 Q = (6. Then. (6.essential in some applications.6 .2 .1 . requirement 2 means that tar and Ir in (6.5 . it is important to consider the notion of approximate solutions.5 9 . le C R" C 11. Since a solution is . . 6 L ./ and respectively.20) as an approximate solution of (6. Q".6 APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS It is quite common that fuzzy relation equations of the general form P Q R.225 . we may slightly modify Q and R into Q. Given (6.21) are the closest relations to Q and R. Example 6. where is the algebraic product.49 [ . 1: II) is the minimum solution of (6.1. 2.2 1 25 :5 Since 49. for which a solution exists.166 R— Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap.4 9 . have no solutions for P. Definition 6.16) for the given P and R.19) provided that Q.20) has a solution It is reasonable to view any solution of (6. making Q larger and R smaller. A flUZZY relation 15 is called an approximate solution of (6.1.19) that has no solution for P. [ : 225 1 :45 9 (_=. [ . Pr' then Q" = Q and R" (6. . there exist Qi D Q and W R such that 15 4 Q' Ri . 6.25 1.2 I.' and Ir satisfy the requirements specified in the following definition.. by Theorem 6.21) Q" R".25 1 9 [ .9.1 { . respectively. and 1r such that Q C Q" C CY.6 Consider the ciluation .19) if the following requirements are satisfied: 1. if there exist PH.19) in which Q and R are given.19).
6.2 and r2 :5 . . then Q" [ . 11' = 11'.1 75.4..2 . and the equation •1 •3 . .5 . Then. This implies that. 1j is also an approximate solution of the equation.5 _6 [ { 1 iJ r 1. Assume that there exists R" such that R c R" C R. (p l p21 and R" = [ri F21.2 . [q. These equations can be satisfied only when r1 . That is.2 _41..1.1 . let us reduce [.1.01 ]. and qu.max(.6] to R.6 ].. .1pt . R=[.4 I .4 •< q22 . This weans that +711 = .4.. (Qog and 11 1. (0 a: [1. we can easily see that [a 11 for any a .6]. 6.' To pursue approximate solutions of the equation.421 e [. The previous equation now has the form [PI p2 Jo q21 q3 _ 22 [ •61 which represents the simple equations .1. q = . That means that IC Ç R" and.] and r IL I r . . . Then.3 . apprortmate solutions are not unique.3 . qn Let 11" [pit p2 ] and Q" .6.6 Approximate Solutions f) 4[ L and. =.2p2) max(. and qz? E 1. hence.Sec.3p t . [1 1] is an approximate solution of the original cluation.6 []] 1 R since . 1.6 f.1 11 .4 has a solution for r.1 is a solution of the equation [ . Let us pursue now approximate solutions of the given equation by increasing Q to where P" = Then.6 :51 . since '1 .4 2 '3 { 11J [ :2 3 1 4 1 167 =[ 1 11 [ 1 the equation has no solution.3. by Def. 5j.5.4p2) = r2 .5 . Furthezzuore.1 . .2.c (0. Then. . If there is Q' such that Q C Q" C and there exists a solution for F".
Then.1 pi.max(p Chap. consequently. P is an approximata solution of the original Clearly.1 is satisfied. that is. qm p. moreover.6. Hence. Assume that P' is another approximate solution. therefore. and R. 6. S(Q. 6.r fp by Theorem 5. c Q R".'. requirement 2 of Def_ 6_1 is verified. Thus.6. we also have to show that Et D R. of Def. we need to verify that = [Q1 (Q R1 )]1 s = R. . =Q Er' and. We can see from Example 6. i . We .5 and i122 27. Since It C R" c R.' Ç Q et' R1 . (Q th R1 ) 1 . it does not give us any iudkation of ilyw good . by Def.1) not unique.5 and qp2= . which implies that q21 > .5 provides us with a method fox obtaining the greatest approximate solution of (6. However.5. 6 .) . we have Q and. P satisfies requirements I and 2 of De 6. Ri (Q Q. It remains to show that "P' is the greatest approximate solution of (6.la approximation it is. Q" and. • Although Theorem 6. moreover.19). cirzt p2 equation. Q R1 c Q We may now conclude that Q = (Q 1. ifr C (Q' It1) 1 . Assume now that there exist r and R" such that Ir c R" c R and r 4 Q = R".19). requirement I. q2iP2) = . Let QJ = Q. It follows from (5. hence. Hence.6. 5. Q Therefore.19) always exist Theorem 6.6 that not only are approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations (in the sense of Def.1.1. 1 c 5''' P.R"). Q" Q' Again. The following theorem guarantees that approximate solutions of (6. c R." R"1 ) 1 Q = (Q R1)1 Q Thus. clearly. but also the modified relations Q' and Ft that facilitate the approximate solutions are not unique.6. by Theorem 6.1.1 is the greatest element in 5(0.33) of Theorem 5. R").168 Fuzzy Reiation Equations max(. IS (Q ti R1)1 is the greatest approximate solution of (6_19). 171 (2' = R. which by Theorem 6. Q R" I Q = Q [Q1 (Q R1 )1 2 Q R. Then (Q R"1 )1.'. there exist Ol and It such that la' D Q.7 that Proof: First. Then. 6. (0 t' R" 1 ) 1 Q = R".
6 Approximate Solutions 169 need a suitable index to characterize how well given fuzzy relation equations are approximated by a calculated approximate solution. It is easy to verify' that 11A Ç Bil defined by (6.24). inf cei [B(x). substituting to (6. should be determined (in analogy with crisp sets) by the formula (6_22) A g Rik 11A = II A = BIDHowever. ou intuitive grounds. these conditions are necessary for an acceptable definition of ILA C B II.24) is applied to the definition of FIA B II given by (622). To formulate such an index. which is often used in the literature. if C C B. we need to measurt. they are not sufficient to determine it uniquely.`.One possible definition of 11A c BO. then riA g Bn X. This index. B(x)1.ese properties are essential. for any given fuzzy sets A and B on the saine universal set X. 6.Sec. to utilize this formula. . It seems essential. 1] (desirable range) 2. we obtain IIA Bu i = min(inf coi[A(x). E Although.3. which may be viewed as a reasonable measure of the degree to which the two sets are equal. that is. 1] (range). then 11A = Bli ?. analogous to II. for any acceptable definition of 11A Moreover. the extent to which two given fuzzy sets are regarded as equal. (6.InltzifrA(x).22) from (6. [IA = C and IIC = Bli IIC = Al] (monotordrit» _ Th. let IA = B II be cand an equaliiy indeT. (x)]. Hence. coi[(B(x). and n denotes the standard fuzzy intersection.23) satisfies the three conditions. iff A Ç B (boundary condition). is = lA n B rA1 (6. A(x)]) xer zed' inf min(coi [A (x). He ever. = 1 iff A B (boundary value). that [FA c B I! must satisfy at least the following nndi tions: 1.e 114 g B =. we prefer to use the definition . . in a justifiable way.25) . IN [IA= (c) if CCBC A.: required conditions 13 for HA B I: (a) 11A B E 10. When 11A C BIl defined by (6. on intuitive grounds. Let 1102 11 denote the degree of truth of a fuzzy propositinn P (see Chapter 8) Then. this definition is applicable only when X is finite. (6. cri and rie g AN Ail (monotonicity).23) 1 where IA n B1and 1AI denote the sigma counts (scalar cardirialities) of the respective fuzzy sets.8 (x)].. it is easy to verify that IIA = B i tisfies the following properties. we have to determine the meaning of IIA c B I! and 11A D B Ii first.24) which also satisfies the three conditions and is applicable to infinite sets as well. 11A c 811 1 ifE A(x) B(x) for all x . A(x)1). 11A g 8 11 E [0.
(626) where P' Q and R are matrix representations of fuzzy relations on X x Z . from condition 3 of II A C B II. Then. the greater the equality degree. we have to show that a(r) < G(15) for any approximate solution Iv of (6. Q R.19). Assume now that is any approximate solution of (6. is defined by the formula = sup UP ?X Y) Q = Rh). Furthermore. G(P) = I if P' is an exact solution of (6. called a solvability index. ° Q 2 WI. By (6. Assuming that Pi is an approximate solution of (6. which characterizes the ease in solving fuzzy relation equations of the general form (6. 6 Let IIA = B II given by this equation he called an equality index.19). that HO Renee.26)) of fuzzy relation equations (6. Employing the goodness index defined by (6.26).19). According to G (PI. (6. tv c and. when 13/ is employed in the composition.6. a meaningful goodness index of P'. • Let us introduce another useful index. and its righthand side. Theorem 6. ft in ohvions that the index may have different values for different tnorms The equality index plays a key role in measuring the goodness of approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations. HP G(i) = I Q Rli =1. by Theorem 6. then.27) . Hence.19).19). the goodness of lv is expressed in terms of the degree of equality of the lefthand side of (6. That is.170 Fu=y Robtion Equation* Chap.22) and (6.19). The solvability index. 13. if Q C R (see the proof of Theorem 6.26) the following theorem shows that the greatest approximate solution P is the best approximation of (6.5 P' IQcfs It follows.19). consequently. Q2 Q 2 n 11 R. Proof: To prove this theorem. G059 = iÎ Q 2 Rif L.5). The fuzzy relation P = (Q R1 ) 1 is the best approximation (in terms of the goodness index G defined by (6. Q Rfl Q RID = G(Pe). is defined by the equation G ( Y) = = R11. the better Pi approximates (6.19). G(1)). we have G(1=lLf Q = RII = Since 1 5 QRIlL1 Q 2 R11).19).
< tuf inf wi [R(. They provide us with a rich framework within which many problems emerging from practical applications of the theory can be formulated. sup Q (y z)). Let 6 be the solvability index of (6. Unfortunately. 'theorem 6. Our aim in this section is rather modest: to illustrate the way in which fuzzy relation equations can be represented by neural networks.19) is solvable exactly. [R(x.27 ) . This groat utility of fuzzy relation equations is somewhat hampered by the rather high computational demands of all known solution methods. jiff x. its upper bound is stated by the following theorem. if (6.7 The Use of Neural Networks_ 171 It is obvious that 6 E [O. the more difficult it is to solve the equatio ns approximately. z). sup Q(y.le in fuzzy set theory. then 6 = 1. 6. That is G(P) is the lower bound of 3. Our discussion is restricted to the form P. These problems can then be solved by solving the corresponding fuzzy relation equations. .01.d. Let P . Q)(x. (6.. 41 . 2)1 inf lof coi [R(. the given equations have no exact solution.Exr 3. k E N.28) Proof: For all P g. We assume that relations Q and R . JJP Q = = < IIR P itZ xeX EZ QRJjBçP OD Q11 1.7. z). z)] = tuf inf ce. To overcome this difficulty. Moreover. the possibility of using neural networks (see Appendix A) for solving fuzzy relation equations has lately been explored. z).28) then follows immediately from the definition of S.51' (6. z).Q=R. ki. and we want to E N. 'then 8 < z2 (of (sup R (x .19) defined by (6.Sec. (1 . sup Q(y. It follows directly from the definition of 8 and from property (c) of the equality index that 3 > G(P). zeZ xex The inequality (6. Q)(x.(X x Y).x . 1]. where where n is the maxproduct composition. a lot of research is needed to develop its full potential. • 6. Q are given. When 3 1. the inverse implication is still an open question.7 THE USE OF NEURAL NETWORKS Fuzzy relation equations play a fundamental rc. z).x. While the feasibility of this approach has already been established. j E NuT .zz zer Ye yeT = inf (Di [sup R(x . The smaller the value of S.29) [ra].
1] if a 1. Applying this training set to the learning algorithm described in Appendix A. First.31) Second. The solution is then expressed by the weights W as wit W21.2 ON oN. . (6. 6. we do not employ the extra input x0 by which biases of individual neurons are defined..30) for pii (i c KT . Observe that. j E Dim ). The structure of neural networks b.2. • • Wt2 W22 Wra2 Witt W2n r Figure 6. 6 determine P_ Equation (6. (6. To solve (6. shown in Fig.29).sext fen solving avay relatiNa ecrusdous. the output yi of neuron j is defined by f (max Mix') Jerif„„ E NO. k Ns).3).29) represents the set of equations MIX f /Ex. but the so. contrary to the analogous onelayer neural network discussed in Appendix A (Fig. as in Appendix A. we assume no biases.„ k G N5 . we can use a feedforward neural network with m inputs and only one layer with n neurons. For our purilose. There are two deviations of the neural network considered here other than the one introduced in Appendix A. the training set consists of columns cu of matrix Q as inputs (x = qf k for each j N„„ k G NO and columns rk of matrix R as expected outputs = rik for each ' e N. A. we obtain a solution to (629) when the error function reaches 0. the activation function employed by the neurons is not the sigrnoid function. Given (6.30) for all i E l'i.172 Furry Relation Equations Chap. called linear activation function f defined for all a E IFE by f(a) = /0 a t ifa0 ' if a E [0.
6. and Pedrycz [1988 ].6 was introduced by Gothvald [1985]. Di Nola and Sessa [1983].. In this case. and Sessa [198 4] . The method for solving fuzzy relation equations described in Sec. any set of weights for which the error function reaches its minimum is not necessarily an approximate solution of (6_29) in the sense defined in Sec_ 6_6. Hence. repeatedly until the error function reaches zero. P [ . . the solution is . 6.3.j EN. 6.2. . AS already mentioned.18 27 .1. They were further pursued by Wu [1986]. and Wang L1993b1. Sanchez [1984b ]. Example 6. Gottwald and Pedrycz (19861.ot fully developed as yet.2925 _5636 .3. That is [ . Solving fuzzy relation equations by neural networks was proposed by Fedrycz [1991b]. this unorthodox way of Solving fuzzy relation equations is n.32) foralU €N. . . The speed of convergence depends on the choice of initial values of the weights and on the chosen learning rate.3 is based on the paper by Higashi and Klir [198411. 6 3 .2513 .4 .404 . the cost function reached zero after 109 cycles. 11989].18_27). 6. In our experiment.3. [19847 19891 Investigations of this topic were initiated by Pedrycz [1983c]. NOTES 6.6 . and Miya_koshi and Shimho [1985 1 .9 Observe that this so)ution is not the maximum solution obtained in Example 6.1) wa s originaly proposed by Wu L1986].1324 .3) and one expected output (. but it seems to have great potential. 6 Notes Pii = 173 (6. GeneratizatientS to L fuzzy relations were explored by numerous authors. The way in which we define approximate solutions (Def_ 5.12 .2647 .29) has no solution.Chap.1.2 . the error function docs not reach Zen). for example.12. We form a neural network with three inputs and three neurons in the output layer. When (6. Existing methods for obtaining approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations are reviewed by Di Nola et al. all theorems by which the method is justified can be found in this paper_ Fuzzy relation equations for other types of composition were studied by Pedrycz [198313]. The notion of fizzsy relation equations based upon the maxmin composition was first propio3ad and investigated by Sanchez [19761 A comprehensive coverage of fuzzy relation equations is in a book by Di Nola et al. kt us consider the same fuzzy relation equation as in Example 6.1 P* . This training pair is applied to the learning algorithm. 2.1 To illustrate the described procedure. The final weights are shown in Fig. The training set consists of only one input (. The solvability index employed in See.3 = .
...2925 OS ON ON2 ON3 Y2 y3 (b) Figure 6.6 0.1324 x2 X3 0. 0.7.174 Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap. 6 Y2 (a) 0.404 0 5636 0.4 0.2513. (a) neural network with initial welght% (a) mural network representing a solutiOn.2647 0.3 alustraduu ExampIe 6.
and bounded difference.4 .4.2 1 .6 0 .6 4 . .8 .5 . 6.1.4 .2 Determine if the above equation has a solution for ï = min.8 0 0 .Chap.1 0 ri = [ •6 0 1 .9 . respectively./ . product.2 . (a) p. find the maximum or minimum solution. .7 .8 0 .6 .3 .5 . Determine if each of the following fuzzy relation equations has a solution.5 0 .1 .1 1 .4 G .5 . .3 . prove the preposition: if there is a common solution for both equations.3 .6 . Let I be a tnorm in the equation P .6 _5 .4 . then (Q R 1) n Q 1 ) is the greatest solution for both equations.1 .3 .7 1 = . 6.4 .2.9 .3.2 . where Cl stands for the standard fuzzy intersection.• .8 .6 ( 3) .4 .6 .4 . Solve the following fuzzy relation equations for the maxmin composition.4 .6 . respectively.2 .7 . Given two fuzzy relation equations P Q=R P 1 on a finite universal set with a continuous tnorm i.8 .4 .3 .4 1 0 . 6 Exercises 175 EXERCISES 6.5 .7 . respectively. 2 [ • • s• . product.2 .5 .3 . where 17 and Q are the standard fuzzy complements of R and Q.2 0 1 .2 6.5 o .4 0 .7 0 3 .5 :7 .0 6 . . If it bas.9 .2 j (d) P. and hounded difference. (c) P' [ .5 .3 1 .4 .8 . Let i he the min.3 1 .
6 [ .8 Q [ . Let I be the min.26).3 . 6 (b) 6.4 .2 . product. . respectively.176 Fuzzy Relation Equations _Chap.2 . Find an approximate solution for each of the following fuzzy relation equations: L.by the goodness index. P (a) . Also try to find approximate solutions other than the maximum solutions and compare them. (13) .2 .6 .7] . 81 • Using the goodnesz index (6.5.5 [. express the goodness of the solution obtained. and bounded difference.
perfect. However. we could assign a. a 177 . The fuzzy measure. assigns a value to each crisp set of the universal set. value to each possible crisp sot to which the element in question might belong. The concern. our evidence. Definition 7. is rarely. Fuzzy measure theory. on the other hand. we need to introduce the concept of a fuzzy measure for at least two reasons. In the latter case. and some uncertainty usually prevails. First. We assume that perfect evidence would point to full membership in one and only one of these sets. a theory that is closely connected with fuzzy set theory and plays an important role in some of its applications. which is now well developed Mang and Kir. is not with the degreeto which the defendant is guilty. () is a function e of subsets of X. therefore.1. The uncertainty in this situation seems to be of a different type. however. Consider. Given a universal set X and a nonempty family fizzy measure on (X. if ever. 1992]. However. Such a representation of uncertainty is known as afu=y measure. the concept will provide us with a broad framework within which it is convenient to introduce and examine possibility theory.PossiBILITY THEORY 7 1 FUZZY MEASURES The fuzzy set provides us with an intuitively pleasing method of representing one fOrtti of uncertainty. Note how this method differs from the assignment of membership grades in fuzzy sets. In order to represent this type of uncertainty. a value is assigned to each element of the universal set. but with the degree to which the evidence proves his membership in either the crisp set of guilty people or the crisp set of innocent people. it will allow us to explicate differences between fuzzy set theory and probability theory. This value would indicate the degree of evidence or certainty of the element's membership in the set. is uot of primary interest in this text. signifying its degree of membership in a particular set with unsharp boundaries. the set of people who are guilty of the crime and the set of innocent people are assumed to have very distinct boundaries. Second. signifying the degree of evidence or belief that a particular element belongs in the set. the jury members for a criminal trial who are uncertain about the guilt or innocence of the defendant.
That is. regardless of our evidence. consists of the full power set T(. contains all elements undef Consideration in each particular context.). then our degree of certainty that it belongs to a larger set containing the former set can be greater or equal. if A c 13. on the other hand. functions that satisfy (g1).. must converge to the number g(A). The requirements state that for every itirlite sequence A t . A2. These functions are called senticontinuous fizzy measures. ilrn g(Ai) = g irco . does not contain any element. B E e. therefore. of nested (monotonic) subsets of X which converge to the set A. Requirements (g3) and (WO may also be viewed as requirements of consistency: calculation of g(A) in two different ways.70. it must contain our element as well. sernirings. The empty set. (boundary requirements). Indeed. (n (continuity from above). then g(A) g(B) (monotonicity). g is required to be a continuous fiinction. it cannot contain the element of our interest. (g3) for any increasing sequence A 1 c A2 c. either.. if UA i E then e. In some cases. g(A 2). e. hence. Three additional remarks regarding this definition are needed. either as the limit of g(Ai) for i oc of by application of the function g to the limit of Ai for i oc. then C. and either (g3) or (A are equally important in fuzzy measure theory as functions that satisfy all four requirements (g1)(g4). if flAg. Requirements (g3) and (g4) are dearly applicable only to an infinite universal set. they are either continuous from below (satisfy (g3)) or COtainuOus from above  e . we always know that the element in question definitely does not belong to the empty set and definitely does belong to the universal set. A. 00 the sequence of numbers g(A / ). The boundary requirements (gI) state that. They can therefore be disregarded when the universal set is finite. First. Jim g(Ai) = g Y02 ( ) (continuity from below). (g2). the universal set.1=1. (g4) for any decreasing sequence A t D A2 in C. that satisfies the following requirements: (g1) g(0) = 0 and g(X) = I. is required to yield the same value. 7 g : e > [0. but it cannot be smaller. etc. Fuzzy measures are usually defined on families C that satisfy appropriate properties (rings.178 Possibility Theory Chap. (g2) for all A. when we know with some degree of certainty that the element belongs to a set. where A = u A i for increasing sequences and A = n A i for decreasing sequences. 47 algebras. by definition. Requirement (g2) states that the evidence of the membership of an el enaent in a set must be at least as great as the evidence that the element belongs to any subset of that set.
Sec. 7.1
Fuzzy Measures
179
Second, it is sometimes needed to generalize fuzzy measures by extending of function g from [0, 1] to the set of normegative real numbers and by excluding the range the second boundary requirement, g(X) =1. These generalizations are not desirable for our purpose. Third, we can easily see that fuzzy measures, as defined here, are generalizations of probability measures or, when conceived in the broader sense, generalizations of classical measures. In either case, the generalization is obtained by replacing the additivity requirement with the weaker requirements of monotonicity and continuity or, at least, semincontinuity. The number g(A) assigned ta a set A E e. by a fuzzy measure g signifies the total available evidence that a given element of X, whose characterization is deficient in some respect, belongs to A. The set in C to which we assign the highest value represents our best guess concerning the particular element in question. For instance, suppose we are trying to diagnose an ill patient. In simplified terms, we may be trying to determine whether this patient belongs to the set of people with, say, pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, or R common cold. A physical examination may provide us with helpful yet inconclusive evidence_ For example, we might assign a high value, say 0.75, to our best guess, bronchitis, and a lower value to the other possibilities, such as 0.45 for the set consisting of pneumonia and emphysema and 0 for a common. cold. These values reflect the degrees to which the patient's symptoms provide evidence for the individual diseases or sets of diseases; their

(satisfy (g4)).
collection constitutes a fuzzy measure representing the uncertainty associated with several
welldefined alternatives. It is important to realize that this type of uncertainty, which results from information deficiency, is fundamentally different from fuzziness, which results from the lack of sharp boundaries. The difference between these two types of uncertainty is also exhibited in the context of scientific observation or measurement. Observing attributes such as "a type of cloud formation" in meteorology, "a characteristic posture of an animal" in ethology, or "a degree of defect of a nee in forestry clearly involves situations in which it is nut practical to draw sharp boundaries; such observations or measurements are inherently fuzzy and, consequently, their connection with the concept of the fu=lif set is suggestive. In most measurements in physics, on the other hand, such as the measurement of length, weight, electric current, or light intensity, we define classes with sharp boundaries. Given a measurement range, usually represented by an interval of real numbers [a, b]. we partition this interval into n disjoint subintervals [a, a L ), [al, a2), fizz, ai),
bl
according to the desired (or feasible) accuracy. Then, theoretically, each observed magnitude fits exactly into one of the intervals In practice, however, this would be warranted only if no observational errors were involved_ Since measurement errors are unavoidable in principle, each observation that coincides with or is in close proximity to one of the , a,i between two neighboring intervals involves uncertainty regarding boundaries al, its membership in the two crisp intervals (crisp subsets of the set of real numbers). This uncertainty clearly has all the characteristics of a fuzzy measure. Since both AnB cA and AnB c B for any two sets A and B, it follows from the monotonicity of fuzzy measures that every fuzzy measure g satisfies the inequality
g(A n B) min[g(A), g(B)]
for any three sets A B, A n 1 I
(7.1)
e. similarly, since both A gAuB and BgAUB for any
180
Possibility Theory
Chap.. 7
two sets, the monntonicity of fuzzy m Ensures implies that every fuzzy measure g satisfies the inequality
g(A Li B)
max[g(A),
g(B)]
(7.2)
for any three sets A., B, AuB e e.
Since fuzzy measure theory is nul uf ini=rcst in this text., we restridi our further consideration in this chapter to only three of its special branches: evidence theory, possibility theory, and probability theory. Although out principal interest is in possibility theory and its
comparison with probability theory, evidence theory will allow us to examine and compare the two theories from a broader perspective. Before concluding this section, one additional remark should be made. Fuzzy measure theory, as well as any of its branches, may be combined with fuzzy set theory. That is, function g characterizing a fuzzy measure may be defined on fuzzy sets rather than crisp sets.
7.2
EVIDENCE THEORY
Evidence theory is based on two dual nonadditive measures: belief measures and plausibility measures. Given a universal set X, assume:1i here to he finite, a belief metzTure is a function
.Bel :
(X) 4 [0, 1]
such that
Bel
(0) = 0, Bel (X) =1, and
Bel
(A 1 L' A2 U
U A.) >
E Eci
j
(A i ) —
E
Bel (A )
r)
A.)
—
(1 )+1
n A2 n
(7.3)
for all possible families of subsets of X. Due to the inequality (7.3), belief measures are called superadditive. When X is infinite, function lEiel is also required to be continuous from
above.
For each A e P(/), Bel (A) is interpreted as the degree of belief (based on available a given element of X belongs to the set A. We may also view the subsets of X as answers to s psrtioutar question. We .as.qurrie that some of the answers are correct, Nit we do not know with full certainty which ones they are. When the sets A i , At, A„ in (7.3) are pairwise disjoint, the inequality requires that the degree of belief associated with the union of the sets is not smaller than the sum of the degrees of belief pertaining to the individual sets. This basic property of belief measures is thus a weaker version of the additivity property of probability measures. This implies that probability measures are special cases of belief measures for which the equality in (7_3) is always satisfied. We can easily show that (7.3) implies the monotonicity requirement (g2) of fuzzy measures. Let A C B(A, B T(X)) and letC=B—A. Then, AUC.B and A n C = 0. Applying now A and C to (7.3) for n = 2, we obtain
evidence) that
Bel (A IJ C)  Bel
(B)
Bel (A) ± Bel (C)
—
Bel (A
C).
Since A
ri C = Of and Bel (0) = 0, we have
Sec, 7.2
Evidence
Theory
Bel (B) › Bel (A) + Bei (C)
181
and, consequently, Bel (B ) Bei (A). Let A i = A and A2 = X in (7.3) for n = 2. Then, we can immediately derive the
following fundamental property of belief measures; Bel (A) + Bel (A) < 1.
(7.4)
equation
Associated with each belief measure is a plausibility measure, PI, defined by the Pl (A) = 1 — Bel (74.)
(7.5)
for all A
E 3, (1).
(7.6) Belief measures and plausibility measures are therefore mutually dual. Plausibility measures, however, can also be defined independent of belief measures. A plausibility measure is a function
.
Bel (A) = 1—
Pl : T(X)
[0, 1 ]
such that Pl (0) = 0, Pl (X) = 1, and
Pl (A I
n A z n n A n) <
E Pl (A i ) — j<k Pl (Ai U Ait)
(  1) +1 PI
(A I A2U
A„)
(77)
for a/I possible families of subsets of X. Due to (7.7), plausibility measures are called subadditive. When X is infinite, function PI is also required to be continuous from below_ Let n = 2, At = A, and A = Aill (7.7). Then, we immediately obtain the following
basic inequality of plausibility measures:
Pl (A)
+ PI (A) a 1.
(7.8)
Belief and plausibility measures can conveniently be characterizd by a function m P(X) such that m(0) = 0 and
E0, 1],
(7.9)
E
E
m(A) 1.
This function is called a bcz..ic: probability ci.ssignment. For each set A
Y(X), the value m (A) expresses the proportion to which all available and relevant evidence supports the claim that a particular element of X, whose characterization in terms of relevant attn`butes is deficient, belongs to the set A. This value, fri(A), pertains solely to one set, set A; it does not imply any additional claims regarding subsets of A. If there is some additional evidence supporting the claim that the element belongs to a subset of A, say B c A, it must be expressed by another value rn(B). Although (7.9) resembles a similar equation for probability distribution functions, there
182
Possibility Theory
Chap. 7
is a fundamental difference between probability distribution functions and basic probability assignments: the former are defined on X, while the latter are defined on 0)(X). Upon careful examination of the definition of the basic assignment, we observe the following: 1. it is not required that m (X) = 1; 2. it is not required that rn(A) < m(B) when A c B; and 3. no relationship between m(A) and m(71) is required. ft follows from these observations that the basic assignments are not fuzzy measures. However, given a basic assignment m, a belief measure and a plausibility measure are uniquely determined for all set A e 0) (X) by the formulas Bel (A) =
E
rrt(B),
(7.10)
(7.11)
AB CA
Pl (A)
E • nt(B).
3JAr a
The invetse procedure is also passible. Given, for example, a belief measure Bel, the corresponding basic probability assignment rn is determined for all A 53 (X) by the formula
/71(A)
=
E (_ 1) 14B I Bel (B).
(7.12)
Ilf4cek
If a plausibility measure is given, it can he converted to the associated belief measure by (7.6), and (7.12) is then applicable to make a conversion to function m. Hence, each of the three functions, in, Bel and Pl, is sufficient to detetmine the other two. The relationship between m(A) and' Bel (A), expressed by (7.10), has the following meaning: while m (A) characterizes the degree of evidence or belief that the element in question belongs to the set A alone (i.e,, exactly . to set A), Bel (A) represents the total evidence or belief that the element belongs to A as well as to the various special subsets of A. The plausibility measure Pl(A), as defined by (7.11), has a different meaning: it represents not only the total evidence or belief that the element in question belongs to set A or to any of its subsets, but also the additional evidence or belief associated with sets that overlap with A. Hence,
Pl (A) > Bel (A)
(7.13)
for all A E P(X). Every set A E T(X) for which in(A) > 0 is usually called a focal element of tn. As this name suggests, focal elements are subsets of X on which the available evidence focuses. When I is finite, in can be fully characterized by a list of its focal elements A with the corresponding values m(A). The pair ( .f, in), where and in denote a set of focal elements and the associated basic assignment, respectively, is often called a body of ePidence. Total ignorance is expressed in terms of the basic assignment by rn(X) = I. and in (A) = 0 for all A 0 X That is, we know that the element is in the universal set, but we have no evidence about its location in any subset of X. It follows from (7.10) that the expression of total ignorance in terms of the corresponding belief measure is exactly
Sec. 7.2
Evidence Theory
183
the same: Bel (X) 1 and Bel (A) = 0 for all A 0 X. However, the expression of total ignorance in terms ,of the associated plausibility measure (obtained from the belief memure by (7.5)) is quite different: P1(0) 0 and PI(A) . 1 for all A 0 0. This expression follows directly from (7.11).
Evidence obtained in the same context from two independent sources (for example, from two experts in the field of inquiry) and expressed by two basic assignments m 1 and in2 on some power set P(X) must be appropriately combined to obtain a joint basic assignment ln general, evidence can be combined in various ways, some of which may take into consideration the reliability of the sources and other relevant aspects. The standard way of combining evidence is expressed by the formula
Br)C=A
E
in1(8) • )212(c)
1111,201
1— K
(7.14)
for all A 0 , and mi.2(0) = 0, where
K= nrc0 Formula (7.14) is referred to as Dempster's rule of cmbination . According to this rule, the degree of evidence in 1 (B) from the first source that focuses on set B E 7(X) and the degree of evidence m2(C) from the second source that focuses on set C E T(X) are combined by taking the product m i (B) m2(C), which focuses on the intersection B li C. This is exactly the same way in which the joint probability distribution is calculated from two independent marginal distributions; consequently, it is justified on the same grounds. However, since sonic intersections of focal elements from the first and second source may result in the same set A, we must add the corresponding products to obtain m1.2(A). Moreover, some of the intersections may be.empty. Since it is required that m/40) = 0, the value K expressed by (7.15) is not included in the definition of the joint basic assignment m 1,2. This means that the sum of products mL(.151) • mz(C) for all focal elements B of m and all focal elements C of is equal to I — K. To obtain a normalized basic assignment in 1,2, as m2 such that B nC required (see (7,9)), we must divide each of these products by this factor 1 — K, as indicated in (7_14). Example 7.1 Ass111118 that an old pain ies was discovered which strongly resembles paintings by Raphael. Such a discovery is likely to generate various questions regarding the status of the painting. _Assume the following three ciucations:
1. Is the discovered painting a genuine Fainting by Raphael' 2. Is the discovered painting a product of one of Raphael's many disciples? 3. Is the discovered painting a counterfeit? ,nt(B) m2(C).
(7.1.5)
Let R. D, and C denote subsets of our universal set X—die set of all paintings —which contain the set of all paintings by Raphael, the set of all paintings by disciples of Raphael, and the set of all counterfeits of Raphael's paintings, respectively. A.ssumc now that two experts performed careful examinations of the painting and subsequently provided us wit basic assignments 77 1 and m z, specified in Table 7.1. These
184
Poezibility Theory
Chap. 7
are the degrees of evidence which each expert obtained by the examiloation and which support the various claims that the painting belongs to one of the sets of our concern . For example, rn z (R U D) = _15 is the degree of evidence obtained by the first expert that the painting was done by Raphael himself or that the painting was clOne by one of his disciples. Lsing (1.10), we can easily calculate the total evidence, Bel, and Be12 , in each set, as shown in Table 7 1 .

TABLE 7.1 COMBINATION OF DEGREES OF EVIDENCE FROM TWO INDEPENDENT SOURCES (EXAMPLE 7.1) Expert 1 Focal elements
rn 1 0 .015 .15 .1 .05 .6 13e1l gca ' el
k'l
Expert 2
ilta
Combined evidence
rrr1,2 .21 .01 .09 .12
Bela
.15 0 .05 .2. .4 .1 /
He11.2
.21 .01, .09 .34 .5 .16 1
.15 0 .05 .05 .2 .05 .5
Applying 1D el:1100.0es rule (7.14) to m k and m z, we obtain the joint basic assignment which is also shown in Table 7.1. To determine the values of mo, we calculate the mi,2, normalization factor 1  K first. Applying (7.15), we obtain
The normalization factor is then 1  K = .97. Values of m 1.2 are calculated by <7_14). For example,
t(R) . In 1,2 (R = Lint (R) • nzz(R) m (R) n12 (.L5Z D) i(Ru D) rit i (R) tri2(.R u D C)
) 
—
Ci D c4
.2
.06 31
rni (R) • rn r(D) + ral(R) m2(e) + m i (R) • rn,(D C) m i (D)•m 2 (R) m i (D)'m 2 (C) +,D) • frui (R C) frz i (C) on 2 (R) m i (C) gr2 (D)
rn i (C) D) m i (R D) • yn z (e) rn i (1? C) • m2(D) trz i (D C) ni2 (R)
.03.
1
(RUC)
• ni t (R U D) m 2(1? UC) + m1,2(D) = .21,
in L (1? U C) • m2 (R) i (R U C) ni2 (R U .0) + in i (R U D U C) 7n z (R)1/.97
[ni(D) • m 2 (D) + inl(D) • Piz(R U D) + mi(D) in 2(D C) ▪ Mi(D) • #12(1? D u C) m u D) m AD) (RU D) • m z (D U C) mi(J) C) • ni2(D)
▪mi
Pin1(D1..r
m2(R
D)
Pn i (R U D C)  rn z (D)11 .97
= 01,
Sec. 7,2
Evidence Theory
"n1,7(R t ) C) [m i (R (...) C) ' m(R LiC) +m 1 (R UC) • irg 2 (R Up
+ m i (R
= .2, nt1,2(1?
185 C)
D C) , m 2 (R C)]/.97
D u C) = [m i (R u D u C) • mi (R u D u C)1/,97
= .31,
and similarly for the remaining focal elements C, R U D, and D U C. The joint basic assignment can now be used to calculate the joint belief Bel i ,z (Table 7.1) and joint plausibility Pl t,2. Consider now a basic assignment m defined on the Cartesian product Z = X x Y; that is,
m 9(x x y)
[0, 1].
Each focal element of m is in this case, a binary relation R on X x Y. Let Rx denote the projection of R on X. Then,
Rx {x E XI (x y) E R fiDr some y Y}.
Ry
fy E Yl(x. y) E R for some x
X}
defines the projection, of R on Y. We can now define the projection mx of in on X by the
fornaula.
inx(A)=
E
RIA rR
m(R) for all A E P(1).
(7.16)
To calculate m1(A) according to this formula, we add the values of m(.1?) for all focal elements R whose projection on X is A. This is appropriate since ull the focal elements R whose projection on X is A are represented in mx by A. Similarly,
my(B)
E
RIBRy
m (R) for all B
Tim
(7.17)
defines the projecticrn of ni on Y. Let Mx and my be called marginal basic assignments, and let (9x, mx) and (Ty, my) be the associated marginal bodies of evidence. Two marginal bodies of evidence (Tx, pri 3O and (Ty, My) are said to be noninteractive iff for UA Tx and all B E g'y
m(A
B) = mx(A) my(B)
(7.18)
and
m(R) = 0
for all ROANR,
That is, two marginal bodies of evidence axe noninteractive ifi the only focal elements of the joint body of evidence arc Cartealari products of focal elements of the marginal bodies and if the joint basic assignment is determined by the product of the marginal basic assignments.
186
Possibility Theory Example 7.2
Chap. 7
Consider the body of evidence given in Table 7.2a. Focal elements are subsets of the Cartesian product X x Y, where X = 11. 2.3) and Y = (a. b. cl; they are defined in the table by their characteristic functions. To emphasize that each focal element is, in fact, a binary relation cm R12 . Employing (7.16) and (7.17), we obtain the marginal X x Y, they are labeled R1 , R2, . bodies of evidence shown in Table 7.2b, For example,
nix({2, 3 }) = ni(R1) nt (R2) ± m(R3) = .25,
mx(fl, 2 1) = m (R5) 1 rn (R$) PPI(Rii) = my ((a)) = P12 (11z) + m(R7) m (R3) ± in(R9)
25,
rny({a b, ci) = pn(R3)
M (Rio) + rn(R11) M(R12) = .5,
TABLE 7..2 JOINT ANC MARGINAL BOCES OE EVIDENCE: ILLUSTRATION OF (NDEPENDENCE (EXAMPLE 72)
(a) Joint body of evidence ixY
la lb le 2a 2b 2e 3a 31, 3e in (B r )
(b) Marginal bodies of evidence 1
X 2
3
m,(1)
II
ir
00 0 0 0 R3 .00 0 = &= 0 1 1 R= 0 1 1 RG = 0 1 1 R7 1 0 0 R4 . 1 0 0 R9  1 0 0
RI = IC% =
0
0
1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
Y)
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
RID = 1
.R1 1. = 1
R12= 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 .062 5 0 0 .125 1 1 1 1 .0375 0 0.075 1 1 .015 0 0 .375 D0 .075 0 0 .075 1 .r. .075 0 0 .15 1 1 .15
A= 0 1
I. 101 110 111
i PI
ri
mx
TVO
abc
[0 ,
my (B)
B.
01 100 111
.25 .25
[0,1] T(y) 4 p,
and similarly for the remaining sets A and B. We can easily verify that the joint basic assignment in is uniquely determined la this case by the marginal basic assipments through (7.18). The marginal bodies of evidence are this noninreractive. For example,
m(Ri) = mx({2,
Observe, that 2 3) x ib, c) =( 212,
.
inv({b,
= .25 x 25 = .01525.
3b, 3c
24 Similarly,
in (R io) = m x ( ( 1, 3)) 
(la, b,
— .15 x .5
.075, •
where Rlo = [1, 31 x fa, b, cl
{ l a, lb, 1c, 3a, 3b, 3c),.
Sec_ 7.3
Possibility Theory
187
In addition to the basic probability assignment, belief measure, and plausibility measure,
it is also sometimes convenient to use the function
Q(A) =
E
m(B),
BIACH
which is called a commonality fiinction. For each A e T(/), the value Q (A) represents the total portion of belief that can move freely to every point of A. Each commonality function
defined on the power set of X is a unique representation of a body of evidence on the power
set All conversion formulas between in, Bel, Pl, and Q are given in Table 7.3.
TABLE 7.3
CONVERSION FORMULAS IN THE EVIDENCE 'THEORY
m ,
Bel Pl Q
...
m(A) = Bel (A) =
m (A )
E ( _ 1)1Asi B41.(B)
BS4
E (_ ipalp._ pi (TA
3SA
E ( _1) 1BAi Q(B)
4
2
E ni(B) acA.
De (4)
1—B el (7t) .
1
—
P1 (71)
gcA 11(A)
P1 (A) . .
E ;n (B )
BFLA.01
E (1)1lti0(B)
zr
..Fic:4.'
Q(A) . : :
E m(B)
Ago
E (—i)1si Bel (27)
Bcek
E (._ 1)161+1 pi (II)
12%.9i,P3 cA
Q(A)
Z3
POSSIBILITY THEORY
A special branch of evidence theory that deals only with bodies of evidence whose focal elements are nested is referred to as possib ility theory. Special counterparts of belief measures and plausibility measures in possibility theory are called necessity measures and posabilay measures, respectively. The requirement that focal elements be nested (also called consonant) restricts belief a.nd plausibility measures in a way that is characterized by the following theorem. Theorem 71. Let a given finite body of evidence (3', /n) be nested. Then, the associated belief and plausibility measures have the following properties for all A, B E (0 Bel (A fl B) = min [Bel (A), Bel (J3)1; (ii) Pl (A 013) = max [Bel (A), Bel (B)]. Proof: (i) Since the focal elements in a are nested, they may be linearly ordered by the subset relationship.. Let 7 = [A i , Az, , AO, and assume that Ai c Ai whenever i < j. Consider now arbitrary Subsets A and B of X. Lot it be the largest integer i such that A C A, and let i2 be the largest integer ï such that Ai CB. Then, Ai c A and Ai c B if AnB ifr I < minCi1, i2). Hence, i t and i < h, respectively. Moreover, A
188
min
Possibility Theory
Bel (A
Chap. 7
n a)
ni(A i) min[Em(A,), Ern (AF ) iL i=t min[ Bel (A), Bel (B)]. ti
E
.i 2 )
il
1
for
(ii) Assume that (i) holds. Then, by (7.5), Pl (A U B) = 1  Bel (A t.) ATT) = 1  Bel Bel (T1)] =. 1  minp3e1 raax[1  Bel (A), 1  Bel (w)] = maxr Pl (A), 131(B)] A, B T(X). U
Ti)
Let necessity measures and possibility measures be denoted by the symbols Nec and Pas, respectively. Then, Theorem 7.1 provides us directly with the following basic equations of possibility theory, which hold for every A, B
Nec (A n B) = minf Nec (A), Nec (B)], max[ Pos (A), POS. (B)]. Pos (A Li B)

(7.19)
(7.20)
When we compare these equations with the general properties (7.1) and (7.2) of fuzzy naeasums, we can see that Possibility theory is based on the extreme values of fuzzy measures with respect to set intersections and unions. From this point of view, necessity and possibility measures are souletimes defined axiomatically by (7.19) mid (7.20), and their underlying . nested structure can then be proven as a theorem in the theory_ This approach allows us to
define necessity and possibility measures for arbitrary universal sets, not necessarily finite. This general formulation of necessity and possibility measures is given by the following two
definitions.
Definition 7.2. rsecessily measure iff
Let Nec denote a fuzzy measure on (X, C). Then, Nec is called a
Nec inf Nec (AO (7.21)
(fri
Ak) EK
ke,K
for any family {Ilk lk E 1‘) in e such that
kez
n A E e, where K is an arbitrary index set.
Then, Pos is called a (7.22)
sup Pos (Aid
icK•
Definition 73 , Let Pos denote a fuzzy measure on (X, C). possibility measure iff
Pos
for any family Odic E K} in.
t Ak)
(k el< keK
C such that U Ak C C, where K is an arbitrary index set.
Since necessity measures are special belief measures and possibility measures are special plausibility measures, they satisfy (7.4)(7..6) and (7.8). Hence,
Sec. 7_3
Possibility Theory
180
Nec (A) ÷ Nec (71) 1, Pas (A) ÷ Pas (A) > 1,
Nec (A) = 1 — Fos (747). Furthermore, it follows immediately from (7.19) and (7.20) that
(7.23) (7.24) (7.25) (7.26) (7.27)
min[ Nec (A), Nec (.71.)1 = 0, max(Pos (A), Fos (..7) .1
L
In addition, possibility measures and necessity measures constrain each other in a strong way, as expressed by the following theorem. For every A E 3)(X), any necessity measure, Nec, on associated possibility measure, Pus, satisfy the following implications:
Theorem 7.2.
(X) and the
(1) Nec (A) 0 Pos (A) = 1; Nee (A) = O. (ii) Pos (A) ‹ 1
Proof: (i ) Let Nec (A) > 0 for some A E P(X). Then, Nec (71) = 0 by (7.26). and Pos (A) 1 — Nee (71.) = 1. (ii) Let Pus (A) <1 for some A E ,g). Then, Pos = 1 by (7.27), and Nee (A) 1 — Pos(A) O. •
Given a possibility measure Pus on T(x), let function r : I —› [0, I] such that ir (x) Pus ( (x]) for all .x E X be called a pa,ssibility distribution fiznacion associated with Pos. An important property of possibility theory is that every possibility measure is uniquely
represented by the associated possibility distribution function. For finite universal sets, the
property is formally expressed by the following theorem. Every possibility measure Pas on a finite power set Y(X) is uniquely determined by a po.ssibilily distribution function rX via the formula Pus (A) = max r (x)
X EA
Theorem 73.
[0, 1 ] (7.28)
for each A e ,(X). Proof: We prove the theorem by induction on the cardinality of set A. Let A = 1. Then, A = (x), where x c X, and (7.28) is trivially satisfied. Assume now that (7.28) is satisfied fur jA = n 1, and let A = [x i , , x„}. Then, by (7.20),
—
Pus (A) = max[Pos ((xi. x2, ... x1), Pus (fx,a)] = m_ax[max[Pos ((xi)), Pos (42)),   , Pus (ixnti)], Ps *On =. max (Fos ((xi », Pas (( r21). Pos ((x„))1 = max_ r (x).
•
. jrz). sup r (x). (7. 7 When X is not finite. and let ?. zrn) E for some n E N.. • . (7.} and assume that a possibility measure Pos defined on 3' (X) fri terms of its basic assignment m. V and meet. = ( 1 71. A. Let jr denote the set of all ordered possibility distributions of length n.190 Possibility Theory Chap. fr of length n. is called a possibility distribution associated with the function r_ The number of components in a possibility distribution is called its length.. x. ilszsaum. x2 .1a. where ri r (xi ) for all xi G X. ‹) be called a lattice of possibilily distributions Consider again X ={X j . x eA (7.max(r7s.28) must be rep/aced with the more general equation Pos (A) =. that the focal elements are some or an of the subsets in the complete sequence of nested subsets where Ai = fx1 . 17.(i E N) and AL c A2 C C An(= X). min(r2. E nY. This requixes (by the definition of possibility measures) Una all focal elements be nested. irri)) and r A ir = (minCrt.29) Let us now introduce a curivenimu nutation applicable to finite universal set.2 = U m R • n Given two possibility distributions. For each n E N. as . • . are defined. is partial and forms a lattice whose join. max('r2. 7. It is convenient to order possibility distribution in such a way that rE > rj when i < j. Then. respectively. . • • jrn» for all ir. rn). 1 This ordering on 'R. . jrz). 2r2. without any loss of generality.30) .2 and 2r = (27%. xi ). I E NIT as illustrated in Fig./ ir = (max(frii 41). the ntupie r = (r1.. r2. Assume that a possibility distribution function r is defined on the universal set X = tx x2. • • • . m(A) = 0 for each E m(Ai) = 1. That is. we define _< 2y if r <4 for all i E N. . let ('R. r \. A A.
aware .2 . where X = (xi. • • • xx): (a) (=plate serapenee of nested subsets of X: (h) 2 poss.ssibility measure defined on 7.Sec. zz.2 r(x) p i =1 11X2) P2 3 1'0E6) 00 =Pi = .ibility raeasum defined on X.1 Nested focal elements of possibUity measure on Y(X).3 (b) A Po.3 r(x4) Pi .3 Passibility Theory 191 m(A 3 ) m( A m(A i ) ) m(A4 ) m(A) Pi r(xn )= 03) P 3 (a} Complete sequence or nested subsets of X rrt(A2)= m( A7 ) . 7.
+1+ . we can apply (7. Given r r„ E N.±/nit =na. Equations (7. and let n01 U n3Y( ' Using the introduced notation.) for some finite N .1 One correspondence N„). let us demonstrate now that each basic distribution m M represents exactly one possibility distribution r e 1. Erni = 1 (7. and m = rn.. that m(A) Fig. Solving these equations for mi (i for all L E lkin . Let m be called a basic distributinn. we obtain (7.31) i=1 and nri E [0. It follows from the previous discussion that every possibility measure on a finite tinivefsal .33) is satisfied. denote the set of all basic distributions with n components (distributions of length n).. these equations are: Ti mri M2 + .r i p and thus obtain a set of equations r i = Fl (p) = E in (AO = Ernk. • m2 + m3 ± • mi • • ± m„ in + ni. r 1 (m) r iff (7.11) to PI((. and vice versa. Ic=1 (7. where rni. however..set Call be uniquely characterized by the ig niple  ai tn.33) define a oneto M between possibility distributions and the underlying basic distributions.28) and from the definition of possibility measures as special plausibility measures that = r(x) ((xi ]) for all xi E X.. 7. First.5 M for some n e N. it follows from (7.32) and (7. 11 for all j E N.1b. Let "M. Clearly.192 Pos_sibility Theory Chap. as illustrated by an example in It is not required.32) with calo equation for calch I N. t (r) m if (7.32) is satisfied. where mi = (Ai) for all i E 1'1.33) CP by convention.• • + "1 11/  inn r2 =. similarly. 7 0 for all E Nn . Written wore explicitly. Hence. .
1 = I for each possibility distribution r= (ri. For example. A. .5 0 +. 7 k=. that is.Sec. Pos ax).xil) A7 0 and rn(A4) . .28) . For instance.7. the more ignorant we are. r5 Em k=.sents perfect evidence with no uncertainty involved. 33.3.7.30) is satisfied. . 0. 7. . This distribution represents total ignorance. similarly. 1 has the same form. 1. N7. = O. We observe that (7.. . .3 Consider the basic assignment m specified in Fig. For all Ina.2). 0.3 Pcssibility Thecry ig3 Function t enables us to define a partial ordering on set NE in terms of the partial ordering defined on set 2. consequently. This possibility distribution. 0. 0) with n — 1 zeros. in(A i ) The basic distribution is iii c (1. rk) Ena N(1. 75 ) = max(.7. In general.1b. we define < z in if and only if t —I ( I m) Example 7. xs}) = max(r. the smallest possibility distribution f of length n has the form = 0.2). Applying (732) to this basic distribution for all I E we obtain the possibility distzihwion r as shown in Fig. ffence. whose basic assignment t() = (1. . from components of the possibility distribution r by (7. 'In M. x2 . the larger the possibility distribution. . a situation in which no relevant evidence is available.3. 7. the less specific the evidence and. 1) with n — I zeros. reprc. = (0.3 (1.„) = (0. . x4 .32) that r.2 = 3 . The largest possibility distribution in of length n consists of ail and t (f. .1b. 0. x3. xk)) for each k e NT. . 7.. max(ri. 0. Pus ( (x1 . For instance. x2. but 0 in this case for sonic subsets of the complete sequence Ai c of nested subsets.31) and (7.  A7) rk) 1. O. It follows from (7. Degrees of possibility Pus (A) can now be calculated for any subset A of X = (x l . /max i . 3. r4. . 1 ±.3) = .
r) rain(. j r32 or 743 = min(r4. These formulas follow directly from. y) yer xX (7. are defined by the formulas rx (x) for each x X and = max r(x. Hence.y).even in Fig. 1) = .35). yEY Hence. ri are the respective marginal possibilities given in Fig. Projections rx and ry of r.36) for all x G X and all y E Y.194 Possibility Theory Chap. We can argue similarly for (7. and Pos are possibility measures corresponding to rx and r. for which the marginal distribution rx is defined. Consequently. Y) I y G where Posy.2a. which are called marginal possibility distributions. respectively. Nested bodies of evidence on X and y represented by possibility distribution functions rx. y) = mintrx (x) rr(y) I (7.3) = _3. it does not confonxt to the general definition of noninteractivc bodies of evidence as expressed by (7.2. This definition of possibilistic noninteraction (see (7. (7. To see this. The product mie cannot be used for defiring possibilistie noniateraction because it does not preserve the nested structure of focal elements. For instance.18). 7. An example of noninteractive nested bodies of evidence is . This is illustrated by the following example.34) ry (y) = max r y) (7. stands for the set y)ly E 17) of pairs in I x Y for which the joint distribution is defined. 7. note that each particular element x of X.and ry. Applying (7. 7 Let us consider now joint possibitily distributions r defined on the Cartesian product X x Y.35) for each y E Y. which is selfexplanatory_ Observe that for each joint possibility r 1 in Fig. .36)) is clearly not based upon the product rule of evidence theory.. y) y E Y» = maxr(x. it must be that Posx({ r}) = Pos({(r .6 . (7. respectively. are called noninteractive (in the possibilistic sense) if r (x . we obtain Posx (tx = and applying it to the righthand side of the equation yields Pos(((x. = (r3 .2b.34) is obtained.28) to the lefthand side of this equation.28). 7. we have rij = min(ri where r.
36). ).1 '3= .Sec. That is. 7.3a.3b.3c. when the product rule is employed.) — 3 (3. we obtain the joint basic assignment shown in Fig. Example 7. consequently. When we combine them by (7. 7.) (b) Joint consonant (nested) body of evidence Figure 72 Example of noninteractive sets with possibility measure: (a) marginal consonant bodies of evidence.35) that . This basic assignment does not represent a nested body of evidence. which represent two nested bodies of evidence.5 195 Pe. 7. In contrast to this. 7. (b) joint consonant body of evidence. it is not a subject of possibility theory. 3 3:. the result of Goinbining two nested bodies of evidence by the min operator is again nested so that we remain in the domain of possibility theory.3 Possibility Theory 4 itt4 = .3 (a) Mnrginni consonant (nested) bodies of evidence A P42 «ç A „ .. It follows directly from (734) and (7.4 Consider the marginal possibility distributions and basic distributions specified in Fig. we obtain thc joint possibility distribution shown in Fig.
assuming that Fos'.' .38) P(X) and all B T(Y).6 .2 0. It is certainly desirable. y) rniarrx (x).and r.36) is the largest joint distribution (or.37) This means that the joint possibility distribution defined by (7. respectively.nds.12 0.6 Chap. equivelontly.48 0.4). 8 0. Posy(B)1 for all A G (7. the kt cotnstrained joins distribution) that satisfies the given marginal distributions.8 ba5ic ansignrnat 04 0. l'os caa be calculated from Posx and Posy by the equation Fos (A x B) = raireosx(A). and let r be the joint possibility distribution function on X x Y defined in terms of rx and ry by (7. y) :5 rx (x) and r(x.CY)1 (7. r (.32 0.and ry be marginal possibility distribution functions on X and Y. y) Hence.36). and Pos denote the possibility measures corresponding to rx. to &fine noninteraction in terms of this extreme condition. where .6 a) 0.1 96 08 Marginal possibility distributions Possibility Them 0. it represents the least specific claim about the actual joint distribution. rr. Then. As such... ..08 01. rosy. . 0. ry. . loint possibility disiribution ( Joint basic a.igtte nt c) Figure 73 Combittations of consonant (nested) bodies of evidence by tbe minimum operator vertus Dempster's rule (Example 7. 7 Marginal 0..3c. at least on intuitive grou.. Let rx.. r(x.6 I..
). Then. we obtain (7. respectively. y Pos (A x B) = max r (x y). Furthermore. rxiy (x I y)j. regardless of their status with respect to independence.Sec.. Posy()] — Pos (74 x = Nec (A + B). zrEA 197 Pos y (B) raa. where riir (xly) and ryix(y ix) denote conditional possibilities on X x Y.42). which is essential for defining possibilistic independence. we employ the basic equations r(xy) = min[ry (y). and A ± B is the Cartesian coproduct i x Tt.40) (7.36). Necy(B)1 = magi — Posx (X). Let is now discuss the concept of a conditional possibility distribution function. Nec x.40) is satisfied (independence). Assume now that (7. (7. substituting min[rx (x). Then. We say that two marginal possibilistic ' bodies of evidence are independent iff the conditional possibilities do not differ from the corresponding marginal possibilities. substituting rx (x) for rxiy(xly) in (7. Posy. is distinguished from possibilistic noniateraction.36). Assume first that (7.(x). Observe that possibilistic independence. y) in (7. expressed by (7.36) is satisfied (noninteraction). Hence.41).42). ryix (y which must be satisfied for any two marginal possibliistic bodies of evidence and the associated joint body of evidence. we obtain the equation nait*x (x). ry(y)] for r(x.41) and substituting ry(y) for rrq(yfx) in (7. Necr(B)] (739) for an A E 1P (X) and all B E T(7). Nec (A ± B) = max[Necx (A). the property of possibilistic independence implies the property of possibilistic noninteraction.36) (noninteraction).43).x ry (y) . which is expressed by (7.41) FM 07 1X = rY(Y) for all x E I and all y € Y. contrary to their probabilistic counterparts. we obtain (7. This equation can easily have been derived by using (7. y) = mia[rx. ry (y)] Solving this equation for rx iy (xf y). .38): max[Necr (24.3 Po5sibiiity Tbecry 131)Sx(A) = TrIaX tx(X). Pos x . rxiy(x ly)1. To show that these concepts are not equivalent.42) (7.43) r (x. Similarly. where Ne. by (725). 7. This is expressed by the equations rziy(xiy) = rx(x).40) and (7. we obtain rainfry (y). assuming (7. (7.. t — Pos y (T)1 = I =1 — in:M[Posx(X).25) and (7. and NCCy are the necessity measures associated with possibility measures Fos.
We can see from (7.47) (7. for each A E Nec (A) = Pas (A) = 0 CO) when CO) 0 when C(A) >0„ (7. Nec.46) C(A) +1 when CO) < 0 1 . 1 ] . The two concepts are thus not equivalent. the property of possibilistic noninteraction does not imply the property of possibilistic independence. and possibility measures. We overview these proposals in Note 7.4 FUZZY SETS AND POSSIBILITY THEORY Possibility theory can be formulated not only in terms of nested bodies of evidence. The choices of one value of rx x(xly) from the interval fry(y). Pos. given the proposition "V is F" based upon F. be used for describing the fact that the value of V is v.45) that conditional possibilities are not uniquely determined solely by the constraints of possibility theory. function C is defined by the equation C (4) = Nec (A) + Pos(A) — 1. This alternative formulation of possibility theory is suggestive since fuzzy sets. where v G V.8. are also based on families of nested sets.44) and (7.=  (rx ( x ) . but also in terms of fuzzy sets. 11 depend on some additional conditions. Positive values of C (A) indicate the degree of confirmation of A by the evidence available. C. On the other hand. can be converted to a single combined function. the appropriate acuts. whose range is [1. F(v) is interpreted as the degree of compatibility of tr with the concept described by F. That is. it is more meaningful to interpret F(u) as the degree of possibay that V = v. Several distinct conditions proposed for this purpose in the literature are still subjects of debate. given a fuzzy set F on V and the proposition "V is F7 the possibility. Consider now a fuzzy set F on V that expresses an elastic constraint on values that may be assigned to V. .48) (7. possibility theory is based on two dual functions: necessity measures. given a particular value v € V. similar to possibilistic bodies of evidence. The two functions. we can obtain ryi x ( ir t. Possibility measures are directly connected with fuzzy sets via the associated possibility distribution functions. for ry (y) rx(x) for ry (y) y ix) ".sitallity Theory Chap. the interval [rx(x). 1] or one value of ry1x(y1x) from.44) rxjy(xIY) In a similar way. 7 (7. whose range is [0. Fur each A (X). possibilistic independence is stronger than possibilistic noninteraction. As explained in this section. let V denote a variable that takes values in a universal set V.45) Hence. To explain this connection. 1] xy y (y ) for rx (x) < r y (y) for rx(x) > ry (y). 1]. and lot the equation V = LI. when C (A) > O. Conversely. Then.198 Pos. 7. while its negative values express the degree of disconfirnration of A by the evidence. 1) (7.
That is." For normal fuzzy sets. 21. on V. S clefuied for all A T(V) by the equatinn PinsF(A) = suprF(Y). The etcuts of F.. 7. the associated necessity measure.e. 221. Nec. 21. Formally.51).4 0. which are nested as shown in Fig.2 00 (a) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 9. 1. I — PosF(71)./ (b) Figure 7.49) for all yE V. PosF.Sec. V . play the same role as the focal elements in possibilistic bodies of evidence formulated within evidence theory. 7. the cccuts (or focal elements) are A 1 (211.6 0.29). Then. Pos (71. FF(V) F(v) (7.4 Fuzzy Sets and Possibility Theory 199 rF(v). .8 0. let variable V be temperature measured in °C and aSS1. This incomplete information induces a possibility distribution function rF that. (7. A3 = (19.4 fuzzy Possibility distil1=ton for a propositon.0 0. 20. In our example.49). is numerically identical with the membership function F. focal elements and ce cuts correspond to each other in the two formulations of possibility theory. we obtain Nec (A1) = 1/3..49) is clearly a possibility distribution function Function rF.231. Given r F. 22.50). Using (7. of 17 = y for each ir e V is numerically equal to the degree F(u) to which u belongs to F. using (7.25).that only Let information about the actual vallie of its integer values are recognized (i. can then be calculated for all A E 2(11 ) by the equation Necp (A) =. Pos (L) = 1/3.51) which is a counterpart of (7. 7. according to (7. we can readily find that Po s (A 4 ) = Pos (Az) 4= Ns (As) I and Pus (A i ) 2/3. V "V is around 21C" in which the concept around V be given in terms of the proposition 21°C is expressed by the fuzzy set F given in Fig. This measure expresses the uncertainty regarding the actual value of variable V under incomplete information given in terms of the proposition "V is F. pi 11 defiled by (7.3) = O.1113e. (7. As an example. A2 = (20. the associated possibility measure.50) which is a counterpart of (7.4a.4b.
Furthermore. It is shown that probability theory and possibility theury are distinct theories. The reason is that the differences do not add to 1 when F is not normal. m(A3) = 1/3 — 0 = 1/3. While the various characteristics of possibility theory within the broader framework of evidence theory are expounded in Sec. We can see that possibility theory is a measuretheoretic counterpart of fuzzy set theory based upon the standard fuzzy operations. consequently. As is well known.771(4 2) 2/3 — 1/3 = 1/3. 7. C(. A belief imagine Bel on a finite power set T(X) is a probability measure if and only if the associated basic 'probability assignment function m is given by m(fx}) = Bel ((x)) and m(A) = 0 for all subsets of X that are not singletons. since In(0) = 0 by deftnition of m_ Let A 0 0 and assume A = (x i . 7. Pro. it plays a major role in fuzzy logic (Chapter 8) and approxlinate reasoning (Chapter 11). X. and to use this comparison in comparing probability theory with fuzzy set theory.5 POSSIBILITY THEORY VERSUS PROBABILITY THEORY The. C(A 1 ) 1/3. However. The best way of comparing probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty is to examine the two theories from a broader perspective. . purpose of this section is to compare probability theory with possibility theory. are a special type of belief measures. which is defined in terms of the differences in values of function rF. 7 Nec (A 2) = 2/3. Converting functions Pos and Nec into the combined function C. Pro (A) Pro (B) (7. all other properties of possibility theory remain equivalent in both formulations. . we obtain . within which probability theory and possibility theory are recognized as special branches. C(A3) = O. rising (7_33).. For the empty set 21.3. This relationship between belief measures and probability measures is more precisely characterized by the following theorem.52). I — 2/3 = 1/3. We can also easily see that Nec (A) = 0 for any set A that contains no el cut.3). the basic probability assignment function. the theorem trivially holds. and nither is subsumed under the other.7 ) = —2/3. we can calculate the basic probability .. Such a perspective is offered by evidence theory.200 Passibility Theory Ctiap. In this case. a probability measure. by repeated application of the additivity axiom (7. assignment: tn(A 1) 1=. is required to satisfy the equation Pro (A U B). is not directly applicable.52) for all sets A. C(A2) = 2/3. we obtain. Theorem 7.. The full equivalence breaks when F is not normal.}. Proof: Assume that Bel is a probability measure. and In(A) = 0 for any set A that is not an otcut. x2.. 12 When rF is derived from a normal set F. B E SU') such that A n B This requirement is usually referred to as the additivity axiom of probability measures. Then. It provides us with appropriate tools for processing incomplete information expressed in terms of fuzzy propositions.4. Nec (A 3 ) 1.This implies that probability measures. we need to introduce their probabilistic counterparts to facilitate our discussion. Observe that this axiom is stronger than the superadditivity axiom of belief measures expressed by (7. C(A3) L C(A1) = —1/3.. the two formulations of possibility theory are equivalent. as in our example.
Bel (ix. for any sets A. then the righthand sides of (7. When the basic probability assignment function focuses only on singletons.10) and (7. in this case. as required for probability measures. as p(x).Bol ( x2)) Since Bel (frI) = m(fri) for any x X by ( 7. = &l axi» 4. It is therefore convenient.UB m(lx)) = Bel (A U . we have Bel (A) =.. Assume now that a basic probability assignment function m is given such that Emax}) =1. 7. In ) \ . Hence.4. Bel is a probability measure. According to Theorem 7. Let us denote probability measures by Pro. Pro (A) = X Cet p(x) (7.10). Then. B E P(X) such that A fl B 0. consequently. probability measures on finite sets are thus fully represented by a function pX {0. This completes the proof. Bel is defined lu ternis of a basic assignment that focuses Qu'y on singletons..11) becon:Le equal.201 = Bel *1» ± Bel ((x2)) H Bd (fil. total ignorance is expressed by the tiniforra probability distribution . to denote them by a single symbol.6). Let p (p(x)rx E X) be referred to as a probabiliay disiribution on X. 1] such that p(x) maxi). by utilizing the notion of a probability distribution Bel (A) = Pl (A) function.Îrn((xj)). this can also be written.53) for all A € Within probability measures. This function i3 usually called a probabilily distribution jeunction. 13c1 (A) = PI (A) ' Eni ((x }) for all A E P(X). we have Bel (A) ± Be (B) mari) Emax» E xM.Sec. sxn}) + Bel ((x}).5 Possibty Theory versus ProbabUity Theory Bel (A) Bel ((x E » 4. xeA 'This mea= that the dual beilef aud plausibility measures merge Ulldel the additivity axiom of probability measures. Then. Hence.
y) (7.0 = (7. Since the joint probability distribution is defined by P.18). which are the subject of probability theory. The two marginal distributions are called indelendem iff x(x) IA *= Px(x).61) Fri(*) we can immediately see that the marginal distributions are independent if and only if they are noninterative.202 Possibility Theory fqx) = m (tx Chap. it is called a joint probability distribution.55) for all x € X and all y E Y. consequently. (7. have been studied at length. are called marginal probability distributions. TWO conditional probability distributions.54) for each x G X and Ep(x. Probability measures. we briefly review a few concepts from probability theory that are employed later in the text. We therefore assume that the reader is familiar with the fundamentals of probability theory.60) (7. including textbooks at various levels. Projections px and py of p on X and Y.PY (y) (7.and pyix are defined in terms of a joint distribution p by the formulas PX1Y 1Y I XX I y) = — PY(Y) (7. When a probability distribution p is defined on the Cartesian product X x Y.r y) Px(x) . This definition is a special case of the general definition of nortinteractive bodies of evidence expressed by ( 7. Prix(y1x) designates the probability of y given x.5S) for all x I and all y E Y. we do not attempt a full coverage of probability theory in this book.xlY y) = Pxn4xi. pxiy. similarly.59) (7. is abundant. y) for each y G Y. We are now in a position to discuss similarities and differences between probability . Priz(ylx) = PTO') for all x e X and all y e Y.4). they are defined by the formulas pz(x) YGY p(x. The value pxly (xly) representsth probability that x occurs e provided that y is known. respectively.Y).7 for all x X.57) and PriX(Yix) — 19 (X. The marginal distributions are called noninteractive (in the probabilistic sense) with respect to p iff P(. This follows directly from the fact that basic assignments of probability measures are required to focus only on singletons (Theorem 7. However. .Y) PY(. The literature of probability theory.
The two theories are similar in the sense that they both are subsumed not only under fuzzy measure theory. which are special versions of belief and plausibility measures. While possibility theory is based on two dual measures. The two distribution functions that represent probabilities and possibilities become equal for this measure: one element of the universal set is assigned the value of 1. The inclusion relationship among the six types of measures employed in thcse theories is depicted in Fig. with all other clement being assigned a val. While probabilistic bodies of evidence consist of singletons. a singleton. Basic mathematical properties of both theories are summarized and contrasted in Table 7. This is clearly the only measure that represents perfect evidence. . which is characterized by only one focal element. necessity. This results from a fundamental difference in the structure of respective bodies of evidence. and probability measures do not overlap with_ one another except for one very special measure. the latter requirement may even be abandoned when possibility theory is formulated in terms of fuzzy sets.. FUZZY MEASURES: monotonic and continuous of semd œntinucum PLAugiature FASUFts! subacklitive and C1iuus IrOrn below • pl1r313AmirrY MEASURES: • additive mEAsuRES • niury • LIEF lifgASURES4 and contInUCLIS from ahovgi Suporadclitioe Ectssrry mr_dauRgs Figure 1_5 Inclusion mIanfonship among the discussed types a ramarcs. but their normalization requirements are very different Values of each probability distribution are required to add to 1. Both probability and possibility measures are uniqueiy represented by distribution functions. 7.4 to facilitate our discussion. possibilistic bodies of evidence are families of nested sets. These differences in mathematical properties of the two theories make each theory suitable for modeling certain types of uncertainty and less suitable for modeling other types. As obvious from their mathematical properties.= of O.5. while for possibility distributions the largest values are required to be 1. possibility. Moreover. Let us examine now some aspects of the relationship between probability theory and possibility theory in more detail. but also under the more restricted evidence theory. probability theory coincides with that subarea of evidence theory in which belief measures and plausibility measures are equal.Sec. 7.5 possibil[ty Theory versus Probability Theory 203 theory and possibility theory.
= 1 Ps (A) + Pos (7) ? 11. xer 1 Additivity: Pro(A 1.. n B) MaxIMin rules. Nec Body of evidence commis of a family of nested subsets Unique representation of Pas by a possibility distribution function r : X > [Cli.0> (b) (a) Awl:Wink noninseraction: r (x • Y) = Milk [rX(X).12(x.204 TABLE 7.. y) = px(x) ..=4 0 Pos (A) = 1 Nec (A) 0  Not applicable Pro(A)+Proa) . Nec (A) +Nec (2. 11 via the formula Po s (A) =.. Pro(A) . Y) PT O) r xir (x1Y) = { Cry (y).Nec (B)1 Nec (A).) max[Pos (A). 1 — Pas (A) Pos (A) <1 .Y) Px(x) ry(y) [rx(r).Nec (A) .Pos (71)) —1 mia[Nec (A).7.. but (a) 4` ( 5) . Pro Body of evidence consists of singletons Unique representation of Pro by a probability distribution function p : X > [O. il rrx (Y Ix) = rX(x) for rx(x) < ry(y) for rx (x) > fr(y) for /10) < Fx(x) . 0 Total ignorance: p(x)=111X1 for all x E X Conditional probabilitims. TOJIX r (x) /CA . 1] for FT... E p(x) ..Neo (A)] v=.. (y ) > rx(x) Probabilistic noninteraction: P(x. Total ignorance: r(x) := 1 for all x E X Conditional possibilities: PziAxiY) = Pox(*) = P(x . Pos (A U 11) = max[Poa (A). 7 Possibility Theory Based on measures of tw6 types: possibility measures of one gyp probability measures. rY(Y)] (a) Possibilistic independenm (19 Trry(X1Y) = rX(X) rrIX(YIX) = FS' (y) 0) (8) (a)..61) = min[Nec (A).. Pas.EA Normalization: Normalization: E p(x) — 1 xex max r (x) ..4 PROBABILITY THEORY VERSUS POSS16ILIIY THEORY: COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL PROPERT1ES FOR FINITE SETS Probability Theory Based a i Possibility Theory Chap.Pos (B)] Nee(A n . 1] via the formula —  measures.py(y) Probabilistic independence: Pill' (X I Y) •.riX (X) PrX(Y IX) = MY) (a) .r.I B) =Pro(A)+Pro(B)—Pro(A. and necessity measures.
we know. however. 7. Total ignorance should be expressed la terms of the full set of possible probability distributions on X. belief measures and plausibility measures may be interpreted as lower and upper probability estimates. equivalently.. Similarly. but we have no rationale to narrow down this range. In other cases. which allows us to adjust some of the interpretations of probability theory to the intervalvalued probabilities of possibilistic type. Viewing necessity and possibility measures as lower and upper probabilities opens a bridge between the two theories. this requirement is too strong to allow us to obtain an honest characterization of total ignorance. total uncertainty is expressed in the same way as in evidence theory: ma) = i and nt(A) = 0 for all A X or. 7. are employed to form intervals [Bel (A). that the probability of each element of X should be allowed to take any value in [0. That is. that the value of each probability is in (0. Bel and FI. It is significant that the mathematical structure of evidence theory allows us to describe and deal with intervalvalued probabilities. If Pcs (4) <1. Due to the nested structure of evidence. then the estimated probabilities are in the interval [0. a choice of one particular distribution does not make any sense. This choice is justified on several grounds within probability theory. .5 Possibility Theory versus Protiab lay Theory 205 As is well known. Possibility theory may also be interpreted in terms of intervalvalued probabilities. is ideal_ for formalizing incomplete information expressed in terms of fuzzy propositions.g. for all x A. An important interpretation of possibility theory is based on the concept of similarity.Sec. in probability theory. the more possible we consider it in this interpretation of possibility theory in some cases. there are multiple interpretations of possibility theory. as exp/ ained in Sec. hence. the two dual measures. The closer x is to xi according to the chosen distance. probability theory is an ideal tool for formalizing uncertainty in situations where ciass frequencies are known or where evidence is based on outcomes of a sufficiently long series of independent random experiments. appear to be even more fundamental. These estimates are derived fvoni coarse evidence expressed by the basic probability assignment function. the intervals of estimated probabilities are not totally arbitrary. Possibility theory. In this interpretation. which is based on imprecise probabilities. totally devoid of any connection to probability theory.4. on the other hand. other interpretations of possibility theory. the closeness may be determined objectively by a defined measurement procedure. the possibility r(x) reflects the degree of similarity between x and an ideal prototype. xi .. in turn. it is expressed by the uniform probability distribution on the universal set: m((x}) 1/1X I for all x. there are multiple interpretations of probability theory. Pl (A)].. As is well known. it may be based on a subjective judgement of a person (e. which are viewed as imprecise estimates of probabilities. if Bel (A) > 0. If no information is available about the situation under consideration. Due to their properties. 11: in face of total ignorance. r(x) = I. A fundamental difference between the two theories is in their expressions of total ignorance. on the contrary. I. an expert in the application area involved). then the estimated probabilities are in the interval [Bel (A). provided that the normalization requirement is applied. 1 1. In this interpretation. In possibility theory. such a formulation. is foreign to probability theory. This means. However.j. then no distribution is supported by any evidence and. On purely intuitive grounds. r (x) is expressed by a suitable distance between x and xi defined in terms of relevant attributes of the elements involved. However. where it is required that every uncertainty situation be characterized by a single probability distributi9n. for example. for which the possibility degree is 1. PI (A)] for each A E P(10. by definition.
When <pas satisfies the requirement A <pc6 BAUC <Ng B UC (7. Pro (A) > 0 (7. zp. the weakest one acceptable on intuitive grounds can be expressed as follows. (7.. B E P(X). the weakest consistency condition is expressed formally by the inequality Pro (A) < Pas (A) any event with nonzero probability must be fully possible. Formally. on the other hand. B means that 13 is at least as possible as A. defined by the equivalence A <p. it is called a comparative possibility relation. Although interpretations of possibility theory are still less developed than their probabilistic counterparts. between Pro and Pas can be measured in terms of the amociated probability distribution function p and possibility distribution function r by the formula c(p. an event that is probable to some degree must be possible at least to the same degree. It is known that the only measures which conform to comparative possibility ordering are possibility measures. Pcs.64). c. constructing a probability measure from a given possibility measure in the context of .„ defined on the power sct 9) (X). For any A. Examples of these problems are: constructing a membership grade function of a fuzzy set from statistical data. That is. at least in its weakest form (7. that Pus (A) = 1 (7. but also from some practical problems.206 Possibility Theory Chap. It is also known that for each ordering <pos there exists a dual ordering. the two descriptions should be in some sense consistent. The strongest consistency condition would require.64) and weaker than (7.64) for all A G 13 (X). given a probability measure. Other consistency conditions may also be formulated that are stronger than (7.66) Probabilitypossibility consistency. <Ncc . other interpretations are not. it is already well established that possibility theory provides a link between fuzzy sets and probability theory. A <p„.B. the two measures should satisfy some consistency condition. is an essential requirement in any probabilitypossibility transformation.. While some interpretations of possibility theory are connected with probability theory.62) for all A.63) These dual orderings are called compartffessity relations: the only measures that conform to them are necessity measures. distinct from the similaritybased interpretation. r) = Ep(x) x€X r(x). 7 Another interpretation of possibility theory. That is. When information regarding some phenomenon is given in both probabilistic and possibilistic terms.C E I' (X). The degree of probabilitypossibility consistency. (7.„s B 4A Nec B. The motivation to study probabilitypossibility transformations has arisen not only from our desire to comprehend the relationship between the two theories of uncertainty.65) for all A E T(X). Pro.7. The growing literature on interpretations of possibility theory is overviewed in Note 7. is founded on special orderings. Although various consistency conditions may be required. and a possibility measure.65). both defined on P(X).
hence.. 7. Equation (7. Let X = (x 1 .71) (7. r= (r1. 2. combining probabilistic and possibilistic information in expert systems. n — 1. r2. . the value can be determined by adding a requirement regarding the relationship between p and r_ Transformations defined by the equations • Emin(Pii Pi) . .5 Passibility Theory versus Probability Theo ry 207 decision making or systems modeling. To discuss these various possibilityprobability transformations. These transformations are defined by the — equations: • = 1 — cf (Pi — pi).70) where denotes the arithmetic mean of the given possibilities ri. ranging from simple ratio scaling to more sophisticated transformations based upon various principles.See.p. This transformation type depends on the value of a and. it is not unique. 2. less common. =a — ) (7. The most common transformations p +4. let us introduce convenient notational assumptions first.69) (7. . respectively. or transforming probabilities to possibilities to reduce computational complexity.68) ri r2 ± • rn Another type of transformations.71) is based on the view that the degree of . 1=1 = 2. pia for all (7_67) as possibilistic and probabilistic normalizations..72) (ri ri+i) are often cited in the Literature.r are based on the ratio scale: ri i. xn } and let pi p(xi) i ri r(zi ). they differ from one another substantially. • • are always nonincreasing sequences_ That is. where ce is a positive constant They are expressed by the equations TI = Pt rE (7. P = (PI. Assume that elements of X are ordered in such a way that possibility distributions. and probability distributions. Except for the normalization requirements. Furthermore. To deal with these problems. ri 1. where a and l3 are positive constants. we have ri+1 and pE pi+i for all • = 1 and E. various proba.bilitypossibility transformations have been suggested in the literature. is based on the interval sca1c r1 = pi a ± )9 for all i. (7.
Lower and upper probabilities were first investigated by Dempster [1967] independent of the concepts of belief and plausibility measures. this range is clearly (0. A body of evidence thus represents for each A E YGTO. the corresponding functions Pl and Bel can be viewed as upper and lower probabilities that characterize a set of probability measures.72) expresses a probabilistic approximation of the given possibilistic body of evidence obtained by distributing values of the basic probability assignment equally among singletons of the respective focal elements. Individual probability measures in the set can be defined by the following allocation procedure: 1.73) which yields the smallest possibility distribution that satisfies the weak probabilitypossibility r and r consistency (7.64). 1977j. These transformations. were proposed in the literature. PM)] of feasible probabilities.72). p70 . then p where pt p.73) is combined with (7. the inequalities Bel (A) < Pro (A) S Pi (A) (7.74) x A= 4 for all A e 7. 7 necessity of event A c X is the extra amount of probability of elementary events in A over the amount of probability assigned to the most frequent elementary event outside A Equation (7.208 Possibility Theory Chap.1. which employ relevant information measures. the range [Be/ (A). by Dempster [1967 ]. when (7. respectively. Additional probability possibility transformations. However.3 are given in the books by Shafer 1 19761 and Guan and Bell [1991. Choose a particular xe A for each A 2. Evidence theory is only one mathematical tool for dealing with imprecise probabilities. 1981 ].5. Observe that p) = p in each of the other pairs of transformations. The concept of a fuzzy measure was introduced by Sugeno [1974. Given a body of evidence (a'.2. are discussed in Sec.71) in these transformations with the formula r. The mathematical theory of evidence that is based on the complementary belief and plausibility measures was originated and developed by Glenn Shafer [1976]_ It was motivated by previous work on upper and lower probabilities. 1976. f (7. Although Shafer's book f1976] is still the best introduction to evidence theory. as well as by Shafer's historical reflection upon the concept of probability [Shafer.  NOTES 7. Lite twovolume book by Quart and Bell [1991. referred to as informationpreserving transformations.7. 1978] and his critical examination of the Bayesian approach to evidence [Shafer. It was also suggested to replace (7. 7. 7. Set PrO (tX1) p(x) E m (A) for all x X  For all probability measures Pro that can be assigned in this way. A are 'mown to hold . This explains the interpretation of Pl and Bel as upper and lower probabilities. 19921 7. 73.4. Derivations of the conversion formu as in Table 7. A graduate textbook on fuzzy measure theory was written by Wang and Fair [1994. 9. I] for all A Ø 0 and A IC in the face of total ignoeance. 19921 is mtire lip to date and covets the rapidly grevring literature dealing with this theory.
and D U C in Examp/e 7. c .8. 19914 Nguyen [19784 Ramer [19891.10. 7. .5. for example. For each of the focal elements in Example 4. 1978b] or from evidence theory [Shafer.5. 7. Show that the function Bel determined by (7. d). general coverage of statistical reasoning and decision making with imprecise probabilities. Various forms of probabilitypossibility consistency are overviewed in a paper by Delgado and Mora/ [1987]. P1L (A)].3. c. 19611 Equations (7. 7.9.sibility theory are atho in the paper. lb.11) for any given basic assignment in is a plausibility measure. 1976]. determine the corresponding basic assignment.4. the degree of inflation or unemployment in a country. Let X =.6.2.2.11. = 7. Repeat Exercise 72 for some of the basic assignments given in Table 7. 7.8.2. Repeat Exercise 7. 7 Exercises 209 7. Bel ({. fBel2 (A). b. 3}). not restricted to evidence theory.2. Compare the concepts of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures ha some situations connected with. Calculate the joint basic assignment m /3 for the focal elements C.7.6.10) for any given basic assignment m is a belief measure. Using (7_5) and (7i 2). Other publications that deal with various interpretations of possibility overiwd theory include ERuspini. determine the corresponding belief and plausibility measures. where subsets of X are defined by their characteristic functions. feasible p3robabilites corresponding to these bodies of evidence (Note 7.Chap.(a. the age of a painting or a collector's coin.RLJD. 7. Be ab. and Cava llo and Klir [1982j.. 7. m1 (1). 1990a. and 771 y ((b. 1989. 7 3.5. b. which can be viewed as ranges of [Bell (A). Connections between probability theory.9 for sore of the basic assignments given in Table 7. and fuzzy set theory are explored in a paper by Dubois and Prade [ 1 99314 Some interpretations of pos. Various proposals for choosing one value from the interval of conditional possibilities were preseuted by Dubois and Prade [1985a. Calculate mr. Let X {a.1. 1991b. possibility theory. b)) = . Shackle. 7.9. the distance betwe:en two citic a. ([1. derive a formula by which the basic assignment for a given plausibility measure can be determined. 7. d)) . Show that the function Pl determined by (7. cl) in Example 7. 1986b. determine the ranges PI12 (A)]. EXERCISES 7. c)) = . b. 7.1.  . 1994. and m(X) = _A. Plz(A)]. 1978b. the degree of education of a person.4). and so on. Also determine Bek2 for these focal elements. Zadeh.3. A book by Dubois and Prade 119S&J is the most comprehensive coverage of possibinty theory ft is interesting that the need for possibility theory in economics was perceived by the British economist Shackle [1961] well before it emerged from fuzzy set theory tZadeh.44) and (7.1. the size of a city or a country. 1987. Mr and Harreanee. was prepared by Walley [19911 Possibility theory was originally introduced in the context of fuzzy sets by Zadeh [1978b]. d). = 1.45) for conditional possibilities were derived by Hisdal [1978]. Shafer. Given the belief measure Del ((b)) — . Given the basic assignment rn ((a. in((a. 7.1 (Raphael's paintings). 1301 (tb .7. 7.
2. cl and Y la. Show that a plausibility measure that satisfies (7.1 . fi. (c) 3 r =119.1 0 .2 O 0 0 0 0 .Ii E k} for appropriate values of n: (a) tm (0. 5 „5. /3).19. . . . aetCD C. .7. .3 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 7.3) the focal elements of the marginal and joint distributions. 7.5).1.1 A . 0. are rtoninteractive. (c) 3nt = (0.... Repeat Exercise 7.1 0 0 2 0 . C} C.5.3 0 . . 0.4. 0. 0. . Determine whether each of the basic assignments given in Table 7.2).1 .7 0 0 0 . .8.1 0 _7 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 a C}  7.13 .3.1 . and necessity measure for each of the following basic distributions defined on X = (x.1.7.1. (d) n = (0. i c 7.2.1 0 0 :2 0 0 . respectively. 7 d 1111 fff 2 riI 3 m4 . (b) 21o1= (.210 TABLE 7. calculate the joint bask distribution in two different ways: (a) by the rules of possibility theory. .8. .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .8.1 . . Show that a belief measure that satisfies (7. possibility measure. 7.1 0. b.3). .1 . . Show visually (as in Fig. 1. (h) by the rules of evidence theory. . .2.8.5) and rr (1_7) OD SCtS X = fa. determine the corresponding basic distributiogs.1 . M7 nix dno nd 1 el 0 . .1 . 0 0 (d) (e) r = (1.5. CF  Chap. .2a.5 .1 . .2 a .2. or neither of these.1 A .8.1 0 0 0 0 A . 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 . .15.1 0 0 0 A . TA& Determine the basic assignznent.1. and necessity measure for each of the following possibility distributions defined on X E NO for appropriate values of (a) 1r = (1. 0. 0:0 211` = (1.2) on X = {z t.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 0 0 0 0 . Given two nortinteractive marginal possibility distributions rx (L .1 . . 0. 0 .1 0 0 0 0 .4 1 0 .1.7. 0. Determine the possibility distribution.3 0 0 0 . 7.3 0 . .1 . 1. possibility measure. Possibility Theory BASIC ASSIGNMENTS EMPLOYED IN EXERCISES I b C •c. . c) and ry (I. 0.19) is based on nested focal elements.2.1 0 .2b. Then. . 1.3.14 for the following marginal possibility distributions: (a) rz (1.3 CI . . Verify completely that the marginal bodies of evidence given in Table 7.1).2 0 .17.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .8. . . 7.5 represents a probability measure.M5 Me. possibility measure. Assume in each case that ri = r (xi ). which were obtained as projections cif the joint body of evidence given in Table 7.1 .7). .. 1. .2 0 .16.12.5.3 0 0 0 0 0 . .7.1 . .1 _1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .14.4 0 .20) is based on nested focal elements.6„5.2). yj. .3.4) on Y = [cc. 7.
awl in. in. 2. Calculate the commonality numbers for some of the basic assignments given in Table 7. (e) both conditional possibilities given by (7_44) and (7.5 1 1 0 1 . d). b. Let a fuzzy set F be defined on H by F — .7.3. 5.2..7 . Let X — (a. —.2 by using the Dempster rule of combination. b.5). d) be the numbers 0. b )) . ma.21.6. . —. Determine Nec (A) and Pos (A) induced by F for all A 37(11.4 1 1 1 . x. Using a joint possibility distribution on lt Y givcu in terms of the matrix 1 0 0 1 .3. Calculate the combined basic proba.2 0 0 0 .Chap. . d. .24. bility assignment in 1 . 4. 7.7. . (13) joint and marginal basic assignments. . dJ ) = .3 . be defined as follows: In ((a . Let basic probability assignments m i and m2 on X independent sources. Let C (A ) for all subsets of X = 1a. b. .20.8 0 .4. mi. determine: (a) marginal possibilities. c)) = .n2 (fa.9.4. —. IN. . b.3. (a.25.s in Table 75.31.2 where rows are assigned to elements a.5 1 0 0 0 0 1 .1 .7 . 3. c.5/5 and A (i) = 0 for all x V11. m2.((b.5 . (I) Assume in each case that rn i m ((xi. 5».2.4. 7. e. xi.411 .4 . c .4. and 1 (listed in the same order as in Table 7.4).5. 8. which are obtained from twg 7.4 . Determine values of function C given by (7. e i d. c)) .7 .3.4.23. 7 Exercises 211 (e) 5 m = (A. 7. . Determine Nec (A) and Fos (A) for all A. 7. e.7.9. .45) . 7. . ci) = .2. and columns are assigned to numbers 1. . (d) hypothetical joint possibility distribution based on the assumption of noninteraction.4. . (lb. ({a .1/2 113 4. —.6.3 . 2.6.6 0 _5 0 .9 .9/4 + .5. 2.46) for the bodies of evidence defined by m a . e) and Y N. . .22. . . b. .
1. all the logic functions of two variables are listed in Table 8. The key issue of propositional logic is the expression of all the logic functions of n variables (n e 14). it may assume either of the two truth values.the basic concepts of classical logic and to intioduce tenniuulogy and notation employed in our discussion of fuzzy logic. where falsity and truth are denoted by 0 and 1. A proposition and its negation are required to assume opposite truth values. w2. This function is usually called a logic filmdom Since n logic variables 32:tay assume 211 prospective truth values. be defined by a function that assigns a particular truth value to the new variable for each combination of truth values of the given variables. respectively.n logic variables th. the variable is not committed to either truth value unless a particular proposition is substituted for it. and the resulting 16 logic variables are denoted by wi. which is usually called a negation of the proposition. Logic is the study of the methods and principles nf reasoning in all its passible forms_ Classical logic deals with propositions that are required to be either true or false.Fuzzy LOGIC 8. These simple functions are 212 . For example. These variables are usually called logic variables (or propositional variables). w16. 1) 2. with the aid of a sate' number of simple logic functions. . deals with combinations of variables that stand for arbitrary propositions. As each variable stands for a hypothetical proposition. are given. It is not concerned with the internal structure of the propositions that the logic variables represent. this section is solely intended to provide a brief overview of . Logic functions of one or two variables are usually called logic operations. referred to as propositional logic. One of the main concerns of propositional logic is the study of rules by which new logic variables can be produced as functions of some given logic variables. there are 27 possible logic functions of these variables. Therefore.1 CLASSICAL LOGIC: AN OVERVIEW We assume that the reader of this text is familiar with the fundamentals of classical logic. One area of logic. A new logic variable can then Assume that . Each proposition has its opposite. the number of which grows extremely rapidly with increasing values of n.
ut tt 171 vt e vz. conjunctions. Every logic formula of this type defines a logic function by composing it from the three primary functions.I 1. ut. v. v1v2 vi.1 Classical Logic: An Overview LOGIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 1 0 0 213 TABLE 8.1P2 Hi ‹ nj —Vi. the order in which the individual compositions are to be performed must be specified in some way. tr.:„. .1=1 uz ir. Logic formulas are then defunct recursively as follows: a logic variable.04 L I O O Adopted name of fametion Zero function Adopted syraboi Other names used in the literature Fal sum Other symbols ustd in the literature Nor &ruction Enhibition G vi NA. conjunction.1PD ut&v7.1. To define a unique function. for example.. Two of the many complete sets of primitives have been predominant in propositional logic: (i) negation. Er1 vs.2 . negations.P2. if a and b denote logic formulas.Sec_ 8. then y and Ti are logic formulas. 1 . and disjunctions (employed as primitives) in appropriate algebraic expressions. rr . u2 ut ..7 u2 ut tv i . referred to as logic formulas. There are various ways in which this order can be specified. which are called logic primitives.1. ni > 712 1 2012 . then a A b and a V b are also logic formulas.n5 u. fur example.22 to ]. qsf r1 vl 2 vi D 02* 'i. It is known that this can be accomplished only with some sets of logic primitives We say that a set of primitives is complete if any logic function of variables 1. ED 1. Identity Chnditionat. we can form any other logic function. vr f1/2 T. NAM:1 0. The most common is the usual use of parentheses as in any other algebraic expressions.16 12)7 Complement Proper inequality Comp le m ent e rl C CP P Exclusiveor Nonequivaience Sheffer stroke ui 0 1. ... the only logic formulas are those defined by the previous two rules.tiun Nand function Conjunction W. m Vr7 u)s tu9 win W1i ruw.conditional Assertion Truplicntion C:q 11 1sI And function Equivalnce eC5 vi 0. a A b zuld a y b In the definition with CFa = b to the definition.1 vi 4. Other types of logic formulas can be defined by replacing some of the three operations in this definition with other operations or by including some additional operations. We may b. v? vl A vi Per function Proper ine44uaIity F. u2) Lit › 11. I).ft 31.. and (ii) negation and implication. . CZ}I vl 1 ni C nz .. D '''' v2 . NoR(ut. v] Di . 1. _ . and disjunction.43 12/14 rt 1s1 Assertion Implickakii rirF 01 vi = r_P2 inequality Identity Conditiumd.. or we may simply add replace. u2. v i C) Negation Tn hibition Neg a tion 41CZ1 7. 2. u.. (for any finite n) can be composed by a finite nuniber of these primitives. if y denotes 3. preferably logic operations of one or two variables. 11)15 1V16 Disjunction One fonction vi V tP2 intivality Or function Verwn . By combining. ul el vi vittr2.
and propositional logic. when two logic formulas a and b are b is a tautology. as can be easily verified by evaluating each of the formulas for all eight combinations of truth values of the logic variables vi . both of these systems are isomorphic to a finite BocAean algebra. Examples of some tautologies frequently used as inference rules are equivalent. we present this larger set of properties in order to emphasize the relationship between Boolean algebras. while the formula a A b is a contradiction. it is called a contradiction. This property is another example of a powerful rule of inference. + and are binary operations on B. lf they do. A V3) y (tii A v2). and propositional logic guarantee that every theorem in any one of these theories has a counterpart in each of the  . a b IC a • b a or. Boolean algebras are therefore lattices that are distributive (B5). ). states that given two true propositions. and complemented (37)(B9). It is well established that propositional logic based on a finite set of logic variables is isomorphic to finite set theory under a particular correspondence between components of these two mathematical systems. terms of a partial ordering on a set. the truth of the proposition "b" (the conclusion) may be inferred_ Every tautology remains a tautology when any of its variables is replaced with any arbitrary logic formula. Various forms of tautologies can be used for making deductive inferences. due to their are important form. are true on logical grounds alone. +. ( n0d11. we consider thorn equivalent. They are referred to as inference rules.3) = (r)2 A t73) y (i 1. (ii i.5 b)) c)) tollens).e regardless of the truth val ties assigned to the variables participating in the formula. The isomorphisms between finite Boolean algebra. Not all of these properties are necessary for an axiomatic characterization of Boolean algebras. When the variable represented by a logic formula is always tru. v2 . b" (the Modus pollens. referred to as a ruile of substitution. For example.2 are satisfied. alternatively. different formulas may represent the same function and variable. "a" and "a premises). 'When logic formulas a and b are equivalent. set theory. for instance.6). 8 While each proper logic formula represents a single logic function and the associated logic variable. we write a = b. which is defined as follows. Properties (R1)(B4) are common to all lattices. For example. A th) V (y1 A t/3) y 0/2 A 1. Tautologies for deductive reasoning because they represent logic formulas that.. and is a unary operation ou B for which the properties listed in Table 8. then a (a A (a = b)) (6 A (Ci (mndus ponera). Furthermore. v3 . bounded (B. This means that each Boolean algebra can also be characterized in.214 Fuzzy Logic Chap. when il is always false. it is called a tamcdogy. ((a => b) A (b (a c) (hypothetical syllogism). where the set B has at least two elements (bounds) 0 and I. set theory. which is a mathematical system defined by abstract (interpretationfree) enfities and their axiomatic propertiesA Boolean algebra on a set B is defined as the quadruple = (B.
respectively.3. BOOLEAN ALGEBIRA . Propositions are sentences expressed in soma. 'This. These latter propositions are treated as unanalyzed wholes. a set of logic variables and the set of all combinations of truth values of these variables. B. Each sentence representing a proposition can fundamentally he broken down into a subject and a predicate.3 CORRESPONDENCES DEFINING ISOMORPHISMS BETWEEN SET THEORY. These counterparts can be obtained from one another by applying the substitutional correspondences ii Table 8. language. The combination containing only truths is denoted by 1.(17) be equal. to cover ail these theories by developing only one of them. In other words. It is required that the cardinalitles of sets OD(X).1 a .= a +Fi = 0 =0 (a  (no Involution (B9) Dualization a 4(1=0 a b + b TABLE 8.1 =. AND PRO POSMONAL LOGIC other two theories. which denote here. in effect. AH symbols used in this table are previously defined ln the text except for the symbols V and Zi(V).a+1 .sal bounds Complementarity + b) F c = a + (b + c) (ci • b) c = a • (b • c) a + fa • b) = a • (a + b) =a a (b+c) =( I?) + (da • c) a + (b • c) = + • (a + c) a..Seo.2 (BI) PROPEFMES OF SCOLEAN ALGEBRAS a +a a •a Idernpotenct Conunutativity = a = a (tri) ab=b•a (B3) Associativity (114) Absorption (B5) DistributivitY (136) (B7) Univc. Propositional logic is concerned only with those logic relationships that depend on the way in which propositions are composed from other propositions by logic operations.. .• a s a . These isomorphisms allow us. 8_1 Classical Logic: An Overview 215 TABLE 8. is not adequate for many instances of deductive reasoning for which the internai structure of propositions cannot be ignored. and f. the one containing only falsities is denoted by O.
It is useful tu extend the 4. Another way of extending the scope of a predicate is to quantify its applicability with respect to the domain of its variables. For example. they are referred to as existential quantification and universal quantification. which represents the sentence "There exists an individual x (in the universal set X of the variable x) such that x is P" (or the equivalent sentence "Some x E X are P"). X is P. it is natuudl to extend it to more than one variable. This function is usually called a predicate and is denoted by P(x). "Austria is a Gennanspeaking country" is a proposition in which "Austria" 5 rands for a subject (a partictAar country) and "a Germanspeaking country" is a predicate that characterizes a specific property. which for each value of x forms a proposition. . (8. c EX (8. we may use the general form "x is P. Instead of dealing with particular propositions. where xl stands for individual persons from a designated population X1 and x2 stands for individual countries frciat a designated set 12 of countries. Two kinds of qua.. For example.1) Universal quantification of a predicate P(x) is expressed by the form Cex)P(x). Clearly.21 6 P. namely. For convenience. elements of dY2 are usually called objects rather than subjects. This leads to the notion of an nary predicate P(xi . Here. The symbol V is called a universal quantifier. which represents the sentence For every individual x (in the designated universal set). The symbol is called an existential quantifier. "All x E X are F").ary relation among subjects from designated universal sets X.. a predicate becomes a proposition which is either true or false when a particular subject from X is substituted for x. the following equality holds: eex)P(x) = zeX P(x). and P designates a predicate that characterizes a property. x2 . xi is a citizen of x2 is a binary predicate. This proposition is true. We have the following equality: (Er)P(r) = V P(x).177y Logic Chap_ a a simple proposition can be expressed.2) . Fit. in general. The predicate P then plays the role of a function defined on X.uncepl. the property of being a country whose inhabitants speak German. Clearly. Existential quantification of a predicate P(x) is expressed by the form (ax)P(x). in the canonical form where x is a symbol of a subject. which for n 1 represents a property and for n 2 an n . x is (or the equivalent sentence." where x now stands for any subject from a designated universe of discourse X.(i E Na ). nary predicates for n = 0 are defined as propositions in the same sense as in propositional logic.ntification have been predominantly used for predicates. of a predicatcin wu ways.
x2 . which may be called indeterminate. respectively. and 1/2. a= ilP(x) is true)I. x2. V. when a > fit. hence.2 MULTI VALUED LOGICS The basic assumption upon which classical logic (or twovalued logic) is based—that every proposition is either true or false—has been questioned since Aristotle_ In his treatise On Interpretation. These formulas. it is known that truth values of certain propositions in quantum mechanics are inherently indeterminate due to fundamental limitations of measurement. we must relax the true/false dichotomy of classical twovalued logic by allowing a third truth value. 0. x2. Propositions about future events.x3 G 13 such that P (xi . falsity. when = O Q becomes the standard universal quantifier.Sec. For example. are defined in terms of these four primitives in Table 8. he maintains. labelled by the names of their originators. as a binary relation  ((u. we obtain the standard existential quantifier. then the sentence is true (assume x = 0 and x3 = 1). In order to deal with such propositions. 8. The classical twovalued logic can be extended into threevalued logic in various ways. 1] and P (x i . Several three.4*. differ from one threevalued logic to another. at least prior to the event It is now well understood that propositions whose truth status is problematic are not restricted to future events. and . resEectively. — . Other primitives.valued logics. XIP(r) is falselt. we obtain the socalled plurality quantifier." For example. 1. 1 0. for example. if X1 = X = X3 [0. x3).New predicates (quantified or not) can he produced from given predicates by Logic formulas in the same way as new logic variables are produced by logic formulas in propositional logic. P)Icr. Formally. are now well established. and 1/2 1/2. = Ix E . but potentially either. It is also common to define the negation a of a proposition a as 1 a. where ai fi specify the number of elements of X for which P(x) is true or false. which are called predicate formulas. x3) stands for the sentence "there exists an x i E XI such that for all x 2 E 12 there exists . such as A. x3 ) means < x2 x3 . The standard existential and universal quantification of predicates can be conveniently generalized by conceiving a quantifier Q applied to a predicate F (x). are the essence of predicate logic. It is common in these logics to denote the truth. when Q is defined by the condition a 0 0. Aristotle discusses the problematic truth status of matters that are futurecontingent.2 Multivalued Logica 217 For nary predicates." . their truth value is undetermined. Five of the bestknown threevalued [agies. P N. 9. x E X. As a consequence of the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty. and indeterminacy by 1. are neither actually true nor actually false.4. (3x 1)0' x2) (3x P(x1. each with its own rationale. each applying to one variable_ For instance. expressed by the word "most. a + lx11. that is. we may use up to n quantifiers of eitber kind.
The drst series of n valued logics for which n > Z was proposed by Lraragiewicz in the early 1930s as a generalization of his threevalued logic.r. • s.. = 1 . I (83) . PI. a Bcchvar I . The Bochvar threevalued logic. C' v. 4  • . 4s4 . it became desirable to explore generalizations into nvalued logics for an arbitrary number of truth values (n ›.k .. ayb= max(a. b). a b = inin(1.k1 . C. ___. 04 .n — 1 n — 1 These values can be interpreted as degrees of truth.. . 0"'I CD. Reichenbach Q Q Q Q rir.. and that they differ from each other only in their treatment of the new truth value 1/2.es this value_ Therefore. .Ivr••29s44. 1 — la — bl. The set 1. b E (0.101ssI 1 4. .•w• 9. the truth value in these generalized logics arc usually labelled by rational numbers in the unit interval [0. Once the various threevalued logics Were accepted as meaningful and useful. 1]. the usual concept of the tautology to the broader concept of a quasitautology. = { .• . r4 Ci We can see from Table 8. "44. ••X L. obtained by evenly dividing the interval between 0 and 1 exclusive.mw 'Lampti4ipsy .s a A b = rain(a.1" ..*Is1 .• Kleene He yting . _ . ___.. Similarly. of truth values of an nvalued logic is thus defined as 2 0 1 T.._.JIC • C. clearly does not satisfy any of the tautologies of twovalued logic.49 .4=4.1.4. 1 ).11•••• He:.IN . b).. s. •lltsIGI . ^...4. ... 414NI. We can also easily verily that none of these threevalued logics satisfies the law of contradiction (a A d = 0).... These values are.101CIm4.. s1 s•• ._..21 8 TABLE 8... 0 n—1n—1 n — 1 .r C.  C.. . It MSC'S truth values in Tli and defines the primitives by the following equations: 41' = l — a. We toexnd say that a logic formula in & threevalued logic which does not assume the truth value 0 (falsity) regardless of the truth values assigned to its proposition variables is a quaskautology . • apCICI Fuzzy Login Chap. it is common .0 L'4 C=1.. we say that a logic formula which does not assume the truth value 1 (truth) is a quasicontradiction.. ___. For any given n... __• __• ss• C391M • C...2).1%. a 4> b .f21.k.4 that all the logic pxiaiitives listed for the five threevalued logics fully conform to the usual definitions of these primitives in the classical logic for a. 1 ± b — a). CI' 9M4 skn t) . Several n valued logics were.I 9let .. developed in the 1930s..4. the law of excluded middle (a v a = 1).4 PIRIMITEVES OF SOME THREEVALUED LOGICS Lukasie wicz [ ..W.49r••1 sIef .. and some other tautologies of twovalued logic.. 004 0 +.  i src .464CI. for example. . in fact. . since each of its primitives produces the truth value 1/2 whenever at least one of the propositions a and b assum.
the nvalued logic of Lukasiewicz is usually denoted in the literature by Lp a . expensive.).2 is clearly the classical twovalued logic discussed in Sec. and defines the primitives of Luicasiewices thrcc valued logic as given in Table 8. b (a b) A It can be easily verified that (83) subsumes the definitions of the usual primitives of two . Unless otherwise stated..L • and The sequence (L2 .2 Muitivalued Logics 219 and implication as primitives and defined the other logic operations in terms of these two primitives as follows: Lukasiewicz. defined by (8.3). where the subscript is an abbreviation for $ 1 (read aleph 1). the term infinite valued logic is usually used in the literature to indicate the logic whose truth values are represented by all the real numbers in the interval [0.is isomorphic to fuzzy set theory based on the standard fuzzy operators. 1 3 . Conversely. which is the symbol commonly used to denote the cardinality of the continuum. we can derive the isomorphic fuzzy set theory. When we do not insist on taking truth values only from the set T. The isomorphism follows then from the fact that the logic operations of L 1 . young. but rather accept as truth values any real numbers in the interval [0. can be interpreted as the truth values of the proposition "x is a member of set A" in L 1.1. we obtain an alternative infinite . L3. can be interpreted as the membership degrees P (x) by which the fuzzy set characterized by the property P is defined on X. In fact. Logic L is an infinite valued logic whose truth values are taken from the countable set T of all rational numbers in the unit interval 1 0.4. A b =5vb. However. these two infinitevalued logics are established as essentially equivalent in the sense that they represent exactly the same tautologies.3) . they differ in their sets of truth values. Logic L. this equivalence holds only for logic formulas involving propositions.valued logics in the same sense that the standard fuzzy set theory is only one of a variety of fuzzy set theories which differ from one another by the set operations they employ_ For each particular inanitevalued logic. 1]. 1 ). a 44. etc.valued logic when n = 2. The truth values of L„ are taken from Tn .]: is P" in L1. 2. of these logics contains two extreme cases—logics . The insufBciency of any single infinitevalued logic (and therefore the 'desirability of a variety of these logics) is connected with the notion of a complete set of logic primitives. We can see that the standard Lukasiewicz logic L l . While one of these logics uses the set T as truth values. Primitives of both of these inOritevalued logics are defined by (83). the membership grades A (x) for x G X.Sec. where P is a vague (fuzzy) predicate (such as tall.valued logic. and its primitives are defined by (8. some fundamental differences between the two logics enierge. in the same way as the twovalued logic is isomorphic La the crisp set theory. 8. the truth values for all . 8. For each n >. This is also quite often called the standard Lukasiewicz logic L 1 . in facts used only negation a V b = (a a b) b. have exactly the same mathematical form as the corresponding standard operations on fuzzy sets.x € X of any proposition ". The standard Lukasiewlez logic L l is only one of a variety of infinite . for predicate formulas with quantifiers. dangerous. the other employs the set of all real numbers in the interval [04 In spite of this difference. by which a fuzzy set A on the universal set X is defined. It  .
unconditional and unqualified propositions. 8. assuming that all relevant measurement specifications regarding the temperature are given. p. u). low. we introduce relevant canonical forms and discuss their interpretations. is expressed by the sentence p V is F. (8. the corresponding fuzzy proposition. of proposition p. and F is a fuzzy set on V that represents a fuzzy predicate. using a finite set of primitives that defines an infinitevalued logic. let variable V be the air temperature at some particular place on the Earth (measured in °F) and let the membership function shown in Fig. the truth or falsity of fuzzy propositions is a matter of degree.1a represent. Assuming that truth and falsity are expressed by values 1 and 0. 8. is expressed by the sentence . expensive. this value belongs to F with membership grade F(v). For each type. in a given context. In this section. such as tall. conditional and unqualified propositions. 7" (p). unconditional and qualified propositions. the predicate high. respectively. Unconditional and Unqualified Fuzzy Propositions The canonical form of fuzzy propositions of this type. conditional and qualified propositions. normal. and so on. it may become necessary to resort to alternative Logics.4) where V is a variable that takes values y from some universal set V. Hence. we focus on simple fuzzy propositions. which we classify into the following four types: 1. 4. • To illustrate the introduced concepts. That is. we can obtain only a subset of all the logic functions of the given primary logic variables.3 FUZZY PROPOSITIONS The fundamental difference between classical propositions and fuzzy propositions is in the range of their truth values. This means that T is in on [a. the degree of truth of each fuzzy proposition is expressed by a number in the unit interval [0. 2. While each classical proposition is required to be either true or false. p temperature (V) is high (F).5) for each given particular value y of variable V in proposition p. . require functions outside this subset. 3. 1 ]. Given a particular value of V (say. This membership grade is then interpreted as the degree of truth. 8 is known that there exists no finite complete set of logic primitives for any oac infinitevalued logic. T(p) F(v) effect a fuzzy set (8. ii which assigns the membership grade F (v) to cad/ value y of variable V.220 Fuzzy Logic Chap. p. Then. Because some applications.
5) = 0.75.4) can be interpreted as a possibility distribution function FF on V that is defined by the equation r F(u) = F (v) for each value y V. and a fuzzy set expressing the predicate Young is given.75 4 I I 10 20 30 40 11L1 50 60 V I 70 140 110 120 RS (a) Figure S.Sec. (8 0 where I E Ï .6) by the specific fuzzy proposition p Age(i) is Young. Although the connection between grades of membership in F and degrees of truth of the associated fuzzy proposition p. this interpretation applies to propositions of the modified form (8. r(p).5). Clearly. In sonic fuzzy propositions.6) as well. We can see that the role of function T is to provide us with a bridge between fuzzy sets and fuzzy propositions. The degree of truth of this proposition.1b. is then determined for each person i in f via the equation T (p) = Young (4ge(0). is numerically trivial for unqualified propositions. we can exemplify the general form (8./ (b) Comp4. then F(8.4) are assigned to Ludividuals in a given set I. Tempvraturc (V) i3 high (F) The degree of truth. it is defined by the membership function T in Fig. it has a conceptual significance. values of variable V La (8. where 17(i) is the value of V for individual f in V The canonical form (8 4) must then be modified to the form p V(i) is F. As explained in Sec. which represents (8.5). 7. deperids on the actual value of the temperature and on the given definition (meaning) of the predicate high.3 F( v) 1— Fuzzy Propositions 221 0. that I is a set of persons. For example. each person is characterized by his or her Age. if v = 85. any proposition of the form (8. 8. . Denoting our variable by Age and our fuzzy set by Young. as expressed by (8. 8.75 and T (p) = 0. T (p). Consider. That is. for example.31ac44 of am fuzzy propo5ition p. variable 'V becomes a function V: V.4.
8) is probabilityqualified.2h. that the degree of truth of our Ltuth valiCed proposition is also 0. 8.g. Both S ancl P are represented by fuzzy sets on [0. 8 . to fairly true.87 Tina (h) 0. etc. V may be replaced with 1. We bay that the proposition (8. .76.g.. our proposition belongs to the set of propositions that are very true with membership grade 0." where the predicate young and the truth qualifier very true are represented by the respective fuzzy sets shown in Fig_ 8. T (p).1].87.7(1).4). the degree of truth. Assuming that the age of Tina is 26.8) or the canonical form p: Pro (V is F is P. as illustrated in Fig. in turn. to very young) or the truth qualifier (e.6).). shc belongs to the set representing the predicate young with the membership grade 0. This means.7) is truthquailficd. where V and F have the same meaning as in (8.222 Unconditional and Qualified Propositions Fuzzy Logic Chap. Hence. If the proposition were modified by changing the predicate (e. of any truthqualified proposition p is given for each y E V by the equation  T(p) (8_9) 0. Pro (V is F) is the probability of fuzzy event "'V is Fi" S is a fuzzy truth qualifier. An example of a truth cpialified proposition is the proposition "Tina is young is very true. In general. we would obtain the respective degrees of truth of these propositions by the same method. Piupositions p of this typ aie çharactorized by either the canonical form p :V is F is S (83) (8.. which has the same meaning as in (8. and P is a fuzzy probability qualifier. If desired.87 Figure 82 Truth values of a fuzzy proposition.76. very false.2. while the proposition (8.
For any given probability distribution. and so on. as a simple predicate. the degree formula E f(u) v F (v). That is. Each proposition cf this type describes an elastic restriction on possible probability distributions on V." Observe that unqualified propositions are.7) as the unqualified proposition "17 is G.10) r(p) to which proposition p of the form (8.. special truthqualified propositions.3 Exampie pf a probatilltyvallfied proposition_ . 0))) F (v) for unqualified propositions. Assume now that the following probability distribution (obtained. wind speed. Then. in which the truth qualifier S is assumed to be true. from relevant statistical data over many years) is given: A (t) Vary Likely o 70 72 74 76 78 aa 82 0 . the membership function representing this qualifier is the identity function. we can interpret any truthqualified proposition of the form (8.25 . It specified in Fig.3b. let variable V be. Let us discuss. rainfall. 8.5°F) is likely may provide us with a meaningful characterization of one aspect of climate at the given place and time and may be combined. then. we have Pro f V is F = and. 8. in fact. Let in our example the predicate "around 75'F" be represented by the fuzzy set A on. eV As an example. such as humidity. hence. 8. (8. 8.. e_g.8 • If '3 F) (a) ( 3) Figure 3.3a and the qualifier "likely" be expressed by the fuzzy seton 1] defined in Fig. where u E V . S (P.8) is true is given by the T (p) P (E f (v) F OW_ J. S may be ignored for the sake of simplicity. the average daily temperature t in °F at some place on the Earth during a certain month.8). f on V..5 .Sec. now probabilityqualified propositions of the form (8.2b.with similar propositions regarding other aspects.lb and 8. the probabilityqualified proposition p Pro (temperature t (at given place and time) is around 7. As shown in Figs.3 Fuzzy Propositions 223 Viewing the membership function G (u) = S (F (r)) .
16 x 1 + _14 x . Pro t is ia the 70s} Conditional and Unqualified Propositions Propositions p of this type are expressed by the canonical form p: If X is A. Observe that the degree of truth depends on the predicate F. (8.3. we obtain 74 f (t) = . the degree of truth of the new proposition would be only _32. B(y)]. This low degree of truth would not make the new proposition a good description of the actual situation.75 + .0021. y ± 1/x3.04 . we may conclude that our proposition is a good characterization of the actual situation.04 x . R = 1/xi.10).13) and (8.1/x3 and B =. I a + b). t'70 and T (p) becomes practically equal to 1 even if we apply the stronger qualifier very likely.224 t Fuzzy Logic Chap. and A B are fuzzy sets on X .95 that it is likely that the temperature (at a given place. time. Y2 .98. y) = 3[A(x). it is true with the degree of . and the given probability distribution. 11 representing a suitable fuzzy implication. respectively.5 + . using (8 .04 .. etc.3.13) PC. 8.005 .011. the Lukasiewicz implication (8.51x3.25 + .11 x _5. Let A — . 'Y are variables whose values are in sets X. y2 ÷ + 1/x2. 1 lowvier. applying this result to the fuzzy probability likely in Fig.. b) = snin(1.005 .1/x1 + . 5 /Yi I 1/y2• Then . a 70 1 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 1 83 f( ) . we obtain Pro (t is close to 75°F) . 11.001 69 68 Then. Y respectively. 8. the qualifier P.3b (according to (8.11)).01 x . given the definitions of around 75 and likely in Fig. where R is a fuzzy set on X x Y that is determined for each x E X and each y e Y by the formula R(x.16 .14 .95 for our proposition.15 . Y) is R.04 x = . then y is B.14) 3(a.21 . Y. y2 + .01 .) is around 75T.75 ± _15 x 1 + . and.11 x . Replacing.2 and 11.12) for one particular fuzzy implication. our fuzzy predicate around 75 with a crisp predicate in the 70s.21 x 1 . That is.12) where X. we find that î(p) = .+ . Yi 1/xi . Due to this high degree of truth. let us only illustrate the connection between (8. where 3 denotes a binary operation on [0. 8.8/x2 I.8.3b). if we ioplaced the qualification likely in our proposition with very likely (as also defined in Fig. for example.002 .005 .11 .11 . These propositions may also be viewed as propositions of the form (8. Fuzzy implications are discussed in detail in the context of approximate reasoning in Secs. Here.
1 ]).17) where V is a variable that for each individual I in a given set 1 assumes a value V(i). e.Sec.16) or the canonical form p Pro (X is AN is BI is p. They are of two kinds. 13.7 when X = x2 and=yi. about half." Given a set of students. and Q is a fuzzy number on R. (8. One of them is the form p : There are Q i's in I such that V(i) is F.y set defined on the set of values of variable V. (8. Any proposition p of the form (8. where Pro (X is AN is B) is . we can extend the scope of the fuzzy predicates by the use of fuzzy quantifiers.a conditional probability.1] and characterize linguistic terms such as almost all. Fuzzy quantifiers of the second kind are defined on [0. and characterize linguistic terms such as about 10. most. An example of this form is the proposition: "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is high. 8. There are two basic forms of propositions that contain fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind. I is an index set by which distinct measurements of variable V are distinguished. Fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind are defined on 2. In general. and so on.19) for all I E I. F is a fu27.17) can be converted into another proposition.15) (8. the value V(i) of variable V represents in this proposition the degree of fluency in English of student i (expressed. fuzzy quantifiers are fuzzy numbers that take part in film propositions. I. for example.. and so on. we do not deem it necessary to discuss them_ further. In general.18) where Q is the same quantifier as in (8. of a simplified form. much more than 100. the proposition . for example. p'.17). T (p) Conditional and Qualified Propositions . Propositions of this type can be characterized by either the canonical form p: If DC is A.4 Fuzzy Quantifiers 225 This means. that (p) = 1 when X = x 1 and J = yi . There axe Q E's. F is a fuzzy set defined on the set of values of variable V that expresses the linguistic terni high. Thus. and Q is a fuzzy number expressing the linguistic term about 10. and E is a fuzzy set on a given set / that is defined by the composition E F(V(i)) (8. Since methods intrcrduccd for tfic other types of propositions can be combined to deal with proposikions of this type.4 FUZZY QUANTIFIERS Similar to how the scope of classical predicates can be extended by quantifying their applicability.so.g. by numbers in [0. then 'J is B is S (8. at least about 5.
17).18) may be rewritten in the form W is Q of fuzzy set E (i. 17(David) =.4.. we adopt this usage. 8.1ED. 1E1 EE(i) ier iel (8. rQ that is defined for each 1E1 E R by the equation (822) r (1E 1) = (1E 1) This possibility distribution acts as an elastic oonstxaint on values of variable W. a fuzzy quantifier "about 3. with information about the . proposition p' of the form (8. David. we are not able to construct the set E.5/Eve. V(i). Assume that I = [Adana.18) may be viewed as a simplified expression of proposition p of the form (8. Assuming. 7.21) As explained in Sec. 100] that captures the linguistic term "high fluency. in this case. we construct the fuzzy set defined hy (8 _19): E 0/Adam + 0/13ob + . for each given fuzzy set E. a p "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is high" can be replaced with the proposition ntere are about 10 highfluency Englishspeaking students in a given class. we can see that Q is. Bob. V(Adana) = 35.25) 0. W . Eve]. we calculate the cardinarity of E Finally. let us discuss the proposition p There are about three students in I whose fluency in English.V(Cathy) = 80. 25EJ Next." Proposition pi' of the form (8. Assume now that the following scores are given. 100] that express degrees of fluency in English. on the other hand. Then. 1E1 = EE(i) = 2.75/Cathy + 1/David + . wc have (P) = T(p') = OE D. Cathy." and F is a fuzzy set on [0.226 Fuzzy Logic Chap. V(Eve) = 70.21) to obtain the truth value of our proposition: T (p) = Q(2. The proposition provides us.20) where W is a variable taking values in 1R that represents the scalar cardinality (sigma enunt) F(V(i)) and. that the students' scores are not 'mown.e. The truth value of the proposition  is then determined as follows. we use (8. First. and V is a variable with values in the interval [0. that is ro(f E expresses the degree of possibility that W = E I.4. (8. As an example. in our case. any given proposition "W s Q" induces a possibility distribution function." Here. E is the fuzzy set of "highfluency Englishspeaking students in a given class. For the sake of simplicity." Both Q and F are defined in Fig. Obviously. V(Bob) = 20. Comparing this proposition with its general counterpart (8. It is common in natural language to use the simplified form in lieu of the full form. 95.625. is high.17).
degrees of possibility of various values of the cardinality of E. Q is a fuzzy number that captures the linguistic term "about 10.25 1E1 IQ! "about Figure 8. and so. VI. r is an index set by which students in the given class are labelled.4 Fuzzy sets in a quantified fuzzy proposition.. measurements on a set of individuals or measurements at distinct time instants). respectively.Sec.high and who are young. .18).25) E2(i) = F2CV2(i)) I. QE 1 's E2's.4 Fuzzy Quantifiers 227 2. since Q(3) the possibility of 1E1 = 3 is 1. it is impossible that 1E1 = 5. variables V1 and V.Ei and EzYs. . and (8.26) with (8. 1. E2 are fuzzy sets I that ate defined E 1 (t) = F1R1(0) for all i E (8.sitioas of the form • p There are Q i's in I such that Vo(i) is F1 and 172(i) is F21 (8. V2 are variables that take values from sets VIL.23) can be expressed in a simplified form. characterize fluency in English and age of the students. For instance. we may rewrite (8." respectively." and F1 .on. (8. where Q 15 the same quantifier as in by the compositions (3. V. F2 are fuzzy sets on V1.24) may be interpreted as p' There are f2(. Fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind may also appeal in fuzzy pmpo.26) (8. 8. I is an index set by which distinct measurements of variables V1. Moreover. V2. F2 are fuzzy sets that characterize the linguistic terms "high" and "young.23). V2 are identified (e.g.26) in the form p' W is Q.27) Comparing now (8." In this proposition.. Q is a fuzzy number on R. Any proposition p of the form (8. An example of this form of a quantified fuzzy proposition is the proposition "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is .. since Q(5) = 0.23) where. and F1. (8. respectively.24) un El.
Fuzzy propositions with quantifiers of the second kind have the general form p . An example of a proposition of this form is the proposition "Among .. 8.63 Figure SS Examptes of fuzzy quantifiers of the second kind.25). Using the standard fuzzy intersection and (8." and so on. These are quantifiers such as "almost ar "about half.31) where Q is a fuzzy number on [0. T(P) = (11) = Q(W). also the equivalent proposition p) induces a possibility distribution function. 1]. W 1E 1 n E21). 8 where W is a variable taking values i R that represents the scalar cardinality of the fuzzy set n E2 (i.5. hence." "most.228 Fuzzy Logic Chap. that is defined for e2ch W 1E. (8. They are represented by fuzzy numbers on the unit interval [0. proposition p' (and.30) Let us now discuss fuzzy propositions with quantifiers of the second kind. Examples of some quantifiers of this kind are shown in Fig. 1 ].4  0.(V2(i))] jEf (828) Now. for any giywl sets E2 and £2. r a . Most 0. Among i's in I such that Vi (i) is F1 there are Qi's in I such that 172(i) is F2. F. we have W E rnin[FICVI (0). and the meaning of the remaining symbols is the same as previously defined.e. (8. n E2 1 by the equation rci (W) = Q(W)(8.29) Furthermore.2.
31)." may be modified by the hedge very in any of the following three ways: is very young is true." which is assumed to mean "x is young is true.34) where W is a variable that represents the degree of subsethood of £2 in E l.24). there are almost all whose fluency in English is high. the proposition "z is young. we can see that both these propositions have the same form." "x is very young is very true. we obtain w ief E min[Fi (171(i)). 8. we may rewrite (8. Linguistic terms such as very. or extremely are examples of hedges. we obtain a possibility distribution r Q defined by (8." Comparing (8. while quantifiers of the second kind are called relative quantifiers. fairly. EI(i) = E2(i) = F20 72(i)) are fuzzy sets on X defined by (8. Clearly. T (p) is obtained by (8. tly analogy of the two forms. F2(172(0)] (8. that is." "x is young is very title.30)." As previously explained. This terminology makes sense when we compare the definitions of variable W for quantiEers of the first kind. In this form. more or less. Quantifiers of the first kind are also called absolute quantifiers. and the second kind.32) with (8. and E1. and fuzzy probabilities. given by (8.33).31).Sec.33) for all i € 1.35). lEr C1 E21 1E11 Using the standard fuzzy intersection and (8. given by (8.28).32) where Q is the same quantifier used in (8.5 Linguistic Hedges 229 students in a given class that are young. but the quantifiers involved are different.31) may be written in a simplified form.5 LINGUISTIC HEDGES Linguistic hedges (or simply hedges) are special linguistic terms by which other linguistic terms are modified.29). any proposition of the form (8. For example.32) in the form pl W is 12. (8. They can be used for modifying fuzzy predicates." "X . On the other hand. p' QEV's are E2's. 5. fuzzy truth values. given a proposition p of the form (8. the previous example is modified as follows: "Almost all young students in a given class are students whose fluency in English is high.35) for any given sets E l and E2. £2 (8.
A strong modifier strengthens a fuzzy predicate to which it is applied and. YOUNG (26) = 0. For example.8. it reduces the truth value of the associated proposition. truth values. H. given a fuzzy proposition p x is F and a linguistic hedge.obtained by applying the hedge H to the given predicate F. Then. Assume now that John is 26 and. the modifier is called strong.89. the proposition "x is young is likely" may be modified to '4. the truth value of the proposition increases. which are self expl an atory . For example.64 and FAIRLY YOUNG (26) = 0. p2 John is very young.82 = 0.64.8.230 Fuzzy Logic Chap. the linguistic terms very horizontal. Given a fuzzy predicate F on X and a modifier h that represents a linguistic hedge H the modified fuzzy predicate HF Is determined for each x E X by the equation represent linguistic H F (x) = h(F(x)). where I1F denotes the fuzzy predicate .1. It is important to reah7e that linguistic hedges are not applicable to crisp predicates. h. A weak modifier." and so forth. hence. hedges do not exist in classical Any linguistic hedge. Additional modifications can be obtained by applying the hedge to the fuzzy truth value or fuzzy probability employed in the given proposition. and T (p3) = 0. the hedge very is often interpreted as the unary operation h(a) (a c [0. 1]. very pregnant. En general. Any modifier h is an increasing bijection. T(p1) = 0. we can construct a modified proposition. For example. le3 : John is fairly young. it is easy to prove that every modifier h satisfies the following conditions. VERY YOUNG (26) = 0. H. T(p 2) = 0. consequently.a for all a e tO. 1]).1C is young is very likely. if h(a) ›.89. Let unary operations that while the hedge fairly is interpreted as h(a) = hedges be caned modifiers. may be interpreted as a unary operation. These values agree with our intuition: the stronger assertion is less true and vice versa. Pi and let the linguistic hedges very and fairly be represented by the strong modifier a2 and the weak modifier Va. The special (vacuous) modifier for which h(a) = a is called an identity modifier. according to the fuzzy set YOUNG representing the fuzzy predicate young. If h(a) < a for all a E [O. on the unit interval [0. 1.ot meaningful. Hence. consider three fuzzy propositions: John is young. or very rectangular are r. Bp: xisHF. on the contrary. lj. the modifier is called weak. or probabilities. 8 Similarly. very teenage. (836) This means that properties of linguistic hedges can be studied by studying properties of the associated modifiers. Hence. weakens the predicate and.
as illustratçd in Fig. Then. B' are fuzzy sets on X and Y.6 = fy e 1114. knuwing that X e A. as illustrated in Fig. 8. 8. which is discussed in Chapter 10. not necessarily a function. For example. where B = fy E YI (x. y) R}. and hypothetical syllogism. X R (x. y) E R. Consider variables X and I) that take values from sets X and Y. A convenient class of functions that satisfy these conditions is the class (837) where a E le is a parameter by which individual modifiers in this class are distinguished and au [O. These generalizations are based on the socalled compositional rule of inference. Let us proceed now one step further and assume that R is a fuzzy relation on X x and A'. IA.7a.38) X(Y) . respectively. This is a similar problem as the problem. X E Al. if both. as the negation of H. as shown in Fig. In this section. as INFERENCE FROM CONDITIONAL FUZZY PROPOSMONS As explained in Sec. given t= u and a relation R. Observe that this inference may be expressed equally well in terms of characteristic functions Km x57 X R of sets A. 8. Similarly. of constructing a membership function. if h is strong. as shown in Fig. where . 8. In representing modifiers of linguistic hedges. modus ponens. sel" for all y e Y.. h is a continuous function. the linguistic term not very may be viewed as the negation of the hedge very.7b. and assume that for all x € X and an y E 1r the variables are related by a function y f Then. given another modifier g. we can infer that the value of '9 is in the set B = {y G Fly = f (x). Similarly. 8. 2. compositions of g with h and h with g are also modifiers and. When a < 1.Sec. h / is the identity modifier. we always view any Iin_guistic term . we can obtain B by the equation . 3. These inference rules can be generalized within the framework of fuzzy logic to facilitate approximate reasoning. This class of modi fiers (as well as any other acceptable class) enables us to capture the meaning of each relevant linguistk hedge in a particular context by determining an appropriate value of the parameter a. h and g are strong (weak). x e A}. but it may also be viewed (as some authors argue) as a new hedge that is somewhat weaker than the hedge very. then so are the compositions. we can infer that ê = f (x). respectively.wt if. In our further considerations. if R and A' are given. we can infer that 9 E B. B. h„ is a weak modifier. B respectively. then h' is weak and vice versa. 4. moreover. we can infer that y e B. h(0) = 0 and h(l) = 1. by the equation (8. y)] . when a > 1.sup min[x A (x).6 inference from Conditional Fuzzy Prepositions 23 1 1. 8. Then. h„ is a strong modifier. we describe generalizations of three classical inference rules.611 Assume now that the variables are related by an arbitrary relation on X Y. inference rules in classical logic are based on the various tautologies. given X = x. knowing that the value of X is in a given set A. we should avoid various ambiguities of natural language. where H is an arbitrary hedge. mod= eotlens.15a.1.
R(x. where . is discussed in Chapter 11. which is a generalization of (8. which can also be written in the matrix form as = AP R. This equation.232 Fuzzy Lc Chap. is called the compositional rule of inference. 8 (a) y  f(i) X (13) Figure 8. but in some other form. in which the relation emergeg from several conditional fuzzy propositions. B R(x y) (8. whore f (x). (I» A y B (y E Yly y. relation R that is embedded in a conditional fuzzy proposition p of the form p is determined for all x X and all y is A.40) where g denotes a fuzzy implication (Chapter 11). This rule is illustrated in Fig. As explained in Sec.38) with the corresponding membership functions. The fuzzy relation employed in (8. y)) rer (8. we consider the case in which the relation is embedded in a single conditional fuzzy proposition.3. A more general case. x 4 AJ Bt (y) = sup minpli (x).38) obtained by replacing the characteristic functions in (8. In this section. 8. . then is B eY by the formula Opt (x).39) is timidly not given directly.8.39) for an y E Y. 8.6 Functional re/al:ion between two variables: (a) f (x).
.38).8 Compositional rule of inference expressed bi (819). X Figure 8. 8.Sec.6 Inference from Ccndtiartai Fuzzy Proposftions 233 X Flgssre 8.7 Inference cpressed by (8.
39). is expressed by the following schema: Ride Fact : In this If X is A. for example.4).1 and Y fyi .9. then V is B V is B' Conclusion: X is A' case. +.9 (Yz> — = EAT min[A'(x). then l4 is fr is given. and given another • proposition q of the form q: is . rain(.9/x2 + .41) to derive a 0011GIUSi Oa in the form "y is B'. Yi.8/r3 .9).R(x. .7/y2. the Lukasiewicz implication (3. 8 Using relation R obtained from given proposition p by (8.i5. R(x.9. we obtain RV]) = sup min[A(x).7.1 sets of values of variables X and V be I = (x1 . 1). thenli is B I is A' is D' (8.7 thus.234 Fuzzy Logic Chap.41) becomes the classical modus ponens when the sets are crisp and A' = A. This procedure is called a generalized madus ponens. 1)1 = . B' = B. .9/y1 + . and R in this equation is determined by (8. Yi)] xeg max[rain(.14). Observe that (6.42 • Then. inin(.8)] .5/x i + 1/x2 ± . y t) 2€X inaxlmin(.7. respectively. Exampie 8. .. min(. Assume that a proposition "if X is A. where A = . which is a generalized mocha toliens.41) In this schema. we may conclude that is 13' by the compositional rule of inference (3. we may conclude that 1z1 is 13'.39). 1). the generalized modus ponens is expressed by the following schema: Rule Fact : Conclusion : If X is A. Viewing proposition p as a rule and proposition q as a fact. y2 by (8.61x1+ . Another inference rule in fuzzy logic.9/x11 y2 + 1/x2. 40).40). by the compositional mie of inference (8. yil. B' is calculated by (8." where A' = . x2 . x3.39).40). we want to use the generalized modus ponens (8.6." Using.7/x3 . rain(. . given a fact expressed by the proposition "x is A'. whoreB = . the compositional rule of inference has the form . Yi + 3e2 //xl.4. Then. we obtain Let R l/zY+ .6/x3 and B = iiyt .
X. which is based on two conditional fuzzy propositions. respectively. .B Irrference frorr Conditional Fuzzy Propositions 235 (8. R (x2. then Z is C In this case. yeir (8.44) which again expresses the compositional rule of inference.43) Conclusion : if is A . R3. and B are the same as in Exa. This equation may also be written in the matrix form R3 R1 R2. B.8)] = . y)] ytY max[rain( 9. These relations are determined for each x e X.45). R(x. min(.Z. then .42). we conclude that X is A' where A' = .R3 (x. obtained by these equations2 we say that the generalized hypothetical syllogism holds if R3 (x z) = sup mitt[R (. 1). The generalized hypothetical syllogism is expressed by the following schema: Rule 1 Rule 2: If is A . AVO = sup min[B1(y). y).9/x3.4)] = 9. _FEY and R in this equation is again determined by (8.2 Let x. . and A. Z are variables taking values in sets X. then Z is C (8. Y. Finally. min(7. R(x l . A.9. R2. 1 (x 2) = sup minfr (y). = A B = B. .9)] = . 1). Far each conditional fuzzy proposition in (8 . R(x3.mpe 8. y) = . 3 ) ] yY = maxim/it( 9.45) . y. there is a fuzzy relation determined by (8. z)]. R2(y.1.Sec. 1).7‘ . 8.9/xi + /xz . Z. C art fuzzy sets on sets X„Y. 7iY2. and z Z by the equations Ri (x.Then. Then. where = .8' is gives.40). y Y. When the sets are crisp and Example 8. z) = [A (x). AV3) = sup rain[fr(y).40). (8.b1 is B is B. respectively.9. let us discuss a generalization of hypothetical syllogism. Hence. we obtain the classical modus tollens.7. R is also the same as in Example 8. y)] ytY Imax[min(. tnin(.42) A1 (x) = sup min[B'(y).9/Yi .R2(y z) = inn (y) C (z)1.9. A.1. y)1. Assume now that a fact expressed by the proposition "141 is . by (S. .7. C (i) Given R2 .
Note that when S stands for true (i. b)) 3(a.6/x3. Y be the same as in Example 8. b))] (8. _2 1 [ . The method involves the following four steps. B = Chap.4 [ 1 R2 r . and let 5 /x1 +1/x2 1.48) for all b (0. then 11 is B is S. . Moreover. 8. Step 3. This is similar to the selection of fuzzy implication in Sec. 8." we want to make an inference in the form "II is E'. The relative fuzzy truth value RT(A7A) expresses the degree to which the fuzzy proposition (8. and 1 if a < b if a .46) is true given the available fact '`)C is IV.6. and we obtain the case discussed in Sec. 11. denoted by RT (Al A).1. b). Then. the role of the qualifier S is to modify the truth value of 0(a." One method developed for this purpose. 8.6...2 1 . 1 ." Step 2. Calculate the relative fuzzy truth value of A' with respect to A.47) for all a E [O.46) where S ig a fuzzy truth qualifier.e. (8. 1 . b.46). which is a fuzzy set on the unit interval idefincd by RT (A' I A)(a) . let A c . called a method of truthvalue restrictions.236 Fuzzy Logic Example $3 Let X. Step 1. then S(3(a. clearly. 8 Z (zit . (8.4 1 .2 1 1. z2 1. tj so (a .4 RI .TTACi)ma sup A'(x). 1].2 1 The generalized hypothetical syllogism holds in this case since 144 R2 = R3. Select a suitable fuzzy implication I by which the fuzzy proposition (g.2jrz1 1iz2 . Calculate the relative fuzzy truth value RT (B' 1B) by the formula (BV B)(b) sup mini RT (AV A)(a).46) is interpreted.. 1 ]. Clearly. 5(a) = a) for all a [0. is based on a manipulation of linguistic truth values. b). where S is the fuzzy qualifier in (8. and a fact is in the form "X is A'..7 INFERENCE FROM CONDITIONAL AND QUALIFIED PROPOSITIONS The inference rule of our concern in this section involves conditional fuzzy propositions with fuzzy truth qualifiers. Given a conditional and qualified fuzzy proposition p of the form p: If X is A. whose purpose is to express a conditional but unqualified fuzzy proposition as a fuzzy relation.
7.. 349) . .5/x2+ .9.. We calculate RT (137B) by (8.'." where A' . Given a fact "X is A'.48): RT(B 1 B)(b) = raax(roin[.1 4.e [0. — (..737.5. s (a(.9 for b E [. we conclude that y is where B' is calculated by the following steps.9. 8. Step 1.4 + . the inference " 1J is It'" by the equation (y) RT(B' I BYB(y)). We calculate B' by (8. Calculate the set 13' involved in. S(2. I]. .49) B i (yi) br(y2) Step 4.6/yi 1/yz.47): _RT (AV A)(1) = /1.e.7 for b E [. the method of truthvalue restrictions is equivalent to the generalized modus ponens under a particular condition.1 (x1) = RT(A7A)(. 8.7) = A.6 (.6.7/x3 .9 .46) stands for true (i. S is the identity function).475) b) 2 for b e‘ [A75_537) . Hence. 11. RT(.9/y2. Step 3. soc. RT (A i fA)(.b) A graph of this function RT (13' f B) is shown in Fig. Step 4.9/x1 + .9.14).Se o.7 for b [0. Wc select the Lukasiewicz fuzzy implication 3 defined by (8.7 B .15/x2 + . where A = 1/x1 + .6) = RT(397B)ta(y)).6.7. PT (A 1/A)(a) = 0 for all a [0. (8 49) for ail y E Y.375. . .537.4 Suppose we have a fuzzy wildtitional and qualiEed propositim. . mi4.46) is true." where B' .RT(. we make the inference "'Y is B'. We calculate _RT (A' jA) by (8. . and S stands for very truc let S(a) a2 for all a . b))].8 1/B)(1) = .9.b) 2 for b [.375) for b 1.5) A(x 2) .8 1 /13)(B(y1)) = RT CB I 45)(. as stated in the following theorem.849. When S in (S . p If X is A then y is B is very true.737) (. Step 2.(x 3) = .7  Infenanca from Conditional and Qualified Propositions 237 The relative fuzzy truth value RT(B1B) expresses the degree to which the conclusion (If the fuzzy proposition (8. 11 . Example 8. .6 b))].7/yi .
S stands for true).46) be given.41) and (8A9) define the same membership function Bf).2 0. a(A.1] and some xo such that A(x0) = a. becomes (8.1 0 0. we have min[Ai (x).e. defined by (8. respectively.9 Function RT(B/B f) in Examp)e 3_3.7 0." where Theorem 8. Proof: When S(a) = a for all a E defined by (8. g(a. 0.52). B denote the functions defined by (831) and (8. a(A (x). Using the same fuzzy implication zeX g.. where S is the identity fnaction (i. (8.50) for all a E [0.e. B(y))] sup A' (x') = HT (A / IA) (A (X )) ezAGT1=4. B(y))1 for all y e Y.51) and (8.4 0.6 0. B(y)) 1 min[RT(AVA)(A(x)). 8 O.3 0.9 0. Since Ai(x) for all x E X.1 sup Al(x) = A1 (x0 ) (8.9 Figure $.49).(v) . Then. provided that we use the same fuzzy implication in both inference methods. let Bi. and Jet a fact be given in the form "X LS Ai.51) B r(y) = sup min[RT(A7A)(a). the inference 11 is B' obtained by the method of truthvalue restrictions is equal to the one obtained by the generalized modus ponens (i.238 1 0.52) define the same membership function B' To facilitate the probf.41). Let a fuzzy proposition of the form (8.52) (y) = sup min[A1(x)..8 Fuzzy Logic Chap.8 0.1 01 0.5 O. becomes (8.5L0. we have to show that (8.(x). E'.3 0_4 0. B(y))] for all y e Y_ To prove the theorem. 064(x).
Under these circumstances. by condition (8. BO/DI = Bi(Y) Y.12) and (8. where Qi is either an absolute quantifier or a relative quantifier. a. Hence. consequently.25)). the two inference methods are equivalent when S stands for true. under this weak condition. Thus. easy to satisfy.a for all y E = 3(A (x0). the problem of inference from quantified fuzzy propositions may be stated as follows.53) Pi W is Qi Ci E Ni. 00(x). XE.ei (E defined by (8.Sec.. when Q is an absolute quantifier. B(y))] x :Mx ). To discuss this principle. Given n quantified fuzzy propositions of the form (8.50) is rather weak and. 8(y))1 sup minVi'(r). Ez defuled by (8. it is satisfied whenever the universal set X is finite or the sets fx E XrA(x) a [0.. _Bi (y ) = sup min[RT(AVA)(a). hence.). 8. a(a.x. or as Prop (E21E1) = [E1 n E21/IE1KEi. a (A (x ). B(y))] 8 (y) = Sup rain[A r(x). let us assume that the prospective . and Wi is a variable compatible with the quantifier Qi for each e N„. ) for all y E Y. all quantified ft=y propositions can be expressed in the form p :W is Q where W is a variable whose values are specified either as 1.(3. Ii(y))1 = mini sup Ai (x). B(y))] 14(y) for all y e Y and. On the other hand. Bi = Observe that the condition (8. 83 Inlerence from Quantified Propositions 239 for all y E Y.4. a(a. when Q is a relative quantifier.15) may be considered equivalent. B(y))] xeX < sup rairt[RT (A7A) (a).. For example. 30. Ez). Observe that ?Top (EVE L ) = In general.19)). are finite_ The significance of the theorem is that. g(a. we have min[RT(A7A)(a). a INFERENCE FROM QUANTIFIED PROPOSITIONS As explained in Sec. B(y))1 = B. (x).50). 11. what can we infer from these propositions? One possible principle that addresses this questide is known in the literature as the quantifier extension principle.. sup nain [I? T (K/A) (A (x)). propositions (8.
by the extension principle. Q„„) and g(Qi.240 Fuzzy Logic Chap. "at least f (Q i ." Fuzzy sets whose meaning is. • • • QP1)1* „). rcspectiveIy rurthc . with values 1E1. Using these symbols. f (a. are Q females in the room. IF respectively. Q2 1 at) and at most 8. To facilitate our discussion. P2 where W1 . Q2. If we want to make an inference in terms of the proposition p There.1E1 1E1 • IE n Fl= l_Fi = Hence.. It is the product function. let the following quantified fuzzy propositions be given: pi Thele are about 10 persons in the room.rmorc. (834) The principle slates the fulluvifing: if theru exists a funçtiun f . if Q Qi • Q2 is the quantifier in_ proposition . is defined by the extension principle (Sec.JR such that R and g functions f f (WI. W are variables p W is Q.(Q 1 . such thdt W = . W2 is /22. W 2) W for the variables in our example. • • pn. and f (Wi t W2. follows from p i . [E n FIJ1E. by the quantifier extension principle. where the meaning of f (Q 1 . W2. Now. we can now be given propositions in the form Pi W1 is Qi.R such that f (V9 1 . f (Q1. W2) = WiW2 IE nFl . Let us discuss how this can be accomplished by the quantifier extension principle. 02. where Q in proposition p is a Q [?: f(Qt. . Qz. more general formulation of the principle is: if there exist two —r. W2. b) = ab f Ovi. Q = f (Q 1. Q) Q). then we may conclude that p follows from p2. P2 About half of the persons in the room are females. Wn ) W then we may conclude that p specia/ quantifier denoted by g(W 4 . p2. let the quantifiers "about 10" and "about half" be denoted by Q 1 and Qz . „ . An alternative. 8.. W2. we need to determine Q. kt E • F denote. Q2. Q2r • • • g(Qi. Q2. Q z . inference is expressed in terms of a quantified fuzzy proposition of the form p W is Q. Q„) are again obtained To illustrate the quantifier extension principle. R2 . 23). . the set of persons and the set of females in the room. pn . Icspectively. there exists a function :f .
4). As previously explained (Sec. As an example.W2 = Prop (FIE) • Prop (GIE fl F) 1. p2. ] • Hence. propositions p i . is expressed by the following schema: . G are fuzzy sets on a universal set X. the The quantifier extension principle can be used for deriving various inference rules for quantified fuzzy propositions. p W is Q where 'W 1 = Prop (F/E). we may infer the proposifion p Q of students are young and males.55) p : Q i . : About half young students are males. where Q is a quantifier obtained by taking the arithmetic product of fuzzy numbers that represent the quantifiers ?most and about half Another inference rule. To prove that the inference schema (8. It is expressed by the following schema: Pz Qi L's are F's Q2 (E and F)'s are G's (a.Sec.55). 8. ez inference from Quantified Prepositions 241 p. Let us mention two of them.Q z E's are (F arid Gys where E.55) is valid. then p is a correct inference from p i and pz ..EnFi lEnFn61 IE fl F I 1E1 IE n F G[ E1 = Prop (F r1G/E). W2 iggi Prop (a/E n F).02 is the arithmetic product of fuzzy numbers 0 1 and Q2 employed in given propositions. p. where (2t . and Qj Q2 is the arithmetic product of the quantifiers. This demonstration is rather simple: . F. and W = Prop (F n G/E). 1]). Using the intersection/product syllogism (8. One of the inference rules is caned the intersection/product syllogism. and p may be expressed in the form WI is Q. the inference schema (&M) is valid. p2 W2 is Q2.W. which is called the consequent conjunction syllogism. lei us consider quantified fuzzy propositions Pi : Most students are young. we have to demonstrate (according to the quantifier extension principle) that W W1 W2. Q i and Q2 are relative quantifiers (fuzzy numbers on [0.
and express the proposition in its canonical form.8. Give an example from daily life of each type of fuzzy proposition introduced in this chapter. b. which also contains an extcusive bibliography on the subject. 199214 Baldwin [1979b]. Mizurnoto 11981]. 82. by and large.1.5). and <4. including Bellman and Zadeh 119771 Giles [1977]. Apply these Membership . Q is at least MAX(0.ntifiet extension principle to the reader as an exercise. Qi + Q2 — 1 )] CI are extensions of min and max operations on real numbers to fuzzy numbers (Sec.56) follows from the cp2. NOTES 81. 8. MIN and MAX Q E> MAX(0. Several specific fuzzy predicates for each of these types are represented by fuzzy sets whose membership functions are specified in Fig.F. Define in the form of a table (analogous to Table 8. A survey of more recent developments was prepared by Wolf [1977].56) p Q E's are (F and G)'s where E. V 4. We leave the proof that inference schema (8. Pavelka [19791. Various aspects of the relationship between muitivalued logics and fuzzy logic are examined by numerous authors.2. Fuzzy propositions of the various types introduced in this chapter and (be various fuzzy inference rules based on these propositions were introduced. ASSIUT:IC four types of fuzzy predicatez. Most of these articles are included in tYager et ai. and level Of education). Baldwin and Guild [1980a.. and Turkscn and 'A° [1984]. 1984a. by Zadeh in numerous articles.4. Dubois and Prude [1979b. bl. of the Lukasiewicz logics L 4 and L 5. and Nova [1989. 1991a. Here. Lee and Chang [1971]. Skala [1978]. 8. and Q is a relative quantifier given by MINQL. For each of the threevalued logics defined in Table. Gaines [19781 Baldwin [1979aj. 1987]. At excellent and comprehensive survey of raultivalued logics was prepared by Rescher [1969]. 8. applicable to persons (ago.242 Q i E's arc F's Q 2 E's are G's Fuzzy Logic Chap. determine the truth values of each of the following logic expressions for all combinations of truth values of logic variables a. b. Important contributions to this subject were also made by Goguen [196869]. (b) v T') 4* (a A b).10. Q. height. Gottwald [1980]. Q2)1. 1990j.4) the primitives A. Q 1.4. that is.G are fuzzy sets on some universal set X. weight.c (assume that negation IT is defined by 1— a): (a) (Ti A b)c. a p2 (8. ± Q2 — 1) and at most MIN(Q i . 83. 4. Q2). 7 (c) (a b) (76 a). EXERCISES 8. Q2 are relative quantifiers.
E3 Exert Eses PA( 0 243 :31) 60 75 Age [years I H short H tall 2 24 36 48 60 72 Height (inches] 150 200 250 Weight [poundsi (x) somewhat educated i highly educated E = not highly educated aw— AIL—E Elementary High schOol school College Ph. .D.Chap.4. Degree of 0 dueation rignire S..10 Fn.ry sets fir Exercise 8.
13Qunie. 8.2h to some person s (perhaps mused) to detenaine the truth values of various propositions such as the following: x is highly educated and not very young is very true. A and B. B = .5. Show exactly hew they are restricted_ 8. x is short..5/Cathy + . x is more or less old or highly educated is fairly true..10. S. not very young. Solve the.5. For any two arbitrary propositions. Thcy arc Anny. Using the quantifierg specified in Figs. in the logic.Approximately how many young girls in the class are good students? Suppu.6.9/x2 .7. .are good students.244 Fuzzy Logic Chap. Consider some other linguistic hedges than those discussed in Section 8. taii.u1 performance_ (c) About half of them have good performance. not heavy. 1 — a). Diana.se there are five people in a wairliCil'S figure 5kating çampetibicia.. and highly educated is very true. 112 . Assume that their relative goodness of performance is given by a fuzzy set E = 1/Anny .. max. Using the quantifiers specified in Fig. determine the truth values of the following fuzzy propositions: (a) There are about three persons. Consider a fuzzy logic based on the standarci logic operators (min.8.4 and 8.5 an d determine  reasonable m. use standard fuzzy set operators (min. Most of those young &Is . x is very heavy or old or not highly educated is fairly true. 8.5./x+ . Use the method of truthofalue restrictions to solve Exercise 8.odifiers for them. (13) Most of them have gt. and Eve. who had good performances. Assume that there are ten students in a class.6.942 +1/x3 .. Imposing such a requirement means that pairs of truth values of A and B become restricted to a subset of 10. In your calculations.N.9/Diana + . 8.5/x1 ± . problem in Example 8.9/13ormie + . About half of them are young girls. max. 8. answer the question:. assume that we require that the equality A AB = B A B) holds.6/x 1 +1. and somewhat educated is true. x is very young. 8. 8 functions and the fuzzy truth values defined in Fig.1 by using A .1/Eve. — a).6/y1 + Ilyz . 8. and A' . Cathy..
or discovering a relevant historical record). receiving a requested message. Assume further that the amount of uncertainty can be reduced by obtaining relevant information as a result of some action (finding a relevant new fact. Information measured solely by the reduction of uncertainty does not capture the rich notion of information in human communication and cognition_ it is not explicitly concerned with semantic and pragmatic aspects of information viewed _in the broader sense. The most fundamental aspect of this connection is that uncertainty involved in any problemsolving situation is a result of some information deficiency.UNCERTAINTYBASED INFORMATION 91 INFORMATION AND UNCERTAINTY The concept of information. these various information deficiencies may result in different types of uncertainty. Then. contradictory.g„ a program for the standard Turing machine) by which the object is described in the sense that it can 245 . Furthermore. that information viewed in terms of uncertainty reduction ignores these aspects. Information (pertaining to the model within which the situation is conceptualized) may be incomplete. or deUcient in some other way. independent of the concept of uncertainty.. This does not mean. but they are assumed to be fixed in each particular application. vague. In general. fragmentary. the amount of information obtained by the action may be measured by the reduction of uncertainty that results from the action. as a subject of this chapter. It should be noted at this point that the concept of information has aLso been investigated in terms of the theory of computability. imprecise. however. It does not ignore them. is intimately connected with the concept of uncertainty. designing a relevant experiment and observing the experimental outcome. In this approach. Assume that we can measure the amount of uncertainty involved in a problemsolving situation conceptualized in a particular mathematical theory. the amount of information represented by an object is measured by the length of the shortest possible program written in some standard language (e. not fully reliable. the notion of information as uncertainty reduction is sufficiently rich as a base for an additional treatment through which human communication and cognition can adequately be explicated.
To distinguish this conception of information from various other conceptions of information. lnforrnation of this type is usually referred to as descriptive information or algorithmic information. it involves greater computational demands. the ultimate goal of generalized information theory is to capture properties of uncertaintybased information formalized within any feasible mathematical framework. let us call it uncertaintybased informafion. which is connected with sizes (cardinalities) of relevant sets of alternatives.246 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. began in the early 1980s. Hence. As a rule. Each formalization of uncertainty in a problemsolving situation is a mathematical model of the situation. The nature of uneertaintybased information depends on the mathematical theory within which uncertainty pertaining to various problemsolving situations is formalized. In addition to classical set theory and probability theory. 9 be computed. It is shown. which uncertainty type is manifested in it and how the amount of uncertainty of that type can adequately be measured. a more general theory is capable of capturing uncertainties of some problem situations more faithfully than its less general competitors.  . however. In this chapter. and uncertainty began to be conceived in terms of the much broader frameworks of fu7ff. and strife (or discord). Uncertainty based information was first conceived in ternis of classical set theory and. which results from imprecise boundaries of fuzzy sets. our modeling becomes necessarily limited by the constraints of the theory. for each of the five theories of uncertainty. The term information theory has almost invariably been used to refer to a theory based upon the well known measure of probabilistic uncertainty established by Claude Shannon [1944 Research on a broader conception of uncertaintybased information. These forms represent distinct types of uncertainty. These three uncertainty types are nonspecificity (or imprecision). we do not cover axiomatic characterization of the various measures of uncertainty. substantial progress has been made in this direction since the early 1980s. we are concerned solely with information conceived in terms of uncertainty reduction. which expresses conflicts among the various sets of alternatives. and other theoretical issues associated with them. Although this goal has not been fully achieved as yet. possibility theory. became clear that uncertainty can be manifested in different forms. uncertainty based irforrnation is now well understood in fuzzy set theory. fuzziness (or vagueness). liberated from the confines of classical set theory and probability theory. this chapter is restricted to the three currently recognized types of uncertainty (and the associated information). later. uncertainty is manifested only in one form. When we commit ourselves to a particular mathematical theory. Clearly. Rather than speculating about this issue.y set theory and fuzzy measure theory. proofs of their uniqueness. The name generalized information theory was coined for a theory based upon this broader conception. it soon. in which measurement of uncertainty is currently well established. and evidence theory. in terms of probability theory. When the seemingly unique connection between uncertainty and probability theory was broken. Three types of uncertainty are now recognized in the five theories. It is conceivable that other types of uncertainty will be discovered when the investigation of uncertainty extends to additional theories of uncertainty. In probability theory. The chapter is intended as a summary of existing results rather than a detailed expositiori of the broad subject of uncertaintybased information.
0).logs 1A1. When b = 2 and c = 1.). c are positive constants (b ›. and so forth than their smaller counterparts. where IA I denotes the cardinality of a finite conempty set A. of alternatives can also be proven axiomatically.Sec. Assume that this set is reduced to its subset B by some action. which is the most conimon bits. etc.2) . That is. which is relevant to the situation.1.1) One bit of uncertainty is equivalent to the total uncertainty regarding the truth or falsity of one proposition.2 NONSPECIFICITY OF CRISP SETS Measurement of uncertainty (and associated information) was first conceived in terms of classical set theory. the amount of uncertaintybased information. I(4 E) lAI 1BI  (9. its range is 0 U (A) log2 1X1. full specificity is obtained when all alternatives are eliminated except one. U(A) is a measure of predictive. (9.uncertainty. prescriptive. U(A) is a measure of retrodictive uncertainly. when A is a set of possible U(A) is a measure of prescriptive uncertainty. 9. retrodictions. uncertainty expressed by sets of possible alternatives and measured by the Hartley function is well characterized by the term nonspecificity. when A is a set of possible answers ta an urmttled historical question. For example.2 Nonspecilicity of Crisp Sets 247 9.B). when A is a set of possible diseases of a patient determined from relevant medical evidence. It was shown by Hartley [1928] that using a function from the class of functions U(A) = c . is equal to the amount of reduced uncertainty given by the difference U (A) — U(B). and b. is the only sensible way to measure the amount of uncertainty associatcd with a finite set of possible alternatives. (A. The meaning of uncertainty measured by the Hartley function depends on the meaning of the set A. it has the form In this case. Let the set function U defined by (9A) be called a Hartley function_ Its uniqueness as a measure of uncertainty (in bits) associated with sets. when A is a set of predicted states of a variable (from the set I of all 4tates ideftaed for the variable). produced by the action.unrtaysmedin U(A) = log2 AI. Hence. Large sets result in less specific predictions. U(A) is a measure of diagnostic uncertainty. Observe that uncertainty expressed in terms of sets of alternatives results from the nonspeoificity inherent in each set. Consider now a situation characterized by a set A of possible alternatives (predictive. and we obtain choie. Then. Each choice of values of the constants b and c determines the unit in which uncertainty is measured. c ›. 1. When the Hartley function U is applied to nonerapty subsets of a given finite universal set X.
9) U(X) U(Y) = U(XLY) U(Y1X). Functions U(X) are called simple uncertainties. then R X x Y and the sets X and Y are called noninteractive. Y . Cf(X1Y) = U(1). and assume that a relation R cXxY describes a set of possible joint alternatives in some situation of interest. Function ti(YIX) clearly has a similar meaning. (9. IRyl LT (X. This means that U(A) information needed to characterize one element of set A.12) (9. U(X. Y) U(Y). these equations become the inequalities .13) In all other cases.248 Uncertaintybased Information Chap.9).7) iRi UcylX) = log z — which are called conditional uncertainties. with the role s of sets X and Y exchanged. Y) = ti(X) + (ICY). (9 8) cr (x) (9 .8) and (9. Then three distinct Hartley functions are applicable. B) =. we obtain may also be viewed as the amount of /(A. To identify clearly which universal set is involved in each case.4) U(Y) = log.1(R1). If possible alternatives from X do not depend on selections from Y.10) which follows immediately from (9. Observe also that the conditional uncertainties can be expressed in ternis of the joint uncertainty and the two simple uncertainties:  U(X1Y) = UX. Y) instead of 1. Assume further that the domain and range of R are sets Rx C X and Ry C Y.6) (9. Y.leg2 1A1 U (A). when IBI 1.means that U(XIY) incasuies the average norispecificity regaxdiug alternative choices from X for all particular choices from. and X x Y.. Two additional Hartley functions are defined by the formulas U (X P') (9 5)  log2 1R1 (9. while function log2 IRA. defined on the power sets of X. Observe that the ratio IRVIRyt in U(X1Y) represents the average number of elements of X that are possible alternatives under the condition that an element of Y bas already huen scleded. when sets X and Y are interactive. Y) log7 is called a joint uncertainty. X and Y. U(Ry). Consider now two universal sets. it is useful (and a common practice) to write U(K). clearly. EI(YIX) = U(Y). respectively.11) (9. U(X.). This . U(Y). respectively. (93) (9. Y) Furthermore. and ET (R). Then. ET(Y[X) = Cf(X. 9 When the action eliminates all alternatives except one (te. and vice versa. (9.
Y) can also be expressed in terms of the conditional uncertainties T(X. 2. Formally.9).2 Nonspeeificity of Crisp Sets (X1Y) < U (X). le for some natural number k). respectively. an d the high value constrains it totally. more generally.Y) > 0. MI. U(Y1X) < LT(Y). troo + U(Y) — trai The Hartley function in the form (9. expresse d  by the matrix 1234 Low [ 1 1 1 1 Medium 1 0 1 0 High 0 1 0 0 We can see that the low value of x does not constrain y at all.Y) u(x) U(XJY).Y) = 0. T(X.Y) = U(Y) —U(Y1X).1) is applicable only to finite sets.1) for infinite sets takes the form .70 = T(X. U(Y) log2 IYI Iog2 = 2.19) T(X.1 Consider two variables x and y whose values are taken from sets X = {low.Sec. However. which is usually referred to as information transmission. It is always expressed as the difference betvvecn the total information based on the individual sets and the joint information. X2. high) and Y = 11.8 — 1. T(X. T(X.18) (9. Y) = log2 FR I = log2 7 = Er(ItY) = Er(X. 3. a meaningful counterpart of (9.15) (9.8. Y). (9.f (Y). 4).y)mx). is a useful indicator of the strength of constraint between sets X and Y: T(I. otherwise. the medium value of constrains partially. • Xrt)= EU(X1) • • • Xn)• (9. medium. Li (X.r) 2. Using (9.16) The following symmetric function. (9. 9.20) Example 9.Y) = U(X)+U(Y)—U(X. this form may be appropriately modified to infinite sets on R (or. 249 (9.14) (9.8 = u(X.6 = + 2 2.8 — 2 . It is known that the variables are constrained by the relation R. Information transmission can be generalized to express the constraint among more than two sets. U(2. 2. Y) — U(Y) U(11. The following types of Hartley information can be calculated in this example: y if(X) lega IXI 4IM log2 3 1.6. Y) < (X) + t.17) When the sets are noninteractive.8) and (9. Given a measurable and Lebesgueintegrable subset A' of R (or le).
.2 log2 9 + .01h(B) for all x X. lida .250 Uncertaintybased information LT (A) = log[l + Chap. 0 .99.9 = . 15 + . 9 (9. is a weighted average of values of the Hartley function for all distinct a cuts of the normalized counterpart of A. !Ida + A f 3 . consequently.1) since values U(A) obtained for infinite sets by (9. That is. whose characteristic function is illustrated in Fig. the set 16. if A(x) .3 NONSPECIFICITY OF FUZZY SETS A natural generalization of the Hartley function from classical set theory to fuzzy set theory was proposed in the early 198(Is under the name U uncertainty./. 11 + . then g(A) = b — a and ([a b]) = log[ 1 + b The choice of the logarithm in (921) is less significant than in (9. the natural logarithm is a suitable choice. 9.1.22) Example 9. For any A.1 log.4 log. we obtain: 1 1 10g2 VIA Ida = 0 .21) i4A)) . Applyiag formula (922) to A.  WA) log2 l Aldot. defined by A (x)/h(A) for all x X.1 log. 7 13). 5cla ÷ j. .4 3da . B Y(X) (0). This is equivalent to the nonspecifity of a crisp set that contains eight elements. 0 + . al. for example. For its mathematical convenience.1 log2 3 —2. which measures nonspecificity of A.1 log. fuzzy sets that are equal when normalized have the same nonspecificity measured by function U.7 . The amount of nonspecifity associated with the given fuzzy set is thus approximately three bits. b] on 1R. the generalized Hartley function has the form 1 f h(A) a h(A) where 1AI denotes the cardinality of the aout of A and h(A) is the height of A.& 9da + if to g2 7dee + f log. h(A) B(. 9. Each weight is a difference between the values of a of a given.7 9 r I. For any nonempty fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal set X.4 .2 Consider a fuzzy set A on N whose membership function is defined by the dots in the diagram in Fig. then U(A) = U (B). where g(A) is the measure of A defined by the Lebesgue integral of the characteristic function of A. they are not directly comparable with values obtained for finite sets by (9. 12 + . we assume that A(x) — 0 for 1111 x> 15.1). Observe that U(A).15dee + f _1 logj. of cut and the immediately preceding acut.1 by the shaded area. 9.6 4 f 1 log.2 log.21) do not yield any meaningful interpretation in terms of uncertainty regarding truth values of a finite number of propositions and. For eAample.1 log. 7 ± 2logl 5 + . when A is an interval [a.
:`. 11] and '.(2A.„ IMII um E „. III.. 1 U(Ai ) .. 3) the measure g. z 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 X 111 I Soo x/2 • 111 • — for x e [0. 9.1 Ta calculate the nonspecificities of these fuzzy sets by (923).3 'MINI 4.:..ZA .A. f 1n(5 — 41442 = [— — (5 4 = 5 1 — 4œ)In(5.WAD = 4 — 4.q.• 2_.. ism ma J. :. fuzzy sets that are equal when normalized have the same noaspecificity.22). 0 4.23) 10g[1 p.5. which is a generalization of (9_21).g . .. • mum • FÛ. .. ) = bi (ce) Ai (x) = 2 — x/2 0 — and at ((y ) and b1 (a) are determined by the equations a = al(a)/2 and ce.g.4 . . • EN NUMB • iminimmiwp...2.23) and choosing the natural a.•. ..=. we have to determine for each set iki (1 = 1. As in the discrete case. . . whose membership functions are depicted in Fig. In each case.7 _. For Ai. 1 1 i. Figure 9.1 III ::: • IN • immilima..1 = tag. we have to calculate U(A) by the modified form j hot) (9. and the acuts c'A are infinite sets (e._. : EE8.3 Consider fuzzy sets A 1 .. 9.0. 1... .. 4 convenience.CA)1dce. Example 9. intervals of real numbers)... cuts "Ag are Intervals 'Ag = [a i (iz). It is assumed that 'A is a measurable and Lebesgu. 2 bi(a) /2.. M. defined by (9.. • :45. 21 for x E (2. 3: . we obtain logarithm for —  .. 4] otherwise. .5 m 7777 . and hence. Now applying (9. MIME.eintegrable function. .3 Ncmspecificity cf Fuzzy Sets 1 . ittf'A) is the measure of 24 deined by the Lebesgue integral of the characteristic function of "A. A3 on R.1 Membership &odious of fuzzy set A (defined by the dots) and crisp set C (defined by the shaded area). When a nonempty fuzzy set A is defined on R (or Rk for some k E N).9 .t(nA .. U(A) = T7 . Hence ..:.: : . .4a)— ce] i cs0 In 5 — 1 L012.Sec.6 5 . bi(a)1.. . 16.a. NE.8 251 MEE 111•11111z. ::MT. the a(c). 1111 1 II.) as a function of a. • • •• v: .
In general. theory.S 2 [— (3 — 4ce) 1n(3 — 4) — ct j Zf(A3) 2J In(3 — 4a)det = 4 o 0 3 El (A2) . they are dearly distinguished by their heights h(B). information expressed by the empty set has no validity. The Uuncertainty was investigated more thoroughly within possibility.(ri . its height may be viewed as the degree of validity or crectibiticy of information expressed by the fuzzy set. which is not normal. For each fuzzy set B E SA.24) have the same nonspecificity... fur the other two fuzzy sets. Similarly. be the set itself). This explains why it is reasonable to exclude the empty set from the domain of function U. r2. utilizing ordered possibility distributions. Since 2213 (x) = 2412 (x).22) or (9. of course.252 Uncertaintybased information Chap. Given a possibility distribution r =. each of which represents a normal fuzzy set. 2 . regardless whether X is finite or infinite and we apply (9. set A2 may be viewed as the normalized wuntetpart of A.. all fuzzy sets B in the infinite f. In this domain.648. These two sets have the same nonspecificity.3. can be normalized by replacing A3(x) With 2A(x) for each x E R . we have 2 2 0 a 3 = — In 3 — 1 = 0.2 Fuzzy seta employed kt Exa npie 9. where 3Z denotes the set of all finite and ordered possibility distributions.5 . function U has the form U a R+ .23). which is true far any fuzzy set and its normal counterparts (the latter may. f 1i(3 — 2a )chr [— — (3 — 2a) lu( 3 — 2a) — I 2 a] 4 2 Observe that ct A3. Although the sets in 23A are not distinguished by the nonspecificity. .mily (9. given a normal fuzzy set A E g'(X). 9 Figure 9.  . respectively. rn ) such that 1 ri > r2> > r. From this point of view.
0.2. and let U(X) and U(Y) denote simple Uuncertainties defined on the marginal possibility distributions rx and ry. X and Y. which is particularly convenient for calculating the Uuncertainty. . .29) (9.2). ..27) and. U(r).8.• Sec.21082 10 2. . . Let us use (9.3. .18 Consider now two universal sets.1.4.obtain U(r) = O log2 1 + .22) in the way discussed in Sec. we determine in t(r) = t31.27) where m = (m1. U(r) = Furthermore. .. respectively.3 Nonspeccity of Fuzzy $ets 253 the Uuncertainty of r. . and a joint possibility distribution r defined on X x Y.1 0 by convention.7. 0. . let U(X. . 7. First. (r) = f2 — log2 (925) where r.2).26) = Emi 1og i=2 (9. Assume that the possibility distribution r in (9. Then. can be expressed by a convenient form.30) U(Y) = E A x. m„) represents the basic probability assignment corresponding to r in the sense of the convention introduced in Sec.7.11o82 8 + 01°82 9 + .4 Calculato U(r) for th possibility distribution w r = (1.4. (9. .1. mr(B) log.3. 7.25) can be written as (M) ET` tr2 log2 (9.r (9..2 log2 2 + . 9.25) are appropriately combined.4. Example 9.2. .. . Adopting the notation introduced for the Hartley function. Y) denote the joint Uuncertainty. and assuming rit = 0. in 2 . 1. the U uncertainty can be expressed by another formula: .28) (9. . using the equation in = r1 — r for all i = 1. we have U (X) = E mx(A)log 2 IA r.3.7..25) represents a normal fuzzy set A in (9.1. . 0. T. 10.1 1og2 3 + 01082 4 010g2 5 + .2. Then it is easy to see that ti(r) U(A) whenever rf+i > D i represents the cardinality of the cedut with a When ternis on the righthand side of (9.31082 6 + J1082 7 + . . 1B Y) = E m(A x B)logz IA x BI.27). Now we apply components of m to (9.
which is intuitively conceived as the highest fuzziness. which. the average number of elements of A that remain possible alternatives under the condition that an element of Y has already been selected. function f must satisfy some requirements that adequately capture our intuitive comprehension of the degree of.19) are also valid in the generalized framework.31) represents for each focal element A x in T.This equation is dearly a generalization of (9. In general.9) can be derived.32) E rit(A x B) log2 Axi3E7 x IA Observe that the term IA )( R1/1131 in (9. according to our intuition.(X) denotes the set of all fuzzy subsets of X (fuzzy power set). Expressing U(X1Y) in the form of (9. of the corresponding conditional Hartley functions: ii(XIY) U(YIX) E in (A x B) log2 Ax. where Y3 y . mevns that . Furthermore.22). are sets of focal elements induced by rn as the following generalizations we dehne conditional Uuncertainties. a measure of fuzziness is a function f T(X) where . then.8) from crisp sets to normal fuzzy sets. 3.33). B in (9.17). In a similar way. Furthermore. The following three requirements are essential: 1. and. it can easily be shown that (9. 9.ot log2 —r w—d 2 z f logz r(E x F)Idel U (X. respectively.22) tn sub normal fuzzy gets.. fuzziness.254 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. we have U (XIY) 1 ITE x F)1 . this function assigns a nonliegative Mai annibcr f(A ) that expresses the degree to which the boundary of A is not sharp. and by (9.31) correspond ta the acuts ŒE . For each fuzzy set A. 0 log2 rF . Observe that the focal elements A. U(X110 and U(YtX). f(A) 0 iff A is a crisp set.4 FUZZINESS OF FUZZY SETS  The second type of uncertainty that involves fuzzy sets (but not crisp sets) is fuzziness (or vagueness).10)–(9A6) are also valid for the Uuncertainty. Using these two generalized equations. information transmission can be defined for the t I uncertainty by (9.11T 1A x BI 1B i IA (931) (9.18) and (9. Y) r. 2.g. g in. (9. a generalization of (9.5 for all x e X./(17).‘E in (9. In order to qualify as a sensible measure of fuzziness. f (A) attains its maximum iff A(x) = 0. f (A) ç f (B) when set A is undoubtedly sharper than set B. respectively.
. the local distinction (one for each x e X) of a given set A and its complement is measured by IA(x) (1 dit(x))1 = 12A(x) — and the lack of each local distinction is measured by 1— 12A(x) The measure of fuzziness. One that is simple and intuitively easy to comprehend is the Hamming distance.5 for all x E X.1. Applying. we have to choose a suitable distance function.2±A) .2 4 . 1 2).4+. Indeed. Let us restrict our discussion to this view of fuzziness. Another way of measuring fuzziness. the second and third of the three properties required of function f would have to he generalized by replacing the value 0. Employing the standard fuzzy complement. which seems more practical as well as more general.34) xX The range of function f is [0.5 255 and A(x) > E(x) for all x E X . One way Is to measure fuzziness of any set A by a metric distance between its incinbeTship grade function and the membership grade function (or characteristic function) of the nearest crisp set. If other types of fuzzy complements were alsb considered.5 when Iit(.4+. This issue is not discussed here._24 . IXI]. To make it unique. is then obtained by adding allthese local measurements: f (A) = E(1_ 12 4 0) 1 1) . it is precisely the lack of distinction between sets and their complements that distinguishes fuzzy sets from crisp sets. f (A). f (A) = t(1 12A(x) i =1 5 — CS±_g+.5 with the equilibrium of the fuzzy complement employed. (9. complement. Even when committing to this conception of measuring fuzziness. There are different ways of measuring fuzziness that all satisfy the three essential requirements. The less a set differs from its complement. f (A) = IX when A(x) = 0.. 9 4 Fuzziness of Fuzzy Sets A (x) B(x) when B (x) < 0.Sec.2±.8±1+1 1 1+.t) 0. For the sake of simplicity. = 15 — 9 6. the fuzzier it is. is to view the fuzziness of a set in ternis of the lack of distinction between the set and its.34) to the fuzzy set A defined in Fig. defined by the sum of absolute values of differences. we obtain . 9. Choosing the Hamming distance. we can still choose different distance functions to express the tack of distinction of a set and its complement.. for example. (9. we assume that only the standard fuzzy complement is employed.8+4+. f (A) = O iff A is a crisp set. which is currently predominant in the literature. . the measurement is not unique. Measuring fuzziness in terms of distinctions between sets and their complements is dependent on the definition of a fuzzy complement (Sec.
and we obtain: 1 2 2 3 f (At) 4. 9. 0 where k 4. However.2_ Assuming that the sets are deftned within the interval [f. happen to be equally fuzzy.A .35) 12A(x)  ExaEaple 9.(1.f dx . set.. on finite. 5.5  Although set A3 and its normal counterpart. 41 and using (9.f dx o i . To illubtrate this difference between nouspecifkity aud fuzziness. bi. 4 . it can be readily modified to fuzzy sets defined on infinite but bounded subsets of IZ (or le for some natural number k).f 12 . That is. 4 Jo 4 f i x— 1trix . universal sets.1. Then.1) for x E R. 1 2 f(24. (934) needs to be naodifted by replacing the summation with integration.1 .. both of which belong to BA2 with /3 (A4) 7 ..8x)dx a (.3)..if (x .45) = . for example. Ih(Ak)(x . which is perhaps the most practical case. of sets in a given family defined by (9. dx 2 3 5 . = 1.8„ _ 1.021/ r 3 ) 14 2 =4 jo IL 2 3 L 2 i3 4 4.24).f I2x .x)dx 2 2 J2 .A z. 9 FornitilA (9 '14) is applicable only to fuzzy sets definer.1 . that X [a.625. contrary to nonspecificity.2) = 4 ..I f Ix 21dx . this is not a general property. 4.L.. we obtain: f (A1) L../r'.J gix .xldx . A4 and As.1Ddx (9.8 . Consider.jr (x 1)dx i f (3 . 4 .5 Calculate the degrees of fuzziness of the three fuzzy sets dented in Fig.4)dx . This replacement results in the formula f (A) = (1 . .5 . 7 2 4 3 f (A 3) .256 Linoertaiitybased Information Chap.31dx .4 and h(. 4 . Ict US calculate the degree of fuzziness for two additional fuzzy sets.j a 1 i r 15— 2x Idx .x) for x otherwise.5 .21 Ak(x) _.f2A(x). h(A) (3 .if 0 1 2 2 4 1 3 —x idx 3 4 2 0 (1 _x )dx ...3)dx 3 —D12 [(3—....j dx ..
4] and each of the fuzzy sets A L—A5 ..straticm of thc tnatning if (9. .35) in the context cif Example 9.425 — 1 = The meaning of the calculations in this example is illustrated ill Fig.5 o 1 f(A2 )1 1(A.425 .25x — 2. tile shaded areas indicate for each x E [0. 9.75 — 1.25Idx — 2 12. it is measured by the total size of the unshaded areas in each diagram.25xIdx — 3 dx 4 — I — .4 Fuzzlness of Fuzzy Sets 13 4 257 f(A 5) = 4 — dx f 11. Since the degree of fuzziness is expressed in terms of the deficiency of these differences with respect to 1. 9. For the universal set [0.)=08 Figure 93 Illu.4] the difference between membership grades of the set and its complement.Sec.3..5. .
3). the Uuncertainty. On the other hand. is not tnic. We have now U(B) = 3 and f (B) = O. but their degrees of fuzziness are quite different.1. Observe. This defines a crisp set B [6. The view is reasonable when nonspecificity also decreases or remains the same. Assume now that we learn.2). 9.0.2. The opposite. but the only available information regarding its value is given in terms of the fuzzy set A whose membership function is defined by the dots in Fig. they are totally independent of each other. consequently.99. 7...648 . This informatien is incomplete. was well established in possibility theory.256 Uncertairtybased Information Chan. f (A) = 6. Figure 9.4 Example of a fuzzy set with very different monspecificities. When nonspecificity. It is reasonable to. Once this generalized function.1. a special branch of evidence theory. fuzzy sets depicted in Fig_ 9_4 have very different nonspecificities. 0)=1 U(8.5 UNCERTAINTY IN EVIDENCE THEORY Nonspecificity The Hartley function. but it is questionable when nonspecificity increases. but their degrees of fuzziness are exactly the same. 9. Although there is virtually no change in nonspecificity. Whether it is meaningful to view a reduction in fuzziness as a gain in information depends on the accompanied change in nonspecificity. 9. as a measure of nonspecificity.1 have almost the same nonspecificity (Example 9. ti(A).1 by the shaded area. are distinct types of uncertainty. 13} whose characteristic function is illustrated in Fig. it was relatively easy to generalize it further and make it applicable within all of evidence theory. . To illustrate this point. Fuzziness and nonspecificity are also totally different in their connections to information. . as a result of some action. 9. however. which are both applicable to fuzzy sets.is reduced. for example. 9. it results in uncertainty regarding the actual value of the variable: U(A) = 2. g It is important to realize that nonspeciftcity and fuzziness. Moreover.1 but equal fuzziness. f(A)=. we view the reduction as a gain in information. let us consider an integervalued variable whose exact value is of interest.079 . that the two fuzzy sets defuicd by their membership functions in Fig. was first generalized from classical set theory to fuzzy set theory and possibility theory (Sec. regardless of the associated change in fuzziness.view the amount of eliminated fuzziness as a result of some proportional amount of information gained. that the actual value of the variable is at least 6 and no more than 13. the action helped us to completely eliminate fuzziness.
is actually measured by the Shannon entropy.38) Ytx ... N becomes the U uncertainty.Sec. Function N is clearly a weighted average of the Hartley function for all focal elements. IA log2 IX1 .1.8) (9.37) can be rewritten as  H On) —Ein({})10gD—Enit(ym. Consequently. are not distinguished from one another by their nonspecificities. This function was proven a unique measure of nonspecificity in evidence theory under welljustified axioms and the choice of bits as measurement units. from several well justified axiomatic characterizations. that this function is the only sensible measure of uncertainty in probability theory.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 259 TO distinguish the Uuncertainty from its more general counterpart in evidence theory. formula (m) = E m (A) log2 IA I. Since focal elements in probability measures are singletons. while log 2 IA I indicates the lack of specificity of this evidential claim. —  The Shannon Entropy The Shannon entropy. xe. It is also well known that (98)(9. function H was proposed by Shannon 11948). the stronger the evidence. Since values m ({ x }) are required to add to 1 for all (9. That is. The range of function Pi+ is. H(m) 0 when m ({r)) I for some x E X. as expected.. All probability measures are fully specific and hence. When focal elements in 9" are nested.19) for the Hartley function remain valid when it is generalized to the N uncertainty. 0 for every probability measure. Consequently. N(m) = is obtained when //l ( x)) = 1 for some x E X (no uncertainty).1' (t » log2 in ({X}). which is a wellestablished measure of uncertainty in probability theory? Before attempting to answer this question. probability theory is not capable of incorporating nonspecificity. (9. it is reasonable to view function N as a measure of nonspeoficily. the less specific the evidence.X (9. m) is an arbitrary body of evidence. The larger the value of m (A). H. 11(m) = log2 1X1 when in defines the uniform probability distribution on X (i.. As the name suggests. [AA = 1 and logz IA] =for each focal element. the larger the set A (and log2 IA I). It was proven in numerous ways. What. is reached for m(X) 1 (total ignorance). its range is [0. AI (m) = log2 !XI. the maximum. then. let us review the key pro perties of the Shannon entropy.d by the.36) where ff.n(fx)) 1/1X1 fur all E X).e. For each focal element A. AO' (9. 9. measures the average uncertainty (in bits) associated with the prediction of outcomes in a random experiment.19) are valid when function U is replaced with function H. rn (A) indicates the degree of evidence focusing on A. N(m) . which forms the basis of classical information theory. Clearly. one of the basic types of uncertainty. assumes in evidence theory the form H(m) = ze. let the latter be denoted by N _ It is derine. The minimum.37) This function. The weights are values of the basic probability assignment. log2 12:11. which is applicable only to probability measures. It can easily be shown that (9.
39) in (938) represents the total evidential claim pertaining to focal elements that are different with the focal element (x). y).41) which involves two probability density functions. Its finite (9. f x (x) fy (y).17). One of them is function E. cleaned (9. defined by the formula . f(x) fr(Y)Ix [a. g(x) a and g(x). bl. dl) = A I fa them. Let us introduce and critically examine each of Two of the candidates were proposed in the early 1980s.40) is replaced with a clenity function. which is employed in (9.260 Uncertainty Oased information Chap. &I by a probability density function f. b G fc. q(x) 1. is monotonic increasing with Con ((x)) and extends its range from [0. When f (x) in (9.38) that the Shannon entropy is the mean (expected) value of the conflict among evidential claims within a given probabilistic body of evidence. It can be employed only in a modified form . f (x) counterpart is the function' D(p(x). The choice of the logarithmic function is a result of the axiomatic requirement that the joint uncertainty of several independent random variables be equal to the sum of their individual uncertainty. When a probability measure is defined on a real interval [a. the Shannon entropy is not directly applicable as a measure of uncertainty.38). g(x)lx E f (x) [a. f y). 11 for each x € X_ The function — log1(1 — Con (fx1)j. 9 The term emi pa({y}) (9. Con WO) expresses the sum of all evidential claims that fully conflict with the one focusing on (x). of a joint probability distribution on X x Y. Clearly. y)log 2 uxu v fy fx (9A2) Entropylike Measure in Evidence Theory What form should the generalized counterpart of the Shannon entropy take in evidence theory? The answer is by no means obvious.. ex which is known in information theory as the Shannon crossentropy or directed divergence. and g(x) is replaced with the product of density functions of marginal distributions on X and Y. Con (41) E [0.1 ] to [0.40) on [a. (x) Ix € X) = E p(x) Iog2 p(x) . b]) fb f (x)log2 — dx . Function D measures uncertainty in relative rather than absolute terms. This means that the continuous counterpart of the information transmission can be expressed as D(f x. That is. f (x. D becomes equivalent to the information transmission given by (9. D( f (x). It follows from these facts and from the form 01 (9. as exhibited by several proposed candidates for the entropylike measure in evidence theory. co).
e7 RIA (9.10) and the general property of basic assignments (satisfied for every A E m(B)1.45). IC(A) 11.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory E(In) = — 261 ar (A) log2 Pl (A). The function —1°82[ 1 — which is employed in (9. Thisbroader view of conflict is expressed by the measure of confusion C given by (9. Itcdi B. AO' (9. Clearly. entropy From (7.Sec.11) and the general property of basic assignments (satisfied for every A E AnsgatO ni(B)1Ar1177150 we obtain E(m) —Ens(A) log2 E1 — Ael E drIB—re rrt(li)]. and its range is 1 0. is monotonic increasing with K(A) and extends its range from [0. To decide if either of the two functions is an appropriate generalization of the Shanno n in evidence theory. but also when B g A.46) The term . (9.et we get C(m)= Etn(A) log 2 [1 — 010g A. AsT (9 . It is obvious that both of these functions collapse into the Shannon entropy when m defines a probability measure . defaied by the formula C(m) =—E m(A)logz 1301 (A).45) represents the total evidential claim peril Tnitig to focal elements that are disjoint with the set A. From (7. log2 pfll. m). The choice of the logarithmic function is motivated in the same way as in the classical case of the Shannon entropy.44).Ein cB) =1. co). IC(A) expresses the sum of all evidential claims that fully conflict with the one focusing on the set A. The other one is function C. we have to determine what these functions actually measure.43) which is usually called a measure of dissonance. 9.44) which is referred to as a measure of confusion. it measures the conflict in bits. 45) The term K(A) = E A11. Function E is not fully satisfactory since we feel intuitively that m(H) conflicts with nt(A) not only when B fl A = 0. It follows from these facts and the form of (9A5) that E(m) is the mean (expected) value of the conflict among evidential claims within a given body of evidence Ç3.13=0 148) in (9.. 1] to [0. Let us demonstrate this fact. That is.
1] to [0. among evidential claims within a given body of evidence (F. The reason for using the function — log2 [1 — (A)] instead of L (A) in (946) is the same as already explained in the cnntert of function E . 1] and. Clearly. each of which is pioperly scaled by the degree to which the subsethood B C A is violated. This conforms to the intuitive idea of conflict that emerged from the critical reexamination of functions E and C_ Let function Con. D.47) can be rewritten as . m).47) that E(m) D(m) COO. (9. function C also has some undesirable mathematical properties. Function C is also not fully satisfactory as a measure of conflicting evidential claims within a body of evidence. LB — All_ Beg iB (9. consequently. and more satisfactory. In addition. furthermore.47) Observe that the term Con (A) = 347 rn(B) 1B — At I (9. Con(A) E O.47) expresses the sum of individual conflicts of evidential claims with respect to a particular set A. viewed in the broader sense. For example. It follows immediately (9.46) expresses the surn of all evidential claims that conflict with the one focusing on Eh e set A according to the following broader view of conflict: m(B) conflicts with m(A) whenever B g A. is clearly a measure of the mean conflict (expressed by the logarithm Ec transformation of function Con) among evidential claims within each given body of evidence. but for a different reason than function E. co).48) in (9. which is called a measure of discord. whose application to probability rIleaS111W is given by (9. be called a conflict. it does not properly scale each particular conflict of m (B) with respect to m(A) according to the degree of violation of the subsethood relation B c A. 9 in (9.39).. its maximum is greater than log. K(A) < Con (A) The reason for using the function — log2 i  (9.8. a new function. The conclusion is that C(m) is the mean (expected) value of the conflict. This monotonic transformation extends the range of Con(A) from [0. view of conflict. Although it employs the broader. (9.50) Observe that 1B — AI = 1BI —1A rl B 1.49) Con (A)1 instead of Con in (9. the greater the conflict.262 . XL To overcome_ the deficiencies of function E and C as adequate measures of conflict in evidence theory.47) is exactly the same as previously explained in the context of function E. was proposed: 0(m) = Em(A) log2 [1 — Em(B) Ae3.4A Uncertaintybased Information (A) = Em(B) Chap. Function D. It is clear that the more this subsethood relation is violated.
the situation is inverted: the claim focusing on B is not implied by the claim focusing on A and. the claim m(B) is taken to be in conflict with the claim m(A) to the degree IB — IIBI.Sec. say. This. we obtain a new function. which is called strife and denoted by S. where A = 15 171.55) where N (m) is the nonspecificity measure given by (9.54) can also be rewritten as S(m) = "TO Ein(A) log2 Em (B)fAri BI. In this case.47) with CON(A).51) It is obvious that Bel (A) E m(B) A • n Br BEY Pl (A). where B = f13.48). m(B) does conflict with m(A) to a degree proportional to number of elements in A that are not covered by B. m) with respect to a particular claim m(A) should be expressed by function CON (A) = E zr. should not be the case: the claim focusing on B is implied by the claim focusing on A (since A C B). AF 7 (9.eY (B) )A. Clearly.. further examination reveals a conceptual defect in it To plain the defect.36). 9. let sets A and B in (9.52) Although function D is intuitively more appealing than functions E and C.48) be such that A c B. Assume that the information is expressed by two evidential claims pertaining to the age of Joe: "Joe is between 15 and 17 years old" with degree m (A).5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 263 D(m) = —EPn(A) log2 iteT ZreT lAnBr IB (9. Joe. Replacing Con(A) in (9. which is better justified as a measure of conflict in evidence theory than function D. however. B I IA I rather than function Con given by (9. as an example. Furthermore. and "Joe is a teenager" with degree m(B). 5(m) = —Ern(A)1og2Em(B) AO' 3G7 I4 n Bi IA1 (9_54) where the term IA C BVIAI expresses the degree of subsethood of set A in set B. incomplete information regarding the age of a person. This new function. IA1 (9. Then. Assume now that A n B. (9. according to function Con. consequently. and hence. m(B) should not be viewed in this case as contributing to the conflict with m(A). 19].53) It is trivial to convert this form into a simpler one. the weaker second claim does not conflict with the stronger first claim. Equation (9. This conflict is not captured by function Con since IB — AI = O in this case. introducing . Consider. — 1_ e7. It follows from these observations that the total conflict of evidential claims within a body of evidence (g. is defined by the form SOn) E rn (A) logz [ E m(B) IA BIl .
the possibility dimributions for which the maximum of possibilistic strife are obtained (onc for each value of n) are different from those for possibili. III].57). — rf÷i ) log2 E r (9.892 as n c. 21 by the circles and diamondsorespectively. values of r2. 9..5 for n 2. it becomes the Shannon entropy for probability measures. r3. We may conclude from these results that the measures of both discord and strife. . whose range in evidence theory is DO. given by (9. S(r) i=2 — r.57) where U(r) is the measure of possibilistic nonspecificity (Uuncertainty) given by (9. Strife in Possibility Theory Employing ordered possibility distributions 1 = (strife) in possibility theory is very simple: (r) (r) i r1 > r2 > _ . . when justifiable. its measurement units are bits. It also has some desirable mathematical properties: it is additive. We may say that possibility theory is almost conflict free. which the maxima are obtained (2 < n 21).56) Em (A) logz Em(B)1A n Bi. 3.o. > r„.264 Z(ni) Uncertaintybased Enformation Chap.  . estimated as 0. In particular. are severely wustrdined withia the domain of possibility theory. the maximum of possibilistic strife. For large bodies of evidence. In Fig. and its range is [0.25).6. log2 IX1 ] .57). we have S(m) N (. Maximum values of possibilistic discord and possibilistic strife are plotted in Fig. ÷1) log2. 9. Neglecting strife (or discord). we can express S(r) in a more compact form. nonspecificiry.stic discord. the form of function S (r. 1=1 (9. these measures can be considered negligible when complred with the other type of uncertainty. 9 (9. at least. depends on n in exactly the same way as the maximum value of possibilistic discord: it increases with n and converges to a constant. lug. may substantially reduce computational complexity in dealing with large possibilistic bodies of evidence.. where 5(m) = 0 when m({x}) = 1 for some X E X and 5(m ) log2 IXI when tn(fx}) 1i[X1 for all x E X. is reasonable to conclude that function S is well justified on intuitive grounds. Combining the two terras in (9. However. n) It (m).58) Er It turns out that the mathematical properties of this function are almost the same as those of possibilistic discord function D. We can observe the perfect rn are shown for match of maxima of the two functions.
NS .2 0_6 [IA 0.Sec.5 Maximum vaiucs . it is reasonable to consider the possibility of adding their individual m_easures to form a measure of total uncertainty.2 0.0 2 Figure 9. Substituting for 5(m) from (9. the total u_ncertainty.. the measure of total It uncertainty clearly ri+1 ) log2  aSSurctes N S(r) Dr i2 E .59) In passibility theory.3. nonspecificity and strife. Following this idea and choosing the measure of strife defined by (954) as the best justified generalization of the Shannon entropy..0 C11. more compact form.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 265 0= Max 0Max en 1.55) and for N (m) from (936).„(A) logz E B e5 B or. in a. and both are measured in same units. coexist in evidence theory. is defined by the equation N S (in) = N(m) S (rn). NSOn) E in (A) log2 A€7 I412 rn(B)1A Bey B the form (9.. 22_ 10 20 of possibaisLic discofd (circles) and pcssibilistiosuita (diasyLond0 Total Uncertainty Since the two types of uncertainty. 9. we obtain N S(m) 2 E (A) log2 I AI — AE7 .fur = 2.
0 0 el ( C n 000c1000 00o 00000000000 0 0 0 0 .6 Whigs Ti .5 1 :0 fur wilich the maxima shown in_ Fig. 0 =00 0 0 0. discord. 0 * * 9 09 0 00 0 000440 6 0 .0 9 0 6 V 4 0 0 0 0 0 9 09 8 4 4 40484 4 4 4 o 4 4 4440 6 a a 4 4 a 9 0 6 0 a 9 0 00. 9 Discord ri 20 r 06000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0000000006 0 0 o O C0 0 0 0QQ000000 0 r.re obtained: (a) .00090 * 9 0 4 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 900000 0 0 0 0 0 9.:0 00 0 0 Q004 0 0 0 0 0 ci 0 0 6 0 ea O 0 0 0 o 0 C 0 4 0 (a) 10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 000 0 0 0 Goo GI C o 0.5 Strife ri 1 oe04164044 0 a aa 0 4 4 o 4 6 9 0 0 0 0 0 20 Œts46446 a a a 6 4 6:079.6 06 4 0 9 6 44 9 60 a 4 a 0 9 9 6 2 o Figure 9. 0 094099 V. 0 8 9.266 Uncertaintybased information Chap. a 4 9 0 6 0 600 0 6 0 cp. 95 2.0 9 OÔOO 0 0 O O C 0 Q9 000000 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. (b) strife_ 0. (b) 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 .
9. given by (9. the theory can be fuzzifed. where the maximum is taken over all distributions (p. Ix e X) that satisfy the constraints: (a) pE [0.36) and (9. is obtained ill m((x)) = 1 for some x e X.— Epxiogz px). probability theory. x4. which is the same as the range of each of its components.SOTO = tog2 IX[. provided that the set cardinaliries involved arc interpreted as sigma counts of the respective fuzzy sets..54). and evidence theory are summarized . 1] for all x kb) x X and E rp. Among the acceptable probability distributions. of all focal elements (A e a). each ' weighted by m(A).61) • where f (A) is defined by (934).Sec. That is. It is defined by A U (Bel) =. and the standard fuzzy intersection is employed in (9.0) and for max }) = 1/IX1 for all X G X (when N(m) = 0). one has the largest value of the Shannon entropy. 3") in which elements of are fuzzy sets. It is reasonable to take this value as a measure of total uncertainty associated with the body of evidence. The minimuna. However. IX11. log. it is reasonable to express the 'total degree of fuzziness. remain =changed when evidence theory is fuzzifted.54). Fuzziness in Evidence Theory Evidence theory normally operates with focal elements that are crisp subsets of a given universal set. The measure. fuzzy set theory. is not unique.6 Summary of Uncertainty Measures 267 The range of the total uncertainty NS is (0. as can any other mathematical theory. 1. Another measure of total uncertainty in evidence theory is based on the recognition that any given body of evidence defined on T(X) may be viewed as a set of constraints that define which probability distributions on X are acceptable._X This measure has even stronger justification in terms of mathematical properties than the measure NS . (9. each of which has some degree of fuzziness. possibility theory. NS (in) = 0. 9.6 SUMMARY OF UNCERTAINTY MEASURES The three types of uncertainty whose measures are now well established in classical set theory. Focal elements in fuzzified evidence theory are fuzzy sets. Two significant maxima are obtained for m(X) = I (when S(m). The maximum. which is the correct representation of complete certainty (full information). of this body by the weighted average of the individual degrees of fuzziness. N. denoted by AU. Given a body of evidence (77 . F (m). Observe that the formulas for nonspecificity and strife. is a function whose domain is the set of all belief measures.maxi. F ( n) WA) f (A). but it is computationally More cumbersome. f(A).
are viewed as species of a.. particularly in probability theory arid evidence theory .unclea mess .7 Three basic types of uncertainty. it results from the lack of viharpness of relevant distinctions.21) and (9_35).diversity • equivocation roc 1=ion 9 st. no direct counterparts exist for some of these uncertainty measures. and the number of equation by which the function is defined_ When dealing with infinite sets. which seems well captured by the term ambiguity.12.7. respectively. for nonspecificiry and fuzziness of fuzzy sets defined on bounded subsets of such counterparts exist and are expressed by the formulas (9.268 Uncertaintybased Information Chap.1.sharp Iessness Two or more alternative‘ are left unspecified • variety • generaiiiv ISCOHDA reen Dias g_milig .dissonance • Incongruity • diserepancy • Gtpriti iut Figure 9. the year in which the function was proposed as a measure of the respective uncertainty. the latter is associated with any situation in which it remains unclear which of several alternatives should be accepted as the genuine one. Two of. or from both of these.anamars several alternatives .6ft mu conflicting aistinctions. . g OffEE[RWEll Lack of definite or s h p. Each type is depicted by a brief commonsense characterization and agroup of pertinent synonyms. In general. the uncertainty types. 9. 1lowover.IndlatInctoess . in Fig. The third uncertainty type. fuzziness.511 toitist • vagueness • cloudiness hatiness . is different from ambiguity. For each function.ambiguity results from the lack of certain distinctions characterizing an object (nunspeciacity). the uncertainty theory to which the function applies. Functions by which the various types of uncertainty are measured are summarized for finite sets in Table 9. nonspecificity and strife. four pieces of information are given in the table: the type of uncertainty measured by the function. . higher uncertainty type.
max)) xex 271(B)— .34) f (A) .: N(r)S(r) 1992 f.1 .Z  .26) NonspeciEcity Nonspecificity 1983 1985 1. For example.36) If(m) — Er.Sec. and the like..1) Uncertainty Type Nonspecificity Year 1928 U (A) = log A I Fuzzy $et theory U (A) = —jl h (A) 1 h (A} logz 'A !da i i —1 (9. 2 PCSSibay theory isrS(r) . they can be utilized for extrapolating evidence. I AI (9_54) Strife 1992 Possibility theory 1 5 (r) = t(n — r) log2 i. — E rn (A) teg z E AeY . E wn(A)klgz rAl (9..11(m) =. r— 1.58) Strife 1992 Er.59) Total: N (en) + S(m) 1992.2 • ( 960) .i=2 1 .Dri — r) logg. the relevant measures of uncertainty are applicable only in their conditional or relative terms.1 SUMMARY OF BASIC UNCERTAINTY mEAsupt Es FOR FINITE SETS Unicertainty Theory Classicei set theory Uncertainty Measure Equation (9. 1948 gvidenee theory 5(m) .7 PrinipeS o r Uner iriy 269 TABLE 9. Fuzzy set theory E ili ni _ (9. measuring the loss of information when a system is simplified.= ((x}) log.7 PRINCIPLES OF UNCERTAINTY Once uncertainty (and information) measures become well justified. 9.. Evidcarx theory PP S (n t) = A47 E m(A) logs E .. they can very effectively be utilized for managing uncertainty and the associated information. assessing the strength of relationship between given groups of variables.. ( 9.22) Nonspeci&ity 1983 Possibility theory Evidence theory Probability theory U (r) .3 S7 lArIBI . (937) Shin. E ri Log i=z el. Although the utility of relevant uncertainty measures is as broad as the utility of . assessing the influence of given input variables on given output variables.rnalMA B OY A i 11 BI (9.. xex Ell — 124(=> — Fuzziness Fuzziness 1979 ruzzIfted evidence theory F(ni) = E RI (A ) f (A) (9A1) 1988 9. Total.ET (9. In many problem situations.
That is. Since types and measures of uncertainty substantially differ in different uncertainty theories.ubsystems. The Principle of Minimum Uncertainty The principk of rilirdiffiUM uncertainty is basically an arbitration principle. A major class of problems for which the principle of minimum uncertainty is applicable are simplification problem. the principleof minimum uncertainty is utilized in the same way. For example. 3. the principles result in considerably different mathematical problems when we move from one theory to another. . It is reasonable. It is obvious that some information contained in the given models is inevitably lost by these adjustments. 2. and the principle of uncertainty invariance. in general s for narrowing down solutions in various systems problems that involve uncertainty. The total loss of information may be expressed. if the given models are valued differently. we should minimi7e this loss of information. etc. This is not desirable. That is.ignificant in three fundamental principles for managing uncertainty: the principle of minimum uncertainty. we only explain the principal characteristics of each of these principles. simplifications made by aggregating some entities of the system (variables. the principle of maximum uncertainty. It is used. When a system is simplified. etc. when we integrate several overlapping models into one larger model.). to require that each of the models be appropriately adjusted in such a way that the overall model becomes consistent. from among all otherwise equivalent solutions. Hence.. When properly applied. simplifications made by breaking overall systems into appropriate subsystems. Another application of the principle of minimum uncertainty is the area of conflictresolution problems. 9 any relevant measuring instrument. states.270 U nee n tylo as ed 1 eformaton Chap. retrodictive. the models may be locally inconsistent. for example. A sound simplification of a given system should minimize the loss of relevant information (Cr the increase in relevant uncertainty) while achieving the required reduction of complexity. There are many simplification strategies. Examples of relevant uncertainties are predictive. the loss of some information contained in the system is usually unavoidable. we should accept only such simplifications of a given system at anydesirable level of complexity for which the loss of relevant information (or the increase in relevant uncertainty) is minimal. In this section. then. which can perhaps be classified into three main classes: 1. The amount of information that is lost in this process results in the increase of an equal amount of relevant uncertainty. Regardless of the strategy employed. whose uncertainty (pertaining to the purpose concerned) is minimal. The principle states that we should accept only those solutions. their role is particularly s.). by the sum of all individual losses or by a weighted sum. simplifications made by eliminating some entities from the system (variables s. the principle of minimum uncertainty guarantees that no information is wasted in the process of simplification. It is an arbiter that decides which simplifications to choose at any given level of complexity. or prescriptive uncertainty. we should accept only those adjustments for which the total loss of information (or total increase of uncertainty) is minimal.
That is. we must resort to ampliative reasoning. In other words. which is related to the unknown probabilities by the formula (x) = Exi p (xi) . but make sure that no additional information is unwittingly added. that all information contained in the premises be fully utilized.) log2 p(xi) (9. x.. that your belief is getting beyond what the evidence warrants. but we know the mean '(expected) value E(x) of the variable. be on your guard. This principle guarantees that our ignorance be fully recognized when we try to enlarge our claims beyond the given premises and. E p(x. Its violation leads almost invariably to conflicts in human communication. For example.„. is essential for any problem that involves ampliative reasoning . the principle of maximum uncertainty is not always adhered to. we estimate the unknown probabilities p (x ) n. A general formulation of the principle of maximum entropy is: determine a probability distribution (p(x)lx e X) that maximizes the Shannon entropy subject to given constraix ' el.62) Employing the maximum entropy principle. the principle guarantees that our conclusions are maximally noncommittal with regard to information not contained in the premises. Ampliative reasoning is indispensable to science in a variety of ways. unfortunately. Ampliative reasoning is also eotnmon and important in our daily life. where it is called the principle of maximum entropy . the principle may be expressed by the following requirement: in any ampliative inference. Using common sense.whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference in opinion. which express partial information about the unknown probability distribution. 1950): ".7 Ftinciptes of Uncertainty 271 The Principle of Maximum Uncertafnly The second pdneiple. as well as general constraints (axioms) of probability theory. The most typical constrainrs employed in practical applications of the maximum entropy principle are mean (expected) values of one or more random variables or various marginal probability distributions of an unknown joint distribution. Similarly. 2.Sec. . we employ ampliative reasoning. n) = . you will probably find. the principle of maximum unceminty. when we want to estimate microstates from the knowledge of relevant rnacrostates and partial information regarding the microstates (as in image processing and many other problems). 9. consider a random variable x with possible (given) nonnegative real values xi. the principle requires that conclusions resulting from any ampliative inference maximize the relevant uncertainty within the constraints representing the premises. on examination... Assume that probabilities p(xi) are not known.. As an example. where. = H(p(xe)li =1. x2. by solving the following optimization problem: maximize function 1. ez . use all information available. 2. as well expressed. employing the connection between information and uncertainty. This is reasoning in which conclusions are not entailed in the given premises." The principle of maximum uncertainty is well developed and broadly utilized within classical information theory. whenever we utilize a scientific model for predictions. The problem of the identification of an overall system from some of its subsystems is another example that involves ampliative reasoning. at the same time. by Bertrand Russell in his Unpopular Essays (London.
the principle of maximum uncertainty yields four possible optimization problems. New evidence reduces uncertainty.64) i=t Our only knowledge about the random variable x in this example is the knowledge of its expected value E(x). let us consider a finite universal set X. n As a. Assume that the only evidence on hand is expressed in terms of two numbers. in general. and the maximum entropy principle would yield the uniform probability distribution (the only distribution for which the entropy reaches its absolute maximum).63) for all j = 1. in evidence theory. B. or both nonspecificity and strife viewed as two distinct objective functions. total uncertainty. that represent the total beliefs focusing on A and B. i E [0.. If R (x) were not known. determine a new probability distribution function p that minimizes the cross . x2. o (9. let X be a set of diseases considered in an designed for medical diagnosis in a special area of medicine.entropy 19 given by (941) subject to constraints el. That is. The entropy of the probability distribution given by (9_63) is`smaller than the entropy of the uniform distribution. uncertainty expressed by p is. l]). A generalization of the principle of maximum entropy is the principle of minimum crossentropy.among all other distribution functions that conform to the evidenee. It is expressed by (9.62) as a constraint on the set of relevant probability distributions.ing (numerical1Y) the equation le nie_d_ 3 n. the posterior probability distribution function p estimated by the principle is the largest . g subject to the axiomatic constraints of probability theory and an additional constraint expressed by (9. we obtain p(xi) = E . and A n B. respectively (a. where: 18 fls fx:tinsE (9.272 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. It can be formulated. The principle of minimum crossentropy helps us to determine how much smaller it should be. we must choose one from several possible optimization problems. Our aim is to estimate the degree of support for A B based on this evidence. as well as to the standard constraints of probability theory. smaller than uncertainty expressed by q . . and let A and B be sets of diseases that are supported for a particular patient by some diagnostic tests to expert system . Hence. where E (x) and Xi. that emerge from the maximum uncertainty principle outside classical information theory have yet to be properly investigated and tested in praxis.62). When several types of uncertainty are applicable.. we would be totally ignorant about x. _ ac ta:n h_ta:k E b: solv. but it is the largest entropy from among all the entropies of the probability distributions that conform to the given expected value E(r). It allows us to reduce the uncertainty of q in the smallest amount necessary to satisfy the new evidence. As a simple example to illustrate the principle of maximum nonspecificity in evidence theory. for example. x. which represent the new evidence. a and b. strife. Optimization problems. are given numbers_ When solving this problem. three nonempty subsets of which are of interest to us: A. which are distinguished from one another by the objective function involved: nonspecificity. possible interpretation of this problem. as follows: given a prior probability distribution function q on a finite set X and some relevant new evidence. 2.
9. it is reasonable to estimate the degree of support for diseases in A n B by using the principle of maximum nonspecificity.151).Sec. „Iyv — zyg (A ri B). (9_66) n B).K2 where (967) IXitA n BI IA1 • IBI and . The first two equations represent our evidence. the third equation and the inequalities represent general constraints of evidence theory. to the following optimization problem: Determine values m(X). by the requirement that the unknowns be nonnegative real numbers. they involve one degree of freedom. so we may rewrite the m(A B) log. m(B). for example. After a simple rearrangement of terms. K. Using (9. whereas the third equation specifies its lower bound. nr(X) + m(A) where a. m(A). n B) = a. 1] are given numbers. I.7• Principes of Uncertainty 273 degrees a and 1.65). the objective function can now be expressed solely in terms of the free variable in (A n B). The constraints are represented in this case by three linear algebraic equations of four unknowns and. The equations are consistent and independent. and nt(A (1 B) for which the function m(X) log2 I + (A) log2 Al + m(B) Ing z IBI m (A ri B) log2 IA fl BI reaches its maximum subject to the constraints in(A) +rn(A. in (A CI B) as the free variable. the bounds are max(0. a + b — 1) < tn(A 11 B) < min(a. m(B). 171 b G [0. (B) + m (A n B) b. only the first term in this expression can influence its value. ( B) rn(A n B) = m(X). Hence. in addition. in (A). m(A n B) > 0.t. Selecting. b). Ft1 — a — b) Iog2 expression as + a log2 14 Clearly. m (Z ) = 1 — a — b + m(A (9_65) • Since all the unknowns must be nonnegative. we obtain in (A n B)Liog2 log2 IA I — log2 I B + log2 IA n Bll b 10g2 FBI. The use of the principle of maximum nonspecificity leads.. in our example. we readily obtain m(A) = a — tit (A n . This principle is a safeguard which does not allow ns to produce nu answer (diagnosis) that is more specific than warranted by the evidence. respectively Using this evidence. the first two equations set the upper bound of In (A n B).
when K1 ‹ 1 /max(0.8 . 9 (1 — a — b) Iog2 1X] ± a log2 fAl blog2 1.3 [0. b) The three types of solutions are exemplified in Table 9. Principle of Uncertainty invariance Our repertory of mathematical theories by which we can characterize and deal with situations under uncertainty is already quite respectable.6 5 . as given by (9. and it is likely that additional theories will be added to it in the future. Since A.5 10 20 5 10 4 12 2 4 .66). The theories differ from one another in their meaningful interpretations. this is a good reason to utilize the second type of uncertainty—strife.to obtain the maximum of expression (9. hence. and expression (9. When K 1 = 1. B. or use the measure of total uncertainty.5 .2 [A. computational complexity.61). b). If Ki > t then log2 K1 > 0. that any value of in (A n B) in the range (9. due to the linearity of the measure of nonspecificity.. it t (A n B) = min(a. given by (969).1yriri Ne 11A .66). min(a.54).2.2. These variations of the maximum uncertainty principle have yet to be developed. different theories may be appropriate at different stages of a problemsolving process or for different purposes at the same stage. as a more refined objective function. and we must maximize In (A n B).4 Observe that.274 K2 Uncrtaintybased information Chap.6.67) is independent of m (A n B).2 EXAMPLES OF TlE5 THREE TYPES OF SOLUTIONS OBTAINED BY THE PRINCIPLE OF MAXIMUM NONSPECIFICITY : !X i 1A1 5 ' 1BI 5 IA ri B 1 2 a . Based on various studies. . b)] when IC 1 = 1 m(A n B) = fmax(0. The use of the maximum nonspecifcity principle does not always result in a unique solution. and A n B are assumed to be nonempty subsets of X. rn(A n B) max(0.6) is a solution to the optimization ploblem. when K1 > 1. hence. which are considerably more difficult computationally. it is increasingly recognized that none of the theories is superior in all respects and for all purposes. and we mast minimize ni(A r 1?) .61 . The use of the latter leads to nonlinear optimization problems. then log2 K1 <O. . more precisely. and other aspects.4] 0 in(B) rn(A 171 B) 10. as demonstrated by the case of K1 =. generality. The complete solution can thus be expressed by the following equations: . robustness.68). K1 > 0. the use of the principle 0 MaXiMktril nonspecificity leads. a + (963) min(a. a ± b — 1) due to (9.to linear programming problems. given by (9. If the solution is not unique. 2 1 _i . as a second objective function in the optimization problem. The solution to the optimization problem depends only on the value of K1.. If Kt <1.21 . Furthermore.4 . a + b — 1) b — 1).131 are constant coefficients. this implies that the solution is not unique or. This is a great advantage when compared with the maximum entropy principle. 1og2 K1 = 0. In order to oppornmis lly utilize the advantages of the various theories of hN' q r. We may either add the measure of strife.1 in (9. TABLE 9.7 b m CX) m(A) S [. .0 10.
then either some information not supported by the evidence would unwittingly be added by the transformation (information bias). with the principle of energy preservation in physics. To transform the representation of a problemsolving situation in one theory. this basically means that we want to replace one type of Information with an equal amount of information of another type. contains information of some type and some amount. at the same time. each model of a decision making situation. preserving its amount. and the degrees of belief in T1 be converted to their counterparts in T2 by an appropriate scale. of a numerical variable remain invariant are known in the theory of measurement as scales. Transformations under which certain propertie. These moves. or some useful information contained in the evidence would unwittingly be eliminated (information waste). That is. from one theory to another should be based on some justifiable principle. which must be at least ordinal. 9. formalized in terms of a different mathematical theory. the following principle. T2. in a metaphoric way. When wellestablished measures of uncertainty are available in the theories involved. which are considered essential in a given context (such as ordering or proportionality of relevant values). . 2. 2. The general idea is Illustrated in Fig. called a principle of uncertainty invariance. .7 Prindpies of Uncertainty 275 uncertainty. are preserved under the transformation. formalized in some mathematical theory. This expresses the spirit of the principle of information invariance or preservation: no information should be added or eliminated solely by converting one type of information to another.8. we want to convert information from one type to another while. This is equivalent to the assumption that values pi correspond to values ri for all i = 1. the amount of uncertainty associated with the situation be preserved when We move from T1 into r2. n by some scale. or transformations. the principle of uncertainty invariance can also be conceived as a principle of information invariance or information preservation Indeed. the principle of uncertainty invariance requires that: 1.Sec. When we approximate one model with another one. the model obtained by the transformation could hardly be viewed as equivalent to its original_ Requirement 2 guarantees that certain properties. Let us illustrate the principle of uncertainty invariance by describing its use for formalizing transformations between probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty. we need the capability of moving from one theory to another as app ropriate. ›• pi+t and ri ri+1 for all i = 1. into an equivalent representation in another theory.. The amount is expressed by the difference between the maximum possible uncertainty associated with the set of alternatives postulated in the situation and the actual uncertainty of the model. It seems reasonable to compare this principle.  . T1 . at least ordinal Requirement I guarantees that no uncertainty is added or eliminated solely by changing the mathematical theory by which a particular phetromenon is formalized. 2. In either case. is germane to this purpose. n — 1. It is also assumed that the corresponding components of the distributions are ordered in the same way: pg. Due to the unique connection between uncertainry and information. 9. where only nonzero components of the probability distribution p and the possibility distribution r are listed.. If the amount of uncertainty were not preserved.
which are obtained by solving appropriate linear inequalities constrained by the requirements of normalization and uncertainty invariance.  . are not unique. in general. uncertaintyinvariant transformations p r exist and are unique for all probability distributions. The loginterval scale is thus the strongest scale under which the uncertainty ipariance transformations p ‹+ r always exist and are unique. or conditioning. uniqueness. in general.8 ProbabilityposAbiiiry transformations. Thus far. the following results regarding uncertaintyinvariant transformations p r under sifferent scales have been obtained: (1) transformations based on ratio and difference scales do not have enough flexibility to preserve uncertainty and. their basic properties (existence. such as projections. When the traz2sformations are simplified by excluding S(r) in Equation which for large n is negligible. the lack of uniqueness is a disadvantage of ordinalscale transformafions..276 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. . but. consistency) remain intact. not applicable. For ordinal scales. A scheme of these transformations is shown in Fig. while the inverse transformations r p that preserve uncertainty exist (and are unique) only for some possibility distributions. rr.. It is known that 0 < r < 1. and (4) ordinalscale transformations that preserve uncertainty always exist in both directions. 9. the obtained value of a is substituted to the transformation formulas (Equation I for p r and Equation Ill for r g). which implies that the possibilityprobability consistency condition (ri p i for all i 1.. 9 PrObabili5t[C kjrr F izution P ( Pi 13 2' Passibilistia formaNzaticri r2 . 2. (3) for loginterval scales. noninteraction. a transformation coefficient a is determined by Equation which expresses the required equality of the two amounts of total uncertainty. consequently. (2) for interval scales.9. From one point of view. in closed convex sets of probability or possibility distributions. are. in terms of secondorder properties. uncertaintyinvariant transformations p et r are not unique.. They nvsult.. it is an advantagesince it allows us to impose additional requirements on the transformations. Pram another point of view.) Figure 9.. uncertaintyinvariant transformations exist and are unique in both directions. then. for example. These additional requirements may be expressed. is always satisfied by these transformations. First. n).
19641.9 Uncertaintyinvariant probabilitypossibility transformations based ca scales. Tim principle of uncertainty invariance was innInduced by Klir [1990b] and further developed by Geer and Mir [1992]. The Hartley function discussed in Sec.1. which is abundant. a chronology of the main events in these developments is also presented in a paper by Harmanec and Mir [1994].Chap. Klir and Parviz [1992b]. Liiviattne on information theory based on the Shannon entropy.interyal NOTES 9. . and Wonneberger [1994]. 1988]. The original paper by Shannon [1948] is also available in a book [Shannon and Weaver. Jumatie [1994].4. p 4— r Figure 9. log. 9 1 was derived by Hartley [1928]. 9. is overviewed in [Klir and Paige. information are overviewed in a paper by K]ir [1993]. The developments regarding nonclassical measures of uncertainty and uncertaintybased 93. 9 Notes F rorn prObabiiiiieS b 277 &Lbijjtj. which introduces the welljustified measure AU of total uncertainty in evidence theory. it was justified on axiomatic grounds by Rdnyi (19701.
5  1. and Y . . 5Â8. c).6.4 0 0 0 0.. (c) some of the fuzzy rutaims specified in Table 5.5/17+ . where X = (1.9.3 . 1.2/g. Eir(Xil"). E(m i ).4 (pp.7 R . axe given in Table 9. and NS(m i) for each  . . 0» which of the basic assigornents represent aoniriteractive marginal bodies of evidenoe.9 .s: (a) A. . (e) 3r (1. miG0= ni2((c}) =. • 9.31.4ff (11) fuzzy relation R defined by the matrix [ 1 . CossWar the following basic assignments defined on X = (a. 2. 2. Six joint basic assignments on X x Y. their marginals on the assumption of noninteraction. S(mi). Calculate the nonspecificity and fuzziness for eatzh of. zr (1. + lid ± . (d) fuzzy sets in Fig. and their measures of strife.4 (p. and total uncertainty for all the given joint basic assignments as well as the associated marginal basic assignments (projections). b.3/a +. 227).. 9 EXERCISES 9. Focal elements are specified in the table by their characteristic functions. = . 101: (a) A(x) x /10.„ and U(YIX).4 0 .7 Prove that the nonspecificity function N defined by (936) is subaddilive and additive. pr.3. 1Y6(20 7n 2 abb = . Calculate N(fa i ). Determine(a) which of the basic assignments represent probability or possibility measures.9 . 150).3.x mi((c)) = mz(iai) rrtA{c}) ((b.71g + .5 1.4 (p. 9.3. 8.5 1 0 . nonspecificity. 150). Lr(X.8 0 93 For some relations on X < Y specified in TabLe 5. 3. . and check the additivity properties of the three measures for basic assignments that represent noninteractive marginals. CuEowing fuzzy s0. defined by the matrix 7 0 0 1 000 1 0 . 9. b. rn3 ({n. tu. 0 . el: < 5 and C(x) 2 x/5 for. C(nf ). Calculate the nonspecificiry and fuzziness for the following fuzzy sets defined on the interval O. and total uncertainty. nonspecificity.1.T(Y).278 Uncertaintybased intirmatioin Chap.2.. (4) joint basic assignments reconstructed from. (e) measures of strife. ( 3) B(x) (e) C(x) = x/5 for 5.2_ Cakulate the nonspecificity and fuzziness for each fuzzy relation involved in the procedure for obtaining transitive closure of the relation R.3.6). Calculate the Eluncertainty and shife for the following possibility distributions: (a) Ir (1.5 0 . 9 4. calculate U(1').
4n 4pmtv3re. _ . . (d) 4 r= (0 5 r . CR CP cP1.9. The only evidence we have is expressed by the equations rn(A n B) ns(A n B n irr(A c) m6. el 2 N. and AnBn C. 2S 8. $?:cD.1Z' . <D flCD CD .2_2_2_2).6(R) CD CI CD CD CD .2.1 CD0.4 m(B nC) nt(AnBnC)= .1. 'G Ej Q0CD CD CD CD CP nC. 279 TABLE 9. " onr. B). CD CD 0 CD CDCD CD0 CP CR CP CD CR CR CD 0 co. 0C>CD CD CD CDCDCD cpC) CD CD <D CD CD ' 2cz 6• 8 El CD CD CD In.3 ki la lb 1c 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 3c 1 0 0000000 010000000 001000000 000100000 00001000. and m(X).2. 1 B. 9. V . four monerapty subsets of which arc of interest A n B n C. Consider a uuiversal set X. A n C.08CD tn . .6 sril(Ri) . V 1 .0 00000/000 000000100 000000010 0000000n. . rl SgcDcD6 .CD CD‹RCR CD CD n.1on CR71 CDel oo . pn(A il C). Estimate.1 CD CD CD C. 4PCD CD CDcDcDcD V O c) C) = .2.. 000100100 000000101 00100'000 10010 10010 000000111 111000000 000011011 000101101 101101000 01E011000 101101101 000111111 111111000 011011011 111000111 1111/1111 mgRi) nix(Ri) QCA CD CD CD CD m4(Rf) rel. usiag the maximum nonspccificity principle. the values of rn(A m(B nC) i nt(AnB nC). CR CR CR mlf RI) c VV CD CP VCR CP VCP.Chap_ 9 Exercises JOINT BASIC ASSIGNMENTS FOR EXERCISE 9. . 02'. (I. .
The context dependency involves nut only meanings of linguistic terms. but also meanings of operations on linguistic terms. consequently. and ifthen.. of the available operations on fuzzy sets best represent the intended operations on the corresponding linguistic terms. Linguistic concepts are not only predominantly vague.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION Fuzzy set theory. tconorms.g.PART Two APPLICATIONS CONSTRUCTING FUZZY SETS AND OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS W. applied to a patient or a nuclear reactor. or talented certainly have many different meanings. concepts such as beautifid. the meanings of young and old change when applied to different animal species. and so on. functions. the concept of high temperature has two very different meanings when. which may differ from person to person even under the same CirCanistanees. and they allow us to fuzzify any desired area of classical mathematics to facilitate emerging applications . depend not only on the items to which they are applied (e. as °very ewed hi Part I of this text. a house versus a vacation trip).  280 . or. painful. the concepts cheap. We have to determine. they enable us to express and deal with various relations. These tools enable us to represent linguistic concepts most of which are inherently vague. or air travel. driving. provides us with a respectable inventory of theoretical tools for dealing with concepts expressed in natural language. It is now experimentally well established that the various connectives of linguistic terms. and they change even more drastically when applied to mountain formations in geology or stars in astronomy. expensive. by fuzzy sets of various types. but also on the affluence of the buyer and a host of other circumstances. We 'may go on and on.. the concept of large distance has different meanings in the contexts of walking. have different meanings in different contents. but their mennings are almost invariably contextdependent as well. We have to determine which of the tnorms. not. Par example. very expensive. the examples are ComitteSS. we have at our disposal theoretical resources of great expressive power and. great utility. which. and to manipulate them in a great variety of ways for various purposes. That is. and equations that involve linguistic concepts. pleasing. in each particular application. such as and.
Sec. fuzzy set theory provides a framework within which the process of knowledge acquisition takes place and in which the elicited knowledge can effectively be represented. In the second stage. That is. we describe some representative methods in more detail. and to express the knowledge in some operational form of a required type. These problems belong to the general problem area of knowledge acquisition within the underlying framework of fuzzy set theory.] 1' for some positive integer k. methods developed for constructing membership functions are applicable for constructing fuzzy set operations as well. The following is a general scenario within which the construction of fuzzy sets (or fuzzy set operations) takes place. We do not attempt to cover methods of knowledge acquisition comprehensively . All these methods may usefully be . X . X is a given universal set. Knowledge acquisition is a subject of a relatively new field of study referred to as knowledge engineering. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION: AN OVERVIEW Both fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets are characterized by functions of the form X 10. 10. the knowledge engineer attempts to elicit knowledge in terms of propositions expressed in natural language. Hcwever. The role of the knowledge engineer is to elicit the knowledge of interest from the experts. the problem of constructing membership functions of fuzzy sets is essentially the same as the problem of constructing functions that represent fuzzy set operations. have been described in the literature. For a fuzzy set. That is. In our discussion. as well as the problem of determining meanings of associated operations on the linguistic terms. and a knowledge engineer. 13oth fuzzy sets and fuzzy set operations are also employed. or other operations on fuzzy sets best approximate the intended meanings of the connectives. That is. It is during this second stage of knowledge acquisition that functions representing fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets are constructed. we overview basic types of methods that are applicable to the construction of membership functions of fuzzy sets and to the selection of appropriate operations on fuzzy sets. for a fuzzy set operation. almost invariably based on experts' judgement. Knowledge can be elicited only through an Interaction of the knowledge engineer with the expert(s). the knowledge is supposed to be expressed in terms of propositions involving linguistic variables. who are assumed to possess it. are not problems of fuzzy set theory per se. one or more experts in this domain. we focus primarily on the construction of menabership functions. The problem of constructing membership functions that adequately capture the meanings of linguistic terms employed in a particular application. While context dependency is not essential for developing theoretical resources for representing and processing linguistic concepts. The scenario involves a specific knowledge domain of interest.= [O. as approximators of meanings of relevant linguistic terms la given contexts.2 Methods of Construction: An Overview 281 complements. In addition. a prerequisite to each application of fuzzy set theory are meanings of relevant linguistic concepts expressed in ternis of appropriate fuzzy sets as well as meanings of relevant operations on fuzzy sets. 1]. Therefore. 1. In our case. it is crucial for applications of these tools to realworld problems. Numerous methods for constructing membership functions. in general. he or she attempts to determine the meaning of each linguistic term employed in these propositions. In the first stage. The various linguistic hedges are context dependent as well.
in terms of the least square straightline fitting with minimum error. in pattern recognition of handwritten characters. experts are required to answer simpler questions. best captures the meaning of the linguistic term represented by the fuzzy set A. 10. where e is the largest acceptable least square error.282 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. This results in four principal classes of methods for constructing membership functions: direct methods/one expert. For example. lines x for which e(x) . e(x). In the following four sections. which pertain to the constructed membership function only implicitly_ The answers are subject to further processing based on various assumptions. when e(x) < e.i. Then. according to his or her opinion. 0_ Given a particular line x. an expert is expected to assign to each given eierdent x X a membership grade A(x) that. Although it is often not feasible to define the membership function that adequately captures a given linguistic term. into direct methods and indirect methods_ In direct methods. The ideal prototypes are in these cases all perfect straight lines. that is. the expert should be able to exemplify it for some representative elements of X. experts are expected to give answers to questions of various kinds that explicitly pertain to the constructed tnemborship function. is a meaningful membership function that captures quite well the linguistic concept straightitess in the context of handwritten_ character recognition. and e expresses the largest dissimilarity (in the opinion of the expert) to capture the concept of lines that are approximately straight. the expert may define a fuzzy set of straight lines. indirect methods/lone elipert. . and indirect methods/multiple experi. Both direct and indirect methods are further classified to methods that involve one expert and methods that require multiple experts. otherwise. It is feasible for any concept that satisfies two conditions: the concept is perfectly represented by some elements of the universal set. S.3 DIRECT METHODS WITH ONE EXPERT In this category of methods. alternatively. and the compatibility of other elements of the universal set with these ideal prototypes can be expressed mathematically in terms of a meaningful similarity function. This can be done by either defining the membership function completely in terms of a justifiable mathematical formula or exemplifying it for some selected elements of X. In indirect methods. e(x) expresses the dissimilarity between x and Its best straightline approximation. for each given line x. direct !methods/multiple mperts. 10 classified. the function s(x) {0 1 — e(x)/e. The complete definition of the membership function in question by the expert is feasible for sortie linguistic concepts. we describe representative methods in each of these four classes. The exemplification may be facilitated by asking the expert questions of the form  "What is the degree of membership of x in A? or. in the most fundamental way. which are usually called ideal prototypes of the concept. easier to answer and less sensitive to the various biases of subjective judgement.
The degree of compatibility of a given object with the concept is then expressed by calculating a normalized distance of this vector from the vector (0. It is based on selecting a set of scales for polar adjectives (badgood. This results in the formula A(x) = E i=1 a. in a vector whose entries are values assigned to the object under the chosen scales. referred to as the method of a semantic differential. Assume that ai (x) . is well developed and widely used. This general method for 'measuring meanings of linguistic terms. normai blood pressure. Sshaped.One such procedure. A (x)) This set is then used for constructing the membership function _et of a given shape (triangular. E a(z) A (x) (10. etc. result in a set of pairs (x. depressed economy. chaoticordered. the questions may be formulated in reverse forms: "ligtich elements x have the degree A(x) of membership in A?" 5Ct A. 10. 1 when the proposition is valued by expert î as true.7). If "Which elements x are compatible with LA to degree A(x)?" These questions. It is often useful to generalize this interpretation by allowing one to distinguish degrees of competence c. such as high violence. fet ai (x) denote the answer of expert i (i E Na ). trapezoidal. close driving distance. One of the most common methods is based on a probabilistic interpretation of membership functions. More elaborate procedures are needed to determine meanings of concepts that do not enjoy this simplicity.Sec. (10. where A is a fuzzy set on X that represent a linguistic term associated with a given linguistic variable. Then. and the like.). generally. regardless of their form. and ai (x) O when it is valued as false.4 Direct Methods with Mu Itjpie Experts "What is the degree of compatibility of x with L A? " 2 83 where LA is the linguistic term that we want to represent in a given context by fuzzy desirable. (x). This results. or highly stressful situation. subjects) are asked for some x e X to valuate the proposition "x belongs to A" as either Mie or false. bellshaped.1) may be viewed as a probabilistic interpretation of the constructed membership function. is thoroughly covered in a monograph by Osgood et al. of the individual experts (1 e N. 0.4 DIRECT METHODS WITH MULTIPLE EXPERTS When a direct method is extended from one expert to multiple experts.2) . etc.) by an appropriate curvefitting method (Sec. the opinions of individual experts must be appropriately aggregated. Given a particular element z G X. the full description of which is beyond the scope of this test. The described procedure of direct exemplification and curve fitting is feasible only for linguistic terms that describe simple concepts such as high temperature. Assume that n experts (or. 10. usualunusual. for each object. 10. .) that are relevant to the concept in question and evaluating the concept in terms of these scales for each given object of the universal set. 0). [1957].
1[A n pl (x) Eci[ai(x ) .2).. Using (10. B(x)].8] (x) [A Li i[A(x). Observe also that a fuzzy complement defined in this way is always the standard fuzzy complement  .284 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. This means that operations defined by (10. different operations are used for different elements x G X. Then. we can calculate A(x) and B(x) for each x E X. we can combine valuations ai (x) and b.5) satisfy the inequalities 0 < [A n B] (x) 5_ min[A(x). and then choose appropriate fuzzy operators to calculate :47.4) and (10. and complement that preserve the Boolean lattice at the cost of losing truth functionality. A n B.3) (10. A and B. union. depending on the vectors a(x) and b(x). Moreover. it is easy to see that fuzzy intersections and unions defined by (10. B(x)]. defined oa the same universal set X.).5) Observe that fuzzy intersection and union defined in this way are unique. respectively.(x)i.bi (x)l. employing the genet lized formula (10.E. but they are not truth functional. (x) for each expert I by relevant operations of classical logic (V for for n. These values are uniquely determined by the vectors a(x) and b(x).[1—. we obtain 7 . 4x) PI (10. By this I:procedure. they are such that all properties of the Boole.2). both defined on the same universal set X arid constructed in the same context. These inequalities are exactly the same as those for t norms and r001:101711S. etc. However.B. Alternatively.5) yield for each x E X values which  coincide with the values of a particular tnorm and a particular c conorm.4) and (10. for all x E X. B(x)J. Let a(x) (ai (x)Ei Nep ) and 13(x) (bi (x)ii E be vectors of experts' valuations associated with fuzzy sets A and B. 131(x) u[A(x).A U B.an lattice are locally satisfied for each X E X. respectively. max[A (x). 10 where Consider now two fuzzy sets. We can thus obtain unique operations of fuzzy intersection. B (x)] < [A U B] (x) 1 for each x G X.4) a i (x) • bi (x)]. f [A U BI (x) = E c [a (x) toi (x) (10. that is. In general. [A n .. and then aggregate the resulting vector. and so forth. each fuzzy operation is unique for each x E X.
The second experiment involves the notion of aesthetically pleasing houses among one story houses of fixed width and variable heights. 10. Membership functions were constructed for each subject by randomly generiting different stimuli (each one at least nine times) and then averaging the subject's responses. 10. again representing the mean response of a particular subject to nine stimuli based on the direct rating procedure. The following is a brief characterization of each of the two experiments: ' 1. An example of the Jrnenibership functions obtained for the fuzzy sets of tall. the same method of depicting membership degree is used to give the ubject a random membership rating. The first experir nent involves the subjective perception of each participant of the notion of tall persons.1. perfomdbyNwichan The experiments to be described are based an the assumption that the interval scale is employed.4 Direct Methods with Multiple Experts 285 For some concepts (e. those involving aesthetic judgements). as perceived by a particular subject. A cardboard model of a house is used. these are described later. referred ta as direct rating and reverse rating. is shown in Fig. As a specific example of eliciting membership functions that characterize subjective perceptions of a linguistic term by different subjects. In the direct ratings procedure.2. • In the reverse rating procedure. not tall. Instead.. The righthand end of this segment corresponds to the membership degree of those persons who are definitely "tall" (ox to those houses' that are definitely "pleasing"). Two techniques. . Experiments were performed with 30 subjects. and the lefthand end to those persons felt to be definitely not tall (or to those houses that are definitely not pleasing). the subject is presented with a random series of persons (houses) and asked to use this method of indicating membership degree to rate each one as tall (or pleasing). This is reasonable since the graphs of membership functions elicited from/ different subjects tend to have the same shape. An example of a membership function for the fuzzy set of pleasing houses. and short persons. were used. very tall.Sec. which consists of a chimney and a triangular roof sitting on a rectangle of width . 12 inches and of height adjustable from 0 inches to 34 inches. 1984]. the results may be summarized in terms of an appropriate intervalvalued fuzzy set. the subject is then presented with an ordered series of persons (houses) and asked to select the one person (house) that best seems to correspond to the indicated degree of membership in the category of tall persons (or pleasing houses).g. The distance at which the pointer is placed between these two endpoints is interpreted as the strength of agreement or truth of the classification of each person (or house) as tall (or pleasing). 10. 2. let us describe two relevant experiment s Turksen [1982 a—c.  Membership ratings in both experiments are indicated with movable pointer along a horizontal line segment. The plots in this Ague represent the mean response to nine stimuli based on the direct rating procedure. It uses a life sized wooden figure of adjustable height. is shown in Fig. subjective perceptions of distinct subjects may be too different to justify their aggregation.
00 Figure 1 02 Membership grade function of the fuzzy set expressing the subjective perception of a particular subject of aesthetically pleasing houses (adopted from NeirWieb. 10 Mem bErship gxa de 50. 00 78 00 86 00 94. and Tarksen f1984]).00 62 00 70.00 10200 Height in inches Figure Ill Metnbetship grzde functions of four fuzzy sets expressing the subjective perception tall persons (adopted from Norwich and of a particular subject related to the concept of r 941).286 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. . Turksen Membership grmile 15 00 25 00 35 00 55 00 65 00 45 00 Height iii 1/10 inches 7500 85 00 95.
Sec. 10.5
10.5
indirect Methods with One Expert
287
INDIRECT METHODS WITH ONE EXPERT
dr
Unless a membership function can be defined in terms of a suitable similarity function with respect to an ideal prototype (or a set of ideal prototypes), direct methods have one fundamental disadvantage. They require the expert (Cr experts) to give answers that are overly precise to capture subjective judgments. As a consequence, the answers are always somewhat arbitrary, which becomes critical for complex concepts, such as beauty, talent, creativity, and the like. Indirect methods attempt to reduce this arbitrariness by replacing direct estimates of membership grades with simpler tasks. As an example, let us describe a method in which direct estimates are replaced with painvise comparisons. Given a linguistic term in a particular context, let A denote a fuzzy set that is supposed to capture the meaning of this term. Let x i , x2, , xi, be elements of the universal set X for which we want to estimate the grades of membership in A. That is, our problem is to determine the values ai = A (xi ) for all i E Ni,. instead of asking the expert to estimate values ai directly, we ask him or her to compare elements x l , x2„ , x, in pairs according to their relative weights of belonging to A, The pairwise comparisons, which are easier to estimate than the direct values, are conveniently expressed by the square matrix P = [pia 1, j which has positive entries everywhere. Assume first that it is possible to obtain perfect values p ii . In this case, pii aila i , and matrix P is consistent in the sense that (10.6) for all î, j, k E N., which implies that pa = 1 and Ai = Furthermore,
E pij ai
for all j where
Eai =nai
(10.7)
N„ or, in matrix form., Pa = na, a
rat a2
Equation (10.7) means that n is an eigenvalue of P and a is the corresponding eigenvecton The equation may also be rewritten in the form
(P nl)a = 0,
(10.8)
where I is the identity matrix. This matrix equation represents a system of homogeneous linear equations, which have a nonzero solution if the determinant of (P n1) is zero (i..e„ n is an eigenvalue of P). If we assume that
then ai for any I
N. can be determined by the following simple procedure:
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hence,
al =
1
(10.9)
E Pil
In practice, the pairwise comparisons p. elicited from the user are usually not fully consistent. That is, (10.6) is violated to some degree. In this case, matrix P can be viewed as a perturbation of the ideal, fully consistent matrix. It is well known that when the values pii change slightly, the eigenvalues of P change in a similar way. As a consequence, the maximum eigenvalue remains cloac to n (always grcator than n), while all the other eigenvalnes are close to zero. The problem of estimating vector a from matrix P now becomes the problem of finding the largest eigerwalue A. F,„„ and the associated eigenvector. That is, the estimated vector a must satisfy the equation
Pa
—
Xa,
(10.10)
where is usually clos: to n. la fact, the closer is to n, the more accurate is the .cliinate of a. That is, the relative deviation of A.., from n, (X n)/ n, may be employed as a measure of the accuracy of the obtained estimate. Various numerical methods for obtaining the largest eigenvalue and the associated eigenvector are available, but coverage of them does not belong in this text. We should mention, however, that an initial estimate of a by (10.9) is in many cases sufficiently accurate,' and no further procedure is needed. Fuzzy sets obtained by the described method are not normal. We can normalize them by divIding each entry of the estimated vector a by its largest entry.
—
10.6
INDIRECT METHODS WITH MULTIPLE EXPERTS
Let us illustrate methods in this category by describing an interesting method, which enables us to determine degrees &competence of participating experts, which are then utilized, together with the experts' judgments, for calculating grades of membership of relevant elements in the fuzzy set that is supposed to represent a given linguistic concept. The method is based on the assumption that, in general, the concept in question is ndimensional (based on n distinct features), each defined on R. Hence, the universal set on which the concept is defined is W. Let kit ] denote the interval of values of feature j that in the opinion of expert i, relate to the concept in question (i E N„„ j e NO. The full opinion of expert regarding the relevance of elements (nAuples) cf IEFT to the concept is then expressed by the hyperparallelepiped
hi —
With m experts, we obtain in hyperparallelepipeds of this form, one for each expert. Membership function of the fuzzy set by which the concept is to be represented is then constructed by the following algorithmic procedure:
Sec. 10.6
Indirect Methods with Multiple Experts
289
L For each j , ennAider all intervals obtained from the experts, and con s truct a union of each subset of intervals that overlap. This results in a set of nonoverlapping intervals
(j E N ti E Nmd.
where m is an appropriate integer for each j,
2. Employing the intervals obtained in Step 1, construct the hyperparallelepipeds
gk =1.1 1,,571„i
for all k e
X [1 E Din }
T2sd X
K.
X Llni,
t2, t„)iti e j 3. Evaluate for each x e ek the function
when gk n hi 0 0 otherwise,
where i E 4. Let r = J. (r denotes the number of an iteration). 5. Define the initial coefficients of competence, rci, the same for all experts:
1 = — for all rn
i e Tim
(r =
6. Calculate approximate grades of membership, 114(x), of dements (ntuples) x in fizzy set A that, according to experts testimony, represent the given concept by the formula
for all x E gs, and all k E K where values rci are assumed to be normalized in the sense that i=t 7. For each t L. calculate the aggregated difference
r61 =
itEK LW&
['A (x)  VE(X)1 2
between the opinion of expert i and the opinion of the whole group of participating experts in iteration r. 8. Calculate hi = 1/z. 9, Increase r by one. 10. Calculate rci = r U. If max r e, where e is a small positive number chosen by the knowledge engineer, then we take A (x) = r (x) for all x E ge and all k c K (assuming that for any k IC); otherwise, go to Step 6. A (x) 0 for all x
290
Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets CONSTRUCTIONS FROM SAMPLE DATA
Chap. to
10.7
of membership grades for some elementa of the given universal set X_ We restrict our discussions to the case X = R.. Two approaches to this problem are overviewed. One of them is based on the mathematical theory of curve fitting, which is exemplified here by two methods, the method of Lagrange interpolation and the leastsquare error method. The other approach is based on learning through artificial neural networks and employs the method of backpropagation.
In each of the discussed methods, we assume that .•11 sample data
In this section, we address the problem of constructing a membership function from samples
(10.11) ai), (x2, az) • • (rnt ay..) are given, where xi E X R) for each t N„, and ai is a given grade of membership of xi in a fuzzy set A (i.e., ai A(x i )). The problem is to determine the whole membership function A.
(xi
Lagrange interpolation
The method of Lagrange interpolation is a curvefitting method in which the constructed
function is assumed to be expressed by a suitable polynomial form. According to this method, the function f employed for the interpolation of given sample data (1(111) for all x g If? has the faim
f (x)
ai L
(x) + a2L 2 (x) + • 
(10.12)
where (x al) (x ezi_i)(x — a 1 ) . . . (x — a„) (xi — al) . (xi — a1+1) — an) (10.13)
for all t E Since values f (x) need not be in [0, 1] for some x E R, function f cannot be directly considered as the sought membership function A. We may convert f to A for each x E R by the formula A (x) = maxi°, rain[ 1 , f (x)I]. (10.14) .A.n advantage of this method is that the membership function matches the sample data exactly. Its disadvantage is that the complexity of the resulting function (expressed by the degree of the polynomial involved) increases with the number of data samples. Furthermore, the method does not work well for values of x that are less than the smallest value in the set (x1 , x2, ... x„} or greater than the largest value in this set Hence, the method requires that the sample data be well distributed over the estimated support of the constructed membership function. Another disadvantage of this method is that the data may be overfitted, Example 10.1 To realize some difficulties involved in using this method for constructing membership functions, let us consider the following sample data: (0, 0). (.5. .2)., (.8. .9). (1. 1). (1.2. .9), (1.5..2). (2. 0).

Sec. 10.7
Constructions from Sample Data
29 1
These data are shown graphically in Fig. 10.3a. Using (10.12) and (10.13), we obtain function
f()
= 6.53x 6 39.17x 5 92.69x 4 109.65x 3 + 64.26x 2 — 13.66x,
whose graph is shown in Fig 10313_ Applying now (10.14),. we obtain. function A who graph is given in Fig. 10.3e. We can see on intuitive grounds that this function is not a reasonable representation of the data outside the interval ro, 21_ It can be corrected by assuming that the estimated support of A is the interval [0, 21 The corrected fitimtion is shown in Fig. 10.3d. This example illustrates that the method of Lagrange interpolation requires that the resulting function be critically evaluated and appropriately corrected . In particular, an
0.R
e re .
0.2
*
i
•
;1 .r 1
—I
0.5
tit
0.8 /.2
1.5
2
3
x 0.5 1
(e)
1.5
2 x
(a)
1
o
0.5
1 .5
Fitiare
103 Illustration to Example in.i.
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Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fumy Sets
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estimate of the support of the constructed membership function plays an important mie in this evaluation and correction_
Least square Curve Fitting

Given sample data (10.11) and a suitable parametrized class of functions f (x; et, fi . .), are parameters whose values distinguish functions in the class from one where a, .) from another, the method of leastsquare curve fitting selects that function f Gv; uo, the class for which
.
reaches its minimum. Then, A(x) = max[0, min(, f (x; a0 00, .))1
for all
(10.16)
x
The method of leastsquare curve fitting requires that a suitable parametrized class of functions be chosen. The choke may reflect the opinion of an expert or, alternatively, it may be based on some theory, previous experience, or experimental comparison with other classes. An example of a class of functions that is frequently used for this purpose is the class of bellshaped functions, f (x; p, y), defined by the formula
f (v;
r,
P,
= YeCxa)/S,
(1(117)
where a controls the position of the center of the bell, Ni0/2. defines the inflection points, and control the height of the bell (Fig. 10.4a). Given sample data ( 10.11), we determine (by any effective opt1rni7ation method) values ao, po , yo of parameters ot, 41, y, respectively, for which
E Ef y 17,1.
_
(10.18)
reaches its minimum. Then, according to (10.16), the bellshape membership function A that best conforms ta the sample data is given by the formula A(x) = max[0, min(L ytire(' '°321115)] (10.19)
for all x E R. Another class of functions that is frequently used kir representing linguistic terms is the class of trapezoidalshaped functions, f (x; a, )5, y 6), defined in the following way:
1(a —
0
8
when x <a and x
x)9
when a < <
whenp <x < y wben y .‹ ‹ 6
f (T ;
as
P, )1 , 8 , 8 ) =
9 ° — i5
— .09
—
(10.20)
y
The meaning of the five parameters is illustrated in Fig, 10.41)
Sec,
10.7
Constructions
from .5arnple Data
293
(a) Da 11sbaped functions defined by (10.17) (8
3 Trupezoidalsbaped funcnons
defined by (10.24
Fignre 10.4 Frequently used classes of functions to the leastsquare =rye tting tuethoid; (e) bellshaped functions defined by (10.17) (6 = At,f5/T); (b) 'trapezoidalshaped functons defined by (1020).
Example 10.2 To illustrate the leastsquare curve fitting method, let us apply it by using the class of bellshaped functions to the sample data given in Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.3a). First, we find that, Oren the sample data, the minimum of function E defined by (10.18) is reached for te„= 1, A = 0.164, and ya 1.074. Hence, we obtain function fix) = 1.074e 4`1)2"4 with L (f) = 0.0146. Now applying (10.19), we obtain function A, shown in Fig 10.5a, and E(A) 0.0091. This function is certainly acceptable as a membership function representing the given dais. Assume now that it is required that the constructed membership function A have only one maximum . This is a reasonable requirement when, for example, A is supposed to represeir the concept aroun d one or approximately one. To satisfy the requirement, we may constrain the
294
Constructing Fuzzy
Sets
and Operations on Fuzzy Sets
Cap IO
(a)
(b)
figure 1045 Two possible membership functions constructed from sample data by the method of kaztEquare curve Attiog.
Sec. I0.7
Constructions from Sample Data
295
class of bell  shaped functions by choosing p = 1. Then, vie directly obtain the membership
flinction
f which is shown in Fig. 10.5b, and E (A) = 0.0246. Although this function does not fit the data
A(x)
as closely as the function in Fig. 10.5a (due to the imposed constraint on the class of acceptable functions), it keeps the bell sbape and atisfies the requirement of a unique maximum.
Constructions by Neural Networks
Neural networks have lately been recognized as an important tool for constructing membership functions, operations on membership functions, fuzzy inference rules, and other context dependent entities in fuzzy set theory. They are increasingly utilized for this purpose in many application areas In this section, we discuss only the construction of membership functions. In general, constructions by neural networks are based on learning patterns from sample data. For basic ideas of neural networks and associated learning algorithms, see Appendix A_ To explain the process of learning a membership function from sample data by a neural network, let us consider the twolayer network structure shown in Fig. 10.6, In describing this network and the learning process, we use master symbols that have the same meaning as symbols introduced in Appendix A_ • The network has two inputs: input x, which accepts values ..7cP(p E Pia ) of the sample data, and input b, whose purpose is to represent the bias of each neuron and which is
Figure 10.6 The stracture of a neural netwoxk for constructing a membership trlaaion from sample data.
296
Constructing F0221, Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets
Chap. 10
permanently set to —1. The output layer consists of one neuron, ONI , whose output y is expected to produce value tP for each input value X P ; the actual output value is denoted by yP. The hidden layer consists of m neurons, fIN 1 , HN2 , Hisf„„ which are connected to both inputs and the output neurons as shown in Fig. 10.6. The neurons operate under a suitable activation function (e.g., a particular signioid function). Following the backpropaGation learning algorithm, we first initialize the weights in the network. This means that we assign a small random number to each weight. Then, we apply pairs (xP. rP ) of the training set (xP,
p E pin )
to the learning algorithm in some order. For each xP, we calculate the actual output y" and calculate the square error
I EP= — (yP 2 t P )2 .
Using E p (for each p E N), we update the weights in the network according to the backpropagation algorithm described in Appendix A. We also calculate a mom/wive cycle error,
1n E =—E(yP tv) 2 .
2
P=I
At the end of each cycle, in which each sample in the training set is applied once, we compare the cumulative error with the largest acceptable error, E,.„, specified by the user. When E a solution is obtained, which means that the neural network represents the desired membership function; when E> E„,„„we initiate a new cycle. The algorithua is terminated when either we obtain a solution or the number of cycles exceeds a number specified by the user. Example 103 Let the sample data tre the same as in Example LOU (Fig. 10.3a), and let the neural network employed have the structure specified in Fig. 10.6, with three neurons in the hidden layer (m = 3). Before applying the backpropagation algorithm, we nave to select an activation function (or functions) under which the neurons will operate, initial weights, and various parameters required by the learning algorithm (maximum acceptable error, maximum number of iterations, learning rate, etc.). Two neural networks that represent distinct solutions to our problem, which were obtained for different initial weights and different activation functions, are shown in Fig. 10.1. They are based on the sigmoid functions with fi 1 and /3 2, respectively. Graphs of the membership functions represented by these networks are shown in Fig. 10,7 under the respective block diagrams. This example illustrates that„ given the same training set, we are likely to obtain different solutions for different activation functions or different parameters in the backpropagation learning algorithm_ Hirswever, the differences are, by and large, rather small and insignificant, provided that we stay within reasonable ranges of functions or parameters, as determined by previous experience.
Example 10.4
In this example, we want to illustrate bow a neural network can learn from a training set a membership function that captures the conception of a "close driving distance" in a particular
Sec. 10.7
Constructions from Samphe Data
297
1 ,9


.a
.7 .6 _5 .4 .3 .2 .1 0
1


.1 .2 .3 .4 .
.6 .7
.8 .9
1 1 1 1.2 1.3 1.4 ES 1.6 1.7 1,8 1.9 2
{2)
Figure 10.7
Illustration to Example 10,3; /3 =1.
4 — — . 10 3 . .2 .6 — ..3 .6 L7 1.5 L9 2 (b) Figure 10.1 .2 13 L4 1.7 (comb wed) illustration ta Example 103: 013 2.4 5 6 7 9 1 IA 1.298 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap.5 1.
63057 0.7 Constructions from Sample Data 0.215/6 ONI (l) 20 (c) 60 80 100 Figure 16.2009. 10.00466 —1.1 0.41.3S95 1 0.25003 0.04506 (a) O .121 S4 1.52041 0.33768 299 0.478.47463 0.4447 0. .12023 0.43.1513.49 1 HN4 0.18711 2.0Z7ir 036E254 0.54018 0.4 HN t HN2 HN3 0.55079 0.32212 1.4.Sec.1  0.4757 HN i HN2 HN4 0.27276 0.26101 TV 0.8 Blustration to Example /0.
were pursued by Nowakowska [1977]. Hayashi et a. 0 10 20 30 1 . 19941. 1993.2 70 80 90 1013 . while the activation function chosen for the output neuron is the hyperbolic tangent function ea Then.000 eyolea. 1992b. 1994 ]. Assume further that the activation function chosen for the hidden layer is the signaoid function with )5 = 1. Wang and Mendel. can also be interpreted in terms of models of modal logic [llarnaanec et at. Hayashi. 1991..1. 10 context.6 is agai u suitable for our problem. 1992.8e. 1977 7 1978. 1994. 10. and Eihkova [19891  . statistical data were explored by Devi and Sarusa [1985 ] Ci vaular and Trussell 119861. and Triantaphyllou and Mann 11994 103. 10.4 .6 . pusibility theory. 19854 The literature dealing with the use of neural networks for learning membership f unctions or inference mies is rapidly growing. 1992. 19861. Wang. Indirect methods based on pairwise comparisons of relevant elements by experts (Sec. Smithson [1987]. 10. Keller and Tahani. rP). starting with the initial weights specified in Fig. The training set is given in terms of the following pairs (xi'. 1993. 10.8 40 50 . h (a) .. 10. This formulation seems promising biucc other thurieh.05 o 0 A neural network with the structure shown in Fig. Berenji.2. Nair. hua evidecAx theory. Experimental studies regarding fuzzy operation used by human beings were performed by Zimmermann [19784 Zimmermann and Zysno [19801. obtained by the backpropagation learning algorithm for 10. Berenji and Mara. 1992.. More general studies regarding the measurement of fuzzy concepts. the resulting weights. tangh a — e NOTES 10.300 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. the following are a few relevant references: [Takagi and ). Direct methods with multiple experts can be formulated in terms of models of modal logic based On possible worlds [Resconi et al. Overview papers of different methods for constructing membership functions were written by Chameats and Santamarina [19873 and Turks= [1991]..8b. are shown in Fig. 1992. Mir. and Kovalerchnk and Taliansky [1992] .. where zia denotes a with the particular driving distance and t Y expresses the perceived degree of compatibility of conception of a "close driving distance" in a given context: XP t. The neural network with these weights represents a continuous function on R4. including the notion of . Chu et al. and rough set theory. Methods for constructing membership functions from. [19791. and Dubois zustd Prade 11985c. 1992. 1992. 10 5 ) were investigated by &laity [1974. which is illustrated by the graph in Fig. Assume that the chosen network has four neurons in the hidden layer.8a (chosen randomly by the computer program employed). context.1 1 . Jang. 1994 ]. of uuœrt4inuty.
1 EXAMPLE OF VALUATIONS OF TWO FLIMFY PROPOSMONS BY TEN EXPERTS (EXERCISE 1112) X xl xl X3 x4 . in Sec. (7. (19. B(x1 ) by (10.2).). respectively. (9. (b) A (x.1). 1/4 1/9 116 1/6 1 1 17 115 1/5 9 7 1 5 5 6 5 115 1 1 Japan .6).5). determine the membership function of A. 0). . . 103. (13. 1 USSR China France 4..9).7). x4. Given valuations of these propositions by 10 experts in Table 10. x5} and propositions "x1 belongs to A" and "x.5).ri) by (10..) = (1 L 1 1 1 1 1 1. .0) in the form of (xi. [A Li B](x. ti) for a fuzzy set A. 6 5 1/3 1 1 Japan 5 3 1 17 1f3 W. Germany 1/5 115 1/5 114 7 5 3 3 3 3 1/3 / 1/2 1/3 2 1 10. .2). Apply the indirect method with one expert expInkied in Se. where A and B are fuzzy sets. Suppose we have the following sample data (0. (2. . Assume that the support of A is [0. _3).S. (6. _1). (3..(x3)=(01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1) b(x4)=(1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1) b(x5).A U 131(x 1 ) by (1 0.zy operators (or some other t norms and rconorms).1 1) a(x4) = (0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1. . 0 1) a(xs)=(1010000000) b(x L). determine for each xi X: (a) A (x). . [.8). Compare results obtained by different methods.1) mad IA il /3/(xi). U. ._ W. (20.s listed in the tabk in the fuzzy set of wealthy nations (adopted from [Chu el al. . . 10. 1). 10.. Using this method. (10..7. or diagonal (two kinds) 10. (15. Consider X = r3...8).:s A B 4(x1)=(Q110110110) a(x2)=411100111fl a (X. (1. (4. (11. belongs to B" (i E NO. Gen:0am 5 4 1/5 1/3 USSR China Prance U.4).(1101110101) NX2)7(iiiiiiiiii) 1.3).Chap. Using some of the methods described in Sec.4. . . (5. 20].7).K.1) and [A n 8] (xi).K.) by th cstandard fuz. a fuzzy set of straight lines is defined as an exarnpk of using the method of mathematically defined compatibi li ty of given elements with ideal prototypes . .4). clefirm fuzzy sets of straight lines that arc horizontal. (16. BC.1.6). (14.1. 19791). . (12.(0001101110) 103. 4) and (10.2 to determine the degrees of membership of the countrie. TABLE 102 Catiatry WEALTHOFRELATIONS MATRIX (MATRIX P IN EXERCISE 103) U. respectively_  TABLE 10. . (18.5). ..c. (17.5 to the matrix of pairwise comparisons (matrix P) given in Table 10. la Exercises 301 EXERCISES 10.9). vertical. (8.2.
An alternative method of evaluation is goaldriven. The purpose of the database is to store data for each specific task of the expert system. These three units. it is exemplified by the generalized modus toile= form of logical  302 . such data are parameters of the problem or other relevant facts. They most commonly have the form "If A. available data are supplied to the expert system. the knowledge is usually represented by a set of fuzzy production. premises with conclusions. diagnosis.rules. or conditions with. learning. of course. and an inference engine. and problemsolving capabilities of the expert in a particular subject area available to the nonexpert in this area. In this case. In fuzzy expert systems. is a computerbased system that emulates the reasoning process of a human_ expert within a specific domain of knowledge. which then uses them to evaluate relevant production rules and draw all possible conclusions. Typically. The klowledge base contains general knowledge pertaining to the problem domain. The first is data driven and is exemplified by the generalized mocha ponens. or research. In addition. understanding. then . planning. Expert systems are primarily built for the purpose of making the experience. design. on fuzzy expert systems. The inference engine of a fuzzy expert system operates on a series of production rules and makes fuzzy inferences.1 FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW An expert system. such as consulting. The data may be obtained through a dialog between the expert system and the user.8. form the minimal configuration that may still be called an expert system. The kernel of any expert system consists of a knowledge base (also called a longterm memory). which connect antecedents with consequences. ILL Let us describe the role of each of the units shown in the diagram. There exist two approaches to evaluating relevant production rules. together with some interface for communicating with the user. a database (also called a shortterm memory or a blackboard interface). actions." where A and B are fuzzy sets.11 APPROXIMATE REASONING 11. Other data may be obtained by the inference of the expert system. as the name suggests. decision support. they may be designed for various specific activities. Our focus is. A typical architecture of an expert system is depicted by the block diagram in Fig.
The inference engine may also use knowledge regarding the fu2zy production rules in the knowledge base. is located in the unit called a metaknowledge base. This type of knowledge. inetabiowledge.. in its search for the required data. BASE . whose appropriate name is. these data are found either in the knowledge base. Moreover.. Similarly. Here.Sec. inference. it is commonly called forward chaining. Since the datadriven method proceeds from IF clauses to MEN clauses in the chain through the production rules. if certain data are difficult to obtain.1 Fumy Expert Systems: An Overview USER I 303 EXPERT A r" KNOWLEDGE ACQUISMON MODULE EXPLANATORY INTERFACE 1 ! KNOWLEDGE BASE iN FER ENCE ENGINE DATA RASE 1 1 1 'ef Dil ETAKNOWL MG E .. it is commonly referred to as backward charting. EXPERT SYSTEM 1 Figure 11. or by querying the user. since the goaldriven method proceeds backward.1 Architecture of an expert system. the expèrt system searches for data specified in the IF clauses of production rules that will lead to the objective. This unit contains rules about the use .. and these are only potentially necessary. then the backwardchaining method is clearly superior. since only the rules leading to the objective need to be evaluated.(. from the THEN clauses (objectives) to the IF clauses. in the THEN clauses of other production rules. it . Backward chaining has the advantage of speed.
a fuzzy implication. p q. from the restricted domain (0. This capability is crucial for building user confidence in the expert system. defines the truth value. While these forms an equivalent in cla4sical logic. In general. omissions. prescribe. b E (0. or rather merarules. their extensions to fuzzy logic arc not equivalent and result in distinct classes of fuzzy implications. It is also very important for the identification of errors. b of given fuzzy propositions p. It enables the user to determine bow the expert system obtained various intermediate or final conclusions. of the conditional proposition If p. 11 x [0. or why specific information is being requested from the user. for example. by which fuzzy productions can be learned from exampies obtained from human experts. This material is. In general. where a. An inference engine embedded in an appropriate expert system shell is thus. The actual design of fuzzy expert systems or even inference engines for approximate reasoning is beyond the scope of this book. However. we guide the reader through the literature on this topic in Note 11. this unit must implement suitable algorithms for machine learning. 11.. Ra. and so on. makes it possible to update the knowledge base or metaknowledge base through interaction with relevant human experts. The primary purpose of the rnetaknowledge base is to simplify computation by pruning unnecessary paths in the search space. The applicability of an expert system shell is not necessarily restricted to one particular knowledge domain. for different expert systems. This fact makes the concept of fuzzy implication somewhat complicated The purpose of this section is to discuss the  ." This function should be an extension of the classical implication. require precedences in applying certain production mies under various conditions or whether a needed fact should be inferred or requested from the user.304 Approximate Reasoning Chap. 3. which for any possible truth values a. q. 11 of production rules in the knowiedge base. 1]. inconsistencies. in principle. 11. thus. These rules.1. 3 can be defined in several distinct forms. which is usually referred to as approximate reaavnirw. 1] of truth values in fuzzy logic. the remaining structure is usually referred to as an expert system shell. 11 [0. respectively. The knowledge acquisition module. then q. essential for the design of inference engines for fuzzy expert systems. such as algorithms conceptualized in terms of artificial neural networks (Appendix A) or genetic algorithms (Appendix B). is a function of the form : [0. 1) to the full domain [0. The explanatory interface facilitates communication between. In classical logic. stopping criteria. which is included only in some expert systems.2 FUZZY IMPLICATIONS The logic operation of implication is as essential for approximate reasoning as it is for reasoning within classical two valued logic. This capability allows the expert system to expand or modify its knowledge base or rnetaknowledge base through feedback during operation. The purpose of this chaptei is to cover fundamentals of reasoning based on fuzzy production rules. reusable for different domains of knowledge and. during the debugging of the knowledge base or inference engine. When the knowledge domain is removed from an expert system. the user and the expert system. b).
Specific implication operators are obtained by choosing specific tnorms. (11. (11. Equations (11. as either 3(a. h and negation as a fuzzy union (t conornn) and a fuzzy complement.2). due. Let us examine each of these classes by looking at a few examples and discussing some general properties of the class.6) pertaining to classical logic are equivalent. (113). and (11. as relevant in each class. which are usually referred to in the literature as Simplications (the symbol S is often used for denoting rconorms). while definitions (11. u and i are dual with respect to c).4). 11 where i denotes a continuous fuzzy intersection. 11. b) = naax(x {0. b) = u(c(a).e.2).4) for all a. To denote specific fuzzy implications. 11 i (a. b E 10.7) (11.8) 3(a. b) = or y (a A b) (115) (116) The extensions of these equations in fuzzy logic are. (11. or fuzzy complements. b) (11. Interpreting the conjunction in this formula as a fuzzy intersection (tnorm). we interpret the disjunction for all a.2 Fuzzy Implications 305 issues involved in a comprehensive manner and to overview the specific operators of fuzzy implications that are most common in the literature.8) thus yield distinct classes of fuzzy implication operators.7). This results  in defining a in fuzzy logic by the formula a (a.. First. their cdunterparts in fuzzy logic—(11. The following are examples of four wellknown Simplications. While the definitions (11. respectively. 1} I a A x < b} for all a.3) of implication in classical logic are equivalent. (11. we adopt symbols that are usually used for them in the literature. Ll(a. We also adopt names that are commonly used for these implications. 11. x) b} (11. b E 10.3) Another way of defining J in classical logic is to employ the formula 3(a.1) and (11. and (11. 1]. tconorms. where u and c denote (11. respectively— are distinct (the law of absorption of negation does not hold in fuzzy logic in general). b E [0. b) = Try b (0.2) a fuzzy union and a fuzzy complement. respectively. (11. b) = where a.Sec. When extending this formula to fuzzy logic. let us examine fuzzy implications that are obtained from (11.1).7). and (11. their extensions (112) and (11. 11.8). b) for all a. all of which are based on the standard fuzzy complement and differ from one another by the chosen fuzzy unions: . respectively. Moreover. b) = sup(x G [0. to the Taw of absorption of negation in classical logic.2). a in fuzzy logic is then defined by the extended formula a(a.4) in fuzzy logic are not. One way of defining d in classical logic is to use the logic formula 0(a. Again.1) may also be rewritten. c are required to satisfy the De Morgan laws (i..
is the smallest SAmplicatiom FurthErrnore. b) max (1 — a. 1). b E [O. we obtain a. which is called a G&Iel 2. We do not deem it necessary to discuss this connection. u t (c(a) b) < '112(c(a). They ate usually called R implications. b) Proof: For all a. and let ai. b e [O. Choosing the algebraic sum as a fuzzy union (i. which is the largest tconorrn.e. min (1 . II by the formula a function ab defined for all aga. we have a i (a b) .4).(a. 1 — a b).. which is called a Lufrasietvicz 4. b).306 Aporox[rnate Reasoning Chap. When we choose the drastic fuzzy union u. he tconorrcis such that uaa. rz(a. which is called a Reichenbach The choice of the bounded sum u(a. When we choose the standard fuzzy intersection. 11. as they are closely connected with the socalled residuated gb semigroup. b) = ab. b) for all a. we obtain lb when a 1 when b = 0 otherwise. b) = 1 — a which is the largest Simplication.(a. aLs(a. • Since ts is the largest tconorm. Then g i (a. b). Choosing i (a. When we choose the standard fuzzy union. b) for all a. b) a + b) results in the function di.bc 10. we obtain .. b e Theorem 111. Let us proceed now to fuzzy implications' that are characterized by (11. [O. x) < bi 1 when a < b when a b. :5 3.1. g2 be 5implications based on the same fuzzy complement c and u2. b) = 1— a ± ab 3. we obtain s (a b) = max Euin(a. Let ui . b) < 07(a. we obtain gp. Similarly. aLs is the largest Simplication by Theorem 11. b) < u2(a. 3r. which is called a KleeneDienes 2.(a b) = min (1 . which would require that we introduce the appropriate mathematical background first. This fact is a consequence of the fo ll owing theorem. b) = a ± b ab). The following are examples of four wellknown R I. 3. respectively. which establishes that Yimplications based on the same fuzzy complement are ordered in the same way as the associated tconorms. 11 1.
Hence. when a a. 1—a + b). consequently. When is the algebraic product and u is the algebraic sum. 11. respectively. min(a b)].2 Fuzzy improatrcos a07 1 b/a b when a > b. = sup(x I i2 (a . b.. Another implication. although it cannot be defined through (11. (xii2(a.7). we still categorize it as the largest R implication.Sec. b) = supxzt <b . x) b) < i 2 (a. we obtain the KleeneDienes implication 36. b) It follows immediately from this theorem that Og is the smallest Rimpdication and < Oa < øg < Next. h) i2(a. we have ii(a. 1 ] . 320. The following are four examples of QLimplications. x0) < b L (a . x) b) 3 1(a.2. b} supfx (a. Let i h be t ncnns and let 3 1 .x) bi c (xli i (a r) Hence. let us examine fuzzy implications based on (11.} = which is called a Goguen 3. a Fx — 1) = rain(1. the Lukasiewicz implication is both Simplication and R 4. 02 be Rimplications based on i . The choke of i b) max(0.b) =1— a ± ab. b) for all Proof: Since for all . we obtain gy (a. For this reason. b) > (a. . where the znorm i and rconorm u are required to be dual with respect to the complement c. 1 ]. x) bl and. When t is the bounded difference and u is the bounded sum.zu (xli2 (a. (a.E [0. xo) < i2(a. 11. It serves as the least upper bound of the class of Eimplications. b) = max[1 — a. rotall a. 1. xe e ix [0. . defined by aLit(a b) = when a = I otherwise. 3. Theorem 11. . b) 2 . b Li} Then. is actually the limit of all Rimplications. When I and u are the standard min and max operations. These fuzzy implications are called QLimplications. h E [0.  such that (a . a +b— 1) implication (bounded difference) results in the Lukasiewicz sup(xl max(0. Then 31 (a. we obtain am (a. which is sometimes called a Zadeh implication. b) for all a. since they were originally employed in quantum logic. 2. in all of which the standard fuzzy complement is assumed.4).
1. a < b implies a(a. g g (1 — b = A(a b). The following combinations.1). b). 3 (a. Axiom 6. b). x)) (exchange property). Axiom 4. This means that the truth value of fuzzy implications increases as the truth value of the antecedent decreases. When i . This means that the truth value of fuzzy implications increases as the truth value of the consequent increases. Axiom 2. g(a.17. This means that the truth does not imply anything. for example.(1 — b. 08. All fuzzy implications are obtained by generalizing the implication operator of classical logic . We may also form new fuzzy implications by combining existing ones (Table 11.8) as a source of another class of fuzzy implications.a(r. This is a generalization of the equivalence of a (b = x) and b sgo. (nronotonicity in first argument). b) . a) = 1 (identity). b) as. and a = u. b) . x) > 3(b. A(I. but we leave it to the reader to explore this source. we may use (11.b)= 1. b when a 0 l i b . 308 4. Identifying various properties of the classical implication and generalizing them appropriately leads to the following properties. In addition to the three classes of fuzzy implications. Agg (a — b. b) = b (neutrality of truth). (a ==>. That is. a) a(x. 0(0. .. everything.) = min[g g (a. a) = 1 (dominance of falsity). bave been suggested in the literature: asg (a b) = rnin[aJa. 11 when a = 1 1 when a (a. For example. other fuzzy implications are possible. Axiom 1. 1 — a ) 17. Axiom 7. This means that fuzzy implications are true whenever the truth values of the antecedent and consequent are equal. which may be viewed as reasonable axioms of fuzzy implications. a b implies . 1 — a)1. they collapse co the classical implication when truth values are restricted to 0 and 1. Axiom 3. 2(a. x)) = g(b.1 — a)]. i„„. minta g (a .x) that holds for the classical implication. g(b. we obtain b f 1— a gq 1.(a b) = minfOs (a... (1 — b. Axiom 3. This means that the falsity implies 2(1. g(a b) 1 if a < b (boundary condition). 1 — a)j. which are predominant in the literature. bp) (nonotonicity in second argument). b. Approximate Fiaasoning Chap.3(a. . This means that fuzzy implications are true if and only if the consequent is at least as fille as the antecedent.
6. 4. 3. 2. 1  a + b) ' 1  a PsoudoLukasiewiez 1 (X > 1 1 . 7. 0 utherb 1. a' I.S IlliR [1. 8. 9 . 9 iniiiii(1  a. 1 .a .71. 2. 9  1987 1935 1990 Reichenbach Willmati 1 . 9 2. as ia D ‹b aI > b 41 ‹ 1. Kiir and 'Aima 1 I a'y . 5.Eaïly Zadell Gainc.. 5. 6. 8. 4.x{1 .a. 1 1.)b [1. 1. (1 + A. 9 1938. 3. 04 I a + a 2 /9 a. 5. ak mina. 6. S R.r 1973. (1 .a +. 4. 8. 5. b) 1. 2.Rescher a.309 TABLE Tt.v 1994 1 . 3. 4. 9 1969 1a Ots max(1 . 3. 2.b 1. 8. 1 . Yagn. b) a <h a. 9 • 1.b)ii  1. 7. R S. 8 1986 . max (b. 5. 2. 2. S Mill a <b 1.} 1a 1 + hr..7. Syniboi Canipiement c (a) Miss QL Funciion 8(a. .b . 7 1976 Gap= KleeneDients Llikasiewiez je. 6. _ 1 1 12' 1  a . 3. QL R. max. 4. 3. 8. 2. 7. 7 . 4. min(a.a F ab minfmax(1 . 5. 1 1 . 6 2.4 Klir iuld 'Yuan 2 QL 6 1  a : 7 1. 3. 4. 2. bji { 0 Axicnns /. b . 8 1969 G6tlei ag R Il h I1 b a>h 1. S . 6. 6. 4. 5. LIST DF FLJZZY IMPLICATIONS Narne. J. 6.a). 7. b) me. 4. (I  ?sentiraLukssiewiez 2 (w au._a . 6. 2. 2. 3. 4. 9 Ye.. Or 3. 4. 1980 1a 1994 J p.a 1a 1 a Li)] 4. 2.0 R.a. 6. 3. b).1949 1920 1987 g.a . 8. 3..
the. functio [0. but not vice versa. A function a [0. Axioms 3 and 5 can be derived from Axiom 7. 1]. These nine axioms are not independent of one another.10) for all a. This example can be generalized by using f (a) .9) (11. b) = f (1) (f (1) fa) f (b)) (11. we obtain the Lukasiewicz implication and c is the standard fuzzy complement. 0(a LP) = 3(c(b). Its pseudo inverse is  f(1)(a) = 1 when 0 <a < In2 otherwise. Axiom 9.3. This means that fuzzy implications are equally true when the antecedent and consequent are exchanged and negated.only fuzzy implication that satisfies _Axioms 19 is the Lukasiewicz Consider now the function f (a) 111(1+ a). For example. 0 is a continuous function (continuity). The resulting fuzzy implication is defined by the formula j(a. In(1 ± la). b) min (1. 1987]. Theorem 11. In the simplest case. when f is the identity function.310 Approximate Reasoning Chap. 11 satisfies Axioms 1 9 of fuzzy  implications for a particular fuzzy complement c if there exists a strict increasing continuous . 11 Axiom 8. 1 a 2b 1+a ) for all a.. a E [0. f: [0. This also means the following: given the standard fuzzy complement. 1 ]. . Fuzzy implications that satisfy all the listed axioms are characterized by the following theorem. This property ensures that small changes in the truth values of the antecedent or consequent do not produce large (discontinuous) changes in truth values of fuzzy implications. b e [0. where is a positive parameter (X > 0). 1}.3 to some functions f. and the fuzzy complement generated by f is given by 1a c(a) +1 a for all a E [O. . 1]. Then. 1 2 ] [0. The reason for listing the weaker axioms as well is that some fuzzy implications suggested in the literature satisfy Axioms 3 and 5. and c(a) = f 1 ( f (1) f(a)) for ail a € [0. co) such that f(0) = 0. Proof: See [Smets and Magrez. 1 ]. b [0. Ill Let us_ apply Theorem 11. but not the stronger Axiom 7. c(a)) for a fuzzy complement c (contraposition).
0).1 311 f (1) (a) = 1 when 0 < a < Ina ± otherwise. b) = mint!.1. let f (a) = 24/(1 + a). b) = min (1 . This class of fuzzy implications is based on f (a) = Some of the main fuzzy implications discussed in the literature are summarized in Table 11. the fuzzy c (a) = g(a . the associated pseudoLukasiewicz implication is not necessarily the only fuzzy implication that satisfies Axioms 19. 112.aw) liw. To illustrate this point. according to Theorem 113. cw(a) (1 . Observe that 3. Another class of pseudoLukasiewicz implications. 1].1. .Ina Xa) for X G (1. 1) satisfies. Fuzzy implications in this class. (1 a ± b Xb)/(1  la)]. (1  a + where w > O. 3 (a .Sec. it is not the pseudoLakasiewicz implication 31 for X = 3. 1a and we obtain the Sugeno class of fuzzy complements. 1—a +3b+ab 1 + 3a — biab ) (a. However.2 Fuzzy InvRations ea . Under this fuzzy complement (Sugeno complement for X 3). is defmed by the formula gia. (I. b [0. The latter has the form 33(a. Again. cl(a) = awl the parameteriz ed class of fuzzy implications. Given. Axioms 19. a when 0 < a < f (1) (a) = { 2 . . Then. 11. a particular Sugeno fuzzy complement for X 0 0. we show ordering among some of these implications.a + 4)/(1 + 3 42)]. b) = tnin[1. which can be extended to X > 1 by using f(a) . for all a e implication 1a 1± 3a 1]. min[1. associated with the Yager class of fuzzy complements. b) increases with increasing A. a E [0. ow increases with increasing iv. the greatest fuzzy implication is on top of the diagram. . D denotes the classical implication.a 1 otherwise. In Fig. are called pseado Luicasiervicz implications.
11) (11. We recall from Chapter 8 that any unqualified conditional fuzzy proposition p of the form p: If T is A then V is B (. 11 513 Figure Ili Ordeal 1gof ftuzy ' implications. 11. Our presentation is restricted to reasoning with unqualified fuzzy propositions.3 SELECTION OF FUZZY lAfPLICATIONS To select an appropriate fuzzy implication for approximate reasoning under each particular situation is a difficult problem. and R expresses the relationship . where a denotes a fuzzy implication.312 JLR Approximate Reasoning Chap. Although some theoretically supported guidelines are now available for some situations. and we also examine some theoretical results pertaining to it. In titis section.1. we discuss some of the issues involved in dealing with this problem. B( r )) for all x e X and y e Y. we are still far from a general solution to this problem.12) is determined by R(z y) = 364(x).
and hypothetical syllogism. the truth values of propositions "X = x'• and "Y = y" are expressed by the membership grades A(x) and R(y). 13) holds. Let A be a normal fuzzy set. the compositional rule of inference for this special case should be or. involves a fuzzy implication in which A (x) is the truth value of the antecedent and B(y) is the truth value of the consequent. In the following.Sec.11) and a fact "X is A'. that is. Consequently. the truth value of proposition Airy . Now.12). B(y)) for all x G X„y E Y. ciN(A(x). and we obtain the conclusion "Y is B" by (11. Theorem 11.4. (11. given a fuzzy proposition of the form (11. we examine criteria that emerge from the three fuzzy inference rules introduced in Sec. That is. (11. some restricted but useful results are expressed by the following two theorems. we need to identify meaningful criteria in terras of which distinct fuzzy implications could be evaluated and compared. b)] < b for all a. The generalized modus ponens should coincide with the classical one in the special case when A' = A.13) for arbitrary fuzzy sets A and B.(x). respectively. the membership grade R(x. y).. However. contrary to classical logic. It is obvious that these criteria must emerge from the various fuzzy inference rules.13) This equation provides us with a meaningful criterion for selecting an appropriate fuzzy implication any fuzzy implication suitable for approximate reasoning based an the generalized modus ponens should satisfy (11.. in the classical modus ponens. we have to resolve the following question to make (11. B (y) = stit LA (x). _BUD] B(y) . more specifically. Proof: Since i[a. then id y. Let us begin with the generalized modus ponens. 113 Selection of Fuzzy Implications 313 between the variables X and y involved in the given proposition. 3CA. the fact is always given as the proposition "X is A" (Le. we have i[A(x).11) (Le. This is formally expressed by (11. Although no general results regarding this criterion have been obtained as yet. B(y))].12) operational: which fuzzy implication should be used for calculating the fuzzy relation R? To answer this question. let a = eat . 1]. where is the sup1 composition for a tnorm 1. y) represents the truth value of the proposition pxy If X = x.6: the generalized rules of modus ponens. modus tollens. d(A(x)." we conclude that "Y is B'" by the compositional rule of inference B=A R. 8. given by R(x. B' = B). For each x E X and each y E Y. According to this fuzzy inference rule. Since the meaning of fuzzy implication is not unique. it is tacitly assumed that A' = A). For any continuous rnorm i and the associated ak operator. b [0. Then. B(y)) = coi(A(x).
We show the proof only for the Wu_ implication and leave the other two proofs to the reader as an exercise. 'Then. Proof. Known results regarding the outcome of the righthand side of this equation for some fuzzy implications and some t.5.5) regarding the outcome of the expression xa are A unirnari7ed in 'Table 11. Another criterion for selecting an appropriate fuzzy implication may be derived from the requirement that the generalized modus mans coincide with the classical modus tollens. In this case.2 for sortie fuzzy implications and some r norms. It is now obvious that we can derive a criterion for the selection of fuzzy implications from each fuzzy inference rule that has a counterpart in classical logic.13) cover the whole interval [0. for example.13) for any 1norm 1. sup Ira. .3. wi (x). B(y))1 at <0. min(1 — a. fuzzy implications suitable for approximate reasoning based upon the generalized modus tollens should satisfy the equation  sup i [A (x). B(y)) = sup i [A (x). Hence.314 Approximate Reasoning Chap. 2.. B(y))] a c(A(x)) = supi[c(B(y)). Theorem 11. a>11(y) Known results (including those stated in Theorem 11. 1). and we have [A(x0). B(y))11. B (y))1 y elr (11. (A(x0). sup i{a. Let the range of the membership function A in (11. On the other hand. GrainesRescher implication 0. B(y))} = sup i[a.3. It is again assumed that the ranges of both membership functions A and R are [O. sup i[A(r).5. 11. B(y)) = (1. B(Y))i. X B (y).14) for all x E I.1) altt4 = maxi sup (a.norms are summarized in Table 11. (A (x). from the . Gödel implication gg . x GX (A(x). B0)))) maxfB(y). 11. gum (a. These results are based on the assumption that the ranges of membership functions A and B are [O. For all y E Y. there exists x0 e X such char A(x 0 ) = 1. Wu implication 3„. B(y))] x g. since A is normal.. y E Y. 11 for aLl x € X. the following fuzzy implications satisfy (11. 3(a. 0(A (x).
B B B 1 . 13] 2 1 —(1 + B) 2 1 max max I . For the generalized hypothetical syllogism.8 ass B B B B D ast a B D gst 3g! B D generalized hypothetical syllogism. we can see that the only fuzzy implications (among . C (z)) = sup ila (A (x ye?' ).Rescher 1 li 13 . (1 + 3)2 1 B B Reichenbach 8. Voillmott 2— B 11 max — B 1 p 4— 4 min(B.3 TABLE 11_2 Selection of Fuzzy I mplTcations GENERALIZED MODUSPONGNS 315 Name Eaxly Zaden Standard intersection Algebraic product I Bounded difference 13 Drastic Mimed:km B 1 Gaine. (y).Dienes h Lukasicuricz gv max [11 .Sec. By examining Tables 11.14) is the equation a (A (x).15) is sati. B (y )). 1 ].211.s .4. the counterpart of (11.15) for all x e X and z E Z. we indicate for some fuzzy implications and some tnorms whether (11.4.13) and (11. 11. The derivation is analogous to the described derivations for modus ponens and modus toIlens. In Table 11. C (z))1 (11. It is again assumed that the ranges of all membership functions involved are [0. B B Gadel ag ronsilm IN B B B ' B 3112 B B B Kiel:me. 1/2)] max 11 B B i' B B B Wu Otaill B B B B  B 7 It B B B .sEed (Y) ot not (N).
3 and Ia . Any general claims in ibis regard will have to be based on a comprehensive study.. 2 1 X oodet ag GOguen max max 1 .ri 7 Luicasitwicz g. A (A .. ri 1 max . .. Al 4 X A KleentDfents Ob max [ 1 . g. 71 Wu glilli AIX _X orOP max [l.A z1 .b. It does not mean.FL X A X A gs A 1 7 A . modus tollens.ri. A X those listed in the tables) which satisfy all the three derived criteria with respect to the four considered tnorras are the following four: 1. 1 . Xj 1 4 .2 . taking into account all feasible fuzzy inference rules (including qualiEed and quantified fuzzy propositions) and the whole continuum of tnorms. that these fuzzy implications are superior in general. 211 2 1— 7 X . however.. Xj 2 4 max [.316 TABLE 11. A. 1 Or 1 + A J 4A(x) A (x) A 7 44 A(x) A(x) < 2 7 4' X Willman awr max . X] 4A max [L.3 Name Early Zadeh Approximate Reasoning GENERALIZED MODUS TOLLENS Steurdarcl interscction Chap. This =Leans that these four fuzzy implications are suitable for the generalized modus ponens. CrairtesREvzher MAX 11 7..2)2 4 1 Tt 1 a. 11 Algebraic product LIMIC Elotiadcd difference I Drastic interaccIdon 2/. 4 max [ 1 .i 1 Rziatc. and hypothetical syllogisms..b.
4 Nam Early Zadeh G NEFIALI2Eil HYPOTHFrICAL SYLLOGI SM S Standard Latereection.See. h KleancDioncs gb Lubsieivicz N ad Reichenbach N N N Y N N N . Rig Y Y au ge. then is Bi IfXisA.4 MULTICONDMONAL APPROXIMATE REASONING The general schema of multiconditionai approximate reasoning has the form: Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule n Fact is Ai. Algebraic product Bounded differellœ Drastic intersection g N Y N Y N Y Ar Y AT GaLikesRescher 3. Y N N Y g wiilmort Wu PT Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y r Y Y Y Y g. Goguen Y iv Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y . Y Y r y 11. 1 1A MOIconditional Approximate Reasoning 317 TABLE 11. Gadel a. then is B2 If If X is X is A' thei:a is Conclusion : is ..
R(x. B i (y)] = sup sup[min(A1 (x). 13f.. and a fact "X is A'. y)1 (A' R)(y).then rule j in terms of the height of intersection of the associated sets A' and Al. Then. which expresses the degree to which the antecedent A f is compatible with the given fact A'. B i (y))1 xer ze2 feN. B')1 jENT. The interpolation method is actually a special case of the compositional rule of inference. using n Aj ) the standard fuzzy intersection. rules 1 through n.16) is referred to as a method of interpolation. ' = sup =Lizt[A'(x).17) Step 2.17). assume that R is a fuzzy relation on X x Y defined by R(x. for each j E r J (A ') = or. y) = sup min[Al jEN B (Ai (11. The most ooraroon way to determine 13' in (11. It consists of the following two steps: where A'.318 Approximate Remcning Chap. the fo/lowing holds:  B f (y) = sup rainfrf(A 1). x el (11.18) An illustration of the method of interpolation for two ifthen rules is given in Fig.xer = sup sup min[A1 (x). . y € Y.19) for all x E X. That is.1:61 Bj (y))1 = sup rdia[A1(x). where 0 denotes the sup min composition. That is. 11 Given n ifthen rules." we conclude that "Y is NR.3. and X. (11. rnin(A i (x).18) and (11. for all y E IF. Using (11.' obtained. between the given fact and the antecedent of each zf. 11.B1 TOO for all j Step 1. r i(N) = sup tnin[A1 (x).Y are sets of values of variables X and This kind of reasoning is typical in fiVa'y logic controllers (Chapter 12). Calculate the conclusion IV by truncating each set Bi by the value of ri(N).1 (x)). and taking the union of the truncated sets. Bf (y)) sup rrkinEsup min(A t (x). which is selfexplanatory. sup initt(Ai (x). To show this.18) is equal to A' a B. Ai (X)1. Calculate the degree of consistency. A i (x). . 13.by (11. This equality can be easily demonstrated. x€. Bi (y))1 fer41. Bi(y) = sup rnintri (A). A 1 J(X). rf (X).
Wt. When Ti (At) > 0.16). Observe that the fuzzy relation R employed in the reasoning is obtained from the given ifthen rules in (11. B' = A R.16) may also be treated as conjunctive. This means that we obtain a conclusion for a given fact A' whenever r > CI fur at least one rule j. That is. 11. we determine a relation Rj by the formula Ri (x.Sec. we say that rule j fires for the given fact A'. The ifthen rules in (11. Hence.16). In this case. Then.in the following way. For each rule f in (11. U R 1. we define .4 Multiconditional Approximate Reascriing 319 RUL5 PULE G GIVEN FACT CONCLUSION Figure 11. y) = min[A (x).3 Illustratiou of the method of interpolation. we treat the ifthen rules as disjunctive. R is defined by the union of relations R1 for all rules in (11.y c Y.21) R . (11. In this case. Bi (y)1 (1120) for all x E X.16).
x . Hence. y)1 Je eNft = Pi e n R. First. ( fl Ri)(x. by these formulas are ordered in the way stated in the following theorem. sup rainfAi (x).6. For either interpretation. c B c B. The interpretation of the rules in (11..16) must fire.8.Rj (x. That is.21) or (1122).. after it is calculated by either (11. . xv.23) (11_24) (11.16) as either disjunctive or conjunctive depends on their intended use and the way RI is obtained. ._25) (11. y)] xgr Proof.oyy) Jot. all rules in (11. we prove that B A' Ri C A' (U R j) . 133 = f B= A r R. This is rather trivial. (11. we prove that B Ç Op For all y E Y. = B.70. there are two possible ways of apply iug the compositional nile of inference: the compositional cute is applied to the fuzzy relation R.(y) = inf A'°R)(y) inf sup min[A'(. 11 R by the intersection R= fl R 5 . sup inf niittfA i (x). Theorem 11. Hence.26) ( n R 1). or the cornpositionL rule is applied locally to each relation R 1. B Ç B. y)] y)] ieN. B.sup min[A f (x). and then. we have the following four possible ways of calculating the conclusion B': /3'1 = A'0( U f t (11. Next.22) We obtain a conclusion for a given fact A' only if ri (A') > 0 for all f EN. B. the realigns fuzzy sets are combined in either disjunctive or conjunctive ways. x'sx (x.320 Approximate Reason[ng Chap. to obtain a conclusion. since = B(y)./ The four distinct fuzzy sets obtained.
However. f (x). y)] }Erin x jN U A t ' Ri)(y) Hence. hence. rather than by aggregating Ri _ 11. Let us mention that this theorem is not restricted to the stprnint composition.5 THE ROLE OF FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS As previously explained. which operates on fuzzy sets involved in the given proposition. Rj (x.12)). y)1 xeX j N . R i may be determined by a suitable fuzzy implication. and to express R in terms of g (see. which is discussed in Sec. That is. Finally. Bi(y) = sup mintAl (x) U R i (x y)] zex f eN„ — sup sup min[A P (x).Eq = B. R (x. One of the key issues in approximate reasoning is to determine this relation for each given proposition. In general.27) is a general counterpart of (11.3. (11. Bi = 4 which completes the proof. One way of determining R. e. sup sup rnin[A.g. any conditional (yethen) fuzzy proposition can be expressed in terms of a fuzzy relation R between the two variables involved. 11.5 for all j E The Role of Fuzzy Relation Equations N. we require that the various generalized rules of inference coincide with their classical counterparts. provided that the tnorm i is continuous.28) . Rj(x. this requirement is expressed by a fuzzy relation equation that fuzzy implications suitable for the rule must satisfy. y) a[Ai(x). we can apply the compositional rule of inference to facilitate our reasonin_g process. B(y)] (11. 11. as discussed in the relations be determined by solving appropriate next section. R may fuzzy relation equations. we prove that .20). Furthermore. 321 B. as discussed in Sec. For all y e Y. Once it is determined. and. As criteria for determining suitable fuzzy implications. 113. is_ to determine a suitable fuzzy implication g. the problem of determining R for a given conditional fuzzy proposition may be detached from fuzzy implications and viewed solely as a problem of solving the fuzzy relation equation for R.Sec. 113.= n AP Ri C Of.. it holds for any supi composition. the equation to be solved for modus ponens has the form (11. For each rule of inference. (U Rd ) f€roi„ Bi. As explained in Sec.
The system of fuzzy relation equations (11. let us R = B. h is the ?1 greatest solution to (11. furthermore. R c (A V B) n [c(n) c(A)T' A. respectively.30). it allows us to use formula (1131) to test whether (11. (11.30). Then. respectively. We know from Chapter 6 that A V B and fc(B) c(A)] 1 are.322 Approximate Reasoning Chap. C c(B) c(A).30).30). if h giiiren by (1131) is not a solution to (11. For modus tollens. and i is a continuous tnorm. Then. if A V D ic(B) c(A)1 1 . 1 satisfies the first equation in (11. To prove the "only if" part.30) has a solution for R if and only if = (A I B) is the greatest solution. First. 11 where A and B are given fuzzy sets that represent.32) is satisfied. the required equation has the form c(A) = c(B) (11. consequently. the antecedent and consequent in the conditional fuzzy proposition involved. RCA V B since A R 1 g c(B)T. A satisfies the second equation in (11. the problem of determining R for a given conditional fuzzy proposition with antecedent A and consequent B becomes the problem of solving the following system of fuzzy relation equation: B= A c(A) = c(B) R (11.30) The question of solvability of this system of equations is addressed by the following theorem. Obviously.30). Similarly. following theorem establishes one case in which (11. Therefore. we need to search for appropriate approximate solutions. since R 1 C 1. Theorem 11.29) where c denotes a fuzzy complement and R 1 is the inverse of R.32) The then 14 = A B is also the greatest approximate solution to the system (11.30) has a solution.30). Hence. II. Suppose now that both modus ponens and modus tolleas are required. then the system of equations (11. there are no fuzzy implications for the given conditional proposition that are suitable for both modus poncns and modus tollens. . the greatest approximate solutions to the first and second equation in (11.30) has no solution and. We recall from Chapter 6 that this equation is soWable for R if A B is a solution.31) n is the standard fuzzy intersection. Second.' c(A) or R C [c(B) c(A) ] 1 since c(B) = c(A). Since Rc AC (A B).7. This theorem has at least two implications. where [e(B) c.30). When the equations in (1130) have no solutions for R. .4)) ( (11. assume that R is a solution to (11. Proof: The "if" part of the statement is trivial.
Let A denote an iiirervalvalued fuzzy set.8. and let 5.. respectively_ For convenience. y Y.A(x))] = nil*. UA are fuzzy sets that are called the lower bound of A and the upper bound of A. However. A (x) = A(X). Proof For all x E X. c(A(x))] = = miii[1. 323 Theorem 11. B and. 1 ] . (11_33) may be written in a shorthand notation as (11. that is. clearly. A becomes an ordinary fuzzy set. b) = min(1. 17) 1 ] . Its purpose is to characterize approximate reasoning with intervalvalued fuzzy sets. we occasionally explore some issues that involve other types of fuzzy sets. b) = max(0. a + b . Let i (a . b E [0.. (A and [c(11) c(A)] 1 (x. = A w B is the greatest approximate solution to (11.1) for all a. x) = coi Lc(B(y)). Then. b Luka.30) for the standard fuzzy cbmplement o' c. 1 .33) for each x e X.Sec. consequently. y) [413) c. UAL When LA = UA. Then.34) A =. 11. 1  A(x) ± B(y)]. This section is one of those explorations. UA(X)1 g pi. where L A. (11.(1 . It should be clear from the examples examined in this section that fuzzy relation equations play a fundamental role in approximate reasoning. [L A . 1  a+ for all a.6 INTERVALVALUED APPROXIMATE REASONING Although this text is largely restricted to ordinary fuzzy sets. 1] (11.35) .32) holds. be the „ (a .32) holds for any fuzzy sets A.(A)1(y. This subject is important for the development of inference engines of expert systems in any application area in which it is not sensible to define exact membership grades.siewicz implication.. (11.6 IntervalValued Approximate Reasoning E [0. 11.B(y)) + (1 . The basic issue of approximate reasoning with intervalvalued fuzzy sets can be expressed as follows: given a conditional fuzzy proposition (ifthen rule) of the form (11. more research is needed to fully utilize their potential in this area. (Ace: . Hence.
6/X3. x3 ).9/y 1 I. yi +1/x3.324 Approximate Reasoning Chap.t0c).36) (11.11) is chosen. y2. h ± 4/x3. UB (y)] for all x E X. 0 denotes a fuzzy implication satisfying at least Axioms 1 and 2 in Sec. Y tyi . let a proposition of the form (11. Once relation. we obtain the lower and upper bounds of the conclusion B' by (11. To illustrate the described reasoning procedure. 8 are intervalvaiued fuzzy sets deflued on universal Eets X and y. y) < T Ri(x .1/y2.1/y2 . = . respectively. y) = a[U. y) for all X E X and y e Y and.35). and given a fact X is Al . L. . a + b 1]. T = (11. Given A' we derive a conclusion IF = [LB. It is easy to prove that LROC. R is determined. where L R (I. where = (xi . y2).8/x2 + 1/x3 and UA. UA = 1/x3.g(Y)11 UB(X. x2 .9/x 2 + 1/x3.b) = min (1 . hence. 11 where A . U3] by the compositional rule of inference B' A' [L 4 .2.6/yi 11y2. Y2. R is well defined. Yi + 1/x2. U. and choosing i (a b) = max[0.39) where i is a tnorm and L. y2 + . y E Y. we have to use some interpretation of the conditional fuzzy proposition (11. One possible interpretation is to view this conditional proposition as an intervalvalued fuzzy relation R [L R.37) from (11.35 ) and (11. Assuming that the Lukasiewicz implication a(a. y.. yi +142. it facilitates the reasoning process.40): L B. a[LA(x).38): LR UR yt + lixt.7 1/x i . UN]. UR].35) be given. The choice of the rnorrn depends on the choice of fuzzy implication in (11.642.4/y1 + 1/y2. how can we derive a conclusion in the form is B' (11.5/x1 + . Y2 ÷ . Uor = . 1/xi.345)? To address this question.4/xi ± . R (11. Yi + 1/x3.38) as well as other circtunstances. Given now LA = . we obtain the lower and bounds of relatio n R by (11. LB .40) UBI = U4.6/x2±1/x3.4/yi 4. LA = 5/xi + . 11. 1 — a + b) (a. b [0.2 + 1/x2. UB = .
.collected in [Yager et ai. c (c) 3(i (a. Determine the fuzzy intersection. 11. b). Dubois and Prade [1991a. Gorzalc2any [1987. b. Let i and a be the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union.3 were made by Will:nett [1980]. Literature dealing with fuzzy expert systems is quite extensive. tO. Raha and Ray [1992]. Liehara and Pujise [1993a.„. In fact. a(a. b]. Explore fuzzy implications defined by (11. most ideas associated with approximate reasoning Were fast presented by Zadeh and later developed by other researchers. Wu [1986 ]. Important contributions related to the material in Secs. [1985]. ce = bounded sum. i(12. we deem it sufficient to refer only to books on the subject. (d) I = i.1. h ] . Assume that c is always the standard fuzzy complement. Trillas and Valverde [1985].7) and (11. and Kandel 11991j. Kruse. b. and Fodor [1991b]. and hypothetical syllogism: (a) 3. ) ) = gi(3(a. Simets and Magrez [1987]. ICoczy and Hirota [19931. Suppose that 3 is a fuzzy implication satisfying Axiom 'I and Axiom 2. 11. u u. 1 (a) 3(a. Thornber [19932.6. e). and Heinsohn [1991]. fuzzy implication. Oft and Bancher [ 1987]. Prove that the following equations hold for any a. 19921. 11.1. 115. Gupta :t al. This issue of fuzzy implication in approximate reasoning was addressed in an early paper by Gaines [1976]. b. b]. Hall and Kandel [1981 ]. (c) i hounded difference. b. fuzzy union. which axioms it satisfic5. 3(a. (a. 11. c e [0. in the following cases: max.2.] and Nakanishi et [1993 ] .„.1) and (11. Schwecke. 1987] are also relevait to this chapter.1. A few additional contributors to approximate reasoning should be mentioned: Baldwin [1979a. e))_ (d) (i (i2. for cadi fuzzy iaplication obtained in E=eise 11.Chap.2 and 1. respectively. (b) g. Giles [1982 ] . (d) On. 1993a.2. and Whalen and Schott (198514 EXERCISES 11. Thorough overviews of the role of fuzzy sets hi approximate reasoning were prepared by Dubois and Prado [1991a. (a) i = min. The first systematic study of fuzzy implications was undertaken by Ila_ndier and Kohout [1. Verdeway and Delgado [1990].1. To guide the reader. Perhaps the most comprehensive study of fuzzy implications was undertaken by Ruan and Kerre [1993] and Kerre [19911 Numerous articles by Zadeh . b). c)) = b).4. u (b) I = product. c))..2. Weber [19831. c)). modus tollens. ] (go. (e) 3„. 11 Exercis es 325 NOTES 11. c) u(3(a. and fuzzy complement generated by f 11. 11. ZemankovaLeech and Kandel [1984]. Prove that the following fuzzy implications satisfy the generalized modus ponens. The key books on this subject were written or edited by Negoita [19851. 0). respectively. 0. N. 11. (11) 3(a. g(5. Prove that Axiom 7 implies Axiom 3 and Axiom 4.980a.3) are equivalent in the sense of classical twovalue logic. u(b.3 iDetcrzoine. 11. 1989a.7. Prove that (11. Mizumoto (1981]. u = algebraic stun. • bl. Turicsen [1989].8). each of which contains many additional references to papers in journals or conference proceedings . Let f be a function defined by f(a) = ea for all a E [0.
If modus pollens is required.8? 11. what would happen to fuzzy relation R for Rule (1) in Exercise 11. If modus Miens is required.8. 11 A.11. 2) arc fuzzy sets  Approximate Reasoning Chap.8. B e T(Y) ( j = 1.2 0/Yi ± .9/y2. 11. for all z E X.15. y) =. Provo that Theorem 11.  .9/x2 + .12). 91/5C4 ÷ 1 1 /YL + .3. calculate .326 11. find fuzzy relation R for Rule (1) in Exercise 11. use the method of interpolation to calculate the conclusion 11. Generahze Theorem . find fuzzy relation for Rule (I) in Exercise 11. If both modus ponens and modus.0.10.R for both rules in Exercise 1]8. If modus pollens is required.13 . I is it f .14r2 : A2 = . find fuzzy relation .11. and B1 in (11. Given the fact . 11. y Y. 11.7 to multiconditional cases. . E2 = . 11. then 'Ef is Hi..9. B1 (y)).(A 1 (x). that is.13. 11. (2) If X is A2.2/Y2.6 holds for supi composition based on a continuous :norm j. then y is B2. Let the Lulcasiewicz implication 3 be employed to calculate fuzzy relation R i in 01. Ri (x. Consider the if then rules (1) If X is A1. where A i E g(X).12.91x2+_1/x3.24) and (1L26) for Exercise. 11. tollens were required.14. where A' = 81x1+.8.
Assume that the measuring instrument employed allows us to measure the variable to an accuracy of one decimal digit. expressed for each measuring instrument by a particular coarseness of states of the associated variable. the fuzzy seta are fuzzy numbers. a frizzy system is any system whose variables (or. [. Due to the finite resolution of any measuring instrument. general. In this special but important case. . some of them) range over states that are fuzzy sets. For each variable.15). are considered equivalent. Measurement uncertainty.05.. Each given state of a quantized variable is associated with uncertainty regarding the actual value of the variable. [. In gcneral. This uncertainty can be measured by the size of the equivalence class.). . when measurements of values of a variable can be obtained only to an accuracy of one decimal digit. . let us consider a variable whose range is [O.05). a particular quantization takes place. states of any quantized variable are representatives of equivalence classes of actual values of the variable. . Representing states of variables by fuzzy sets is a way of quantizing the variables.85. This example of quantization is shown in Fig. That is. To illustrate the usual quantization just described. two decimal digits. which is often an interval cif real numbers. Distinct values within each subinterval are indistinguishable by the measuring instalment involved and.1. 4. For example. and so on. The subintervals are labelled by appropriate real numbers (i. etc. . is inevitable whenever a variable represents a realworld attribute..1a. .e. 12. 1] that are labelled. states of the variable are associated with intervals O. 9.25).2.2. two significant digits. .95.2 FUZZY SYSTEMS • 121 GENERAL DISCUSSION ln. and these labels are viewed as stales of the variable. the fuzzy sets are defined on some relevant universal set. respectively. and the associated variables are linguistic variables (Sec. at least.15„ . is an example of forced uncertainly. Measurement uncertainty. 1.95). consequently. by their representatives 0. The interval of real numbers that represents the rangc of values of the variable is partitioned into appropriate subintervals. [. whose coarseness reflects the limited measurement resolution.9.. relevant real numbers with one significant digit. [. 1 ] . .. forced uncertainty is a result of information deficiency. appropriate quantization. 321 .2). That is. as explained in Sec.
(c) r:risp opted.it can be made more realistic by expressing the states as fuzzy sets. / 7E' •  / oF j AE •T' ' (a) around t) around 2 around .F arsawd . it completely ignores the issue of measurement errors. 12  F. Fuzzy sets are..of any measuring instrument to overcome its limiting finite resolution.g . around _T '} . results from the principal inability . Although the usual quantization of variables is capable of capturing limited resolutions of measuring instruments.325 .3 zraund 4 romd arenaid . While representing states of a variable by appropriate equivalence classes of its values is mathematically convenient.C aruund . i a OE . IF . Fuzzy Systems . 'r • .1b. This is illustrated for our previous example in Fig. . (d) fu. J. 12.7cry opted.1 Examples of distinct types al quantization: (a) crisp forced. Chap. the everpresent measurement errors make this representation highly unrealistic..6 around .. fuzzy numbers with . (b) fuzzy forced.2 around T LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW HIGII (d) Figure 12. in this example. for example.
the pervasiveness of fuzziness in human thought processes suggests that much of the logic behind human reasoning is not the traditional twovalued or even multivalued logic. opted uncertainty is of a pragmatic nature. One reason for eliminating unnecessary information in complex systems with many variables is to reduce the complexity when using the system for a given task. or integral equations.).ollections which are relevant to the performance of the task at hand. any system whose complexity is comparable to that of humanistic systems. for that matter. our contention is that the conventional quantitative techniques of system analysis are intrinsically unsuited for dealing with humanistic systems or. by quantizing a variable beyond the coarseness induced by the measuring instrument involved.. and their representations are the linguistic labels around 0. An alternative approach. For example. This additional quantization allows uS to reduce information regarding the variable to a level desirable for a given task. 12. the essence of this principle is that as the complexity of a system increases. it would not be practical to specify values of these variables with high precision. but a logic with fuzzy truths. around 1 . medium. Forced uncertainty must be distinguished from opted uncertainty. one is certain to strike a dissonant note by questioning the growing tendency to analyze the behavior of humanistic systems. classes of objects in which the transition from membership to nonmembership is gradual rather than abrupt. and high. but labels of fuzzy sets.1 General Discussion 329 the shown triangular membership functions. A crisp definition of these states and its more meaningful fuzzy counterpart are shown in Figs. and so forth. fuzzy quantization is often called gr. a description of this procedure in approximate linguistic terms is quite efficient. the ability to guntntarize information—to extract from the collection of masses of data impinging upon the human brain those and only those subc. Considering our previous example..See. assume that we need to distinguish only three slates of the variable instead of the eleven states that are made available by our Measuring instruiment. This important role of uncertainty in reducing complexity is well charaterized by Zadeh [19731 Given the deeply entrenched tradition of scientific thinking which equates the understanding of a phenomenon with the ability to analyze it in quantitative tenns. it is this fuzzy. 12.. for example. As is well known. It is reasonable to label these states as Ion. The latter is not a result of any information deficiency but. The basis for this contention rests on what might be called the principle of incompatibility. and fuzzy rules of inference. Essentially. and as yet not wellunderstood. Stated informally. respectively. logic that plays a basic role in what may well be one of the most important facets of human thinking. speed. etc. direction of its movement._ in our view. political. while forced uncertainty is a subject of epistemology.1c and d. around . economic. to describe a procedure for parking a car in terms of a set of relevant variables (position of the car relative to other objects on the scene. Opted uncertainty is obtained. .2. differential. our ability to make precise and yet significant statements about its behavior diminishes until a threshoid is reached beyond which precision and significance (or relevance) become almost mutually exclusive characteristics.as if they were mechanistic systems governed by difference. results from the lack of need for higher certainty.:mutation. Indeed. Hence. instead. . and other types of probLems which involve humans either as individuals or in groups. It is in this sense that precise analyses of the behavior of humanistic systems are not likely to have Much relevance to the realworld societal. namely. fuzzy connectives. that is. is based on the premise that the key elements in human thinking are not numbers.
These difiuculties may result from inherent nonlinearities. expressed in terms of relevant fuzzy inference. It is thus appropriate to cover fuzzy control in greater detail than other topics_ Our presentation of fuzzy control includes a discussion of the connection between fuzzy controllers and neural networks. The human brain takes advantage of this tolerance for imprecision by encoding the ta. Fuzzy controllers. tactile. large unpredictable environmental disturbances. degrading sensors or other difficulties in obtaining precise and .330 Fuzzy Systems Chap. A lot of work has already been done to explore the utility of fuzzy set theory in various subareas of systems analysis. rigor. the stream of information reaching the brain via the visual. The most successful application area of fuzzy systems has undoubtedly been the area of fuzzy control. However. . knowledge base. Each employs a. and other senses is eventually reduced to the trickle that is needed to perform a specific task with a minimal degree of precision. are capable of utilizing knowledge elicited from human operators. 12 By its nature. we can cover only a few representative aspects and rely primarily on the Notes at the end of this chapter to overview the rapidly growing literature on this subject. Since specialized books on fuzzy controllers are now available (Note 12. auditory. III). we need approaches which do not wake a fetish of precision. Control problems range from complex tasks. and an appropriate inference engine to solve a given control problem. 12. typical in robotics. to simple goals. the timevarying nature of the Processes to be controlled. a summary is an approximation to what it summarizes.rules. Fuzzy controllers vary substantially according to the nature of the control problems they are supposed to solve. such as maintaining a prescribed state of a single variable. and mathematical formalism. Thus to deal with such systems radically. Hence. For many purposes.skrelevant" (or "decisionrelevant") information into labels of fuzzy sets which bear an approximate relation to the primary data In this way. we also discuss the issue of fuzzifying neural networks.2). the importance of which has increasingly been recognized. or for which the acquired models are difficult or expensive to use. we restrict our exposition to relatively simple control problems. which require a multitude of coordinated actions. the subject of systems seelysis is too extensive to be covered here in a comprehensive fashion. and which erupioy instead a methodoLogical framework which is tolerant of imprecision and partial truths. a very approximate characterization of a collection of data is sufficient because most of the basic tasks performed by humans do not require a high degree of precision in their execution. the traditional techniques of system analysis are not well suited for dealing with humanistic systems because they fail to conic to grips with the reality of the fuzziness of human thinking and behavior.2 FUZZY CONTROLLERS: AN OVERVIEW In general. fuzzy controllers are special expert systems (Sec. contrary to classical controllers. This is crucial in control problems for which it is difficult or even impossible to coesteect precise mathematical models. the ability to manipulate fuzzy sets and the consequent summarizing capability constitute one of the most important assets of the human mind as well as a fundamental characteristic that distinguishes human intelligence from the type of machine intelligence that is embodied in presentday digital computers_ Viewed in this perspective. Furthermore. Thus.
While this knowledge is also difficult to express in precise terms. it has been observed that experienced human operators are generally able to perform well under these circumstances. The interconnections among these modules and the controlled process are shown in Fig.2. The vague terms very high. slightly ioi and slightly negative can be conveniently represented by fuzzy sets defined on the universes of discourse of temperature values. and a host of other factors. Next. measurements are taken of au variables that represent relevant conditions of the controlled process. a fuzzy inference engine. revectivety. where temperature and pressure are the observed state variables of the process.. 12. and famficationidefuzzification modules. A general fuzzy controller consists of four modules: a fuzzy rule base. The flizzified measurements are then used by the inference engine to evaluate the control rules stared in the fuzzy rule base. First. A fuzzy controller operates by repeating a cycle of the following four steps. This step is called a fuzzification.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overviaw 331 reliable measurements.Sec. The result of this evaluation is a fuzzy set (or several fuzzy sets) defined on the universe FUZZY COPMOLLER AcliOnS Detuzzikatico module If Controflecl process Con&lions Fuzziricalicel r6odule Mgare Ill A general scheme of a fuzzy controller. A typical form of these rules is exemplified by the rule IF the temperature is very high AND the pressure is slightly low THEN the heat change should be slightly negative. The knowledge of an experienced human opeirator may be used as an alternative to a precise model of the controlled process. pressure values. This type of linguistic rule has fanned the basis for the design of a great variety of fuzzy controllers described in the literature. . and heat change values. an imprecise linguistic description of the manner of control can usually be articulated by the operator with relative ease. 12. these measurements are converted into appropriate fuzzy sets to express measurement uncertainties. This linguistic description consists of set of control rules that make use of fuzzy propositions. and heat change is the action to be taken by the controller.
This fuzzy set is then converted. and so on. To characterize the steps involved in designing a fuzzy controller. we have to select meaningful linguistic states for each variable and express them by appropriate fuzzy sets. positive medium. negative small. e.3. the problem of keeping a desired value of a single variable in spite of environmental disturbances. into a single (crisp) value (or a vector of values) that. Let us now discuss the basic steps involved in the design of fuzzy controllers and illustrate each of them by this simple control problem. In this case. NM—negative medium NS—negative small PM—positive medium PS—positive small AZ—approximat4 zero Representing.Ly coutiollei in individual control cycles. Using values of e and è. in the final step of the cycle. is the best representative of the fuzzy set (or fuzzy sets). In most eases. which represents relevant control actions. assume that the ranges of the input variables e and è are [—a. 451. for example. & which expresses the rate of change of the error.sirect value ctf a saUgie variable. these fuzzy sets are fuzzy numbers. respectively. two conditions are usually monitored by the controller: an error. 12 of possible actions. 12. which represent linguistic labels such as approxiniately zero. c]. and the range of the output variable u is [—c. Disturbances Figure 123 A general scheme for e. we obtain the fuzzy quantizations exemplified for variable . 123. the fuzzy controller produces values of a controlling variable y. After identifying relevant input and output variables of the controller and ranges of their values. The design involves the following five steps. these linguistic states by triangularshape fuzzy numbers that are equally spread over each range. in some sense. let us consider a very simple control problem.332 Fu rzv Systems Chap. Assume further that the following seven linguistic states are selected for each of the three variables: NL—negative large E. This conversion is called a defiazification. defined as the difference between the actual value of the controlled variable and its desired value. positive small.autrolling a cle. and the derivative of the error.—positive large — Step 1. To illustrate this step by the simple control problem depicted in Fig. expressed by the scheme in Fig. The defuzzified values represent actions taken by the fur. al and f b.
shaped fazzy numbers. In some fuzzy controllers. Some intuitively reasonable definitions of the membership functions (0.5. In this step. if desirable.4 Possible fuzzy quantization of the range [—a. as more realistic fuzzy approximations of the respective real numbers. applied to variable e.(x 0 ).4 is replaced with values b and c. 12. 12. Then. for each measurement e = :co the special form f(x0) = x0. 12. It is obvious that. It is important to realize that the fuzzy quantization defined in Fig. A possible definition of this fuzzy number for any x0 [—a . For each measurement e xo. The shapes need not be symmetric and need not be equally spread over the given ranges.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview NL NM NS AZ PS PM PL –a a 3 3 3 Figure 12. a] by triangular . other shapes of membership functions may be used to represgnt the fuzzy numbers f.of all fuzzy numbers. (x0) is a fuzzy number chosen by L as a fuzzy approximation of the measurement e = x0. the knowledge pertaining to the given control problem is formulated in terms of a set of fuzzy inference rules. For various reasons. each expressed by a real number. a] and the seven given linguistic labels are only a reasonable example. often implemented by neural networks.Sec. the fuzzy set f(x) enters into the inference process (Step 4) as a fact. input variables are not fiizzified_ That is. The purpose of the fuzzification function is to interpret measurements of input variables. In this step. the fuzzification function has the form [—a. where e denotes a parameter that has to be determined in the context of each particular application. and f. different fuzzy quantizations may be defined for different variables. value a in Fig. a] where R denotes the sei.4. respectively. Step 2. a fiazification function is introduced for each input variable to express the associated measurement =certainty. for variables ê and I).4 for the range [—a. those given in Fig. 12. other shapes of the membership functions might be preferable to the triangular shapes. function fe has. 12.g. They are later modified by appropriate learning methods. Consider. as an example. Step 3. 12. Moreover.4) are usually chosen only as preliminary candidates. e in Fig. emerging from specific applications. There are two principal ways in which . measurements of input variables are employed in the inference process directly as facts. In these cases. a] is given in Fig. a fuzzification function jr..
. NM. then v C. 12 none 12. In practice. the inference rules have the canonical form . AZ.334 Fuzzy Systems Chap. è and I).ile base may be guided.5 An example of the fuzadfication function for l'afidtbld e. In aux example with variables e. (12. e = A and é = B. and C arc fuzzy numbers chosen from the set of fuzzy numbers that represent the linguistic states NL. One way is to elicit them from experienced human operators. B.1) where A. a small subset of all possible fuzzy inference rules is often sufficient to obtain acceptable performance of the fuzzy controller. PS.4) form the fuzzy rule base of our fuzzy controller. the total number of possible nonconflicting fuzzy inference rules is 72 = 49. seven linguistic states. as exemplified Fig. The other way is to obtain them from empirical data by suitable learning methods. by statistical data regarding the utility of the individual fuzzy inference rules under specified circumstances. Since each input variable has.2.6 A.h. They can conveniently be represented in a matrix form. usually with the help of neural networks. in this example. 12. NS. PM. Appropriate pruning of the fuzzy n. for example. 12. Figure 1. and PL . This matrix and the definitions of the linguistic states (Fig. relevant Inference rules can be determined.12 example or a boxy rale base.
Similarly. it is reasonable to define a degree of relevance of the rule (12..25) to conclude that the state of variable u is characterized by the fuzzy set . For each rule in the fuzzy rule base. then (e. Then. C i (j = 1. In designing inference engines. yk. When the fuzzy rule base consists of n fuzzy inference rules. 83. Let A(4). éo) = Mxo) X f(yo). we need a set of inputoutput data [(xi. n) denote fuzzy sets that represent the linguistic states of variables e è. in our case. ta. Measurereents of input variables of a fuzzy controller must be properly combined with relevant fuzzy information rules to make inferences regarding the output variables.1) into equivalent simple fuzzy conditional propositions of the form If (e. then 7) is C2 Rule Fact : If (e. respectively. é) is fe (x) X fi (yo) y is C„ Conclayion v is C The symbols A i . k) is A i Bi„. b ] . is Azx 132. (ea. where zk is a desirable value of the oirtput variable e for given values xk and yk of the input variables e and 6 . C (4)1. the reasoning schema has. allows us to avoid conflicting rules in the fuzzy rule base. 11. the problem of inference regarding the output variable u becomes the problem of approximate reasoning with several conditional fuzzy propositions. when calculated for all rules activated by the inputoutput data. . B(yk). then u is Ci Rule 2. we may use (11. B(y)] for all x € [—a. First. C(z) denote the largest membership grades in fuzzy sets representing the linguistic states of variables e. where j1 iz are tnorms. then y is C. we express the fuzzified input measurements fe (x0) and f(yo) as a single joint measurement. This degree. there is a correspondia relation R. we select the one with the largest degree of relevance.Sec. and K is an appropriate index set. Since the rules are interpreted as disjunctive.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview 335 To determine proper fuzzy inference riles experimentally. we may proceed as follows. Step 4. y) = enin[A(x). 6. te respectively..resp e ctively. é) is A x B. which is determined as explained in Sec. where [A x /3](x. the form Rule 1: If (e. In our example with variables e. 2. 12. zk )lk KJ. al and all y e [—b. Then. we can directly utilize some of the material covered in Chapters 8 and 11.1) by the formula [ie (it B (AP. 11 (e. 6. Among rules that conflict with one another. .4. which is discussed in Sec. we convert given fuzzy • inference rules of the form (12. /31 . é) is A1 x B1. u. This is the purpose of the inference engine..
The tnorm can be either elicited from domain experts or determined from empirical data. 5. dcA(C). The following three defuzzification methods have beeu predomiliaat in the litcraturc on fuzzy control. 11. is not arbitrary. is defined as the value within the range of variable y for which the area under the graph of membership function C is divided into two equal subareas.4) E C(Z. e) and u. i) are fuzzy sets defined on [—a. which are calculated from their counterparts for e and à by the m in imum operator. cwidz (z)iiz For the discrete case. Canter of Area M thod In this method. Step A number of defuzzification methods leading to distinct results were proposed in the literature. to a single real numben The resulting number. The choice of the tnorm is a matter similar to the choice of fuzzy sets for given linguistic labels. In this last step of the design process.4 can be applied to our case by taking X = (e. the action taken by the fuzzy controller.3 is the usual method employed in simple fuzzy controllers for determining the resulting fuzzy set C in the described reasoning schema.2). the designer of a fuzzy controller must select a suitable depazificatiorz method. The set to be defuzzified in our example is. the set C defined by (12.2) where is the supi composition for a tnorm î. the defuzzifted value. The formulation of the method in Sec.4 and illustrated in Fig. (12. The method of interpolation explained in Sec. which is sometimes called the center of gravity method or centroid method. 12 Ri. the formula is E cr(z)zk dcA(C) k (12. 11. Each method is based on some rationale. summarize the elastic constraint imposed on possible values of the output variable by the fuzzy set. The purpose of defuzzification is to convert each conclusion obtained by the inference engine. (12. This value is calculated by the formula dcA(c).336 C=U Ife) Fuzzy Systems fè(Yo)1 Chap. we take the value closest to it.s finite universal set (r 1 . It must. for any input measurements e = x0 and à = yo.t) If dc(C) is not equal to any value in the universal set. z2 . which is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set. Linguistic states of (e. Observe that the values . a] x [—b b]. . in which C is defined Ori . in some sense. 11. which deftnes.3) z„}.
9) In the continuous case. Consequently. C by the ratioscale transformation. raaxtzk izi. E M) (12. dcm(C). the defurzified value.c dp(C) = k"11 (12. dmm(C) may be defined as the arithmetic average of mean values of all intervals contained in M.Sec.8). (12. L—c. of c. is defined as the average of the smallest value and the largest value of u for which C(z) is the height. Center of Maxima Method In this_ method. h(C).6). and dmm weighted) to a particular fuzzy set is illustrated in Fig.v(C) may be defined as a weighted average of mean values of the intervals. value. dcm Aim .8) Mean of Maxima Method In this method. 2. It is now increasingly recognized that these defuzzification methods. for 0.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview 337 n form a probability distribution obtained from the membership function . Alternatively. That is. For the discrete case.7. 12.6) dcm (C) where min(zklzk E M) 2 M = tzklC(zk) =h(C)).10) a E CP (zk) k=1 . 6/CM (C) = inf M + sup M (12. may be viewed as special members of parametrized families of defuzzification methods. 12. E dmm(C) zl€41 zk (12. the defuzzified value dcA(C) obtained by formula (114) can be interpreted as an expected value of variable u. in which the weights ari interpreted as the relative lengths of the intervals. is the average of all values in the crisp set M defined by (12. dm. when M is given by (12. which is usually defined only for the discrete case. k =1 1.5) where M = tz For the discrete case. including intervals of Length zero. An application of the four defuzzification methods (dcA .7) (12. cilc (z) = h(C)}. the defuzzified cimm (C). as well as other methods proposed in the literature. an interesting family is de fined by the formula E cP(zk)z. Formally.
the center of area method is obtained. the value of p of the chosen defuzzification may be interpreted as an indicator of the confidence placed by the designer in the reason ing process. Hence. When p <1. When p> 1. For the continuous case. The magnification increases with decreasing value p . In this case. the probability distribution that is used for calculating the expected value of variable y preserves all information contained in the fuzzy set C Hence. When p 0 1. and taking d(C) = dm(C) may be interpreted as the expression of full confidence in the reasoning process. hence.338 Fuzzy Systems Chap. the shape of the membership function C is totally discounted.given by (12. probabilities of values zk for which C(zk ) h(C) are magnified .11) The formula is not directly applicable for p o*. the parameter introduces a bias into the probability distribution obtained from C by the ratioscale transformation. 3 — dCAt. Observe tlrat one particular value of p is obtained by the uncertainty invariance principle explained in Sec.9). all values in {z1. the defu2zification method based on this value is the °illy method fully justified in informationtheoretic terms. probabilities of value ±k for which C(z) < h(C) are reduced. zli ) are given equal probabilities and. where p E (0. the following formula is a counterpart of (12. In this case. . 9. the biasing effect is inversed.7 Illustration of tlic described . but it is reasonable an analogy with the discrete case) to define d dmm . 2— 44M. that Ls. we obtain the mean of maxima method. At the other extreme.10): dp (C) = C F (z)z. do(C) is equal to their arithmetic average. When p 01. when p cc. The reduction increases with decreasing values C(zk) and increasing values p. 4 — dmm (weighted). Taking do (C) as a value that represents a summkry of fuzzy set C may be interpreted as an expression of very low confidence in the inference process. 12 Ht t 234 Figure 12.defuzzificatiort methods: 1— dcit.di C (z)dz (12. for each given value of p. This parameter has an interesting interpretation_ When p = 1. 00) is a parameter by which different defuzzification methods ate distinguished.and.7. it increases with decreasing value of C(zk).
has a pedagogical value. propositions about u may be directly interpreted in terms of the force applied to the vehicle. is described as follows. which is illustrated in Fig. due to its appeal to common sense. and u is proportional to the velocity.3.2). we may express u in a 'suitable scale for which it is numerically equal to the resulting force. the force applied to the vehicle. say 20 or so. Two additional input variables would have to be included in the fuzzy controller to deal with this requirement: a variable defined by the distance (positive or negative) between the actual position of the vehicle and its desirable position. designed for a great variety of control problems. è is the derivative (rate of change) of variable e. whose derivation is outside the scope of this text. We describe a very simple version. which has been quite popular in both clas. its derivative è is calculated from successive measurements of e. It can easily be understood. Assuming that seven linguistic states were again recognized for each of the variables. and the derivative of this variable expressing the velocity of the vehicle (positive or negative). we describe a particular fuzzy controller of the simple type characterized in Fig. respectively). The three variables involved in this control problem have the following meaning: e is the angle between the actual position of the pole and its desirable vertical position.3 12 3 Fuzzy Centro Hers: An Example 339 FUZZY CONTROLLERS: AN EXAMPLE In this section.8. and under environmental disturbances that are not too severe. Then. the simple version is preferable from the pedagogical point of view. The control problem is to keep the pole (pendulum) in the vertical position by moving the vehicle appropriately. Although performance can be greatly improved by enlarging the fuzzy rule base. We use only one example since descriptions of many other fuzzy controllers. e is viewed as negative (or positive.2. The equations are . Observe that this simpli fi ed formulation of the control problem does not include the requirement that the position of the vehicle also be stabilized. of the vehicle. When the pole is tilted toward left (or toward right). the force is viewed as negative (or positive) when it causes the vehicle to move to the left (or to the right. is sufficient to achieve a high performance of the resulting fuzzy controller. can readily be found in the literate (Note 12. This situation can be interpreted as an inverted pendulum.. Variable is a suitable electrical quantity (electric current or volt age)_ Its values determine. While variable e is directly measured by an appropriate angle sensor. which consists of only seven fuzzy inference rules. and a similar convention applies to é. It was desised and implemented by Yamakawa [19891 He demonstrated that even such a simple fuzzy controller works reasonably well for poles that are not too short or too light. 12. as shown ie the figure. This control problem. through an electric motor driven by an appropriate servomechanism. It turns out from experience that only a small fraction of these rules. 12. and yet it is not overly simple. Again.sical control and fuzzy contra. 12. We chose to describe a fuzzy controller whose control problem is to stabilize an inverted pendulum. tie. respectively). A movable pole is attached to a vehicle through a pivot.See.401. we briefly describe a mathematical model of the mechanics involved by which proper movements of the vehicle would be determined in a classical controller. To compare fuzzy control with classical control in dealing with tue problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum. The model consists of a system of four differential equations. The problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum. For convenience. the total number of possible nonconfticting fuzzy inference rules would become 74 =.
is not subject to these difficulties. However. since the first three equations are nonlinear.2 Fuzzy controller as a stabilizer id an inverted pendula. 12. Hence. (e. è é are the angle and its first and second derivatives. the system is difficult. This. ft) is the second derivative of the position of the vehicle. V is the driving force given to the vehicle. such as those defined in Fig. each defined for the appropriate range. 12.(ècuse sin e). in and IV are masses of the pendulum and the v ehicle. 21 is the length of the pendulum. the distinction made in the inference process by fuzzified inputs is illustrated in Fig.sinnptions arc_ usually introduced to make the model linear. h is typical to use seven linguistic states for each variable in fuzzy controllers designed for simple control problems such as the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. Another difficulty of the model . Assume. when one pendulum is replaced with another of different size and weight). however. H= e.11. The linguistic states axe usually represented by fuzzy sets with triangular membership functions. special a.g.based classical control is that the model must be modified whenever some parameters change. restricts the capabilities of the controller. V — mg —1nL( sine ± é2 COS e) H = tnii) rni.4. for the sake of simplicity. to Solve analytically. where Stop 1. It is clearly difficult to comprehend this model intuitively. Moreover. Ie VLsine—HLcose. that measurements of input variables are employed directly in the inference process. Let us now discuss the main issues involved in the design of a fuzzy controller for stabilizing an inverted pendulum. if not impossible. based on intuitively understandable linguistic control rules. To ovarcomo these difficalties. The discussion is organized in terms of the five design steps described in Sec 12. Fuzzy control. H and V are horizontal and vertical forces at the pivot. . we have to resort to computer simulation. 12 Figure 12. Step 2.340 Furry Systems Chap. and I rriL 2 /3 is the moment of inertia.2. Let us choose this representation for all three variables. which is not suitable for realtime control due to excessive computational demands..
12fLeci measurements.Sec. that: (a) at least one rule fires for all possible input measurements. crisp or fuzzified. When rj (xo .2). (170) no more that two rules can fire when the measurements of input variables are crisp. NM AZ PS AZ AZ AZ PM PM 6 Ns AZ PS NS Ns NM • .(e = PS) and its rate of change is negative small (è = NS). 12.10. (c) more than two rules (and perhaps as many as five) can lire when the measurements are fuzzited. The inference rules can easily be understood intuitively.3). we say that rule j fires for the measurements. . yo) with the antecedent (a fuzzy number) of each inference rule j. Observe that the linguistic states NL and PL do not even participate in this very restricted set of inference rules. the value of the output variable u is approximated by a fuzzy set C(z) determined by (12.10. The most frequently used defuzzitcationS Method in the simple fuzzy controller is the centroid method. 12. and 3 file for their fuzzified counterparts. If we accept it for our controller. yo) > 0. Other rules can be easily explained by similar commonsense reasoning. 12. The complete representation of these linguistic rules by the fuzzy sets chosen in Step 1 is shown in Fig.4 and extended as explained in Sec. An Example 341 Following Yarnakawa [19a9 ] . 12. let us choose the interpolation method explained in Sec. when the angle is positive small ._. while rules 1. Fuzzy Controllers. We can see by a careful inspection of our fuzzy rule base. For each pair of input measurements. we obtain our defuzzified values by (12.11. For each pair of input measurements. Step 4.. Observe that only rules 1 and 3 fire for the given crisp input measurements. Step 5. we first calculate the degree of or their fazzified counterparts. we select the seven linguistic inference rules defined by the matrix in Fig. the movement of the pole is selfcorrecting.ro) and è My). 11.9 Minimum set of linguistic inference rules to stabilize an inverted pendulum. 12. This method is frequently used in simple fuzzy controllers. e = xo and é yo. To illustrate the inference engine. as exemplified in Fig.11 for both crisp and fi. the velocity of the vehicle should be approximately zero (y = AZ). 12. For example. as depicted in Fig. if the angle NS). M. consequently. as illustrated in Fig. On the other hand.3 Stop 3. 2. PS Figure 12. 12. then it is negative small (e = . e their compatibility r j ( to.9.NS) and its rate of change is negative small (è is quite natural that the velocity of the vehicle should be also negative small (7) = NS) to make a correction in the way the pole is moving.2.
10 Fuzzy rule base of the kneed pendulum. 12 Figure 12.342 Fuzzy Systems Chap. desabed fuzzy controller designed for stabilizing amp. .
t y0 (a) Crisp rnassuregnents (1)) FuzzMeZ measuroments e=fix o) i=f00) Figure 12. 12.11 Example* of fluzy inferesc lulus (of the firczy rule base specified in rig.Sec.10) that fire for given measurements of input variables: (a) crisp measurements. ( 3) fazzified Measurements.3 Fuzzy Contra Vers: An Example 343 e=x0 i. 11. .
mbre generally. is that they are both universal approximators of continuous functions of a rather general class. Fuzzy expert systems based on multiconditional approximate reasoning (Sec. n2). in outputs (n > 1. neural networks. The discussion is restricted to the classical raultilayer neural networks. which. and fuzzy expert systems (Note 12. which are introduced in Appendix A. one or more hidden layers. This results in high computational efficiency. Feedforward neural networks with n inputs. provided that the range of the input variable is discretized into n values and the range of the output variable is discretized into in values.e.. Then a let C(X. m outputs. Let X be a compact subset of R' (i. in > 1). a subset of W that is closed and bounded). 6.. all relevant fuzzy inference rules are processed in parallel. and R. there exists a function g e A such that f (x) g(x)1 < e for all x X. 10. is a set of functions g of the form g X a" that satisfies the following: for any given function f G C(tr. m) and any real number s ›. can be utilized for modifying fuzzy inference rules of the system on the basis of experience. The motivation for approximating fuzzy systems by neural networks is based upon the Inherent capability of neural networks to perform massive parallel processing of information. 11.. An important connection between fuzzy expert systems and neural networks.4 Fuzzy Systems FUZZY SYSTEMS AND NEURAL NETWORKS Chap.g. which is crucial in many applications. Furthermore.7). neural networks have already been proven very ugefui in numerous applications of fuzzy set theory for constructing membership functions of relevant fuzzy sets and other contextdependent entities from sample data (Sec.0. This is important in those fuzzy controllers and. The term "universal approxirnator" has the following precise mathematical meanirtg.4) can approximate feedforward neural networks with n inputs. we discuss the possibility of approximating a rven fuzzy system by an appropriate neural network. that are required to process large numbers of fuzzy inference rules in real time. the neural network representation is eminently fitted for introducing suitable adaptive capabilities into the system. the sigmoid function) in each neuron are universal approximators. ln this section. fuzzy expert systems. When the neural network representing a given fuzzy expert system is implemented in hardware.not continuous. the two sets may also be disjoint The latter case takes place when functions in A are.344 12. 2. While A is usually a subset of C(X. A. and a continuous activation function in each neuron.4): 1.7). and a continuous activation function (e. n. which play a fundamental role in dealing with many practical problems involving fuzzy systems (Sec.. . universal approximators as well. in) denote the set of all continuous functions f of the form f X universal approximaror. n. The following is a summary of the main results regarding computational equivalences between continuous functions. 12 It has increasingly been recognized that the areas of fuzzy systems and neural networks are strongly interconnected. n . Comparable neural networks with more than one hidden layer are. For example. This is due to the inherent learning capabilities of neural networks. one hidden layer. which has been recognized and investigated since the early 1990s. in this context. of course. They also show great promise as an efficient tool for solving fuzzy relation equations.
It is assumed that the sigmoid function_ is chosen as the activation function for each neuron. we describe an example proposed by Fatrikar and Provence [1993] for approximating the inference engine of a simple fuzzy controller by a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer. 12. 6.12.2. that is. layer by which the inference engine of our fuzzy controller can be approximated is sketched in Fig. as depicted in Fig. 6]. 0.4 Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks 345 3. 0. and an output vector. represented in the neural nawork by an input vector. 0. which are of considerable theoretical significance. which do not provide us with procedures for constructing practical approximators. It follows from (1) and (2) that fuzzy expert systems of the type described in (2) are also universal approximators. Inputs of the neural network are partitioned into two subsets that correspond to variables e and é as shown in Fig. —41 —3. 1. It is obvious that any given range can be normalized to this convenient range. 5. Each fuzzy inference rule is. They are primarily existence results. then t) is PS is represented in the neural network by the input vector (0. —5. 1. We assume that the neural network has q neurons in the bidden layer. the fuzzy inference rule If e is AZ and is NS. the range [—a. 61 That is. 12. and one output variable. let us consider a simple fuzzy controller of the type introduced in Sec_ 12. 12. 12. Assume. which defines (at 13 discrete points) the corresponding fuzzy number of the output variable y.4 is interpreted for each variable as [6. but not necessarily its special application to the problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum discussed in Sec.3. 0. Seven linguistic states are distinguished for each variable. 4. _Assume further that the 49 fuzzy rules specified in Fig. at the given discrete point in the range [6. 0. for convenience. Each input is assigned to a fuzzy number that represents a particular linguistic state of the respective variable. 0. are universal approximators. cir > 6. that the variables have the same range [6. 12. —2. which are represented by triangularshape fuzzy numbers equally spread over the range of values of the variable. In the rest of this section. A possible structure of a feedforward neural network with one bidden. 0.2. 0.12. 3. 61. 4. 12. 0. 1.6 are all included in the fuzzy rule base of our controller. y. a] in Fig. 0. are thus far of limited practical value.4. fuzzy expert systems based on multiconditional approximate reasoning and a defuzzification of obtained conclusions. For convenience.Sec. which are the integers —6. 12. For example. Most of these results. the membership grade of the fuzzy number that represents the output vari able v. Fuzzy inputoutput controllers. The fuzzy controller has two input variables. Each output is allocated to one of thirteen equally distributed discrete points in the range [6. 12. e and é. and the ba. 6]. 2. which have the same meaning as in Sec. 0) and the output vector .ckpropagation algorithm (Appendix A) is employed for training the neural network to map a set of given input patterns into a set of desirable output patterns. Its value specifies. 0. which specifies the linguistic states of the input variables e and 6. According to available heuristic rules (no definite formulas have been developed as yet).
the neural network gradually learns to associate the proper fuzzy number at the output with each of the possible pairs of input linguistic states. 0. NL NM NS AZ PS A. 0. 0 .5. To utilize the network for producing appropriate control actions. . 0. The full training set consists of all 49 fuzzy inference rules speciRed in Fig.6. These two vectors represent. 1 .12. 0).. it must be supplemented with ft=ification and defuzzification modules. 0 . 1 . as illustrated in Fig. 0. . After training. 0. 0. 0 . in this application of the neural network one inputoutput pair of a training set.5. 12. 0 . . When this training set is applied to the backpropagation algorithm (Appendix A). 12. the neural network responds correctly to each input vector in the training set. 0 > o Fignire 12. 0 PM 36 PL B7 . 0. 0.11 A neural network approximating a fumy inferenem engine_ (0. A4 As As Bi B2 B3 B4 B6 . The role of the fuzzification module is to feed appropriate input values into the neural network for any given measurements e = x0 and .346 Fu=y Systems Chap. 1. 12 DESIRED OUTPUT OUTPUT LAYER RIDDEN LAYER INPUTS NI A/ <Q NM NS AZ PS A2 PM PL. 0 .
Ci. by which a fuzzy set representing the conclusion of the inference is defined. C6). 12. As an example. is not an easy task. Various types of fuzzy neural networks have been proposed in the literature.5 FUZZY NEURAL NETWORKS As discussed in Sec. The following are basic features of the resulting networks: 1. Once framed. weights are fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy neural networks to be described here were proposed by Hayashi. inputs are fuzzy numbers. but by some other aggregation operation (Chapter 3).5. attempts have been made to develop alternative neural networks. Some other types are listed. distinguish fuzzy neural networks from their classical counterparts: 1. in Note 12. neural networks are eminently suited for approximating fuzzy controllers and other types of fuzzy expert systems. or some of them. A deviation from classical neural networks in any of these features requires that a properly modified learning algorithm be developed.4. Its actual hardware implementation involves massive parallel processing of information.2. and Czogala [1993]. (j =1. 3. All real numbers that characterize a classical neural network become fuzzy numbers in its fuzziffed counterpart.5 Fuzzy Neural Networks 347 = yo . weighted inputs of each neuron are not aggregated by summation. These are numbers that characterize inputs to the network. C2. Although classical neural networks can be employed for this purpose. 12. C2. in some cases. as well as for implementing these approximations in appropriate hardware. This. They are obtained by directly fuzzifying the classical feedforward neural networks with one or more layers. and bf the degree of compatibility of h(yo) with the antecedent é = B. Cs. 613 ai. more attuned to the various procedures of approximate reasoning. If desirable 1 the output representation of the neural network can be made more refined by dividing the range of the output variable into more discrete values and increasing the number of output neurons as needed. with relevant references. This fuzzy set must be converted to a single real number by the defuzzification module. al.5. Buckley. vector (C6. 12. C3.  . outputs are film numbers. These alternative neural networks are usually referred to as fuzzy neural networks The following features. C4. 2. 015. CI. C. these values form the input vector (a az. C3. /11. the neural network provides us with a blueprint for a hardware implementation. C4. ( [4. b3 b4 1 b5 b6. For general fuzzitication functions A and A. b2. expr&s the neural network produces an output Receiving an input vector of this form and meaning. it is computationally very efficient. we describe basic characteristics of only one type. 4. hence. b7) where ai expresses the degree of compatibility of f(x0) with the antecedent e= A 1 .Sec.
(12.12) designate fuzzy numbers.348 Fuzzy Systems Chap. the sum Ak = E vv. again. mare 12. this formula for Ep is exactly the same as its counterpart for classical neural networks (compare (12. If ON is a fuzzy neuron. 12. W11.0 as an acceptable deviation from the value of Ep . 4. 12 outputs of neurons at hidden layers and the output layer. is then determined by using the extension principle. is defined by the formula Yz Sitt W iXkj).13. Xk h . in this case. 1.13) with (A.4) in Appendix A). target outputs.12) where So is a sigmoid function for some chosen value of the steepness parameter A (Appendix A). exemplified here by the neuron characterized in rig. the weights K. Xkl .13. X].. all numbers relevant to a particular output neuron.„ and the output Yk of this neuron are all fuzzy numbers. where A.13 EuzEy numbers characterizitg a sizglc fuzzy neuron. The output of the neuron. and weights at all layers. 014. assuming that the support of Tyr (and. for example. 3. fuzzy arithmetic must be used to calculate Otherwise. = SA(Ak).x„. of a singleIayer feedforward neural network. employed in the backpropagation learning algorithm in a fuzzy neural network with m outputs for each training sample p is defined by the formula = 2 11) 2. Consider. Here. 1 Driz to2 .. IV. 12. also of YiP) is the interval [tr. error function Ep . Choosing now some number s ›.0 must be calculated by fuzzy arithmetic. Then. 2. (12. The output of each neuron. rib the support of Ep is included in the interval [—X. then the inputs X.13) where TkP is the target output and is the actual output of output Karon ONk for training sample p. The stopping criterion for fu7:zy neural networks must also be properly fuzzified. Since symbols firi and Xki in (12. as depicted in Fig. which represents a perfect snatch of the actual outputs with the. Assume that TI = II for all k.
The tran. J3t E and 0. x2. the fuzzy automaton operales as follows. which characterizes the initial internal state. a new internal state is determined.6 Fuzzy Automata 349 when T1 = 11 for all k. the response of the system is determined an the basis of the received stimulus and the internal state of the system. C3 E 2 1 Due to the roles of relations R and S. and C2 = £ 1 .131 . Z is a nonempty finite set of internal states. it is reasonable to call . The idea of a fuzzy automaton is depicted in Fig. Assuming the standard fuzzy set operations. Z •. and an initial characterization Cl of the internal state. respectively. A fuzzy set C'. 12. response. . z2.sfortna. proposed by Hayashi et al. E T (Z ). current internal state. Then. 12. Clearly. A2 . S. Its role is to store the produced fuzzy set E' at each time t and release it the next time under the label C. The sequences may be finite or conatably innnite. must be given to make the fuzzy automaton operate.14. is a fuzzy relational system defined by the quintuple A = (X. The new internal state is stored in the system to be used the next time. [1993]. and let tzi. and S is a fuzzy relation on XxZx Z. An automaton is called a fuzzy automaton when its states are characterized by fuzzy sets. A. Given A and Cr at some time t. The equation C = E' 1 is assumed to be implemented by the block called storage in Fig. 12. and &merging internal state (next state) of the automaton at time t. At the same time.14. Y = zq ). which replaces its predecessor. Ct = Et 1 for each tinie t G N (1). Y is a nonempty finite set of output states (responses). S).Sec. where • • • • • X is a nonempty finite set of input states (stimuli). . One way. A finite fitzzy automaton. fuzzy relations R and S allow as to determine 13' and E'. 1. R is a fuzzy relation on Z x V. C E' denote the fuzzy sets that characterize. fuzzy relations R and S allow us to generate the corresponding sequences .6 FUZZY AUTOMATA A finite automaton (also called a finitestate machine or sequential machine) is a dynamic system operating in discrete time that transforms sequences of input states (stimuli) received at the input of the system to sequences of output states (responses) produced at the output of the system.Y. the stimulus. R. A ± sj. At E T(X).1Z a — response relation and 5 a statetransition relation.tion is accomplished by the concept of a dynamically changing internal state. Assume that X = {x1. it is reasonable to stop the learning algorithm whenever E p included in the interval [—A — e. . Given a sequence AL. Finally. At eacb discrete time.5 to replace the real numbers in the standard formulas (Appendix A) with their fuzzy counterparts and apply fuzzy arithmetic to them_ 12.• • xn}. B'. we need to fuzzily the backpropagaticn learning algorithm.Z. and the production of responses and next states is facilitated by appropriate fuzzy relations.
15) .14)(12. £2 E 1 SA Er = Eri s and the corresponding sequence of fuzzy output states B 1 Cl 0R. Then.14 Bosic scrinie of fuzzy automata. the ternary statetransition relation binary relation. Bt = CoR.5. the fuzzy automaton produces the sequence of fuzzy internal states 1E 1 = el SAt. assuming the present fuzzy state C' is given. 12 7 Figure 12.16) are sufficient for handling sequences of fuzzy states. . for example. SA'. on Z c Z by the formula SAt(zi. For any given fuzzy input state A'. (12. Rx/r. 3 2 tg R. Ar of r fuzzy input states applied to a given initial fuzzy state C. S is converted into a (12.00 Let us illustrate the concept of fuzzy automata by a simple example. Consider.14) max(min [A' (xk). Br =7 Er 1 R. Then. Consider a fuzzy . Zj) E Z x Z.16) Equations (12. the fuzzy _next state E t and fuzzy output state B e are determined by the maxmin compositions Et = ° SAs . Ifwe are interested only in the formulas Er rina internal state and the final output state. (12. B e = C i c'SAi°. zi )i) keti j for all pairs (xi. 4 2 . . we can use the C i SA7 S. a sequence A1 .350 Fuzzy Systerns Chap.
Et = C = [C t (z/).4. re3pectively. z3 )]) = max(min[1. z41 whose output relations R and statetransition relation S aie defined. Ct (z3). Z2 2'3 Z4 SA 1 = Z2 Z4 0 `.8 .See. C I (z4)1.2 zz . using (12. 0 0 1 .3(x2. 12.2 0 0 1 z3 500 1 j1z4 _ 0 001 000 1. = [ 1 .4 . and internal states at any time t be deftned by the vectors A = [A.2.5 .zi 0 .• = [ . 1]) .6 Fuzzy Automata F 361 automaton with X = fx1. output. Y2.15) and (12. Mx2)1. by rho matrix Y1 Y2 Y3 Z 1 0 0 R Z2 Z3 Z4 010 0 0 1 1 . Sr1 .4 ] :5.= [1 Al Then. Yait Z = tzt z2.4 1 0 .: (xi).ri . 1 1.4 .3 . Y = fYi.5 1 .3 and the threedimensional array X1 Z1 x2 22 23 Z4 Zi 22 23 24 [zi1 . we now . zi .8 .4 1 1 0 .3 1 0 .3 0.8 .3 0 1 automaton.4 . z.2 S= z2 z3 Z4 0 0 1 0 .3 .5 .14).6 To describe bow this fuzzy automaton operates.6 . .4 .4.6 . SAi (21. the To calculate the fuzzy next state El and the fuzzy output state El of use (12. let fuzzy sets describing input. r3 ) = max(rnintAs (xi). C t (z2).4] and its fuzzy input state is Al. Assume now that the initial fuzzy state of the automaton is Cl = [1 . mint.4 0 0 0 1 .4 El.4 .16): [. x2). = rnax(.4 / 1 1 For example. rnin[A (x 2). . r3)1.
2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 _3 0 . yE ) > 0 for at least one Yi e Y.5 1 . zi E X x Z. in general. When these requirements are satisfied. ate and some output state must be assured for any given . yiEY E EZ = 1 for each 04.8 . When all states of a fuzzy automaton are defined as crisp sets and R. 12 Bt 1 . in addition. These requirements may also. similarly. we can produce larger sequences of fuzzy internal and output states for any given sequence of fuzzy input states. for each pair (. Zi F zi) > 0 for at least one c Z.guaton.6 Assuming now that the next fuzzy input state is A2 [ . 7 we obtain the classical deterministic automaton of the Moore type.S(x k .6 . for exactly one z i E Z and exactly one yi Y. 2. That is. we must require that S(ik. Similarly. When.4 . respectively. S axe deterministic.. Z and relations R. zi ) € X x Z..14)412_16) may. we obtain a crisp automaton. we call the relations deterministic. of course. .zi . in addition) that input states are singletons and 1.8 . 5 are crisp relations. for each z E Z. all states are singletons taken from sets X.4 1 1 0 0 01 0 001 1 . For each replacement. For example. Y. be replaced The operations min and max employed in with other tnorms and tcorionns. zi) EX x Z. When min is repla* with the product and max is replaced with the algebraic sum. and we require. The concept of a fuzzy automaton is a broad one. some next internal . is nondetermin_istic. we must require that R( z 1 .352 [ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 . be stated in a stronger form: for each pair xk. = I for each z1 c Z. we obtain a classical probabilistic automaton of the Moore type.3 _5 1 .5 _8 _4 [0 1]. which. respectively. we obtain SAr I 0010 .4 .input state and present internal state. which subsumes classical crisp automata (deterministic and nondeterministic) as well as classical probabilistic automata as . we obtain an automaton of a different type.5 R].3 Fuzzy Systems Chap. and for each zi E Z yi) = 1 for at least one yi E Y.ez E RCzi.6 [ [ . (12.5 1 .yk. relations R and S cannot be arbitrary. To define a meaningful fuzzy mzt..zj ) =1 for at least one zi G Z.
and the issue. u) = s(t2. whose further study is beyond the scope of this text. we obtain continuoustime dynamic systems. u T X. z. Z. is the function fu 0. q I. u) = s[t3. y E U and r T.U. in addition. To discuss these issues. L5T. One way of fuzzifying these systems is to .. systems. 12. In this important class of dynamic terms of appropriate differential equations. tr. u] for any t 1 < t2 < t (statesubstitution (b) s(t3. ti .u. to) when u(t) = v(t) for tit t • r is a response function (or an output function). we obtain classical finite automata. statetranition functions are expressed in which are. This concept. tz. respectively. A general dynamic system. timevarying and nonlinear. and internal states of the system. s(t2 property).s involved in the fuzzifica_tion may be very different from one type to another. S. which is required to r. u).functions.7 Fuzzy Dynamic Systems 353 special cases. z. z. • s is a global statetransition function. the rconcatenation. output. When. is a total ordering of the time set T." Y = Z RI for some integers n. clearly extends the domain of applicability covered by the various classical types of finite automata. in general. t z. for example. • . However. T. which is required to be closed under a composition that is called a rconcatenation and defined as follows: for any u. is a mathematical structure that is captured by the Btuple S4X Y.7 FILEEY DYNAMIC SYSTEMS Fuzzy dynamic systems. Special types of dynamic systems are obtained when some properties of the eight components of 8 are modified or additional properties are required. u. sets X statetransition function is replaced with a local statetransition function s:ZxX Z (Le. where • X. Z. let us introduce the classical concept of a general dynamic system. • T is a time set. s:T xixZxZT bave the following properties: (a) . When T = N.U is a set of lime.140) = u(t) v(t) when t < when t > r. m. Y. z. t1. Z are sets of input. T = R (or R÷). r:TxZxA B.. 12. there are different types of classical dynamics systems. the behavior of the system is timeinvariant). as the name suggests. h (causality). (c) s(t2. 12. under which all types of crisp dynamic systems are subsumed.Sec. • <7. u) z (consistency). are fuzzifications of classical (crisp) dynamic systems. When. We explained in Sec. Then. in general.70.6 how these special dynamic systems can be fuzzified. we obtain Z are finite and the global discretetime dynamic systems. X = E.
it saves about 10% of energy. in some sense. and eleven application areas. elevator control systems. additive pleasures. the development of a fuzzy differential calculus. A. The fuzzy.3.1. 1977.354 Fuzzy Systems Chap. fuzzy measures. it covers the theoretical foundations of fuzzy control. Vhe actual research on fuzzy controllers was initiated by Mamdani and his students at Queen Mary College in London in the mid . La the late 1980s. Tong. and fuzzy integrals.2. Mamdani. few examples are chlorine control for water purification plants. 1984 ] . and classical integrals become fuzzy sets. Mamdani's work influenced 1 other researchers to explore the applicability of fuzzy controllers to various control problems. in which fuzzy control is covered more thoroughly than other topics. and only one of them led eventually to the development of a commercially available fuzzy controller for cement kilns [11olmblad and Ostergaard. 19721 the idea of applying fuzzy sets to control problems was presented for the first time. an_ automaticdrive fuzzy control system for subway trains intbSenclai City. according to the literature. 1971a. in addition. A complete list would be too long. with somewhat greater emphasis on neural networks. 1974a. 1975. control of bulldozers.controller achieves not only a higher precision in stopping at any designated point. 12 use linguistic approximation.3. but this topic is beyond the scope of this text. 1976. as explained in sec. Important work along this une has been pursued by Dubois and Prade [19824 Puri and Ralescu [1983]. and control systems for cement Idins Pur3_y controllers have also been installed with great success in a . but makes each stop more comfortable. [19931 is 013o suitable as a text. This requires. 12. The hook edited by Sugeno [1985a] covers a broad spectnua of applications of fuzzy control and contains an excellent annotated bibliography on the subject A handbook edited by White and Sofge 11992] covers the role of fuzzy logic and neural networks in intelligent control. 12. and Kaleva [1987]. but more explicitly in [Zadeh. Harris et aL [1993} wrote a comprehensive tembook with a strong emphasis on the connection_ between fuzzy logic and neural networks. Although it took seven years to complete this project in 1987. b ] . by which classical mathematical concepts such as crisp sets. the final product was extremely successful. Some of these efforts resulted in laboratory prototypes. A multiauthor book edited by . 1973. NOTES 12. It is generally praised as superior to other comparable systems based on classical control. this was the first commercially available fuzzy contro ll er. This increased interest was likely an outcome of the first implementation of fuzzy control in a significant project. Many other industrial projects that employ fuzzy control have been completed in Japan since the opening of the subway system in Sendai City in 1987. Another good overview of fuzzy controllers and other applications of fuzzy set theory was prepared by maiers and Sherif [19851. the specialty of the hook is its emphasis on the use of fuzzy relation equations in dealing with various problems involving fuzzy systems. see also [Sugeno. traffic control systems. the interest in fuzzy controllers increased very rapidly in Japan.2 and 12. 12. 1972b] and [Chang and lade].1970s [Marodani and Assilian. air conditioning systems./anishicli etal. Initial ideas of fuzzy systems were introduced by Zadeh [1965a. 1982 ] . Uncertainty resulting from resolutiou limitations of measuring insturnents is _analyzed by Fridrich [1994a1_ He introduces the concept of 'Rnite resolution. Literature on fuzzy controllers in the period 19751985 is well overviewed by Tong [198 $]. Several specialized books on fuzzy control arc now available. relevant software and hardware. Another way is to apply the extension principle directly to the differential equations involved. In these papers. Pedrycz [1989] wrote a more general book on fuzzy systems. 19851 .
while neural networks provide learning capabilities and exceptional suitability for computationally eineitat harthvaro impierneutaLions. Dal Cm n [1975a. some researchers began to explore the use of fuzzy controllers t o control problems that are considered beyond the capabilities of classical corarco solvecrtain theory. Fuzzy automata have been studied by Santos [1968.Chap. 1975].4 and 12. was developed by IVIabuchi [1993]. 1993j. Hayashi.S. which attempt to extend their capabilities or make them more attuned to fuzzy systems for the purpose of hardware implementation. 1993a] and Yager and Filev [1993a. This implies that fuzzy systems and neural networks can approximate each other. The following are a few representative papers: Berenji [1992]. automatic transmissious). Fuzzy systems and neural networks are now established as universal approximators.4. Takagi and Hayashi (19911. Yager [1992a. In the 1990s. Wee and Fu [1969j. These writings not only cover theoretical aspects of fuzzy automata. 1984]. Jang [1992. d]. 19S2a]. Chen and . and Ray et al. Carpenter et al. Santos and Wee [1968]. b. which bas already been completed and successfully tested. 1993]. 1973. 1974a. and Pal and Maiainder [1986]. 1973. in addition to the particular way proposed by Patricar and Provence [19931 and described in Sec. TV sets. and by investigating connections between fuzzy controllers (and.& [1991]. Mizumoto. in general.7. Pedrycz [1991b.5. video cameras.4. Berenji and Kb_ealcar [1992]. in which fuzzy systems provide a powerful framework for knowledge representation. They are also covered in the books by Negoita and Ralsocu [1975b]. Horikawa. De Glas (1983. or pattern recognition. Various fuzziftcations of neural networks have been suggested. Keller. vacuum cleaners. b]. Funthashi. They also show how a proper defuzzification method can be determined by learning algoritbres. An overview of defuzzificetion methods was prepared by Hellendoom and Thomas [1993]. 1992] and Sageno and Yasakawa [1993].. learning. Mon. Various 1 ways of implementating fuzzy controllers by neural networks were explored. Litetature regaraug this symbiotic relaLiuuship is extensive. b]. their applicability in various areas. formal languages and grammars. ]. [1992]. Moeden [1982]. The nation of fuzzy dynamic systems emerged from a series of papers by Zadeh [19658. b. 12. and Buckley.5). broad variety of consumer products. and Keller and Tahani [1992]. Yager. but also explore I2. Tbe. a project headed by Sugeno at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. 197$]. Kandel and Lee [1979]. Defazzification of fuzzy intervals is addressed by Zhao and Govind [1991]. refrigerators. General classes of parametrized defiizzification methods. such as faulttolerant design. and Wang and Mendel [1992h]. Gaines and Kohout [1975]. Toyoda. Pal and Nara [1994 Simpson 1 1992.eft=zification based upon the principle of uncertainty invariance was proposed by Mir [19g1a]. and Uchikawa [1992].6. Properties of various types of fuzzy dynamic systems were farther investigated by Negoita and Ralesou [19751.1971a. as exemplified by the work of Filev [1991. Keller and Hunt [1985]. and Czogaia [1993]. Wechler [1978 ] . and Pedryez and Rocha [1993]. An interesting strategy for dealing with the defuzzification problem. based on sensitivity analysis. 12. and Tanaka [1969]. 1993. One example is a fuzzy control system for an unmanned helicopter iSugeno and Park. b. 12 Notes 355 12. Another example is a fuzzy controller that can stabilize a triple inverted pendulum [Zhang et al. b]. 12. by Yager [1992a. These efforts are exemplified by the following papers: Lee and Lee [1974.2. A d. 12. This leads to a symbiotic relationship. d]. [1991]. 1993a]. Research on fuzzy controllers in the 1990s is also characterized by exploring the integration of rulebased and modelbased approaches in fuzzy control. and Czogala [1993 ] . including washing machines. including the one described in Sec. fuzzy systems) and neural networks (Notes 12. as originally recognized by Koko [1992] and further investigated by 13uckley [19934 Buckley and Hayashi [1993a. automobilcs (antiskid brake systems. Gupta and Qi [1992]. 12. 1993]. and Tahanit [1992]. and many others. Buckley. were explored by Filev and Yager [1991. Hayashi.
12. Ahson. A3 = [1 . 12. Teodorescu [19921. Diamond and Pokrovskii 0994 and Fridrich [/994b]. 1985a. Gaines [1979a]. 123. 1 11.6 by defining R as a fuzzy relation on XxZ x Y. The contributions by Chen. Consider the fuzzy automaton enaployed in Sec. b„ 1989. Sugeno and Tanaka [1991].4]. Fuzzy Petri UCtS. Grim [1993]. the input Jazzy states art = [1 0]. The role of fuzzification of dynamic systems that exhibit chaotic behavior has been investigated by Diamond [19921. Garg.41.2 11.9.1. Ke. [1992] and applied to the inverse problem for fractals. 12. are currently emerging as an important area of fuzzy systems. the input states are Al = [2 11. the input fuzzy states are = [. Modify the fuzzy automaton introduced in Sec. The folitswing ale but= repisentativc publications ou this sub . ect. Iterated fuzzy systems were proposed by Cabrelli et al. and Iiirota [19931. A2 = [1 CI [1 . Reformulate all equations for the modiRed automaton.1dixtY3E3 1/xi y2z4 1/x2y2z4.4.1/xLYz2 1. (c) the initial fuzzy state is CI = [1 0 0 1].1_ . Discuss possible ways of fuzzifying the general dynamic system introduced in Ses. Literature dealing with various issues regarding the construction of fuzzy models is quite extemive. and ScarpIli and Gomide [19931 are representative of this area.6 as an example. + 1/x2y3zi 1/x2yiz2 +. 12.8 „6 .4].356 Fuzzy Systems Chap. Generate sequences of three fuzzy internal and output states under the following conditions: (a) the initial fuzzy state is CI [ 1 . 1990a. A2 = (1 ) the initial fuzzy state is C2 = 1[10 Li 0]. and Yoshinori. Hirota and Pedrycz 11983i„ Higashi and Mir [198413 ] . whose appbcations seem quite promising. Pedry [1984b. Pedrycz. Sugeno and Kang [1988]. 12. and Kong [1993a. and Gupta [19911. A2 = [1 0). A3 = [1 1].2. Forma/ate reasonable fuzzy inference rules for an airrondirioning fuzzy control system. Repeat Exercise 12.5/x2y3zz + lix2y2z3 125. 12. Yi and Chung [1993]. 12.6 is replaced with the fuzzy ternary miation R 1. Sugeno and Yasakawa [1993]. EXERCISES 12. and Chang [1990]. 12 Tsao [1989]. Delgado and Gonzalez [ 1 993]. 1991cj.2 for the fuzzy automaton formulated in Exercise 123 under the assumption that the fuzzy binary relation R employed in the example in Sec.
Each category may be characterized by more than out prototypical structure. It plays a key role in perception as well as at the various levels of cognition. for example. which may be viewed as a special branch of fuzzy pattern recognition. the applicability of cluster analysis is not restricted to pattern recognition. . This is tailed a sensing problem. to the construction of taxonomies in biology and other areas. Since cluster analysis plays a crucial role in pattern recoguition. we also overview the area of fuzzy image processing. pattern recognition may be defined as a process by which we search for structures in data and classify these structures into categories such that the degree of association is high among structures of the same category and low between structures of different categories. classification of documents in information retriev_al. Relevant categories are usually characterized by prototypical structures derived from past experience.1 INTRODUCTION 1_ The capability of recopying and classifying patterns is one of the most fundamental characteristics of human intelligence. In addition to our discussion of general issues of fuzzy pattern recognition. pattern recognition has been evolving since the early 1950s. From a general point of view. This is not surprising. since most catedgariaS we commonly encounter and employ have vague boundaries. However. It is applicable. The classification of objects into categories is the subject of cluster analysis. in close connection with the emergence and evolution of computer technology. and soci4 groupings based on various criteria. There are three fundamental problems in pattern recognition. it is covered in this chapter. As a field of study. each object is represented by a vector of measured values of r variables.. In general. The first one is concerned with the representation of input data obtained by measurements on objects that are to be recognized.. Our aim in this chapter is to characterize the spirit of fuzzy clustering and fuzzy pattern recognition. and the literature dealing with fuzzy pattern recognition and fuzzy clustering is new quite extensive.3 PATTERN RECOGNITION 13. The utility of fuzzy set theory in pattern recognition and cluster analysis was already recognized in the mid1960s.
13  where ai (for each i E NO is a particular characteristic of the object of interest. Similarly. It is obvious that we cannot describe the use of fuzzy set theory in all these application areas of pattern recognition.a513 = fa x a2 _ . a real number to each pattern vector. Many additional examples could be listed. while the former are not. is called a fi. fingerprint recognition. electrocardiograms. This is usually done by defining an appropriate discrimination function for each class. which assigns. Pattern Recognition Chap. automatic screening and classification of Xray images. target identification. which is based on fuzzy cpartitions. One of them. analysis and elassitlarion of chromosomes. The features should be characterizing attributes by which the given pattern classes are well discriminated. Each pattern vector is classi fied to that class whose discrimination function yields the largest value. Individual pattern vectors are evaluated by these discrimination functions. we refer to the emerging problem area as fizzy clustering. classification of remotely sensed data. The following are examples of areas in which the. we cannot cover all methodological nuances. electroencephalograms. and their classification is decided by the resulting values. The second problem concerns the extraction of characteristic features from the input data in terms of which the dimensionality of pattern vectors can be reduced_ This is referred to as a feature extraction problem. is called a fuzzy equivalence relationbased hierarchical clustering . Both of them are generalizations of classical partitions. where c designates the number of fuzzy classes in the partition_ The reader should be aware of the difference between fuzzy pseurlopareitious. and regular fuzzy partitions. The third problem of pattern recognition involves the determination of optimal decision procedures for the classification of given patterns. and it is thus desirable to replace it with a weaker requirement. and human face recognition. the problem of clustering in X is to find several cluster centers that can properly characterize relevant classes of X. these classes are required to for ni a partition of X such that the degree of association is strong for data within blocks of the partition and weak for data in Afferent blocks. When the requirement of a crisp partition of X is replaced with a weaker requirement of a fuzzy partition or a fizzy pseudopartition on X. Fuzzy pseudopartitions are often called fuzzy c pqrtitions. classification of seismic waves. based on fuzzy equivalence relations.2 FUZZY CLUSTERING Clustering is one of the most fundamental issues in pattern recognition. However. as defined later in this section.tzzy cmeans clustering method. speech recognition and speaker identification. and other medical diagnostic tools. use of these systems is well established: handwritten character and word recognition.  13. but describe only a few typical methods of fuzzy pattern recognition. image understanding. It plays a key role in searching for structures in data. The other method. Given a finite set of data. X. this requirement is too strong in many practical applications. However. There are two basic methods of fuzzy clustering. In classical cluster analysis. the latter are obtained from associated fuzzy equivalence raltions. We can only examine a few representative examples. this vector is usually called a puitern vector. Computer based automatic pattern recognition systems have vast applicability.
k E [Ai (xir)]m xk (133) .). is then defined in terms of the cluster centers by the formula . the problem of fuzzy clustering is to find a fuzzy pseudopartition and the associated cluster centers by which the structure of the data is represented as best as possible. Given a set of data X = ixi .. .1. in general. We describe basic characteristics of these methods and illustrate each of them by an example... Figs.A. E [A= (x0]" vi= for all i Nc.4). is a real number that governs the influence of membership grades. v1. Fuzzy c Means Clustering Method  Let X .2 Fuzzy Clustering 359 method. Given a pseudopartition = Al. which is viewed as the cluster center of the fuzzy class A i .1 and 12.. we need to formulate this criterioa in terms of a performance inder. which satisfies (1.. x. associated with the partition are calculated by the formula t=1. A21 is a fuzzy pseudopartition or fuzzy 2partition of X. Xn } be a set of given data. x2. where xk. Fuzzy quantizations (or granulations) of variables in fuzzy systems are also examples of fuzzy pseudapartitions (see.See.2) for all i E N„ where c is a positive integer. 13. then "(A i .a. Observe that the vector vi calculated by (13. e. Ad. Az b . the c cluster centers.(T)..0. the performance index is based upon cluster centers. x3} and A/ = 6/x1 + 1/x2 + A2 = .1) for all k G N„ and 0< E Aif. A fuzzy pseuflopartition or fuzzy cpartition x21 of X is a family of fuzzy subsets of X. A2. The weight of a datum xk is the tnth power of the membership grade of xk in the fuzzy set Af.9/x3 . is actually the weighted average of data in A. v. For instance. where in > 1.3.3)..z. given X = (X I . This requires some criterion expressing the general idea that associations (in the sense described by the criterion) be strong within clusters and weak between clusters.. denoted by f44 1 .4M1 ± 0/X2 4. 12. is a vector [xki • rkp ] E RP for all k N. Various modifications of the described methods can be found in the literature. To solve the problem.. The performance index of a fuzzy pseudopatrition P. Usually. of fuzzy clustering.rk) k=1 n (13..
satisfying E A ri1) (x. When in › 1. Step Z value of nt . X if for all î Pic . . vP by (13. otherwise. the goal of the fuzzy emeans clustering method is to find a fuzzy pseudopartition I' that minimizes the performance index . the better the fuzzy pseudopartition Y.(T). The followingfiary emeans algorithm was developed by Bezdek [1981? for solving this optimization problem. That is. the parameter in is selected according to the problem under consideration. 0 for some iEIC IN„ then define 4+1) (xk) for i E I by any nonnegative real numbers. E Step 3. and a small positive number 8..7)— — 7 it Pik — vj 11 2 (tixk if ilxi. the fuzzy cmeans converges to a "generalized" classical c means. f [Vr#I) — 1'4)1 < e. Let t = O. Clearly. and Tif . a real number Trt c (1. in addition.1„. oe). Calculate the c cluster centers vr. $ El and define Af +1) (x. go+i) — P(`) 1 denotes a distance between V#» and r) in the space IV".0+1) — To) I max. serving as a stopping criterion are chosen. the clustering problem is an optimization problem. increase t by one and return to Step 2. That is. then stop. the smaller the value of . the partition — .k) = 1.1„.JJ is swipe impel product induced noun in space RI and 1174 — Y1ll 2 represents the distance between xj.IA rt) (xk) — A 1 (x. Step 1. Select an initial fuzzy pseudopartition VG) .350 Pattern Reciognition Chap. This performance index measures the weighted sum of distances between cluster centers and elements in the corresponding fuzzy clusters. Step 4. When co. then define > l) (74 Ar) = [ ÷ L L: —.k) I (133) In the algorithm. In Step 4. Compare 1)(') and 070+1) . all cluster centers tend towards the centroid of the data set X. An example of this distance is 1.t ) O for I € Pic — I. Fuzzy cMeans Algorithm The algorithm is based on the assumption that the desired number of clusters c is given and. — v? ) 11 2 .3) for 170) and the chosen Update 5)0+1) by the following procedure: For each xi. Therefore. 13 (134) or(T)  E C (x r ) vi 11 2 where J . a particular distance.(P).
00).146/xis.2 Fuzzy Cluster[ng 361 becomes fuzzier with increasing m. g= 0_01.01 0 .01 1 .854/xz = .Sec.854/x0 .854/xi 4 .01 ( 3) Inn 3 Ell IM 10 91.14641 I.0/ 0 . Assume further that we choose in = 1 25.42+ . ttere is no theoretical basis for an optimal choice for the value of in.47 . 1981] To illustrate the fuzzy cmeans algorithm. . (I) fuzzy pseudopartition .'13.1 illustration to Example 111: (a) data. c = 2). II • II is the Euclidean distance. kt us consider a data following 15 points in 1k2: 1 xn set X that consists of the 14 15 6 4 2 0 2 3 0 4 4 1 1 5 1 2 6 1 3 7 2 2 8 3 2 9 4 2 10 5 1 11 12 13 xn 0 0 5566 2 0 23 The data are also shown in Fig.146.01 0 0 0 .99 .1 [Bezdek.3.. XkI k 11 II I IS A1(X0 . Currently. Example 13. Assume that we want to determine a fuzzy pseudapartition with two clusters (Le. A2 } with A 1 = .. and the initial fuzzy pseudopartition is P(4') = fA a .99 Figure 13. However. it is established that the algorithm converges for any E (1.01 0 0 0 . +.1 a.99 3 11111 9 1 1 .
in a natural way. Xk) E [0. X. & is the inverse value of the largest distance in X. and maxmin transitive) induces a crisp partition in each of its acuts_ The fuzzy clustering problem can thus be viewed as the problem of identifying an appropriate fuzzy equivalence relation on given data.1b. we usually need to determine the transitive closure of R. 0. Then. let a fuzzy compatibility relation. This can be done by the simple algorithm described in Sec.5.6) for all pass (xi xic ). RT = R (41) by calculating the . In general. The two cluster centers are 2). on X be defined in terms of an appropriate distance function of the Minkowski class by the formula  R(xi . Then. In such problems. symmetric. Hence. This algorithm. the maxmin transitive elosure_of R is the relation Theorem 13. applicable only to fuzzy reflexive relations. R defined by (13. 5. a _meaningful fuzzy equivalence relation is defined as the transitive closure of this fuzzy compatibility relation_ Given a set of data X of the same form as defined earlier in this section (n p tuples of RP). 5. sequence of relations R (2) = R R (4) RCe = kzki) Rai') until no new relation is produced or 21 a 1.88. we can utilize the following theorerri to formulate a more efficient algorithm_ 4 Let R be a fuzzy compatibility relation on a finite universal set X with 1X1 n. the number of dusters should reflect. — . 1 ] . Clearly. we can readily determine a fuzzy compatibility relation (reflexive and symmetric) in terms of an appropriate distance function applied to given data. 2) and vz = vi Clustering Methods Based Upon Fuzzy Equivalence Relations The fuzzy cmeans method requires that the desired number of clusters be specified. Methods based on fuzzy equivalence relations work in this way. and we obtain the fuzzy pseudoparntion defined in Fig. where q E It'. This is a disadvantage whenever the clustering problem does not specify any desired number of clusters. R.4. the structure of given data. 13 Then. and 8 is a constant that ensures that R(xi .6) is a fuzzy compatibility relation. but not necesS arily a fuzzy equivalence relation.xk) I — — (13. Proof: Left to the reader as an exercise. 13. Although this cannot usually he done directly. 5A. is clearly computationally much more efficient than the more general algorithm in Sec. N The theorem suggests calculating the transitive closure.362 Pattern Recognition Chap.1. As discussed in Sec. since R is a compatibility relation. However. the algorithm stops for r 6. every fuzzy equivalence relation (a relation that is reflexive.
we perform the analysis for q 2. (x3 ). fx 5 j).2a. x5 )) (.6) on the results.5 .44 . we need to determine the value of 3 in (13. we can calculate membership grades of R by (13.25(22 + 32)05 0. we have 3 = 1/4 0. relation R may conveniently be represented by the matrix I.5] ce E {(x1.F. .44 . To see the effect of the value of parameter q in (13. As the first step. (x. which represents the Hamming distance. X3. .65 1 . X4.25.4 1 . we have 8 . It us use a small data set X consisting of the following five points in IR2 : 1 2 3 4 5 .6 .5 .2 .2 . let us analyze the data for q = 1.44 .5.2 0 .1. its transitive closure is r 1 RT = .21 _1 _44 1 . (X4).Set.6 .414 ] ((x1..65 1 A . Now.4 3. which corresponds to the Euclidean distance.21 .6 1. . 2.0.5 A4 1.6 .651 ▪ E (.11 itX1).4 0 .65 .. (. 13. . 0. {(xi . 13. [x2).21 0 . Since the largest Hamming distance in the data is 5 (between x i and xi and between x3 and xs).6 0 .2 Fuzzy Clustering 363 Example 13.21 . This is undoubtedly due to the use a the Euclidean distance. When determined. {x3 } . Let us now repeat the analysis for q 1 in (13. .5 .4 .1 .44 1 .t. X5)}. This result agrees with our visual perception of geometric clusters in the data. _65 _1 .5 . Since the largest Euclidean distance between any pair of the given data points is 4 (between xl and x5).5 .2.44 .6 1 and its transitive closure is .2 R= 0 . 115 .5 .65 0 .5 . x. x3 ) = 1 .6).44 . For example.44 .5 .44 1 .44 . x.6). R(x i . (x1)).65.5 .6) is DOW [1 .6).1 .2 . This relation induces four distinct partitions of its ctcuts: ce E [0.65 / . x5}.x. X2.65 •44. x21.44.65 1 R= This relation is not maxmin transitive. The matrix form of relatiOn R given by (13.2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 3 1 G The data are also shown in Fig. .2 To illustrate the clustering method based on fuzzy equivalence re/ations. First.2 .
((t) RT = 1 .6 .6 .2 Ulattration to Example t12 (a) data.6 1 This rdation yields the following partitions in its acuts: E 09.4 .6 . (13) elusterifig tree for Enclidean clustering tree fur Hamming .6 . 13 o .6 .4 .6 6 4 1 . 04. xt.65 fIfsP a x3 X1 x2 (b) idg Figure 13.6 .4 1 A .6 1 4 .clktance Liktance.4 . . x5)1.6 .6  .5 .4 .364 Nit 2 Pattern Recognition Chap.44 .
8. the latter is shown in Table 13. we obtain RT = R<S) The clustering tree of R I is shown in Fig. which may be viewed as membership grades of a fuzzy compatibility relation R on NIA.6] . since this unclassifiable portrait may be a portrait of an adopted child or a child from a previous marriage. {TA. First.. 13.. the connection between 'parents can be established through their similarities to children by converting R into its transitive closure RT.. Irs ) are not distinguished .4* . This is reasonable.Sec. by a group of people and some method by which their individual judgements are aggregated. 10. Both results are illustrated in Fig. Assume that the similarity degrees obtained.3. Applying the algorithm based on Theorem 13. (113}. but not between parents themselves. the partition that least violates these constraints is the one for a = 0.6:  «3 ). This result again agrees with our visual perception.1b. a degree of similarity for each pair of portraits must be determined. 5. 13 3  FUZZY PATTERN RECOGNITION In this section. 112 by their clustering trees. In the next example. the other one consists of generalizations of classical syntactic methods. However. An . An interesting feature of this example is that similarities can be expected between parents and their children. we want to illustrate some additional aspects of clustering methods based on fuzzy equivalence relations_ e (. since visually perceived clusters fx. ((xi . considering the extreme vagueness of information in this application and the full dependence on subjective judgment. each congisting of three families They report the overall rate of 75% correct classification. Tamura et al.11. 1] Example 133 Consider 16 portraits labelled by the integers in N:6. 1 1 9711 mention in their paper that they performed an experiment with 60 families divided into 20 groups. 6. which are selfexplanatory. adopted from [Tamura et al. (2.7.3 Fuzzy Pattern RecogriJtian a E (. This must be rejected and the portrait left unclassified. The only violation of the constraints by this partition is that portrait 3 forms its own class. 12. x5 ). We cap see that none of the partitions fully satisfies the known constraints regarding the fRrnilies: three families. However. This is due to the coarseness of the Hamming distance. we overview two classes of methods of fuzzy pattern recognition. (x5}}.Since the matrix is symnietric. We also know that each family consists of four to seven numbers. 13. 365 ((xi). 14). 13. This can only be done subjectively. (1. are given in terms of the matrix in Table 13. One of them consists of generalizations of classical membershiproster methods. In classical membershiproster methods of pattern recognition.. each . x4 .. 1971].pattern class is characterized by a set of Patterns that are stored in the pattern recognition system. which we know are portraits of members of three families.1a. 13% misclassification. These results are quite impressive. x2 ) and (x. 16). (x21. x2. 6 . (4. 15)}. but it is less refined. and 12% rejection (unclassifiability). 9. each with four to seven members. (x3 )}.1. (Duly its lower triangle is shown. Our aim is to duster these portraits according to the families.
5 0.4 0.4 03 0.4 03 04 / 0.4 0.4 0.3 (a) Matrix of fuzzy compatibility telation R on Pi 16Portrait Number / 2 3 4 5 1 / 0 0 lU 0 2 1 0 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 0.5 clIttin.4 0.8 0 0 0.2 a4 0 0.2 0.  03 04 0.4 1 6 7 8 9 10 11.2 1 0 1 (b) Matrix of the transitive closure RT R.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 ' 1 0.5 0 0.5 04 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 1 0.4 0.4 03 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.0 ririri 0.366 Pattern Recognition Chap.8 0 0 0.4 1 0.8 1 0.6 0 0 1 0 .8 0 1 D 0 0 0 / 0.5 1 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.2 0 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4.4 0.5 06 0.2 0 0 0 1 0 0.8 0 0.4 0.4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 / 0.4 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.2 0 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.8 0 0.5 0.8 1 0 13 14 0.8 0.2 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.4 1 0.4 0.4 0. ri1.4 0.4 0.8 0.5 2 1 0.2 0 0.4 0 0 0 0 0.2 0. Portrait Number ric1rtNVInV7 1 1 0.2 0. t3 TABLE 13.8 04 QS ti.4 0.8 0.8 0.4 0 15 16 0 0.6 0.8 1.4 0. 0.4 .8 0.4 0.8 0.4 1 0.2 0 0 0 0.2 0.8 0.4 0 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0 0_4 1 0 0.4 0.6 05 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 0 0 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.0.5 0 0 0.8 0.8 1 0.4 0.8 0.5 04 0.4 1 .4 0.2 0 0.5 0.4 1  0.4 0.8 05 0.1 FUZZY RELATONS tN EXAMPLE 13.4 MS 0.4 0.8 0.4 03 0.4 0 0 0 1 G 0.4 0.8 0 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5 118 0.8 0. 12 0.6 0.5 1 .4 0.4 0.4 0 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.4 418 0. 0.s1 1 0.4 0.1 0 0 0.2 0 0.4 0.
For efficient pattern recognition. Given a relevant pattern = (u1. U 2 1  p) where u i is the measurement associated with the ith feature of the pattern (I E NO. 13. a pattern is represented by a string of concatenated sub patterns called primitives. For example. Fuzzy MembershipRoster Methods In fuzzy Enembershiproster methods. we measure. These primitives are viewed as the alphabet of a formal language.3. an appropriate set of patterns must be stored for each pattern class to capture its pattern variety.3 Clasterizig tree in Exam])lc 13. contrary to their classical counterparts. then.Sec. in an appropriate way. A pattern. letters of all relevant fonts must be stored in a printed character recognition system. which are labelled by the integers in NR .6 . its degree of compatibility with each standard pattern and then classify the pattern to a particular class according to some criteria. The pattern is classified as a member of a pattern class if it matches one of the stored patterns in that class. All patterns whose sentences are generated by the same grammar belong to the same pattern class. In classical syntactic methods of pattern recognition.5 . For a given unknown pattern.8 a 3 1 13 8 16 4 9 10 12 15 2 5 7 11 14 Figurc 1 3 . unknown pattern to be classified is coLupared with the stored Olktteins one by one. we need to store only one standard pattern for each pattern class. An unknown pattern is thus classified to a particular pattern class if it can be generated by the grammar corresponding to that class.3 Fuzzy Pattern Recognition 367 A . is a sentence generated by some grammar. Assume that ir pattern classes are recognized. let Ak(u) denote the degree of compatibility of u with the standard pattern representing class .
Therefore. Example 13.4 Lee [1975 ) describes one straightforward method of examining the shape of chromosomes in order to classify them into the three categories pictured in Fig. 13. That is. 13 k(k E N. Figure MS Idealized pattern for ettomosome classmcation. and classifying given patterns according to these degrees have been developed for specific types of pattern recognition problems. It is difficult to identify sharp boundaries between these three types. which compares the angles and arm lengths of the chromosome with those labeled in the ideanzed skeleton in Fig. As can be seen from this figure. the classification scheme is based on the ratio of the length of the arms of the chrOMOSOMO to its total body length. Specific methods for selecting pattern features. A Figurt 13 4 Clammouomc itnagcm: (a) (a) (t) (c) median.368 Pattern Recognition Chap. which are shown in Fig. . We illustrate this class of fuzzy pattern recognition method by a paraçular example. (1)) submedian.1 ). 133.4. A given pattern is usually classified by the largest value of Ak(u) for all k but other classification criteria have also been suggested. (0 =acentric. Lee uses a method of film pattern recognition. 13. His method belongs to the chum of frwry memhershiproster methods.5. determining the degrees A k (ii). each pattern ii is characterized by 13 features (angles and distances).
• In order to determine membership grade functions corresponding to the three classes of chromosomes. and AC.SM. 1=. G. A grammar. or contraction of the chromosome image. 4dr where eir = + d2+ d3 + cr. and AC. or approximardy acrocentric by calculating each of the three membership grades in M. translation. — idr dAc AC(u) = SOO [1. 14d 1 441 14d2 — 6/31) . expansion. 1 ] The further advantages of this type of shapeoriented classification scheme lie in the fact that the method is insensitive Co rotation. are defined in terms of S by the formulas M (u) S(u) Id i — 41+1 (12 d3 1 dr SM(u) = S(u) [1 —414 1 . is the quadruple . and AC. the category in which the chromosome attains the maximum value is chosen if that value is sufficiently large. M. • • • 369 . Fuzzy Syntactic Methods Classical syntactic methods of pattern recognition are based on the theory of formal languages and grammars. If the maximum value falls below some designated threshold. to median. As can be seen from this example. including the empty string. pattern classes are represented by languages.Sec.3 Fumy Pattern Recogniton u 02. 13.cb chromosome can be c1a5sified as approximately rnedian. S. If the maximum is not unique. is defined first. approximately submedian.SM. then the image is rejected from all three classes. In these methods. then the classification is based on a priority defined on the three classes. and acrooentrie chromosomes respeetwely. +61s . corresponding. a fuzzy set of symmetric chromosomes. ] . Fuzzy sets M.8 19 y d2 . these factors do affect the way in which humans are able to classify images. Then any subset of V* is called a language based upon the vocabulary V. and let V* denote the set of all strings formed by symbols from . rairt(idi i(idt — dsm 2d4i + id2 — 2d3i. These methods are suitable for recognizing patterns that are rich in structural information which cannot be easily expressed in numerical values. 2 d31). geometric %iroilarity is conveniently represented in terms of membership grades in the interval [O. each of which is a set of strings of symbols from a vocabulary that are generated by the pattern grammar. are then defined in terms of S. / dAc = 4di [. Some languages can be defined by grammars. subrriedian. 414 1+ d2 — 41+121. Ea.SM. The membership grade 5(u) of each chromosome characterized by pattern u in the fuzzy set of symmetric chromosomes is defined by the formula 4 S(a) = 720° E1074. Let V be a vocabulary. The three fuzzy sets of primary interest in this pattern recognition problem.
and • s is the starting symbol (5 • VT The language generated by grammar G.1 (7) n2rtvin —4 (8) . let VAr ni. This can be done by fazzifying the primitives involved (i. denoted by L(G).S). For background in this area of classical pattern recognition.pi 4 4. the language becomes a fuzzy set of strings formed by symbols from the terminal vocabuiazy). A).mrnar and the associated language.1.2q 4 (5 ) y fn. we recommend the book Syntactic Methods in Pattern Recognition by IC S. • P is a imite set of production rules of the form x y. As an example of a grammar G.n2pt2t1 (8 ) n2 ÷ t2 The following are examples of generating strings x E VF that belong to the languaq L (G). is defined by the quintuple (7. 13 (13. Fu (Academic Press. P. VT . In many applications. s.  . 1974). n2) and VT t2} and let P consist of the following eight production rules: (1) s (2) s (3) n 1 n2it1 nit2 sr" (4) n1 ti (5) ni (6) n2 ± st2 (7) n2 . it is desirable to increase the descriptive power of syntactic pattern recognition by fuzzifying the concepts of a gra. A fuzzy grammar.z. r syntactic pattern recognition.5 n2t1 (4) (6) stz ti (2) n i t2. features of patterns are represented by the elements of the terminal vocabulary VT. They are usually called primitives_ Each pattern is reptesented by a string of these primitives. Chao.. is a terminal vocabulary such that VT CI Ja.7) where • VN is a nonterminal vocabulary... the primitives become labels of fuzzy sets) or by fuzzifying the production rules of the gramraar and. and each pattern class is defined by a grarmAr that generates strings representing patterns in that class. FG (13.8) where • Vffii is a nonterminal vocabulary as in (133). FG. VD. is the set of all strings formed by symbols in VT that can be obtained by the production rules in P.141+2. ... 4 .e.e. P.2 . structural information is inherently vague. where x and y are strings of symbols from V VN U VT such that x contains at least cue symbol of VN. also the language defined by the grammar (i.\ 107) (2) rl1t2 (4) n ln1tzat2 1t1n1t2n1n1t242 . defined by this grammar: 1 ( 1) 1.i4i 2t212 E L(G)  „ (5) „ 4 (1) lu n2.370 Pattern Recognition G = (VA'. In such applications.2 > 4. consequently.
an anticlockwise curve. t (13. these features form a terminal vocabulary VT Appropriate fuzzy grammars are then defined for this vocabulary. expressed in terms of the radius of hand and wrist and labelled by the integers 2.3 Fuzzy Pattern Recogniton 371 • • • • VT is a terminal vocabulary as in (13. Every fuzzy grammar defined by (13. The language generated by the flizzy grammar is a fuzzy set. Eight of the stages. s is the starting symbol (s E VN). 13. Given a particular image of this kind. are labels of the associated pattern classes. Ci is .7) is employed.7). In all fuzzy grammars in this example. Nine stages of skeletal maturity are usually distinguished. t. . The nionterminal vocabulary VAir consists 01 13 symbols n 1 . To illustrate the basic ideas of fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition.Sec. 3. n2 . 1986].9) where in is the number of derivations of string x by grammar FG. Given an unknown Rattan to be classified. P is a finite set of production rules as in (133). where the subscripted symbols FG designate the various fizzy grammars involved in this pattern recognition process. we use the following example.8) has an associated crisp grammar defined by (117).. After determining significant features of patterns to be recognized. Fuzzy syntactic methods are suitable for dealing with this problem. — 8. nk is the length of the kth derivation chain. and the symbols C1 . defined on the language generated by the associated crisp grammar. No grammar is assigned in this figrt to Aage 1 lae C1) since opilepsits is totally absent in this stage. hence. each of which characterizes one of the pattern classes to be distinguished.. its members/alp grades in languages generated by the various fuzzy grammars are calculated by (13. is not shown in the figure. 13. characterized by the empty string. respectively. . and a doe. a threelevel hierarchical classification scheme (shown in Fig. a clockwise curve. Example 135 Consider the problem of identifying the skeletal maturity of children from Xray images. irk).6 in terms of typical images of the radius of band aid wrist The first stage (labelled by 1).  Since some stages are more dincult to distinguish from each other. The pattern is then classified by the largest membership grade. C2. the problem is to classify it into one of the nine claaaes on. and A is a fuzzy set defined on P. For each string x E L (G). L (FG). vr where t1 t2 . during which the epiphysis is totally absent. are illustrated in Fig. L (FG)(x) = max min A(pt). and pf denotes the th production rule used in the kth derivation chain (z = I.9). In classical syntactic pattern recognition. adopted in a simplified form from [Fathak and Pal. — nu. languages generated by grammars representing different pattern classes are required to be pairwise disjoint This requirement is too strong for many practical applications. the basis of shapes of the epiphysis and metaphysis as well as palmar and dorsal surfaces. 13.. whose features form a string x e VI!. The use of fuzzy grammars relaxes this requirement by allowing overlaps between the associated fuzzy languages. 2. Fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition proceeds as follows. r4 denote a line segment of unit length.
3 (C4) Level I (C s) FG31. FA.1 Threelzvel hierarchical classification procedure (Example 1 3. and GE are defined in terms of another fuzzy set. and GE in this table denote fuzzy sets defined on the set a curves (both acwkwise and anticlockwise) that represent the linguistic tabelA sharp. the lower the ration . denoted by ARC. A5. and production rule 12 with the membership grade S11(t2). 10.4 (C 31 ) ( 5 C 32) 6 (C4:1) 7.8 > O is a parameter by which the definition can be adjusted as needed. is not shorn] 9 here). 1 1P64 1 3. respectively. hence. FG. PATTERN F4G2 PG3 FG4 FG5 (CI) (C2) 3. together with membership grades of the associated fuzzy sets A3. and gentie. production rule 11 with the membership grade FA(t2). and . whose membership function is defined for any given curve c by the formula a)41 ARC o (c) (1 — — .7.. Fuzzy sets Sil.2. for example.4. Symbols SH.. A4. FG5) are listed in Table 13. that the fuzzy grammar 17G consists of production rules 1. grammar FG2 is actually crisp and consists of the single production rule . 8. clearly.5 (C 3) 6. FA. b is the length of the curve.5). Grammar F02 is not included in Table 132 SifiCC it is trivial: class C2 is characterized by a single siring.a (C 42) Level 2 Level 3 Figure 13 . 13 2 3 4 5 Figure OA Different stages of skeletal maturity of radius Page /. string t4.372 Pattern Recognition Chap. We can see.. pit .10) where a is the length of the straight line segment joining the two extreme points of curve c. Production rules of fuzzy grammars at the first classification level (FG. The value ARC fr (c) expresses the degree of archness Df c. 9.5 —0. in which epiphysis is totally absent. 7. (13.4.
5 (a) Level 1 (b) Level 2 373 Production rules Membersh ip pi pi ) 1 s —4.. 16 in g > rina !I17 18 n i 0 na 19 0 1 1 1 1 (JE(t3) 0E02 ) 1 20 21 23 24 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 1 GE o 0 27 28 29 30 31 ?in n9n3 o E (t2 ) 1 11 12 4 119 n9n3n9 L. 02) 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 18 11 7 + nin7 19 ri g >. 16 n7 P1 7 —4 r3 n 7r3 n 1 ne/8 ninVitnz GE..› 21 43 sn3 s 5 n i 2n6n i3 6 s ni 112113 7 8 ni 4 n 3 . Grades A4 (p i) A5 (p Production rules pi Mt 2 s —4. 15 1 0 — G E(2 ) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 .pi112 23 /4 4 n2nii nu > /3 24 /2 n ii 25 ?I + n9n3n9 26 o o o o 1 1 1 1 1 14 n 6 n e. P.3t9/13 20 119 > n2 n2n 1 gt2 ng 21 22 ng 11. n2 ri n1 11. 4.TABLE 13. 12 fr 1 1 1 1 1 113 12 13 n4 n2ns /2 13 n 5 lb n i0 irg51 14 15 n5 n t.1'0 2 n 9 1 0 FA OD H (12) Ii 0 10 11.. 134 7Joi 4 4 n5 /2 5 n4 6 n4 h 7 135 4 ns n u n ion g 8 n5 • n) > n5 + n sni2 10 n 5 4 n sn ion sn 12 11 nikinsfi E z 115 12 s Membership • n(pi ) O G rade A41(pi) 2 3 S n i ntn1 03111 o 1 4 5 . n 3n 9 o n i3 11 9 0 .12n2 n4 n 4 n2 3 n.2 PRODUCTION RULES OF FUZZY GRAMMARS IN EXAMPLE 13.
. Given an Xray image to be classified..31 general. and FG. FA . fingerprints recognition. where fuzzy irammars FG3t and FG 41. (1. a greytone image is a discrete approximation of a black and white picture. Now. for each I 14„. C4. Production rules of fuzzy grammars at the 5 econd classification level (FG31 and FG) are fisted in Table L32b together with membership grades of the associated fuzzy sets A32 and A41. where f is a monotonically increasing function on [O. which is essential for computer processing. automatic classification of Xray images. in a simplified manner.7) is based on spci6i measurements ad crisp criteria. The role of image processing is to enhance a given image in an appropriate way to make the subsequent pattern recognition and classification easier. human face recognition. and rii is assumed to be a value from a discrete set { b1 — 0. Such an approximation is conveniently represented by the x n matrfx [ ri t 21 rI2 R r72 r1 rii„. 1. it is classified to C2.}i We assume values 14 inctease with increasing k Pio. 1a4 FUZZY IMAGE PROCESSING Image processing is connected with pattern recognition in the sense that data in many pattern recognition problems are given in terms of digital images. are covered in the original paper by Pathak and Pal [ 1 986] as well as in the book by pal and Majumder [19814 . 13 f (ARC fi (c)). and classification of remotely sensed data. Examples of such problems are printed and handwritten character recognition. let us consider only monochrome or greytone images. S (c) Pattern Recognition Chap. if it is /4 .2 rill 1 r2„ r.374 ufb. Classification at level 3 (Fig. The ordering of entries in 11 is assumed to be the same as the ordering of points in the grid. 11 and g and h are monotonically decreasing functions on 10. the level of brightness at the spatial point whose position in a twodimensional grid of discrete points is identified by the vertical index and the horizontal index J. target identification. b.„ where rij expresses. The whole procedure of pattern classification in this example can now be summarized. FG. omitted here for the sake of simplicity.51 and PO. are employed for farther classification. the higher The dq7ee of archnesu. and Cs according to the largest membership grade in fuzzy languages generated by the associated fuzzy grammars FG3 . we proceed to level 2. and each j E N„. alCrwise. 13. If the string is classified in C3 or C4. For the sake of simplicity. as follows. the string is classified in one of the classes C. Each element of R is usually called a pixel. it is classified to C1 . There are basically two classes of methods for image processing. Many additional details of this interesting example. If the string is empty. It respectively.q . 1. it is first converted into a string of symbols in V.5 (c) ag(IA p (x) — GE A (0 = h(ARC0(c)).2. which are referred to .
by a 96 x 96 spatial grid of points and 32 levels of brightness (grey levels). 1] such that INT (a) 5INT (a) a when a (0. u when u (43. . DzT. The conversion from R to it is usually done by the formula Fgi = ( ± 6rli ) Y A 0 (13. 0.13. In some of these methods. 1] [0. TWo ways of manipulating images represented by fuzzy matrices are illustrated by a particular example adopted from [Pal and King. ft. Sshape function. When function MIT is applied to entries of matrix & let ENT(F) be denoted by F:i . the image is processed in terms of its Fourier transform. matrix R = [FIJI of a given ima.8a. which is then manipulated by appropriate fuzzy operators.5.5. 13. 19811. Observe that this conversion function is an. is a function of the form 1'T: [0. example and. y are positive parameters that affect the conversion formula and are determined from required properties of enhancement operations to be applied to a given image. Example 116 The image considered in this example is the discrete approximation of a picture of three handwritten letters.4 Fuzzy Image ProcessIng 375 as frequency domain methods and spatial domain methods. where = 31 is chosen in this rii E (101 . b1 is a reference constant defining the degree of brightness for which F = 1.. Mu. 11 • ..5 ] 1 —2(1 — Fil) 2 when Fjj E 10. the processing directly involves the pixels of matrix R. we consider only spatial domain methods. while in other methods.„ and j E N. hence. 13. which is one of the operations intended to enhance the image for subsequent pattern recognition and classification. In frequency domain methods. 3L Any contrast intensification operation. The image is represented by a 96 x 96 matrix R = j ]. and fi. where i. 1 h . j E N. ?In fuzzy imageprocessing methods. The intensification operation employed in this example is defined by INT (Fij ) { 2. 31) for all I.11) for all I g N. 1). each pixel is modified independent of other pixels.gc is converted into its fuzzy counterpart. = [Fii]. since it is based on 6.5). shown in Fig. For converting R into it. t/. To illustrate the use of fuzzy sets in image processing.. 7if (1 + 31 — where appropriate values of parameters /3 and y are selected on the basis of the requirements imposed upon the following contrast intgnsification operation.F2 when Poi E [0.Sec..5. I. 1NT (a) = a when a = 0. in spatial domain methods . it is modified on the basis of pixels in its neighborhood. e [0. 0..
(b) rtsuit of contrast strttching: (o) rosult of emootbing.8 Image discussed Ea Egamp /3.376 Pattern Recognition Chap. 13 4 (e) Resuk of smoothing Figure 13.6: (a) orfginal image. .
x + 1] of [0.Chap. 13 Notes 377 Observe that this operation can also be expressed by a sigmoid function (Appendix A). Similarly. Both books also cover fuzzy clustering and various applications of fuzzy pattern recognition.1. where Q ((u. Comparing the three images in Fig. as well as thorough overviews of the whole area and four of its subareas: cluster analysis. including the use of fumy sets in image processing. Then k = x + 0.1 — bc) = 0.8.i011 function to ensure that > F.064 entries) of funny set theory that focuses particularly on fuzzy pattern recognition. When it is applied twice to the image in Fig. The purpose of smoothing is to equalize the level of brightness of image points that are spatially close to each odier. for example. (u + 1.5 and ( 1+ 3. tin is the neighborhood of pixel (u.8a for tl = 43 and y =2. The intensification operation INT requires selection of a suitable equilibrium point. for example. it is undoubtedly more suitable for the subsequent pattern recognition and classification. Applying this operation to the image in Fig. we can determine vaducs of )9 and y in the conversion function that satisfy this requirement. By choosing a subinterval of [0.. After the original image is processed by these two operations. Considering. v) (u — 1. x = 9 and choosing y = 1. fuzzy grammars and their use in syntactic pattern recognition.8b. There are several known smoothing operations (or algorithms). and numerous applications of the various types of pattern recognition problems. The second operation on fuzzified images to be illustrated by this example is smoothing.8b. i for > bfr. of the conVerl. the smoothing operation is defined by the formula " 1 4 t. 13. One of them is based on averaging the brightness levels within neighbors.. The role of fuzzy logic and neural networks in pattern recognition is also discussed in the book by Pan [19891. nc2 E  (13. and Majumder. Assume. we can clearly see the effect of the two operations illustrated. and so on. choosing y = 2.•+ 1). <i for j < bd . A more recent book on fuzzy pattern recognition [Pal . that we want to apply the intensification operation within the subinterval [x. (u„y — 1). Books by Bezdek [1981] and Kandel [19821 are classics in fuzzy pattern recognition. we obtain 1 (1 + = /5 which yields fr = 21_5. we obtain the image in Fig.8c. bj within which we want to apply the intensification operation. NOTES 13. 13. Knaders book contains a large bibliography (with 3. contrast stretching (intensification) and smoothing (averaging). Assuming the use of the arithmetic average.. u). bna l. 1986] has a broad coverage. The intensification operator may be applied repeatedly.  . 13.5. we obtain the smoother image in Fig. we obtain fi = 52. A book edited by Bezciek and Pal f1992] is currently the main resource of information regarding the varions aspects of fuzzy pattern recognition_ It contains reprints of 51 key articles in this area.11) for all u e N„„ and u N„. and i. k. 13 2. 13. 13.
2.1.2/x1 + 13. Apply the clustering method ba. image processing and machine vision. 13.1.3. for example. Each of these overviews contains a relevant bibLiography.. + .2/xis .relation defined by (13.2»ra . EXERCISES 13.1 for q =1.378 Pattern Recognftion Chap. . 13.2 with c =2 and c 3. neural networks and learning in pattern recognition. Apply the fuzzy cmeans algorithm to the data in Example 13. (preferably by writing a computer program for the fuzzy cmeans algorithm) for different initial fuzzy pseladopartitions . Piov Thum =.2. . 13.2/x9 + .4. 13 classifier design and feature analysis.5. Repeat example 131. Az . and fuzzy logic.sed on the transitive closure of firm.8/3rs.8/xs + . .841. Describe differences between fuzzy pseudopartitions and regular fuzzy partitions resulting from fuzzy equivalence relations. +.6) to the data in Example 13. 13.
The motivation for the application of fu7zy A et theory to the design of databases and information storage and 'retrieval systems lies in the need to handle imprecise information. and geological exploration. however. "Which industries are forecasted to experience significant growth by a substantial number of experts? or "Which reasonably priced hotels are in close proximity to the city center?" often capture the relevant concerns of database users more accurately and easily than precise queries. For example. This includes fuzzy databases. This type of information can be quite useful when the database is.14 FUZZY DATABASES AND INFORIVIATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS 14. but also subjective expert opinions. to be used as a decision aid in areas such as medical diagnosis. These three areas are not independent of one another. investment. each expert system contains a database as a subsystem. information retrieval may be handled by a specific database system. we focus on fuzzy database and information retrieval systems. Although information retrieval may be conceived in terms. of a specific database system. it is also desirable to relieve the user of the constraint of having to formulate queries to the database in precise terms. where "soft" subjective and imprecise data are not only common but quite valuable. and values that can be specified in linguistic terms.1 GENERAL. In addition. The principal difference between expert systems and database systems is the capability of expert systems to make inferences. In this chapter. Vague queries such as "Which employment candidates are highly educated and moderately experienced?". the agendas of database systems and information retrieval systems arc sufficiently different that it is preferable to discuss them as separate subjects. judgments. The database that can accommodate imprecise information can store and manipulate not only precise facts. fuzzy information retrieval systems. employment. DISCUSSION Applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic within the field of computer science have been quite extensive. that the database system which incorporates imprecision be able 379 . particularly in those endeavors concerned with the storage and manipulation of knowledge in a manner compatible with human thialdng. and fuzzy expert systems. On the other hand. It is important. This capability is examined for fuzzy expert systems in Chapter 11.
14 to appropriately propagate the level of uncertainty associated with the data to the level of uncertainty associated with answers or conclusions based on the data_ Precise answers should not be 8eoerated Low impr ccise data. we will deliver some heavy equipment to your site % Saturday evening".". "list the young salesmen who have a good selling record for household goods in the north cf England". handle fuzzy information completely in its linguistic form. still requires it to be precise and welldefined. it will not list the chap of 245 who has made a real killing. since even the least precise of the three statements does provide a basis for planning and action. if t he. The significance of fuzzy databases is well characterized by the following excerpt from a paper by Gaines 11979111: The initial applications of computers were in the exact sciences and comparable commercial areas such as accountancy.. and "see you with the goods over the weekend".. Translating it into. In retrieving information from a database the requirement for artificial precision is at least irritating and at worst highly misleading. The second request is more precise but the first represents far more accurately the actual rneaning of the retrieval required. the request.1 u 15th February at 0.. third statement really represents all that Car be said it would be ridiculous to replace it with either of the previous ones.m. It is possible to argue that precision in itself is always virtue—a reply to a reqtrest for a delivery data that says "soon" would be rated less satisfactory than. unwarranted precision can itself be highly misleading sines actions may be taken based vu it—'we will deliver 7 parcels each weighing 15. "list salesmen under 2$ years old who have sold more than E20. As applications move out of the realms of the accountant and into the less quantitative areas of the firm so also does a requirement for high precision in specifying retrievals and updates of a database become increasingly unnatural. The implementation of these systems is thus strongly dependent on the availability of integrated circuits designed specifically to implement fuzzy logic (Sec.e.e. . is perfectly comprehensibleto a person. One of the major concerns in the design of both fuzzy database and information retrieval systems is efficiency.000 of goods la the categories. despite large amounts of stored data with their degrees of membership.380 Fuzzy Databases and information Retrieval Systems Chao.. these systems must be able to perform quickly enough to make interaction with human users feasible. i. e.'. alternatively. or the one of 19 who sold 119. even though it allows for nonnumerical data. Database theory and practice in developing from this. one that says "in 3 days time"the latter is more "businesslike".g. A key aspect of executive action is planning under uncertainty and normal language provides a means foi imprecision to be clearly and exactly expressed. generates =necessary work and makes no allowances for the whole spectrum of tradeoffs possible.. i. 16_ $ ). However. each conveys an exact meaning that (presumably) properly represents what is to occur. lu general. It would be equally ridiculous to say nothing. however. etc. it is preferable to store fuzzy information in linguistic form and generate the implied membership functions as required or..'.to shops in the regions. However.000.03 p. If we prefer the precision of the first statement it is not for its own sake but because the tighter tolerances it implies on the actual situation allow us to plan ahead with greater accuracy and less use of resources. may each refer to the same event but are clearly not interchangeable.2 kilograms at the rear entrance a building 6A 4.
and are called upies. good) small (good. elements of the tupIes contained in the relations may be crisp subsets of the domain universal set. The columns of these tables correspond to fields or attributes and are usually called domains. The fuzzy relational database proposed by Buckles and Petry differs from this crisp model in two ways: first. and MAJOR.ropriate domain base (or universal) set. we describe one of several known approaches to fuzzy databases. the classical crisp model of a relational database. ADDRESS. One of these models. The rows are elements of the relation. they correspond to records or entries.2 Fuzzy Databases 381 FUZZY DATABASES A database is a computerbased system the purpose of which is to store information regarding a set of entities and to provide users with the capability of organizing. manipulating. such as Complement. as a special case. excellent) . the names of relations and the names of domains to be operated on. relational algebra. which perform the corresponding tasks on the relation and domains specified in order to produce the desired information. The first qualification allows the elements of tupies to consist of either singletons of the domain universal sets (as in the conventional relational database model) or crisp subsets of the domain universal sets. 14. This algebra consists of the procedural application of operations containing four basic elements: an operation name. 1983] developed a model for a fuzzy relational database that contains.Sec. a similarity relation is defined on each domain universal set. Several models for representing information in databases have been proposed. Access to the database is accomplished through a.2 14. Intersection. Each domain is defined on an app. Virtually all fuzzy databases described in the literature are conceived in terms of the relational model. The algebraic operation performing this task would be Project (STUDENT: NAME. ADDRESS) where MAJOR = "computer science. has become predominant. For instance. medium) (moderate. Buckles and Petry [1982. and Join. and retrieving the stored information as requested. as in th relation MARKETS with the domains AREA. we can obtain the names and addresses of all students whose major is computer science by constructing a new relation with domains NAME and ADDRESS as a projection of the original relation. The model of a classical relational database consists of a set of multidimensional relations conceptualized as tables. To illustrate the issues involved in fuzzy databases. referred to as a relational model. and an optional conditional expression. and second." The algebra also contains other relational operations. SIZE. Union. and POTENTIAL represented by the table RELATION: mmucErs POTENTIAL AREA east midwest SIZE south good large 'gage. if our database contains a ternary relation STUDENT with domains NAME.
negative (N). for example.6 . is defined for the domain OPINION on the domain universal set (highly favorable (HP).8 .. in addition. thus requiring strict equivalence for the merging or elimination of tuples. These two relations are specified in 'fable 14. 14 Domain values that are not singletons may indicate.6 .6 .3 1 . This introduction of fuzziness provides an interesting element of flexibility.6 . the equivalence classes generated by this relation are simply the singletons of the universal Set.382 Fuzzy Databases aind inforrnntion Flt. this equivalence relation is generali7ed tn a fuzzy equivalence relation (or a similarity relation).8 1 . Two relations' are contained within the database: EXPERT. NAME. which has domains NAME and FIELD and associates the name and field of each expert. The fuzzy relational algebra used to access this fuzzy database consists of the same four components as the conventional relational algebra and.990 ] „ it is desirable to further generalize the model by allowing fuzzy compatibility (or proximity) relations in each domain rather than requiring fuzzy equivalence relations.8 0 0 .6 0 . In the fuzzy database model. a crisp equivalence relation is defined on each domain universal set which groups together elements that are strictly equivalent This equivalence is utilized. the merging of the opinions or judgments of several experts.2 0 0 . favorable (F). since the value or meaning structures of different individual database users may be reflected by modifying the domain equivalence relations appropriately. Most often.8 . Moreover. users of the fuzzy relational database are given more freedom to express their value structures. Y s and Z.2 . tupies may be merged if they are considered sufkicudy As an example of the use of this fuzzy database mode/ and its associated fuzzy relational algebra..1..6 .2 . and highly negative (1/20): HF F SF SN N IIN HF SF SN — HN 1 . when redundant ruples are to be eliminate d or ignored. 1. the following fuzzy compatibility relation. By dropping transitivity. This is accomplished with the relational algebraic operation . and OPTION. The second qualification is based on the assumption that in the classical database model. slightly favorable (SF). X. In the fuzzy database. as argued by Shenioi and Melton [1989..8 ...8 .8 1 Crisp equivalence relations in which equivalence classes are singletons are assumed to be defined on domains NAMF. suppose our database contains the opinions of a gronp of experts on three policy options. In the special case of the conventional databas c .6 2 0 . allows for the specification of a threshold level defining the minimum acceptable degree of similarity between elements in some specified domain. and OPIIsTION and associates the name of each expert with their expressed opinions on the policy options.2 . and ASSESSMENT. which has domains OPTION.trievai Systems Chap. FIELD.8 1 . slightly negative (SN).2  .8 1 .6 . Suppose now that our query to this fuzzy database consists of the following question: "Which sociologists are in considerable agreement with Kass concerning policy option Y?" The first step is to retrieve the opinion of Kass concerning option Y. all threshold levels are implicitly assumed to be equal to 1. for instance. in addition.
NT oribrioN favorabk negative slightly favorable highly favorable slightly favorable slightly favorable highly favorable favorable favorable negative TIEID Fee Felifroan Kass Osborn Schreiber Specterman sociologist economist attorney ecOrtorniSt kkkk Osborn Fee Factetn physician sociologist sociologist sociologist Feldman Cohen Osborn Fee Schreiber Kass pedant Spectoonan FeIdle an Osborn Kass Fee highly favorable slightly negative negative slightly negative slightly favorable (Project (Select ASSESSMENT where NAME = Kass and OPTION = Y) over OPINION) giving Ri.1 EXAMPLES OF RELATIONS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE RELATION: EXPERT NAME Cohen Fadem.2 Fuzzy Databases TABLE 14. The resulting temporary relation RI on domain OPINION is given by RELATION: RI OPINION favorable The next step involves the selection of all sociologists from the table of experts. 14. Here. 383 RELATION: OPTION NAME AssEssmF.Sec. which . Tt is equal to  RELAIION: NAME Cohen Osborn lareler Specterman Next. This is accomplished by the operation (Project (Select EXPERT where FIELD = Sociologists) over NAME) giving R2. P 2 is a temporary relation on domain NAME listing only sociologists. temporary relation R3 must be constructed on domains NAME and OPINION..
we perform a join of relaticas RI (giving the opinion of I(ass) and R3 (giving the opinion of the sociologists) that specifies a threshold similarity level of . Schreiber.75 on the domain OPINION. and TIERES(IsEAME) O. as shown. the uncertainty contained in the specification of "considerable agreement" and in the similarity defined over the possible opinions is propagated to the response given. fuzzy compatibility relations on individual domain universal sets. The speciffcation of a zero similarity threshold level for NAME is necessary to allow the nmcging of uanles into sets. The algebraic expression for this task is "(Join R3 and RI over OPINION) with "1"1IRES(OPINION) >. favorable. which is chosen for this example to represent the condition of "considerable" agreement.) (slightly favorabLe. OPINION Speerermse. higlily favorable) Note that the response which results is less than precise and contains less information than a response of NAME Osborn Schreiber OPINION slightly favorable favorable highly favorable Specterman In this way. Fuzziness in data is not addressed . The illustrated fuzzy database model developed by Buckles and Petry [1992. R. 1983] introduces fuzziness only by means of fuzzy equivalence relations or.3 NAME OPNION slightly negalive slightly favorable 1 Cohen Osborn Schreiber faimrable highly favorabie Spezlerroan Filially. in the result given by NAME (Osborn. 14 lists the opinions of the sociologists in R2 about option Y. more generally. accomplishing this is The algebraic expression (Project j(Select (Join R2 and ASSESSMENT over NAME) where OPTION Y) over NAME.384 Fuzzy Databases arid information Retrieval Systems Chap. The relation R3 that is produced is given by RELATION:. OPINION) giving R3.75.
One possible criterion is to discount the grade of relevance involving old documents or old index terms by some rate.4. possibly. These methods are increasingly recognized as more realistic. Other possible criteria in defining the grades of relevance are to discriminate among different types such that the membership value R(xi. However. . as reviewed in Note 14.than the various classical methods of information retrieval. These grades are determined either subjectively.3 FUZZY INFORMATION RETRIEVAL Information retrieval may be defined.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval by this model.Sec. e X and each y 3 E Y the grade of relevance of index term eci to document yi . Each search question is a statement. Our aim in this section is to characterize the role of fuzzy set theory in dealing with the problem of information retrieval_ We do not attempt to describe specific methods of fuzzy information retrieval. The aim is to select. other fuzzy database models have been proposed in which attribute values may be expressed in vague linguistic terms (Note 141). in general. in words or other symbols. The term fizzy information retrieval refers to methods of information retrieval that are based upon the theory of fuzzy sets. X= and a set of relevant documents. docHrnents that are of maximum relevance to the inquirer. The problem of information retrieval is to match the Werds or other symbols of the inquiry with those characterizing the individual documents and make appropriate selections. by some algorithmic procedure.. Yi) specifies for each xi . It is assumed that the subject of each document in the storage is characterized by a set of key words or other symbols. by authors of the documents. R:XxY [0.10.• • . the only comprehensive treatment of this subject is covered in a monograph by Miyamoto [19901. Readers interested in this subject should consult the abovementioned monograph. One way of determining the grades objectively is to define them in an appropriate way in terms of the numbers of occurrences of individual index terms in titles and/or abstracts of the documents involved_ This can be combined with other criteria. 1 ] . when some documents or index ternis are discarded). the relevance of index terms to individual documents is expressed by a fuzzy relation. In fuzzy information retrieval. they are fixed for each particular inquiry. or objectively. Although these sets change whenever new documents are added to systems or new index terms are recognized (or. a set of recognized index terms. 14. as the problem of the selection of documentary information from storage in response to search questions. Among publications dealing with fuzzy information retrieval. X2. which expresses the subject of interest of the inquirer. The problem of information retrieval involves two finite crisp sets. (X/. at minimal cost. 14.
That is.Ex for ail xi € X. la which the inquiry involves only the following three index terms: fuzzy logic. that is.. xk) r T(x. in a given set of index terms. by composing A with the fuzzy thesaurus T. xj )] x. .)..1 ]. defined on X2. To illustrate this process. to rank relevant jou rn als. [ 1 _A .386 Fuzzy Databases and informatian Retileval Systems Chap. That is. possibly. expressed by fii7zy set B. pairs whose meanings they consider associated (or. For each pair of index terms (xi . This is a reflexive fuzzy relation. which represents an augininted inquiry (Le. papers in conference proceedings. we obtain a new fuzzy set on X (say. Another way of obtaining these grades is to use statistical data obtained from the documents or such as frequencies of occurrence of pairs of index terms in the same document or frequencies of associations based on citations.2) represent the process of fuzzy information retrieval. x k) expresses the degree of association of x i with xk. '4"A = (x 1 . expressed by a fuzzy set D defined on Y. to give degrees of association for each pair). with the relevance relation R. A.2) Thus (14. T where is usually understood to be the maxmin composition. so that 1/(x1 ) (14.. unpublished reports. (14. old index terms are tmally discounted at some rate_ In fuzzy information retrieval. These and other criteria may be specified by the user. x3 = fuzzy modus ponens.1) max rain [A(x). For example. and so on. are thenobtained by composing the augmented inquiry. 14 of documents (journal articles. Various methods have been developed for constructing fuzzy thesauri. The rehtion helps to identify relevant documents for a given inquiry that otherwise would not be identified. Assume that the vector representation of A is Xi X2 X3 A. Another important relation in fuzzy information retrieval is called a fuzzy thesaurus. experts in a given field of study are asked to identify. x3} is the support of fuzzy set A expressing the inquiry. x 2 = fuzzy relation equations. Grades of membership in T are then determined by averaging the scores for each pais. The retrieved documents. set B). This happens whenever a document is characterized by an index tenu that is synonymous with an index term contained in the inquiry. x2. let us consider a very simple example. etc. the degree to which the meaning of index term xk is compatible with the meaning of the given index term x i . . Then. T (xi. T. augmented by associated index terms). When a fuzzy thesaurus is updated by introducing new index terms. That is. Let A denote the fuzzy set representing a particular inquiry.1) and (14. The role of this relation is to deal with the problcra Of synonyms among index terms. an inquiry can be expressed by any fuzzy set defined on the set of index terms I.
5 1 . /9 /10 D = [ 3 1 1 . yie are the only documents related to index terms xt . which represents the augmented inquiry.8 . 14 Then.9 7 .4 1 1 .5 where y i .3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval 387 A.3 . 14.4 .3 1 0 1 where = approximate reasoning. the composition B z R results in fuzzy set D. xs = maxmin composition.2 1 1 . its vector form is Xj X2 X3 X4 15 X6 B [ 1 . .500. /1 /2 /3 /4 z6 .8 0 .7. . the fuzzy set characterizing the retrieved documents establishes. Assume now that the relevant part of the relevance relation (restricted to the support of B and nonzero columns) is given by the matrix Y1 12 Y2 Y3 Y4 Ys Y6 Y7 Ys Y9 Y10 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 .5 10.5 1]. by its acuts.9. and fuzzy inquiry provides the user with greater flexibility in expressing the subject area of interest.9 1 .1).7 . x6 = ftazy implication.5 .2 0 1 0 0 . By (142). The use of fuzzy set theory in information retrieval has at least the following advantages in comparison with classical methods: fuzzy relevance relations and fuzzy thesauri are more expressive than their crisp counterparts.4 1 1 .2 T =X2 X3 . by (14. _ .ssuale further that the relevant part of fuzzy the5aurus (restricted to the support of A and nonzero columns) is given by the matrix Xi /2 /3 X4 X5 X6 1 .Sec. x6. its vector form is ' . x2.6000 0 0 1 0 0 .their relevance (the value of ci) and thus provide the user with a guideline regarding the order in which the documents should be inspected or which documents to neglect when the total number of retrieved documents is too large.5 The user can now decide whether to inspect all documents captured by the support of D or to consider only documents captured by some a cut of D.1. and their constmction is more realistic. .4 0 . which characterizes the retrieved documents. the composition A T results in fuzzy set B.4 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 R 13 X4 xs 16 0100000. layers of retrieved docuraents distinguished by . y ' .9 .3 0 0 0 .
) has been pursued since the late 198015 by Raja and Majumdar [1987. The principal . we recommend the book _Principles of Database Systems by 11). FSQL. 19891. fuzzy lossless join decompositions.3 for the fue2y inquiry A ltri + 7/X2. Murai et aL (1988.") (e) "Which sociologists are in considerable agreement with any economists concerning option Y?" 14.source of information about fuzzy inform_ation retrieval is the previously meutioued book by Miyaraoto [19901. Radecki [1981. We also do not discuss the important role of fuzzy clustering (See. [1986].1) and (14. and Shenoi.2) on the performance. 14. Lopez de Mintaras et al. 14 The reader should be aware that our presentation of fuzzy information retrieval in this section is rather restricted. 1990 1 . An attempt to develop a framework under which all these models can be integrated was made by Medina et al. Zenner et al. which are represented by appropriate possibility distributions. 1980). 14. In each of these models. [1985].2 with the following questions: (a) Which sociologists or economists are in considerable aweement with Feldman concerning option Y?" (I)) "Which experts who are not sociologists are somewhat in agreement with Fee regarding option X?" (Assume that a threshold. . Prade and Testemale [19841. 1993. 1983]. For background regarding classical relatioeal database systems. Research regarding theoretical issues pertaining to the design of fuzzy relational databases (fuzzy functional dependencies. [1984]. Ullman (Computer Science Press. Boy and Kuss [19861. Tripathy and Saxera [1990]. similarity of 0. Negoita and Plondor [1976]. etc. 14. Melton. Various issues of fuzzy information retrieval have been investigated since the early 1970s by niimerous authors. 14. and Ogawa et al. and Zemankova and Kandei [19851. which is well Covered by Miyamoto [1990 ]. The models differ in methods of data manipulation and retrieval.2) in information retrieval. or aspects of information retrieval with feedback. Repeat the exampk discussed in Sec. the rote of citations. Kohout et al. [1991].In addition to the fuzzy database model developed by Buckles and Petry (1982.2.1. whose focus is on the use of fuzzy Prolog and a fuzzy relational query language. 1988]. such as the effect of the type of composition in (14. 119901 Nomoto et aL [1990].3.2. NOTES 141. 1 EXERCISES 14. Repeat the example discussed in Sec. attribute values may be exxessed in linguistic terms. We ignore some important issues. [1994]. 14. Bezdek et al. Larsen and Yager [1990. Tong [1986].5 represents the condition of "somewhat in agreement. 14. An overview of these issues and other aspects of fuzzy relatioaal databases is covered in a book by Li and Liu [1990].388 Fuzzy Databases and Information Retrieval Systems Chap. 1983] and generalized by Shenoi and IvleIton [1989. and Pan [1992 ].2. including Negoita [1973]. three alternative models were developed by Umano [19821. as described in Sec. 13.4.
3 1 .saunts.Chap. 14 Exercises 389 where x1 = fuzzy information retrieval and x2 = fuzzy databases.9 where x3 = fuzzy clustering. Assume that the relevant part of a fuzzy thesaurus is given by the matrix Xi X: X3 X4 Xs X6 1 . and xis = fuzzy relations. x4 = fuzzy the. 143.7 . calculate the fuzzy set D that characterizes the retrieved documents_ . Assuming that the relevance relation R is the same as in Sec. xs = fuzzy inquiry.8 1 1 [ 1 1 0 0 .
as the name suggests. we have to decide which of the available actions to take. Applications of fuzzy sets within the field of decision making have. as Well as many others. a set of alternative actions that are available to the decision maker. for the. . as a subject of study. Much of the focus in developing the field has been in the area of management. is enormous. the study of how clecisicos. fuzzy decision theories attempt to deal with the vagueness and nonapecificity inherent in human formulation of preferences. the field is concerned. 'investment. most part. we overview the applicability of fuzzy set theory to the main classes of decisionmaking problems. That is. newproduct development. of decision making.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION Making decisions is undoubtedly one of the most fundamental activities of human beings. The current literature on decision making. in which the decisionmaking process is of key importance for functions such as inventory control. Classicaldecision making generally deals with a set of alternative states of nature (out comes. Since these initial studies. The beginnings. We all are faced in our daily life with varieties of alternative actions available to us and. however. at least in some instances. consisted of fuzaifications of the classical theories of decision making. personnel actions.5 FUZZY DECISION MAKING 15. when various studies were made in France regarding methods of election and social choice. constraints. and. based largely on theories and methods developed in this century. to the late 1 8 th centnry. itself. and allocation of resources. can be traced. decision making has evolved into a respectable and rich field of study. is broadly deftned to include any choice or selection of alternatives.. In this chapter. are actually made and bow they call be made better or more successfully. Decision making. presumably. with both descriptive theories and normative theories. and goals. results). and is therefore of importance in many fields in both the "soft" social sciences and the "hard" disciplines of natural sciences and engineering. in general. While decision making under conditions of risk have been modeled by probabilistic decision theories and game theories. a relation indicating the state or outcome to be expected from each alternative action. ' The subject of decision making is.
when the only available knowledge concerning the outcomes cnnsigrg of their conditional probability distributions. non empty. an optimization under constraints. non powerless decision — Since decision in this sense excludes both perfect foresight and anarchy in nature. Instead. as applied to the various classes of decision problems.). or may not even be relevant. Furthermore. one for each action. the problem of maximizing the utility function.. the decisionmaking problem becomes an optimization problem of maximizing the expected utility. 15. According to another criterion. it must be defined as choice in face of bounded uncertainty. We do not attempt to cover fuzzy decision making comprehensively.. This would require a large book fully speciali7. This chapter is structured. decision problems are classified as those involving a single decision maker and those which involve several decision makers. This is the prime domain for fuzzy decision'making. That is.Sec. Our intuitive attitude to life implies nonillusory. In this case. A decision is said to be made under conditions of certainty when the outcome for each action can be determined and ordered precisely. E r4.2 INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING Fuzziness can be introduced into the existing models of decision models in various ways.want to convey the spirit of fuzzy decision making. This indicates the importance of fuzzy set theory in decision rna. on the other hand. Several classes of decisionma]dng problems are usually recognized. we . a utility or objective function. A decision is made under conditions of risk. or an optimization under multiple objective criteria. These problem classes are referred to as individual decision making and midtiperson decision making. by and large. decision would be ilasoiy. Beaman and Zadeh [1970] suggest a fuzzy model of decision making in which relevant goals and constraints are expressed in terms of fuzzy sets. in several stages. empty. When probabilities of the outcomes are not known. respectively. as well characterized by the British economist Shackle [19611: In a predestinate world. in a world without natural order. 15. In the first paper on fuzzy decision making. which orders the outcomes according to their desirability. In this case. Decision making under uncertainty is perhaps the most important category of decisionmaking problems. decision making can be done in one stage. the decisionmaking problem becomes an optimization problem. each of which is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set defuied on A. the alternative that leads to the outcome yielding the highest utility is chosen. each of which is also expressed by a fuzzy set defined • a set of constraints C on A. or it can be done iteratively. and a decision is determined by an appropriate aggregation of these fuzzy sets. . and outcomes for each action are characterized only approximately. we distinguish decision problems that involve a simple optfrnizatibn of a utility function. according to these classifications. A decision situation in this model is characterized by the following comportalIts: • a set A of possible actions. we say that decisions are made under uncertainly. According to one criterion. in a world of perfect foreknowledge.king. powerless.2 Individual Decision Making 391 finally. • a set of goals G i (i NJ.ed on this subject.
Since this method ignores information concerning any of the other alternatives. and the fuzzy sets involved represent the concept% of high 3a1ary. D. a4 j. These concepts are highly subjective and contextdependent. a3 . ai . . where j E N„ and j Ni.detmed on Et. but indirectly. Assume that these fuzzy sets represent goals and constraints expressed by the decision maker. . a2. Once a fuzzy decision has been arrived at.392 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. for convenience. ea. g(a2) = $45.000. Hence. (15. 15. (a)) tem.000. interesting job. 1 and express goals G i and constraints Cj by the compositions of gi with GP:i and the compositions of c1 and C. inf Lc. When A is . Then. we need a fu_nation g: A + which assigns to each job the respective salary.through other sets that characterize relevant states of nature. it may be necessary to choose the "best" single crisp alternative from this fuzzy set. Gi (a) C (a) =•' C. In this case. and C i (j E a fuzzy decision. it May not be desirable in all situations.2) for eacha A.. 122). That is.. This may be accomplished in a straightforward manner by choosing an alternative a e A that attains the maximum membership grade in D. to choose. is conceived as a fuzzy set on A that simultaneously satisfies the given goals GI and constraints C.000. a3. Let G.) = $50. provided that the standard operator of fuzzy inters. a2 .(c (a)) • (15. it is preferable to determine â by an appropriate defuzzification method (Sec. Example 15. the set of actions. where we assume. that is.3) D(a) =. and must he defined by the individual in a given context. A {a l . .1) (15. and C_ be fuzzy sets defined on sets Xi and Y1 respectively. independent of the jobs available. we denote the fuzzy set expressing the goal by G A possible definition of G' is given in Fig. G1( E N„).= S40. _Before discussing the various features of this fuzzy decision model and its possible modifications or extensions.000.1a. that the underlying universal set is To express the goal in terms of set A. a4 . and close driving &glance. let us illustrate how it works by two Simple examples. according to our notation.1 Suppose that an individual needs to decide which of four possible jobs.. f for all a e A. The goal is expressed in monetary terms.• niinfinf Gi (a). g(a4) = $60. for each j E N„ and each j E N describe the meanings of actions in set A in terms of sets Xi and ri by functions A A Y. 15 It is common that the fuzzy sets expressing goals and constraints in this formulation are not defined directly on. His or her goal i4 to choose a job that offers a high salary under the constraints that the job is interesting and within close driving distance. Given a decision situation characterized by fuzzy sets A. Assume the following assignments: g(a) .ection is employed.
4 a a3 al (b) Constraint Ci: Close driving distance_ Figure 15. we obtain the fuzzy set G = . Assume that the individual assigns to the four jobs in A the following membership grades in the fuzzy set of interesting jobs: C1 . 45 50 55 60 Salary 15 in KJ a3 (a) Goal G': High salary.11/a 1. is esrpre. The first constraint. requiring that the job be intemsting. according to (15.e.1).48/a3 + . Composing now functions g and G'.1 razzç goal aid constraint (Example 15. ( 2) constraint C :dose drv di tanœ. high salary. 15. 1.1).2 Individual Decision Making 393 _1 1_ 31 40 I_ I I L 64 .2/a3 ± .4/a1÷ ..8/a4 .Sec.ssAd directly in terms of set A (i. which expresses the goal in terms of the available jobs in set A.3/a2 F .. This assignment is also shown in Fig.1a.2) is the identity function and C1 Ci). a4 t 4— function g 20 30 Distance [rnilea) NE— function c1 A: . (a) gal 0'. 15.6k2+ . ci . in (15.
based upon the standard operator of fuzzy intersection..2). we illustrate a case in which A is not a discrete set.1 of real numbers.394 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. does not allow. Example 15. which is self. . requiring that the driving distance be close. The job to be chosen rt. a. is expressed in terms of the driving distance from home to work.. Following our notation. adopted from Zimmermann (19871. however. however. A possible scenario is shown in Fig. a. we denote the fuzzy set expressing this constraint by C. Formula (153). The described fuzzy decision model allows the decision rtAer to frame the goals and constraints in vague. Therefore. we obtain the fuzzy set . the full compensation or tradeoff offered by the union operation that corresponds to the logical "of' (the wax operator) may be inappropriate as well. 27 miles. C21 provided that we aggregate the goal and constraints as expressed by (153). Specifically. for reasons of wage negotiations. an alternative fuzzy set intersection or an averaging operator may be used to reflect a situation in which some degree of positive compensation exists among the goals and constraints..5 miles.7/a 3 / 01 114b which expresses the constraint in terms of the set A.1b.2 In this very simple example. where distances of the four jobs are also shown.2.a ] . the dividend should be atiractive (goal G). is the set of possible dividends. linguistic terms. c2 (a2) c2 (a3) 7.5 miles. it should be modest (constraint C). 12 miles.„ denotes the largest acceptable dividend.3).1421 4_ . cr.2 . this is the most desirable job arnong the four available jobs under the given goal G and constraints CI. according to (15. explanatory. or tradeoff between the goals and constraints under consideration.3/a2 . for any interdependence. Bycomposing functions e2 and C. which may more accurately reflect practical problem solving situations_ The membership functions of fuzzy goals In this model serve much the same purpose as utility or objective functions in classical decision making that order the outcomes according to preferability.1/a1 . A.21a3 which represents a fuzzy characterization of the concept of desirable job. interaction. c2(a4) = 2. For financial reasons. 15 The second constraint. The board of directors of a company needs to determine the optimal dividend to be paid to the shareholders. A passible definition of is given in gig.9iia2 4_ . Unlike the classical theory of decision making under constraints. 15. The goal as well as the constraint are expressed directly as fuzzy sets on A = O. where ar„. The set of actions. the symmetry between the goals and constraints under this fuzzy model allows them to be treated in exactly the same manner.5sunaed here to be the interval [O. 15. Applying now formula (15. For many decision applications. this lack of compensation may not be appropriate. we obtain the fuzzy set D = .
and groupdecision theories deal only with the first. a direct extension of formula (15. mira[ inf Gi 'r(a). two differences from the case of a Single decision maker can be considered: first. 15. D (a) • prra However.44. second. where ui and yi are nonnegative weights attached to each fuzzy goal and each fuzzy constraint C 1 (j G N.1. the fuzzy decision D can be arrived at by a convex combination of the n weighted goals and in weighted constraints of the form D (a) = Eu. the goals of the individual decision raa.(2)+EuX j (a) (15A) G i (i C for all a E A.). Sec.5) where the weights ui and vj possess the abovespecified properties.3 MULTIPERSON DECISION MAKING When decisions macle by more than one person are modeled. This fuzzy model can be further extended to accommodate the relative importance of the various goals and constraints by the use of weighting coefficients. 15. that is. Theories known as npersoa game theories deal with both of these considerations. team theories of decision making deal only with the second. (15.„. .3 Muitiperson Decision Making 395 G: attractive dividend a*: optimal dividends A: Set of possibie dividends Figure 152 Mushat:ion to Example 15. such that . . l'if C feN. In this case. respectively.kers may differ such that each places a different ordering on the alternatives.G. the individual decision makers may have access to different information upon which to base their decision.=.3) may be used as well.2.
For instance. 15 A fuzzy model group decision was proposed by Biin [1974] and Blin and Whinston [1973].ii which is the union of the crisp relations 'S comprising the crcuts of the fuzzy relation S. Here. denoted by N(xi. Example 153 Assume that each individual of a group of eight decision makers has P(r. x. which assigns the membership grade S(xi .6) Other methods of aggregating the individual preferences may be used to accommodate different degrees of influence exercised by the individuals in the group. where > represents the preference ordering of the one individual k who exercises complete control over the group decision. acceptable decision. This procedure is illustrated in the following example. given the individual preference orderings. any pairs (x i . each scaled by cr.. y. and the crisp ordering itself represents the group decision. This scheme corresponds to the simple majority vote. A "social choice" function must then be found which. In this process. by the total number of decision makers. n. x i ) = I 1 if x i > x j for some individual k 0 otherwise. N(x„ j ) S (Xf Xi)  (15. x j ) that lead to an intransitivity are removed. z) as follows: a total preference ordering . Thus.396 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. the social preference may be defined as a fuzzy binary relation with membership grade function S:XxX—)[O. Each value cc essentially represents the level of agreement between the individuals concerning the particular crisp ordering S. In order to deal with the multiplicity of opinion evidenced in the group.x j ). One procedure that maximizes the final agreement level consists of intersecting the classes of crisp total orderings that are compatible with the pairs in the acuts "S for increasingly smaller values of a until a single crisp total ordering is achieved. antisymmetrk. One simpie method computes the relative popularity of alternative xi over x 1 by dividing the number of persons preferring x i to x j . the final nonfuzzy group preference can bc &tornlaird by converting S into its resolution form 5 = US go. xi ). E Kg) on a set of alternatives X (w. The expression of this group preference requires some appropriate means of aggregating the individual preferences. over x. indicating the degree of group preference of alternative x. Once the fuzzy relationship S has been defined. Basically. this model allows for the individual decision makers to possess different aims and values while still assuming that the overall purpose is to reach a common. each member of a group of n individual decision makers is assumed to have a reflexive. and transitive preference ordering Pk k G N„. which totally or partially orders a set X of alternatives. The largest value Cif for which the unique compatible ordering on X x X is found represents the maximized agreement level of the group. produces the most acceptable overall group preference ordering. a dictatorial situation can be modeled by the group preference relation S for which S(xi .
X) .x)) and 'o r .x. (w. This requirement may be too strong in some cases. of course. (Y. (z. Thus. z. z). (W. x). (x. x. z).6250 = (( zi). 375. (tv.5 (r. w). (x. (u. (Zi Y) . y).x. y)) We can now apply the procedure to arrive at the unique crisp ordering that constitutes the group choice. y)1. x). (r*7 )'r r (X* W). (z. M 7= ((y. (y.5 0 . r). 2) .6) for the fuzzy group preference ordering relation S (where n = 8). 3. y). ordering ifte. y)} tr.z.x.75ct n . it is required that each group member can order the given set of alternatives.625 represents the group level denoted by the total. (z*7C) .y. it is relatively easy for each individual to make painrvise comparisons between the given alternatives. (x. r. 15Z Multiperson Decision Making = (w. r. we arrive at the following fuzzy social preference relation: w X y z S= The crcuts of this fuzzy relation S are: = 0 75 0 .5 25. w. (x. (W.9. z. (z.() Th zorderings compatible with 'S are '6250 = [(Tv. w).P. (w. y). y). Wp y. (w. z.Y).y. y). w. z). (w.(x. 75(9 = 1.75 35 0 .r . (w.1 5 = {(X. (w.375 375 0 5 = ( ( 1). Jr. (z. z). x). (W* 3). (Z. y)). (z.625 .z). z. x). tv. w). w y). UP . (x. The total orderings 150 that are compatible with the pairs in the crisp relations 35S are '750 = ((z. compatible with the empty set of 1. (x. y). Thus.625 .625 . w). y. (W. z). (z. y) a agreement concerning the social choice In the described procedure of group decision making. w) P3 = P7 = (. y).y.y). (w.375 . x. the value .).5 . z. All total orderings on X x X are. (y.Y)1 = {Our '625S 5 * {Z. Zr X.25 .7C. z) P4 = PEI = ( IV* Zi Xi Y) P6 = (Z.Sec.7) (xi 39. z. X/ Y) Using the membership function given in (15.25 . y). w. A simple method proposed by Shiraura [1973] is designed . However.z) PS 397 (7 * y. Y).
denotes the attractiveness grade given by the individual to xi with respect to x j . the evaluation prepared by one person in the group is given in Table 1 5. f (xi . for the sake of simplicity. is considered at least as attractive as x.. Assume further that. 11 for all pairs . consider a. Acclaim. They are then converted ro relative preference gracies. Example 15.8)) are given in Table 15. Orderings expressing preference by the other members of the group can be determined in a similar way. group of people involved in a business partnership who intend to buy a common car for business purposes. To decide what car to buy is a multiperson decision problem. For each xi E X.398 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. f(xi.. p(xi ). Cutlass. xtEx (15. To do that. Accord. xi ).xj) E [0. xj )if (.xj). The method described in this section can be used but each person in the stoup hns to order the available alternatives first. . In this method. 15 to construct an ordering of all given alternatives on the basis of their pairwise comparisons. which are expressed by positive numbers in a given range. yl) E 12 the property max[F(xi.8) The pref=erciace ordering of alternatives in X Is then iaduced by the anracrical ordering of these grades p(x i ).7)) and the overall relative preference grades (calculated by (15. xj )1 rnax[f (15. are made by the individual for all pairs of alternatives in the given set X. Function F. These primitive evaluations. using the numbers suggested in Table 15. F(xi . The property means: for each pair of alternatives. at least one must be as attractive as the other. the method based on the degrees of attractiveness can be used. Clearly.1a for specifying the attractiveness grades.7) for each pair (xi. F(xi .70 E X. The correvoeiding relative preference grades (calculated by (15. x. xi).x . that only five car models are considered: Acclaim. f (xi . Then.x1)1 = 1. we can now calculate the overall relative preference grades. Assume. i x j ) f(xi. F(xj. xi )] min[1. by the formula F(x. x j ) E V. When FOci .1c. Sable. of with respect to all other alternatives in X by the formula p(xi) = min F Cri . xi ) = 1. and Sable. the method for multiperson decision making described in this section can be applied to these pzefercuce orderings to obtain a group decision.1b. xi) x j ). Canary. has for each pair (xi . The latter induce the fonowing preference ordering of the car models: ICarary. Accord. Cutlass. which may be viewed as a membership function of a fuzzy relation on X.4 To illustrate the described method. xi).
and we nccd.33 1...Sec.45.43 1. that the number of considered alternatives is also finite. xi ) . Then. a procedure by which to construct one overall preference ordering. The difference is that the multiple orderings represent either preferences of different people or ratings based on different criteria. 15. In both cases.33 LOU 0_29 0. Each criterion induces a particular ordering of the alternatives.ss 1 7 Sable a 3 1 3 (c) Relative preferince exade.s and overall relative preference F(xii x j ) .7— Acr_laim 1 1 Accord 0.1 ILLUSTRATEON (a) Suggested numbers for attractiveness grading  f (xi .11 0..67 1.7. a set of alternatives and a set of criteria characterizing a decision situation. . cnz i be.00 0_29 0.00 0_43 0.4  399 TABLE 15. 1 1.. 8 (b) Given attractiveness grades Acelabn 1 3 1 2 2 f (e.x„) and C = c2. in addition.00 Sable 0.25 ' 1.00 0. Decision situations with infinite sets of alternatives are considered in Sec.625 Cutlass 0.00 1. Cutlass Sable 0.00 1.4 Multicriteria Decision Making TO EXAMPLE 15. In this section.39) Accord 7 1 1 7 '6 Canary 9 3 Cutlass 3 2 Sable 8 4 5 7 1 rades p(ri ) Acclaim Accord Carary Catla. There is a visible similarity between these decision problems and problems of ranitiperson decision making. respectively.11 0. which deals with fuzzy mathematical programming Let X =txt 1 x. 4. The number of criteria in raulticriteria decision making is virtually always assumed to be finite. with respect to xi Little attractive Moderately attractive Strongly attractive Very strongly attractive Extremely attractive Intermediate values between levels 1 3 5 7 9 2.63 15A MULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKING In multicriteria decision problems.00 Acclaim Accord Camry I.00 1_00 1.43 1. relevant alternatives are evaluated according to a number of criteria.       _ Attractiveness of x. 15. the basic information involved in raulticriteria decision making can be expressed by the matrix .66 Camry 0.00 1. multiple orderings of relevant alternatives are involved and have to be integrated into one global preference ordering. we assume.
where h is an aggregation operator and w w.9)). Then R may be viewed as a matrix representation of a fuzzy relation on C x X. r2j .1 ri2•• r21 . • x„ is guided by comparing candidates profiles with a required profile in terms of given criteria cl . This is done by finding a global criterion. say x . we can calculate the weighted average Fi by the formula . and each entry rii expresses the degree to which criterion ci is satisfied by alternative x i (i c N„„ j E 14„).9) for all i N„. . and weights are specified in terms of fuzzy numbers gig on [0. is initially given. to which the individual criteria ci. The most common approach to multicriteria decision problems is to convert them to singlecriterion decision problems. . 1 1 7 an alternative matrix trl whose entries are arbitrary real numbers. . c2. — An example of multicriteria decision problem is the problem of recruiting and selecting personnel. c. are weights that indicate the relative importance acriteria ci. cm . 2 71.400 Xi Fuzzy Decision ivial<ing Chap. Then. and j N. The entries rii of R express. w„. In this case.„.10) where wi.• (15.= he! r72 • • • . A class of possible weighted aggregations is given by the formula r. for each j e N„. Consider now a rnore general situation in which the entries of matrix R are fuzzy numbers Fzi on RI". ri h (r i p. 15 X r22 . 1]. (15.. r'n') . 1]. and j E N„ the degree to which candidate xi conforms to the required profile in terms of criterion ei . r21 . Function h may be any of the aggregating operations exanained in Chapter 3. the selection of conditions from a given set of individuals. r„. This results in matrix R (or in a matrix that can be converted to matrix R by (15.. c2 . w2. A frequently employed aggregating operator is the weighted average = (j E KO. are weights.. using the operations of fuzzy addition and fuzzy multiplication. It may happen that. x2 . r. It can be converted to the desired matrix R by the formula min r. jErilt ieD4 " jeN.j ). x. instead of matrix R with entries in [0. r'. that for each xj E X is an adequate aggregate of values rii . In this particular problem.„ Assume first that all entries of this matrix are real numbers in [0. are satisfied.
. z'. The most important theory of multistage decision making.Fuzzy dynamic programming was formulated for the first time in the classical paper by Bellman and Zadeh [1970]. These decisionmaking problems. 12. resulting fuzzy numbers F1. but by solving a sequence of decisionmaking problems.6. That is. A required goal is not achieved by solving a single decision problem.st ).12) . which is based on the concept of a finitestate fuzzy automaton introduced in Sec. 1957 ]. which is closely connected with dynamic systems. where X and Z are. involved in fuzzy dynamic programming is defined by the triple (X. for example. F2. One restriction of the automaton in dynamic programming is that the statetransition relation is crisp and. 15. x' . 15. Any taskoriented control.7).6. the next internal state is also utilized as output and. That is. we adopt here the notation used in Sec. . dynamic programming can be fuzzified. In general. and its present input state. and so on in approximate. hence. we explain basic ideas of this formulation. the automaton. A fu2zific. theories of multistage decision making may be viewed as part of the theory of general dynamic systems (Sec. • 12. and f:ZxX Z is the statetransition function of A. Otherwise. Under the mentioned restrictions. is basically a multistage decisionmaking problem. 12. the automaton. = A scheme of the described automaton is shown in Fig. Another restriction is that no special output is needed. A decision problem conceived in terms cf fuzzy dynamic programming is viewed as a decision problem regarding a fuzzy finitestate automaton. of the automaton in terms of its present internal state.3a.5 Murtistage Decision Making E f=1 Since fuzzy numbers are not linearly ordered. a ranldng method is needed to order the This issue is addressed in Sec. decisions. for each discrete time t (r E N). f). As can any mathem_atical theory. (15. the two need not be distinguished.e+ 1 . constraints.6.  15.ation of dynamic programming extends its practical utility since it allows decision makers to express their goals.Sec. and it is thus fuzzy in this sense. In this section. the automaton operates with fuzzy input states and fuzzy internal states. Z. which represent stages in overall multistage decision making. the sets of input states and output states of A. consequently. However. respectively. 12. fuzzy terms. This type of automata are used 2+1 . involved is a special version of the general fuzzy automaton examined in Sec. To see connections between the two sections. the next internal state. 15.5 MULTISTAGE DECISION MAKING Multistage decision making is a sort of dynamic process.6.. are dependent on one another in the dynamic sense. whenever desirable. is that of dynamic programming [Belirrian. A. characterized by the usual statetransition function of classical automata. whose meaning is to define.
where At. (15. 1.402 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. AN1 as constraints and fuzzy internal state Considering fuzzy input states A °. Al (x t ). The value of N. .. and eiv is the fuzzy set on dr''' that induces CN on Z That is. of course. we need to apply a principle known in dynamic programuning as the principle of optimality [Raman. C 1 denote.31. AN1 (xN1 ).x 0 . N 1. 15. we may conceive of a fuzzy decision (in the sense discussed in Sec. fey 1) max D(x° ..zy D= Au ri Al AN1 ri where At is a cylindric extension of A' from X to XN for each t 0. A scheme of the fuzzified version is shown in Fig. A' is a fuzzy set on X. xN1 and 20 via (15.3b. The decision problem IS to find a sequence .12). . is assumed to be given.14) To solve this problem by fuzzy dynamic programming. 1957]. the fuzzy input state and fuzzy internal state at time t. xiv = min[Mx13). Cv as fuzzy goal in a fuzzy decision making.13) where zw is uniquely determined by . for any sequence x". . 15. For fuzzy dynamic programming they must be fuzziftecl by using the extension principle. Employing the fnzzifi•d automaton depicted in Fig. IN' of input states such that . It is also assumed that the input of A is expressed at each time t by a fuzzy state Al and that a particular crisp initial internal state i° is given.1n g: ( a) crisp autiainatt3n. we can now proceed to a description of dynamic programming In this conception of decision making. respectively. 15 1 At iC t Onetime stomp zL+1 (a) Crisp a•toznataa Figurv 15. this definition assumes. which defines the number of stages in the decision process. while C' and Ct+' axe fuzzy sets ou Z. which can be expressed as follows: An optimal decision sequence has the property that whatever the initial state and .2) as a fuzzy set on X. xl. x 1 .3 C'l • b) PtIzzified automaton ' Tim autvmatan omphalcd in crisp ar fuzzy dynamic program:m. that we use the standard operator of intersection.V) . the membership grade of D is defined by D (x° x l . the desired goal is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set C5 (the fuzzy internal state of A at time N). in classical dynamic programming. (b) fuzzified autmnatork. 15. Cg (zw)]. Y1 (15. viewed as a sequence of decisions. Clearly. where N is the time of termination of the decision process.N defined by ful. and C'+' denotes the fuzzy internal state at time t ÷ 1.
(e )] l} AN2 (x N2) . N . Z = (z1 . x2). 2. z3 }.13).T min[AN1 (xN1).. o N max min[AN1(xN1) . AN2 (eV2).. and the state transition function expressed by the matrix  xl X2 Z'2 Z1 r1 [ zi Z2 Z3 Z3 z3 whose entries are next internal states for any given present internal and output states.. This equatioa can be rewritten as DU ° r 1 • " 2 111) = max 2 frain[A ° (x). 19701 Let us consider an automaton with I = (xi ..02+ 8/2'3.iX MaXMin[A N (X jV 1 ) 1 C AF XN A iv2 (xN2). the optimal sequence 10. Pe Ar 1 of decisions can be obtained by successively maximizing values x in (15.. At (x 1) • .X cAr 1 tzti 1) where (2N2) ra. r11.1 Repeating this backward iteration.. cxk41 (ztVk+1 ) ] (15.. A l (X 1). 2.1 1 .o). Example 153 Rtellman and Zadeh. .. 2. xN1 ))11. This results successively in values P4 • 1. 10 .72 ° ..1. we obtain the set of N recurrence equations c/Yk(zNk) = max mintAlfk (xivig ).. ..14) in the form 13(. Applying the principle of optimality and substituting for D from (15.. 0 X max (i.15) for k = 1. . 15.5 Multistage Decisron Making 403 initial decision are. z2.x N L C N (f (z/v1 .3/11 + 1.Sec. • . where . R I . CAT (zN)] z. and the fuzzy goal at r =2 is . X )= max {max min[g(x°). A t (x i ). N X iP4. Zi C2 = .4°(x°) . we can write (15.15) for k =1...Nk+1 RZNk Hence. Al(xl) " ' AN1(xN1). e N (f xN1 ))fil max train[An (x. N. Assume that N . the remaining decisions must constitute an optimal policy with regard to the state resulting from the first decision.
z2))]) . Min[A i (X2)t C 2 ( f (z3. C 2 ( f (zi.6.3.1 1 of input stales for which the maximum. x2))1) = max tmin(A l (xi). Cl (zi)l) = max imin(i. (z3 )] rnin[A L (x2). '(x2). Applying the first backward iteration for t = 1. rain (x2).7. C I (zi)] . . minjA° (x2) C l (f (z2 . . To solve this decision problem.1. C2(2 . maxirrtin[g(x1). 15 Aikssuine further that the fuzzy constraints at input at times t . are = A L = 1/x/ + . min(. C l (z1)1} = max train[.6/zi ..„ . CL ..61.6 . xj ))1.maximin[g(x L). we find the following Ina decision I' for each state z1 E Z at time t = 1: z l z1 X A Z2 Z3 X2 X1 X2 Applying now the second backward iteration for t = O we obtain CD(z0 ' maximin[A (xi ). C2 (zi)].x2)). C2 (f (z3. = .))i) . . mini 6.8 Cl (z3) = max (niin(A l (x1).404 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap.] I C° (4) = maximinfg(x4 ). C l (f (z2. C 1 ( f (z i . rain[A(1 (x).31) = .0 • C2 (z 2)1} = max(min[1.8 f(. .6]. min PA° (x2). x2))1} max{rnin[A. j .. max tnin(A° (. we need to find a sequence i ° .8)} = . x i ))].0 and r J.6 Cl (z2) = max ftniniA l (x1).6 ] 1 = . xi))1.6 Hence. . a is obtained.x°). 111 .max (min [A (xi ). min4.6.6/x2 . C2 ( f(z'x 1))1. x1) )J . C 1 ( f xi ) ) min [4 ° (7cz).(x1). C2 ( f (z z . C 1 (z3)]. min[1. 1.8/z2 ± By maximizing the expression minfli i (x i). Cl (z2)] ) 3 ]) max(nainf7. C2(z3)] • maximinEl. rain[A L (xz).. C2( f (z 2 . x2. A' (x') C 1 ( f (21 .8]. we obtain C l (xi ) = maxtmin[A l (x 1). min[A l (.
A (xi).Sec. By maximizing the expression min[Aci (x°).„ MIN. . 45. the final scores of alternatives are represented in terms of fuzzy numbers. regardless of which of the two maximizing decisions is used..6. 1] = . min [1.6. C f .z3 ) = max(min[A ° (x1 ). some fuzzy numbers are not directly comparable_ .8/zi . Thus.7 .5 In many fuzzy decision problems. C2 (z)] min [7 . is not linearly ordered. C 2 (z2)] min[1. mil:4A • min[1. We can easily find the same result for the initial state z3 .6 when the initial state is z2. A 1 40. we have two maximizing decisions (rig. rain[A Œ (x2). Unfortunately.tain(A° (x2 ). For example. . When the initial state is z2. C 1 (z 2)1 . Al (x2). this goal is satisfied to the degree .8] C2 (z3 )11 • min[A° (x2 ). the degree to which the goal is satisfied is expressed in terms of CD (zi. hence.6 C°(z2) = min[rnx2). there are two ways of calculating C° (z2): Ca (z2) = rainfA° (xa.6/z2 . In order to express a crisp preference of alternatives. xfl we find the following best decision 0 for each state z° E Z at time t — 0: z° Z1 X2 Xi Or X2 Z3 xi or X3 The maximizing decisions for different initial states z'ci are summarized ia Fig. rnin[ 4 ° (x 2). the maximizing decision is to apply action x2 followed by xi. In this case. That is. . the lattice of fuzzy numbers. C° = .6/z3 . . 6] ] .8] = . we need 'a method for constructing a crisp total ordering from fuzzy numbers. . when the initial state is zi . 15.).6 Fuzzy Ranking Mothad5 C0 (. C°(z1) = min[A ° (x2).6 Hence. C 2 (Z3)] That is. as discussed in Sec. C l (f (z3 .4). . 1. x2»]) 405 C (xi)). C l (Z3 )]) max {min [ . the goal is satisfied to the degree .6]. 154. (2. FUZZY RANKING METHODS 15. C I ( f • taaX [ta_in fit 1/ (x).6. where zi is the initial state. MAX). 15.
In fact. B). we calculate the Hamming distances d (MAX (A.5 for different initial states 014 11111 0 e.406 Fuzzy Deci s ion Making Chap. The first method is based upon defining the Hamming distance on the set A of all fuzzy numbers. Numerous methods for total ordering of fuzzy numbers have been suggested in the literature.11 410 0 II t . Example 15. in the lattice. That is. B). B). The second method is based on acuts. the ordering defined by the Hamming distance is compatible with the ordering of comparable fuzzy numbers in T. B). Observe that we can also define a similar ordering of fuzzy numbers A arid B via the greatest lower bound MIN (A . some methods seem more appropriate than others. B).2 g : • 0 0 Figure 15. B) f IA(x) B(x)Id x. Then. Each method appears to have some advantages as well as disadvantage. For any given fuzzy numbers A and B. we first determine their feast upper bound.. is defined by the formula d (A.16) For any given fuzzy numbers A and B. a number of variations of this method . research. then MAX (A. MAX (A. hence. the Hamming distance. However. B). which we want to compare. d(A. the issue of choosing a proper ordering method in a given context is still a subject of active. In the context of each application. A < E. To illustrate the problem of total ordering of fuzzy numbers. we describe three simpte methods and illustrate them by examples. fuzzy numbers are directly comparable). B) = B and. A) and el(MAX (A.e. and define A If A B (i. (15. 15 r=0 ZC1 1/ I =1 0 X2 ell I .4 Maximizing decisions in.
BI as follows: P(A) = sup truin[A (r1).25 [ — x + 3 — 3 id. The third method is based on the extension principle. called a priariV set. A) and d(vfAX (A. We can see that the Hamming distances d(isefAX (A. Using the extension principle. P is defined for each E N„ by the formula P(Ai ) = sup min A t(r. A) = Ex —1— 3 X 2 2. that A < B for any ce e (0.7 a25* Since d(MAX(A. This deEnition is. When applyhg the second method to the same example.5a.r 4 + + f2. say A1. . B) are expressed by the areas in the figure that are hatched horizontally and vertically. 15. Using (15. b2 1. 15. we rn ay conclude that. More sophisticated methods based on acuts. of course.!ct a particular value of a E 10.16). d(MAX (A. B(r2. A2 1 A„.)] = 1. E N„. AO. Then. Then. Pi ?r7 P(B) = sup min[A.17) rn ) E IM such that ri > ri for all where the supremum is taken over all vectors (r 1 . B(r2)] = 0_75. B). we sel. B) = f 1dx 3 1 ' (x lid. such as P(A1) is the degree to which Ai is ranked as the greatest fuzzy number. keis (15. respectively. A < B. Given fuzzy numbers A and B to be compared. A 2 .Sec.(ri). B). B). It is usually required that a > 0. we Illustrate and compare the three fuzzy rs. dependent on the chosen value of a. such as the one developed by Mabuchi [1988]. This method can be employed for ordering several fuzzy numbers. 1]. from Fig. 11 and determine the ci cuts = a21 and c'73 = [h i . Example 15.5a.x = — A. A simple variation of this methods proceeds as follows. The basic idea is to construct a fuzzy set P on 1/1 1 .6 Fuzzy Ranking Methods 407 have been suggested in the li terature. B). B). aggregate appropriately defined degrees expressing the cionainance of one fuzzy number over the other one for all acuts. El) is the fuzzy number whose membership 'function is indicated in the figure in bold.k).uldng methods.5. According to the third method. A) ›. we can easily find. Lei A and R be fuzzy numbers whose triangulartype membership functions are given in Fig. %Tic.6 In this example. MAX (A.25 3 3]clx 3 (4— 31 1 = 12 + 24 ÷ § = 1 1 cl(TvfAX (A. we construct the priority fuzzy set P on {A. obtain 2 d(MAX (A B). B). 15. according to the first ranking method. we define  A < B if a• < b.
B) = 0. we conclude that A . B). A < B. The most typical linear programming problem is .B) = 1. Hence.9 2 (11 ) 2. again. B).25.‹ B.75 3 33 4 5 Figure 155 Ranking of fuzzy numbers (Example 3. This shows that the method LI. 15.511 The horizontally and vertically hatched areas have the same meaning as before. A ‹ B according to the Brat method. The second method gives the same result only for > 0.13 (. A) =1.7 FUZZY LINEAR PROGRAMMING The classical linear programming problem is to find the minimum or maximum values of a linear function under constraints rcpresonted by linear inequalities or equations. hence. Consider now the fuzzy numbers A and B whose membership functions are given in Fig. inconsistent.). 15.408 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. 15 (a) 0 1 1.5. we again obtain P(A) = 0. AMAX (A. According to the third method. We can easily find that d(MAX (A.75 and . Hence.
a. . x2 = 2. 3x1—x2== 1. . and s.Sec. stands for "subject to. . we can imagine a straight line parallel to the others moving in that direction until it touches either an edge or a vertex of the convex polygon.6 by drawing straight lines representing the equations x 1 = 0. if the requirement were to maximize the objective function. let us denote it by z.. the feasible set i s obtained in Fig.]. x2 = 0." The set of vectors x that satisfy all given constraints is called a feasible set. 'let us consider a simple example: Min z s. The numbers ct (I E Nn) are called cost coefficients.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming Minimize (or maximize) ctx + c2. As is well known. ) 7. 15. These straight lines. and observe the direction in which p decreases. we can draw a family of parallel straight lines representing the equation XL 2x 2 = p. many practical problems can be formulated as linear programming problems.L 3x1 — 2x x2 > I. Exarupie 15. x i. To find the minimum of the objective function z within the feasible set.t.x2 . which represents the feasible set. and 2x± 4x2 = 6.1x„ < b2 ax.) r is called a righrliand. where x = (xt. . t. At that point„ the value of parameter p is the minimum value of the objective function z. side vector. C is called a constraint matrix. When we take the intersection of the five . 15.nd j N.half planes.6. express the five inequalities in our example. Then.x2 . (15.7 To illustrate the spirit of classical linear programming. where p is a parameter. and the vector is called a cost vector_ The matrix A = [ah. where 1: G N.. e 21 . This area is always a convex polygon. and the vector b 1171.• ± cirrn Subject to 12 11X1 409 + a 12rZ • • • ± alzrXtr a2oc1 a 2 . each of which constrains the whole plane into a halfplane. . Ax <13 > 0. am ixi a m2x2 • a2. Using this notation. the formulation of the problem can be simplified as Min z = cx s. 15. we can show graphically how the solution of this linear programming problem can be obtained. we obtain the shaded area in Fig. x2. the direction in which p increases. First.6 as a guide.18) 0 < x2 < 2 0 ‹ Using Fig. is a vecto of variables. b. 15. we would move the line in the opposite direction. we need to determine the feasible Set Employing an obvious geometrical interpretation.t < bm The function to be minimized (or maximized) is called an objective function.
410 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. B1. and < denotes the ordering of fuzzy numbers. the operations of addition and multiplication are operations of fuzzy arithmetic.) (15. crisp terms. Instead of discussing this general type.'3. it is not reasonable to require that the ccnstraits or the objective function in linear programming problems be specified in precise. e N. Case 1. In many practical situations. and Xi axe variables whose states are fuzzy numbers (i E Nm j e N„). Fuzzy linear programming problems Bi are fuzzy numbers: in which only the righthandside numbers .0 (. . In such situations. it is desirable to use some type of fuzzy linear programming The most general type of fuzzy linear programming is formulated as follows: max ECJXJ J1 EAuXi J=1 Xj.1 E N„). C j are fuzzy numbers.19) where Ai). 15 Figure 1S6 An example of a classical linear prognimming problem. we exernplify the issues involved by two special cases of fuzzy linear programming problems.
For each vector x = (x1. x. we detennine the fuzzy set of opt:Waal values.7a).20) s.1 X1 ?0 E c 14. Aij of the constraint matrix are fuzzy numbers: max E .21) In general.t.„) (15. x„). Fuzzy linear programming problems in which the righthandside numbers B t and the coefficients. . we fist calculate the degree. x2. E aux.). 15. O (j E N„). Aiixi s< Bi jr. Ea qx3 B i (I x ?:. fl Di . and their intersection. The final results of a fuzzy linear programming problem are thus real numbers. where x R (Fig.24 In this case. This is done by calculating the lower and upper bounds of the optimal values first. Case 2. 15. which represent a compromise in terms 01 the fuzzy numbers invulved. fuzzy linear programming problems are first converted into equivalent crisp linear or nonlinear problems. Next.x • 7 )=1. Di (x).t.Sec. Let us discuss now fuizy linear programming problems of type 05. . which are then solved by standard methods. to which x satisfies the fib constraint (I NO by the formula (x) = (E J1 These degrees are fuzzy sets on IV. is obtained by solving the standard linear programming problem: 11 rriax z j=1 ex E Nin ) s. The lower bound of the optimal values. is a fuzzy feasible set. fuzzy numbers Bi typically have the form kti(x) 414 1 1 when x + — when bi <x < + O wieub1 +pj .7 Fuzzy Linear Programming max 411 E CiX1 N) (15.? b i Ci xj> O ( j N.. St.
< ex I ex when z1 < ex G(x) = — z.21. Then. (b) triangular fuzzy numbers employed in (b] Triangular fuzzy numbers employed in.20). + p i i1 E ri. E aux.20).t. 0 Zg when ex zt.r ) xi 0 (f N„).' . 15 5 (a) "Fuzzy numbers in (15. )1. Xj2O . z„. Now. which is a fuzzy subset of 1R. is obtained by a similar linear programming problem in which each bi is replaced with b + max z Cx s.1 Types of fa.412 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap.2».20 becomes the following classical optimization problem: max 24.(Z11 — Zg) — ex c —Zi Apg E azixj f ( + N. (i G KO A. the fuzzy set of optimal values. G. (15. is defined by when zi.75 to. Figure 15.7=Ly numbers employczt in fuzzy /bazar programming problem: (a) fazzy number in (15.). the problem 05. the upper bound of the optimal values. (15.).
4 ± ›.4x1 + . and may possibly be extended to 600 hours per day.t. The supply of material is at least sufficient for 400 units of both products. Then the problem can be formulated as the following fuzzy linear programming problem. a problem of finding a point which satisfies the constraints and goal with the maximum degree.Sec. P2 made in one day.r. per day. this idea is due to Bellman and Zadeh [1970 ]. x2 > O. Product P 1 has a $0. x2 denote the number of units of products P1 . where B1 is defined by B7 (labor hours) f1 5011— 100 O and B2 is defined by when x < 400 when 400 < x < 500 when 500 <. 15. x2 > 0. There are also nonsymmetric methods. By solving the following two classical linear programming problems. X1 + X2 < 500 2x1 4x< 600 xi'. xi ± x2 Bi (material) 2. due to special arrangements for overtime work. Example 15.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming 413 The above problem is actually a problem of Ending x E EV such that [(( 1Di) n G1(x) reaches the maximum value. that is. but may possibly be extended to 500 units per day according to previous experience. (PD max z + S.40 per unit profit and product P2 has a $0.3x2 (profit) s. The problem is. how many units of products P.0. we obtain re = 130 and z11 = 160.30 per unit profit. The method employed here is called a symmetric method (Le.5.8 Assume that a company makes two products. max r = . As discussed in Sec.t.. Pi. 2/1 4x2 < 500 xi . Each unit of product P i requires twice as many labor hours as each product P2. The following example illustrates the described method. respectively. and P2 should be made per day to maximize the total profit? Let xl. 1 600— 1. 1. Ile total available labor hours are at least 500 hours per day. and Pa.4x1 + . (PI) max r . the constraints and the goal are treated symmetrically).00 O when x < 500 when 500 < x <0O when 600 < x. . First we need to eldeulate the lower and tipper bounds of the objective function.2.3x2 + x2 < 400 st.
r. X. rix) for any nonnegative real number x.C s 11X. 1.) f4.r2). x2 . whose meanings are defined in Fig. Then. Let us consider now the more general problem of fuzzy linear progrnirning defined by (1 5.7b. 11+12. Curry linear programming problem becomes: Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. Using this representation.01 SA. (St.1 (i NO. . Solving this classical optimization problem. is obtained for = 10+0. Problem (15.141 + < —1 2 0 100A.?. I.4 Xi > ( Ecj x„ vi) E rim) j N).2 = 350.414 Then. where Aii ru ) and Bi = (ri ut . 1 = 0. s. and the partial order < is defined by A ç B ifr MAX (A. A < B tif si < S2 — 1. ri) and B = (s2.O. Moreover.2 and si r1 < s2 r2. 301 — (. 1. 1. +x1 +x2 < 500 100A + 2x1 + xi < 600 xi. we write A (s. we flad that the maximum. 15. we assume that all fuzzy numbers are triangular.12. r2) = (51+ 52.5. 1i. v t ) are fuzzy numbers. A ›. 12. The maximum profit. the. s. Summation and multiplication are operations on fuzzy numbers. B) = B.rix (51. ri 1r2) and (si .24 in this case. the problem can be rewritten as M2X Ecizi i=1 . DUX E(Sif Jrm1 ( — c ti vi (1 E N„. is then calculated_ by = + 145. r). It is easy to prove that for any two triangular fuzzy numbers A (s i . r.21) can then be rewritten as max si. Any triangular fuzzy number A can be represented by three real numbers. 15 max A. ri) + (52.
Au early book on tr.Chap.x2 15 X1 X2 ›. we would obtain another classical linear programming problem: max z 5xi 4x7 • c 12 O..4. Example 15.5x2 < 6 5x1 6x2 <32 6x t + 2. 22 = 3. we obtain i = L5. this 'book is still pedagogically the best comprehensive introduction to the subject. The classical paper by Batman and Zadch [19701 is a rich satuce of ideas regarding fuzzy decision making and certainly worth reading it is also reprinted in [Yager et al.9 Consider the following fuzzy Linear programming problem: max z Sx L 4x2 (24. although it is not fully up ' to date. 1)x2 (4. O. 1987]. A . We can rewrite it as max z + 4x2 4xi . 3. 4xt 5x2 < 24 4:irl+x z xl .7zy decision making was written by Xickert t197dil. 2)xi + (1„5. = 19. 1)xt + (5. this is a classical linear programming problem.1)x2 xl.3) s. x2 We can see that this is a classical linear programming problem with a smaller number of constraints than the one converted from a fuzzy nnnar programming prob/em.t.20) =nits in weaker constraints. 15 Notes 415 However. Solving this problem. since ail numbers involved are real numbers. Notice that if we defuzzified the fuzzy numbers in the constraints of the original problem by the maximum method. fuzziness in (15. 5. 2.52. (4. 1. 8) (12.21) results in stronger constraints. 6.1.ca < 24 4x4 + x2 < 12 2x1 2 1c2 < 19 3xt + 0.5. while fu2Tiness in (15. NOTES 111. Therefore.
4. c.416 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. ordering of fuzzy sets defined on R has been discussed in the literature quite extensively. c). a3 .5. e). we recommend the book edited by Kacprzyk and Fedrizzi [1990].000. Assume that each individual of a group of five judges has a total preference ordering Pi (i E N5) on four figure skaters a. 152. are now available. 10. $3. Another important source on the subject.000. For a systematic study. Their travel times in hours are 15. Assume that they are viewed as interesting with the degrees 0.6. The discussion is still ongoing.1 under the assumption that the importance of cost. and Tong [19 2] . b. and $7. 0. more generally. The following are . 0. 15 15. Repeat Exercise 15. and interest are expressed by the weights of . 153. 15. b). 15.000. d.5 for the fuzzy goal  C 2 = . a3. d. determine the fuzzy set of interesting travel packages whose costs and travel times are acceptable. 0. some major representative references or this subject: Baas and Kwakernaak [1. Dubois and Pragie 11983]. deeper and more uptodate introduction to fuzzy decision making was written by Zimmermann [1987]. c.6. and . Repeat Example 15. A.2. a4. Literature dealing with multistage fuzzy decision making is rather restricted. 10. Then. a. d. Two important monographs on the subject. Another notable reference is the paper by Baldwin and Pilsworth [19821 The problem of fuzzy ranking or.4. and use this set to choose one of the five travel packages. c. respectively. focusing on the comparison between fuzzy and stochastic approaches.4 for solving Exercise 15. 15. Use fuzzy multiperson decision making to determine the group decision. = (a. b.215. and Sande and Schwarzlander [1992].8/z1 I. For information on the various issues of multiperson fuzzy decision making.000.000. from which we want to choose one. respectively.1. travel time.9/z3 and the. $10. Fuzzy linear programming is covered in the literature quite extensively. which consists of 30 properly selected articles.3. Pi. A rich source of irformation on various aspects of fuzzy decision making. 15. Borto Ian and Degaui [19851. b.6. 1. is the book edjted by Slowinski and Teghem [1990].1/x2 + .fuzzy constraints . a2. Define your own fuzzy set of acceptable costs and your own fuzzy sct of acceptable travel times. Employ the fuzzy multicriteria decision making method described in Sec. They cover the subject in great detail and provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of relevant literature. The orderings are: P = (a. respectively. Consider five travel packages a i . they should be read in the given order. EXERCISES 15.4. their costs are $1. A good overview of fuzzy ranking methods is in Chapter Pf of the hook by Chart and Hwang [1992]. 152.5. 28.3. d. $5. and 15. P2 (a. Efstathiou.9771. 15. was prepared by Zimmermann et at [19841 An approach to decision making (both fuzzy and crisp) based on binary relations that encode pairvvise preferences is systematically investigated by Kitainik [1993].5. written by Hwang and Yoon [1981] and Chen and Hwang [1992]. respectively. d). the book by Lai and Hwang [1992] is a comprehensive overview of this subject as well as relevant literature. 115 = 0. Literature on multioriterla fuzzy decision making i5 CAtt135jVC. The book written by Kacprzyk [19831 is undoubtedly the most important source.
Ctiap. 15
Exercises
417 =
lixi and A L = 1/x i + .7/x2. 15.6. Let A be a symmetric trapezoidaltype fuzzy number with "A = [0, 4] and LA = [1, 31 and let /3,, C be symmetric triangulartype fuzzy numbers with centers cB = 4, cc = 5, and spreads sB = = 2. Rank these fuzzy numbers by each of (he three ranking methods described in Sec. 15,6.
15.7 Solve the following fuzzy linear programming problems.

(a)
max z = .5x1
2r1 +x2
, /C/ >
.2x2
< s.t. x1+x2.B1
B2 Oi.
where Ii for x < 300
400 — x for 300 ‹ x < 400 100 for x 400 0
and
1i
500 — x
B2(X)
for x < 400
100
for 400 <x < 500 for
500
O
max z = 6x1 5x2 s.t. 0, 3, 2)xl I (6, 4, 2)x2 < (25, 6, 9),
(5, 2, 3).E/ + (2, /.5, 1)_2‘2. .< (13, 7, 4)
X2 > O.
6
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
18.1
INTRODUCTION
in applications of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic, and fuzzy measure theory, the field of engineering has undoubtedly been a leader. All engineering disciplines have already been affected, to various degrees, by the new methodological possibilities opened by fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures. The whole field of engineering is too broad to be covered here in a comprehensive way. Hence, we characterize only some typical and easily understandable engineering problems in the main engineering disciplines in which the use of fuzzy set theory has already proven useful. As always, further information regarding relevant literature is given in the Notes. By developing fuzzy controllers, which are cun ently the most significant systems based _ on fuzzy set theory, electrical engineering was the first engineering discipline within which the utility of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic was recognized. Since fuzzy controllers and other topics related to electrical engineering, such as fuzzy image processing, electronic circuits for fuzzy logic, or robotics, are covered elsewhere in this book, no special section on electrical engineering is included in this chapter. However, relevant literature is overvieweld in Note 16.5. Among other engineering disciplines, the utility of fuzzy set theory was recognized surprisingly early in civil engineering. Some initial ideas regarding the application of fuzzy sets in civil engineering emerged in the early 1970s and were endorsed by the civil engineering community quite enthusiastically. Since these beginnings, many civil engineers have become active in exploring the potential of fuzzy sets for dealing with a variety of specific problems in civil engineering. In Sec. 16.2, we examine a few representative problems in civil engineering in which the utility of fuzzy sets is now well established. In mechanical engineering, the prospective role or fuzzy set theory was recognized only in the mid 1980s, and its full potential has not been fully realized as yet_ Nevertheless, the number of publications dealing with applications of fuzzy sets in mechanical engineering has been steadily growing. The special nature of these applications is illustrated by a few typical examples in Sec. 16.3.

418
Sec. 16.2
ChM Engineering
419
Since the mid1980s, interest in fuzzy set theory has also been visible in industrial engineering. This interest is primarily connected with the use of fuzzy controllers in manufacturing, fuzzy expert systems fer various special areas of industrial engineering, and virtually all types of fuzzy decision making, as well as fuzzy linear programming. The role of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering is overviewed and illustrated by a few examples in Sec. 16.4. Fuzzy set theory is also becoming important in computer engineering and knowledge engineering. Its role in computer engineering, which primarily involves the design of specialized hardware for fuzzy logic, is discussed in Sec. 16.5, Its role in knowledge engineering involves knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and humanmachine interaction; some aspects of this role are implicitly covered in Chapters 1014. Other engineering disciplines, such as chemical, nuclear, or agricultural engineering, have not been much affected by fuzzy set theory as yet, but some successful examples of the use of fuzzy controllers in chemical engineering are described in the literature.
CIVIL ENGINEERING
16.2
Civil engineering, when compared with other engineering disciplines, is fundamentally different in the sense that available theories never fully fit the actual design problem. This is because each civil engineering project is, by and Jarge, unique; hence, there is almem never a chance to test a prototype, as in other engineering disciplines. As a consequence, the uncertainty in applying theoretical solutions to civil engineering projects is large. How the designer deals with this uncertainty is crucial, because the standards. of safety required by the general public regarding civil engineering constructions (such as bridges, buildings, dams, etc.) are extremely high. The designer has to make decisions in spite of the high uncertainty he or she feces. The most fundamental knowledge of the civil engineer concerns the materials employed; how they are made, shaped, and assembled; how resistant they are to stress, weather, and use; and how they may fail. Before scientific knowledge regarding these aspects of materials was available, civil engineering was a craft. Design decisions (e.g., regarding the great cathedrals or elaborate mansions) were made by subjective judgments based on the experience of the designer and "rules of thumb" derived by accumulating design experience over the centuries. In spite of the scientific knowledge now available, great uncertainty concerning the application Of the knowledge to actual design problems still remains, primarily due to the uniqueness of each design problem in civil engineering, and the use of subjective judgments and relevant "rules of thumb" is unavoidable. This seems to explain why civil engineers so quickly found a strong affinity with fuzzy set theory. One important category of problems in civil engineering for which fuzzy set theory has already proven useful consists of problems of assessing or evaluating existing constrictions. Typical examples of these problems are the assessment of fatigue in metal structure, the assessment of quality of highway pavements, and the assessment of damage in buildings after an earthquake. To illustrate the use of fuzzy set theory in these problems, we describe the problem. of assessing the physical condition of bridges, as formulated by Tee et at. [19881 With approximately 600,000 highway bridges in the United States, about one half of which were built before 1940, the problem of assessing their physical conditions is acute. The
420
Engineering Apptications
Chap. 16
seriousness of the situation is mageified by the fact that many of these bridges, paxticularly the older ones, were designed for less traffe, lighter loads, and smaller speeds than required by current standards. Periodic assessment of bridges is thus essential for establishing priorities of funding for their rehabilitation or replacement. All accumulated experience regarding the assessment of physical conditions abridges is summarized in the Bridge Inspector's Training Manual, published by the 11.S. Department of Transportation. The manual provides bridge inspectors with basic guide Unes and procedures to perform their task. It specifies three components of each bridge, its deck, superstructure and substructure, which are further divided into 13, 16, and 20 subcomponents, respectively. The inspector is requixed to assess the condition of each subcomponent individually, to assess the relative structural importance of the subcomponents in the context of each particu]ar bridge inspection, and to aggregate these individual assessments to obtain an overall assessment of the bridge. Since each bridge inspection involves highly imprecise information, it is based to a large extent on the experience, intuition, and subjective judgment of the inspector. Human subjectivity and imprecision can be taken into account by using an appropriate fuzzy set to express the condition of each inspected component and, similarly, by using an appropriate fuzzy set to express the structural importance of each component. The latter fuzzy sets are obtained by surveying a group of engineers and inspectors regarding the dependence of structural importance on condition rating for each component and averaging their responses.  Once the two kinds of fuzzy sets are determined for all components (see the original paper for more details), the overall evaluation is obtained by calculating the weighted average for all components. Since numbers expressing conditions of the individuel components and weights expressing the structural importance of these conditions are fuzzy numbers, the weighted average is a fuzzy number that is calculated by fuzzy arithmetic_ Let Ci , }Ili denote,
respectively, the fuzzy number expressing the condition of component i and the fuzzy number
expressing the structural significance of component i (weight of i), and let n denote the number of components that are assessed. Then, the fuzzy set expressing the overall evaluation, A, is defined by the formula
(16.1) 11
As a simple illustration of the described procedure, let us assume that only three components ara to be assessed, which are referred to as deck, beams, and piers and labelled with 1 1, 2, 3, respectively. Assume further that each of these components is evaluated in linguistic tetras as poor, fair, and good. The meaning of these linguistic tetras is expressed by the fuzzy sets defined in Fig. 16.1 in terms of the interval 11,5] of assumed condition rating. (the &mailer the number, the worse the condition). For the sake of simplicity, we restrict our example to the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 as the 'only accepted condition ratings_ Then, the three linguistic ternis are represented by the following fuzzy sets
P 0/1 + 1/2 + 0/3 + 0/4 + 0/5 for poor, F = 011 + 0/2 + 1/3 + .5/4 ÷ 0/5 for fair, G 0/1 + 0/2 + 0/3 + .5/4 + 1/5 for good.
Sec. 16.2
Civil Engineering
421
8
.4
.2
o
2
3
4
5
Sridge condition rating
Figure 15.1 Meinbeiship functions in the example of bridge ratings.
Assume that it was found, during the bridge inspection, that the deck is in good condition, beams are in fair condition, and piers are in poor condition. Assume further that the fuzzy sets for structural importance are associated with the given condition assessments as follows:
rp
=oil+ 0/2 +1/3 0/4 for poor, 0/1 + 1/2 + .5/3 ± 0/4 for good.
IF = 0/1. + 0/2 + .5/3 + 1/4 for fair,
rG =
Using the labels I = 1,2,3, the symbols in (16.1) have the following meanings in this example :
That is, (15.1) assumes the form IGiIF +IP After evaluating this expression by fuzzy arithmetic, we obtain
A=
"
A = 0/1 + 0/24 1/3 ± .6/4 + 0 15
(details of the calculation are in the original paper). To interpret the resulting fuzzy set A in terms of one of the three linguistic terms (poor, fair, goad), we may calculate a distance A to each of the fuzzy sets f F, G, and select that linguistic term whose fuzzy representation is closest to A. Employing, for example, the Euclidean distance, a, we have
5
d (A , P)
(EIA (1c) P (1012 );
(0±1+1 +036 10)i =1.536.
Similarly, we obtain d(A,F). 0.1 and d(A,G)= 1.418. Since A is closest to F. we may
422
Engineering Applications
Chap. 16
conclude in this highly simplified example that the overall assessment of the inspected bridge is fair. Several applied areas of fuzzy 5ct theory h.a.ve already been found to be of great utility in civil engineering. They include fuzzy decision making (often combined with fuzzy risk analysis), approximate reasoning (utilized in specialized expert systems), and fuzzy control
(applied, e.g., to the control of traffic in cities). Since these applied areas are covered at other places in this book, we do not deem it necessary to discuss their specific utility in civil engineering. However, we describe an unorthodox application of fuzzy control to a
transportation problem. Consider a terminal where vehicles of different routas arrive and depart ai fixed times. Assume that we want to design a schedule for which the transfer times frona one route to another are minimized. This problem is called a schedule coordination problem Three
variations of the problem are possible, depending on which of the following objective criteria is chosen: • to minimize the maximum transfer time; • to minimize the average transfer time; • to minimize the sum of all transfer times.
It is assumed that arrival and departure times of all vehicles and their routes are known, that the schedule is periodic with a given period (one day, one week, etc.), and that passengers transfer from a vehicle of one route to the next awilahle vehicle of another route. The schedule coordination problem is known to be computationally difficult. In terms of the classical theory of crisp algorithms, it belongs to the class of NPcomplete problems.
We describe an alternative approach to the problem, proposed by Kikuchi and Parameswaran [19931 which is based on the idea of fuzzy control. Let a terminal be characterized by arriving and departing vehicles of n routes, and let til,k‘ denote the transfer time from the kth vehicle of route i to the next available vehicle of route I. Then,
nit
= MaX trk
keNoor
is the maximum time a passenger could wait during a transfer from route j to route j, and
= max 'n.
jr EMI

possible transfer time for all pairs of routes. Assume that the objective in this example is to minimize the maximum transfer combinations. That is, we want to minimize the sum of values in for all i, J E N. This objective is pursued by a fuzzy controller based upon four prpperiy formulated fuzzy inference rules, which determine the amount by which the arrival times of route r are shifted towards the departure times of route s. The rules also specify whether the shift should be made in the positive or negative direction, To formulate the rules, let in = me, and let hs denote the headway (the time interval between arrivals) on vehicles on route s. Using this notation, the rules are formulated as follows.
is the maximum
Sec. 16.2
(a) in
—2
Civi Engineering
423
if in is high, then make a small negative shift. If in is tow, then make a large negative shift.
hs (b) in < —; U in is high, then make a large positive shift. 2 If m is low, then make a small positive shift.
The linguistic terms high, low, large positive (or negative), and small positive (or negative) are represented by fuzzy sets who membership functions are determined in the context of each particular problem. The membership functions employed in this example are defined in Fig. 162 (either rules (a) or rules (b) are applied at each time). Using the inference method described in Chapter 12, restricted in this example to one input variable, in, the rules are combined in the way illustrated for a particular value of 171 in Fig. 16.3. Output fuzzy sets for each inference are cletuzzified in this, example by the centerofgravity method.
lar4141
small
small
large
905 hive
Fleg
hie
negative pas itive
Membemhip wads
l'ArYiNethir) grade
60[mEnj (a) Transfer time Figure 1,62 Membership functions of fuzry sets re/Jr:mating
the lhiguistic labeh in the schedule
comdination problem_
The described fuzzy inference rules are applied to a given initial schedule. St I)) , according to the following algorithm: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let p 0 and let S (P) be a given schedule. For all î j G N,„ determine the maximum transfer times .171 (p) in schedule Identify a route pair r, $ with the largest transfer time (m', = Apply relevant inference rules to the route pair r, s (i.e., in = "). This results in a new schedule denoted by (p +1) in schedule S (R") 5. For all i, j E N„, determine the maximum transfer times and calculate the difference
,
D (P)
=
E Imp)
rnI(p
1)1
6. If VP) 0, increase p by one and go to (step 2). 7. If D (P) < 0 and at least one route pair has not been examined yet, choose a route pair r, $ with the next largest transfer time; otherwise, terminate the algorithm.
424
Engineering Applications
Chap, 16
60 Amount of shift fmrtroid)
(a) m
h 2
CONSEQUENCE
—
low""
60 0 Amount of shift (centroid)
ff. 5st:of ttnrom
' re
(b) m <
5 
h 2
Figure 10 Elam]. if the use of the inference mks in
h, he
the schedule coodhaation problem: (a)
Sec. 16.2
Civil Engineering
425
In Table 161. res.ults obtained by the algorithm based on fuzzy inference rules 2re compared with results obtained by a crisp enumeration method for a given schedule with 25 routes. While the enumeration method improved the schedule by 3.3% in 500 seconds of CPU time, the fuzzybased algorithm made an improvement of 21% in only 34.07 seconds of CPU time. The improvement produced by the two methods in time is expressed by the plots in Fig. 16.4a. Similar plots for a schedule with 50 routes are shown in Fig. 16_41). We can see that the power of the fuzzybased algorithm growth tremendously stronger with the increasing size of the scheduling problem.
s1.1.1
Pe rcentage imp roVement
FLIZZy COntrol
methad
10
Emeneration method
sIVIR
4
.
r
200 400
.1)
0
(a) 25 rotes..(ee
600
Table I
Percentage improvement
400
200
0
1000 2000 Computation time in CPU time (seconds)
(b) 50 routes
Figure 16.4 Comparison of fuzzy control find twimeraitact for the scheduling problem: (a) 25 routes (see Table 16.1); (h) 5û tams.
426
Engineering Applications
TABLE 16.1 C 0 &I PARS I 0 N OF RESULTS OBTAINED FOR THE SCHEDIJUNG PROBLEM BY FUZZYBASED ALGORITHM AND ENUI1.4RATIONI METHOD
Departure 'Ernes (in min. aller the hour)
Chap. 16
Route
Headway
Layover Time at
Terminal (min,)
Ex, 43,
;••s.1
.r.r R4 sCrq
Initial Schedule
5, 25, 43 5 0
After Fuzzy Control
3, 23, 43 5 17 7, 37 11, 41
After Enumeration
5, 25, 45 5 0
0,30
11, 41
0.30 I
11, 41
5 25,55 16. 46 25 35
55
23 4,34 7. 37 6 8
20
5 25,55 16. 46 25

10, 25, 40, 55
30
14, 29, 44, 59
7
35 55 10, 25, 40, 55 30 1, 6, 21, 36, 51 0, 20, 40 12 9 21, 51 29 9, 29, 49 3, 18, 33, 48
0,30
16.3
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
It has increasingly been recognized in engineering that the early stages in engineering design are more important than the later stages. This is a consequence of the fact that any early
design decisions restrict the set of available design alternatives. If good alternatives in a design problem are eliminated by these decisions, they cannot be recovered in later stages of the design process. This means that every wrong early design decision is very costly. Unfortunately, if the early decisions are required to be precise, then it is virtually impossible to determine how good or bad each decision is in terms of the subsequent design steps and,
eventually, in terms of the final design. Experienced designers recognize this difficulty and
fr)
•
8,35
6, 21, 36, 51 0, 20, 40 12 9 21, 51 34 19, 39. 59 13, 28, 43, 58 15, 45 22 24, 54 15685 (ruin).

8,38
6, 21, 36, 51 19, 39, 59 1 /6 0, 30 /6 19, 39, 59 16, 31, 46
3,33
; : ' '.
i
i
7 1, 31 1200 (
47 29, 59
15255
Total !am Transfer Thu* Percentage Improvement Computation Time (CPO' secs.)
(min)
21% 34.07
3.3%
500

Sec. 10.3
Mechanical Engineering
427
attempt to begin the design process with a complete but approximate, imprecise description of the desired artifact to be designed. As the design process advances from the formative stage to more detailed design and analysis, the degree of imprecision in describing the artifact is reduced. At the end of the design cycle, the imprecision is virtually eliminated, except for unavoidable tolerances resulting from. imperfections in the manufacturing process. Classical mathematics is not equipped to deal with imprecise descriptions. As a consequence, it has been difficult to provide the designer with computational tools for the early stages ef the desige process. It was realized 410 Laid the mid1980s, prieuarily in the context of mechanical engineering design, that fuzzy set theory is eminently suited to facilitate the whole design process, including the early stages. The basic idea is that fuzzy sets allow the designer to describe the designed artifact as approximately as desired at the early stages of the design process. This approximate description in terms of imprecise input parameters is employed to calculate the corresponding approximate characterization of relevant output parameters. The latter are compared with given performance criteria, and information obtained by this comparison is then utilized to determine appropriate values of input parameters. To illustrate these general ideas pertaining to engineering design of any kind, we describe their more specific application to typical problems of mechanical engineering design, as developed by Wood and Antonsson f1989] and Otto et al. [1993a, b]. Variables involved in au engineering design are usually referred to as parameters. They are classified into input parameters (also called design parameters), output parameters, and performance parameters. An input parameter is any independent parameter whose value is determined during the design process. An output parameter involved in the design process is any parameter that is functionally dependent on the input parameters and, possibly, on some performance parameters, but is not subject to any specified functional requirement. A performance parameter, contrary to an output parameter, is subject to some functional requirement. The term ftmetional requirement refers to a value, range of values, or fuzzy number that is specified for a performance parameter. Functional requirements, which are included in the formulation of each design problem, are independent of the design process. Performance achievable by the design is expressed in terms of the performance parameters. After relevant parameters in a particular design problem are determined, the first step iu appiying fuzzy sets to this problem is to express preferences regarding values of input parameters by appropriate fuzzy sets. Given an input parameter te that takes values in set VI , which is usually an interval of real numbers, let preferences for different values of vi be expressed by a fuzzy set Fi on V1 . For each z E Vt , the value Fi (x) designates the degree of desirability of using the particular value x within the given set of values VI . Set Fi may thus be referred to as the set of desirable values of parareeter te (within the context of the given design problem), and Fi (x) may be viewed as the grade of membership of value x in this set. Index i is used here to distinguish different input parameters in the same design problem. In general, we assume that j E N. for some positive integer n. Membership grades Fi (x), which are interpreted as representing the designer's desire to use the various values v e if for the input parameter te, are obtained either subjectively, by the designer, or objectively, by relevant engineering data. In subjective terms, the designer may express the various dimensions of the design artifact by appropriate fuzzy numbers representing linguistic descriptions such as about 15 cm or smaller than but dose to 50 kg. Triangular fuzzy numbers seem most convenient for this purpose. Consider, for example, the linguistic description about 15 cm pertaining to parameter te. Assume that there is a
A combination of several properties.. it is based on tho designer's preference for minimum cost [Wood and Airwoman. Let k = I.1. 0. 15. The algorithm to determine a fuzzy set G that is induced on P by fuzzy sets F (1 E KO through function f has the following steps. The calculation may conveniently be performed in appmdmate discrete fashion by using the following algorithm. . a wide range of materials might be used and the membership function expressed in terms of corrosion.4  0. 42 . may also be used. they are fuzzy numbers).2  0. 7) is the corresponding triangular fuzzy number expr e ssed by the triple (s.e. an of the input parameters v1.. are given.3 0.6 0. An example of a membership function constructed from the cost data for certain steel alloys is shown in Fig.2.L 0. 16. . v„ respectively (45 E P).. and that these sets are normalized and convex (i.. Select appropriate values eel. • Once the fuzzy sets expressing preferences of the designer are determined for ait input parameters. It is also assumed that a single performance parameter p is involved. 1. u2. S(GPa) Filure 165 Pmferetee function: steel alloy data. cr2. . 0.5. The latter fuzzy sets express the achievable performance of the design project. preferably equally spaced. . I. It is assumed that fuzzy sets Fi expressing preferences for input parameters vi (z e 61. or some other measurable material property.2 I. they are employed for calculating the associated fuzzy sets for performance parameters. They are calculated on the basis of known functional dependencies of individual performance parameters on some or all of die input parameters by the extension principle. 1].3 I. P is the value of the performance parameter p that corresponds to the values al. 5 Tensile strength.a. 16 restriction on the dimension to be greater than 10 cm and that the designer wants to keep the dimension under 22 cm. X V„ For each ai i l i (a t .428 Engineering Applications Chap..7b. F = (15.4.. physical. such as . 5. e fi ned in Fig. î r . 19891. chemical. which takes values from_ set Et. and other characteristics. Then. and which is expressed by a function ) f Vi X Vi X . Membership functions of fuzzy sets representing objective preferences are determined by relevant. including the cost of different materials.. a2. in (0. thermal expansion. Meigi bership grade 0. For example.
customer requirements. 16. 4. This follows the extension principle as well as fuzzy arithmetic. then this implies that at least one input parameter must have a preference of 0..2 (the width and thickness of the supporting beams) that are shown in Fig..7. In particular. we describe a simple example of mechanical engineering design that is adopted from the mentioned paper by Otto et aL [1993]. depicted in Fig. For the sake of simplicity.6. increase k by one and return to Step 2. 5.7a and b. the designer may decide to redefine the input preferences and repeat the procedure. d = 4 m and w = 20 kr. If this output value satisfies the functional requirements. we assume that values of all these parameters. the designer needs to express preferences regarding values of the various input parameters introduced in the figure. the method consists basically of two steps: a value of the performance parameter is determined that satisfies the functional requirements and bas the highest performance. 16. (et . In . In design problems with multiple performance parameters. . and suitable values of the input parameters are identified that are functionally connected with the value determined in the first step. ve. then input values other than the most desirable must be used. Assuming that the configuration shown in Fig. which are based on geometric constraints. e2 . We also assume that the designer specified the preferences for values of ee and 1. if it is necessary to use an offpeak value of a performance parameter to satisfy the functional requirements. After expressing the preferences for the input parameters.I. max b id. then the designer is justified to use the values of input parameters with preference 1. While input parameters are subject to the designer's desires (preferences). For example. a figure of merit must be introduced to combine the different performance parameter preferences. 16. determine intervals of Vi that represent the ak cuts of fuzzy sets Fi (i E No. whose purpose is to support a weight w at a distance from a wall. . determine  Then. the fuzzy sets calculated for performance parameters from their counterparts defined for input parameters do express the designer's preferences. ak G = [min b1 . Generate all 2n combinations of the endpoints of the intervals representing the (Yk cu ts of sets Fi (i E NO. stop. and so forth. are given. the designer must rate different values of these parameters in terms of their effect on a performance parameter. 3. The output parameter value with preference (membership grade) 1 corresponds to the input values with preference 1. but in a somewhat different way than the input parameters. When only one performance parameter is involved.6 is required. For each rttuple generated in Step 3. After completing the two steps. then the performance is expressed by the output value with preference 1. target values of performance parameters are specified by functional requirements and do not directly express desires (preferences) of the designer.Sec. To illustrate the procedure. except ye. For each te. otherwise. However. Consider the problem of designing a simple structural frame. each combination is an n tuple. If k < r . 16. if the designer's desires are fully met. That is. if it is necessary to use a value of a performance parameter whose performance is 0.7 or less.3 Mechanical Engineering  429 2.
298 [GPa].. 16. this example. a*. 16. [621 e22I . ei21.*) and calculating [e11. To obtain the optional value. hence it does not satisfy the requirement that the bending stress not be excessive. ideal values) cannot be employed in the design.e. GPa) that is not excessive is represented by a fuzzy set NE whose membership is specified in Fig. Applying the abovedescribed algorithm based on discrete acuts.8 mis2 and p = 7830 kg/m2 are relevant physical constants_ It must be ensured that the bending stress is not excessive. That is.7c. ci. 16.7d.2 t y2 2eile pgv 1 v2d 2 13 where g = 9. the designer can now apply the extension principle to determine the induced fuzzy set G for the performance parameter a. Consequently. it remains to determine the corresponding optimal values u and v' of the input parameters e l and u2. we need to fuld a value of a that belongs to the intersection of sets G and NE with the highest membership grade. the values of input parameters with the highest preferences (i. This can be done by determining the acuts = for a = G(o. of the performance palameter.on the input parameter. and the functional dependence of the performance parameter a.6 De s ign.. we obtain the membership function shown in Fig.430 Engineering Apeiieratiena Chap. a' is the value of er for which  sup mintO (a) treR (a)1 is obtained_ This calculation. example. A specification of the range of bending stress (measured in gigapascats. 16 Figure 16. whose dependence on y 1 and th is expressed by the formula Q . Comparing the value of ci for which the membership function G has its maximum with function NE. we can see that this value is almost 115. results in 0. which is illustrated graphically in Fig. in the horizontal beam. Given the preferences for values of the input parameters y 1 and y2 . Once we obtain the optimal values a* of the performance parameter ci.7e. a typical performance parameter is the maximum bending stress.
0 .43.0 .0 LL 0.0 Fuzzy sets .7 VIA.6 C.5 5'11 0.2 (c) .Sec.5 (a) Figure 16..2 0.04 (b) I LC 1 .14 4. Mechanical Engineering 431 1. 2 0. Q4 LL G 1 0.3 1.02 .3 u[GPa] . invotved in the example of inechatical system design depicted in .0 4111 4 (a) p 02 0.4 0.0 0.. 16.4 0..1 . (Tv cr[GPal . D.2 .0 1 1..0 0.4 0.4 .a 1.
which was motivated to a large extent by the need for a more expressive mathematical framework to deal with humanistic systems. Fuzzy set theory. which focuses on problems concerning human factors. control of industrial processes.* = 0. This implies that industrial engineering is a crossdisciplinary field_ Subject areas covered by industrial engineering include manufacturing. However. Two welldeveloped applied areas of fuzzy set theory that are directly relevant to industrial engineering are fuzzy control (Chapter 12) and fuzzy decision making (Chapter 15). ergonomics. we illustrate the utility of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering by a few examples borrowed primarily from these books. one for each uperational characteric (variable) that is known to effect the service life of the equipment. operation.7a. industrial engineering deals not only with technical issues involving manmade systems. b4 = f (ei7. and a statement in natural language is often the best way to express it. quality control. Numerous other applications of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering have also been explored to various degrees. and c). Engineering Applications Chap. it is usually not reasonable to request a precise estimate. e21). and others. Contrary to other engineering disciplines. = 0. . economic. human factors. project management. The term around x years ils expressed by a fuzzy number whose spread around its peak at x indicates the degree of nonspecificity in the estimate. machines. e22) for all combinations of the endpoints of "F1 and ceF2. "Under normal operating conditions. and money. The main sources of information regarding these other applications are two books. material.4 J044 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING In general. organizational design. ergonomic. 16. where o.58. safety engineering.298 [Gpaj and G(r) 0. inventory control. and a broader book edited by Evans et aL [19891 In this section. risk analysis. Some informatiou about the estimated service life of the equipment is expected from its manufacturer.07003 [na] and v.432 1)1 = f(e 1 .08834 [rni (see also Fig. and control of systems whose components are human beings. industrial engineering is concerned with the design. has undoubtedly a great deal to offer to industrial engineering . 16 b2 = b3 = f (el2t en) . b. a book edited by Karweavski and Mitat [1984]. but also with behavioral. organizational. and other issues. financial management. Fuzzy sets are convenient for estimating the service life of a given piece of equipment for various conditions under which it operates." The terra normal operating cEmditions may conveniently be expressed by a collection of fuzzy sets. A typical statement expressing the estimated service life might have the form. 17. traditional techniques for dealing with these problems are adaptations of techniques developed for solving problems of mechanistic systems. Then 177 and 14 are equal to the endpoints for which min b) is obtained. A realistic estimate of this kind is always only approximate. the optimal values of the input parameters are i = 0. In our example. the estimated service life of the equipment is around x years. Although human beings play an important role in most problems of concern in industrial engineering.
This relation. Then.0 a specified operating range. C2r • • r C. x2. The computer. let the fuzzy sets that express the individual normal operating conditions be denoted by C ol . which typically consists of some conditioning circuitry and a digital sampler. say. C2. y) = [C(x). It can readily be used for estimating the service life under operating conditions that deviate the normal operating conditions. are defined on universal sets Xi. resident in an embedded control or monitoring system. is really making an educated guess about the acceptability of the quantity with respect 1. however. typically. Using set C. • Let us proceed to another application of fuzzy sets in industrial environment. the warning light is illuminated. 16. C2. . . C2(X). L(y)] for all x e X and y Y. fuzzy relation R on X Y by the formula R(x. we think of warning lights slid. In a range test. This means that information regarding the quantity is Limited by the resolution of the sampler. We have =. The term builtin test is loosely defined as a system's ability to evaluate its own state of repair and take appropriate action in the event of an anomaly.(x. respectively. its state of repair is evaluated using coolant temperature. as the one in the example above as being actuated by mechanical systems. is a convenient representation of the available information regarding the estimated service life of the equipment in question. Increasingly. the computer must determine if a quantity is acceptable. X2 . Classically. Assuming that the conditions are mutually independent. alt automobile with a temperature warning light_ If the engine coolant tempera= rises above a certain threshold. The computer obtains data about the monitored quantity through an observation channel.CoR. then. for all n tuples z  (x1 . the quantity is observed ordy at discrete instants of time at which samples are taken. an appropriate action must be taken  .Sec. which are often appropriate subsets of real numbers. C. appropriate action is taken by illuminating the warning light rather than. Assume further that the fuzzy number L is defined on a universal set Y. .. for example.  where b a fuzzy set on X that expresses the actual operating conditions (not necessarily normal) and L s is a fuzzy number expressing the estimated service life of the given equipment under these conditions. for example. the automobile could be said to be performing a built in test. C is the cylindric closure of Ci. turning the engine off.„)1 C. Assume that fuzzy sets C1. and. the average of several signals. ah normal operating conditions can be expressed by one fuzzy set. which is always a given subset of real numbers. the signal above. and let the fuzzy number expressing the estimated service life be denoted C1. That is. Consider. by L. we can now define a. or the difference between two signals. In this case. Clearly. If the quantity is determined to be unacceptable. This example illustrates special builtin tests known as range tests. the quantity is a function of the values of one or more signals monitored by the system. tasks such as this are the responsibility of a computer.4 industrial Engineering 433 Considering the above statement regarding the estimated service life of equipment. if necessary. which is a cylindric closure of C and L. x„) E X. the problem of designing builtin tests for industrial systems. C„ on X = X1 X X2 X X X. . set C is defined by the formula C (x) = min[C (x ).
b. 2. the idea of consistency is introduced into the definition of the term unacceptable. and quickly enough must be examined. unacceptable. At the other boundaty condition. Next. The term unacceptable would frequently require the following definition: sufficiently high degree A quantity is unacceptable if its sample values violate the range of acceptable. Define fuzzy sets A and ZT on X that characterize the set of acceptable sample values and the set of unacceptable sample values.8. While it is evident from the above discussion that more than one sample value should be collected before declaring a failure. In the boundary condition. the number of samples required to record a failure is large enough to provide sufficient noise intolerance and overall belief that the actual signal is indeed unacceptable. 16. Define an overall level of belief. Using all these considerations. Membership functions of then fuzzy sets may conveniently be defined by the trapezoidal shapes shown in Fig. Thus. which are assumed to be discrete. we must examine the linguistic term quickly enough. the general "rule of thumb" is as follows: The tarser the deviation of the quantity value from the required range. In general. as long as the sample values of the quantity are definitely acceptable. there is a limit to the amount of time that may be used to make the decision. where all sample values are definitely unacceptable. A (xk). we need to make sure that in this case. To develop a procedure by which to decide when the action is needed. It is recognized that an occasional violation Of the range of acceptable values is not necessarily indicative of an unacceptable condition ln order to avoid failures due to noise or some other inexplicable fluke of nature. a failure should never be declared. This definition takes into account the fact that the amount of noise introduced due to the physical characteristics of the electronics and/or the harshness of the operation environment is not always insignificant. 3.values to a renriy violates and often enough to berieve that the quantity itself co this range. that the actual behavior of the quantity is unacceptable as a function of the accumulation over time of the membership of the individual sample values in the sets A and U. where k denotes the kth iteration of the builtin test logic and xk denotes the kth sample of the quantity being evaluated. Define a universal set X consisting of all possible sample values of the given quantity. and the faster a failure must be declared. the linguistic terms acceptable. Lf(x0j. b(xk_ 1 ) A(xk) U(x01.434 Engireering Apprications Chap. ln between these boundary conditions. b(xk) = Ab(ztt). . such as permanent damage of the machinery involved. A reasonable specific function f is given by the formula: b(x k) = max[0. a meaningful procedure for constructing a range test is described as follows: 1. yet small enough that the associated execution time is safely less than the worstcase reaction time of the system. this limit is governed by the shortest amount of time required by the system to incur adverse effects. the greater the chances are of inclining adverse effects. respectively. 1€ quickly enough to allow the prevention of adverse effects.
Such a point is called an absolute center. . Other fuzzy networks arc used for describing complex production processes consisting of many mutually dependent activities. a network is a graph whose edges are associated with one or more numerical characteristics. This use of the fuzzy sets. t. for example. 1989]. In general. Fuzzy sets in the example of t is a necessary and sufficient condition 4. upon which the procedure is based. 1993]. such that b(rk) to declare a failure. quality of the route. each edge is associated with a particular activity and is characterized by the approximate length of time of that activity. showed a substantial improvement in carefully designed simulation experiments when compared with procedures based on crisp sets [Brown and Klir. in flexible manufacturing systczes. A fuzzy absolute center is a very useful concept by which the resting area for these vehicles is efficiently characterized. etc. The solution to the problem is a fuzzy set of points of the graph that is called a figzzy absolute center. possibly. One problem regarding this kind of network is to determine critical paths in each given network (paths of maximal duration) and time floats of other paths. and edges are viewed as the routes that connect them. The location problein is important. In these networks. To cover details of the many problems involving fuzzy networks of various types that are relevant to industrial engineering would require too much space. The objective is to find a point on the graph (at a vertex or along an edge) for which the maximum travel time to any place (vertex) is Plirtilllized. by other characteristics (safety. for example. Some important problems pertaining to industrial engineering have been formulated in terms of networks of various kinds. A range builtin test using this procedure was applied to turbines. In location problems. Each edge is described by the estimated travel time between the two places and.). 16_4 Industrial Engineering 435 Figure 16. possibly under constraints specified in terms of the other characteristics.Sec.. These systems use automated guided vehicles that deliver materials to robotics workstations as required. vertices of a network represent places of demand for service.. Define a threshold value. It is easy to understand that the network for a location problem can be formulated more realistically if the estimated travel times and other characteristics are allowed to be expressed in terms of fuzzy numbers. and such that the time required for b(xk ) > t to occur is consistent with the needs of the boundary conditions discussed above.8 range builtin tests. where the monitored quantity was the turbine blade temperature. Readers interested in this topic are referred to [Evans et al.
One of seven linguistic labels can be chosen for each antecedent and each consequent: Ari. For each k e N„. and defuzzification units. and eventually resulted in commercially available hardware for certain types of fuzzy computing. It consists of units that implement individual fuzzy inference rules (rule units). is characterized by high speed and good compatibility with sensors.4. we outline a few basic ideas regarding fuzzy computer hardware of the analog type that was developed by Yarnakawa 11994 Technical details which are not covered here. Operations on fuzzy sets are thus performed as operations on vectors. and their left and right slopes can be adjusted as desired by choosing appropriate resistance values of variable resistors in the circuits. extends the scope of applicability of fuzzy controllers and.9. AZ (approximately zero). fuzzy sets are represented in terms of continuous electric signals (electric currents or voltages) by appropriate electric circuits. at least those described in the literature. These circuits play a role similar to function generators in classical analog computers. A block diagram of the hardware implementation of a fuzzy controller with n fuzzy inference rules is shown in Fig. The primary focus of these developments has been on the impkmentetiou of fuzzy rules of inference and cleruzzification procedures for fuzzy controllers. Initial attempts to develop hardware for fuzzy computing. as a consequence. 12. As an illustration. it is suitable for implementing complex schemes of multistage fuzzy inference. NS (negative small). NM (negative medium). date from 198. the shapes of membership functions may be arbitrary. Either of the two modes of fuzzy computer hardware bas some favorable features. The principal reason for using specialized hardware for fuzzy computing is to increase operational speed via parallel processing.436 16. For consequents. the rule unit k is characterized . PM (positive medium). or PL (positive large). PS (positive small). Yamakawa's hardware is designed for fuzzy controllers of the type discussed in Secs.5. Digital fuzzy hardware is characterized by flexible programmability and good compatibility with existing computers. Each rule unit is capable of implementing one fuzzy inference rule with three antecedents or less. other fuzzy expert systems. 16. fa Since the mid1980s. This increases efficiency tremendously and. In general. when the utility of fuzzy controllers became increasingly visible. as explained later. The triangles or trapezoids can be positioned as desired by choosing appropriate values of voltage in the circuits. (negative large). computer hardware for fuzzy logic is implemented in either digital mode or analog mode. In digital mode. fuzzy sets are represented as vectors of numbers in [0. 1]. Analog fuzzy hardware. the need for computer hardware to implement the various operations involved in fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning has been recognized. which are predominantly digital. units that implement the Max operation needed for aggregating inferences made by auzleiple inference rules (Max units). Inputs for each antecedent are required to be crisp. on the contrary. Fuzzy sets representing these linguistic labels for antecedents may be expressed by membership functions of either triangular or trapezoidal shapes. fuzzy computer hardware allows all inference rules of a complex fuzzy inference engine to be processed in parallel. it is thus particularly suitable for complex online fuzzy controllers.5 Engineering Applicatons COMPUTER ENGINEERING Chap. can be found in the references mentioned in Note 16.2 and 113. In principle. potentially. In analog mode. 'These developments intensified in the late 1980s and especially in the 1990s.
. may also specify that no linguistic label is assigned (denoted by NA). The membership function is defined by three inputs to the circuit The first input specifies one ot the seven linguistic labels and. z are applied to all rule units iu parallel. The output of each lulu unit. Functions Xk. The current dlefuzziliers are based on the centrold method of defuzzilication.10. 16.] represented by appropriate voltages on 25 signal lines. in analog mode.5 Computer Engineering 437 by membership functions Xk. and membership function Gk. but there is no reason why they could not be extended to a parametrized family of defuzzification methods.9 by symbols Ci. The output is a single real number. I. in addition. expressed again in discrete form. ci(C). is expressed in discrete form by a vector of 25 numbers in [0. C. . The resulting membership function C. 18. The aim of each of these circuits is to express. Zk. which represents the value of the control variable. which represents the inference obtained by the associated fuzzy inference rule. unit k) is shown in Fig. denoted in Fig. Crisp input signals x. which is needed for implementing inference .Tanturare implementatinn of a fuzzy contrrillem A block diagram of one rule unit (say. is then defuzzified by the unit referred to as the defuzzifier. At the input of the unit are three membership fiatction circuits. the membership function of one particular antecedent and to determine the degree of compatibility of the actual value of the relevant input variable with the antecedent. rigure 169 T. which represents the associated consequent. one for each antecedent. 16. which represent the antecedents in fuzzy inferencerule k.Yk. All these outputs. are fed to a unit that determines their componentwise maximum. YL.Sec. y. Zk have either triangular or trapezoidal shapes with required slopes.
438 Engineerina Apprications Marriborship F 11.i." which conforms to 123. 11. 12. 16 I abaiCkl 5 Generator 1 1 11. (=. then Au example of the fuzzy inference rule "If 43f. Since the niie has only two antecedents. the outputs of the three membership function circuits are fed to a circuit that determines their minimum. NA 0. The second input specifies whether the shape of the membership function is triangular or trapezoidal.2 and (= u) is AZ. The ranges of values of the three variables for which the various membership functions are defined are assumed here to be normalized to the interval [1. its 25 outputs . no linguistic label is assigned to Zk.(. in our example. According to the inference procedure. CI. does not have any effect on the output produced by the rule unit. rules that contain less than three antecedents.0 2 o L) 0 0:t Label (V ia c1Stiape o.strated in Fig. 1]. labelled by NA. This function is approximated in discrete form by a circuit referred to as a membership function generator.10 litIcnk diagram of rule unit k. The output of the circuit is then equal to 1 and. 16. The purpose of this circuit is to produce a truncated vector C:e of 25 values that approximate the membership function of the consequent Ck of the inference rule.r. This degenerate case.. is conveniently handled by defining Zk as the whole interval [1.)) is a triangular membership function representing the linguistic label AZ.utilized in this case. The output of this circuit is then applied to a circuit called a truncation gate. 1] and by setting the input z to any convenient constant in i1.11106i Chap. 25 . as indicated in the figure. consequently.5 Shape Scope 1 + Membership Function Circuit Figure 14.10. In our example. is illin. i) is N5 .e) is PS and Yk the type of inference rules discussed in Secs. The circuit for Zk is thus not. 4 Min Circuit Truncation Grate Slope Labot ga) 0 . The third input specifies the left and right slopes of the membership function.. drk Is of trapezoidal shape and rt is of triangular shape.
Sec. similarly. and two additional binary digits are used for defining four distinct shapes of the membership functions (triangular. the second one Is a probabilistic reliability theory based on fuzzy events. — These assumptions. the engineering product may be in functioning state to some degree and in failed state to another degree. including diagrams of the various electric circuits. 16. under closer scrutiny. They make sense only when the mathematical ideal of crisp events is acceptable in a given experimental context. which in the classical reliability theory are taken. and observed frequencies are indicators of the underlying physical process. The first one is the classical reliability theory. since World War II. we obtain two types of possibilistic reliability theories. Further details. for granted. has been proposed. we can recognize four types of reliability theories. We feet that this level of detail is sufficient for general understanding of one type nf computer hardware for fuzzy logic. The seven linguistic labels and the special label NA (not assigned) are specified by three binary digits. are. we obtain two types of probabilistic reliability theories. The classical reliability theory. An alternative reliability theory. 1] is done by a circuit called a control matrix. either (a) or (a).  The decoding from the five bit characterization to the 25   tuple of members in [0. and Z shaped). (13') Possibility assumption The behavior of the engil:teering product with respect to the . which is based on fundamentally different assumptions: (a) Assumption of fuzzy states. as the name suggests. is based on two basic assumptions: (a). either (b) or (b). is reliability. are covered in the mentioned article by Yamakawa [1993]. reliability is a measure of the expected capability of an engineering product to operate without failures under specific conditions for a given period of time.6 RELIABILITY THEORY Reliability theory is a crossdisciplinary engineering discipline that studies the dependability of engineering products in behaving as required under specific operating conditions when put into service. When (D') is combined with.6 Reliability Theory 439 are fed to the truncation gate. The . which has been developed. 16. by and large. (b) Probability assumption The behavior of the engineering product with respect to the two critical states (functioning and failed) can adequately be characterized in terms of probability theory. trapezoidal. fn a broad sense. Assumption of dichotomous states—At any given time.At any given time. large collections of relevant data are available.. the engineering product is either functioning state or in failed state. The central concept of reliability theory. two critical fuzzy states (fuzzy functioning state and fuzzy failed state) can adequately be characterized in terms of possibility theory. rooted in fuzzy sets and possibility theory. When (b) is combined with either (a) or (a). many practical situations. — By accepting either assumption (a) or assumption (a') and. questionable in. S shaped.
However. and a host of others. Existing and prospective applications of fuzzy set theory in civil engineering are overviewed in articles by Blockley [1982]. are utilized as components integrated in the overall architecture of intelligent robots. r In robotics. in [Bezdek 1987]. intelligent information processing functions that allow the robot to process the incoming information with respect to a given task. We do not deem it necessary to cover the new. fuzzy controllers and other kinds of fuzzy systems. and other sensors to alluw the rohul tu perceive its environment. To cover this important role of fuzzy set theory in the formidable task of designing intelligent robots would require the introduction of a prohibitively extensive background information. To achieve humanlike behavior.7 ROBOTICS Robotics is a crossdisciplinary subject area that is concerned with the design and construction of machines that are capable of human . In general. Advances in computer technology and in the area of artificial intelligence in the 1980s stimulated greater ambitions in robotics. and the capability of making decisioas in the face of bounded uncertainty_ It is clear that the use of fuzzy set theory is essential for all these capabilities. [1983]. and fuzzy decision inakin g.440 Erioineoring Appticaticns Chap. auditory. They include the capability of commonsense reasoning in natural language that is basedon incoming information as well as background knowledge. were designed for repetitive actions of a typical production line. which are called industrial robots. The main subjects of fuzzy set theory that are relevant to robotics include approximate reasoning. ctc) and softwarc engineering. as is typical. and . possibilistic reliability theories are more meaningful than their probabilistic counterparts when only a small number of statistical samples is available. Which of them to use depends on the context of each application.  NOTES 16. an intelligent robot must have some key capabilities that distinguish human beings from classical nonintelligent machines. These early robots. and mechanical fibuctiorts with appropriate controls to allow the robot to move and act as desired. appropriate percepwal functions facilitated by visual. space probes. Chameau et al. to cover them adequately would require too much space. we provide readers interested in these theories with relevant references in Note 16. for example in astronautics (reliability problems of space shuttles.1.6. all these subjects. 16. 16 first one is based on classical set theory.like behavior. Readers interested in this area are given a few relevant references in Note 163. All these reliability theories are meaningful and have been developed.. intelligent robots must be equipped with at least three types of function s :. Although industries began interested in robots in the 1960s. Research in robotics became oriented primarily on robots with high intelligence. Such machines are referred to as robots. refined motor controls. nonnlassica/ reliability theories here. while the second one is based on fuzzy set theory. information retrieval systems. fuzzy partem recognition and image processing. fuzzy data bases. highlevel capabilities of pattern recognition and image understanding. the first commercial robots were produced only in the 1970s. Brown et id.
written in 1920.8. nonclassical reliability theories mentioned in Sec. The name "robot" was coined by the Czech writer Karel Capek in his play Rossuntis Univemal Robots. bi and by Wood et a/. Au important contribution to fuzzy logic hardware is a design and implementation of a fuzzy ffipflop by Hirota and Ozawa [1989]. 16. in particular IEEE Conferences and IFSA Congresses. 1988. [1985 ] and a book edited by Ayyub et al. Repeat the example of bridge evaluation discussed in Sec. This is a memory element that allows us to store onediet fuzzy information. However. 16. [1991.5. 16. The use of fuzzy adaptive filters to nonlinear channel equalization [Wang and Mendel. In addition to the hooks mentioned in See.  EXERCI S ES 16. Issues of dealing with fuzzified networks are discussed by Mare g and Hoak (1983].6. [19931. The new. Many specific applications of fuzzy set theory irk robotics are described in short papers in procccdings of çonfercnc5 oritntcd to cither fuzzy systtin5 or robotics.7.Chap. . Palm. 16. and Chung.6 are covered in several papers by Cal et at [1991 a—d. 1993 ] . Hirota. Arai.1. 16.2 by assuming that it was found daring the bridge inspection that the deck is in poor condition. [19921. No book or major survey paper describing the use of fuzzy set theory in robotics is currently available. Nedungadi. .2. A thorough coverage of the role of fuzzy sets in risk analysis was prepared by Schmucker 119841. and the use of fuzzy cognitive maps to qualitative circuit analysis [Stylaiins Id and Meyer. and proceedings of various conferences in the 1990s (particularly USA and IEEE). 1989.4. there are other areas of electrical engineering where methods based on fuzzy sets have been proven useful. [19897 1990. 1992] .3. beams are in poor condition. Applications of fuzzy set theory in isle chemical engineering are discussed in articles by °etc. Additional contributions to tlamo thcories and their applications to specific problems can be found in many issues of IEEE Trans. 1994]. The following are a few relevant journal articles: (Dodds. on Reliability. 1992. 1989. 16. 19931. 1994). Conference proceedings edited by 13rowrt et al. Yamakawa [19884 Diamond et al.16. It is essential for implementing multistage procedures of fuzzy inference. The primary source of information regarding specific applications of fuzzy sets in civil engineering is the journal Cast Engereering Systems. Kim. lilieradectronics and Reliability and Reliability Engineering and System Safety published in the 1980s and 1990s. 19911 are three examples. 1993 ] . 1989.4. Ka. and Miki Other approaches to fuzzy logic hardware are described in Gupta and et al. Electrical engineering has been affected by fuzzy set theory primarily through fuzzy controllers and fuzzy computer hardware. Yamakawa's fuzzy logic hardware of analog mode is described in several papers by Yamakawa [1988. 16. 1993 a. 16. 16 Exercises 441 Ayyub 11994 Using fuzzy sets in architectural design is explored by Oguntade and Gen [19811. el al. a good overview of the 'milky of fuzzy sets in industrial engineering was written by Karwowsld and Evans [1986]. 16. Yamakawa and Kaboo [19881 Tarnakawa and Miki 119861. The use of approximate reasoning and fuzzy Petri nets in flexible manufacturing systems is explored by Scarpelli and Gomide (19931. signal detection [Saacie and Schwarziander. and Hachisu. and also in books by Kaufmann and Gupta [1988] and (erre 03911. and piers are in fair condition. 1993. [ 1992] are also valuable sources.
4.2.3 by replacing F 1 and Fz with symmetric triangulartype fuzzy numbers with centers 0.' Assume that the linguistic terms normal temperature [in QC1 and around 7 years are approximated ]..8/900i.4/920.8/840 + .8/860 + 1/880+ . by the fuzzy seta T 4/780 .8/800 + 1/820 + .characterized by the fuzzy set = . Using the procedure of estimating service life of a given equipment discussed in Sec. respective ly. 16. and spreads 0. 16. . determine the estimated service life of the furnace under this operating condition. respectively.5/8. 16 16.4/840 + .4/860. Repeat the example of mechanical design discussed hi See.442 Ertg[neering Applications Chap. L 5/6 + 1/7 + .3. Assuming now that the actual operating temper:ature is.45 and 0.06 and 1107. its service life is estimated around 7 years. 16.3. consider the following fuzzy proposition regarding the estimated life of a furnace: "If the furnace is operated under normal temperature.
We mention some of them in the Notes. geology. we attempt to look far into the future to stimulate imagination. be fully comprehensive_ The utility of fuzzy set theory in each area covered in this chapter has already been established. various areas of engineering. meteorology. particularly in the 1990s. and the performance of many exceeds previous expectations.2 MEDICINE As overviewed in Note 17. Scattered applications of fuzzy set theory in some additional areas can also be found in the literature. these applications are still rather isolated. In these speculations. 17.7 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS 17. or insufficiently developed. and future developments seem quite promising. and many others. in the mid1970s. These include information auad knowledgebase systems. The last section in the chapter is devoted to our speculations about prospective future applications of fuzzy set theory.11 medicine is one field in which the applicability of fuzzy set theory was recognized quite early. biology. We focus on applications that are generally recognized as very important. chemistry. Within this field. Thus far. and engineering remain that have not been affected by the theory. some areas of human endeavors have been particularly active in exploring the utility of fuzzy set theory and developing many diverse applications. These areas include physics.1 INTRODUCTION The inventory of successful applications of fuzzy set theory has been growing steadily. However. We do not attempt to. unconvincing. but appear to involve insurmountable difficulties. ecology. it is the uncertainty found in the process of diagnosis of disease that has most frequently been the focus of . science. These have been covered in previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is to overview applications of fuzzy set theory in other areas. Few areas of mathematics. nuclear engineering. political science. and virtually all problem areas of decision making. Some emerging applications were previously unsuspected.
With the increased volume of information available to physicians from new medical technologies. the knowledge concerning the state of the patient constitutes another. A single disease may manifest itself quite differently in different patients and at different disease stages. it is nevertheless crucial that the physician determine the diagnostic label that will entail the appropriate therapeutic regimen. we examine some basic issues of these applications. aglobulins are slightly decreased. physical examination. Although medical knowledge concerning the symptomdisease relationship constitutes one source of imprecision and uncertainty in the diagnostic process. The measurements provided by laboratory tests arc often of limited precision. The fuzzy set framework has been utilized in several different approaches to modeling the diagnostic proQess. relations between diseases themselves. given the fuzzy set A of the symptoms observed in the patient and the fuzzy relation R representing the medical knowledge that relates the symptoms in set S to the diseases in set D. Furthermore. Xrays and other similar procedures require correct interpretation of the results. laboratory test results. preliminary diagnosis. The past history offered by the patient may be subjective. and yglobulins are increased. The knowledge provided by each of these sources carries • with it varying degrees of uncertainty. and the exact borderline between normal and pathological is often unclear. the physician's medical knowledge is represented as a fuzzy relation between symptoms and diseases. Thus. The best and most useful descriptions of disease entities often use linguistic terms that are irreducibly vague For example. In this section. the process of classifying different sets of symptoms under a single name and determining appropriate therapeutic actions becomes increasingly difficult. albumin is decreased. a single symptom may be indicative of several different diseases. In the approach formulated by Sanchez [1979]. underestimated. Mistakes may be made in the physical examination. and symptoms may be overlooked. or incomplete. and other investigative procedures such as Xrays and ultrasonics. The desire to better understand and teach this difficult and important process of medical diagnosis has prompted attempts to model it with the use of fuzzy sets.444 apphcations of fuzzy set Miscellaneous Applications Chap. ID the face of the uncertainty concerning the observed symptoms of the patient as well as the uncertainty concerning the relation of the symptoms to a disease entity. These models vary in the degree to which they attempt to deal with different complicating aspects of medical diagnosis such' as the relative importance of symptoms. the state and symptoms of the patient can be known by the physician with only a limited degree of precision. exaggerated. which are usually designed to aid the physician in the diagnosis of some specified category of diseases. the varied symptom patterns of different disease stages. hepatitis is characterized by the statement: "Total proteins are usually normal. These models also form the basis for computerized medical expert systems. The physician generally gathers knowledge about the patient from the past history. and final diagnosis within the diagnostic process itself. 17 theory." where the linguistic terms printed in italics are inherently vague. and the stages of hypothesis formation. then the fuzzy set B of the possible diseases of the patient can be inferred by means of the compositional rule of inference . figlobulins are slightly decreased. Thus. and the presence of several diseases in a single patient may disrupt the expected symptom pattern of any one of them.
2 for patient p could lead to a membership = . Therefore. it corresponds to the question. T. relations Q and T may represent. therefore limiting its power as a discriminating factor among them. the symptoms that were present and diagnoses consequently made for a number of known cases. R.5 to Si. For this example. and R and fuzzy sets A and B. but its presence may nevertheless constitute almost certain confirmation of the presence of the disease. where RD (s. Another symptom. may be relatively rare with a given disease.5 x D. a computerized system for diagnosis assistance. the accumulated medical experience can be used to specify the relation between symptoms and diseases that was evidenced in the previous diagnoses. For instance. Let us define a fuzzy relation Rs on the set P x S in which membership grades RAp. The model proposes two types of relations to exist between symptoms and diseases an occurrence relation and a confirmability relation. d E D) indicates the frequency of occurrence of symptom s with . grade .Rs(p. "How strongly does symptom s confirm disease d?" The distinction between occurrence and confirmability is useful because a symptom may be quite likely to occur with a given disease but may also commonly occur with several other diseases.. then a test result of 5. respectively. R(s. The maximal solution to (17. The membership grades in fuzzy set B denote the degree of possibility with which we can attach each relevant diagnostic label to the patient. Adlassnig and Kolatz [19821 and AcIlassnig [1986j elaborate on this relational model in the design of CADIAG2.s G S) indicate the degree to which the symptom s is present in patient p.symptom when the specific disease is present. "How often does symptom s occur with disease dr The second relation describes the discriminating power of the symptom to confirm the presence of the disease. The fuzzy relation R of medical knowledge should constitute the greatest relation such that given the fuzzy relation Q on the set P of patients and S of symptoms and the fuzzy relation T on the sets P of patients and D of diseases.2) must be chosen for R in order to avoid arriving at a relation that is more specific than ow information warrants.Sec.5. d) (s E S. We illustrate their approach with a somewhat simplified version of part of this design. and P be the crisp universal set of all patients.d))1 scs for each d C D.1 summarizes the meanings and uses of fuzzy relations Q. s) (where p E P. (17. D be the crisp universal set of all diseases. on the other hand. The membership grades et observed symptoms in fuzzy set A may represent the degree of possibility of the presence of the symptom or its severity. then B (d) T = Q. 17. let S denote the crisp universal set of all symptoms.2) Thus. it may be necessary to interpret the results of applying relation R to a specific set of symptoms as a diagnostic hypothesis rather than as a confirmed diagnosis.2 medicine or max[min(A (s). By solving the fuzzy relation equation (17. However. The first provides knowledge about the tendency or frequency of appearance of a .2) for R. Figure 17. Let us further define a fuzzy relation Ro on the universal set . this can lead to cases in which R shows more symptomdisease association than exists in reality. it corresponds to the question. if s represents the symptom of increased potassium level and the normal test result range is roughly 3.
disease d. and s3 to clisases dri and d2 : • Symptom S1 °CCU's very seldom in patients with disease d1 . • Symptom si often occurs in patients with disease 112 but seldom. . • Symptom 33 very often occurs with disease et. or O in fuzzy sets R0 and Rc for the linguistic terms always. often. Let Re also be a fuzzy relation on the same universal set. d) corresponds to the degree to which symptom s confirms the presence of disease d. Assume that the following medical documentation exists concerning the relations of symptoms s2. unspecific. All missing relational pairs of symptoms and diseases are assumed to be unspecified and are .25.75 .5. confirms the presence of disease d2. and often confirms the presence of d2. . where Rc (s. and (obviously) its presence never confirms disease d2.446 Miscellaneous Appl]eations Compilation of medical knowledge Chap. • Symptom s2 always occurs with disease di and always confirms the presence of disease 32 never occurs with disease ch. Since this documentation usually takes the form of statements such as "Symptom s seldom occurs in disease d" or "Symptom s always indicates disease d7 we assign membership grades of I. In this example. • Symptom 33 seldom occurs in patients with disease d i . 17 Diseases Symptoms ai Diseases Q . We use a concentration operation to model the linguistic modifier very such that A2 (x). . respectively. the fuzzy occurrence and confirmability relations arc determined from expert medical documentation. seldom and never.1 FILI27).Cl3 x S 24 a S Medical experience Diagnostic process lutowledge (to be determined) Diseases Symptoms ACT Possible diseases of patient (to he determined) Observed symptoms of patient Figure 17. sets and fuzzy relations involved in medical diagnosis..
25 . From our medical documentation we construct the following matrices of relations R o .25 Rc =[ 1 o. and Rc.9 0 .7 . as defin = For our example.9 .Sec. Rc. the nousymptona indication R4 is given by R4 = (Z RS) 13 RO .75 The conArrnability indication relation R • is calculated by R2 =F.75 Ro .8 .56 _5 . R eSxD (the rows and columns of the matrices are ordered by subscripts of the corresponding symbols): .9 0 1 Using relations Rs. 17.2 Medicine 447 given a membership grade of . s2.8 .7 112 = [ _8 . we can now calculate four different indication relations defined On the set P x D of patient g and diseases_ The first is the occurrence indication R I. Now assume that we are given a fuzzy relation R s specifying the degree of presence of symptoms st .75 and specified here by R3 .7 .6 9 [ .56 }11 = [ .[ :I 0 . this results in .5 The nonoccurrence indication R3 is defined as = Rs c' (1 RO) .6 . pl. and p3 as follows: Rs = [ .. Ro.8 .5.4 . R1 is given by the following matrix: • ..94 Finally.6 _25 . and s3 for three patients pi.06 . • .75 .
We describe a simplified adaptation of the method employed by Esogbue and Elder [1979. a patient with the disease. Another alternative approach to modeling the medical diagnostic process utilizes fuzzy cluster analysis.) Often the similarity measure is computed between the symptoms of the patient in question and the symptoms of a patient possessing the prototypical symptom pattern for each possible disease. . 1980. that disease dl is strongly confirmed for patient p. whereas the symptoms of patient p t do not strongly resemble the symptom pattern of either disease d1 or d2 alone. Let us assume that we are given a patient x who displays the symptoms sa. We may make an excluded diagnosis for a disease d in patient p if Ri(p.6 Ra =a. we may draw different types of diagnostic conclusions. Each of the diseases is described by a matrix giving the upper and lower hounds of the normal range of severity of each of the four symptoms that can be expected in. between symptoms themselves. el). 1980. d)] is satisfied. 1983]. We must determine a diagnosis for this patient among three possible diseases di . s3 .25 .R2 (p.5% in achieving a correct diagnosis. 11 denotes the grade of membership in the fuzzy set characterizing patient set S = (Si . The most likely diagnostic candidates are those disease clusters in which the patient's degree of membership is the greatest. The diseases d1 . ln our example. and 34 at the levels of severity given by the fuzzy set A. The actual CAMAG2 system incorporates relations not only between symptoms and diseases but also between diseases themselves. Partial testing of the system on patients with rheurnatological diseases produced an accuracy of 94. d2.4/s3 + . and between combinations of symptoms and diseases. we may make a confirmed diagnosis of a disease d for patient p if . Models of medical diagnosis that use cluster analysis usually perform a clustering algorithm on the set of patients by examining the similarity of the presence and severity of symptom patterns exhibited by each. s2 . (The severity of the symptoms present can be designated with degrees of membership in fuzzy sets representing each symptom category. 1 From these four indication relations. for instance. s3. which indicates the severity level of the symptom xandefioth si for the patient. whereas the only acceptable diagnostic hypothesis for patient p3 is disease d2.6/54. V). For instance.R2(p. therefore.448 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. both diseases d1 and d2 are suitable diagnostic hypotheses for patients Aral and p2. we may include in our set of diagnostic hypotheses for patient p any disease d such that the inequality 3 mar[R i (p. seem to point to the presence of disease d2 in patient pi and disease dl in patient p2. we may exclude disease d1 as a possible diagnosis for patient p3 . R2 does seem to indicate. and 43 . This type of technique is used by Fordou and Bezdek [19791 and Esogbue and Elder [1979. d2. Our three types of diagnostic results. [ . d) =L Although this is not the case for any of our three patients. sa. The patient tu be diagnosed is then clustered to varying degrees with the prototypical patients whose symptoms are most similar. Finally.„ where A(s) + :7/s2 . and d3 are described in this way . sa). d) = 1 or & (P d) = L In our example.56 I . 19831 to illustrate this te hnique.25 . 17 and equals .
3.5 .F(si)).7 . Choosing.9 where W(si . 2.3) Eiwcsi. the lower and upper bounds of symptom si for disease di .3 W= 82 84 [ . d2 ..2 . respectively.4)12 + 1(.4 . the Euclidean distance.(si) where Ar (51))1/ = i„ e E N„. lower upper lower upper [ 0 .1 . it is given by the formula x) [E [TV (sf . The most likely disease candidate is the one for which the similarity measure attains the .6 . di)(Bi. for example. This clustering is performed by computing a similarity measure between the patient's symptoms and those typical of each disease di .3 .9)(0 — .9 1 0 0 . and ef3 in our example as follows: D2(d1 x) = (1(.6 1 . B2.6 43 1 .Sec. and in denotes the total number of symptoms.6) r 211J2 = . .9 . and 113) the patient is most similar. 17. where B ii (si ) and B(s) denote.7 .54.70 . we use a distance measure based on the Minkowski distance that is appropriately modified. To compute this similarity.7) (.3 . we use a clustering technique to determine to which diagnostic cluster (as specified by matrices B.2 Medicine 449 by the matrices B1 = B2. The relation W of these weights of relevance is given by d1 id.3) with p 2 to calculate the similarity between patient x and diseases 41 . We further define a fuzzy relation W on the set of symptoms and diseases that specifies the pertinence or importance of each symptom si in the diagnosis of the matrix of each disease 4/1 .1 . d jr)(B )1 (st) — Ax 0'1))1 P 1 112 (17.91 „. matrix Bj defines fuzzy sets Rj1 and . D2 (d3.2 .5 0 . I A.4 ' [ 0 { 0 •3 B3 lower upper 0 0 For each f = 1.8 ..9 .5 — . (11) denotes the weight of symptom si for disease d) _ In order to diagnose 1 patient x. we use (17. (si ) RJ.
17 3 ECONOMICS What is economics? Most modern economists define economics as a social science that studies how societies deal with problems that result from relative scarcity. based on classical set theory. which plays an essential role in economic phenomena. we are forced to simplify by reducing the scope of the model which in turn. The capability of fuzzy set theory to express and deal with propositions in natural language should facilitate the elicitation of this kind of economic knowledge from economists with a high success rate in making economic predictions_ . directly connected with the subject of this book. in this case. At the same time. which is often expressed in linguistic terms as well. we can see a persistent gap between economic reality and predictions derived from these ever more sophisticated theories. is based on genuine uncertainty embedded in natural language. When we insist that the simplified model give us certain and precise predictions. 17 minimum value. In every implication. Literature regarding applications of fuzzy sets in medicine is overviewed in Note 17. This is not realistic in economics for at least two important reasons.450 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. Applications of fuzzy set theory in medicine are by no means restricted to medical diagnosis. however. One reason. we need increasingly complex models. we can see at its core a sequence of axiomatic theories. and fuzzy decision making for determining appropriate therapies. we must simplify. First. human reasoning and decision making in natural language. reasons could easily be identified why economic theories have not been successful in modeling economic reality..5. In order to capture the ever increasing _ richness of economic and related phenomena. twovalued logic. Observing the development of economics since the early 19th century. in general. Moreover. which are increasingly more precise and more mathematically sophisticated.ch predictions are determined by common sense. is that these theories are formulated in terms of classical mathematics. We can preserve relevance by allowing some uncertainty in tlic inGdel. the patient's symptoms are most similar to those typical of disease d2 . fuzzy controllers for various medical devices. Other applications involve. Classical mathematics is not capable of expressing this kind of uncertainty. That is. These types of applications are covered elsewhere in this book. human preferences for complex choices are not determined. Several. less obvious reason is connected with the complexity of models. unfortunately. such as  "The price of oil is not likely to increase substantially in the near future' Su. we can trade certainty and precision for relevance under given limits of acceptable complexity. employing the economist's knowledge (distinct from accepted economic theories) and relevant information. for example. and classical theory of additive measures. The second. results in a loss of relevance of these predictions to the real world.1. fuzzy pattern recognition and image processing for analysis of Xray images and other visual data. When the required complexity for obtaining realistic models becomes unmanageable. by the rules of additives measures. we are doomed to lose something. Imprecise but highly relevant (and hence valuable) economic predictions are often expressed by experienced economists in linguistic terms.
perception. the pervasive fuzziness of almost all phenomena that are associated with their external as well as internal behavior. if the given thing did happen. 17. when we exanaine an imagined happening as to its possibility. Rather. fuzzy systems theory is not so much a precise theory of fuzzy systems as it is a fuzzy theory of both fuzzy and noufuzzy systems.51 It is well known that Zadeh's motivation for introducing the theory of fuzzy sets was to facilitate the modeling and analysis of humanistic systems.. To develop an alternative. . Althongh . Shackle analyzed the concept of potential surprise at great length and formalized it in terms of nine axioms. in the moment when decision is made. and emotions play an important role. control systems. criminal justice systems.g. and the like . T will take the liberty of referring to it as fuzzy systeml theory because I believe that its distinguishing characteristic will be a conceptual framework for dealing with a key aspect of humanistic systems—namely. A semantic point that is in need of clarification at this juncture is that fuzzy systems theory is not merely a theory of fa=ty. During the past decade the focus of research in systems theory has shifted increasingly toward the analysis of largescale systems in which human judgement. health caredelivery systems. in general or in the prevailing circumstances.3 Economics 4. it is a theory that allows an assertion about a system to be a fuzzy proposition (e. What this implies is that an assertion in fuzzy systems theory is normally not a theorem but a proposition that has a high degree of truth. then.of degrees of possibility rather than by probabilities. This is the surprise we should feel. is informative in relation to a stated question.. socioeconomic systems. It follows from this formalization that the concept of potential surpris* is mathematically equivalent to the concept of necessity measure in possibility theory. _Despite the widespread use of systemstheoretic methods in the modeling Of large scale systems. "System S is slightly nonlinear"). The following statement is his more recent reflection on this issue Radeh. and assess the obstacles. Shackle has argued that uncertainty associated with imagined actions whose outcomes are to some extent unknown should be expressed in terms . environmental... education systems. In this sense. tensions and difficulties which arise hi our mind when we try to imagine it occurring.systems. One exception can be found in writings by the British economist Shackle. it is a potential surprise. 1963 It is the degree of surprise to which we expose ourselves. serious questions have been raised regarding the applicability of systems theory to the analysis of humanistic and. In his own words [Shackle. information dissemination systems. that provides the indicator of degree of possibility.. more meaningful framework for uncertainty in economics. economics should thus have been one of the early prime targets for utilizing fuzzy set theory_ However. 1982a1. and in addition. transportation systems. which is accepted in economics as the only mathematical tool for expressing uncertainty. the role of fuzzy set theory in economics was recognind in economics much later than in many other areas. The systems theory of the future—the systems theory that will be applicable to the analysis of humanistic systems—is certain to be quite different in spirit as well as in substance from systems theory as we know it today. is not meaningful for' capturing the nature of uncertainty in economics. food production systems. Such humanistic systems are typified by socioeconomic systems.Only potential surprise called up in the mind and assessed.Sec. a humanistic science.. is relevant for that decision. especially.. and alone can have any bearing or influence on it. He has argued since the late 1940s As that probability theory.
economics. he falls short of incorporating both these measures into one formal framework. After careful analysis of properties of fuzzy preferences. classical genetic algorithms can be ftizzified. A pioneer who initiated the reformulation of economic theory by taking advantage of fuzzy set theory was undoubtedly the French ecorkoraist Claude Ponsard (19271990). for example. Billot investigates equilibria of fuzzy noncooperative and cooperative games. However. but results in some nonstandard equilibria. fuzzy games. genetic algorithms are utilized to deal with various optimization problems involving fuzzy systems. as well as related work of other economists. There is no doubt that many applications of fuzzy set theory that have been described in the literature since the theory emerged in 1965 are relevant to economics to various degrees. Shackle's ideas can be made fully operational in. 1. the use a genetic algorithms in the area of fuzzy systems is covered only by a few relevant references in Note 17.2. . only a few economists. by and large French. The principal source of information regarding the current status of the use of fuzzy set theory in economics is a book by Bi [1992]. are overviewed in a special issue of Fuzzy Sets and Systems that is dedicated to him (Vol. In one direction. 1992).3. the theory becomes more realistic. While the acceptance of both these efforts among economists has so far been lukewarm at best. The resulting fuzzy genetic algorithms tend to be more efficient and more suitable for some applications.452 Miscetianeous Appl]cations Chap. WC diSCUSS bow classical genetic algorithms (Appendix 11) can be fuzzffled. as well as fuzzy economic equilibria. the potential of fuzzy set theory for reformulating the texture of economic theory to make it more realistic was recognized by economists only in the 1. His contributions. No. Included in this category ace. . One important problem for which gcactic algorithms have proven very useful is the problem of optimizing fuzzy inference rules in fuzzy controllers. He shows that the introduction of fuzzy preferences does not affect the existence of these equilibria. . the acceptance of fuzzy measure theory seems to be growing more rapidly.980s. which is now well developed. fuzzified methods for some problems of operations research.4 FUZZY SYSTEMS AND GENETIC ALGORITHMS The connection between fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms is bidirectional. two streams of activities regarding the reformulation of classical economic theory are currently pursued One of them focuses on the use of fuzzy set theory. in addition to degrees of potential surprise. fuzzy prefeaence theory. the other on the use of fuzzy measure theory. Using possibility theory. In this section. According to this overview. which is substantially refommiated via the conception of fuzzy preferences Since fuzzy preferences introduce a great diversity of possible behaviors of economic subjects or agents to the theory of microeconomics. General background regarding this application area is too extensive to be covered here. The book is oriented to microeconomics. Thus far. 49. In the other direction. 17. Interested readers with stifacient background in economics can find details regarding the role of fuzzy set theory in the above mentioned book by Billot and in other references suggested in Note 17. 17 Shackle often refers to possibility degrees. and the various problem areas of fuzzy decision making. have actively contributed to this major undertaking.
For example. by the formulas (3r A i). a fuzzified crossover proposed by Sanchez [1993]. 1]. One way is to fuzzify the gene pool and the associated coding of chromosomes. as an example. . Thus.5„2. which isdiscussed in Appendix D. 1]. ci. (. there is no need to discretize the domain [0. ci. numbers in [0. 1. however. Consider chromosomes x (x 1 . 1].1.5. ye) whose components are taken from a given gene pool./ are rain and max operations on tuples and i We can see that the template t defines an abrupt change at the crossover position 1.5 x 23 ± 0 x 22 ± 1 x 21 + . 1]. the other one is to fuzzify operatioos on chromosomes. more genuine fuzzifi cation requires that the operations on chromosomes also be fuzzifted. where A and 1. This is characteristic of the usual. of course. . we 'explain.1 x 24 + . It turns out that this reformulation of classical genetic algorithms tends to converge faster and is more reliable in obtaining the desired optimum. fly employing the gene pool [0.1 for f E N and i) 0 for Ni e t. and chromosomes are coded by binary numbers_ These algorithms can be fuzzified by extending their gene pool to the whole unit Interval [0. 1. This can be done by a fuzzy template. . O.e ).. x2 . To employ it. These two ways may. ati (x A t) referred to as a template. (x A I) V (y A . we have to find an appropriate way of coding alternatives of each given problem by chromosomes formed from the gene pool [0.ti ). t= (tilt' =. To illustrate this possibility. whose components are. . 31]. 1} to [0. f (1. and c4. let us consider the example of determining the maximum of function f (x) == 2. To illustrate this issue. x3. x2.salesman problem with four cities.31].5 = .. Then.x — x2/16 within the domain [0. for example.Sec. crisp operation of simple crossover. . 0) denotes the route c2. 31]. Although the extension of the gene pool from {0. the simple crossover with the crossover position can be formulated in terms of a special ntuple E N. Then. in classical genetic algorithms. . c2..1. e3. . 1 ]. Assume further that a fuzzy template f ( f„) is given. Numbers in this domain are represented by chromosomes whose components are numbers in [0. The change can be made gradual by defining the crossover position approximately. . the set [0. . x4 in which xi corresponds to city ci (1 E N4) and represeats the degree to which the city should be visited early. In the following. . 17. 'The alternative routes that can be taken by the salesman may be characterized by chromosomes i(xi . yn) are given.9„8. c3. 0) Assume that chromosomes x = (r1. be combined. in general. 1] may be viewed as a fuzzification of genetic algorithms. 0.8. y2 . . . . 1) is often used as the gene pool. the chromosome (..4 Fuzzy Systems and Genetic Algorithms 453 There are basically two ways of fuzzifying classical genetic algorithms. is a fuzzy template for some n. xn) and y em (yi . let us consider a traveling. the operation of fzi22y simple crossover of mates x and y produces offsprings xf and yl defined by the formulas For example.x and y = [yi y2.9 x in [0.1.9) represents the number 8.
The linear form y = 219 ± Y1X1 — YrtXn3 (17. min(yi. Given a set of observed data (ai. 71). The dependence is usually assumed to have a particular mathematical form with one or more parameters. xi.) for the pair of variables fx. as X' (max[min(xi . the assumed form (17.5 FUZZY' REGRESSION Regression analysis is an area of statistics that deals with the investigation of the dependence of a variable upon one or more other variables. Chap. the total error is expressed by the formula Dr Elk — (Ye ± rlai)]2 I The optimal values of yo and yi arc given by the formulas ?T1 IIT mE in — L 1=. nlin(Yf E NO. fi). is the most frequent mathematical form in regression analysis. as an example. robust./. and better attuned to some applications than their classical. y) we want to find values of yo and yi for which the total error of the estimated points on the straight line with respect to the corresponding observed points is minimal.5) Yo Yix represents a straight line. based on the least square error. The aim of regression analysis is then to estimate the parameters on the basis of empirical data. Experience with fuzzy genetic algorithms seems to indicate that they are efficient. Problems of regression analysis formulated in terms of this linear form are called linear regressions. In the usual method of linear regression. = (maxlmill(tr . Then. more specifically. a linear regression with one variable. crisp counterparts. . The operation of a double crossover as well as the other operations on chromosomes can be operation fuzzified in a similar way. x„ are input variables. (a„„ b. b1). y„.4) where y is an output variable. and yo. 17 (x A v Or A f). These formulas can be written. a E bi i=i — (E a) 2 VI Ebt —yi E yo = t=i which can be easily determined by solving the optimization problem. Consider. 17.454 Miscellaneous Applications = (X A f) V (y A f). (a2 1 b2). are parameters.
x2. While methods fix fu2zy regression with both fuzzy parameters and fuzzy data have also been developed. Cn for which (17. Linear Regression with Fuzzy Parameters In this type of fuzzy. b„.Sec. . Given a set of crisp data points (ai. it is easy to prove by the c around ci .8) when 0 when x = 0. the dependence of an output variable on input variables is expressed by the form Y = C1 r1 + C2t2 +—  C„x„. the value of the output variable defined by (17. These two distinct motivations lead to two types of fuzzy regression analysis_ One involves fuzzy parameters and crisp data. . seems intuitively more realistic. y 0 0 (17.6) arc symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers defined by C. 17. C2. (a. The first motivation results from the realization that h is often not realistic to assume that a crisp function of a given form. c < si (17. C„ ate fuzzy numbers. they are too complicated to be covered here. C2. the aim of this regression problem is to find fuzzy parameters Ct. Fuzzy relation. which in some applications are inherently fuzzy. 1'2)..6) expresses the best fit to these data points. The second motivation results from the nature of data. bi). (17. nett.regression. x„ are realvalued input variables.. be denoted by Ci = (ci. such as (17. even though less precise. where X= C= and T denotes the operation of transposition. while the other one involves crisp parameters and fuzzy data. (a2. Assume that the parameters in (17. extension principle that Y in (17.4). according to some criterion of goodness. In this section.7) where ci is the point for which Ci (ci) = I and s > 0 is the spread of Ci (a half of the length of the support set of Ci).6) is also a symmetric triangular fuzzy number given by  1 T(y) JY — X cl srlx1 when x 0 0 x = 0.(c) = 11 0 — when ci Otherwise..6) where Ci. represents the relationship between the given variables.6) is a fuzzy number Y. we briefly explain these two types of linear fuzzy regression. y = 0 for all y It. for each n taple of values of the input variables.5 Fuzzy Regression 455 There are two motivations for developing fuzzy regression analysis. and xi. Let C„ which expresses the linguistic terms approximately for all N.
C7. Y1 (b 1 ) > h for each j N„„ where Y1 is the fuzzy number defined by (17. bi ). Minimize s s. b) should belong to the corresponding fuzzy number Yi with a grade that is greater than or equal to some given value h E [0. vie want to obtain the most specific expression (17. The described fuzzy regression problem can be formulated in terms of the following classical 1i . s > max(11 — cl. where C (c. can.456 Miscellareous Applications Chap. Two criteria of goodness are usually employed in this problem. assume the form Y the linear programming problem has the form: Cx. j E (17. (2.t. 3) be data representing the dependence of variable y on variable x. To illustrate linear fuzzy regression for these data.9) > 0. Z. According to the second criterion. Ca.8) for x = a f . II is A.. That is..t.6) for suffi ciently good fit (as specified by the value of A). we find the optimal values axe 5 and s* 6(1 h) .8) fits the given data as well as possible.t_ (1 h)i Ibi — are' > 0. i Example 17.. fired number —1 —h 1 Solving this problem. where ai is a vector of values According to the first criterion. ear progranuning problem: minimize E i_1 s. The nonspecificity of each fuzzy parameter Cf given by (17. Z. — — cld — — cl) 3 4 h g R. Then. (4. s is a fuzzy parameter expressed by a symmetric triangular fuzzy member.7) may be expressed by its spread si. the total nonspecilicity of the fuzzy parameters must be minirai7ed. be converted to the problem of finding the vectors c and s such that 1r(y) given by (17. for each given datum of the input variables. 1 ] That is.1 Let (1. . 17 The original problem of finding the fuzzy parameters CI. (3. This problem can be expressed in the following simpler form: Nfbiimize s s. 1). (1 — 2(1 — —11 h)s —12 cl — 2ci > 3c1 3(1 — h)s 4(1 — h)s —13 — 4c1 0 > E O 11 is a fixed number_ .
. Flout 17. 17.10) where values of input and output variables are fuzzy numbers. .2 Musttation to Example 17.X„.5 Fuzzy Regressïon 457 Y4.Sec. (17.1/2). Also shown in the figure is the Linear Regression with Fuzzy Data In this type of fuzzy regression. . y = 0 for ail y E R. assumed to be triangular and symmetric.1. He ace. Let X i sO for all i e N.2. az. 17. and a t . ly — arxi 1 s na l when a 0 0 Y(y 1 0 when a = 0. classical linear leastsquare fitting. we obtain C = Cai for a3 = 3. Then. where ) 1 a zr.4 C 3 Y2 = C'2 Y 1 C l. the dependence of an output variable on input variables is expressed by the form Y = atXt + aaz + + ap. h = 2/3. =. for 1. Fuzzy sets example. a2 2. an are realvalued parameters. {5/6. Selecting. C. and a4 = 4 are shown in Fig.
1/2). the described fuzzy regression problem can be formulated in terms of the following optimization problem.10) fits the given fuzzy data as best as possible_ TWo criteria of goodness are usually employed. the fuzzy regression (43) . where X( J ) is an nruple of symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers. 1/2)). According tu the secund Criterion.13) CO . Yi (y)].13) to this example. (17. yo ) ). 0)). let us consider the simple linear form aX and the followitz data in tern* of pairs of input/output fuzzy numbers: {(5/6. (012.=1 + E atx. and all j E Ç.. should be minimized.12) Let XP) and YU ) = (y ( i) sO ) ). we obtain: . Applying (17. is defined by corn (Y(i ) . min COM h. (1. 0}).10). 11. the total difference between the areas of the actual fuzzy number y(i) and the areas of the fuzzy numbers Y for X( i) by (17.(J) 1=1 (17.458 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. ((10/3. Minimize E l f Ir(j) FIT (y)dy — 171 (y)dyl A R SA. 17 Data are given in terms of pairs (VD. The aim of this regression problem is to find parameters al. (2. According to the first criterion. Minimize E wf) + ¶' i=1 fl ax' y(i) s(i) E 1. 1/2). 1)2)). such that the fuzzy linear function (17. where j E N„1 . Using these two criteria. the fuzzy numbers Y (i) and yi should be compatible at least to some given degree h pa. a. Example 17. corn. Then. and Y(j) is a symmetric triangular fuzzy number for each j E Ni„. 112). (3. ((513. s) for all problem of this type can also be formulated in the following form. the compatibility. 1/2).2 To illustrate the described method of linear regression with fuzzy data. (4. yi ) = sup minf Y (1) (y). ai ERforaIIli EN. .
Solving the problem. Instead. unique signal may not be available.Sec.5' • [a 2 la! 5a 10a 10a 3 ?" 2 ± 3 4. • 4' This formulation can be simplified into Minimize !al + 11 — al st. voice tone. a clear.17] . clothing.). Nevertheless. 17. Because of the distorting factors mentioned above. 24/17]. a E aE a E [5/6. a [J8 3 k 9/13 9.6 Interpersonal Cornrnunicatior 459 Minimize lal la! Ja Sa Sa T + T 1 ? la[ 5a — 2 + 3 4 2 ' 1. we End that the optimal value of the parameter a is a. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 17.5/4]. the form Y = aX with the best fit (according to the chosen criteria) is Y = 24X/23. body posture. which models this process and the vagueness associated with it through the use of fuzzy set theory. the receiver must respond appropriately in the face of this fuzzy or vague information_ We outline here an approach suggested by Yager [1980h1. Suppose that X constitutes the universal set of all possible signals x that may be communicated by the sender. etc. lai T a e R. because of both distortion from environmental noise and ambivalence on the part of the sender. Hence.24/23. e [24/23. It is therefore difficult to determine the precise intention and meaning of the communication. the message received is a fuzzy subset M of . many of which conflict with each other.6 The process of interpersonal communication consists of a vast array of different types of simultaneously communicated signals (words.
• . this information may be given in the form of a possibility distribution r on X. then the signal attaining the maximum membership grade in M can easily be selected as the most obvious intended communication. If both of these values are high. In order to determine whether an appropriate response can be_ chosen based on the message received or whether some error was involved in the communication. however. If the probability of the received message is high. The total possibility of the fuzzy message M is calculated as r (M) naax[rnin(M (x) r (x))]. is called ambiguous. when the message is weak.460 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. x. E X . if the message is very clear and unambiguous. On the other band. Difficulty occurs. • . the signal attaining the maximum . appropriate). unambiguous. M is given by p(iii) = EM (x )p (x). where ft indicates the degree to which past messages are considered relevant in the modi fication of expectations. in which M(x) denotes the degree of certainty of the receipt of the specific signal x. an assessment of the quality of the transmission must be made. In this case. as far as possible. x2. then the message. xex the case of probabilistic expectation. r(x) E [0. The clarity of the message can bc measured by the distance between the maximum membership grade attained in M and the next largest grade of any signal x in M. If p(x 1 ). then it can be assumed that little distortion was introduced by the environment. or unclear. and clear. 1] indicates the receiver's belief in the possibility of signal x being sent. then As in ri (x ) = minK (x). P(x4) represent the probabilities associated with each of the signals xt. xgx The receiver can use this information to assess the consistency of the received message with his or her expectations. Usually. When the message received is strong. If the support of M is large. p(x2). M (x)] for each r G X. then the receiver may attempt clarification by requesting a repetition of the transmission. the receiver will probably have already modified his or her expectations based on the previous message. Before this new transmission is sent. Instead of the expectation or background information being given in probabilistic form. 17 X. If the set M has no unique maximum. the receiver of the communication possesses some background information in the form of probabilities or possibilities of the signals that can be expected. the receiver must determine whether the problem in the communication lies in some environmental distortion (in which case a repetition of the signal may be requested) or in the sender of the message (in which case a response must be made that is. then the probability of the fuzzy event of the receipt of message. In this case. if the received message conflicts with the expected possibility of communication. test of the consistency of M against the expectations and a test of the message M for strength and clarity. ambiguous. and r1 is the modified expectations subsequent to the receipt of message M. If ro indicates the possibilistic expectations of the receiver. Our procedure for signal detection now consists of the following: a. then Al is considered to be general. Let the maximum value of membership that any E X attains in the set M correspond to the strength of the transmission. then an appropriate response can be made even if the probability of the signal was low.
This allows for creativity in formulating the actual response. the new possibilistic expectation structure is given by r1(x) = min[rx). r (x))1 (17.Sec. R(y. 17.. let W denote the message that the receiver actually hears. The following example illustrates the use of 0 .15) for each x E X where s = s(M r). ile(x)] (17. and let R YxX be a fuzzy binary relation in which . an appropriate response must be chosen. where ile(x) = W(x) (17. this model of interpersonal communication. Let Y be the universal set of all responses. then either a new signal is requested or a response is made despite the presence of doubt. Finally. once a determination has been made of the signal x € X that was sent.17) xEx for each y E Y.6 lr teroersonal Communication 461 value in M can be comfortably assumed ta be the intended signal. A more interesting case occurs when the elements y e Y are not actual messages.111(x))1 (17. the expectations are modified and a repetition is requested.16) for each x E X. An additional complications is introduced when we consider that the receiver may also introduce distortion in the message because of inconsistency with the expectations.14) xEx correspond to the consistency of the received message with the possibilistic expectations. A fuzzy response set A € 2' can be generated by composing the appropriateness relation R with the fuzzy message M. —derisive laughter x6 joyful tears . Let s(lif. A =R or A(y) = max[min(R (y x) . Suppose that a young man has just proposed marriage to a young woman and is now eagerly awaiting her response. Then. If only one of these tests yields a satisfactory value. the less Mr resembles M. If both tests yield low values. Since the receiver will be modifying his or her expectations based on the message thought to have been received. but instead indicate characteristics or attributes that the appropriate message should possess. The less consistent M is with the expectations. x) indicates the degree of appropriateness of response y given signal x. The membership grade of each possible message y in fuzzy set A thus corresponds to the degree to which it is an appropriate response to the message M. Let us assume that her answer will be chosen from the set X of the following responses: x 1 =simple yes x2 = simple no X3 =request for time to think it over x4 = request for the young man to ask permission of the young woman's parents xs. r) = max[min(M (x).
Let us now suppose that the response which the young man makes will have characteristics chosen from the following set Y: y2 pain surprise = happiness y y4 . in disbelief. ro) = =41.97/x2 .14).7/x3 ± .743 + .9. he asks the young woman to repeat her answer and receives the following message: M2 = .25  Thus. or r1 = . This relation is given . Based on this message.11 = . let us assume that heintroduces some distortion.7. anger y patience impatience y7 = affection Let the fuzzy relation RCYxX represent the degree to which the young man plans to respond to a given signal x with a response having the attribute y.1/x5. somewhat increased his expectation of a simple no and of derisive laughter.4/A5. Suppose now that. is rather inconsistent with the young man's expectations.4x3 + . 17 Assume also that the young man has expectations of her response represented by the possibility distribution ro= (.16) such that r1 (x) =. however.9/x2 + This rne$.1/xi + . (x)] for each x e X.4.4/xi ± . We can see from this distribution that the young man expects a positive answer. 3.15).1. although relatively strong.25/x5. the consistency is s(Mi. he modifies his expectations according to (1 7. . the message is highly contrary even to the revised expectations of the young man. The young man has thus greatly diminished his expectatio i of a simple yes. arid clear.4/x 1 + . .462 MiscellaneoLis Applications Chap. ' His surprise has thus diminished the clarity of the message heard and has led him to exaggerate the degree to which he believes that the young woman has responded with derisive laughter. . . .25/x2 ÷ .9/x2 + . unambiguous. that the following message M1 is received: = . This message. Suppose. and has given. As measured by (17. r1) . such that the message he hears is .6). its consistency with the young man's new expectations is WW2.minh6 (x). J.sage is stronger. so let us suppose that he distorts the message such that he hears Afz = . and less general than the first answer. . clearer.4.1.8/x2 . Because the message is contrary to the young man's expectations.8/x. up all hope of the possibility of joyful tears. as specified by (17.
a large degree of anger. Dvuraenski and Rie?.1 0 . therefore.7 0 . One exception is quantum mechanics.17). In particular. to better understand human communication and design machines capable of communicating with people in a humanfriendly way with natural language.= . consequently.9 . The principle sources consist of a book edited by Zétényi [1988] and two books by Smithson [1987. but are not well developed or have not even been tried as yet. which are covered neither in previous sections of this chapter nor in previous chapters.9 . One area in which fuzzy set theory has a great potential is psychology.1 .2 . young man will make to the message A = R111.9 0 . Although the interest of psychologists in fuzzy set theory has visibly been growing since the mid1980s or so.9 214.. This will undoubtedly help us. 17.7 Other Applications 463 by the following matrix (rows and columns are ordered by the subscripts of the symbols involved): .9/y2 + .9 _5 Cl . These are areas in which applications of fuzzy set theory seem to have great potential.2 .1 0 ..9 . but ai. where the need for nonclassical methods is acute.7 OTHER APPLICATIONS The purpose of this last section is to mention some additional application areas of fuzzy set theory.2 . the relevant literature is too dispersed at this time to indicate any general trends in this area.9 0 .7/y4 + The young man's response. Other areas of physics are likely . Psychology is not only a field in which it is reasonable to anticipate profound applica_tions of fuzzy set theory. the area of psycholinguistics is essential for studying the connection between the human use of linguistic terms in different contexts with the associated fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets.5ec..2 0 .3 0 . and some impatience.9/y3 + . 1989]. in the long run.4 0 1 0 3 0 .S0 one that is very important to the development of fuzzy set theory itself.5 Using (17.6 0 _3 _3 0 1 1 . will have the characteristics of a great deal of pain and surprise. Applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy measure theory in natural scienFes are relatively scaTce. This may be explained by the fact that classical methods based on crisp sets and additive measures have worked quite well in these areas and. Based on sonic preliminary investigation by. for example. 0 . 17. we can now calculate the response t h :.an [1994 it is 'reasonable to expect that both fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures will play profound roles in quantum mechanics in the near future. To understand this connection is necessary for properly incorporating the notion of a context into the formalism of fuzzy set theory. there have been no pressing needs to replace them with the more realistic methods based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures.
and robustness. Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic will inevitably play an important role in any problem area that involiTeg "natural' language. context sensitive. soft computing attempts to exploit the tolerance for uncertainty of various types to achieve tractability. as already indicated by Singer and Singer [1993]. optimal navigation by voice instructions in natural language. In general. A more difficult task will be to upgrade current systems of machine translation between natural languages to the level of experienced human translators. diagnosis and prevention of failures..464 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. An ultimate challenge involving natural language will be the development of machine capabilities to summarize literary creations. which is highly individualized. often imprecise (especially when expressed in natural language). and Salski 119921. one important area is the development of fuzzy hardware (Sec. It is reasonable to expect that some applications of Rua)/ sets in biology will be profound. neural networks. Fuzzy technology will likely be increasingly important for dealing with the various problem areas involved in health care. including fzizzy set theory. Let us close this book with a few speculations about some additional areas in which fuzzy set theory will likely play a major role sometime in the future. One such area is soft computing. III the related area of ecology. genetic algorithms. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures are also likely to have a strong impact upon chemistry. fuzzy measure theory.5) and massively parallel computer architectures fur approximate reasoning. The concept of a finite resolution limit introduced by Fridrich [1994a1. This aim is pursued by concerted efforts involving several areas. a few other areas. and a host of other functions. 1992] and dimensional analysis [Singer. and often based on subjective judgment. To facilitate soft computing. a few applications have already been explored by Bosserinan and Ragade [19821. One application area in which the use of fuzzy logic and the associated technology is essential is subsumed under the concept of an intelligent car. 1994]. low cost. The capability of communicating with home computers or robots in natural language is likely to become available within a decade or so. perhaps. Roberts [1989]. which will require studying the relationship between visual and linguistic information. 16. It is concerned with the effect of applying approximate methods to precisely or imprecisely formulated problems on computational complexity and cost. which is based on subadditive fuzzy measures that become additive on disjoint sets separated by more than a given finite resolution limit. Applications in biology have not been visible so far. 17 to be affected by fuzzy sets and measures as well. which is somewhat surprising since the potential is enormous. Fuzzy technology will help to solve various safety problems and facilitate automatic driving. automatic parking. Areas of physics in which the utility of fuzzy set theory has already been demonstrated include nonequilibrium thermodynamics [Singer. To deal with this kind of information without fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning is virtually  . and. The primary aim of soft computing is to develop computational methods that produce acceptable approximate solutions at low cost. Fuzzy sets will undoubtedly play an important role in narrowing down the large gap that currently exists between theoretical and experimental biology. Another difficult task will be to develop the capability of machines to understand images. is likely to influence physics in a major way by narrowing the gap between theoretical and experimental physics. which has already emerged and will likely play a profound rote in computer technology in the not too distant future. Its importance emanates from the nature of medical information.
2. An application of genetic algorithms for altering membership functions of fuzzy controllers online. social policy. Advantages of genetic algorithms for optimizing various parameters in approximate reasoning are discussed by Park. the use of fuzzy inference for evaluating orthodontic treatment [Yoshikawa et al.. 17. represent just one facet of this very complex application area. Expert systems for medical diagnosis and treatment planning that are based on approximate masoning. and Sanchez. 19824 Vila and Delgado. The idea of fumifying genetic algorithins emerged in the early 1990s. Literature devoted to this topic is now quite large.Llesoription. art. 1994b and clinical monitoring with fuzzy automata [Steimann and Arl assuig. of symptoms for the purpose of evaluating different treatment procedures [Oguntade and Beaumont 19821. rahnts desivied KJ assist patients. 1988 ] contain sufficient information about Ponsard 's pioneering contributions to fuzzy economics. 1986. 1982. Other applications within the area of medicine include the use of linguistic variables for questionnaires investigating the relation between social stresses. The utility of fuzzy set theory in medical diagnosis was first demonstrated by Albin [1915j.5 were proposed in papers by Savic and Pedrycz [19911 and Wang and Li [19901 The principal source on fuzzy regression analysis . and Buckley and Hayashi [1994b]. 1983. 17 Notes 465 impossible. Lee. 1985 ] . Other facets include fuzzy control of various medical devices. We may continue to speculate about other ways in which fuzzy thinking in its various forms is likely to affect our lifes in the future. The first major publication devoted to applications of fuzzy set theory in economics is a book edited by Ponsard and Fustier [1986]. artificial limbs.1. Some relevant publications are mentioned hi Sec. and other problem domains. This book arid two papers by Poniard [1981. Umeyarna. Sec..Chap. Degani and Bortolan. 1981 ]. A paper by Chen. and so on. comprehensive evaluation of patients' abnormal physiological conditions based not only on physiological data. 175. Various forms of fuzzy genetic algorithms were proposed by Sanchez [199 3 1. but we prefer to leave it to the reader to use his or her own imagination and knowledge learned from this book to form a personal fuzzy vision of the future. NOTES 171. 1986. navigation systems aiding the visually handicapped. We may speculate about its effects on education. the incorporation of fuzziness in an expert system dealing with the treatment of diabçtcb[51. Kandel„ and Langholz [1994 Numerous other applications of genetic algorithms in the area of fuzzy aygems ca nbe found in Proceedings of the International Conference on Genetic Algorithms.2. psychological factors. but also on their appearance and behavior. The concept of a fuzzy game was introduced by Burnarin [1978. 1985] 173 . The two problems of fuzzy regression discussed in Sec. a few additional rferences are [Soula.Nc of liuguistiL. Biomedical Fuzzy has been_ published by the Biomedical Fuzzy Systems Association in Japan since 1990 (in both Japanese and English). 17. A special journal.4. Xu and Vukovich [1993 ] .. particularly in the 1990s. 17. 17. Miscellaneous medical applications of fuzzy sets can also be found in books edited by Kohout and l andier [1986] and Gupta and Sanchez 119824. and Yu [1933] is a readable overview of some issues of fuzzy economics. Systems Bulletin.1on ei al. was developed in the context of chemical engineering by Karr and Gentry [1993 ].. 17. Sanchez. which we touched upon in. and the incidence of coronary disease [Saitta and Torasso. law. 1988 ]. Ketie. 1994]. L1c u.
5. 22). 1983. (18.10). Diamond [1988]. 19). 18).6. 14) .3. (24.2 for other numerical values. BO)). Heshinaty and Kandel 119851 and Tanaka [1987].(3.1. This application is quite important. Among many papers on this subject. which was studied by Bouchon [1981] and Akdag and Bouchon [19881. Derive (17. 1986]. 17. . 17.6) to obtain the best fitting of these data points. 17. (4. b].7.466 Miscarlaneous Appiications Chap. Repeat the examples of medical diagnosis in Sec. (.6. (6. An interesting application of fuzzy set theory. (8. 17 is a book edited by Kacprzyk and Fedrizzi [1992]. 17. Among other areas connected with natural sciences. EXERCISES 17. y): 1(2. 17.8). Suppose that we are given the following data set in the twodimensional space x. 1). 6)). 2). (6. (14. 17.4. the twodimensiona/ space (x. axe fuzzy questionnaires. 17. the use of fuzzy set theory has been observed in meteorology [Cao and Chen. (0_5. «4.2). 12». 2). Explore other feasible scenarios involving the model of interpersonal communication introduced in Sec. 15). let us mention papers by Celmins [1987a. Use the fuzzy linear regression method to estimate coefficients in. 12)). Consider the following palm of triangular fuzzy numbers in ( • (1. (10. 19841 and earthquake research Wet% and Liu. (9.2. since questionnaires are fundamental tools for analyzing structures of information. (12. 3).. (12. 17. (17. 18)). ((2. y': Use the regression method discussed in Sec.5 to find the bestfitting function in the form of (17. 1). 17. 17). (16. 6)). 11). Zhang and Chen.
usually called multilayer feedforward networks or multi layer perceptrons. This is accomplished by adjusting the weights of given interconnections according to some learning algorithm. While neural networks can effectively be used for learning membership functions. fuzz:Wog:ion of neural networks extends their capabilities and applicability. called neurcms. Each intercom) ecti on has a strength that is expressed by a number referred to as a weight. that are highly interconnected.APPENDIX A ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AN OVERVIEW Although artificial neural networks are beyond the scope of this text. In this overview. small adjustments in the weights are macle in the desired direction. In a supervised learning algorithm. fuzzy inference rules. These adjustments. The classification is based on commonalities in certain features of input patterns. In general. the network forms its own classification of patterns. This requires that a neural network implementing an unsupervised learning algorithm be able to identify common features across the range of input patterns. That is. This is essential for facilitating a convergence to a solution (specific values of the weights) in which patterns in the training set are recognized with high fidelity. Once a network converges to a solution. it is then capable of classifying each unknown input pattern with other patterns that are close to it in terms of the same distinguishing features. we describe 467 . are made incrementally. we want to make the reader aware of their important connections with fuzzy systems. the learning can be supervised or unsupervised. The aim of this appendix is to provide the reader with a few basic ideas regarding neural networks to make some discussions involving neural networks in the text comprehensible. learning is guided by specifying. That is. the class to which the pattern is supposed to belong. for each training pair. for each training input pattern. The basic capability of neural networks is to learn patterns from examples. we cover only supervised learning and special neural networks. whose purpose is to minimize the difference between the desired and actual outputs. In an unsupervised learning algorithm. the desired response of the network to each training input pattern and its comparison with the actual output of the network are used in the learning algorithm for appropriate adjustments of the weights. and other contextdependent patterns. It consists of simple computational unit. An artificial neural network is a computational structure that is inspired by observed processes in natural networks of biological neurons in the brain. Furthermore.
defined by the formula si3 (a) = (1 + e4a ) I „ (A. inputs of the neuron are associated with real numbers. and. A. iz.1) where /3 is a positive constant (socalled steepness parameter) whose value specifies a particular sigmoid functiou in this class. which is called an activation function or threshold fiinction. referred to as weights. h.2. tu t . defined by h(a) for all a E {1 0 when a > 0 when a < 0 R. one 014q9ut y. A. which is the most common algorithm for applications of our interest The basic computational units of neural networks are artificial neurons. Then. The output depends on the weighted sum of inputs. the socalled backpropagation learning algorithm. and the class of sigynold functions. whose values are real numbers. A single neuron. has n inputs. the output of the neuron is defined by r. y = (E — (A2) —1 i X0 = y Sp (! EP) a) Y = (71 wixi) Lo (13) Figure Al Two equivalent representation of a neuron activated by a sigreold function vs with bias 0_ .468 Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview Appendix A only one algorithm for supervised learning. as depicted irt Fig. The most common activation functions are the Heaviside function. . obtained as p oo. These functions are illustrated in Fig. In addition. in terms of a nonlinear function. Since the Heaviside function is a special sigmoid function.X1. w2 .x„. let us consider only the siginoid functions. s.1a.
Due to these theoretical results.a. the bias 0 is usually represented by an extra input. Itis established that threelayer feedformard neural networks are sufficient for approximating any function to a given accuracy. Any layers that precede the output layer are called hidden layers. we have to consider only networks with no more than three layers. representing the bias of each neuron.2 Examples of activation functions: (a) HeayIsicle function h.5. since inputs do not do any computation.1b. for some A e R where O is the so caned bias of the neuron. provided that the hidden layer contains at least 2n 1. xo = —1. A. A. The bias defincs the va/ue of the weighted sum of inputs around which the output of the neuron is most sensitive to changes in the sum_ For convenience. weights at each output layer are denoted by W with appropriate subscripts. Inputs axe connected only to neurons in the first layer with the exception of the special input xo. as depicted in Fig. (13) sigmoid functions s p . We do not use this term. how many neurons are necessary in the hidden layers. in general. two. Each of these networks consists of a set of inputs and one or more layers of parallel neurons. we employ this simpler characterization of the neuron. Neurons in one layer are connected to.Appendix A Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview h( a) 469 o (a) a (b) Figure A. The last layer. but it is not known. (A. which produces the output of the network. (A3) In our further considerations. while weights at each bidden layer are denoted by w with . their only role is to feed input patterns into the rest of the network. No other connections exist in neural networks of this type. and three layers is shown in detail in Figs. We can now describe the structure of layered feedforward neural networks.3—A. which is connected to all neurons in the network. For convenience. The structure of feedforward neural networks with one. It is also known that two layers are sufficient to approximate any continuous function of n variables. neurons. is called an output layer.2) is replaced with the simpler formula sigE i=o uhx0.II neurons in the next layer. The set of inputs is sometimes referred to as an input layer. and the associated weight zuo = 19_ Then.
Y2 YTEL nglare A3 Feedtorward neural network with 'emu layer (simple perciptrea. let us describe a simple gradientdescent learning algorithm for networks with only one layer. their weights are distinguished by the superscripts I and 2. (E Nr..4) where the constant 1)2 is used solely for computational convenience. A. the error of the neural network in responding to the input pattern Xp is usually expressed in terms of the error function p . which is applicable to neural networks with at least one hidden layer.5. 17 sIsp. When two hidden layers are employed. Clearly... 1 "P 1 v—i m n (A. TA denote a particular inputoutput pair in the trairting set.m. The mtuple Tp is usually called a target output. E or _ . it is the desired output of the neural network for the input pattern X. tf.. Let . As in any supervised learning. a training set of correct inputoutput pairs is given.31 Yr . Let Y p = (.3). the output layer (Fig. re). A..470 WOO Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview W m° Appendix A W211..m s— Wm .). E.. Before we proceed to formulating the backpropagation leaming algorithm..„xf))2.D2 .„ win 2 • OUTPUT LAYER ON i 0142. TF. The cumulative cycle error. _ 2[ tEI' _ s.  wn W. . where X„ = (xf . Given Xp . and Y„. associated with the whole training set is given by . „ xf). • •  denote the actual output of the neural network for the input pattern XF.111. E p wedfin is positive and œnverges to zero as the network approaches a solution for the training Niniple (Xp .o. as shown in Fig. Wj 2 x. appropriate subscripts. TO. As previously explained ] xg = —1 in (AA) to represent the bias of neuron k by the weight Tirt..
.s1s•s•aealih.5) For each given training pair (Xp . To calculate the partial derivative in (A. Tv).r. at the present location. = OE aWki ' (A.4) ba a simpler form E P 1 mi 2 E[tf k=1 . E= EE . That is.4 Peedforviard neural network with two layers.6) where rl is a positive constant referred to as the learning rate.. the error function depends on the weights involved in the neural network According to the gradient descent algorithm. The choice of n influences the accuracy of the final approximation as well as the speed of convergence. (A. ON. then.1.1 • • •w 2 .0 wu w12 w 22 q2 la it V TV HN HIDDEN LAYER HN2 wn W21 W12 W22 wi y OUTPUT ON LAYER • V If y V . let us rewrite (A.4 proportional to the negative gradient of E. we can reduce the value E p by changing each weight Wju by an amount inkiV.6).Appendix A WJ 0 Artificial Neurai Networks: An Overview W 47 1 Win 0 W m. In general. a close approximation can be obtained if n is small but. YL Figure A. the convergence is slow and less reliable.
.472 Arti fi cial Neural Networks An Overview Appendix A Wro HN2 t zt 1 z2 • • 21'121 2 7 SECOND HIDDEN LA \PER W Lo WIL Wl2 W 1r 20 W21 t 2 HN2 V V 2Hilr w2 W2r • ON I ON.vard neural network with three layers (two hidden layers and one output layer). • • • ON n„ OUTPUT LATER Y1 Y2 • Mgnre &5 Feeldfor.
4) and update all weights in the network by the values ATir.9) The whole algorithm proceeds in cycles.10) and produces the total output s8 (h7.) = sti (E wiixf ). lf E initiate a new cycle. During each cycle. we calculate the error EF by (A. during which we calculate a new cumulative cycle error.S) the gradient descent correction of the weights is given by the formula . We adopt all the symbols introduced in Fig.ki calculated by (A. If E < E. = Wkoxf E wkis. which can be written in the form . all inputoutput pairs in the given training set are applied to the network either in a predefined order or randomly_ For each pair (Xe . In each cycle.7) g = — yr)4(af) (t yf)flyr(i — yf).Appendix A wherc Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview 473 1=0 Then. which is based on the gradient descent algorithm described for onelayer networks. E is compared with a maximum acceptable error Em ax specified by the user.12) .„.es = 1744' (A. as well as relevant symbols introduced previously.3 denotes the derivative of the sigmioid function.9). ( (A.4. Output neuron ()Ark then receives the total input P k  (All) E Tirkizi.(E (A.. A.„ we obtain a solution (the network we converged within the required accuracy) and the algorithm terminates. Tp). Let us describe now the backpropagation learning a/gerithm for feedforward neural networks with two layers. we also calculate the cumulative cycle error E defined by (A. When a cycle is completed.f)j = )34[1 — Introducing now the quantity (A. Qiven an input pattern X neuron IINJ receives the total input hi! E 7.1) • 'XP I (A.. 3E Wk —ftf s o tafAs s (4)4 i = s (af )x where si'.5).5:0 (ar) = Os8 (af)[1— s o tia.
14) Ft =. k=1 7/ m aEp 2. and produces the output S 0(0r) = S .16) — 34)4(a). 7 (A. it k=1 I — yf)s. sr can also be expressed as sr = — Yr)( 1 — YlVf.13) = Si5(Wk04 E wiTsj3( E Using this equation.' were viewed as inputs in a one/ layer network.15) would become identical with (A. associated with the inputtohidden connections. Using (A. AWki = 8E = n(tr (of». az? 1U. where . we can now express the error function as Ep = 1 2 1 Eor Eof _ yi)2 = 2 In _ (E WAl k=i 2 7)) (A.4).1 5004404 E wiiso(E j =1 i and use the gradient descent algorithm to make appropriate adjustments of weights W For weights Wki . A. where 3 r(tÇ (A. An Overview Appendix A where zg= x4P by convention (see Fig.9 (Of) Wkj ivkisWADxf (Irl!)xP (A.14). 2 — k=. we must calculate the partial derivatives of E p with respect to weights wii . (A_17) For weights Lop. associated with the hiddentooutput connections. We obtain aE„ awii =E = = kwel.7). which are more deeply embedded in the expression (A. (ETVk Z i pr (A. Observe that (A.18) = E vixr.15) = 01221.474 Artificial Neural Networks. we obtain wii.1 .9) if z.
and various theoretical issues. Te.20) The whole algorithm proceeds in cycles in a similar way as described for onelayer networks. 1990). the algorithm terminates.). 1990). We also calculate the cumulative cycle error E by (A. and the like. We also do not cover other types of learning algorithms. Zurada (West Publishing Co..19) and 8. Beale and T. Lau..3(Wkii5(1 $1. the effect of the number of layers on performance. 1992).P is expressed by (A. HechtNielsen (AddisonWesley. Since S:Itr (a) = t function and . let us recommend a few of these books. 1992). requisite numbers of neurons in hidden layers. Artificial Neural Systems by J. For the benefit of the reader.F.' calculated by (A. which is entitled Neural Networks (C.18). Neurocomputi. This additional information can be found in numerous books that specialize on artificial neural networks. A simple overview of the area of artificial neural networks is covered in Neural Computing by R. otherwise. . in the form il 7 37 =. In each cycle. Press. a new cycle is initiated. For each training pair X. we recommend a collection of classical papers dealing with theoretical foundations and analysis of neural networks. The following books are recommended for a deeper study of the field: 1. 1991) 3. A. Hertz.(W ) z i . other types of neural networks. such as the convergence of learning algorithms. we may also express 3 . and R.17).(a)kp (a ) for the sigrnoid (A. The only book that deals in depth with the connection between fuzzy systems and neural networks was written by Knsko [1992]. W. we compare E with a given maximum acceptable error Em .16) or (A. Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation by J. Jackson (Adam Hilger. The backpropagation learning algorithm described here for feedforward neural networks with two layers can be extended to networks with three or more layers.. In addition. editor. If E < Erma . but we do not deem it necessary to cover the general formulation in this overview. G. Krogh.14) and update weights Wkt at the output layer by values Wk.15) as well as weights wit at the hidden layer by values wit calculated by (A. M. At the end of the cycle. we calculate the error Ep by (A.ng by R.Appendix A Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview 475 (A. 2. Palmer (AddisonWesley.5) during each cycle. we apply all inputoutput pairs in the given training set.
Genetic algorithms require that the set of alternatives to be searched through be finite. There are many variations on these basic ideas of genetic algorithms. They attempt to mimic these processes and utilize them for solving a wide range of optimization problems. 1975). The same steps of this process. and let n 476 . an initial population of chromosomes is randomly selected. which is usually referred to as a fitness fidnction. specified computing time.APPENDIX B GENETIC ALGORITHMS: AN OVERVIEW Genetic algorithms ate unorthodox search or optimization algorithms.1. These operations. and their set is called a gene pool. First. let G denote the gene pool. evaluation and natural selection. genetic algorithms performdirected random searches through a given set of alternatives . The sokation is expressed by the best chromosome in the final population. The new population may contain duplicates. Basic steps in genetic algorithms are shown in Fig. As the name suggests. Next. geneticlike operations are performed on chromosomes of the new population. B. It is further required that the alternatives be coded in strings of some specific finite length which consist of symbols from some finite alphabet. with the aim of finding the best alternative with respect to given criteria of goodness. produce new chromosomes. Ann Arbor. a new population of chromosomes is selected from the given population by giving a greater change to select chromosomes with high fitness. are then applied to chromosomes of the resulting population. These criteria are required to be expressed in terms of an objective function. of Michigan Press. called offsprings. genetic algorithms were inspired by the processes observed in natural evolution. no change in the old and new population.) are not met. the symbols that form them are called genes. To describe a particular type of genetic algorithm in greater detail. some specific. Then each of the chromosomes in the population is evaluated in terms of its fitness (expressed by the fitness function)... If given stopping criteria (e. These strings are called chromosomes. In general. etc. The whole process is repeated until given stopping criteria are met. This is called natural selection. If we want to apply them to an optimization problem where this requirement is not satisfied. Genetic algorithms search for the best alternative (in the sense of a given fitness function) through chromosomes' evolution. we have to discretize the set involved and select an appropriate finite subset.g. which were first suggested by John Holland in his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (Univ.
Select an initial population. where g(x) is a relative fitness defined by the formula . The algorithm. According to this procedure. the algorithm may not peach the optimal solution. if it is too small. f (x). That is.tas. plk). denote the length of strings of genes that form chromosomes. when new members are added to the population.1 14. Let in denote this constant population size. This is done by determining for each chromosome x in the population the value of the fitness function. of a given size in. Evaluate each chromosome in population pck) in terms of its fitness. from the given population p(k) by some procedure of natural selection. This selection is made randomly from the set Gfl . Generate a new population. which is iterative. let f denote the fitness function employed in the algorithm. The size of the population of chromosomes is usually kept constant during the execution of a genetic Ago/jail/1. consists of the following six steps: I. exhaustive search.Appendix B Genetic Afgrithnls An Overview 477 Evaluate each chromosome in the poodalion Stop Figure B. That is. 2. If it is too large. the corresponding number of old members are excluded. Finally. We describe only one possible procedure of natural selection.th4evel description of genetic a2gosith. chromosomes are ntuples in G. the algorithm does not differ much from an. 3. where k = 1. The choice of value in is important. we express populations by mtuples whose elements are ntuples from the set Gq. we calculate the value e(x) ing(x) for each x in p(k) .. Since each population may contain duplicates of chromosomes. which is referred to as determinatic sampling. e) .
4 with population 0111) produced in Step 4. X11.ri• 6.478 Genetic Algorithms: An Over.tiew Appendix B g(x) f (x) x. x2 . . In general. otherwise.• . then we select the remaining chromosomes for ko by the fractional parts of e(x). x2. j E p osition. po'÷'.1+1. z. to which this operation is applied. •• = —• yj+1.) and an integer is called a mutation position. which are called inversion x with Irr = (34. by operating on chromosomes in population pV. go to Step 5. • Double crossover: Given the same chromosomes mates x. • . • 11„. x • +1.1. . xl Td (r1. (Yi. y as in the simple crossover and two crossover positions i. • Inversion: Given a chromosome x AI ) and two integers i. the purpose of this procedure is to eliminate chromosomes with low fitness and duplicate those with high fitness_ 4. stop. • • • . which where z is a randomly chosen gene from the gene pool G. are called mates. the operation of mutation replaces x with = (x1 . increase k by one.• . Replace population and go to Step 2. Y25 • Yn) and an integer î e N. . • • Yi Yi+1. If stopping criteria are not met. x11. 3rI • • . Operations that are involved in this step attempt to mimic genetic operations observed in biological systems. . If the total number of chromosomes chosen in this way is smaller than ni (the usual case). the operation of inversion replaces j).Yn) • Mutation: Given a chromosome x. = (x1 1 . the operation of double crossover applied to x and y replaces these chromosomes. the operation of simple crossover applied to lc and y replaces these chromosomes with their offsprings.Simple crossover: Given two chromosomes (xt.E pa) E f ( X) Then the number of copies of each chromosome x in p(k) that is chosen for e) is given by the integer part of e(x). 0. 1. j e Nn _di < j). from the highest values down. Yf.X n)  Chromosomes x and y. with the offsprings. • . which is called a crossover position. Produce a population of new chromosomes. They include some or all of the following four operations: • . 5.
g(i) 0274 0255 0.068 (LI) 2: Step 5 Chromosomes in Pik (2) Mate (randomly selected) 3 4 1 2 Crossover site randomly selected)2 3 2 Resulting chromosomes in pclï 10000 10011 11001 10001 10001 11000 10011 (e) 3 10001 3: Steps 2 and 3 Integers 16 19 2$ 17 Chromosomes in pp) 10000 10011 111101 10001 Fitness 16.94 12.168 1.44 g(x) 0.188 0273 1.400 1.068 0.00 g(x) 0.75 12.752 1.00 15.250 0.276 0 107 0.94 15.Appendix B Genetic AigCnthrns: An Overview 479 TABLE MI ILLUSTRATION TO EXAMPLE Bi (a) At 1: Sibcps 2.828 1.104 0.44 10..94 15 44 12.060 0.096 1.164 Chromosomes in Pa ci) Mate (randomly 3c1eç1ed) : Crossover site (randomly selected) 3 3 1 1 Resulting ChWintY84. Integers 11 17 24 19 Fitness 14.291 4g(x) ' Number of selected copies 0 1 2 1 (1 272 1. and 3 Chromosomes in po) 00010 01001 10011 11000 (b ) k 1: Ste p 5 _ Integers Z 9 19 24 Fitness 3.44 15. .94 g(x) : 4.092 Number of selected copies 1 1 1 1 .11ELCS in pcil 01001 10011 10011 11000 (c) k 2: Steps 2 and 3 10021 01001 11000 10011 01011 10001 11000 10011 Chromosomes in p (Z) 01011 10001 11000 10011 .00 15.267 4g(x) Number of copies selected 0 2 1 1 Imo° 1.292 0350 0.
we describe a very simple example of determining the maximum of a given algebraic function. Using function f as the fitness function. we calculate the fitness of each chromosome in pœ (Step 2). the offspring 1" is produced (Table B. we assumethat only simple crossovers are used. 31. Buckles and E E. 1). the stopping criterion p P = p(3) ( is satiated in Step 4. types of genetic algorithms. To illustrate the use of a genetic algorithm for determining the maximum of the function in the given interval.1c. indeed. in Step 6. Then.1a). and the. which is quite suitable as a selfstudy guide. 10011.480 Genetic Afgorithms: An Overview Apperdix B A crossover operation is employed in virtually all. In Step 6. results are shown in Table 13. 1.1 Let function f (x) = 2x— x2/16 be defined on the interval [0. 11000). This role is Sill:Alf to the role of a disturbance employed in neural nctworks.1b). and the algorithm terminates. If these operations are employed. To illustrate a special version of the algorithm. are sometimes omitted. Now.1) and a crossover point are chosen randomly and. the old population pi». 1989). Goldberg (AddisonWesley. we replace p?) with pc3). using the deterministic sampling in Step 3. a mate y in p(. The chromosome 10000. 1992). Petry (IEEE Computer Society Press. we approximate the interval by 32 interger points. we proceed to Step 5. shown in Table ale. Assume that we choose m 4 and p(14 (00010. the algorithm does out stop at this point and proceeds to Step 5. This chromosome corresponds to the integer 16 which is. represents the solution. 1991). G 00000 through 11111. consequently. and we proceed to Step 2. we obtain the population OP = (01001. as shown in Table Bab. For an overview of practical aspects and applications of genetic algorithms. 10011. Example B. each of which produces one of the two possible offsprings. The result of this step is shown in Table 13. 11000) in Step 1 gable B. but the operations of mutation and inversion. we proceed to Step 5. in which we employ only the operation of simple crossover. is replaced with the new population pa) of offsprings produced in Step 5. then. the point for which the function f reaches its maximum. edited by L. F. the chromosome in p(k) with the highest fitness represents the solution. but for the purpose of avoiding a local mininaum. Davis (Van Nostrand Reinhold. k is increased by one. The stopping criterion in Step 4 is again not satisfied. Assuming that the condition 14) pck) was chosen as the stopping criterion in this example. The only textbook on genetic algorithms. Next... Then. 31]. we recommend Handbook of Genetic Algorithms. Their role is to produce new chromosomes not on the basis of the fitness function. .1d. For each x in pi». Important classical papers on genetic algorithms are collected in Genetic Algorithms. . edited by B. 10011. 01001. The application of Steps 2 and 3 for k = 3 results in pr(r. increase k by one and proceed to Step 2. which has the highest fitness. The mates in the crossover operations and the crossover positions in the algorithm are selected randomly. and all possible chromosomes are binary integers from binary numbers. In this step. and code these points by the corresponding t0. E.. When the algorithm terminates. If given stopping criteria in Step 4 axe not met. they are usually chosen with small probabilities. is the book Genetic Algorithms by D. Steps 2 and 3 are now repeated kink 2. 0.
To define the concept of a rough set more precisely. fl(A) UtLx]fe 1 [xj ÇA. the quotient set X f R partitions X` into 10 semiclosed intervals and one closed interval. In the first one. Two examples of rough sets are shown in Fig. That is. A rough set.. The lower approximation consists of all blocks of the partition that are included in the represented set. The set difference R(A) R(A) is a rough description of the boundary of A by granules of X/R. let X/R denote the family of all equivalence classes induced on X by R (a quotient set). Moreover. is the union of all equivalence classes in A:7R that are contained in A. A rough set is basically an approximate representation of a given crisp set in terres of two subsets of a crisp partition defined on the universal set involved. Let X denote a universal set. k(A) =(. respectively. and the set A to be approximated by elements of X 1R is 481 . is a representation of a given set A E Y(X) by two subsets of the quotient set X R.)([. RCA). The lower approximation.x E X }. by equivalence classes in X1R. and let [x ]R denote the equivalence class in . the upper approximation consists of all blocks whose intersection with the set is not empty.APPENDIX C FUZZY SETS VERSUS ROUGH SETS The primary feature of fuzzy sets is that their boundaries are not precise. Sets formulated in this way are called rough sets.IfiR that contains x E X.. C..1.r1 R [x]R nA 0. which approach A as closely as possible from inside and outside. R (A) = where R(A) and R(A) are the lower approximation and the upper appi oximation of A. and let R be an equivalence relation on X. The upper is the union of all equivalence classes in X I R that overlap with A.r X}. X is a closed interval of real numbers. respectively. The two subsets are called a lower approximation and an upper approximation. designated as (a). approximation. R (A) and R(A). There exists an alternative way to formulate sets with imprecise boundaries.
11111111 MINIUMMEMMINEMIIIIM •NI••111111•011•••M• )(JR E.R). the closed interval shown in this figure. given a fuzzy subset F of X and a crisp relation R on X.AININIVATIMIMM 1•110111:1•1•111111•1111111111... Since both types are relevant in some applications.482 Fuzzy Sets Versus Rough Sets Appendix C XJFI (a) A RR. it is obvious from XI R and YiR which sides of each square are included in the corresponding equivalence class and which are not..1. the ficzy rough set approximation of A in terms of RF is represented at each acut of RF by the rough set ŒRF(A) = Clearly.1 Examples of rough sets. while rough set approximations of fuzzy sets in ternis of given crisp equivalence relations are called rough fuzzy sets. the universal set is X x Y. partitions the area X x Y into the small squares shown in the figure.. F is approximated by a rough fuzzy set whose acuts are rough sets ..111•11•11. a 13 implies c€EF(A) ç R F (A) and ai67(A) OAFW