FUZZY SETS AND FUZZY LOGIC Theory and Applications
GEORGE J. KLIR AND BO YUAN
For baoic and boastDre faarmatlart
0,..ftre.....MOrrrrnwriWer • .1. . nrwww...rt*rrrry asneeloel*annarana a*.
a
httpghwAv.prorthail.com
lip:prior to gophar.pranhffill,com
Prentice Hail P T R Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458
,
Library of Congress CataCoginginruhlication Data Klir, Georga J., 1932—
Fr. czn. Includes biblgraphival refezeivces and intlem.
fuzzy SeU and fuzzy logic: theory and applications / George J. Mir, Bo YlatISBN 043W11715 1. Fuzzy sets. 2. Fuzzy 1c. L Yuan,
Bo. 11..
943098 Cl?
QA.../.46.K.4W7 1995 511,3dc2G
EditoriaUproduation su.pervision: Patti Guerrieri
ivlarinfacturirks layer: Aiexia. R.Hey& Acquisitions editor Paul Becker Editcsial assistant; Maureen Diana Cover Design: Bo Yuan and Mitena Kdir photographs: Mien Kir
01995 by George J. Klir
M.
Prabli$hed. by Prentice Hall PTR PrenticeHall inc. A air= .84 SChtsster Company Upper Saddle River, NI 07458
The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. Formore information. contact Coiporate Saks Departattnt Prentice }fall pnt One Lake Street
Upper Saddle River, NJ 1E458 Phone: 8003823419
Pax: 2012567141 oorpsalesOprenhalLcom
All rigbt remil ec I. No part of this book may be reproduced. in any form or by any means,
withou t permission in writing from tbef publisher.
P.rinted in tho United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN
0 13 101171 6

FreuticeHall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice...Han of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice Hall of Canada Inc., Toronto PrenticeHall Bispaneatnelicsnas SA., Mexico

ixeutilmHall of India Private Limited, Yew Delhi PrenticeHZ of Japan, hic., Dkyo Simon & Schuster Asia Pte, Ltd., Singapore Editor PrenticeHall do Brasil, Ltda., Rio de Janeiro
To Loyi. Zadeh, Who had the courage and thegift To begin tfiegrand para4nt shift, And to tfie many others, Whose hard workand heafthy thin6ng Have contributed to the shifting.
C O NTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE
xi
xiii
PART I: THEORY
•••
1
FROM CLASSICAL (CRISP) SETS TO FUZZY SETS; A Grand Paradigm Shift
IA
L2
13
Introduction
1
1.4 I _5
Crisp Sets: An Overview Fuzzy Sets: Basic Types Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts Characteristics and Signi.ficance of the Paradigm Shift
•1
19 30 32 33
36
No tes Exercises
2.
FUZZY SETS VERSUS CRISP SETS
2.1 Additional Properties of_ ct Cuts 2.2. Representations of Fuzzy Sets 2.3 Extension Principle for Fuzzy Sets _ No tes
Exercises
 3. OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS
35 39 44 48 49
50
3.1 3.2 33
Types of Operations Fuzzy Complements Fuzzy Intersections: tNorms
50 51 61
vi 14 3.5 3.6
Table of Contents Fuzzy Unions: t Conornis Combinations of Operations Aggregation Operations

76 88 94 95
97
Notes
Exercises
4. FUZZY ARITHMETIC
4,1 4,2 4.3 4.4 4_5 4_6
Fuzzy Numbers Linguistic Variables Arithmetic Operations on Entervals Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers Fuzzy Equations
Notes
Exericses
97 102 102 105 109 114 117 117
119
5.
FUZZY RELATIONS
5A 5,1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 17 5.8 5.9 5.10 Notes
Crisp versus Fuzzy Relations Projecfions and Cylindric Extensions Binary Fuzzy Relations Binary Relations on a Single Set Puzzy Equivalence Relations Fuzzy Compatibility Relations Fuzzy Ordering Relations Fuzzy Morphisms Supi Compositions of Fuzzy Relations Inf. col Compositions of Fuzzy Relations
Exercises
6,
119 122 124 128 132 135 137 141 144 146 149 149 153 153 134 156 162 164 166 171 173 175
FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS
5. 1
6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Notes
General Discussion Problem Partitioning Solution Method Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Supi Compositions Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on Inf01 Compositions Approximate Solutions The Use of Neural Networks
Exercises
Table of Contents
7.
vil 177
loOSSIBILIT'Y THEORY
7.1
7.2 7.3
7.4 7.5 Notes Exercises 3.
Fuzzy Measures Evidence Theory Possibility Theory Fuzzy Sets and. Pcrssibilty Theory Possibility Theory versus Probability Theory
177
180
187
198
200 208 209 212 212 217 220 225 229
231
FUZZY LOGIC 8.1 Classical Logic: An Overview 8.2 Multivalued Logics 8.3 Fuzzy Propositions Fuzzy Quantifiers 84 8.5 Linguistic Hedges 8.6 Inference from Conditional Fuzzy Propos MODS 8.7 Inference from Conditional and Qualified Propositions 8.8 Inference from Quantified Propositions Notes Exercises
UNCERTA1NTY BASED INFORMATION Information and Uncertainty 9.1 9.2 Nonspecificity of Crisp Sets 93 Nonspecificity of Fuzzy Sets Fuzziness of Fuzzy Sets 9.4 9.5 'Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 9.6 Summary of Uncertainty Measures 9.7 Prirscipks of Uncertainty Notes Exercises

236 239 242
242
9.
245
243 247 250 254 258 267 269 277 278
280
280
PART IL APPLICATIONS
10. CONSTRUCTING FUZZY SETS AM) OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS 10.1 General. Discussion 10,2 Methods of Construction: An Overview 10.3 Direct Methods with One Expert 10.4 Direct Methods with Multiple Experts 10.5 Indirect Methods with One Expert 10,6 indirect Methods with Multiple Experts 10.7 Constructions from Sample Data Notes Exercises
280 281 282 283
287
288
290
300 301
viii
11_
Table of Contents
APPROXIMATE REASONING 11.1 Fuzzy Expert Systems: An Overview 11.2 Fu17y Implications 11.3 Selection of Fuzzy Implications 11.4 Multiconditional Approximate Reasoning 11.5 The Role of Fuzzy Relation Equations 11.6 IntervalValued Approximate Reasoning
Notes Exercises
12. FUZZY SYSTEMS
302 302 304 312 317 321 323 325 325
327 327 330 339 344 347 349 353 354 356
357
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7
No tes
General Discussion Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview Fuzzy Controllers: An Example Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks Fuzzy Neural Networks Fuzzy Automata Fuzzy Dynamic Systems
Exercises
13. PATTERN RECOGNITION.
13.1 13.2 13.3 114
In troduction Fuzzy Clustering Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Fuzzy Image Processing
Notes Exercises
14. FUZZY DATABASES AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS
357 358 365 374 377 378
370
14,1 General Discussion 14.2 Fuzzy Databases 14.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval No tes
Exercises
15. FUZZY DECISION MAKING
379 381 385 388 388
390
15.1 General Discussion 15_2 Individual Decision Makixig 15.3 MuItiperson Decision Making 15.4 MuIticriteria Decision Making 15.5 Multistage Decision Making 15.6 Fuzzy Ranking Methods
390 391 395 399 401 405
Table of Contents
ix
15.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming Notes Excrciscs 16_
FP/a/A/EARING APPLICAT/ONS
408 415 416 _ 418 418 419 426 432 436 439 440 440 441 443 443 443 450 452 454 459 463 465 466 467 476
481
484
16.1 Introduction 16.2 Civil Engineering 16.3 Mechanical Engineering 16.4 Indotrial Engineering 16.5 Computer Engineering 16.6 Reliability Theory 16.7 Robotics Notes Exercises 17.
MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS
17.1 17.2 173 17.4 17.5
17.15
17.7 Notiez Exercises
Introduction Medicine Economics Fuzzy Systems and Genetic Algorithms Fuzzy Regression Interpersonal Communication Otter Applications
APPENDIX A. NEURAL NETWORKS: An Overview APPENDIX B. GENETIC ALGORITHMS: An Overview
APPENDIX C. ROUGH SETS VERSUS FUZZY SETS APPENDIX
a
PROOFS OF SOME MATHEMATICAL TIIFOREMS
APPENDIX E. GLOSSARY OF KEY CONCEPTS APPENDIX E GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS
487
ztg 0
BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHICAL INDEX NAME INDEX
SUBJECT INDEX
494 548
552 563
deep insight and a meticulous attention to detail.perspective. FL„ is almost synonymous with the theory of fuzzy sets. it is necessary to clarify a point of semantics which re/ates to the meanings of fuzzy Sets and fuzzy logic. pattern recognition and mathematical programming. Underlying the organization of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a fundamental fact. In application to basic fields such as arithmetic. most importantly. a methodology for exploiting the tolerance for imprecision—a methodology which serves to achieve tractability.w is much broader than FLEx and subsumes FLn as one of its branches. and (c) at this juncture. graph theory. More specifically. fuzzy graph theory. concept of a crisp set in X and Y by that of a fuzzy set. In this context.world problems and. This is what underlines the basic paradigm shift which is discussed so insightfully in the first chapter of Fuzzy Sets and xi . FLn. higher expressive power. fuzzy logic is interpreted in a sense that is close to FL. in a narrow sense. in application to applied frelcls such as neural network theory. it covers its vast territory with impeccable authority. fuzzy topology. robustness and lower solution cost What we are witnessing today . to avoid misunderstanding. fuzzy stability theory. Similarly. fuzzy logic..and Fuzzy Logic in a propel.FOREWORD Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a true magnum opus. fuzzy probability theory and no. Uncertainty. fuzzification leads to fuzzy arithmetic. But in a wider sense. A frequent source of misunderstanding tag to do with the interpretation of fuzzy logic. what is important ta recognize is that (a) Fl. the title refers CO both fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. An enlargement of Fuzzy Sets. that any field X and any theory Y can be fuzzified by replacing the. probability theory and logic.and what is reflected in Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic—is a growing number of _fields and theories which are undergoing fuzzification. fuzzy logic. fuzzy pattern recognition and fuzzy mathematical programming. is a logical system which may be viewed as an extension and generalization of classical multivalued logics. and Information—an earlier work of Professor Klir and Tula Folgo"Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic addresses practically every signiftcant topic in the broad expanse of the union of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. an enhanced ability to model real . (b) the agenda of FLn is very different from the agendas of classical multivalued logics. The problem is that the term fuzzy logic has two different meanings. To view Fuzzy Set4. However. the term fuzzy logic is usually used in its wide rather than narrow sense. stability theory. topology. namely. fuzzification leads to fuzzy neural network theory. effectively equating fuzzy logic with FL In Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic. What is gained through fu2zification is greater generality. To ine Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a remarkable achievement..
I view this as merely a point of tangency between the DempsterShafer theory and possibility theory. There is a minor point relating to possibility theory that deserves a brief comment. This is motivated by the observation that in the case of nested focal sets in the DempsterShafer theory. The applications cover a wide spectrum of topica ranging from fuzzy control and expert systems to information retrieval. Although the authors note that possibility theory can also be introduced via fuzzy set theory. they have produced a volume that presents an exceptionally thorough. This is a complex. It is this realization that motivates the evolution of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic and shapes their role in restructuring the foundations of scientific theories and their applications. since the two theories have altogether different agendas. The second part of Fuzzy Sets and Juzzy Logic is in the mainapplications oriented. The exposition is authoritative. And it is in this perspective that the contents of Fuzzy Seis caul Fuzzy Logic should be viewed. By focusing on this and only this methodology. The first part of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic provides a very carefully crafted introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of fuzzy set theory. To say that Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic is a major contribution to the literature is an understatement. it is possible to acquire with a low expenditure of time and effort —a working knowledge of fuzzy logic techniques. the concept of posAibility rneaure is introduced via DempsterSteel's theory of evidence. their choice of the theory of evidence as the point of departure makes possibility theory less intuitive and harder to understand. This is not the route chosen by Professor Klir and Bo Yuan. Their goals are loftier. The book closes with a valuable bibliography of over 1. pattern recognition and decision analysis. but it also contains compact and yet insightful expositions of the calculi of fuzzy rules and fuzzy relations . wellorganized.xii Foreword behind this paradigm shift is the realization that traditional twovalued logical systems. Zadeh December 16. 1994 . The driving force — LoW A. rigorous and uptodate. what is used is a small subset of fuzzy logic centering on the methodology of fuzzy rules and their induction from observations. possibility measure coincides with plausibility measure. crisp set theory and crisp probability theory are inadequate for dealing with imprecision. The discussion of applications is thorough and uptndate. authoritative and readorfrienctly oxposition of the methodology of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. controversial issue that is close to the heart of Professor lair and which be treats with authority and insight. Their book is eminently suitable both as a textbook and as a reference_ It should be on the desk of everyone who is interested in acquiring a solid understanding of the foundations of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic and the competence that is needed to apply them to the solution of realworld problems Fuzzy Logic. In most of the current applications of fuzzy logic in the realms of industrial systems and consumer products. uncertainty and complexity of the real world. An important issue which receives a great deal of attention is that of the relationship between fuzzy set theory and alternative methods of dealing with uncertainty.700 papers and books dealing with various issues relating to fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. In Fuzzy Sets and Frizzy Log.
Elementary concepts. Captured in the book are not only theoretical advances in these areas. Although there is enough material in the text for a twosemester cours. Uncertainly. . fundamentals of these subject areas are briefly overviewed in the hook. and rough sets. genetic algorithms. which are designated Part I of the text. and averaging operations. fuzzy intersections (Inorms). are provided in Appendices A—C. where also the concepts of linguistic variables and fuzzy equations are introduced and examined. Folger (Prentice Hall. including basic types of fuzzy sets. It covers general fuzzy complements. for a onesemester course. are introduced in Chapter 1. which also contains a discussion of the meaning and significance of the emergence of fuzzy set theory Connections between fuzzy sets and crisp sets are examined in Chapter 2. Although we assume that the reader is familiar with the basic notions of classical (nonftazy) set theory. relevant material may be selected. Basic concepts of fuzzy relations are introduced in Chapter 5 and employed in Chapter 6 for the study of fuzzy relation equations. classical (twovalued) logic. Theoretical aspects of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic _are covered in the first nine chapters. Basic ideas of neural networks. Klir and Tina A. The primary purpose of the book is to facilitate eduoation in the increasingly important areas of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. 1988). Chapter 3 deals with the various aggregation operations on fuzzy sets. but a broad variety of applications of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic as well. It reflects the tremendous advances that have taken place in the areas of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic during the period 19881995. an important tool for many applications of fuzzy set theory. which are occasionally needed in the text. according to the needs of each individual program. intensive courses of continuing education: No previous knowledge of fuzzy set theory or fuzzy logic is required for an understanding of the material in this text. The text is also suitable for selfstudy and for short. and probability theory. Fuzzy numbers and arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers are covered in Chapter 4. It shows how fuzzy sets can be represented by families of crisp sets and how classical mathematical functions can be Razifled. and information by George J.PREFACE This book is a natural outgrowth of Fuzzy Sets. This makes the book virtually selfcontained. It is written as a text for a course at the graduate or upperdivision undergraduate level. fuzzy unions (tconorms).
and fuzzy neural networks. It includes a thorough examination of the concept of a fuzzy implication. possibility theory. including fuzzy controllers..xiv Preface Figure El Prerequisite dependencies among chapters of this book. and basic types of fuzzy inference rules. Fuzzy systems are covered in Chapter 12. Chapter 11 is devoted to the use of fuzzy logic for approximate reasoning in expert systems. as represented by fuzzy sets. including the increasingly popular use of neural networks. fuzzy automata. and image processing are . The position of possibility theory within the broader framework of fuzzy measure theory is also examined. including its connection to classical naultivalued logics. chapter 7 deals with possibility theory and its intimate connection with fuzzy set theory. cons ists of the remaining eight chapters. or evidence theory. is devoted to the examination of the connection between uncertainty and information. Chapter 8 overviews basic aspects of fuzzy logic. the last chapter in Part I. The chapter shows how relevant uncertainty and uncertaintybased information can be measured and how these uncertainty measures can be utilized. the various types of fuzzy propositions. A Glossary of Key Concepts (Appendix E) and A Glossary of Symbols (Appendix F) are included to help the reader to quickly find the meaning of a concept or a symbol. Part IL which is devoted to applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Fuzzy techniques in the related areas of clustering. pattern recognition. Chapter 10 cgainincs various methods for constructing membership functions of fuzzy sets. Chapter 9.
etc. which covers virtually all relevant books and significant papers published prior to 1995. Chapters 3. the reader has ample flexibility ill studying the material. and applications in various other areas (medicine. Basic ideas of the various types of fuzzy decision making are summarized in Chapter 15. pp. 5 and 6 may be studied prior to Chapters 2 and 4. they are: Williams & Wilkins.1. Each chapter is followed by a set of exercises. economics. In order to avoid interruptions in the main text.8). 3031. The book contains an extensive bibliography. which consists of reference lists for selected application areas and theoretical topics. Cambridge University Press. For example. which are intended to enhance an understanding of the material presented in the chapter. depending on the background of the students. Following the diagram. 376 (Fig. pp. pp. It also contains a Bibliographical Index. At the graduate level. 329330. New York . coverage of some or all proofs of the various mathematical theorems may be omitted. A few excellent quotes and one figure from the literature are employed in the text and we are grateful for permissions from the copyright owners to use them. 451. and the related area of fuzzy retrieval systems are covered in Chapter 14. where they contain ample references. IEEE ('The institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 13. Engineering applications other than fuzzy control are touched upon in Chapter 16.  George I. the relevance of the material to the specific area of student interest can be emphasized with additional applicationoriented readings guided by relevant notes in Part H of the text. and other remarks are incorporated in the notes that follow each individual chapter. This index should be particularly useful for graduate. pp. Chapter 10 and Appendix A may be studies prior to Chapter 2 and Chapters 4 through 9. his bark:al. 31. 380. In all cases.Preface  xv  overviewed in Chapter 13. etc. as well as for both practitioners and researchers . These notes are uniquely numbered and are only occasionally referred to in the text. 451. Kiir and Bo Yuan Binghamton. The prerequisite dependencies among the individual chapters and some appendices are expressed by the diagram in Fig. preiectoriented courses. on the other hand. Academic Press. which also contains further suggestions for use of the text under various circumstances. The solutions to a selected subset of these exercises are provided in the instructor's manual. and Kluwer. P. allowing the interested reader to pursue further study in the application area of concern_ When the book is used at the upperdivision undergraduate level. we encourage coverage of most of these proofs in order to effect a deeper understanding of the material. 391. Each book in the bibliography is emphasized by printing its year of publication in bold. Fuzzy databases. The notes are particularly important in Part II. pp. a well developed application area of fuzzy set theory. virtually all bibliographical.) are overviewed in Chapter 17.
uncertainty (imprecision. According to the traditional view. specific manifestations of microscopic entities (molecules. this change bas been manifested by a gradual transition from the traditional view. etc. these precise laws are denied applicability in this domain not only in practice (based on existing computer technology) but in principle. to an alternative view. to a host of other areas such as the actuarial profession. as we realize now. The role played in Newtonian  . nonspecificity. but it has. in fact. and the like. it is not only an unavoidable plague. consistency. exceed even fundamental computational limits_ That is.). which are connected with appropriate macroscopic variables. uncertainty is considered essential to science.) are replaced with their statistical averages. specificity. ete.) is regarded as unscientific_ According to the alternative (or modern) view. a great utility. vagueness. which insists that uncertainty is undesirable in science and should be avoided by all possible means. one such change concerns the concept of uncertainty. etc. sharpness.1 INTRODUCTION Among the various paradigmafic changes in science and mathematics in this century. but. which turned out to be applicable not only to the study of molecular processes (statistical mechanics). Although precise laws of _Newtonian mechanics were relevant to the study of these processes. The need for a fundamentally different approach to the study of physical processes at the molecular level motivated the development of relevant statistical methods. when physics became concerned with processes at the molecular level. design of large telephone exchanges. hence. science should strive• for certainty in all its manifestations (precision. The first stage of the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty began in the late 19th century.PART ONE: THEORY FROM ORDINARY (CRISP) SETS TO FUZZY SETS: A GRAND PARADIGM SHIFT 1. their actual application to the enormous number of entities involved would have resulted in computational demands that were far boyond existing computational capabilities and. individual telephone sites. In statistical methods. inconsistency. In science. which is tolerant of uncertainty and insists that science cannot avoid it.
" To process a certain number of bits means. in this statement. Weavercalls them problems of organized complccity. as well as in applied fields such as modem technology or medicine. is replaced in statistical mechanics by probability theoty. and each year contains approximately 3. in the early 1960s.14 x 10' sec. ' Bremermann's limit seems at first sight rather discouraging. the applicability of statistical methods has exactly opposite characteristics: they require a very large number of variables and a very high degree of randomness. they are typical in life. when rounding up to the nearest power of ten. which are usually nondeterrainistic. Since the mass and age of the Earth are estimated to be less than 6 x grams and 10' years. Later. whether artificial or living. When one type excels. Initially. many problems dealing with systems of even modest size exceed the limit in their informationprocessing demands The nature of these problems has been extensively studied within an area referred to as the theory of computational complexity. These two types of methods are thus highly complementary. which involves no uncertainty. this naive belief was replaced with a more realistic outlook. even though it is based on overly optimistic assumptions (more reasonable assumptions would result in a number smaller than 1093). Most problems are somewhere between these two extremes: they involve nonlinear systems with large numbers of components and rich interactions among the components. Using the limit of information. processing obtained for one gram of mass and one second of processing time. Indeed. it was the common belief of many scientists that the level of complexity we can handle is basically a matter of the level of computational power at our disposal. The last number1e—is usually referred to as Bremermann's limit. 1 mechanics by the calculus. can process more than 2 x 1047 bits per second per gram of Is mass. Warren Weaver [1948] refers to them as problems of organized simplicity and asorganized complexity. and environmental sciences. 10' bits. [1962] by simple considerations based on quantum theory. we continue to pursue the many problems that possess the characteristics of organized complexity. social. "No data processing system. these types of methods cover. In his wellknown paper. One such lirait was determined by Hans Bremermann. We began to understand that there are definite limits in dealing with complexity. respectively. some of which began tu resemble the notion of organized complexity. which neither our human capabilities nor any computer technology can overcome. Despite their complernentarity. this imaginary computer would not be able to process more than 2. only problems that are clustered around the two extremes of complexity arid randomness scales. These problems are too  . and problems that require processing more than 1093 bits informatiou are called iranscomputationai problems.56 x 2092 bits or. to transmit that many bits over one or several channels within the computing systems. Bremermann then calculates the total number of bits processed by a hypothetical computer the size of the Earth within a time period equal to the estimated age of the Earth. the other totally fails. In spite of the insurmountable computational limits. unfortunately. a theory whose very purpose is to capture uncertainty of a certain type.2 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shfft Chap. While analytic methods based upon the calculus are applicable only to problems involving a 'very small number of variables that are related to one_ another in a predictable way. cognitive. which emerged in the 1960s as a branch of the general theory of algorithms. The limit is expressed by the proposition. but not as a result of randomness that could yield meaningful statistical averages. He argues that these types of problems represent only a tiny fraction of all syStems problems. The emergence of computer technology in World War II and its rapidly growing power in the second half of this century made it possible to deal with increasingly complex problems.
credibilily. and utilizing all these capabilities tor various ends.) has a pivotal role in any efforts to maximize the usefulness of systems models. In his paper. respectively. 1). i. The purpose of constructing models of the former type is to understand some phenomenon of reality. but not required. then represent. learning how to control the phenomenon in any desirable way.1 Introduction a important for our well being to give up on them. to express degrees of membership in fuzzy sets as well as degrees of truth of the associated propositions by numbers in the closed unit interval j0. allowing more uncertainty tends to reduce complexity and increase credibility of the resulting model . It is generally agreed that an important point in the evolution of the modern concept of uncertainty was the publication of a seminal paper by Lott A. 0 and 1. which became quite explicit in the literature of the 1960s. making adequate predictions or retrodictions. Zadeh introduced a theory whose objects—fizzy sets—are sets with boundaries that are not precise. This tradeoff can then be utilized for constructing models that are maximally useful with respect to the purpose for which they are constructed. uncertainty becomes very valuable when considered in connection. This aim is closely connected with the relationship among three key characteristics of every systems model: complexity. These theories challenge the seemingly unique connection between uncertainty and probability theory. models of the latter type axe constructed for the purpose of prescribing operations by which a conceived artificial objcet can be constructed in such a way that desirable objective criteria are satisfied within given constraints. begin the second . We only know that uncertainty (predictive. though some ideas presented in the paper were envisioned some 30 years earlier by the American philosopher Max Black [1937]. the degree to which . and uncertainly. Uncertainty is thus an important commodity in the modelling business. The main challenge in pursuing these problems narrows down fundamentally to one question: how to deal with systems and associated problems whose complexities are beyond our information processing limits? That is. but rather a matter of a degree. The membership in a fuzzy set is not a matter of affirmation or denial. be it natural or manmade. even. we deal with problems in terms of systems that are constructed as models of either some aspects of reality or some desirable manmade objects. The significance of Zadeh's paper was that it challenged not only probability theory as the sole agent for uncertainty. as required by two valued logic. 1 . distinct from probability theory. the proposition "x is a member of A" is not necessarily either true or false. prescriptive. but it may be true Linty to some degree. They show that probability theory is capable of representing only one of several distinct types of uncertainty. we always attempt to maximize its usefulness. When A is a fuzzy set and x is a relevant object. how can we deal with these problems if no computational power alone is sufficient? In general. to the other characteristics of systems models: in general. but the very foundations upon which probability theory is based: Aristotelian twovalued logic.age of the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty. A recognition of this important role of uncertainty by some researchers.  . In constructing a model.. which can be traded for gains in the other essential characteristics of models. challenge in systems modelling is to develop methods by which an. Zulett [1.fc is actually a member of A.965b]. This relationsbip is not as yet fully understood. The extreme values in this interval. Although usually (but not always) undesirable when considered alone. optimal level ofOur allowable uncertainty can be estimated for each modelling problem.Sec. It is most common. This stage is characterized by the emergence of several new theories of uncertainty. etc. which had previously been taken for granted.
expensive cars. do not). This is. instead of describing the weather today in terms of the exact percentage of cloud cover. a fuzzy set representing our concept of sunny might assign a degree of membership of 1 to a cloud cover of 0%. We perceive these sets as having imprecise boundaries that facilitate gradual transitions from membership to nonmembership and vice versa.4 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. individuals may belong in the fuzzy set to a greater or lesser degree as indicated by a larger or smaller membership grade. since 1% of cloud cover hardly seems Like a distinguishing characteristic between sunny and not sunny. We can accept certain intermediate states. but also with a meaningful representation of vague concepts expressed in natural language. and O to a cloud cover of 75%. therefore. add a qualification that any amount of cloud cover 1% greater than a cloud cover already considered to be sunny (that is. however.As already mentioned. as sunny. is a cloud cover of 80%. A fuzzy set can be defined mathematically by assigning to each possible individual in the universe of discourse a value representing its grade of membership in the fuzzy set. a concept that is both simple and intuitively pleasing and that forms. however. . 25% or less) will also be labeled as sunny. While the latter description is vague and less specific. in essence. Examples are the set of tall people. precisely the basic concept of the fizzzy set. .ccotnplish the desired introduction of vagueness. does this mean that a cloud cover of 26% is not'? This is clearly unacceptable. any cloud cover of 25% or less is considered sunny. These grades signify the degree to which each percentage of cloud cover approximates our subjective concept of sunny. however. Pluwevet. no matter how gloomy the weather looks! In order to resolve this paradox. The capability of fu72:y sets to express gradual transitions from membership to nonmembership and vice versa has a broad utility. in fact. a generalization of the classical or crisp set. it is often mote useful. that this definition eventually leads us to accept all degrees of cloud cover as sunny. In order for a term such as sunny to a. Thua. or sunny days. The crisp set is defined in such a way as to dichotomize the individuals in some given universe of discourse into two groups: members (those that certainly belong in the set) and nonmembers (those that certainly. unambiguous distinction exists between the members and nonmembers of the set. For instance. a cloud cover of 100% is not sunny. This grade corresponds to the degree to which that individual is similar or compatible with the concept represented by the fuzzy set. Thus. respectively. in fact. It provides us not only with a meaningful and powerful representation of measurement uncertainties. these membership grades are very often represented by realnumber values ranging in the closed interval between 0 and 1. Because fun membership and full nonmembership in the fuzzy set can still be indicated by the values of 1 and 0.siEgation concepts we commonly employ and express in natural language describe sets that do not exhibit this characteristic. But where do we draw the line? If.8 Co a cloud cover of 20%. and the set itself models the semantic fle2cibility inherent in such a COULI11013 linguistic term. such as 10% or 20% of cloud cover. We can see. numbers much greater than one. 1 the total denial and affi rmation of the membership in a given fuzzy set as well as the falsity and truth of the associated proposition.4 to a cloud cover of 30%. modest profits. A sharp. we can consider the concept of a crisp set to be a . the term sunny may introduce vagueness by allowing some sort of gradual transition from degrees of cloud cover that are considered to be sunny and those that are not. many elas. We could. close driving distances. highly contagious diseases. for instance. we cannot use it to mean precisely 0% cloud cover_ Its meaning is not totally arbitrary. and neither. we can just say that it is sunny.
Whenever x is not an element of a set A. 1. as needed.. we write x A.. respectively. we use "iff" as a shorthand expression of "if and only if. rightopen. . Sets are denoted in this text by uppercase letters and their members by lowercase letters. We include this section into the text solely to refresh the basic concepts of crisp sets and to introduce notation and terminology useful in our discussion of fuzzy sets. 14 (a. This name is now generally accepted in the literature. 1. throughout the text: Z (. Research on the theory of fuzzy sets has been growing steadily since the inception of the theory in the mid1960s. . b). (xi . [a." and the standard symbols 9 and V are used for the existential quantifier and the universal quantifier. 2. we assume that the reader is familiar with fundamentals of the theory of crisp sets.1 )! ordered ntuple of elements xi . we write x 0 A. or universal set. respectively. 2. x. The following general symbols are employed.1 (the set of all positive integers or natural numbers). In addition. we refer to the latter as crisp sets. To indicate that an individual object x is a member or element of a set A. closed. 1. To distinguish between fuzzy sets and classical (nonfuzzy) sets. ba our presentation. = (0„ 1. ND = [0. (a. .. the set of all real numbers. b]. . N„ = (1. n). —2. 4 (the set of al nonnegative integers). . Research on a broad vaziety of applications has also been very active and bas produced results that are perhaps even more impressive. 2. we present au introduction to the major developments of the theory as well as to some of the most successful applications of the theory.2 Crisp Sets: An Overview restricted case of the more general concept of a fuzzy set for which only these two grades of membership are allowed. .. N =11. 1. . 2. x2 . • n). —I. IR+: the set of all nonnegative real numbers.) (the set of all integers). b). I.. This set contains all the possible elements of concern in each particular context or application from which sets Can be formed. The body of concepts and results pertaining to the theory is now quite impressive. 0. [a.. In this book.Sec.. 3. open interval of real numbers between a and b. The set that contains no members is called the empty set and is denoted by 0. The letter X denotes the UiliVerSe of discourse.2 CRISP SETS: AN OVERVIEW The aim of this text is to introduce the main components of fuzzy set theory and to overview some of its applications. leftopen.
a„ is usually written as A . A... the proposition P(x) is either true of false. Set A. A set is defined by a property satisfied by . whose members are a 1 .et and which are not. . Set A is defined by its characteristic function. the family of sets is also called an indeaxel set. B)." and P (x) designates a proposition of the form "x has the property P!' That is. 1 There are three basic methods by which sets can be defined within a given universal set X: 1. For example. If A c B and B C A. and this is written as AcEt. 3. A is defined by this notation as the set of all elements of X for which the proposition P(x) is true. In this text. .6 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets. a2. Because the index t is used to reference the sets Ai . the characteristic function maps elements of X to elements of the set 10. E X If every member of set A is also a member of set B (i. 1 )For each x e X. that declares s which elements of X are members of the .). of sets. "A . families of sets are usually denoted by script capital letters. 2.tali a2. It can be defined in the form [Aili E I]. where the symbol I denotes the phrase "such that. x is declared to be a member of A. which is formally expressed by ( 0. A2. = IA/. A common notation expressing this method is A = {x[P(x)}. It is required that the property P be such that for any given x E X . and every set is a subset of the universal set. X A p as follows: I0 forxeA for . This method can be used only for finite sets. They are then called equal sets. A set is defined by a function. when x 4 (x) = 1. when x A (x) = 0. respectively. . A set whose elements are themselves sets is often referred to as a famit. if x A implies x A is called a subset of B.its members (the rule method). usually called a characteristic function. x is declared as a nonmember of A. That is. A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 1]. then A and B contain the same members. where L and I are called the set index and the indirc set.e. then Every set is a subset of itself. A set is defined by naming all its members (the list method).x ç' A. this is denoted by A = B.
this is defmed as iel sets UA = [XIX E Ai. then B cnntaim at least one individual that is In this case. taking the compleMent of a complement yields the original set. This can be written B A. higher order power sets P 3 (A). If the set B is the universal set. The union operation can be generalized for any number of sets. A is called a proper subset of B. or to both set A and set B. which is denoted by not a member of A. Thus. A n B = fxlx €A and x. for some ie n. to set B alone. it is denoted by 012 (A). and it is usually denoted by T (A ). 1_2 Crisp Sets: An Overview 7 To indicate that A and B are not equal. A u B = {xlx E A or x G B}. we also say that A is inciuded in R. It is denoted by A n B. B — A = lxix B and x AI. Similarly. Thus. The intersection of sets A and B is the set containing all the elements belonging to both set A and set B. the complement is absolute and is usually denoted by The absolute complement is alwayg invohitive. that is. The union of sets A and B is the set containing all the elements that belong either to set A alone. which stands for Tr(0)(A)). we write A Blf both A C R and A 0 R. then 171 (A)] = 2 1A I IT 2 (A)I = 22w . Thus. For a family of (Ali e /1. The family of all subsets of 9) (A) is called a second order power set of A. This is denoted by A U B. The relative complement of a set A with respect to set B is the set containing all the members of B that are not also members of A. and the absolute complement of the universal set equals the empty set. The generalization of the intersection for a family of sets Mi lt e I} is defined as . When A C B.  0=X and = 0.Sec. etc. A c B.81. can be defined. That is. = A. The absolute complement of the empty set equals the universal set. When A is finite. The number of members of a finite set A is called the rardindity of A and is denote_di by M. or 71. 'Ile family of all subsets of a given set A is called the power set of A.
U. The most fundamental properties of the set operations of absolute complement. Any two sets that have no common members are called disjoint. forms a lattice in which the join (least upper bound. They exemplify a general principle of dualizy: for each valid equation in set theory that is based on the union and intersection operations. and n with X n. respectively. it is usually called a Boolean lattice or a Boolean algebra. B. and intersection are summarized in Table 1. LJ. (Anc) A 1. We are thus concerned with pairs of dual equations. union. C) and (9) (X). respectively. This ordering. This lattice is distributive (due to the distributive properties of U and n listed in Table 1. B E P(X) is given by A Li B and A n B. that is obtained by the abovespecified replacement.. The connection between the two formulations of this lattice. TABLE 1.1) and complemented (since each set in 3)(X) has its complement in T(X)). The second equation in each pair can be obtained from the first by replacing O. every pair of disjoint sets.1 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES A. That is. A and R.Au(Buc) (A n B) fl C A n (B n An(BuC)=( An . n). is facilitated by the following equivalence: A cBiffAUB=B(orArIB. .A)forany A. and U.. Law of excluded middle De tvlorian's laws Elements of the power at P(X) of a universal set X (or any subset of X) can he ordered by the set inclusion c. where sets A. B P(1).a From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to FLazy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. (Pa). there corresponds a dual equation.8)t. infaraum) of any pair of sets A. Note that all the equations in this table that involve the set union and intersection are arranged in pairs. also valid.1.) n A U B) n UAA A n A=A U (A A r (A AU X = X n 0=0 Au ø =A nA X = A An = Au A=X . 1 nAl = ix[x iel E A i for all € I I. satisfies the equation . supremum) and meet (greatest lower bound. =A U B =BUA OF CRISP SET OPERATIONS volution Coramutativity Associativity thstributivity Ideittpatence Absorption Absorption AnB BnA (A u C . which is only partial. A {I B ALB 7 2 k n 'AT by X and 0 ideality Law of contradiction. and vice versa. and C are assumed to be elements of the power set T(X) of a universal set Z.
„ n). which are subsets of A. b)ia € A. The refinement relation on the set of all partitions of A. O< a < 1} is uncountable. are called the innermost set and the outermost set. The Cartesian product of a family {A1.Tr i (A) and n2 (A). A2. 2. B are nonerapty. A is called a nested family. and the sets A1 and A. „ . Given two partitions . 1. a2. respectively. countable sets are classified into finite and countably infinite (also called denumerable). are denoted by A2. A family of painvisc disjoint nonempty subsets of a set A is callcd a partition fan A if the union of these subsets yields the original set A. A2.. b E B). Each member of A belongs to one and only one block of 7r(A). An important and frequently used universal set is the set of all points in the ndimensional Euclidean vector space IR for some n N (i. For instance. n — 1. and icr LJAi =A.1 be a family of sets such that Ai C Ai+i for all i 2.. Formally. Clearly. A. are usually referred to as blocks of the partition. A set whose members can be labelled by the positive integers is called a countable set. referred to as the partition lattice of A. is a partial ordering.Sec. They are the subject of Chapter 5. 11(A). A and B (in this order)—is the set of all ordered pairs such that the first element in each pair is a member of A. ‹) is a lattice. a„) € Ai for every i= 1... Every uncountable set is infinite. Then. If such labelling is not possible. 1. a„) such that ai € Ai(i = 1. The Cartesian product of two sets—say. all ntuples of real numbers). respectively.A x A xA. c(A) where Ai 0 0.. . where A x B denotes the Cartesian product. Thus. A x B i(a. we say that r1 (A. n Ai for each pair i.) is a refinement of 7e2(. Members of a partition It(A). jEI. x A. then AxBOBxA. Let A = (AA. . A3. and the Second elemmt is a member of B.. Formally. is a partition on A iff Ai E 1.. We denote a partition on A by the symbol Tr (A). The pair (rI(A). This definition can easily be extended to infinite families. Subsets of Cartesian products are called relations.2 Crisp Sets: An Oveiview A 9 n B = 0.i0 j. „ 4 The Cartesian products A xA. ifAOR and A. .A1 C A}.. he set fa la is a real number.e. (22. It is written as either Ai x A2 x or ' X A. the set is called uncountable. A„ } of sets is the set of all ntuples (ai. which is denoted by rri (A) Tr2 (A) 4iu our case).< X A1 = ((al .14 )r each block of (A is included in sonie block of n2(A).. 2.
.8 and 2. . For any set of real numbers R that is bounded above. 5] is not convex. Let R denote a Set of real numbers (R c R). Examples of convex and nonconvex sets in Irt2 are given in Fig. In other words. then r is called an upper bowid of R (or a lower bound of R). s = 4.1 Example of sets in le that are convex (A 1—A1) or noor.r < r (or x s. +{1 — 1)s =2. respectively) for every r c R. a real number r is called the sziprernian of R iff: Figure 2.4. a set A in R" is convex iff. 1 Sets defined in terms of RR arc often required to possess a property referred to as convexity. A set A in R4 is called convex iff. 2] U [3. as can be shown by producing one of an inflnite number of possible counterexamples: let r = I.10 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradfgrn Shift Chap.onvex (A. any act defined by a single interval of real numbers is convex. the point t Q. For example.1.e [0.8 0 A. then. 1]. the set A [I. If there is a real number r (or a real number s) such that . 1. for every pair of points r and s in A.. and we say that A is bounded above by r (or bounded below by s). for every pair of points r (rai E NO and s = N„) in A and every real number ). all points located on the straightline segment connecting r and s are also in A.rj + (1 — E is also in A.5—As). In R. any set defined by more than one interval that does not contain some points between the intervals is not convex. and 1 = 0.
(b) no number greater than s is. symbols of membership functions may also be used as labels of the associated fuzzy sets. but no ambiguity results from this double use of the same symbol. 1 ] .1. 1. thereby discriminating between members and nonmembers of the crisp set under consideration. Since crisp sets and the associated characteristic functions may be viewed. In this text. that is. and the set defined by it a fuzzy set. into real numbers in [0. That is. the other one. a tower bound of R. 1]. In. AA X A [0.3 Fuzzy Sets: Bast Types 11 (a) r is an upper bound of R. the same notation is used for crisp sets as well. fuzzy sets allow us to represent vague concepts expressed in natural language. (a) s If s is the in fi rm= of R. the symbol (label. respectively. we write s = inf R. The representation depends not only on the concept. the characteristic function of a crisp set assigns a value of either 1 or 0 to each individual in the universal set. name) of the fuzzy set (A) is distinguished from the symbol of its membership function (AA). the function is denoted by A and has of course. 1]. In one of them. identifier. this distinction is not made. consequently. we use the second notation. (b) no number less than r is an. the same form: [0. 11 According to the first notation. but also on the context  . which is always a crisp set. each membership function maps elements of a given universal set X. we write r sup R. This function can be generalized such that the values assigned to the elements of the universal set fall within a speicifwd _range and indicate the membership grade of these elements in the set in question. 1.Sec 1. If r is the supremunt of R. each fuzzy set and the associated membership function are denoted by the same capital letter. upper bound of R. Larger values denote higher degrees of set reembership Such a function is called a membership fimetion. According to the second notation. Two distinct notations are most commonly employed in the literature to denote membership functions. as special fuzzy sets and membership functions. The most commonly used range of values of membership functions is the unit interval [0. In this case. As discussed in Sec.3 FUZZY SETS:. a real number s is called the infimum of R iff: is a lower bound of R. BASIC TYPES As defined in the previous section. Each ftewery set is completely and urdquely defined by one particular membership function. For any set of real numbers R that is bounded below. the membership function of a fuzzy set A is denoted by AA.
(II) Ai is symmetric with respect to x = 2. let us consider four fuzzy sets whose membership functions are shown in Fig. at least in some climates. for .12 From Crciirlary (Or[Sp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. (I) A i (2) = 1 and A i (%) — These properties are necessary in order to properly represent the given conception. titaL i A1(2 + = C2 x) for all x e PR. in this case. In spite of their differences. in a particular form.. Any additional fuzzy sets attempting to represent the same conception would have to possess them as well. Even for similar contexts. fuzzy sets representing the same concept may vary considerably. < 1 for all x 2. applying the concept of high temperature in one context to weather and in another context to a nuclear reactor would necessarily be represented by very different fuzzy sets. they also have to be similar in some key features. Each of these fuzzy sets expresses. the four fuzzy sets are similar in the sense that the follnwing properties are possessed by each Ai (i G N4): . As an example. membetship functions that may be used in different C0612= Figure 12 Example. however.s characterizing fuzzy sets of real numbers close to 2. 12. the general conception of a class of real numbers that are close to 2. if the concept were applied to weather in different seasons. For example. (ill) A (x) decreases monotonically from 1 to 0 with the increasing difference 12 — xi. 1 in which it is used. although to a lesser degree. That would also be the case.
Whether a particular shape is suitable or not can be determined only in thc contcxt of a particular application. Such a variable is usually called a . highly educated.2). that many applications are not overly sensitive to variations in the shape. the function decreases with the increasing difference Ir .2 exemplify these classes of functions for p / = 1. 1.)1 cos(per(x .3 by the symbols 0. and so on are often employed to define states of a variable. In such cases.sets. medium. as a simple example. This similarity does not reflect the conception itself. according to these definitions. Let us consider now. Each function in Fig.Sec. for each x. 1.twoyear college degree 4 . a person who has a bachelor's degree but no higher degree is viewed. and r =2 Fuzzy sets in Fig. p4 =2. high. L2 are also similar in the sense that numbers outside the interval [1. and very highly educated people are defined in Fig. 1. / Pi(r .liPi.2 are defined within. Thus. /33 = 5. 1.doctoral degree Membership functions of the three fuzzy. Several fuzzy sets representing linguistic concepts such as low.r»)/2 O when x E [r otherwise For each i e N4.high school 3. respectively. and pi (I G N. the set of real numbers.elementary school 2. it is convenient to use a simple shape.xl: Ai(x) . it turns out. for example.master's degree 6 .2 is a member of a parametrized family of functions.4) is a parameter that determines the rate at which. r + 1/Pi] 0 otherwise 1 A 2 (x) A 3 (x) A4( ) X 1 ± p2(x r) 2 e1P341.r) +1. p2 = 10. as highly educated to the degree of 0. 3] are virtually excluded from the associated fuzzy sets.no education 1 . the graph of Ai becomes narrower.. 1. ri pi (r . when x E fr .8 and very highly educated to the degree of 03. Functions in Fig. which attempt tu capture the concepts of littleeducated. The following are general formulas describing the four families of membership functions. t3 Fuzzy Sets! Basic Types 13 The four membership functions In Fig. but rather the context in which it is used. since their membership grades are either equal to 0 or negligible. when pi increases. three fuzzy. sets defined within a finite universal set that consists of seven levels of education: 0 . and 0. such as the triangular shape of il. however. where r denotes the real number for which the membership grade is required to be one (r = 2 for ail functions in Fig. 6.bachelor's degree 5 .x) + 1 when x € [r. The functions are manifested by very different shapes of their graphs.
In Fig_ 1. high. A measurement that falls into a close neighborhood of each precisely defined border between state* of a crisp variable is taken as evidential support for only one of the states. They are all defined by membership functions of the form fri. which we may refer to as crisp variables. in spite of the inevitable uncertainty involved in this decision. it is unrealistic in the face of unavoidable measurement errors. Graphs of these functions have trapezoidal shapes. medium. temperature within a range [T1. possess a natural capability to express and deal with observation and measurement uncertainties. highly educated (*).4a. are 1:110St common in current applications. The uncertainty reaches its maximum at each border. L2). 3 Educational level Figure E3 Examples of folzy sets expressing the concepts of peopte that are little educated (0). very high. and very highly educated (0). States of the corresponding traditional variable are crisp sets defined by the rightopen intervals of real numbers shown in Fig_ 1.4b. for example. States of the fufiy variable are fuzzy sets representing five linguistic concepts: very low. where any measurement should be regarded as equal evidence for the two states on either side of the border. ficzy variable. and it is contrasted in Fig. The significance of fuzzy variables is that they facilitate gradual tr ansitions between states and4 consequently. low. T2] [0. do not have this capability.14 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fumy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. 1. . 1 42. Traditional variables. together with triangular shapes (such as A 1 in Fig.4b with comparable traditional (nonfuzzy) variable. When_ dealing with crisp variables. T2] is characterized as a fuzzy variable. Although the definition of states by crisp sets is mathematically correct. which.
TA cipacefved inal. the uncertainty is ignored even in this extreme case. they are not certain. It is an interesting paradox that data based on fuzzy variables provide us. we introduced only one type of fuzzy set. the measurement is regarded as evidence for one of the states.1) . . (a) (b) tra. is now well developed for many application areas.'. they are more attuned to reality than crisp variables. be expressed better than by the following statement made by Albert Einstein in 1921: So far as laws of mathematics refer to reality.ditienal however. (1. in fact.Sec. and a lot of additional research work will have to be done on it to achieve full satisfaction. they do not refer to reality.y— Temperature. (b) °C a fuzzy variable: T2 _Figure 1. its usefuLuess depends critically on our capability to construct appropriate membership functions for various given concepts in various contexts. This important point can hardly.4 Temaparature in the range fr. the one that includes the border point by virtue of an arbitrary mathematical definition. However. the problem of constructing meaningful membership functions is a difficult MO. which was rather weak at the early stages of fuzzy set theory. set A) is defined by a function of the form A [0.3 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Types 1 (a) Very low Low Medium High Very high — i Ti (crisp) variable. This capability. with more accurate evidence about teal phenomena than data based upon crisp variables. 11. 1. any arbitrary fuzzy set of this type (say. And so far as they are certain. Given a relevant universal set X. Since fuzzy variables capture measurement uncertainties as part of experimental data. Although mathematics based ou fuzzy sets has far greater expressive power than classical mathematics based on crisp sets. We discuss the problem and overview currently available construction methods in Chapter 10_ Thus far.
Thus.7y SetS: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. For each x. We may either suppress the identification uncertainty by choosing reasonable values between the lower and upper bounds (e. These sets are defined formally by functions of the. Fuzzy sets defined by membership functions of this type are called intervalvalued fuzzy sets.From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fli7. 1. Let fuzzy sets of the type thus far discussed An example of a membership function of this type is given in Fig. successful applications of fuzzy set theory. or we may accept the uncertainty and include it in the definition of the membership function. 1]. They require that each element of the universal set be assigned a palticafar real number. The primary reason for generalizing ordinary fuzzy sets is that their membership functions are often overly precise.. However. 11) C T•10. several more general types of fuzzy sets have also been proposed in the literature. IImyever.2) where 8([0. but a closed interval of real numbers between the identified lower and upper bounds. 1. the middle values). A(x) is represented by the segment between the two curves. 1j). In such cases. for some concepts and contexts in which they are applied. A(a) az] for the example in Fig. we may be able to identify appropriate membership functions only approximately. A membership function based on the latter approach does not assign to each element of the universal set one real number. / Fuzzy sets of this type are by far the most common in the literature as well as in the various be called ordinary fuzzy sets to distinguish them from fuzzy sets al the various generalized types. (1. E([0. we may basically take one of two possible approaches. Membership functions of intervalvalued fuzzy sets are not as specific as their counter a X Figure 13 An example of an intervalvalued fuzzy sat (A(a) Cai n a2]).5. 1]) denotes the family of all closed intervals of real numbers in [0. we ay only be able to identify meaningful lower and upper bounds of membership grades for each element of the universal set. .g. 1]). clearly. form A X >• E((O. For ex2mple. which express the identified lower and upper bounds.5.
1]. Since most current applications of fuzzy set theory do not seem to be overly sensitive to minor changes in relevant membership functions. making results of the processing less specific but more credible. hence. 11) denotes the set of all ordinary fuzzy sets that can be defined within the universal set [O.3) where T([O. . /33. Since membership grades assigned to elements of the universal set by these generalized fuzzy sets are ordinary fuzzy sets. the fuzzy . if x = b. where fuzzy intervals assigned to x = a and x = b are explicitly shown. 1}.. 11. but this lack of specificity makes them more realistic in some applications. TO. Their membership functions have the form  A : X— F([0. is computationally more demanding.62. this disadvantage of interval valued fuzzy sets usually outweighs their advantages. However. Each interval now becomes an ordinary fuzzy set defined within the universal set [0. we obtain numbers /3. Assume now that the membership grades assigned by a type 2 fuzzy set (e. Fuzzy sets of type 2 possess a great expressive power and. each of them is fully defined by four numbers. for example.g. 1 ]) . we obtain numbers c a2 . lefthand side) is uniquely determined Similarly. and P4. Their advantage is that they allow us to express our uncertainty in identifying a particular membership function. computational demands for dealing with them are even greater than those for dealing with intervalvalued fuzzy sets.3 Fuzzy Sets: asic Types 17 parts of ordinary fuzzy sets.6. 11 is also called a fuzzy power set of [0. if x = a. consequently. Intervalvalued fuzzy sets can further be generalized by allowing their intervals to be fuzzy. The concept of a type 2 fuzzy set is illustrated in Fig. For each x. ci 3 . are conceptually quite appealing. It is assumed here that membership functions of all fuzzy intervals involved are of trapezoidal shapes and. (1. 1. and 174 . by which the fuzzy interval assigned to a (shown on the. Thus. these sets are referred to as fuzzy sets' of iype 2. these numbers are produced by four functions. This uncertainty is involved when intervalvalued fuzzy sets are processed. IA by the four curves. when compared with ordinary fuzzy sets. Figure L6 illustration of the comept of a fuzzy set of type 2. This seems to be the primary reason why they have almost never been utilized in any applications.Sec. and the assigned fuzzy interval is shown on the righthand side. 1. The primary disadvantage of intervalvalued fuzzy sets is that this processing. represented in Fig.
which may involve L fuzzy sets as well as fuzzy sets of higher types and higher levels. we obtain a fuzzy set of type 3. (1.18 From Ordinary (Crisp).6) Other combinations are also possible. there is little rationale for further pursuing this line of generalization. it allows us to obtain the membership grade for an approximate value of x. Since these generalized types of fuzzy sets have not as yet played a significant role in applications of fuzzy set theory. but only approximately. we need to specify the value (say. intervals in Fig. since computational complexity increases significantly for each higher type. 23.6) are themselves type 2 fuzzy sets.5) where F(X) denotes the fuzzy power set of X (the set of all ordinary fuzzy sets of X). A formal treatment of fuzzy sets of type 2 and level 2 (as well as higher types and levels) is closely connected with methods of fuzzikca. we want . Then. In fact. the membership grade of a value of x that is known to be close to r in the level 2 fuzzy set A is given by A (B). We can also conceive of fuzzy sets that are of type 2 and also of level 2. On the other hand. Their detailed coverage is beyond the scope of this text. they capture all the other types introduced thus fax as special cases. 1]. Assuming that the proposition "x is close to r" is represented by an ordinary fuzzy set B." where x is a variable whose values are real numbers. Levol 2 fuzzy sets can be generalized into level 3 fuzzy sets by using a universal set whose elements are level 2 fuzzy sets. by fuzzy sets expressing propositions of the forna "x is close to r.4) Since set L with its ordering is most frequently a lattice. Their membership functions have the form A (X) Ye. (1. When we relax the requirement that membership grades must be represented by numbers in the guilt interval 10. which are discussed in Sec.4 . for example. this omission is currently of no major consequence. and it is easy to see that fuzzy sets of still higher types could be obtained recursively in the sanie way. However. we obtain fuzzy sets of another generalized type_ They are called Lfuzry sets. These fuzzy sets are known as level 2 fuzzy sets. at least for the time being. and r is a particular real number. L fuzzy sets are very general. Sets to Fuzzy Sets! A Grand Paradiizrri Shift Chap.tion. In order to determine the membership grade of some value of x in an ordinary fuzzy set A. 11 and allow them to be represented by symbols of an arbitrary set L that is at least partially ordered. 11). A different generalization of ordinary fuzzy sets involves fuzzy sets defined within a universal set whose elements are ordinary fuzzy sets. r) precisely. Except for this brief overview of the various types of generalized fuzzy sets.bership functions have the form  (1. and their mem. 1. Higherlevel fuzzy sets can be obtained recursively in the same way. Their membership functions have the form . T(X) [0. if A is a level 2 fuzzy set. The generalized fuzzy sets are introduced in this section for two reasons. First. Level 2 fuzzy sets allow us to deal with situallOilS ill which elements of the universal set cannot be specified precisely. we do not further examine their properties and the procedures by which they are manipulated. letter L was initially chosen to signify this fact_ By allowing only a partial ordering among membership grades.
A reasonable expression of these concepts by trapezoidal membership functions A1.13asic Concepts 19 the reader to understand that fuzzy set theory does not stand or fall with ordinary fuzzy sets. 1. Such approximations are important because they are typical in. 1. "A. let us mcntion that ordinary fuzzy sets may also be viewed as fuzzy sets of type 1 and level I.1c r.7: . we consider three fuzzy sets that represent the concepts of a young. 801 as follows: /1 (35 — x)/15 Ai (x) = when x < 20 when 20 < x < 35 when x > 35 when either . For the sake of completeness. A2. the term "fuzzy set" refers in thi3 text to ordinary fuzzy sets. and it is thus advisable that the reader be familiar with the basic ideas and terminology pertaining to them. Unless otherwise stated. a strong a cra .7.8) 'FA = fxIA(x) ›. A3 given in Fig.a).4 FUZZY SETS! BASIC CONCEPTS In this section. One of the most important concepts of fuzzy sets is the concept of an a cut and its variant. and all strong a.. Second. D2.45)/15 A possible discrete approximation.7) (1. however. 1. 11. These functions are defined on the interval [0. computer representations of fuzzy sets. L7. its explicit definition is given in Table 1. the a cut (or the strong a cut) of a fuzzy set A is the crisp set t'A (or the crisp set c'FA) that contains all the elements of the universal set X whose membership grades in A are greater than or equal to (or only greater than) the specified value of As an example. cuts for the fuzzy sets A1. of function A2. We may occasionally refer to some of the generalized types of fuzzy sets later in the text. is also shown in Fig. we feel that the practical significance of at least some of the generalized types will gradually increase. "±A. and old person. Given a fuzzy set A defined on X and any number a c [0.4 Fu zzy Sets: . To illustrate the concepts. 1.Sec. the acut.45 when 45 <x <60 when x > 60 0 A3(x) = I 4 . are the crisp sets  = fxIA(x) a) (1. A2. and A3 is shown in Fig. the following is a complete Characterization of all acuts. and the strong ee cut. we introduce some basic concepts and terminology of fuzzy sets.x — O {0 20 or 60 Az()x = 20)/15 (60 — x)/15 1 (x when 20 <x <35 when 45 <r < 60 when 35 < x < 45 when .  That is. middleaged. the rest of the text is devoted to the study of ordinary fuzzy sets. By and large.2.
I] that represent distinct acuts of a given fuzzy set A is called a level set of A. .7) BY FUNCTION D2 OF THE FORM: D2 10.00 °A1 = °A2 = °A3 = [0. 1+AL = 1+A2 1+A3 = The set of all levels a c [0.40 0. 461 x (361 38. 60 — 15a). naiddleaged i and old person. 1 o 10 20 30 40 Age:ic 50 60 70 80 Figure 1.53 0. . 501 ▪ E (32.93 1. 56] x E (26. 54) • E (28. Formally. 4_ . TABLE 1.. Shown discrete appsnimation 1)2 of A2 is defined numerically Ln Table L2.00 0A3 0. = (0.20 Frtam Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. aA2 [ 15a ± 20. MA) = PtIA(x) = a for some x E XI. 80) for all [0.27 0.441 0.10.80 0. 11 E (22. 80] . 0. 15a]. 481 E (34.2 DISCRETE APPROXIMATION OF MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION A2 (Fn. 521 • E (30. 35 C [01 1). $0) —1. 60 — 15a].= X. = [15a + 45. .7 Membership functions representing the concept5 of a young. 581 E (24.67. Œ+A3 (15a ± 45. 2. 11. c"A2 = (15a ± 20. 35 — 15a).. 1. 801 for all E (0.
for example.13. An important property of fuzzy s. that the intervals representing the acuts and the strong acuts of the fuzzy sets A 1 . TWO Of the acuts shown in the figure are clearly convex in the classical sense. it is required that acuts of a convex fuzzy set be convex for all a c (0. for any fuzzy set A and pair a l .9) This property can Aso be expressed by the equations n azA = and "i+A fl '"'±A ". clearly. and it is easy see that any other  . is often called the core of A.8. 1). 067. IA. Notice.27.7 and defined numerically in Table 1.8: for each of the discrete values of x.9 illustrates a subnormal fuzzy set that is convex.12) A. The support of a fuzzy set A within a universal set X is the crisp set that contains all the elements of X that have nonzero membership wades in A. The height. A2. and A(A1) = 21(A2 ) = A(A3) = A(D2 ) = {0. Although special symbols. which follows immediately from their definitions. In order to make the generalized convexity consistent with the classical definition of convexity.Sec. The 1cut. we have '4 A D '2A and al + A D '2 +A. h(A) sup A (x). fuzzy set A is called normal' when il(A) 1. 0. we have: 1]. and A3 in Fig. 0. The height of A may also be viewed as the supremum of a for which 'TA 0.2. let us consider the discrete approximation D2 of fuzzy set A2 . the families of all acuts and all strong cecuts are in this case infinite for each of the sets. is that the total ordering of values of CI in [0.53. To see the nested families more explicitly. and A3 are all [0. An important property of both 0:cuts and strong 0fcuts. the support of A is exactly the same as the strong acut of A for a = 0.7 shorten with increasing 1X. 0.93. 1. Clearly.10) (1. 1. we plefer to use the natural symbol »A. A2. For our examples. ix (1.11) An obvious consequence of this property is that all acuts'and all strong acuts of any fuzzy set form two distinct families of nested crisp sets. 0.ets defined on IV (for some n E 19 is their convexity. 11. the inclusion in each acut or each strong acut is marked with a dot at the crossing of x and a. (1.4 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 21 where A denotes the level set of fuzzy set A defined on X. 1. 1. such as S(A) or supp(A). 11 of distinct values such that a l < a2 .4. h(A). 0. °IA um% = A. Since level sets of A 1 . Formally.2±A. ce2 c [0. (1. The families of all acuts and all strong acuts of D2 are shown for sonae convenient values of a in Fig. it is called subnormal when h(A). which is shown in Fig. 1] in the classical sense (Omit is excluded here since it is always equal to Rn in this case and thus includes —CO to +00 Fig. of a fuzzy set A is the largest membership grade obtained by any element in that set. "L +A U "riA cf2A. 1] is inversely preserved by set inclusion of the corresponding ex cuts as well as strong acnts_ That is. 1. are often used in tile literature to denote the support of A. 1.0. This property is viewed as a generalization of the classical concept of convexity of crisp sets.
the resulting fuzzy set is also viewed as convex. The lack of convexity of this fuzzy set can be demonstrated by identifying some of its a cuts (a 0) that are not convex. 1. one such a cut is shown in the figure.. ixcuts for a 0 are t. In fact. For the sake of simplicity.x.875 0. (a) .. Fig.8 Compkto ataies ot cecuts and strong acut s of Vac fuziy Set D2 defined (a Table 1.  . which are of primary interest in this text.25D 111111111111111111111 OA25 111111111O1111111111 o 0. according to standard definitions.22 [00 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. Fig.11 illustrates a normal fuzzy set defined on R2 by all its cicuts for ci > O.2.125 1111111111111511111111111 1111111111111111111160 o 50 0. We now prove a maul theorem that pro vides us with an alternative formulation of convexity of fuzzy sets.cuts "D2 LOW 1111111111111111111011111111 MM 1111111111111111111111111 10111111111111101=1111111 111111111111M1111111 11111111111111111111111111 111111111111110111111111111 0. Since all the ce cuts are convex.strong crcuts 4D2. 1M (b) Strong or .500 0. Figurt 1.375 0.mivex as well. membership functions of convex fuzzy sets are functions that are. 1 ta 11110111111111111111111111111111 mm 111111111111111110111111MININIM 11111111111011111111111111 con 1111111111OlOO1IO1111111111 moo 0375 11111111111111111O1O111111 0250 1111111111111111111O11111111111 0. concave and not convex. To avoid confusion.10 illustzates a noanal fuzzy set that i nut Convex. note that the definiti on of convexity for fuzzy sets does not mean that the membership function of a convex fuzzy set is a convex function.375 0. (a) acuts ("D2.000 20 30 40 50 80 A.cuts.625 0. 1.000 20 30 40 80 (a ) c . we restrict the theorem to fuzzy sets on R.
Then.fuzzy set theory that is preserved in all cccuts for ce E (0.).. A(x2)] min(er. and for any A. Âxt ± (1 — A.13) A(Act + (1— A. x2 e "A and.e.)xz e 'A for any A E [0. ce). 1. A (x2) ?.(1 — A. Proof: (1) Assume that A is convex and let a = A(xt) < A(x2).13). bY ( 1. 1 1 by the convexity of A. moreover.4 Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 23 Mx) Figure 1. kri I. E 10.. A (x2)] for all xt. We need to prove that for any et e (0. 11. A is convex. E [0. A fuzzy set A on R is convex a (1. convex.9 Subnormal fu2zy set that is. Consequently. xi.e. 11. 2A is convex_ Now for any xi. Theorem LI. Hence.13) A (Xx/ + (1 — 1)x2) min[A (x i).Sec. 11 in the classical sense is called a cutworrhy . Therefore. Any property generalized from classical set theory into the domain of. 1]. where min denotes the minimum operator. a) = i. x2 e (i. x2 E R and all di. 'A is comfœi for any a e (0.)x2 e A.rz) min[A (xi). 1 1 . A (x2)]  (ii) Assume that A satisfies (1. A (xi) og. A(Axt ± (1 — a = A(x1 ) = ( xi).
10.11 Normal ad COLIVCX fuzzy get A defined by its « cuis 1A. "5A. 1A. .24 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A aranti Paradigm Shift Chap. Figure 1. '11A. Norzasd &Limy tbst ig oat convex. 1 A DO 1 °A Figuure 1. JA.
one particular generalization. The full treatment of possible operations on fuzzy sets is in Chapter 3.are defined for all x E X by the equations (A n li)(x) = min[A(x). Furthermore . in which the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union play the roles of the meet (infimum) and the join (suprernum). membership grades of equilibrium points are 0. also a strong cutworthy property. Any fuzzy power set T(X) can be viewed as a lattice. The three basic operations on crisp sets—the complement. 1. 71.13)(x) = max[A(x). respectively. The lattice is distributed and complemented under the standard fuzzy complement. (1. Another example based on the same sets is shown in Fig. we need only to show that the equation rain[A (x) i—AÇx)]= 0 is violated for at least one x E X. Applying these standard operations to the fuzzy sets in Fig. It satisfies all the properties of the Boolean lattice listed in Table 1.4 property. which results_ in operations that are usually referred to as standard fuzzy set operations. is an example of a curworthy property and as can be proven. as defined above.15) (1.7. 1. 1. where B = A 1 n A2 and C = Az n A3. Given two fuzzy sets. the equilibrium points of A2 in Fig. for example. 1 ]. For the standard Elements of X for which A(x) complement.Sec. clearly. intersection and union—can be generalized to fuzzy sets in more than one way.12.5 and 52. The standard complement. their standard intersection. these definitions can be extended to any finite number of fuzzy sets. (A u . and standard union.14) 71. for example. Due to the associativity of min and max. B(x)]. respectively. we introduce only the standard operations. (1.5. Normality and convexity may thus be lost when we operate on fuzzy sets by the standard operations of intersection and complement. Convexity of fuzzy sets. The construction of M n A3 is shown in Fig. and A3 are normal. we can find. that the law of contradiction is violated for fuzzy sets. In the following.(x) are called equilibrium points of A. Fuzzy Sets: Basfc Concepts  25 if it is preserved in all strong a cuts for a e [0. A2..13. A (1 8. This is easy since the equation is obviously violated for any . Such a lattice is often referred to as a De Morgan lattice or a De Morgan algebra.7 are 27. of fuzzy set A with respect to the universal set X is defined for an x E X by the equation A (x) = 1 — A(x). The equation makes good sense: a person who is not young and not old is a middleaged person.cutworthy property. B(x)). that A2 = 711 ri A3.8 Li C and B C are not convex even though B and C are convex. A Li B. For example. has a special significance in fuzzy set theory.16) where min and max denote the minimum operator and the maximum operator.1 except the law of contradiction and the law of excluded middle. A and B. Observe that both B and C are subnormal even though A 1 . However. it is called a strong. 1.5. To verify. where the special significance of the standard operations is also explained. 1.
Hence.26 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. minfA(x).12 111ustratkm MstandAril operations on foniy sett (A i . value A(x) E (0. AU (A This requires showing that the equation mt4A (x). . Al are given in Fig. Li). A2. B(x)jj A(x) contradiction is n B) A. As another example. 1 10 20 30 X 40 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 X 40 — 50  60 70 80 31. the law of satisfied only for crisp sets. i. let us verify the law of absorption. 1) and is satified only for A(x) E 071. Figure 1.
1. A3 are given in Fig.7).13 atuatration of standard cperation o fuzzy (1.Sec. A1 11 A2 =43 C = A2 r1A3 . A2. 1..4 Fuzzy Sets: Oasic Cancepts 27 10 20 50 60 70 (Bwq(x) 1 I — j 1 70 O 142 20 30 40 50 60 SO Figure 1.
. A(x) B(x)]). B) = 1 —(1A1 .A(x)] = in the second case.x2 adx„.B=A and AUB=E for any A. where the slash is employed to link the elements of the support with their grades of membership in A. B) < 1.53 + . A(x) B(x) PAL by the formula lA i =EA (x). let xi. This equivalence makes a connection between the two definitions of the lattice. wc obtain > R(x). X.8 +. It is easy to see that. (1. under the standard fuzzy set operations. x2.17) for all E N. let us introduce a special notation that is often used in the literature for defining fuzzy sets with a finite support. A C B iff An. B). Other laws of the De Morgan lattice can be verified similarly. 19) The E terni in this formula describes the sum of the degrees to which the subset inequality A(x) 13(x) is violated. the degree of subsethood. cardinality of the fuzzy set D2 defined in Table 1. and the cardinality IAI in the denominator is a normalizing factor to obtain the range 0 < S(A. max[A(x). A is written as A = at/xi + a2/. that .20) SO. 1 is satisfied for all X E X. rather than any sort of algebraic addition. B) 'Aran IA1 (1. and the plus sign indicates. the sca. we have raax[A(x). It is easy to convert (1.13 ± _27 ± .8(x) or A (x) In the first case. S(A. c ).lar. Given a fuzzy set A defiled on a finite universal set X. For example.19) to the more convenient formula (1.. The De Morgan lattice can also be defined as the pair (T(X).93) + 5 12. We have to consider two cases: either A CO ‹ .28 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. of A ill B is defined by the formula S(A. B(x)] = 4(x) since A (x) > 13(x) in this case. denote elements of the support °+A of A and let ai denote the grade of membership of xi in A for all i e N.2 is D2 I = 2(.67 + .46. Then.1CeX rux[0. To conclude this section. we say that A is a subset of B and writeAÇ B iff (1. B E F(X). we define its scalar cardinally. For any pair of fuzzy subsets defined on a finite universal sct X. where C denotes a fuzzy set inclusion by which elements of T(X) are partially ordered.21) where n denotes the standard fuzzy intersection. Given two fuzzy sets A . B E Y(X). the difference describes the lack of these violations.4 ± . For any fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal set X.18) Some =hors refer to IA I as the sigma count of A. • • . (1.
when X is an interval of real numbers. the usual meaning.. for example. This interpretation suggests that a suitable distance be defined between fuzzy sets. A= E a i /xi or A = E I. À (x) — /3. d(A.Sec. .14. For the ease in which a fuzzy set A is defined on a universal set that is finite or countable. 1A Fuzzy Sets: Basic Concepts 29 the listed pairs of elements and membership grades collectively form the definition of the set A. (1. it solely indicates ' that all the pairs of x and A (x) in the interval X collectively form A. the concept of the Hamming distance. Similarly. Hence. 1. can be _ then viewed as. Using. a fuzzy set A is often written in the form A= A(x)/x. the distance CA. 1=1. 0) of A from the empty set. Examples of this simplex are shown in Fig.22) _vaxThe cardinality Al of a 'fuzzy set A. the set of all probability distributions that can be defined on X is represented by an (n — 1)dimensional simplex of the ndimensional unit cube. given by (LIS). That is. the entire cube represents the fuzzy power set (X). B) PROBABILITY E DisrmairnoNs PFIOBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS nE2 Flware 114 dr3 Examples illustrating the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets. It is interesting and conceptually useful to interpret ordinAry fuzzy subsets of a finite universal set X with n elements as points in the ndimensional unit cube 10. we have . Again. Observe that probability distributions are represented by sets whose cardinality is I. and its vertices represent the crisp power set 2(X). respectively. in this notation.(x)1. WC may write. the integral sign does not have. 1r.
which is currently ongoing. 1962). is seen beneath the microscope as a kind of corrugated trench. standards.. has similar characteristics to other paradigm shifts recognized in the history of science. 1. Each paradigm shift is initiated by emerging problems that are difficult or impossible to deal with in the current paradigm (paradoxes. pace. whose importance familiarity fails to diminish. let us reflect a little.the field and. it is defined as a set of theories. Kuhn characterizes scientific development as a process in which periods of normal science. when proposed. Some of the most visible paradigm shifts are associated with the names of Copernicus (astronomy). and other features. which is briefly mentioned in Sec.5 rrom Ordinary (Crisp) Sete to Fuzzy Sets: A °rand Paradigm Shift CHARACTERISTICS AND SIGNIFICANCE' OF THE PARADIGM SHIFT Chao. and methods that are taken for granted by the scientific community in a given field. The need to bridge the gap between a mathematical model and experience is well characterized in a penetrating study by the American philosopher Max Black [1931: It is a paradox. usually referred to as paradigm shifts. is initially rejected in various forms (it is ignored.) by most scientists in the given field. This gap has becume increasingly disturbing.). far retrroveA from the ideal line of pure germ:Letry_ And the "pointplanet"' of astronomy. and Gödel (mathematics). The line traced by a draftsman. Before embarking on deeper study of fuzzy sets. Lavoisier (chemistry). based upon a particular paradigm. Although paradigm shifts vary from on:e. The paradigm shift initiated by the concept of a fuzzy set and the idea of mathematics based upon fuzzy sets.more on the transition from the traditional view to the modern view of uncertainty. and social sciences.30 1. no matter how accurate. Kuhn illustrates the notion of a paradigm shift by many welldocumented examples from the history of science. consequently. As a rule. Newton (mechanics). etc. such as modern technology and medicine. they shire a few general characteristics. It emerged from the need to bridge the gap between mathematical models and their empirical interpretations. Using this concept. attacked.1. la his book. It is increasingly recognized that this transition has characteristics typical of processes. ridiculed. not very influential. Since the paradigm is initially not welldeveloped. of Chicago Press. especially in the areas of biological. that the most highly developed and weftl scientitiu theories are ostensibly expressed in terms et objects never encountered in experience. The paradigm eventually gAins its statais on pragmatic grounds by demonstrating that it is more successful than the existing paradigm in dealing with problems that are generally recognind as acute.another in their scope. the greater the scope of a paradigm shift. anomalies. Einstein (mechanics). Each paradigm. or the "pure species" of genetics are equally remote from exact realization. cognitive. The concept of a scientific paradigm was introduced by Thomas Kuhn in his important and highly influential hook The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Univ. principles. Those who usually support the new paradigm art either v cry young or very new to . Indeed the unintelligibility at the atomic . Maxwell (electromagnetism). are interwoven with periods of paradigm shifts. the "perfect gas" of thermodynamics. the longer it takes for the new paradigm to be generally accepted. the position of its proponents is weak. which are referred to by Kahn as scientific revolutions. which appear periodically throughout the history of science. Darwin (biology). as well as in applied sciences. etc.
To say that all language (symboliste. probability measures. While the mathematician constructs a theory in terms of "perfect" objects.Sec. was initially ignored. will invalidate the deduction unless the permissible limits of variation are specified. It is necessary to know that its validity is unaltered when the premise and conclusion are only "approximately true. sets. There are some who feel this gap reflects the fundamenta l inadequacy of the conventional mathematics—the mathematics of preciselydefined points. or even open hostility. or attacked by many. in the very nature of measurement. or thought) is vague is a favorite method for evading the problems involved and lack of analysis has the disadvantage of tempting even the most eminent thirkers into the appearance of absurdity. and began to demonstrate its superior pragmatic utility in the 1980s. ridiculed. and that to deal effectively with such systems. The paradigm shift is still ongoing. three years before he actually pro'posed the new paradigm of mathematics based upon the concept of a fuzzy set: . lvfathematical deduction is not useful to the physicist if interpreted rigorously. or we can regard the geometry of spheres as a simplified and imperfect version of the spatial relations between the members of a certain class of physical objects.We can regard the shape of an orange or a tennis ball as imperfect copies of an ideal form of which perfect knowledge is to be had in pure geometry. and whose exact nature is in any case unknown_ This lack of exact correlation between a .there is a fairly wide gap between what might be regarded as "animate" system theorists and "inanimate" system theorists at the present lime. for in most practical cases the a priori data as well as the criteria by which the performance of a manmade system is judged are far from being precisely specified or having accurately known probability distributions. — When the new paradigm was proposed [Zadele. the mathematics of fuzzy or cloudy quantities which are not describable in teees of probability distributicins_ Indeed. however. In spite of the initial lack of interest.5 Characteristics and Significance of the Paradigm Shift 31 or subatomic level of the notion of a rigidly demarcated boundary shows that such objects not merely are not but could not be encountered. To do so. that to label them as subjective aberrations sets an impassable gulf between formal laws and experience and leaves the usefulness of the formal sciences an insoluble mystery. 1. It will be argued. functions." But the indeterminacy thus introduced. the need for such mathematics is beconehts increasingly apparent even in the realm of inanimate systems. skepticism. On either view there remains a gap between scientific theory and its application which ought to be. be only approximately true. bridged... replaces the original mathematical deduction by a more complicated mathematical theory in respect of whose interpretation the same problem arises. mostly young and not influential.  The same need was expressed by Zadeli [1962]. We shall not assume that "laws" of logic or mathematics prescribe modes of efistence to which intelligible discourse must necessarily conform. matured significantly and gained some support in the 1970s. we need a radically different kind of mathematics. and it is not at all certain that this gap will be narrowed. etc.. the experkneetel scientist eleserves objects of which the properties demanded by theory are and can. and it will likely take much longer than usuel to . that deviations from the logical or mathematical standards of precision are all pervasive in symbolism. in the near future. which are generally orders of magnitude more complex than manmade systems.scientific theory and its empirical interpretation can be blamed either upon the world or upon the theory. which underlies this new paradigm. 19651A. while it was supported only by a few. on the contrary. for coping with the acalysis of biological systems. but is not. The concept of a fuzzy set. the new paradigm persevered with virtually no support in the 1960s. much less closed. it is necessary to add in criticism. the usual process of a paradigm shift began.
are usually called fiazy data.fuzzy sets was introduced by Goguen (1967]. The new paradigm has a greater capability to capture human commonsense reasoning. The book eovcrs an topics that are needed for this tc. For a general background on crisp sets and classical two valued logic. their counterparts obtained by processing the usual crisp data.. which are based on graded distinctions among states of relevant variables.amptes. In particular. The acceptance of such a radical challenge is surely difficult for most scientists.x. we recommend the bock Set Theory and Logic by R.1. 1. This hopefully will be achieved after his or her study of this whole text is completed. and considerable effort to propeLly comprehend the meaning and significance of the paradigm shift involved. Such data. The new paradigm has considerably greater expressive power. This is not surprising. 3. which for millennia has been taken for granted and viewed as inviolable. . it can effectively deal with a broader class of problems. 1 complete it. For a more advanced treatment of the topics. it has the capability to capture and deal with meanings of sentences expressed in natural language. In fact.1. we recommend the  book Set Theory and Related Topics by S. enough time. than. NOTES 1. New York. in both epistemological and pragmatic terms.xt and contains many spitted c. 1961). Freeman. 1964). The concept cf '. the new paradigm offer's far greater. we can recognize at least four features that make the new paradigm superior to the classical paradigm: L The new paradigm allows us to express irreducible observation and measurement uncertainties in their various manifestations and make these uncertainties intrinsic to empirical data. resources for mana ging complexity and controlling computational cost. their intrinsic uncertainties are processed as well. The new paradigm does not affect any particular field of 'science. R. the greater the superiority of fuzzy methods. it requires an open mind. the resulting machines are humanfriendlier. A thorough investigation of properties of iiizzy sets of type 2 and higher types was done by Mizumoto and Tanaka [1976. and the results obtained are more meaningful. The reader may not be able at this point to comprehend the meaning and significance of the described features of the new paradigm. San Francisco. and other aspects of human cognition.2. The general experience is that the more complex the problem involved.32 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sots to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. For the reasons briefly discussed in Sec. When fuzzy data are processed. Stoll (W. 2. When employed in machine design. This capability of the new paradigm allows us to deal in mathematical terms with problems that require the use of natural language. At this time. 4. H. but the very foundations of science. it challenges the most sacred element of the foundations—the Aristotelian twovalued logic. 1. since the scope of the paradigm shift is enormous. consequently. decision making. Lipschutz (Shawn.
Lower' [1980] aict 119S5]. Compute the scalar cardinalities for each of the following fuzzy sets: (a) A .9. . 1. Find some examples of intervalvalued fuzzy sets.Chap.10. 1. Order the fuzzy sets defined by the following membership grade functions (assuming x by the inclusion (subset) relation. and C defmed on the interval X p. level 2 fuzzy sets./z„ (c) C(x) for x {0. The concept of fuzzy sers of level k.. 1.4. L Sizzy sets.. Explain why the law of contradiction and the law of =elusive middle are violated in fuzzy set theory under the standard fuzzy sets operations. 1. 1 Exercises 33 1981b1.49 rip e. Find some examples of prospective fuzzy variables in daily lift Describe the concept of a fuzzy set in your own words. was proposed and developed by Vopénka and Hijek [1972] to represent sets with imprecise boundaries.4. which is due to Zadeh [1971b]. and type 2 fuzzy sets.7.3. 1979].1.4/ to + .6. semisets may be defined in terms of vague properties and not necessarily by explicit membership grade functions. 10] of real numbers by the membership grade functions MX) = 1 1÷ \2 B(x) = 1+ 10(z — 2)2 ' Determine mathematical formulas and graphs of the membership grade functions of each of the following sets: • A(x) = B(x) = 2'.. An alternative set theory. they are required to be approximated by fuzzy sets in practical situations_ The relatiombip between semisets and fuzzy sets is well characterized by Nova [1992]. which is referred to as the theory of sentisels. 1. Consider the fuzzy sets A. Let A.. The geometric interpretation of ordinary fuzzy sets as points in the ndimensional unit cube was introduced and pursued by Kosico (1990. 1.8.C(x) 1 ÷ 10x (1 +110x 1. EXERCIS ES Explain the difference between randomness and fuzziness.2. 101 = X.r) = I x/10 for x {0. 13.3.C(x) = 1 (a) . 19934 1. . (d) (. Unlike fuzzy Sets... B be fuzzy sets defined OR a universal set X.2. What is the significance of this? 1. 1. .5/2 + 4/y +11z. (b) B 1/x ± liy ±1. 1. LS. Prove that 1. U are the standard fuzzy intersection and union. — 1A1 1 1B1= LAU Bi+IA fl 11[. The concept of selnisets leads into a formulation of an alternative (nonstandaTd) set theory piopénka.. where n.4» +. 1991. respectively. 1. X. 10). was investigated by Gottwald [19797. Convex fuzzy sets were studied in greater detail by. While seroisets are more general than fuzzy sets. Explain why we need fuzzy set theory. however..
10 are convex.BriC. Restricting the universal set to [0. a 02.13. for example.19). Calculate the degrees of subsethood 5(C. 1.10 for some values of a. . Prove that: (a) (AAB)LC = (1:01 A ABAc: = nTe. 1 (b) A LI B. The difference of A and B is defined by A —B =AnTi: and the symmetric difference of A and B is cleaned by ALB =(A — B)U (B — A). 10].5.)u n C) uanB 1.AnC.BnC. Calculate the. B C. d. acuts and strong acuts of the three fuzzy sets in Exercise 1. Let A. (d) A UBLIC.14. D) and 5(1).12. B be two fuzzy sets of a universal set X. 1. 0. (e) Ane.15.n f_. 1.11.34 From Ordinary (Crisp) Sets to Fuzzy Sets: A Grand Paradigm Shift Chap. determine which fuzzy sets in Exercise 1. 1. C) for the fuzzy sets in Exercise Li c. 0. Given Equation (1. A U C. 1.Aue. (C) AnB.8.21).AnBnC. derive Equation (1.
we have (A n B)(x) > a arid. All these properties involve the standard fuzzy set operations and the standard fuzzy set inclusion. that is A(x) ›. (iii) First equality. This implies that x e A fl "B and. a or B (x) a. the following properties hold for all udi. we have rnaxCA (x). The first one covers some fairly elementary properties. 36). This implies that x E "(A ri B) and. B(r) ] > a. "A n «B C cr(A n B). which are introduced in Sec.4. For any x E B). that is A(x) ix and B(x) > a. " 144 n "+B and "+(A B) 'EA U 'ER. we have x C A or x C arB . The various properties of acuts covered in this section are expressed in terms of four theorems. Then. hence. for any x 35 . consequently. Ce < 13 implies 'A (di) "(A n B) n (iv) "IA n B) (y) "(71) = Proof: We i6A and "+A 13+A. hence. minrA(x). 1. for any x E A ri B. B(x)] > a and. consequently. we first overview some additional properties of acuts of the two types. a or Conversely. Conversely.. B(x)l . a. This nteans that A(x) > a and B (x) a. prove only (a) and (v). 11: ce+A Let A. For any x c "(A n B). 13 E [0. Mx) ›. we have x E crA and r e "H. This concludes the proof that "(A n B) = «A n "B.Fuzzy SETS VERSUS CRISP SETS 2. and x(A U B) °A ŒB. Theorem 2. Before examining this connection. consequently. "(A n B) C A n 'B. Seconct equality. =INA (x). (see a notational remark on ID. This implies that x E liaB and. play a principal role in the relationship between fuzzy sets and crisp sets_ They can be viewed as a bridge by which fuzzy sets and crisp sets are connected.1.1 ADDITIONAL PROPERTIES OF aCUTS The concepts of acuts and strong acuts. Hence. which means that (A n B)(x) > a.4. B E Y(X). "(AU B) C "Ait EA U "B. the rest is left to the reader as an exercise. as defined in Sec_ 1.
the law of contradiction and the law of excluded middle. due to the associativity 'of min and max. 1.). expressing that the strong acut is always included in the acut of any fuzzy set and for any a E [0. they are nested families of sets_ Properties (Hi) and (iv) show that the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union are both cutworthy and strong cutworthy when applied to two fuzzy sets or. To make sure that the reader understands the meaning of property (y). and 1 — AGO (r. Thetefore. ' (7 C (1a) +A.x V (142)+ i. consequently. consequently. That is. B()] > a. This implies that x E cç(A B) and. we must be cautious when these operations are applied to an infirite family of fuzzy sets. This is not surprising since fuzzy sets violate. that is.1. *A L 13B a(A U B). A(x) < 1 — a. Property (i) is rather trivial. (vi) U "Ai Lf (Li Ai) and (T. Then. The symbol ``71 is a convenient simplification of the symbol (1%). by deEmition.2. . as illustrated in Fig. which more accurately captures the meaning of the set for which it stands. x c (1')+X. we have 1 — A(x) = A(x) a. ief 9ei tEi (n `Er . the two basic properties of the complement of crisp sets. to any finite number of fuzzy sets. thig case is covered by Theorem 2. consequently. This means that x g (l . In spite of its negative connotation. Let Ai e y(X) for all i /.+A and.36 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap. ma_x[A(r). are always monotonic decreasing with respect to a. ill and i'+Ala [O.2. However. Hence. which means that x e m(A). • Let us examine the significance of the properties stated in Theorem 2. (1 ')+2 1 C '(71) and. property (v) describes an interesting feature of the standard fuzzy complement: the orcut of the complement of A is always the same as the complement of the strong (1— ce)cut of A. A(x) < 1 — for any x E 7. Property (ii) means that the set sequences ['Ala E [O. clearly. while the complement of the acut of A is denoted by di (and we use an analogous notation for the strong acuts). respectively. let us make small notational remark. 7 ff(4 i) 7 (2'2)174. where . 11} of cecuts and strong acuts.1 is an index set. Observe that we denote the acut of the complement of A by a(71). This concludes the proof that fi(A U 3) = UA UB (v) For any x E 4'(. 2 B(x) > a. in general. Theorem 2.1. which means that (A Li B)(x) > a. 1 ].we have .) 4 Hence. 2. 71(x) > a. This simplification is justified since it does not introduce any ambiguity Proposition (V) shows that the standard fuzzy complement is neither cutworthy nor strong cutworthy_ That a(X) o aiT and in general. the property follows directly from the definitions of the two types of a7cuts.+ iel n arAi = (n Ai). Conversely. consequently.74. Two distinct symbas must be used here since the two sets are. not equal.
A(x) > or). First.111i) iel Hence. For all x X.1 Additional Properties of aCuts 37 Figure 2.e.Sec 2. E. (i. That is.1 Illustration of the difference been . . ) and 4.. This inequality is satisfied sup A i (x) > I El which is equivalent to (UA) (x) > a. For all it + XE (RAJ). We prove now the second proposition in (vii).4 Proof: We prove only (vii) and leave (IA) to the reader. the equality in (vii) is satisfied. we prove the equality for set unions. Ur% El iff there exists some io E f iff such that x E '4A. f L.
2 establishes that the standard fuzzy intersection on infinite sets is cutworthy (but not strong cutworthy). Then. then. x E fie/ which concludes the proof. Hence. )iEN (Erg Theorem 2. for any i E N.1. 1 (u UAi) However. (viii) A C B jffŒA c"B.e. (LjA i) (x) = sup Ai (x) = sup Let ei 1. for all a E [O..Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap. The following example applies only to (vi). A c B iff "A C (ix) A = B iff A = B iff A =B. Let A. for any x eN E X. . for any i e I. Then. X E utoti). 1. Therefore. 1 A(x) = 1— — <1. U 1A1=u 12F=OX Theorem 23. = z because. a similar example can easily be found for (vii). for any x E X. Hence. Ai (x) > a (i. let Ai E T(X) be defined by 1 for all x E X and all j E N. Given an arbitrary universal set X. MI To show that the set inclusions in (vi) and (vii) cannot be replaced with equalities. it is sufficient to find examples iu which the presumded equalities are violated. 2 we have (pAi)(x)> that is inf Ai (x) > a. while the standard fuzzy union on infinite sets is strong cutworthy (but not cutworthy). B E F(X).
11. For any )3 ‹ a. Now. depending on the type of representation employed. x E °A). 2. Theorem 2. which means that A(x) > ci — 6. Now we prove the second proposition in (viii). Hence. Since s is an arbitrary positive number. a given classical (crisp) property or operation is required to be 'valid for each crisp set involved in the representation_ As already mentioned. We show in this section that each fuzzy set can uniquely be represented by either the family of all its creuts or the family of all its strong ci cuts. For the second part. P.cet O. which contradicts with A C B. such extended properties or operations are called either cutworthy or strong outworthy. Hence. which demonstrates that 1A C 1+E is not satisfied for all xo §Er B.4. 1] such that "riA 5 ceoft.ku c X such that x0 6roA and • g' 05. The first part is similar to the previous B. • 22  REPRESENTATIONS OF FUZZY SETS The principal role of acuts and strong ctcuts in fuzzy set theory is their capability to represent fuzzy sets. there exists .1 Now. Then.13qcg (Xi) For any A E T(1). the foliowing properties hold: <a' = U = U A.B(x0). To prove the arst proposition in (viii). for all x c fl OA and any > 0. then x0 e ctil and x0 ct_13. Hence. 14(x0) > icea and 8 (x0) < cea _ Hence. assume A B. . x E mhA and A(x0) ›. we have x PA. let e (Le. Either of these representations allows is to extend various properties of crisp sets and operations on crisp sets to their fuzzy counterparts. clearly amA C I3A. Let es tB. T at a A (x0). Then. that is. (since —e< a). In each extension. there exists x0 e X such that A(x0) > ROO. 13. Then. . B(xa) < Mx0). leaving the proof of (xi) to the reader. which concludes the proof of the first equation of (x). the proof of the second equation is analogous.3 establishes that the properties of fuzzy set inclusion and equality are both cutworthy and strong cutworthy. This results in A(x) n 0A C "A.. whichdemonstrates that ŒA C "II is not satisfied for all Œ E [0. there exists x0 E X such that proof. assume that A et be any number between A(x0 ) and B(xo). that is. assume that there oxists ce0 E [0. a <II a0 PrOaff We prove only (x).Sec. 11 Theorem 2. a+A e [0.4.2 Representations of Fuzzy Sets as Proof: We prove only (viii).
 The representation of an arbitrary fuzzy set A in terms of the special fuzzy sets G A.6/x5 . ILA 0/x i + 0/x2 + 0/13 + 0/14 + 1/15.84 = 0/x1 + 0/x2 + 0/x3 ± 8/14 + . 13.12.6/14 + . . we formulate and prove three basic decomposition theorems of fuzzy sets.6A 0/x1 + 0/x2 + 1/13 ± 1/x4 + .4A U . Considering the fuzzy set  A = .2/x2 + AA = +.. let us show how this sot eau be represented by its a cuts. let us begin by illustrating one of them by a simple example.A. which is based upon strong a cuts.4/12 + . is usually referred to as a decomposition of A. they are of special significance since they bridge fuzzy set theory with classical set theory. . That is. However.6/13 ± .8A = 0/xi + 0/12 4. In fact. x51 as follows: =a  (x). IA .8/14 ± 145 as our example. regardless of whether it is based on a finite or inflnite universal set. is universal.14. Our aim in this section is to prove that the representation of fuzzy sets of their acuts. as illustrated by this. example. Furthermore. (2.2/x1 + .0/13 + 1/x4 + 1/x5. Tu explain the two representations of fuzzy sets by crisp sets.4/13 + . not all properties and operations involving fuzzy sets are cutworthy or strong cutworthy.2/14 ± • 2/x5.112 0/x3 + 0/x4 + 1/x5.= 0/x1 + 0.1) We obtain + .. 2A = . The given fuzzy set Ais associated with only five distinct a cuts. properties or operations that are either cutworthy or strong cutworthy are rather rare.8A U /A. It is now easy to see that the standard fuzzy union of these five special fuzzy sets is exactly the originai fuzzy set A. It applies to every fuzzy set.643 + .. which are defined in terms of the acuts of A by (2. + 0/x2 + . They are sort of reference points from which other fuzzy properties or operations deviate to various degrees. In the following.1jr3 + 1/x4 A O/x 1 + 1/x2 + 1/13 ± 1/x4 + .8/x5 . 2 As explained in detail laser in t b e.1).2/x1 ± . . defined for each x E X =  [X1. we also prove the universality of an alternative representation.6A LJ .4/12 ± . text. A = •2A Li .40 Fuzzy Sets 'Versus Criap Sets Chap.4.6A = 0/xj. which are defined by the following characteristic fimetions (viewed here as special membership functions):  2 A 4 = 1/xi + 1/x2 . We now convert each of the a cuts to a special fuzzy set.
2_ According to Theorem 23.lJ. 3 — a] otherwise. Theorem 2. if For each a e (a. 11 we have A (x) a < and. ab we have A (x) = a > a. Then.44 a e(a.1) and u denotes the standard fuzzy union.A employed in (2. Hence. 3 — when x Ta + 1. For every A e Y(X). [a + 1. therefore. for each a E [0. Then. let a = A(x}. sup nrA(x)].2) = sup „A(x) = max[ sup . On the other hand.A(x). 21 when x e [2. we express it in a more concise form.2) is defined by the membership function = Ia 0 Examples of sets aA and A for three values of Œ are shown in Fig. A is obtained by taking the standard fuzzy union of sets A for all a E (0. . 2.A(x) j (u „A) (x) = sup a = a = A(x). a em. E (0. 41 Theorem 2.2) is established. III 'lk) illustrate the application of this theorem. therefore.Sec.1] f (0 (2. ciElo aqa. Proof: Since the proof is analogous to the proof of Theorem 2. Proof: For each particular x E X.5 (First Decomposition Theorem).4) . let us consider a fuzzy set A with the following membership function of triangular shape (Fig.2): { x —1 A (x) = 3 — x 0 For each when x € [1.11 (2.. (2.J denotes the standard fuzzy union.2 Representations of Fuzzy Sets For every A E 7(X).6 (Second Decomposition Theorem). 1]. [O.A is defined by (2. aer01. For each particular x € X. the acut of A is in this case the dosed interval A. 2. 2 A) crE[0.5.. the validity of (2. „A (x) = O. and the special fuzzy set . A = Lj „A .÷A denotes a special fuzzy set defined by (x) = a • w+A(z) and L.3) where . 3] otherwise. A= U „g_A.a] Since the same argument is valid for each x E X. 2. let a = A (x). 1J where c. a.
3A. 23 by the decomposition of a fuzzy set A defined by a simple stepwise membership function shown in Fig. Since A(A) = (0. sup er +MX)1 ceE[0. A czEA(A) For every A e (X).7 (Third Decomposition Theorem). 11 and (IA = 0. where A(A) is the level set of A. II The meaning of this theorem is illustrated in Fig. AA. (ag[0 U. (2. 2. shown in Fig. 2 trigure 2. .a) = ac[42.3.r+A(x). .3h.3a.5) U .1.42 FKJ77y Sets versus Crisp Sets Chap. . „A is defined by 1.1).I I cr+A) (X) = sup „ +A(x) prep.2 LUuslrarson ot Theorem 25. 2.11 sup a cr 11. and 1A.d) ( = = A(x)_ • Theorem 2.6.A. 13 maxi sup . and U denotes the standard fuzzy to the proofs of the other decomposition theorems. A is fully represented by the three special fuzzy sets .11i011. PrOuf: AllakkgoUS (2.
2_2 Reprasentations of Ft122'y Set 43 .S. x . (a) x Figure 23 Illustration of 'Theorem 2.6 Nic) V_ o.7: (a) given fuzzy set A. .. A.3 — — 7. (b) decomposition of A into A. 1A .0110011ismoomilmii i 0 mirmi_ ! 1 imermn X .
let us first discuss its special case. X E A). we obtain U ( )] (. and let us consider the function f 2 When applying (2.4b.17. of membership functions). has the form f 3r(x) > and its inverse function. we arrive at the following extension principle by which any crisp function can be fuzzliied.T). 2 2.9) to be fuzzy sets and replacing the characteristic functions in these equations with membership functions. the extended version of the inverse of f. is defined by (2.6) is a function from Furthermore.8) (2. we obtain the extension of f shown in Fig. That is. 2 17.) = [f 1 (B)] (X) sup A (.8) and (2. denoted by f 1)(T) to TM that.9) f (x) B(f (x)). Vorsus CrLp Sgits Chap. Before introducing this principle. its extended version is a function from 3) (X) to T(Y) that.9) to this function. for any B ). let X = {a. b. f. This special case is well established in classical set theory. 2). crisp relations) is called an extension principle. for which the same symbol f is usually used. Extension Principle. Expressing the sets f (A) and f 1 (R) by their characteristic functions (viewed here as special cages. 14a and the extension of f shown in Fig.g(Y). has the form f F(Y) F(X). A principle for fuzzifying crisp functions (or. for any A E "(X). 2. Allowing now sets A and B in (2. Any given function f X Y induces two functions. respectively. . is defmed by  f (A) LAY = f (x). As a simple example illustrating the meaning of these equations. possibly.= (2.7) f (B) = [ x] f (x) E B.44 Fuzzy Sets. c } and Y = {1. in which the exteuticd functions aie rcstricted to crisp power sets P(X) and T(Y). (2.8) and (2. the fuzzificd function. Given a ( lisp function from X to .3 EXTENSION PRINCIPLE FOR FUZZY SETS We say that a crisp function f X is fuzzified when it is extended to act on fuzzy scts defincd on X and Y. f T(X) 4.
2.3 Extension Principle for Fuzzy Sets 9(i) 45 ai (W. the reader should produce some of the proofs omitted here.10) f (A)1(y) = for all A e 3 (1) and Erl (13)1(x) = B( f (x)) for all la G 9. To save space. (111) f (n 041 et gnf .10) with max. fef ).er. 2. we can replace sup in (2.ucti by f(Y) T(X).b) la. 15 (f continuous) and Fig.8.. we present proofs of only some of the properties. fc) a. 2. (2.192. C (B2).o] {a. whiLl are expressed by the following duce theorems. Let f : X 1( he an arbitrary crisp function. (II) if A1 g A2. to check his or her understanding of the extension principle.6). Theorem 2. sup A(x) (2.b. then f (A1) g f(A). Fuzzifications based on the extension principle satisfy numerous properties. Then. f Ai) = U f (Ai). which are selfexplanatory.(If). We select only properties that we consider most important and cluster them into three natural groups.c1 {1}. (y) if B1 g then f' (B1) .6 (f discrete).A An example of the classical extensions of &action f i2 4 b 1. for any A. When sets X and Y are finite (as in Fig. c I and its inve f f which arc defi. € T(X) and any B1 e 3'(Y) i E /. the following properties of functions obtained by the extension principle hold: (i) RA) =0iffA.11) The extension principle is illustrated in Fig.Sec.c} (a) Figure 2.
.46 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets Chap. 2 Figure 2.6 illustration of the extension principle when f is discrete.5 Illustration inf the extension 'principle when f is continuous. • • * : 4 • • Bi(y) Ai(x) A1 Figure 2.
(x) B f(f 1 (B)). Then. g_ f1(f(A)). y E [ f (A )j . Theorem 2. f (x0). we can use the following example.  Hence. 11 the following properties of f fuz:zified by the extension principle hold: (xi) *+[ f (A)] = f ( l+A). f (A). 47 (vi) f (U Bi) U f (vii)f . (xii) [f(A)) Proof: (Id) F6r all y E Y. f (A) in general. Proof: Left to the reader. 2. [f (A)](y)  sup A (x) A(x 0) (X) a and.* (arc E X)(y = 44r. Therefore. I The following theorem shows that the exteasion principle is strong cutworthy. b ).9. Y E"+ [f (A)] t• [f(A)](Y) > ziy= f (x) sup A(x)  e f (xa) and A(xo) > et) f (x0) and x0 E e 11) ' + . consequently. Hence. for any A € (.3 Extension Principle tor Fuzzy Sets (Bi). ief f 1 (B) = f (ix) A (If). 9 f(4)1 = f(A) (xii) If y f(4). but not cutworthy. (n Di) LEI ist = fl f0).X) and all a E (0. Then. Pxo e X)(y y E f ('+A). • To show that If (A)] X = N. Y = (a. then there EXiStR x0 EEA such that y =.Sec. 1 and A (n) = 1 — for all n e N. Let f X Y be an arbitrary crisp function. Let fn) ( Ia b when n < 10 when n> 10. f(')1) u[f (A )] . ..
.4[f (A)]..„„). this is not a necessary condition for obtaining the equality. where some additional aspects of the extension principle are discussed.1. where _xi ï E N.„ and. terms of their Zadeh [19714 in the a cuts was introduced by form of the first decomposition theorem. and then employ (2. A further elaboration of the principle was presented by Yager [19864 . fuzzy sets in (2. Theorem 2. When a given function is defined on a Cartesian product (i. Hence.11 (2.f(4). convert them to the special fuzzy sets OE+ A. However. f(4) '[f (A)] in this case. crisp sets) wader function f. f fuzzified by the extension principle satisfies the equation RA) = U ParA). Such fuzzy sets are referred to as fuzzy relations.1 The wension principle was introduced by Zadeh ( 1 975b]. By definition. 2.e.12) Proof: Applying the Second Decomposition Theorem (Theorem 2_6) to f (A). Then. x. which is a fuzzy set on Y. for any A E g(X). x2 . (i.12). we can see that 1 [ f (A)] = [14 while f( IA) = 0 (since IA = 0). when' X = X x X2 X Xi ).. 1) stand now for the n Mples x = (xi . NOTES 2. e[0. 2 9 f (JO [ f (A)] (b) = sup Mn) = 1.10) and (2 1. As can be easily proven.48 Fuzzy Sets Versus Crisp Sets [f(A)] (a) = sup A (n) = ltla Chap. n16= f now a = 1..10. they are a subject of Chapt er 5.9. '+ [f (A)] and. due to (xi) of Theorem 2. we obtain f (A) U . "I f (A)} = f(A) for all a E [0. A representation of fuzzy sets in. Y be an arbitrary crisp function. we have f(A)= U .10 is that it provides us with an efficient procedure for calculating f (A): first we calculate all images of strong acuts. the extension principle is still applicable. 1] when X is finite.12) follows now immediately..e. hence. Cr ER 1) Equation (2. Let f X 4. II The significance of Theorem 2. The only change is that symbols x in (2.10) are defined on the Cartesian product. ..
2.5/4 + .5. 9. 1975.2) X by f (x t . List all ixcuts and strong cfctits of A.2. 2. x2 E Let a function f X x f(A. 2.1 1. 1. Show that the set inclusions in (ix) and (1) cannot be replaced with the equalities. What arc the toles of cfrents and strong a cuts in fuzzy set theory? What is the deference between them? Describe the concepts in your own words..10 be defined (0. Let f in the previous exercise be replaced with f(x x. 2. 2.8.5.z. They include. Fuzzy extensions of some mathematical theories are beyond the scope of this introductory text and are thus not covered here. Find an example to show that the set inclusion in (vii) cannot be replaced with equality. 2 Exercises 49 23. f(B).standard complement is not outworthy and strong entworthy. and f(C)..12. and let f(x) = x 2 • for all x L Use the on the universal set I extension principle to derive f (A). Prove Theorem 2. fuzzy tapakgical spaces [Chang. Calculate x. Wong.. Prove (iv) in Theorem 2. .. Prove (vi) in Theorem 22. semigtoups. 2.3/7 and B(x) = .7/25 + 1/100. X be defined for all x1 . Lowen. Explain why the . Let A and B be fuzzy se tg defined an the universal set X Z whose membership functions are given by A(t) 1/0 + _5/1 ± . B).4.1. Prove Theorem 2. . 4.3/5..4./x1 + . EXERCISES 2. for example.. B. Given a fuzzy set D defined on (0. 210.7/13+ . and C in Exercise 1. 41/x2+ . 2. Let A be a fuzzy set defined by  A = .13/x4 + lfxs. 16. 2. 2. 100) by D = 3/44.9. B). 10). Prove (xi) in Theorem 2.7. fuzzy metric spaces [Kaleva and Seikkala.. 1976]. 2. x2) = x .Chap. 2.3. find f 1 (D). x2 . and so on.1. 1.6.6/16+ . 19841 and various fuzzy algebraic structures such as groups. The extension principle is an important tool by which classical mathematical theories can he fuzzified. Calculate f (A.7. 1968.512+ 1/3 + .8. Let the membership grade functions of fuzzy sets A.
3. (3.introduced: 71. the standard fuzzy operations possess certain properties that give them a special Significance. not only membership functions of hazy sets but also operations on fuzzy sets are contextdependent. and unions. contrary to their crisp counterparts. As the reader can easily see. Among the great variety of fuzzy complements. there exists a broad class of functions whose members qualify as fuzzy generalizations of the classical operations as well.1) (3. These three classes of functions are examined in Secs. that they are not the only possible generalizations. Functions that qualify as fuzzy intersections and fuzzy unions are usually referred to in the literature as tnorms and tC01207771S. These operations are called the standard fuzzy operations.1 TYPES OF OPERATIONS In Sec. intersections. That is. 50 . the standard fuzzy operations perform precisely as the corresponding operations for crisp sets when the range of membership grades is restricted to the set {0. intersection. For each of the three operations.2 through 3.4. 1. and union are not unique operations.(x) = I — A(x). where each of the classes is characterized by properly justified axioms.2) (3. (A u B)(x) = max[A(x)... B(x)] for all x E X. For example. 1}. That is. It is now well understood.3) (A n B)(x) = min[A(x). respectively_ Since the fuzzy complement.4. intersection. The capability to determine appropriate membership functions and meaningful fuzzy operations in the context of each particular application is crucial for making fuzzy set theory practically useful.3 OPERATIONS ON Fuzzy SETS 3. the standard fuzzy operations are generalintions of the corresponding classical set operations. however. B(x)]. and Uni0111 are . the following special operations of fuzzy complement. different functions may be appropriate to represent these operations in different contexts.. This fundamental issue is addressed in Chapter 10.
we have to keep track of elements z to make the connection ttetween A(z) and cA(x) expressed by (3. That is. 3.) and max(ai.. For any given fuzzy sets. a.) are called averaging operations. A(x) n3a. Then. 3. but they cover all aggregating operations that are associative. and A t. Given a fuzzy set A. . That is. The standard fuzzy union (max operator) produces. in the following investigation of its formal properties. A (x) is interpreted as the degree to which x belongs to A. — a. Observe that function c is totally independent of etements x to which values A (x) are assigned. let a complement cA be defined by a function which assigns a value c(A (x)) to each membership grade A (x) of any given fuzzy set A. . .6.4) c(A(x)) = cA(x) for all x € X by definition. the smallest fuzzy.. However. Furthermore. Then. cA(x) may be interpreted not only as the degree to wliich x belongs to cA. The class of averaging operations is examined in Sec. we obtain cA by applying function c to values _4(x) for all x G X.2 FUZZY COMPLEMENTS Let A be a fuzzy set on X.4. If any error e is associated with the membership grades A (x) and B (x). Aggregation operations that. a2. the standard tizzy intersection (min operator) produces for any given fuzzy sets the largest fuzzy set from among those produced by all possible fuzzy intersections (r norms).2.4).2 Fuzzy Comeiements 51 they are the only operatioas that satisfy the cutworthy and strong cutworthy properties expressed by Theorems 2. A desirable feature of the standard fuzzy operations is their inherent prevention of the compounding of errors of the operands. by definition. it depends only on the values themselves. each of the averaging operations produces a fuzzy set that Is larger than any fuzzy intersection and smaller than any fuzzy union./ B remains e. Let cA denote a fuzzy complement of A of type c. to use the function for determining a complement of a given fuzzy set A. . produce a membership grade that lies between a2. a. for any given membership grades ai . As a notational convention. The value c(A (x)) is interpreted as the value of cA (x). the remaining aggregating operations must be defined as functions of n arguments for each n > 2. 3. Fuzzy intersections (tnorms) and fuzzy unions (tconorrns) do not cover all operations by which fuzzy sets can be aggregated. 1 ]. A n B. Most of the alternative fuzzy set operations lack this  characteristic. (3. then the maximum error associated with the membership grade of x in X.set among the fuzzy sets produced by all possible fuzzy unions (t conorrns). the standard fuzzy operations occupy specific positions in the whole spectrum of fuzzy operations: the standard fuzzy intersection is the weakest fuzzy intersection. but also as the degree to which x does not belong to A.1 and 2.y.Sec.a1so be interpreted as the degree to which x does not belong to a. while the standard fuzzy unioa is the strongest fuzzy union.. a2. Due to the lack of associativity. on the contrary. we may thus ignore x and assume that the argument of c is an arbitrary number a € [0. Similarly.
then c(a) > c(b) (nonotonicity). different fuzzy sets cA can be said to constitute its complement. again by Axiom c4. 1 1 satisfy Axioms c2 and c4. Axiom c2. c(c(0)) l and c(1) c(1). Proof(i) Since the range of c is [0. c(1) = O. c(0) = I and c (1) 0 (boundary conditions). To characterize functions c that produce meaningful fuzzy complements.52 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. the corresponding membership grade in cA must not increase as well. we may state any intuitively justifiable properties in terms of axiomatic requirements. In most cases of practical significance. Axiom c4. Axiom c2 is essential since we intuitively expect that an increase in the degree of membership in a fuzzy set must result in either a decrease or. would include functions that do not conform to the ordinary complement for crisp sets. Two of the most desirable requirements. 3 It is obvious that function c must possess certain properties to produce fuzzy sets that qualify. According ta Axiom c2. Hence. Let a function C : [0. 1]. it is desirable to consider various additional requirements for fuzzy complements. remain the same. We have c(0) = c(c(1)) . Now. ci. it is required to be monotonic decreasing: when a membership grade in A increases (by changing x). as expressed by the following theorem. it rnay decrease or. by Axiom c4. on intuitive grounds. Each of them reduces the general class of fuzzy complements to a special subclass. c(0) O. which are usually listed in the literature among axioms of fuzzy complements. if a < 13. as meaningful complements of given fuzzy sets. which means that c(c(a)) = a for each a [0. are the following: Aidoin c3. b E [0. 1. c also satisfies Axioms cl and c3. By AX1/111 c2. To produce meaningful fuzzy complements. and then examine the class of functions that satisfy these requirements. For any particular fuzzy set A. 1]. function c satisfies Axiom cl. Then. and. in the extreme ease. For all a. Moreover. 1]. a violation of Axiom. function c must satisfy at least the following two axiomatic requirements: Axiom cl. It turns out that the four axioms are not independent. Theorem 3. c is a continuous function_ c is imotutive. each being produced by a distinct function c. 0 = c(c(0)) > c(1). There are many functions that satisfy both Axioms cl and c2. Let Axioms cl and •c2 be called the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy complements.  . According to Axiom cl. at least. no change in the degree of membership in its complement. c must be a bijective function. 1] [0. Indeed. function c is required to produce correct complements for crisp sets. All functions that satisfy the aXiCIMLS form the most general class of fuzzy complements.1. It is rather obvious that the exclusion or weakening of either of these axioms would add to this class some functions totally imacœptable as complements. That is.
Sec_ 3. III It follows from Theorem 3. which in turn forms a special subclass of all fuzzy complements. as illustrated in Fig. 11 such that c(b) = c(c(a)) = a. assume that c has a discontinuity at ao. Assume now that c(al) = c(az). consequently. and. (iii) Since c is bijective and satisfies Axiom c2. a bijective function.2_ . al = c(c(a 1 )) = c(c(e22)) = a2. This contradicts the fact that c is a bijective function.to . 1 1 there exists b = c(a) G [0. Then. 1] such that bo > b > c(a0) for which no a l € [0.one function. it is. To show this. by Axiom c4. 3. clearly.2 FLIM Complemants 53 (ii) To prove that c is a bijective function.1. Hence. c is an onto function. That is.1. This nested structure of the three types of fuzzy complements is expressed in Fig_ 3. we have bo = Lim c(a) c(au) Flware 3. it cannot have any discontinuous points.1 that all involutive complements form a special ubcla.1 Illustration to Theorem 3. 11 exists such that c(al) = Lk.ss of all continuous complements. then. c is also a one . there must exist b1 E [0. we observe that for all a E [0.
3 cornplerliV1U.tion is G1 and c:2) Cia5sleal fuzzy Lorriplcuncot (Eq_ (3_1)) AR continuous . 1). c — c4) Figure 3. One class of involutive fazzy complements is the Sugeno class defined by ex (a) = I— a (33) where X e (1.33) .15 .4a for several different values of X. that c(.cos ira). 3. 3.75 but c (. 3. Note . 1] and t [0. An example of a fuzzy complment that is continuous (Axiom o3) but not involutive (Axiora 04) is the function c(a) = —(1 4.33. This function is illustrated in Fig. The failure of this function to satisfy the property of involution can be seen by noting.54 Operations on Fuzzy Sets All fuzzy Chap.3b. (A .2 Nested structure of the Nsic classes of fuzzy complements.3a. where a E [0. fuzzy complernien6 (Axioms c 1 — c3) Ail invOlutiv Fuzzy claMplernents (Axioms. co). we obtain one particular involutive fuzzy complement This class is illustrated in Fig. t is called the threshold at c. for example. For each value of the parameter X.7 5) = . 2 which is illustrated in rig. Examples of general fuzzy complements that satisfy only the axiomatic skeleton are the thresholdtype complements defined by c(a ) ri = 0 for a ‹ for a > t.
.s ..6 . IIMEEMERME 11111111111111011...1 1 1111111111111112.3 .111 IMMINNINEEM 11111111111M1101 1111111110111111111111.. 1 1 t IMPAMMEMEMMI IMINIMMEMEM =ME MM..1.1.2 .... (6) ...1 ..s••s1.....3 A ....7 ..9 a 1.7 ......1110 11 Ill ill 111111•6111 ..8 ..
7 .6 .56 1.3 a 0 .11 EOM= M MN MMOMMEM EMEMMEOMME 111111111E M ME MEW= . 3 .1 .2 .7 .4 .2 .7 8 .5 .9 1.5 (a) . two classes of involutive fumiy complemeats : (a) Susan° Yagar class.5 (b) .3 .6 .9 1.4 .0 .9 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap.2 ITAIM 1111 MMEMMEEMME .0 .0 figure 34 Examples from.4 a .1 ONMEMMIft. a:LSE: (b) .2 0 . 5 .8 .6 .
the equilibrium value for the classical fuzzy complement given by (2. we constant. An e. Then. Several important properties are shared by all fuzzy complements. which is the solution of the equation 1 — a = a. Here again. the function becomes the classical fuzzy complement defined by (3.3. When w = 1. because c is monotonic nonincreasing (by Axiom c2). Then . a1 > c(a2 ) This inequOity contradicts (3. (3. since c is monotonic noninoreasing by Axiom c2.. For instance.4b illustrates this class of functioes for various values of w. Another example of a class of involutive fuzzy complements is defined by — w) 11111 . c(al) c(a2) and. These concern the equilibrium of a fuzzy complement c. this function becomes the classical fuzzy complement of c(a) = 1 — a.Sec. since al < a2.a < c(a) iff a < and > c(a) iff > Proof. let us refer to it as the Yager class of fuzzy complements. c(al) — c(ai) at c(a2) a2. 00). Let us assume that a < e„ a = ec.2. due to our initial assumption we . thus proving the theorem. Every fuzzy complement has at most one equilibrium. • Theorem 3. Theorem 3.1].1). In other words.(33) However.7). . In fact. Proof: Lct c be an arbitrary fuzzy complement. Assume that a given fuzzy complement c has an equilibrium e„ which by Theorem 3.1) is . we get . For A = 0.5. Figure 3.2 is unique. 3.2 Fuzzy Complements 57 that the shape of the function is affected as die value of A is changed. must assume that al and a2 are two different solutions of the equation c(a) a = b such that al < a2. (0.6) where w E (0. which is defined as any value a for which c(a) = a._ Because c(ej = e„ we can rewrite these expressions as c(a) e„ c(a) = e and c(a) < e„ respectively. and a e„ in rum. Then. thus demonstrating that the equation must have at most one solution. since c(ai ) — a l = b and c(a2) — a. We can demonstrate that any equation c(a) a where a 10. where to is a real have at most one solution. the equilibrium of a complement c is that degree of membership in a fuzzy set A which equals the degree of membership in the complement cA. = b. changing the value of the parameter w results in a deformation of the shape of the function. c(a) c(e) for a ‹ e„ c(a) = c(e) for a and c(a) < c(e) for a > 4. quilfbrieni of e is a solution of the equation c(a) — a €1. In order to do so.
• The equilibrium for each individual fuzzy complement cl of the Sugeno class is given by ((1+ A) 112 — 1)/X for A 0 0. there exists at least one a such that c(a) — = b.1. Proof: The equilibrium e. for A = 0 This is clearly obtained by selecting the positive solution of the equation 1 — e„ —e. and Theorem 3..5 Equilibria for *pc SlIge. Since c is a continuous complement. respectively. 3.4. Thus. If c is a continuous fuzzy complement. it follows from the intermediate value theorem for continuous functions that for each b e [1. then c has a unique equilibrium. implies c(a) > a and a ec implies c(a) < a. This demonstrates the necessary existence of an equilibrium value for a continuous function. 3 c(a) a. The inverse implications can be shown in a similar manner. a < e.110 c1ax4. This is a special case of the more general equation c(a) — a Yr. of a fuzzy complement c is the solution of the equation c(a) — a = O.5. 1 + Xe The dependence of the equilibrium e„ on the parameter A is shown in Fig. 1].2 guarantees its uniqueness. • Theorem 3. By Axiom cl. can further rewrite these as c(a) >. where b E [ . and c(a) < a. b. 1] is a constant. of fuzzy contploracrits_ . c(0) — 0 = 1 and c(1) — 1 = —1.58 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. X Figure 3.
2 that (3. Theorem 3. Since involutive fuzzy cornplemtents play by far the most important role in practical applications. 3. either the dual point does not exist or it does not coincide with the complement point. the dual point of any membership grade is equal to its complemented value whenever the complement is involutive. For the reverse implication. For each a E [0. restrict out further discussion to complements of this type. Additionally. c(c(a)) = a. 11. 1 a da e. that is.Sec. Then substitution of c(c(a)) for a in (3. Let c be Theorem 3. a function from [0. 11 to [0. Then. for 'a whose solution is d a = c(a).6. the equilibrium of any complement is its own Theorem 3. then c (da ) =. Hence. If a complement c has an equilibrium e. we can generate an unlimited number of fuzzy complements or classes of fuzzy complements. when the Proof: Let d a= C(a). 1]. let us.8) is called a dual point of a with respect to c. let c(c(a)) = a. a. substitution of c(a) for da in (3... c(a) = a and thus a — c(a) = O. 11 such that c(11 a) — da = a — c(a) (3.5. Therefore. 11. E Thus.4 that a dual point exists for each a [O..8) produces e(c(a)) — c(a) = a — Therefore. If the complement is not involutive.2 Puzzy CompJements 59 lf we are given a fuzzy complement c and a membership grade whose value is represented by a real number a E [0. then any membership grade represented by the real number d a e [O. then de = Proof: If a = e„ then by our definition of equilibrium. By either of these theor e ms. therefore.8) yields the functional equation e( a) — da c(c(a)) c(a). such as the Sugeno class or the Yager class. da =.da and c(d a) da = O. it follows from the proof of Theorem 3. Perhaps the most important property of involutive complements is expressed by the following Iwo theorems.c(a) iff c(c(a)) complement is invoiutive. c is a fuzzy complement (involutive) ife there exists a . dci a) — d a =a — This satisfies (3. 1] when c is a continuous complement. There is.8) has at most one solution for 'fa given c and a. It follows directly from the proof of Theorem 3. at most one dual point for cacti particular fuzzy complement c and membership grade of value a_ Moreover. if d a = ec . Then.8) when dual point. These results associated with the concepts of the equilibrium and the dual point of a fuzzy complement are referenced in the discussion of measures of fuzziness contained in Chapter 9.7 (First Characterization Theorem of Fuzzy Complements).
(3. 1] to II such that g(0) = 0. g is strictly increasing. As expressed by the following theorem.7 are usually called increasing generators.9) . tv > 0).12) which contains the Sugeno class (for w = 1) as well as the Yager Class (for = 0) as special subclasses.„. the increasing generator is g(a) = a.(a) = ( 1+ ia . f is strictly decreasing. Then c is a fuzzy complement if there exists a continuous function f from [0.0). fuzzy complements can also be produced by decreasing generators. Functions g defined in Theorem 3. that is. and . the standard fuzzy complement can be generated by this limit. the increasing generators are g„(a) =a (1 11) for w> 0. we obtain a class of fuzzy complements. for A — ex . 1]. 1 — aw 1 1w ) (1 —1. Let c be a function from [0.q(a)) Proof: See Appendix D. (3. In(1 A. 1] to R such that f (1) = 0. For the Yager class. For the standard fuzzy complement.. 11.a) (1 10) for A> —1_ Note that we have to take for A = 0. — . let us consider the class of the increasing generators gy (a) which produce the class of fuzzy complements cy (ci) = a ±  (y >W (3. the increasing generators are 1 gi (a) )11.60 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Theorem 3. 3 continuous function g from [0.14) We suggest that the reader plot function cy for several values Of y. and (19) c(a) g1 (g(1) for all a [0. Each fanction g that qualifes as an increasing generator determines a fuzzy complement by (3. As one additional example. For the Stgeno class of fuzzy complements. 1] to [0.8 (Second Characterization Theorem of Fuzzy Complements). It is interesting that by taking the class of twoparameter increasing genciatons 1 — 1n(1 law) x 1 and w > 0.13) y 2 (1 — a) (y ›.
3.Pa)) for all a E [0. we can cicfine an increa.3 Fuzzy intersections: rNorrns al c(a) = r (f (0) . function c is a fuzzy complement if there exists an (. x 11 > [O. f ( f 1 (a )) = g1 (g(1) f (a)) = g 1 (g(1) (g(I) g(a))) = g .a) g i (f(0) g(1)g(f 1 (a)) = g(1).g(gi (g(1)a)) since f (0) g (1) g(0) g(1). where k > 0. Now.8 are usually called decreasing generators. Now.15) can be rewritten as f (0) f (a).f (a)) = g1 Cg(1) g(a)) Hence.15) to any of the strictly decreasing functions f (a) ka k. generates the Yager class of fuzzy complements. that is.15) is a fuzzy complement. 1 ] .15).(s(1) . f1 (a) g1 (1) . a.g(a)) f = f (g(1) . Each function f that qualifies as a decreasing generator also deter nines a fuzzy complement by (3. If a decreasing generator f is given. Functions f defined in Theorem 3. (3. f is strictly decreasing.(g(a)) = a.3 FUZZY INTERSECTIONS: MOWS The intersection of two fuzzy sets A and /3 is specified in general by a binary operation on the unit interval. c(a) f 3 (f(0) . Moreover.Sec.s g(a) Then. since g is strictly increasing. and applying it to the functions where w ›• 0. a function of the form : 0. and f f (a)) c(a) = g 1 (g(1) . generates the standard fuzzy complement. • For example.0) g (a)). f (1) = 0 and.15) Proofi According to Theorem 3.sing generator g a. applying (3.f (a)). let f (a) = g ( 1) increasing generator g such that c(a) = Then.7. (3 . 3.g(a))) = f "(f (0) . c defined by (3. .
Axiom D. this function takes as its argument the pair consisting of the elenaent's membership grades iia set A and in set B arid yied the ruernbciship gradc of the element in the set constituting the intersection of A and B. 3 For each element x of the universal set. we have to apply (3. I. b E [0. i Let us call this set of axioms the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy intersectionslt . In fact. 1). the boundary condition and coromutativity also ensure. However. 1) = 1 follow directly from the boundary condition.16) becomes the classical set intersection when sets A and B are crisp: (0. 1) = 0) 0 follows then torn and i(1. Thus. It turns out that functions known as. i b) = jay. tnorms. it depends only on the values A (x) and B (x). d) (nonatonicity). This requires keeping track of each element x. b).15) In order for any function i of this form to qualify as a fuzzy intersection. Monotonicity and comrautativity express the natural requirement that a decrease in the degree of membership in set A or B cannot produce an increase in the degree of membership in the intersection. 1] in the following examination of formal properties of tnorms.62 Operators on Fuzzy Sets Chap. It is often desirable to restrict the class of fuzzy intersections (tnorms) by considering . Axiom i2. do possess such properties. while i(0. Hence. When one argument of i is I (expressing a fir.norms is now generally accepted as equivalent to the class of fuzzy intersections. which have extensively been studied in the literature.16) for each x E X to determine the intersection of A and B based upon i.= a (boundary condition). as our intuitive conception of fuzzy intersection requires. We may thus use the terms "tnctms" and "fuzzy intersections" interchangeably. which ensure that fuzzy sets produced by i are intuitively acceptable as meaningful fuzzy intersections of any given pair of fuzzy sets. a) (corranutativity). d)) (i (a. Axiom i4. b) i (a . i(a.norms.11 membership). indifferent to the order in which the sets to be combined are considered. n B)(x) = i[A(x). the function i is totally independent of x. d E [43. d) (associativity). A . that the membership grade in the intersection is equal to the other argument. we may ignore x and assume that the arguments of i are arbitrary numbers a. Corarantativity ensures that the fuzzy intersection is symmetric. this axiom allows us to extend the operation of fuzzy intersection to more than two sets. The last axiom. the class of r .]: Axiom il. that is. assouiativity. for all x 8(x)] (3. it must possess appropriate properties. 0) = 0 follows from monotonicity. commutativity. Given a tnorm i and fuzzy sets A and B. It is easy to see that the first three axioms ensure that the fuzzy intersection defined by (3. b. ensures that we can take the intersection of any number of sets in any order of pairwise grouping desired. (a.fra=y intersectionftnorm i is a binary operation on the uait interval that satisfies at least the following axioms for all a. b < d implies i (a.
b) < i (1 . if > b. b) < i (a. i(a. The axiom of continuity prevents a situation in which a vet]. b E The following are examples of some tmorms that are frequently used as fuzzy intersections (each defined for all a. when b =: 1 la when a = 1 Drastic intersection : I (a . Standard intersection : i(a . 11. Sirrkilarly. A continuous tnorm that satisfies subldernpotency is called an Ardzimedean tnom. The standarid fuzzy intersection is the only idempotent t norm. the requirement that i(a. Axiom i7 just expresses a monger form of mono tonicity. it is called a strict Archimedean tnorm. a) = a.b — 1) ah < min(a. b) = b 0 otherwise. b) < (a. b) = max(0. 11. then b = i(b. lia < b. The following theorem reveals another sipiificant property of the standard fuzzy intersection. Assume that there exists a inorm such i (a a) = a for all a g (0. Then.Sec. Hence. 3.9. b) b and.a for all a E [0.6.r) have the same value a. b E [0. Axiom 7.19 in this special case must not exceed a. Proof: Clearly. a) =. 171) < (a2. b). then a = i(a. The axiom expresses the requirement that the membership grade in An. a I. we call it subidempotency. b) . it • i b) b = min(a. b) = ab. Theorem 3. 3. if it also satisfies strict monotonicity.) B. a) <a (subidernporertcy). 1) = that by monotonicity and the boundary condition. Axiom_ i6 deals with a special case in which both membership grades in A and B (for some . i (a b) = a = min(a b). b) b) for all a . Bounded difference : i (a. Hence. 13). a + b — 1). Algebraic product : fl a.. i is a continuous function (continuity). We can see from these graphs that b) max(0. Axiom 16. r at < a2 and b1 <b implies (a1. Three of the most important requirements are expressed by the following axioms: Axiom 15. small change in the membership grade of either set A or set B would produce a large (discontinuous) change in the membership grade is A 1. a) < i(a. for any a b g [0. i(a. bz) (strict monotorticity). consequently. b) = mio(a. Graphs of these four fuzzy intersections are shown in Fig. 11. mil*. Since this requirement is weaker than idempotency.3 Fuzzy triterseetion: tNorms 63 various additional requirements.
4.. AI* 4Ir 4 •10.4r 44 4141. . •1141Y.11.444.4 11 46510V4**. °4.04. 4. 441‘41.* Ast . "VP 41.. NOti• 411.1 4 1NI.1..1•411*..1.•ii•ioN.". 461. 411.. 41.p 'NW AP it* IF N.4..41..r..4. 4.".. 11104...7.40 '.111•4* 410'4"birikarir.* 4 irtik. l'Alp 4..404. 4 04 4 4114 ..4%.0•400.4111%.."14:€.. 0. . qrste0k0 44. 0 .4*" 4N. . 40.. 4 411. 4p.44.414.64 Operations on Fumy Sets Chap..401'1...41 1%WO1 4 1746.. 4/tealip ..4 0 1 4444. Aillt. 44.. .. 4.. 4. 4 W 1 4''1P 44.. 4 4 Nr I". •III• V ..4.NIks. 46.rillitardeil• 41* 4..414 . 44 illy 4144. 41%.i..4..441* 44. 0 ....4. 60. 464..4._41•4#4.. 74 "4111 .4.4 4.41.4. ••/• • . 1.. 4 ..41. "4.0.04. drip * **N...040..0 • • rnfri max (o..4iNotwip°41NE 04144'4°".A4t40.. • 41p# 4.. ii• . 3 NeeNtiti• 414.6***4. 4 4 4 441.AP•ii.#4_4.4•NtI*411F 4. 44. . 41•4 114•4"." . 411•_ 0 de 41. iv 4.4 4404 4404..4 Oraphs of forty min (d) intersections.a+b1) (a) (13) • ab (c) Figure 3.4" ikb•41.4141'4 4" 4. 4:041.4.. . . 41. 44.4"4.de* ‘ )1.4P...4 0444":~kir0.t11$10 414 rélko..
b) is the lower bound of i (a . b) where i mm denotes the drastic intersection. 1 ]. Before formulating the theorem. 3. f (b. • Hence. let us discuss relevant definitions. and j (a. b) < a and i(ab) < IN that is. for a C (00. b) min(a. is a function from B to t0. 0) i (0. clearly.Sec.1] given by I. 0) for a E [0.3 Fuzzy Intersections: tNorms 65 for all a. 1] to R such that f(1) = O. Their pseudoinverses are. I 1. 1 ] . b c [0. i (a. a) 5. Theorem 3. Since i(a. b). denotes the drastic intersection.co . A decreasing generator. The concept of a decreasing generator and its pseudoinverse is illustrated in Fig. where imn. the drastic intersection We proceed now to one of the fundamental theorems of tnorms. = to. By the boundary condition and and. the boundary condition. which provides us with a method for generating Archimedean tnorros or classes of :norms. 0) = (0. b) for any a. i (a . f(0)] for a E (f (0). These inequalities can also be proven mathematically. / f 1 (47) 0 for a e (. (3. b) = a when b = 1. b G [0. From.1] for a E (1. by cornmutativity. (a . Hence. b G [0. 0) for a e [0.1] with f2(0) = co. introduced in Theorem 3. co) where f 1 is the ordinary inverse of f. b) b) and i (a b) G [0.(1 . i(a. By monotonicity. lor any a € [0. The full range of all fuzzy intersections is specified in the next theorem. b) 0. i (a.7. Specific examples of decreasing generators are: fi (a) 12(a) = 1   aP.17) Proof: Upper bound. 11 (p ›.. rnonotonicity.0). Lower bound.. For all a .a)tili 0 . ff1) (a) =_. The pseudoinverse of P decreasing generator f denoted by f (13 . is a continuous and strictly decreasing function f from [O. b) b when a = 1. I]. respectively. 00). i (a b) < nail (a b). 1) = b. ilia for any a e [0. 11.10. b) = O. 3.8. fi1) (a) .
66 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap.7. 0) g1 (a) for a E [0. The pseudoinverse of an Lacreasing generator g._ such that g(0) . j. is a continuous and strictly increasing function g from [1:1„ 11 to 1/. where g1 is the ordinary inverse of g . denoted by g ». is a function from R to 10. 1] defined by l 0 for a E (—CC. Examples of increasing generators 1 0 for a (00. A decreasing generator f and its E O. co) 1 are: . O. 0) for a E(Oco). g(1)] for a E (g(1). introduced in Theorem 3. AO)] a f (0) for a (f (0). on).(1> (a) e_. 0) for a E [O. and pseudoinverse f") satisfy f(1) (f (a)) = a for any An increasing generator. 3 (a) f(0) Figs= 3 7  DampIc of (a)  decrenaing gcncratgr and (13) its pscuckiinverso. 1]. l for a E (—cc.
o).a) Proof: Since f is a decreasing generator. a for any An increasing generator g and its pseudoinverse gi.f(i) = f (0) since f = O.t f 1 ( f (0) . g is strictly increasing and g(0) f. g(1)] = [0. Moreover. g(1)] for a c (g(1).b and a = f1 ( f (0) . 1] is an increasing generator with el) = PO). (1) — gi. For any a.11 for a E (1. f ( J)1. 0) e { 0 I e for a E (0. g is an increasing generator. The pseudoinverse of g is defined by for a Œ (—eci. and such that f(1) O. 0) for a c [0.b). As expressed by the following two lemmas. g(1) f(0) . g is continuous.3 Fuzzy Intersections: tNorens 67 g(a) aP (p > 0) for any a O. g2(a) = . f(C) . Then a function g defined by g(a) f (0) f (a) for any a E [0. and such that g(0) O. then.1.Sec. 1 ] and 0 g(g(1) (a)) =fa g(1) for a E (—M. Their pseudoinverses are. Therefore. Let f be a decreasing generator. we have f (a) = f(C) . 1] such that a < b. f is continuous. stricdy decreasing. 11. g(1)1 = [0. On the other hand. 11 with g2(1) =oc. a E O. Thus.a).10 l1P _ a 1 for a E (00. . 3.» satisfy g{1) (g(a)) a E [0. cc). b c [0. decreasing generators and increasing generators can also be converted to each other.(0) f(0) = O. 0) for a E [0.In(1 a) for any a E [0. Thus. and its pseudoinverse g (1) is given by g(1) (a) for any a E f (0) . (a ).f (a). _ Lemma 3. g' (a) . el)] /0 1. Thus. for a E (—oo. clearly f (a) > f (b) and g(a) = f(0) f (a) < f (0) f (b) = g(b). Let b = g(a) . for any a E [0. strictly increasing. 0) g") (a) z= g' a) for a E p. f(0)j. respectively. Then g must be continuous. 00). 00). for a E (&(l) .
11 (Characterization Theorem of tNorms). f(0)] i(1) (f (0) — a) for f(0) — a E f (0). f(0)] for a {0 g1 (a) 1 Therefore. we can construct a tnorm by (3. U Theorem 3. cc) for a E [0. j is an Archimeclean tnorm iff there exists a decreasing generator f such that (3.. This completes the proof.68 Operations on Fuzzy Sets for f (0) a E (CC. Then. we identify them by their authors and relevant references. Since these classes of t. the parameter is used as a subscript of Y and 1 to distinguish different generators and tnorms in each class. 1963. In each case.18). Let j be a binary operation on the unit interval. 1. Then the function f defined by f(a) = . co) 0 Chap. 1963]: parameter p is defmed by Then The class of decreasing generators distinguished by fj„(a) = 1 — aP (p 4 0)• 7 . Proof: [Schweizer and Sklar. b [0. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Lemma 3. g{1) (a) = r"(f(0) — a). ESchweizer and Skla. 1 ].2. fo r a for a E[O g(1)] for a E (s(1). 3 1 f 1 ( f (0) — 0 { a) for a E f (G) . for any a c [0.18) for ali a.1. Ling. 1965 1 . • Given a decreasing generator f. 13) {1 = f f (0) — a) for f(0) — a E [O. co).g(1) given by g(a) is a decreasing generator with f (0) = s(I) and its pseudoinverse f{1) is = g(4) (g(1) — a) for any a E R. • Lemma 3. norms are described in the literature. 1 ] Let g be an increasing generator. The following are examples of three parametrized classes of decreasing generators and the corresponding classes of tnorms.r.
3 Fuzzy Intersections.)(s" — s — i. 1] = 1 — min(1. whose pseudoinverses are given by f.(a) (1. [Frank. 1. 1980f]: Given a class of decreasing generators f. (1 ± (s Employing (3. 00) = f. 19791: This class of tnorms is based on the class of decreasing generators s —1 (s 0. — 6 )' Oil 0).(1) (z) = log. aP bP when 2 — aP — bP E fD. (s17 I.z) i'F' (1 0 whcil [0. co) and we obtain the corresponding class of tnortn.) (2 — aP — bP) { (aP ± bP — 1)I/P O (rnax(0.Sec. . otherwise I] 2.s by applying (3. b) = f( fp(a) ÷ fp(b)) = f]. 3.(v1) 0 + (1 — b)W) + (1 — b)w) 1h4' when (1 — otherwise + (1 — e [0. tNcrrns when f 1 (z) = Z Z 69 E (—CO. 1(1 — + (1 — 3. we obtain is (a. (a) ÷ fy (b)) (sa = fs(_1) [_ — 1)(s4' — (s 1)2 = = [1 T. 0) I1 — . 1)ez).18): ip (a. [Yager.18). 1] when z (1. = Jet" f. we obtain f(z) =— o and b) = fw(a) f w (h)) when z E IJI1 when Z E (1. s 0 1).
1a and Fig.19). which concludes the proof. + (1 — bri t!' co.1)_ Upper bound. ± (1. b). b E [O. m b) naaK1 — a. 11. We can see that some classes cover the whole range of tnorms expressed by (3. lim Ml4 O b) = 0 tor all a. They are identified. Proof: Lower bound. rnin(1. which are defined by different choices of the parameter w. this operation shows the least demand for simultaneous set membership. 1 — b] = rnin(a. Table 3. are summarized in Table 3. while other classes cover only a part of the range. Far each class. Theorem 3. 3. it generally demands simultaneous satisfaction of the operands of A and B. the value 11w can be interpreted as the degree of strength of the intersection. may be interpreted as perforMing fuzzy intersections of various strengths. new t norms can also be generated on the basis of known tnorms. b) = I . then. The three classes of fuzzy intersections introduced in this section. b) for all a. performs a weak . (3. b e [0.  . This property of i stated in the following theorem.17).. which is the standard fuzzy intersection. it petfurnis a strung intersection with a high demand for simultaneous set membership. It is also easy to show that liraftl hence. 1(1 — a) w ÷ (1 — 1191 1»') (it > 0). It is trivial that b) = b and i„(a.19) It is significant that this class covers the whoie range of tnorms eipressed by (3. by the references in which they were published. The Yager intersection for which w= 1. the Yager functio n for which w oci.8a illustrate how the Yager fuzzy intersections increase as the value of w increases. 3 Let us i w (a. as well as some other classes covered in the literature.12. we know that lim1iIL [(I Thus. and the resulting functions for the two extreme limits of the parameter. Thus. Since the intersection is analogous to the logical AND (conjunction).17).17. The various t norms of the Yager class. the Yager class Chap. the table includes its definition.2. the range of its parameter. From the proof of Theorem 3. 1— hi. Then b. returns a positive value only when the summation of the membership grades in the two sets exceeds 1. which is the bounded difference. — b)/ 1/11) 3 = max[lL — a.) < (a b) < min(a. performed. Thus. intersection that allows the lowest degree of membership in either set to dictate the degree of membership in their intersection.70 Operations on Fuzzy Sis examine one of the three introduced classes of tnorms. 1) = a independent of w. its decreasing generator (if applicable). In contrast to this. Let i„ denote the class of Yager rnorms defined by (3. As stated in the following theorem. In effect.
79 .25 EIEMEIMI 0 NM ..25 .75 .9 I .25 .25 0 .Z5.5 .5 1 .75 .75 I .56 .75 .5 .1 a= .8 .25 .25 0 0 0 .75 I 3 1 I .75 .75 .25 .75 .75 .5 35 .5 .75 I w=2 0 1 .25 0 CI 0 0 0 0 0 11211111111111 0 .75 .25 25 .75 .75 15 w 10 .27 .5 .5 .75  1 1 3 1 1 1 0 1 .5 .25 0 .25 0 EA 0 (b) Fuzzy unions b a .5 .75 b= 0 .s .75 . .2.54 .25 0 .5 .: I .75 .25 0 .25 . .9 .5 .5 . 25 0 .= 0 .25 0 o (w eak) 0 1 .75 11 TABLE 3.2.5 .75 . 0 a .75 .25 0 ° EIBECIIN o .5 5 .25 0 .5 . 1 IIIIMEHIN Ei .5 1 J I . .75 1 1 (weak) .75 .25 IL 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 .65 IN 0 Ell _29 11:1 . 3.75 0 EIMI 0 0 EN 0 0 0 0 0 0 w .79 0 ..5 0 25 1 .5 .5 .5 .25 .75 .25 0 w .75 :25 .Sec. !.75 1 1 ._ .5 .56.75 .5 35 .5 .75 1 .5 .5 .5 .5 .15 0 1 35 .25 1 .5 .1 a= . 1 .5 .75 . .5 o ° 1:11 0 IIIIEIEI 0 0 O 00 0 0 CI .5 . .23 ' 1 1 .46 .5 .20 0 .71 .25 0 10 0 0 .3 Fuzzy Intersections: (Norms EXAMPLES OF FUZZY SET OPERATIONS FROM THE YAGER CLASS i(a) Fuzzy intersections b ..75 .5 Ell . .25 I (strong) .25 1 w 0 MMEMIRIMIII .5 .5 .75 .
72 Operatiuus (JP Fuzzy Sets Chap.8 Eiplc cf uzzoi Midsections and fiumy.unions from the Yager classes. . 3 w= 3 I (a) kigure 3.
5 u .Sec.c5 u w• • w1 0 (b) Figure 3. 3..w.„: w=3 u.8 (eottrinvied) Examples of fuzzy'intersections and fuzzy micas from the Yager classes.. w1. ..3 Fuzzy Intersections: t Norms 73 u.„...
(1 1 . 1: .1 i 1 1 range converges la 0 tolor 1 x Dunbi [1982/ J. s 54 1  nail*.r1(.ClinaiP +11111.1• MI.1.1> 1 . b) ab when p .. = 1.43..OP (1 .. b) Decreasing Parameier As parameter An parainew mayerg.1 max(0„ a + h . a ± b .1)} _ la te 1\ s › G.lgrh .IA wilak Schwa= & Sklar 1 [1963] lama aP Fe  1)11.)Ca + b 1)  lab] 1 I+1 3.  A 1 1 › .r)a) r Ci ab when r = 1 max(O.11) 61. 13) ab a+bab ab as s i.aej p> 0 1.. a +b +lab 1) a e [0... 1a. = 1 Drubola 1 Wade [19801 ab maz(a. [(1  a? + (1 brill  . a F b .(1 . 1  Hamacher [1978] ab r + (1 ..1 wbea X = 1.b)0 1) (1 101 . 0 . Sr.b) !mai (O.1° )) al.1) maxill.ar . b) ab ab wheal p = 1 p>0 Oa %Own p : Yager 139801 1  ntin 11...1 Schwcizer &Sklar 3 Schwcizer &Skins 4 exP(.1.1) when i oh when a. a) Dux (0.TABLE 3. + b + ab . Ca.i.. b) (! .ab • ... IJ) as A 0 Weber [1983 ]  : 1+1 1 141 . al › 0 imin (a.ab) In (r 4 Oa.i) + (T .ab when I Fraglt flg791 16Kr [1+ 4A . 'Yu [1985] ini4 0. raa. X›0 imi..(a. b.1) ntax[0.0 + b .abl2  when X.111 1 + Aa ' . .I ) i 1 I l ea.. a ÷ b . 4.. (1. 111 rnin(a.2 Rcromice SOME CLASSES OF FUZZY INTERSECTIONS (iNORMS) Porroula I (a.ta. IWO' I a P 1 p .i)  ab a + 6 . vieTatar f (a) A. 20 + b .lbircizcr 4 Sklar 2 . 1 ab as J..r(). 1  aP 19 0 0 all ab a + b .
where g (1) denotes the pseudoinverse of g.3 Fuzzy intersections: torn* 75 Theorem 3. The pseudoinverse of g is the function { 2z — 1 when z e [0. 3.11. 2 Graphs of g and e1) are shown in Fig.norn1 and let .at is strictly increasing and continuous in (0. b) re_ax(0. Proof: See Appendix D. let g(a) { 0 2 when a 0 when a = O. is also a rnorrn. g(b))) (3. g(1) = 1. 1) when z [ 1. 3.20) for all a. 1 when z E 1] (Fig. b) = There are. it necessary to cover them in this text. 3. a = 1. the function is defined by a r h) = 1 1 '(i(S(a). which Are based on various ways of combining several tnorms into one tnonn.. Considering now another increasing geaerator defined by when a 0 1 g(41) 1 when. Givea now ga. ti E [0. other methods for ohtnining new r riorms from given t norms.9b)1 we obtain ig(a. b) = ab. b) = I a when a = when b = 1 otherwise ab for the same tnorm i(a. 11.) { 2z when z E LO. Whose pseudoinverse is the function g (—I} (2.3 [O. we readily obtain i' (a. but vim do not deem.Sec. (a + b ah — 1)/2). 1] [0. 1] be a function such th. • a 1 To illustrate the moaning of this theorem.  . 1) and g(0) = O.9a. Then.13_ Let i he a r .
zzy Sets Chap. Thus. Like fuzzy intersection. The function returns the membership grade of the element in the set A LI B. 3 1 1/2 307 (a) (a) 5(a) (b) Figure 19 Illusiration of Theorem 3.11 3. 11 The argument to this function is the pair consisting of the membership grade of some element x in fuzzy set A and the membership grade of that same element in fuzzy set B. 1] [0.4 FUZZY UNIONS: tCONORMS The discussion of fuzzy unions closely parallels that of fuzzy intersections. the general fuzzy union of two fuzzy sets A and B is specified by a function u [0.76 OpQqatirans on Pu. 1] [0. .
1) = 1. d) (ilsonotarticRy). d E [0. = u(b. A fuzzy unionitconorm u is a binary operation on the unit interval that satisfies at least the following axioms for all a. 0) = 0. • The following are examples of some tconorms that are frequently used' as fuzzy unions (each defined for all a. 0) = a (boundary condition). Properties that a function u must satisfy to be intuitively acceptable as a fuzzy union are exactly the same as properties of functions that are known in the literature as tcoaarms. u (a.4 Fuzzy Unions: tCorionris 77 (A L) B)(x) tefA(x). d) (associativity).. u(a Axiom u44 u (a . Otherwise. The most important additional requirements for fuzzy Illii0115 are expressed by the following axioms: Axiom u.14. 3. The following theorem shows that the standard fuzzy union is significant with respect to idempotency. we call it the axiomatic skeleton for fuzzy . a) ›.5. the axioms are justified on the same grounds as those for fuzzy intersections. The standard fuzzy union is the only idempotent tconorm. b d implies “(a b) u(a. Axiom u6.union. Since this set of axioms is essential for fuzzy unions.21) all x € X. B(x)) for (3. a) (commutativity) Axiom u3.Sec. Theorem 3. we can see that they differ only in the boundary condition.a (superidempotency). b). b2) (strict monowniciv). Axioms ul through u3 ensure that the fuzzy union defined by (3. b. u(0. u is a continuous function (continuity). u(a. Comparing Axioms ul—u4 with Axioms il14. u(b. .s1tconorms. Axiom uZ. it is called strictly Archimedean. 0) = u (1. We may thus use the terms "tconorms" and "fuzzy unions" interchangeably. Axiom u7. capture exactly the full scope of fuzzy unions.9. 1]: Axiom ul. ' ai <a2 and bi <b2 implies u(ai. if it is also strictly monotonic.21) becomes the classical set union when sets A and B are crisp: u (0. 1) = u(1. b1) < u(a2. but observe that the requirement of subidempotency for fuzzy intersections is replaced here with the requirement of superidempotency. d)) = u(24 (a. which are now well developed. These functions. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. b e p. These axioms are analogous to Axioms 1547 for fuzzy intersections. Any continuous and superidempoteat tconorm is called Ardarnedean.
1 .78 Operations on Fuzzy Sets Standard union. b) = a ± b — ab. Ling.10. These inequalities can also be proven mathematically. 1j. b) u m. b) (a.3.b) < 14(a b) for all a. 3 Drastic union: u (a . 1. Let 14 be a binarSr operation on the unit interval. 1963. Bounded sum: tt (a. u is an Archimedean tconorm iff there exists an increasing generator such that (3. We can see from the graphs that maxta. 11.16 (Characterization Theorem of rConorms).15. Algebraic sum: u(a . • Given an increasing generator g. ] Proof: [Schweizer and Sklar. The following are examples of three parameterized classes of increasing generators and the corresponding classes of tconorms. which provides us with a method for generating Archimedean tconorras or classes of conorm3. where u denotes the drastic union.10.(o b). 3. 1] when z E (1. b E [0. Chap.We now proceed to a fundamental theorem of tconorms. a counterpart of Theorem 3. 1965]. (3. a ± b). which are counterparts of the .three classes of t norms introduced in Sec. b) = max(a. <a+b — ab < min(L a I.. 1 — (1 — a)? (pÙ). b E [0. — (1 — 41) (z) = 1 1 when z E [0. 00) and we obtain the corresponding class of tconorrns by applying (3. when Graphs of these four fuzzy unions are shown in Fig. Then. b E (0. b) = min(1. b) = { b= 0 a when a = 0 L 1 otherwise. [Schweizer and Sklar. The full range of fuzzy unions is specified in the following theorem. Theorem 3. we can construct a tconorre u by (3. For all a. u (a. 1963): The class of increasing generators is defined by gp (a) Then.23): . b). 111 .22) Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. max(a.23) u(a b) = g (1) (g(a) g(b)) for all a.11.23). Theorem 3.
max (d) .. 4t1.44714..4 44%. 4...01.440. 40 4 11 Att$4$4A: pr.21fripardpirs.4104.4.4r.4° .441.41. tor. .49.4.4". .111.41. i' 4. 1. 4 4".44.110 Graphs of fr.r 441poroVt4444. 4P411.4644.474T..41.4 4Z 4 .4.4r • . 4.414.4 41.. 6.Sec 3_4 Fuzzy Unions: tConorms 79 4 alp .u+b) (a) (b) a+bab (e) Figure 3.11' 44e. 4. 4 48.4. 4". 4e4tee'4 4 4100441*** 41.azy tizious. 4. .4..4 r 1 he 4. 41.4.44 . 4 11•1%.4.. • + dip4• .4P444 40 104. 4' 44 4 24 4. 444r. 1P.4.44. 44114.0"." 1 Ark 44. 4 .441.4.4... . 41.4.4.+040411'..40 4. . U pray min (1 .04. 4. 4' .41.4.4.404. 0 4.4pAir iNi• 4..40.1 .47. . .
the proof reduces to the demonstration that Um (a' bw ) 11w = max(a. this class covers the whole range of tconomis. (a) —1 s— 1 whose pseudoinverses are g. [Yager. 1979]: Using the class of increasing generators g. (3.17. 3.5 111 we obtain a. or (2) a = b. Theorem 3. b). we obtain = /111' when.(a < uniza(a b) for all a. [Frank. oci) and b) = g » (au + VI ) = min(1. (1 — a)P ± (1 — b)P — — — Chao. (3 a5 ) This is obvious whenever (1) a or b equal 0. wet 3. denote the class of Yager tconorms defined by (3. 1)(s1b — 1)1 s 1  J . Proof: Lower bound. 1] when z E (1. Let u„. (a . (1 ± (s — (. max(a. — log. u.24) As stated by the following theorem. + bw) 11") (w > 0).24). z e [0. (a w b w ) 11w ).80 p (a Operations on Fuzzy Sets b) = 41) (1 — (1 —a)' 1 1 = 1 — {max(0. . Let us further examine only the Yager class of tconorms b) = min(1. We have to prove that lim min[1. because the limit of 2V' as w equals 1 . (a' + b") 1/19 max(a b).11 otherwise 2. b E [O. 3 (1 — 17) 7) [(1 _ a)P + (1 —b) 7 1r/P when 2 — (1 — a)' —(1 —b)' E [0. If a b and the min equals (aw bw) l/w.!1) (z) = 1 — log. Then. class of increasing generators g(a)=a u' 0).. 1980f]: Given a.
can be interpreted as performing union operations otvasious strengths. (3. (42. we obtain urn lnQ = lirn 43 JR CC. 3.w bw) Lira > or bw > the last inequality holds if a = 1 ùr b for all to G co). b) 1 for all a. On the other hand. which is the bounded sum. the i conorms of the Yager class represeut fuzzy unions that increase in strength as the value of the parameter w increases. Table 3. In fact. is very weak and indicates perfect interchangeability between the two arguments.0 In(a + 1.1b and Fig. Hence. b [0. in which some interchangeability between the two arguments of the statement "A or B" is assumed. The notion of the set union operation corresponds to the logical OR (disjunction).5) is still valid when the min equals 1 .f1') Using l'Hospital's rule. represents the strongest fuzzy union. b) b and u(a. b c [0. which are defined by different choices of the parameter w. It is also easy to show that lint (a + b»u = oo . When w I (since a. The Yager tconorm for which u) 1.2. each of them is a counterpart of one of the classes of fuzzy intersections in 'rabic 3. a'Ina+bwinb a +1) 11' (a Ib)t 'ma + Inb = lirn = la b.  . It is trivial that u(0.4 Fuzzy Unions: t Conorms (a' 81 Let us assume. Then Iit 1. In this sense. b)). which is the standard fuzzy union. In this case.6. (a/b)w max(a. with no loss of generality.0.8b illustrate how the values produced by the Yager functions for fuzzy unions decrease as the value of ut increases.60 Q 11m (a' + bw ) liw b i60 It remains to show that (3. hence. that a < b. Various classes of fuzzy unions covered in the literature are summarized in Table 3.1]. and kt Q hm in Q 111. 1. the Yager tgoonorna for which w t7o.Sec. 0) = u independent of tv.3.25) is again satisfied. we may interpret the value 11w as indicating the degree of interchangeability present in the union operation uw . • The various functions of the Yager class. Hence. u w (a.6% bw)liw.2. 3. Upper bound. 11).
is Ibmacher [197&) a+b+fr  Zab . (a' + tcni] A aw . ta >o umax (a.ai when p a + b . Yager [19801 & Pa& ON rain [1. > 1 min(1. a + b) raia(1. > 1 mina.(1aX1. I. a + b) 0110(1.ab .4a + r5 ai when 1.ab when a Dlibois — a E [Et . a + b) wittn . b) Weber [19831 FRIA (1.x Schweizer & Skikur 2 Schwelser & Sklar 3 Schsmizer & Sklar 4 [aP + b' . p›0 a+b  ab a+b ) b 7.aPbP)i In[l elf [Intl .i) A ] 1 ( b 014 _ iusir.3 Referenœ SOME CLASSES OF FUZZY UNIONS (tCONORMS) Format u(a.fIt a a A or Yu [ 185I mina .1 ab) 1. 11 max(a.t2}P P00 a +bab a+b2b i .0 + b .1.ab %Alta p Mix' (1.1 . 1 . b) a + 43 .OP + (1 . i» mina. I + . a + b .(! .4i +b . _ 1 )] Frank 119791 1 .W . b) 1 . a + i + Aai) . = 1. a + b).2)1P + I Ina — b)I?) 1 ) ti EWE (a.TABLE 3. a + b + a wbea À = 1.a)1P (1 . b) Increasing Parameter generator g(a) range As palaraete! cooyerRes to 0 As parametzr move to 1 or 1 : Dbi [19821 .v" 17 al .b) .1 p>0 p>G M1512X (a.la 1 (  a ) ) r >0 a+b 1 .log.. yoben .la(1 + AO A . (1 . 'Rehm 1 .ev(—(110(1 — .a). a+baba.1 )Ø 1 .(comx(0.ai  2ab a+ b  ab wheal r Schweizer & Skial 1 11963j mith(1. .(1 .
(3. tcononns. 1] be a function such that (0.13. dual triples): (min (a . c(b)). 3.1] 4. Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3.5 COMBINATIONS OF OPERATIONS In classical set theory. and let any such triple be called a dual triple. g(b))) ug defined by (3.. c(b)) and c(u(a.Seo.26) is virtually the same as the construction of new :norms from given tnorms by (3.e. Hence.20). there are additional methods for constructing new tconorrns from given tcononns. g is strictly increasing and continuous in Let u be a tcononn and let g [0. min(1. Let the triple (i.26) for all a. c) denote that i and u are dual with respect to c. c.11 is also a toortorm. but they are not covered in this text due to space constraints.N ) (ab. b). the operations of intersection and union are dual with respect to the complement in the sense that they satisfy the De Morgan laws ArIB=AUB and AUE = n B.[0. The construction of new toottorms from.28) 'These equations describe the De Morgan laws for fuzzy sets. The theorem is a counterpart of Theorem 3. b)) = u(c(a). g(1) = 1. It is desirable that this duality be satisfied for fuzzy sets as well. the function u g (43 = g(1) 014(a). It is obvious that only some combinations of tnorms. raia. c) Several useful characteristics of the duality between tnorms and rconorms are expressed by the following six theorems. a + b — 1). new tconorrns can also be generated on the basis of known tconorrns. given tconorms by (3.27) (3.18. Theorem 3. a + b). b). 3. We say that a tnorm i and a tcononn u are dual with respect to a fuzzy complement c iff c (i (a ..(a.e. Then.) b). b E [0.x (a . u. c. 1) and g(0) 0. In analogy to tnorms.) (max(0. u. . h)) = «c (a). a + b ab. We can easily verify that the following are dual tnorms and tconorms with respect to the standard èomplement G (i. and fuzzy complements can satisfy the duality. h). we leave it to the reader as an exercise to try some of these constructions.13.5 Combinations *1 Operations B3 As stated by the following theorem.
c. if b < d. c(b)) = c(a) = c(min(a. Proof: Assume. c(a) c(b) for arty fuzzy complement and. u (a . then c(b) > c(d). 1]. b) = c(i(c(a). we have u (a . u. c(b)) by Axiom 12.29) for all a. 1]. c(b)) The proof for i. ( 12) For any a. we have to show that it satisfies Axioms ul—u4. d). u satisfies Axiom. an exercise.29) and Axiom i3.29). (u3) For a. and u adi. c(b))) = c(i(c(b). d [0. b)). 1)) (by (3.. Given a o'peration u on [0. c(0))) e(i(c(a). a Hence.29)) (by Axiom cl) = c(c(a)) (by Axiom il) (by Axiom c4). 1] defined by i and an involutive fuzzy complement c(i(c(a). Hence. a) by (3. Moreover. hence. . u3. c) are dtiat with respect to any fuzzy complement c. that is. the binary u(a b) (3. b. max. max(c(a). c(b))) (i.19. 14. Then.84 Operat[OnR on Fuzzy Si Chap 3 Theorem 3. b G p. u(a. is le ft to the reader as tIICIM1 N Theorem 3. c(d))) u(a. rnin(c(a). [0. that a b. without any Loss of generality. 1].. b. c) and 0. 0) = c(i (c (a). c(b))) c(i(c(a). by (3. (u1) For any a e [0. b) = c(i(c(a). t)). c(a))) = u (b . which shows that u satisfies Axiom u2. c(b) = c(max(a.ny a. u satisfies Axiom ill. 1] is a tconorm such that 0 is a:dual triple. The triples (min..29) is a t001:101M. To prove that u given by (3.20. (c(a). Proof.
b. ri — a 1 b 1±Xb I — I. 14. respect to the standard 2) we obtain the tconorra 1 (and r fuzzy complement. we can now show that u satisfies the De Morgan laws: = c(e(i Ma).—1). we obtain the standard fuzzy complement and the tconorm a ÷ b ab. u(a. c(b)))).29)) (i (c(a).29)). (c (i (c (b).5 Combinations of Operations ] 05 (u4) For any a. 3. c(d)))))) = c(i(c(a). we obtain the Harnacher class of tconorms defined in Table 3. consider the tnorm i (a.Xa By applying these operations to (3. For A: a+b I ab and the fuzzy complement . consequently. ab and this tconorm are dual with.29)) (by (3.ab Now. (by Axiom c4) (by (3.A. the tnorm.29) and Axiom c4. it is a tconorra. ex (b))) (a. we obtain the class of tconorras u x (a. i and u are dual with respect to c. b)).3: a ± b ± (r — 2)ab (r > 0). To illustrate the utility of this theorem. d E [0. taking r = X +1. 1 . (c(b). c(b)))) = gc(a) OW). c(d))) = u(u(a. Hence.See. ur(a ' 17) = 1+ (r 1)ab For X = 0 (and r = 1).29). c(c(b)))) = Hence. b). . b) = cx (i(cx (a). c(u(b. d)))) (by (3. d)) = c(i(c(a). By employing (3. u(b. = c(i(c(c(a)). Hence. c(b)). c(d)))) c(i (i(c(a). c(d))) (by Axiom c4) (by isaioal 14) = c(i (c(c(i (c(). u satisfies Axiom u4 and. b) ab and the Sugeno class of fuzzy coraplements I a cA (a) = ›.
86 Hence.30) for all a. ea) = g(1) (g(1) g(a) . Proof For any a. 1] The following theorem enables us to generate pairs of dual tnonns and tconorms for any given involutivc fuzzy complement c and an increasing generator of c. 111 E [0. b)) = e l) Cgœ g(a) g(1) g(b) . J ab. Theorem 3. Applying this theorem to the Sugeno class of fuzzy complements. the binary operation i on [0. g(b)))) g(b))) (g (1) .22. c(b)) = g (1) (s(g 1 1(g(l) g(a))) g(g 1 (g(1) g(b))) g(1)) = = encs. c).. (b)). 1]. b is a tnorm such that (I. i(c(a).g(1)) 1) .g(a) .s'(g (1 (ea) = g 1 4( 1) mintg( 1 ). Proof: Analogous to the proof of Theorem 3. we obtain i(a.g(b)). whose increasing generators g are defined by 1 g(a) = Ina + (Â > 1) for all a G [0. b) u(a . b) = c(u(c(a). 1 ].g(b)). a +biÂab . 1] defined by i(a.a\ 1+ab t 1+4 . u. the tnorm and tconorm generated by g are dual with respect to c. Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. Hence. b)) = i(c(a). 3 a + b 1 .20. Theorem 321.  That is.( cu(a. we have c(a) = g1 (g(1) i (a. Given an involutive fuzzy complement c and an increasing generator g of c. c (14 (a . c(b))) (3. b c [0. Given a tconoun u and an involutive fuzzy complement c. b) = max (0. b) g(b) g(1)).
g(b) u(a. That is. c) obtained by Theorem 3. Proof: Assume that the distributive law u(b.Sec. That is. u. Then. 3. d)) .22 satisfies the law of excluded middle and the law of contraction. that the Weber and Yu tnorms and conorms are identical for the standard fuzzy complement (X = 0). c) does not satisfy the distributive laws. • Theorem 3. «a. c satisfy the law 6f excluded middle and the law of contradiction. c(a)) = g(1) (g(a) g(c(a))) g (g1 (g (1) — g(a)))) = g(1) (g(a) g(1) = ( 0)) = for all 1 a E [0.. Proof: According to Theorem 3_22. Iet (1.1). u. Moreover. we have Oa) = e(g(1) — i (a b) = euf.4(a. the fuzzy operations i. b) mina.24. 11 Hence. u.. u c) be a dual triple generated by Theorem 3.3).g(a) u (a b) = Then. the Law of contradiction is also satisfied. 1]. and 1. however. d)) = u(i (a b). Note that each dual triple i. That is. u. tnorms and tconorms of each of these classes are dual with respect to the standard fuzzy complement. Then. (a. These properties are formally expressed by the following two theorems. Let (i. but they do not satisfy the distributive laws of the Boolean lattice (Table 1. the law of excluded middle is satisfied. (j .2). +b which is the class of Yu tconorms (Table 3. the Weber tnorms and the Yu tconorms are dual with respect to the Sugeno complements for any X > —t Observe.22. Theorem 3.5 Combinations of Operations 87 which is the ciass of Weber :norms (Table 3. c(a)) = gti) (ea) g(c(a)) (1 )) = g(1) (g(a) eel fs(1) g(a))) g(1)) = g (1) (g(a) g(1) — g(a) el)) el) (0) = for all a E [0. c) be a dual triple that satisfies the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction.23.
Let c be the equilibrium of c. Assume. 112 (X). which express the essence of the notion of aggregation: Axiom hi. 11 for all i E 14„„ if ezi . in terms of a single fuzzy set. Formally. defined on X. By the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction. a„ b. fuzzy set A by operating on the membership grades of these sets for each x E X. A(x) h(A i (x). . very high. for each x E X. This contradicts the requirement that e 0 0. c(c)) = Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. we can prove that the dual distributive law does not hold either. 19. b2. A„(x)). Now. which results (by Axioms il and ul) in e = O. and each of these linguistic labels is captured by an appropriate fuzzy set defined on the interval [0. bi for all i Axiom h2. applying e to the above distributive law.. any aggregation operation On n fuzzy sets (n > 2) is defined by a fu. e)). u (e e)) = u(i(e e). a„) and (b1. c(e)) = O.nic increasing a. 0. the distributive law does not hold. ir [0.1 since d e [0. in all its arguments. h is inonoto. az. function h produces an aggregate When applied to fuzzy sets Al. medium. 1. .) of ntuples such that h(ai. In order to qualify as an intuitively meaningful aggregation function. e c(0) = 1 and c(1) = 0. substituting for u(e. .80 is satisfied for all a. for example. an appropriate aggregation operation would produce a meaningful expression. Hence. 3. e) and i(e. Then. 1) = u(0. Thus. we obtain we have i(e.). (e.6 AGGREGATION OPERATIONS Aggregation operations on fuzzy sets are operations by which several fuzzy sets are combined in a desirable way to produce a single fuzzy set.) h(bi.0). A2. e). e N„. e) = i(e. 3 0. 1) = 1 (boundary conditions).100]. In an analogous way. For any pair (al .nctiun h [0. obtain ti(ei e) =` u(e. Clearly. 1]. E 10. that a student's performance (expressed in %) in four courses taken in a particular semester is described as high. 0) = 0 and h(1. then b. of the overall performance of the student in the given semester. h must satisfy at least the following three axiomatic requirements. 1]. that is. h(0. (e. and very low. we i(e..
3.. we may conclude that functions h that satisfy (3. an ) < h(a* .. all aggregation operations between the standard fuzzy intersection and the standard fuzzy union are idempotent... a. 11. aggregating operations on fuzzy sets are usually expected to satisfy fwo additional axiomatic requirements...(2) . it must satisfy Axiom 115.See.a2. a.31) a„). a... a2 . . . for all tituples (a i .. for all a E [Op 1 ) = h (ap(t) ap. To see this. It is significant that any aggregation operation h that satisfies Axioms h2 and h5 satisfies also the inequalities min(a a2.31). a*. fuzzy intersections and unions are not idempotent. We can easily see that fuzzy intersections and unions qualify as aggregation operations on fuzzy sets. However. h is a continuous function_ Besides these essential and easily understood requirements.. Conversely. 1 a) < h(a. .31) are the Only aggregation operations that are idempotent. since a = min(a.. then a.. a) < a2.. . a)<Ia. These are defined by the formula =441 ( pi (3. a') = a*. If this assumption is not warranted in some application contexts. by Theorems 3_9 and 3. a2. If h satisfies Axioms la and h5. .. Axiom 135 expresses our intuition that any aggregation of equal fuzzy sets should result in the same fuzzy set. (3. I] . . These aggregation operations are usually called averagtng operations. = h(a. Observe that Axiom h5 subsumes Axiom hl.ai.) E [0. that is. the symmetry axiom must be dropped. Axiom 11 4. if h satisfies (3. their property of associativity provides a mechanism for extending their definitions to any number of arguments. h is a symmetrk function in all its arguments. a. for all a E [0. let a21 an ) and a* = max(a l . with the exception of the standard min and max operations. Moreover. a. a.a) <max(a. h. ] Axiom h4 reflects the usual assumption that the aggregated fuzzy sets arc equally important.. That is.32) . a2. Axiom h5.14.. Although they are defined for only two arguments. h is an idempotent function. that is. (a I . One class of averaging operations that covers the entire interval between the min and max operations consists of generalized means. a) ‹ rnax(a.6 Aggregation Operations 89 Axiom 113 .. for any permutation p on N„.
and idempotent aggregation operations. a. • . consequently. an OTVA operation associated with w is the function w2b2 + • • • + wnbn hw(ai. a. the acronym OWA is often used in the literature to refer to these operations. a2 1 • •t = Jim h a (a i . a2. cor_perge. the function h. For a let us first determine the limit mean.SO Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. symmetric. it represents a parametrized class of continuous. a is a parameter by which where a E TR (a 5k 0) and ai for any i e mt. fora = 1. with its lower bound a2. Iim 0 Ir = a01 + OE + ard — inn Using l'Hospital's rule.• • ±a) which is the arithmetic mean./ Function h. 3 0 for all if N„ when. an) = .„ satisfies Axioms hi through h5. 1] for all i e N. a —J. n • = (al a2 . an ) and its upper bound hoo(al. .s to the geometric hc. Another class of aggregation operations that covers the entire interval between the min and max operations is called the class of ordered weighted averaging operations.(al. Let be rt iveightiag vector such that tvi [0. In a2 • + a: In an lim1nh — in al + tua2 Hence. It also satisfies the inequalities (331) for all Œ E R.) — ai a2 + a which is the harmonic mean. (a t • a2 • • • To show this. • . a2. a2. a2. we now have a! In a l ± a. • 1 an) = —(at a2 . For a <O and ai O. • • an. it is easy to see that different means are distinguished. and Then. a„) = lim cr4ao (al. iz_ i (ai a2. a„) = max(a / . a < 0. az . a„) = rnin(aL. ai. Ina„ = ln(ai a2 • an) lin .) converges to O. hx(at. For a —1.
. 3_6 Aggregation Operations 91 a„. is the arithmetic mean.(.„a„ h1 (a1 ) + 1z2(a2) + = total to2a2 + E mai This compices the proof.6+ . lr Ri" be a function that satisfies Axiom hi. vector where bi for any i E N.2 = . where [0. a 1 O.(b) e Pl„. + nR ica..5 4 .7) — . + tin) /4314 az t2.) = min (al .4 x . .2. a. for example.1 < . h(0. by varying the a. . each of which satisfies a particular compositional property.33) ai. wi [Acz61. • • • ± b. satisfy Axioms hi through 115.9.3. h. The lower and upper bounds are obtained for respectively. 1966]. bn ) is a permutation of vcctor i j E bg > b if i < j for any pair Given. 0) for all i h i (a) 4. let us formulate three classes of aggregation operations.szigarrient of weights from w. and the property h (al + where ai hi ..1] for all i E N. E . . and consequently. These formulations are a subject of the following three theorems. Next. Then. a + b E This is a wellinvestigated functional equation referred to as Cauchy 's fialctionat equation. b2.3 x . for any a. a„). w = (. (3.Sec. For w 1/n. a/. hi (a . ft is easy to verify that the OTNA operations IN„. a2. we have h. is the jai largest element in a!. to w*. we can cover the whole range between min and max. a„) max(al.2 x . a2. . That is. Therefore. ai Let h U .31).34) 0 for all ï E N.2.6. 1h2. also the inequalities (3. ljn). an). . Theorem 325.4). Then. That is. b.) a. :1=1 (3. Axiom aiD h(bi. Its solution is h i (a)= tvia for any a [0 IL where . .) u. In general. a. aft) E w1a1 . b2.) in which the elements are ordered: (b1 .1.9 i.7 t. E [0. Proof: Let Mai ) tVi 0. .
and the properties h (min(a 1 . Let h : [0. .• e N.. defuied in Theorem 3. respectively. 11 be a function that satisfies Axiom Id. ai ) by (:3. a„)) nnri recan TIOW rep1Mee h (0. a2. an ) = iquaax(aI.26. the arithmetic product and sum. bi). . (a) is continuous.38) hi(a)hi(b) and h i (0) = 0 (3. min(w„. max(a. . • .average. 0). where wi c [0.25. 0. 11 for all i N„. a2. a2). . . ir h3. there exist numbers x. C). 47.. We and by (3.j. O. bn)). It remains to prove. Axiom min(an . .92 Operatiori5 on Fuzzy Sets Chap. 1. a) E tv•a = a E .. Let h i (1) = wi .. h (bi. 1 ] such that h(ai .36).. a„) max[it(ai.)). .. 41. .') . Observe that h(ai. at.h(0.31) h(ai . a. ar. ai ). .. an). ma_x(0. (3. . Axiom 113. Clearly. ton )). an )). 11" ) [0. • .36). 0). Theorem 3. we eventually obtain peating the same replacement with respect to a3 . ai . .. (ai)) 0. • • • . wi = /11 (1) = hi(hi(1)) hi (w1 ) hi (ai) h(i) = wi and.1 . 0). . . 1). an). Let h : . nondecreasing.)) where h1 (121) = h (O .35) we obtain h(ai. a2. b1). = max(h (ai . ai . (3. a. an ) = rnax(h(ai. 1] be a function that satisfies Axiom hi. 0.a. may be viewed as a weighted quasi . becomes a weighted averagc = a„ = a 0. ai). we have if h also satisfies Axiom h5. h(0. [0.( a„.. it is required that Theorem 3. h(bi. € [0. . . and the properties h (inax(a 1 . Observe that function h. In this case.39) for all i E N„. given by (137). Hence.27. 43 3 a. an ) = max(min(tui . h(11. there exists bl such that ai 114 (10 and hence. in which the min and max operations replace. 0.that h (ai ) = Eairt(w ai) for all i e Nn . h. 0. and such that hi (0) = 0 and hi (hi (ai)) = hi (a0. Proof. 0) for all E (3. consequently. . b. . Then.35) kV.. a2. when a l = a2 = = h (a.) with max(h(0. . hp(ni) = w i = rain(w e . for any ai c (tvi. a2 . h(a1 a2. (3. bn)) = min (h (a i hi (ab) . the range of hi is [0. an )). an)1 max[h (a 1) h2(a2). 0. where hg (ai ) = h(1. a2 . _ . 3 It is easy to show that function h. wit For any ai e [0. hi (ai ) = hi (hi (k)) = h i (b g ) =a1 =I rain(wi . then. max(0. an) = min(ap . h(0. Then. wd.
commutativity. 1) = a. Hence. norm operations can be extended to any finite member of arguments. u (a. • A special kind of aggregation operations are binary operations h on [C). Otherwise.eriSktar Go O. Let these aggregation operations be called norm operations. —4— p Yager 4. (a . when it has also the property h(a. is a tnorm and u is a tconorm.11 The full scope of fuzzy aggregation operations. 3.X t Soweizer/Sklar p S v4feir. where be called . but replace the boundary conditions of tnorms and tcottornis with Weaker boundary conditions 0 and h (1. 11 when a.2. it becomes a tnorm. . / min(A. b G [O. 0) a. 1J. norm operations cover the whole range of aggregating operations. 1] that satisfy the properties of monotonicity. from imi„to u„. b)) b) = max.Sao. 1] defined by it. Due to their associativity. b)) X when a.kaverages. i(a. Whent a norm operation also has the property h(a . 1). and associativity of tnorms arid tconorrns.1) = 1. e (0.X Dombi 4..„„_ An example of a parametrized class of norm operations that are neither tnorms nor tconorrns is the class of binary operations on [0.6 Aggregation Operations 93 Proof: Left to the reader as an exercise. 17 otherwise for all a. it is an associative averaging operation.. Let these operations Dombi —). it becomes a tconorm.W Yager 0 w averagcs 1 I Generalized means OWA w * mire max intersection (associative) operatIons U na Union Averaging operation5 (idempotent) perat ions (associative) Figure 3. b e [0.
Proof: See Appendix D. referred in the literature as . fuzzy set theory is formulated in terms of the standard operations of complement. Then. there exists X E [0. and Domingo [1981]. 11 such that {max(a . )61 when a. and lower and upper bounds u (a. b). the identification of a suitable operation for a specific application is equivalent to the estimation of the parameter involved.2 is based upon a paper by Higashi and Mir [1982 ] .4). Esteva. They concluded. For each of these classes.28. which contains some additional characteristics of these classes_ Yager [19. b) = min(a. 1 ] otherwise for any a. and averaging operations are shown in the figure. b) X when a. union.24). the range of the respective parameter is indicated. 3.94 Operations on rozzy Sets _ Chap.. distributivity.4. .82d] also addressed the question of the meaning of the parameter w in his class and the problem of selecting appropriate operations for various purposes. Theorem 3. 3. where A is a fuzzy set defined on X. h e [0. b) ka . and intersection. strict increase of u(a. 3. They demonstrated the uniqueness of the max and min operators in terms of axioms that consist of our mdomatio skeleton for u and i. are defined in the following theorem. a) and i(a. The Sugeno class of fuzzy complements results from special measures (called 1measures) introduced by Sugeno 11977]. The first axiomatic treatment of fuzzy set operations was presented by Bellman and Criertz [1973 ]. In the seminal paper by Zadeh [1965b1. b) < nib*. A thorough investigation of properties of the max 'n <1 min operators was dalle by Voxinart and Goetschel [19 8 11 3 3. 11. defined by (3. by which their existence is established. 11 and au w> O. by requiring that A U cA = X. 1983 ] . and the axioms of continuity. 3. b) and i(a. Let a norm operation h be continuous and idempotent. This requirement can be expressed more specifically by requiring that  for all 2 c [O.1. but other possibilities of combining fuzzy sets are also hinted at._ The Yager class of fuzzy unions and intersections was introduced in a paper by Yager [1980f]. 1980g1 investigated fuzzy complements for the purpose of developing useful measures of fuzziness (Sec. The Yager class of fuzzy complements is derived from his class of fuzzy unions. monotonicrty. Given one of these families Of operations. b) > max(a. 3. 3 Special norms operations. 9. Our presentation of fuzzy complements in Sec.2. which is also motivated by the aim of developing measures of fuzziness.mediPns. Trilla.11. • The fall scope of fuzzy aggregation operations is summarized in Fig. b E (0. b E [X. continuity. tconorms. Only some representative classes of 1norms. and Ovnhinnikov 11981a. however. a) in a. and involution) arc employed as axioms. Yager (191 9b. that the operation of a fuzzy complemgnt is not unique even when ail reasonable requirements (boundary conditions. Different approaches to the study of fuzzy complements were used by Lowen [1978].5.  NOTES 3.
3. More general studies of rnorms and tconorms. The issue of which operations on fuzzy sets are suitable in various situations was studied by Zimmerraann [1978a ] . (c) g(a) + a.1. were originally introduced by Menger [1942] in his study of statistical metric spaces.for 2 < a < 1. Let j be a tnorm SUCEI that i(a.7. denote the Yager union and complement. 1983 ] . and Fodor (1991a. Ling [1965 ]. EXERCISES 3. 3 Exerdses S5 3.32) is covered in a paper by Dyckhoff and Pedrycz [19841. 3. The axiomatic skeletons that we use for characterizing fuzzy intersections and unions which are known in the literature av triangular norms (or tnornts) and triangular canarmy (or tcottorms).(1 — a ) qualify for each w > 0 as a fuzzy complement? Plot the function for smite values a. b c) 3. ( 3) g(a) t(a).0.14). were undertaken by Schweizer and Sklar [1961.fuzzy complement C ygiven by (3. Find the equilibrium of the fuzzy complement cx. 19820 ] .9.10.3 were iutcoduced are &iven directly in tb. 3. 1963. particularly studies of procedures by which classes of these functions can be generated. Aisina et aL [1983]. 3..w given by (3.(a c(a)) 1 for a E [0. and chi. 3. Determine whether each of the following functions is an increasing generator.6. 3. 1] to R such that g(0) = 0. . respectively. Fiird the equilibrium of the. 3.9) is not a fuzzy complement.7.Chap.8. Thole. One class of operators not covered in this chapter is the class of fuzzy implication operators. 19931. An excellent overview of the whole spectrum of aggregation operations on fuzzy sets was prepared by Dubois and Prade [1985e1. and Yager [1979a.1. where u . In current literature on fuzzy set theory. Zimmermann and Zysuo [1980]. °lye an example to show that for a discontinuous. The class of genenlized means defined by (3. the terms "rnorms" and "t_ conorrus" are used routinely.2. find and plot the fuzzy complement. strictly increasing function g from [0. respectively. 3. it covers fuzzy unions and intersections as well as averaging operations. and Zysno [19791. 11 and all In ›.. These are covered in Chapter 11 in the context of approximate reasoning. 3.5.4. a for 0 < (a) g(a) = 22. Does the function c(a)=. 1 and some valuci w < 1. References to papers in which the various tnorms and tconorms listed in Tables 3. 1 a (e) g(a) la + 2 4 for 0 < a < for < a ‹ 1.6. the function C generated by (3..2).b)F i(a. tables. Zimmermann. Show that 1. An overview of tnorms and tcononms was prepared by Gupta and Qi [199111. tnorm and tconorm generated by it: (a) g(a) sin (a).2 and 3. if it is. Frank [1979i. 3.
Find the generator of c. e (1. .21. (c) max. Let u.96 for a.10. b) = b for al a .13. a + b — 1). (b) max. min. i (a. 11. i c(a) 1 — a. b) max(0. [0. 3. Show that an OWA operation h ur satisties Axioms h 1 thiough /25.—cc and a oo. Prove Theorem 3.15. a + b). 3. 3. Met the function for some values of y.function y 2 (1 — a) 3. c(a) = 1 — a. with respect to ow . CA is a Sugeno complement for some A.32) become the min and max operations for cr >. 1]. . 1].16. that is 3. c„ is a Yager complement for some tv E (0. 3. 3. b) Irdn(1. 3 Show that I must be the algebraic product. Do). Prove Theorem 3. and ow be the Yager fuzzy union and fuzzy complement.1) b. y > 0 .27.11. E [0. min. c(a) = 1 Show that the following operations on fuzzy sets satisfy De Morgan's laws: (a) um. Demonstrate that they generalized means hOE defined by (332) are monotonia increasing with cri for fixed arguments. b (a. c c [O. o3).9. 3.. b Operator1s on 1.. respectively. Find the dual fuzzy intersection of' u. a + Y 2 (1 — a) is a fuzzy complement.12. a. Show that the following operations satisfy the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction: (a) um. Show that the. FUZty Sets Chap. i. 3. Show that the generalized means defined by (3. respectively.8. (b) u(a.14.
and statistics with imprecise probabilities. must be a closed interval for every a E (0. To view them in this way. The bounded support of a fuzzy number and all its acuts for a 0 0 must be closed intervals to allow us to define meaningful arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers in terms of standard arithmetic operations on closed intervals. must be bounded. of special significance are fuzzy sets that are defined on the set R of real numbers. be viewed as fuzzy numbers or fuzzy intervals. the membership grade of r in any fuzzy set that attempts to capture this conception (te. they should capture our intuitive conceptions of approximate numbers or intervals. 11 every fuzzy number is a convex fuzzy set.. I] clearly have a quantitative meaning and may. such as "numbers that are close. play an important role in many applications. 0 +A. approximate reasoning. a fuzzy set A on lEt must possess at least the following three properties: (1) A must be a normal fuzzy set. under certain conditions.to a given real number" or "numbers that are around a given interval of real numbers. (Hi) the support of A. a fuzzy number) must be 1. well established in classical interval analysis. is not necessarily true. The fuzzy set must be uvoual since our oureeeption of a set of "real numbers close m r" is fully satisfied by r itself. including fuzzy control.1 FUZZY NUMBERS Among the various types of fuzzy sets. consequently. Membership functions of these sets. since acuts of some convex fuzzy sets may be open or halfopen intervals. The inverse. hence. To qualty as a fuzzy number. however. which have the form A : —› [0.Fuzzy ARITHMETIC 4. optimization. (ii) M. 97 ." Such concepts are essential for characterizing states of fuzzy variables and. decision making. Since acuts of any fuzzy number are required to be closed intervals for all a E (0. 11.
3.25. 4. (b) an ordinary (crisp) closed interval [1. L35].1. They capture our conception of a large number or a small number in the context of each particular application. b] A(x) = I 1(x) r (x) fur x E (—cc.1 are luscd most often for representing fuzzy numbers.2a (symmetric) and 4. membership functions of 1tizz3r numbers need not be symmetric as are those in Fig. Fairly typical are so called "bell shaped" membership functions. r is a function from (kw) to .2d) also qualify as fuzzy numbers. where 1 is a function from (—co. and such that 1(x) = 0 for x E (—oc.98 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. Let A E F(R).1 A comparison of a reL number and a crisp interval with a fuzzy number and a fuzzy interval. in general. 4. t Me m bers h ip (c) 0 1. The following theorem shows that membership functions of fuzzy numbers may be.  Theorem 4. A is a fuzzy number if and only if there exists a closed interval [a bJ 0 such that for x E [a. as exemplified by the functions in Fig. Then. 1] that is monotonic increasing. a) Mem bers hip o (4.2b (asymmetric). as illustrated in Fig.3 Mem bers hip _ 0 o Figure 4.1: (a) an ordinary real number 1. 4. 4. w1). a) to O. 4." and (d) a fuzzy number with a flat region (a fuzzy interval). Although the triangular and trapezoidal shapes of membership functions shown in Fig. 4 Special cases of fuzzy numbers include ordinary real numbers and intervals of real numbers.1. cc ).3. piecewisedefineci functions. (c) a fuzzy number expressing the proposition "close to 1. Observe that membership functions which only increase (Fig. continuous from the right. father shapes may be preferable in some applications.20 or only decrease (Fig.1) for x E (17. Furthermore. 4. respeciivEly.
x A for arty n since is a closed interval arid hence. a) there exists a sequence of numbers fx„) such that x„. also x0 E A.pty closed interval because A is normal. Assume now that 1(x) is not continuous from the right. That is.Sec. l(x) = A(x0 ) > a. let 1(x) A(x) for any x ( oc. [0. That is.1 since A is convex and A(a) = L. /(x) is continuous from the right. 1(y) > 1(x).1 Fuzzy Numbers 99 (b) Ict) Figure 4.  Proof: Necessity. a). 11 that is monotonic decreasing. ›. X0 . DO but lim A(x„) a > 1(x0) ACAD. di(x) 1 for x e [a.7c C (o)p2 ! Co). where a < b. there exists a pair a.00 Now. Therefore.. then —  A(y) iniu[A A (g2)] A(t) by Theorem 1. Hence. which is a contradiction. Now. 4. .x0 for any r. 'A is a closed interval for every (0.. b]. and lim } X. Lim i(x„) . For OE 1. 11. and such that r(x) = O for . continuous from the left.2 Basic types of fumy numbers. is a nonem. b]. 1 is monotonic increasing. Let x < y ‹ a. b E R such that 121 = [a. Since A is a fuzzy number. 0 1(x) < 1 since O< A(x) <I for every x E a). n. This means that for some x0 e (—oo. Then. 'A. Hence. that is. b] and A(x) 1 for x g [a.
11.of (4. then 1(x0) = A(x 0 ) > a.1. Figure 4 3 Genend fuzzy number A expressed in the form. then r (x0) = A(x0) > a. x < a} such that Lim. as illustrated in Hg. x y. for each a (0. 4 The proof that function r in (4_1) i5 monotonic decreasing and continuous from the left is similar. x0 E x1r(x) > x . = xa. x0 > infixii(x) > a. . [a. x < al and. y„3. in tx fi(x) L. 11.3.00. this form allows us to define fuzzy numbers in a piecewise manner.E ciA. 1. "A C [x„. is bounded.25). It remains to prove that yce c _ By the definition of x there must exist a sequence (x„). (4 1 ). o.100 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. that is.1): (a) col = a = b 4)2 = 1. consequently. consequently. .1).1 in terms of (4. Since . As an example.2. co1 ) U (0)2. is bounded_ Hence.1) is clearly normaI 5 and its support. n. that is. oc). b) sup{x1r(x) x [x„ y] for all a E (0. Therefore. If x0 > b. nat is. let us define the four fuzzy numbers in Fig. Since A is a fuzzy number. we have . where x„ > xa for any n. Every fuzzy set A defined by (4.x. x. Let  = inf(x[1(x) > a. • The implication of Theorem 4. . x0 E [X. cc).3). 41111CC C4A C Lw (621.a.1 is continuous from the right. x0 G tXli(X) > a.35.] and hence.25. x0 < sup{xIr (x) > a. 4. 4. x < a} xa . there exists a pair ea ' . (b) cal = a = 1. /(x) = 0 for all x (— cio. It remains to provo that "A is a dosed interval for ally E (0.1)1 and. We can prove that y„ E"A in a similar way.35. i(x) = /(lim x). x yu a). co2 e Et of finite numbers such that A(x) = O for x e (—cc.. in general. 11k•CO Hence. (c) a b= col = 1...)2 = 1_4.3. < a and ya > b.1 is that every fuzzy number can be represented in the form.Y.) = lim 1(xn ) > a.. cc).„. r(x) = 0 for all x e (1. r(x) 0 for all E (1.1(x) = 0 for all x C ( . x. if x0 < a. Obviously. We need to prove that 'IA For any xo E "A. b = co2 = 1.3. '1+A. Sufficiency. b] C M.
90 130 Beze variatitif I Figarm 4. Given a fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal. 4. CC).1 FLE=1 Numbers 101 /(x) = { 10(x — 1. r(x) (d) a = 1. .4.5 45 ss v (performance) 07.2. for x E (1.1) is also capable of expressing fuzzy numbers of the types depicted in Figs. we can define the concept of a fuzzy cardinally for fuzzy sets that are defined on finite universal sets.3. For example.4] for x E (1.4. 1. rth 77. 1. tro2 = 100.4] for x € (1.5. 4. (x) r(x) I0 0. b 100. for x E (100.28.32. as defined in Fig. set X.28) + 1 { 12.2.4. .2. IA).2) for x E 11. b 1. 94».4 An example of a linguistic variable.5.1) as follows: = 90. is expressed in terms of (4. co). Using fuzzy numbers. for x E (—oo. for x (1.Sec. 4.2c and d.3) + 1 for x E (—CC.5 .2) for x E [1..3 — x) + 1 1 1. 1.5(1.08(x — 90) ± 1 0 for x (—co 71. oo).32.28). 1. the fuzzy number by which we express the linguistic concept very large. is a fuzzy number defined on N by the fonnula Carron:Oa 10 22.5 17.32 — x) + 1 0 Observe that (4.3 32. = 1.4. { 125(x — 1.5) for x E 177. its fuzzy cardinality. 1. oh { 0 0(1. L3).
2 LINGUISTIC VARIABLES The concept of a fuzzy number plays a fundamental role in formulating quantitative fuzzy variables.102 Iiii(rAD Fuzzy Arithmetic =a Chap. the range of the base variable. T is the set of linguistic terms of y that refer To a base variable whose values range over a universal set X. of a base variable. machine. interest rate. 4. etc. small. speed. X..4/15 + . large or very large. the fuzzy numbers represent linguistic concepts. whose ctcuts are shown in Fig. This variable expresses the performance (which is the base variable in this example) of a goal oriented entity (a person. An example of a linguistic variable is shown in Fig. whose membership functions have the usual trapezoidal shapes.g.). When. small medium. pressure. exemplified by any physical variable (e. performance. m) in which is the name of the variable. and so forth. in addition. but also arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers. can fully and uniquely be represented by its orcuts (Sec. salary. very very small. is I/32 1 . The fuzzy numbers. blood count. as shown in the figure.  4. as interpreted in a particular context. Each of them expresses a fuzzy restriction on this range. A base variable is a Fariable in the classical sense.2).8a. and thus also each fuzzy number.. voltage. and .93/7 ± 1/5. g. the fuzzy cardinality of fuzzy set D2 defined in Table 1. age.e. 2. Each linguistic variable the states of which are expressed by linguistic terms interpreted as specific fuzzy numbers is defined in terms of a base variable. such as not very small. method.4.13/19 + . very large —as well as other linguistic terms generated by a syntactic rule (not explicitly shown in Fig 4. Each of the basic linguistic — terms is assigned one of five fuzzy numbers by a semantic rule.3 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON INTERVALS Fuzzy arithm_etic is based on two properties of fuzzy numbers: (1) each fuzzy set. and so on. m(t).6/9 +. To deal with linguistic variables. we need not only the various set theoretic operations presented in Chapter 3. (e.. large. etc) as well as arty other numerical variable. are captured by appropriate fuzzy numbers. organization. In a linguistic variable. the values of which are real numbers within a specific range. medium. are defined um the interval [0.g.67/11 + . For example. 100]. g is a syntactic rule (a grammar) for generating linguistic terms. reliability.2. temperature.. germane to a particular application. The latter are examined in the rest of this chapter. etc. which is a fuzzy set on I (i. in T —). 4.53/13 + . These are variables whose state i are fuzzy numbers. probability. linguistic terms representing approximate values.) in a given context by five basic linguistic terms very small.4). 1. humidity. Each linguistic variable is fully characterized by a quintuple (14 T. 4 for all Cf E A(A).27/17 + . and m is a semantic rule that assigns to each linguistic term r E T its meaning. Its name is performance. the resulting construct3 are usually culled linguistic variables.!f(X)). such as very small.
[3. 5] = [5. the properties are formulated as follows: 1.. [6. r ] . A+0 1 . 1] + (6.u(ald. 6] . el = ff gla :5 f fb. be). 7] . bell. e] (a.2) is a general property of all arithmetic operations on closed intervals. section to facilitate our presentation of fuzzy arithmetic in the nextweovrithmns section. multiplication .max(ald. h] + [d.3)—(4. provided that Ci fd.3 Arithrnetic Operations on Intervals 103 (2) cecuts of each fuzzy number are closed intervals of real numbers for all a (0. 'except that [a. (A B) • C A . 2] = 12. when both of them are degenerated. b d] . el and. ble)l. we obtain the standard arithmetic of real numbers . 4 ] [2.41 t —1. 21 — [6. 8]. and division /. 10] / [1. The latter operations are a subject of interval analysis. ale. —0. p. A —0+A .. = [3. e] = [a — e. A + B . b/d.5] = 2] [0. 3. bl • [d. A .Sec. we obtain special operations. To overview them. C = [c1 c21.  bl* [d.6) is deguera. bd. When one of the intervals in (4. 5] = (6. 3] = [1. ej is not defined when 0 E [d e]. b]/[d. 1.3) [a .8)+C=A 1 (B FC) .B + A.e] (4. Let * denote any of the four arithmetic operations on closed intervals: additiori subtraction —. the result of an arithmetic operation on closed intervals is again a closed interval. 2.. a well established area of classical mathematics. The four arithmetic operations on closed intervals are defined as follows: [a. —0. These properties enable us to define arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers in terms of arithmetic operations on their orcuts arithmetic operations on closed intervals). bld. 5] + [ 1. [min (ad. I].= A 1 (identity).51 . Then. / [2. (A+. ble).. 11. fa + d. b 4. (44) Note that a real number r may also be regarded as a special (degenerated) interval [r. 1/d1 (4. [1/e.5) [ml..14ad ae. Using these symbols.B =B •A (commutativity). The following are a few examples illustrating the interval valued arithmetic operations cleHned by (4_3)44_6):  [2. Let A fai a21. el = ra.d g (4. el. [4.03 • Arithmetic operations on closed intervals satisfy some useful properties.8] [2. ae. ma.  .ted. [2. bd. 4. 2] [—I.(B • C) (associativity). That is. . 0 CI 1 = [1. 5] — [1. [2. 12] [d. B = [b1 .
A (B + C) = . 2. Most of these properties follow directly from (4.11. C. then —a2 > 0. b B. A—BcEF A . then A • (B C) = A•B +AC (distributivity). a2 . a].0EA—AandleA/A. beB. 7.c E Cl C b a' • cra d A.1104 Fuzzy Aritianutiu Chap. then a • (B+C)=a•B+a. then: A+B C E+F. 2]. A (B+C)=AB+A• C.2 ] + [al c2. Hence. 2 ].C) CAB+A•C (subrlistribtaivity). without any loss of generality.[al b. 01.C. A • (B+C)CAB+A. a2 • (b2 + e2)1 =. Then. Then. let A =.F. we prove only the less obvious properties of subdistributivity and distributivity. that b1 > 0 and c1 > O. we have A . A • B 1 0. Furthermore. 1].3)—(4.6). if A = [a. 5. —an.C. 21 =A•B+A.ce CI Flence. First. 6. A (B 4.(B + C) = fa • (b + c)ta G A. If al < 0 and a2 <0.then A • (B C) =.: and B C F.2. 3. I1a 1 O.. A C 1].C.rat • (b1 c1). C = 12. 444B C E iF (inclusion monotonicity). b e B. + c2)] ra i b2. and (—A) • (B + C) = (—A) B + (—A) . and [ .BC I? . [0. we have to consider the following three cases: . 4 4. As an example. If A C F.c G Cj = (12 b+ ca E A. Assume now. If al <O and a2 > 0. a2 b2] + [al =a A • 3 + A c2] C. B F C = 11 C (2. Ifbc>0foreverybEBandceC.b. a2 • c2] To show that distributivity does not bold in general. B = [1. (—A) = [—a2.J. then A • (B C) = [at (b2 e2) a2 =A•B±A . C.
11. — 1. we define a fuzzy set on R. 2 — 4a] [4a2 4.6a + 15 ] for a e (0.3. Let A and B denote fuzzy numbers and let * denote any of the four basic arithmetic operations. — 6.8). Since Œ(A * B) is a closed interval for each a E (0. "LTA * H). B are fuzzy numbers. + 1.4 Arithmetic Operations on Fuzzy Numbers 105 4.8) for any a E (0.c12 40r2 1.7) and (4.7).?. The other method employs the extension principle. B(x) 'Their acuts are: [2cif [0 (x — 1)/2 (5 — x)/2 for x < 1 and x > 5 for 1 < x 3 for 3 < x < 5. by which operations on Ical nurctbccs are extended to operatiuns or fuzzy numbers.Sec.5. Then. n. 5 — 2a). by defining its OEcut. 11 and A. 4.5] for a g [(241 — 1)/(22 + 1). We assume in this section that fuzzy numbers are represented by continuous membership functions. • B) = i [ . A * fi is also a fuzzy number. consider two triangularshape fuzzy numbers A and B defined as follows: for x < —1 and x > 3 fo for — 1 < x < (x + 1)/2 Mx) = (3 — x)/2 for 1 <X 3. we have to requite that 0 Due to Theorem 2. A * B can be expressed as g '11 A *13= U „(41 * B). 3 — 2cel.4 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON FUZZY NUMBERS In this section. . which is overviewed in Sec. we present two methods for developing fuzzy arithmetic.11 for a E ( 0. (3 — 2a)/(2a + 1)] The resulting fuzzy numbers are then: (A + B)(x) 0 x/4 (8 — x)/4 for x < 0 and x > 8 for0<x<4 for 4 < x <8 . for a E (0. A * ?F. 11. Using (4. we obtain `(A INA B) = 14rY S B) 4ed for a E (0. (3 — 2 a)/(2a ± 1)] [(2a 1)/(5 2a). 12a —5. One method is based on interval arithmetic. 11 (When * = b clearly. .7) for all a e (0.) (4. As an example of employing (4.5. as "(A B) A *"B (4.3)—(4. 4Œ2 — 16a + 151 Œ(A.51 for a (. 4.
B (y)] 2=X. /1.3).106 Fuzzy Arithmette Chap. (A I B)(z) = sup min[A(x).9) (4.1]. we define for all z E FL (A ± B)(z) = sup nain[A (x). Thus. B(y)J. there exist some xo g °A and yo G ".12) (4. Then. (A * B)(z) = sup inin[A(x). B (y)]. Let * E [±. by the cqu.maiy (4. B(y)J 7 z=x—Y (A • B)(z) = sup rah ][A(x).5 and x 5 <x < for 0x < 3 ‹ 15 for — [4 — (1 ± x) 1/2] /2 I 0 for 3 < x < 15. which is based on the extension principle (Section 2. More specifically. we have to show that it is a fuzzy number for each * e {±.10) (4. This is a subject of the following theorem. and let A. 4 I 0 = (x + 6)/4 (2 — x)/4 0 [3 for x < —6 and x > 2 for 6 < x < — 2 for — 2 ‹ x 2. (3 — x)/(2x +2) The four arithmetic operations performed in this example are illustrated in Fig. standard arithmetic operations on real numbers are extended to fuzzy numbers. we prove (4. Then. 4. .5. A * B. x) 212. z. B(y)].11) (A — B)(z) = sup min[A(x).9) is a continuous fuzzy number. the fuzzy set A * B defined by (4.Fy (4. Theorem 4. f}.B such that z xo *yo . (A I B)(x) for x < —1 and x > 3 for — 1 < x < 0 (x + 1)/(2 — 2x) (5x + 1)/(2s +2) for 0 <x <1/3 for 1/3 <z < 3. let A.Sy min[A (xu) B(y u)1 > .atica (A * B)(2) = sup min[A(x).2.13) Although A * B defined by (4. Proof: First. We now proceed to the second method for developing fuzzy arithmetic. we defuic a fuzzy set on R.9) is a fuzzy set on R . Employing this principle.7) by showing that B) is a closed interval for every For any z EA * . B denote continuous fuzzy numbers.1/2 (A B)(x) = — — (1+x) 12 /2 for x < . a e (0. Let * denote any of the four basic arithmetic operations and. B denote fuzzy numbers. 3(y)] for all z R.
. I 12 13 14 15 rigure 4. 4_4 ArithrnBtiC Operations on Fuzzy Numbers 101 AVA111111bL s I•.. .„...4.„ ..5 Mum:radon of arithmetic operatiou5 on fuzzy auxubcrN...• ce«lol AMON& 1„ApiAk I I 1 I 1 1 0 I 1.4 I 2 3 I I 1 I 7 I I I 1 9 10 11 I i 48 atAxB) 1 I f I11 I I .Sec.
j}. i ) and subsequence. am= exists a convergent subsequence ( x„. respectively. Since the latter are closed intervals. (xn ) and (y4 are bounded SelltielleC5. yo. i.. Thus.B(v„. *y lim irocs a I) * (NMI yr. "(A *B) C *c!/3. yo E "B such that z = xci * yo. Thus... y„. there exist xrp and. consequently. . then = Z. G OE1 /116 and we may consider two sequences.1('1+1)B Hence. from [xi. and xtt .3. BOA z.) and {NI fall into some cr. Moreover. 1 Since n 1 n+1 ef we have a1/(11+1)A c 21(n 4 . jrto4 him Fli p Therefore.1.j} such that xo. z e a(A * B) and. If we take the corresponding exists a convergent subsequence (. there exist x„ and y„ such that z xi...1 and (y„). .108 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. * 6 C * For any Z E tt(A * B).1. (x„.i j ) . Also. there also yo.lim x 1. ) = fiat' . 4 Hence. we have * B)(z) = sup rain[A(x).i {yn.i.d.j) = X0 * ya.Assurne A * B is not continous at zo. Z E e A * 'B. x„ y.zapy CC. That is. i.6. a1.i ) such that x 1 —> xo. *B) = * Now we prove that A * B must be continuous. that is. consequently. fx. E A. Thus. B(y„)} > a — That is. since — 1 no and B(y„.. To the corresponding subsequence ty„. By Theorem 4. where [lia] denotes the largest integer that is less than or equal to lict. the membership function of A * R must be of the general form depicted in Fig_ 4. (x„ . * y„ and min[Mx„). j * xo..a . for any n > [lice] 1.j ) > i) = — I) lim A (x0) A( 11m Jim A (a =a and B(yo) = B( jyea y. since * is continuous.i.. we have two sequences.•00 .I1"A and c'117.E }. such that Now.
B(ye)]. of Theorem 4. B(y 0)J. the set Tt of real numbers is linearly ordered.16) for every pair x. (y). respectively. 4.18) sup rninEA(x). the second arguments.1 $) and (4. B(y)] Jim min[A(x„).y) sup Irlin LA (x).5 Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers liril (A 109 to=x4y * B)(z) < (A * B)(z o) = sup min[A (x). (4.Sec. it follows from (4. For every pair of real numbers. B) and MAX (A. <) is a lattice. zo as n co. rain(x y) = max(x y) x y if x y y x (4.14) Since the operation * E f+.z rr lira (A * B)(z) n—wc. <z0 for any n. * yrt yo as n Thus. The lineas ordering of real numbers does not extend to fuzzy numbers. to corresponding operations on fuzzy numbers. there must exist x0 and ye such that ze = xo * ye and Lim (A A. For any two fuzzy numbers A and 8. .17). B(y)]. * yn.2 that MIN.[A( lim x„). which can also be expressed in terms of two lattice operations. respectively. (437) (4. B)(z) for all z=min(x. this section that fuzzy numbers can be ordered partially in a natural way and that this partial ordering forms a distributive lattice_ To introduce a meaningful ordering of fuzzy numbers. and x. either x < y or y < x_ The pair (R. (4. z—p. y R. B) are fuzzy numbers. and the proof. Since min and max are continuous operations. but we show in. x and y.a Una (A * B)(z„) = lim sup min[A (x). MIN and MAX. as defined by (4.] Z G R. A * B must be a continuous fuzzy number.18). we can always find two sequences fx„) and (y„) such that x„ xo. mast be distinguished from the symbols min and max.5 LATTICE OF FUZZY NUMBERS As is well known. B)(2) min[A (x0). B (y)J. then z„ O. we first extend the lattice operations min and max on real numbers. Observe that the symbols IYM and MAX. B Cy = min. which denote the introduced operations on fuzzy numbers. /3)(z) = MAX (A. Let z. which denote the usual operations of minimum and maximum on real numbers. This contradicts (434) and.16). we define MIN (A. Then.(A . therefore. /1 is monotonic with respect to the first and. This completes the proof I 4.15) y if y x (4. B (Km y 1 )1 = naintA(x0).
The following theorem. A) = A . MAX [A . in which MIN and MAX represent the meet and join. C)]. B)] . proving properties (a) and (c) is rather trivial. (b) For all z R. IvIAX [A .5 < x < 3. Then. where Mx) = I { 0 (x + 2)/3 for x <2 and x> 4 for — 2 < x < 1 for 1 < x 4. MAX (b. B)] = A.Fuzzy Arithmetic ( tiap. which establishes I I Theorern 43.X (a .= A (absorption). 4. respectively. 4 It is important to realize that the operations MIN and MAX are totally different from the standard fuzzy intersection and union.= MAX [A. MIN (A . functions of the form . . MAX (A. and (e).x . operations MIN and MAX are clearly basic properties of these operations. MIN (B.6. MAX (A. MIN (A . (e) MIN (A . C E R. for x < —2 and x 3 for — 2 < x < I for 1 < x < 2. for any A. B(x) = x_ 1 for 1 < x < 2 3— 0 (x + 2)/3 (4 — x)/3 3— x 0 x 3— x (4 — 4/3 for x < 1 and x 3 for 2 < < 3. for x < 1 and x 4 for I < < 2 for 2 < x < 2. (b) MIN [MW (A. respectively. min and max. ensures that the triple (R.1.18). (e) miN [A NU/LX (B C)] MÉLX [MIN (A B). (d) MIN [A.5 for 2."1/6. A) = A (Idempotence). Proof We focus only on proving properties (b).5 <r < 4. B) tvIA. Then. MN. MAX (B <associativity). A) (conunutativily). MAX (A. Ci = MIN [A. B). MAX) is a distributive lattice. defined by (4. B. MIN (A. MIN (B C)] = MIN [MAX (A.X (A . B) = (B.7) and (4. Let MIN and MAX be binary operations on R. B). (d).9?. This difference is illustrated in Fig. the following properties hold: (a) MIN (A. 13). C)j (distributivity).5 for 2.. A). MAX (A. B)(x) = MAX (A . B)(x ) = Let 2 denote the set of all fuzzy numbers. Cl .
Sec. MAX. 4. max_ . min.5 Lattice ot Fuz2y Numbers 111 2 1 o 1 1 3 4 Figure 4.6 Comparison of the operations MIN.
A (u) 11(v)]. C)] = A. consequently.anin(s m y) sup sup rain [A (u).y) Chap. 13)(s). C)1(z) = Fuzzy Arithmetic sup z=rnin(.112 MIN [A .. B)(y)] min[A (x). MAX (A . 4 rninjA(x). 14)]] minIA (x). 01. B (u). B(u)j. A (z) rnin[A[min(x.u)  sup ( sup mint A (x) . B (IA). 13(v0)] = A (z). Ainaax(x. A(u). C (tP)1 = The proof of the associativity [MIN (A B). By z = miniz max(z. B(v)i. v)]. The proof of the other absorption property is similat (e) For any z E R.v)) Let A/ denote the E  sup rain[A(x) . max(u. MAX(B. (d) For all z R. Since B is a fuzzy number. right hand side of the last equation. MIKA. C041 min[A(x). C(v)] z=znia(s. By the convexity of fuzzy numbers. Cl(z) of MAX is analogoas. Thus. = = sup er:iint . we have .:Ltirl(r sup u) rnin[rviiiN (A . C(u)] mr=min t my) y=min(a. MIN EA. yo)].. there exists such that B(vo) = 1. B)1(z) = sup = g=mintr._ v) s=atin(x.. On the other hand. B Oil y =inairCie z—taigx mroava . since z rain[x. rriin[A (x). MIN (B C)(y)] atirLIA (x). M A(z) and.y) 2. A (z). M min[A (z).y) sup lain [B (u) C (v)]] y=crstin(u . Mu)] min[A(x). we have z < x < max(x.u) min[ sup s=1 . B(u). C(0} atin[A (x). MIN (B. MAX (A. = sup Sup sup = sup minfA(x). it is easy to see that .
20) (u). MAX (B C)1(z) = min[A(x). To prove that (4. Mx). v)1. and u = t. _Then.19). in) . E c F. C(t)]Imax[min(nr.Sec.20) are equal. a E F). m). This implles that sup F sup E. A (x) tuin[A(min(s. zrmar . A(max(s. B (n) . z= nain[max(4. C(v)] such that mink. This concludes the proof of the first distributive law. F = (tnin[A ( n). there hence. max[roinfx. we first show that E ç F. C(t)] = b.19) and (4. n). E . rain(x. n). A (m). For every a = min[A(x). n=u. together with the previous result. m). and = rain[A(x).19) MAX [MIN (A. By convexity of A. 8(n). That is. there exists a number a in E such that b < a. y)1 = z (i. we have Ettax(t m). On the other hand. max (.. This means that (4. there exists a E F such that b < a. C (v)j. max(u. n). A(s). A( s). U =7. 8(a). MIN (A . B(n). C(j)1 with minfx. That is. Hence. min(s. in) < x < max(s. C (v)] =Limp (5)... (u). 4. b Ertin[A(m) = z.20) are equal. This inequality. and t such that max[min(m.1:). a exists In = s = x. there exists a rainfel(x). n. we have z = ratin[x.1?)] 113 MIN [A. raax(u. (4. C(t)]. y)] = z (i. E E). . Hence. max(t.19) and (4. n). in))] = min[A(s).e. B(u).. A(m)]. consequently.e. ensure that (4. (4.4t x = inin[atax(s. where E (inin[A(. y)] z. max(u. C(v)1 = B (n) . max(. A (s). a = inin[A(x).n. The proof of the second distributive law is analogous. max(u. C (t)]. m)).7 n) rn)]. B). it is easy to see that min(s. niax(s . For any b F. for any b F. a E F and.. we show that these two functions are equal by showing that for any number b in F. 1. C)](z) =_ sup min[A(rn). there exist 171. s.5 Lattice of Fuzzy Numbers sup z=naintx_rnax(24. I.))1 min[x.20) is greater than or equal to (4.Inin(s . u)] = z}. u). and t = y such that max(min(m. B(u)). (re) A(s) C (t) I. C(v)1I mink . Next. B (u).
= [max(a/ . moreover. a2]. [min(ai.  46 FUZZY EQUATIONS One area of fuzzy set theory in which fuzzy numbers and arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers play a fundamental role are fuzzy equations . alte rn atively.K B iff . we only intend to characterize some properties of fuzzy equations by discussing equations of two very simple types: A + X B and A . b1 ). where °A and '7. MIN. Due to the lack of a wellestablished theory of fuzzy equations. CIA Then. n This means. < ffB for all a E (0. 4 The lattice (2. Unfortunately. Such subsets arc most prevalent in common applications of fuzzy set theory. there are some subsets of 2 that are linearly ordered.. some of the published work in this area is rather controversial . their theory has not been sufficiently developed as yet. We can also define the partial ordering in terms of the relevant acuts: B 1ff znia(aA.132] iff a then for any A. c'E = [bi.aB) A ‹B iff maxCA. values of linguistic variables in most applications are defined by fuzzy numbers that are comparable. G 09. Such equations have a great potential applicability . 10 2)J. D51 . and X is an unknown fuzzy number for which either of the equations is to be satisfied_ . and formulas are constructed by operations of fuzzy arithm etic. Although the set OZ is not linearly ordered. For example. These are equations in which coefficients and unknowns are fuzzy numbers. "B) "B for any A. B E R.1.2? '93). B E 2. the values of the linguistic variable 'performance" defined in Fig. fot example. A and B in Fie. B) = A or. inax(a2. 1 . A K B iff MAX(A B) = B A for any A A. that the two fuzzy numbers. K).114 Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. where < is a partial ordering defined as: B if MIN(4. contrary to the set IR. MAX) can also be expressed as the pair (2. b and 422 If we define the partial ordering of closed intervals in the usual way.6 are not comparable. we have A . that is.X'= B. maxCA h2)}. 4. [al. where A and fl are fuzzy numbers. k and a b2]). are closed intervals (say. However. 4 4 form a chain: very small small ‹ medium < large very large.
[bi. B. Therefore. the acuts of A. «b U aXcre(01. b2 — = La i bi — a2. which may be viewed as special fuzzy numbers. arx21 denote. a2 B. which is 'X = — rbj. b zi. 2)+ . [al a2 x21 = çb1. A . then by Theorem 2.11[0.8/f4.2/(8. That is.2 fla2 < Property (I) ensures' that the interval equation dcrX = 2 Property (ii) ensures that the solutions of the interval equations for a and fir are nested.. . 11. b21 follows immediately from the equation. Ear any a e (0. a2j [171 a2. b2]. 4) ± 1/4 ± 5/(4.8/[2. ai = b li a2 x2 = whose solution is x1 = bi — al and x2 = b 2 a2 . 4.strates how to solve the equation when the given fuzzy numbers A and B are closed intervals. 7] ± . — This example illu. 10].6/[1.1/(9..4/(7. 81 + . Œad. x2]. X = B A is not a solution of the equation_ Let X = [xl. 3) + .ja i . 9] + .9/[3. 1 ] and property (ii) is satisfied. b2 ] — al l whenever a l 0 a2.91E5 +•1/6 4.8 Fuzzy Equations 115 SquatIon A ± X = B The difficulty of solving this fuzzy equation is caused by the fact that X = B — A is not the solution.o` closed intervals. then PX C "X.5/(6. 3) + . 1) + .240.5. 5] ± . This results in two ordinary equations of real numbers.1/(5. one for each nonzero a in the level set AA U AB. Since any fuzzy number is uniquely represented by its a cuts Crhe'orern 2_5). 11. which are closed intervals. the solution is X = ai.Sec. "B = [abi. let A and B in our equation be the following fuzzy numbers: A = . respectively. B A = [b1 a2. b2 — ad and A (B — A) = [ai .91171. and — 4b1 — flat < 11.this inequality is satisfied. that is. . the solution X of the fuzzy equation is given by has a solution. To see this.642.1) To illustrate the solution procedure. and "IX =rxi . it is required that x 1 < x2. If a solution aX exists for every ct G (0. B = . if a < 0. a2] and B [b t . let *A = rat. the equation has a solution iff: (i) '791 — < abz (Li) a < implies cia2 for every a G (0. 2) 4. Then. The solution of our fuzzy equation can thus be obtained by solving a set of associated interval equations. Since X must be an interval. . Then.7/[3. 5) ± . lf . 6]. 1) + . 4) + . the described procedure can be applied tin ne cuts of  arbitrary fuzzy numbers. the equation has a solution 1ff b t — al < b2 a2. let us consider tvi. b2 a2]. Then.2/[1. and X in our equation.
2] [2.3] [1.5] [0. Et+. Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap.4] 12.5 ] [1. the solution of the fuzzy equation exists iff: [ ab2/3z2 for each a E (0. B = tb 1. let A and B in our equation be the following triangularshape fuzzy f0 for x < 3 arid x > 5 for 3 < x 4 for 4 x e 5 numbers: A(x) = x 3 5x .116 reCUTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DISCUSSED FUZZY EQUATION OF TYPE A I X = B TABLE 4.1/10.1 . B. 4 a adi [4.7/11. For each a E (0. 11.41 [1. it has the form aeopil As u an example.1.6] 14. 31+ .7j [2.3] Ir.4] fumy.11 • U / .2] [1.4] All relevant a outs of A.2) +1/2+ . IL and (ii) a 5_ )3 implies c'thrai < % AIL < lib2Pa2 <ab2raz.8j [1. + .101 [1. 1].8 ] [2.6] [1.2] [2.2] [1.2/(3. we obtain the interval equation  'A • 'X = Our fuzzy equation can be solved by solving these interval equations for all ce € (0.53 [2. ab2j.number X cee(0. for the sake of simplicity. Let = ra i .. Then. that A. Equation A • X B Let us assume. (1) abirtat If the solution exists.6] [2. The solution of thc equation is the  I 14 [6.61 [3.4] [3. and X = ax2].6] [2. It is easy to show that X = DIA is not a solution of the equation.2 ] [1.41 (2. B are fuzzy numbers on.6] [5..: qR cocoCD0 C) 0 d CDd [ts] [0.4] [0.4/(2.99 10.2] [1. and X are given in Table 4. 41.
It is also easy to check that a < fi e (0. 1j. 5 — ai and "B = fact 4. for x < 4 and x > 32/5 for 4 <x < 5 for 5 < x <32/5. Determine which fuzzy sets defined by the fallowing functions are fumty au. (I)) B(x) (e) C(x) = (d) Di(x) = for 0 < x < 1 otherivic.1. Therefore.2= Fuzzy equations were investigated by Buckiey 11992d] and Buckley and Ou f1990j. the solution of our fuzzy equation is 0 152f C 'I for each pa ft a. *2C = [Sor + 12 32 — 12a1 3 5— cr for each a e (0. interval arithmetic is thoroughly covered in two books by Moore [1966. 4 Exercises B(x) {0 (x — 12)/8 (32 — x)/12 for x < 12 and x >32 for 12 ‹ x 20 for 20 < x <32. 12— 3x = sU 1 1] crX = x—8 32— 5x 12 — NOTES 4. 11. 'A = + 3.Chap. 0E611(1 ' x) 1 for for x 0 . It is easy to verify that 8a + 12 32 — 12a 5— a consequently. Ji for 0 < x < 10 otherwise. 32 — 121. 117 Then. EXERCISES 4. arithmetic 'was written by Kaufmann and Gupta [19851 a goad overviww fuzzy arithmetic was also prepared by Dubois and Prade [19874 4.12. A fuzzy differential calculus was initiated by Dubois and Prade [1982a].whers: (a) A(x) = sin(x) forÙx < rr 0 otherwise.1. 19791 A specialized book on fuzzy.
2)/2 for 2 < x < 4 (6 — x)/2 for 0 c. 4.= x < 0 for 0 < x <2 otherwise. Prove that if A c E and B c F. B. .: 6 otherwise. Let A.8. 4. 4.F. SA) and B = (CD.5 and let  I(x — 6)/2 C(x) = (10 — x)/2 O for 6 < x < 8 for 8 < x < 10 otherwise. ' B(x) .7 for the equation A A • (BIB). (b) [2.1= Fuzzy Arithmetic Chap. where A is a closed interval.3. Calculate the following: (a) [1. Does this equation hold for fuzzy numbers? Justify your answer and illustrate it by two symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers A (CA. (b) B ▪ C_ 4. 4. 411. sB). In the ordinasy arithmetic of real numbers. respectively. 43. O — —  Calculate the fuzzy _numbers A FB.118 (e) E. Let A.(x) { Di for . 21.6.A—BcE—F. and F are closed intervalg_ 4. 6]. 2. 3) degrees of subsethood S(Ifil. A B. 4 5 otherwise. b e R. in this case). Solve the foliovving equations for X: (a) A + X = B. B be two fuzzy numbers given in Exercise 4. A B. AIR.EIF (0 0. That is. Froc 0 € A — A and 1 A/A fur 00' A.9. 4. MI (A. [3. F. II). 3]. where A.1c . the equation a = a b b holda for any a.2. (2— x)/2 O I (x — fix — 2 .11. 101 = X.7.A•BCE•F and AIB c. Calculate: (a) Scalar and fuzzy cardinalities of A and B (alsoylot the fuzzy cardinalities). 4] . where CA.4. B be two fuzzy numbers whose membership functions are given by 1 (x +2)/2 A (x) =. 4] — [3. B A. 4]. 1. 01) and San IA D( .. . (d) (4. . Repeat Exercise 4. E. () [3. 2] I. c8 are centers and sjit are spreads of A and B. Consider fuzzy sets A and B whose membership functions are defined by formulas A(x) =x/(x + 1) and B(x) =1 — x/10 for all x 10. then A + ECE±.tf) aid MAX(A . where O g'FB.
 Xi X X2 X X AP„. Ii ftln ). let R represent the relation of marriage between 119 . X2.ELAFIONS 5. Arz. X. and complement can be applied without modification to relations.. the concepts and properties of crisp relations are briefly discussed as a refresher and in order to demonstrate their generalized application to fuzzy relo X.. . X„) or by the abbreviated form R(X . . In fact. interaction or interconnectedness between the elements of two or more sets. the basic set concepts such as containment or subset. the Cartesian product X L X 12 X .a relation and its characteristic function by the same symbol R. . Each crisp relation R can be defined by a characteristic function which assigns a value of 1 to every tit& of the universal set belonging to the relation and a 0 to every tuple not belonging to it. the crisp relation can be considered to be a restricted case of the fuzzy relation. otherwise The membership of a tupte in a relation signifies that the elements of the tuple are related to or associated with one another. Thus. X. x„) = {1 0 iff (xl.1 CRISP AND FUZZY RELATIONS A crigp relation represents the presence or absence of association. x2 . X X „ represents the universal set.FUZZY R... Thia concept can be generalized to allow for various degrees or strengths of association or interaction between elements. intersection. Because a relation is itself a set.x„) R.. so that for relations among sets X1 1 12... just as the crisp set can be viewed as a restricted case of the more general fuzzy set concept. For instance. is a subset of the Cartesian product It is denoted either by R (X i . union. Rari. . Denoting . A relation among crisp sets Xi. Degrees of association can be represented by membership grades in a fuzzy relation in the same way as degrees of set membership are represented in the fuzzy set. we have R(x 1. Throughout this chapter.
Y. The membership grade indicates the Strength of the relation present between the elements of the tuple. x2. x„) E R. If the ntuple (x 1 . quaternary. 11'in =2 1 0 l otherwise. v„) may have varying degrees of membership within the relation. . four. dollar. X2 . then if and only if (x i . (French. (English. A fuzzy relation can also be conveniently represented by an ndimensional membership  . Mother convenient way of representing a relation R(Xt .120 Fuzzy Relations Chap. mark} and Z = (US. pound. Germany). a relation defined on n sets is called n ary or n dimensional. Canada). . 5. . Britain. corresponds to the element E 11x 12 of R. Y = (dollar.. the  r 1 1. . Example 51 Let R be a relation among the three sets X = (English. or quinary. then. dollar. pound. a fuzzy relation is a fuzzy set defined on the Cartesian product of crisp sets Xi .. This relation can also be represented with the following three dimensional membership array: US Fra Can Brit Ger. (English. franc. 5 set of all men and the set of all women. 0 0 0 pou d O 0 0 pound 0 0 0 1 0 0 40  franc 0 0 0 markOOD 0 0 franc 0 1 0 O 00 markOCI 0 0 00 Engiish French To illustrate the convenience of representing nary relations by ndimensional arrays (especially important for computer processing). Franc. which associates a country with a currency and language as follows: R(X. X) involves an ndimensional membership array: Each element of the first dimension it of this array corresponds to exactly R= one member of X1 and each element of dimension i2 to exactly one member of 12. Of all the possible pairings of men and women. Britain) . respectively. on. • A relation can be written as a set of ordered tuples. . X. A relation between two sets is called binary. . Each row consists of IX51 individual entries distinguished from each other  by elements of X. US Fra Can ' Brit Ger dollar 0 0 1 0 dollar 1 0 1. the characteristic function of a crisp relation can be generalized to allow tuples to have degrees of membership within the relation_ Thus. In general. a possible structure for a fivedimensional array based on sets Xj (i E N5) is shown in Fig. Each "page" consists of X31 matrices (hivedimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of 13. dollar. where tnples (xi . (French. US). and so . Each matrix consists of 1141 rows (onedimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of X. X2. Just as the characteristic function of a crisp set cart be generalized to allow for degrees of set membership. only those pairs who are married to each other will be assigned a value of 1 indicating that they belong to this relation. French}. the relation is called ternary. France. Z) = «English. x2 . . or five sets are involved. Each "book" consists of IX21 "pages" (three dimemiunal arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of Xz. The full array (fivedimensional) can be viewed as a "library" that consists of !Xi! "books" (fourdimensional arrays) distinguished from each other by elements of X1 . Canada..1. Canada). if thiee. France). X.
1 Crisp and Fuzzy Relations 121 Figure 5. which represents the relational concept "very far.]) can obviously be extended to L fuzzy relations (with an arbitrary ordered valuation set L) in the same way as fuzzy sets . 5.7/Paris. This relation can also be represented by the following twodimensional membership array (matrix): NYC Paris Beijing NYC LOndat 1 0 . Beijing . These entries take values representing the membership grades of the corresponding ntuples.Y) tablYC. NYC+ . London.Sec. NYC + .6 ." This relation can be written in list notation as R(X. London}.3/Paris. Beijing+ 0/WC.9/Faris. I. Example 5.1 A possitie represeatadoo t qwnary relation by ave dmeoztonal array.2 Let R be a fuzzy relation between the two sets X (New York City.9 3 .6/NYC.3 Ordinary fuzzy relations (with the valuation set [O.  array whose entries correspond to ntuples in the universal set. London + . Paris} and tr Ncw York City.
A j E (1.9 0. 1}. if they are strings of symbols in a formal language.5 0. 1A] denote the projection of R on that disregards all sets in I except those in the aroily = fdYi If ef Then.0 05 1. r < n)  y= EJ) E i 6 X. Xn). Let y x denote that y is a subsequence of x.0 0.0 0.8 0.r. and intervalvalued fu77y relations can be defined.t rio R (Xi.2.4 ss•^1.0 r.5 0.9 1. 1).2 PROJECTION'S AND CYLINDRIC EXTENSIONS E N J. 5.9 0. X3) 0.0 1.9 0.0 1.5 0.0 1.9 1. X3) R1(x1) R1(X2) R3{.0 1.0 1.0 1. of x.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 05 09 0.4•g .0 0. level k.9 0.0 1. let y be called a subsequence of x iff Yj = xi for all j c J. More appropriate names may be used in various specific contexts.0 R1241.2 1.1.2.0 1.9 1.122 Fuzzy Relationa Chap.R21(X2. X2.5 1. y may be called a subs.5 1. R12. Using this notation.9 0. Similarly.0 1.0 0.0 1.11 r.1. all possible. x1 .0 1.tring Given a relation R(Xl. detailed calculation of one of these projections. XI) .0 1. _ =1 14 NI 49r ri=P.5 1.9 0.0 1.fuzzy sets.0 0.0 1.r3) 1.1) Example 53 Consider the sets XL [0. 00 0. 31. x 12 x X1 defined in Table 5.1 TERNARY RI= RELATiOM AND ITS PROJECTIONS .5 1.0 0.0 0. Ifj(y) = max I? (x).5 0.0 1. is shown in Table 5.nded to f.5 0.0 0.9 1.1.0 1. 1.9 1. X2 RD(XI. TABLE 5.5 0.0 0. X2.0 1.0 1. Consider the Cartesian product of all sets in the family X = (Xi (ntupi e) For each sequence = Xi Nit) EA Xi and each sequence (r tupie. whore J C Kt and 1. if n tupies x represent states of a system. y may be called a  substate of x. Let 4. For example.3 0.9 0. type t. L 2) and the ternary fuzzy relation on {Xi li for all X.9 0. X = {0.2 10 0.0 1. (5. [R Jr 111 is a fuzzy relation whose membership function is defined on the Cartesian product of sets in by the equation [R 4.0 1.9 1. 5 are exte. X3 = (0.0 0.5 '1.0 0.0 1. Xj11 and Ri = TR projections of R are given in Table 5.0 1. (Xi.9 0.8 1.9 0.0 1.9 1.0 0.4 0. let [R 4.8 0.0 1.
1). 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 max [R(0. 0.2 XL. 1. 2) [R= f 111 )1(0.1. For instance: frt Yyl 0. Example 5. 123 CALCULATION OF THE PROJECTION R12 IN EXAMPLE 5. [R . R(0. xA). 1). is called a cylindric extension. 2)] .0 max [Rti.0 max [R(1. R(0 5 05 2)1 = 0. R(1. 5. 0) 5 R(0. 0. The cylindric extension clearly produces the largest fuzzy relation (in the sense of membership grades of elements of the extended Cartesian product) that 15 compatible with the given projection.0 Under special circumstances.3 are actually those shown in Table 5. x2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. it guarantees that no information not included in the projection is employed in determining the extended relation. 0 5 1). which is in some sense an inverse to the projection. Another operation on relations. 2)] = 0. 0.5 Oil 0. 0). 1.9 max [R(0. xi.0 0.y. 1.9 02 LO 0. and let [R 14.4 Membership functions of cylindric extensions of au the projections in Example 5.1) are equal to the original fuzzy relation from which the projections involved in the cylindric extensions were determined. 2)1 .3 X3) X2t R(ri . Hence.5 1. 1. 1.2 Projections and Cylindric Extensions TABLE 5. X — denote the cylindric extension of R into sets Xi(i c Nn ) that are in X but are not in Then. x.ssumption that their arguments are extended to (x i. . 2) We can see that none of the cylindric extensions (identical with the respective projections in Table 5. x3) 0. 0). That is.if• X — yJ(x) = R (y) (5 2) for each x such that x ›. 1.4 0. 2) = R23 (0.1). R(0.8 03 0. (J) 5 R(1 5 0.3 1:11 Riz(xt.Sec.1 under the a. The cylindric extension thus maximizes the nonspecificiry (see Chapter 9) in deriving the ndimensional relation from one of its rdimensional projections (r < n). 1. Let 1 and denote the same families of sets as employed in the definition of projection_ Let R be a relation defined on the (artesian product of sets in the family t1. R(1. 0. the cylindric extension is totally unbiased. R(1.1) can be generalized by replacing the max operator by another tconorm. This means that some information was lost when the given relation was replaced by any one of its projections in this example. the projection defined by (5. Such a relation is the least specific of all relations compatible with the projection.
Ro.. y) Y EY (5.5 ' R23) cylIRI .9 0. are applicable to binary relations as well. cyl CYlfZ)(X) rein[ri i t X .(x) for each x EDC where denotes the family of sets on which Pi is defined.9 0_9 1.3.0 0.9 1.9 1. x„. in some sense. It is more COMM011 that a relation can. When projections are determined by the max operator (see Sec. the relation is not fully reconstructible from its projections. ran R.9 0.9 0.9 1. 0. R3 I 0. but they are rather rare. the min operator is normally used for the set intersection.1). R3 I cy1( R12.0 • 5.3) for each x E X.3 CYLINDRIC CLOSURES OF THREE FAMILIES OF PROJECT1ON$ CALCULATED IN EXAMPLE 5.5 0. 5 Relations that can be reconstructed from one of their projections by the cylindric extension exist. 3.51.9 1. Hence. be exactly reconstructed from several of its projections by taking the set intersection of their cylindric extensions. whose membership function is defined by . We can see that none of them is the same as the original relation R.2 0.0 WC)MaC>Ma1+ 0.9 1. TABLE 5.9 0.Y).0 0.9 1. generalized mathematical functions.t.3 are shown in Table 5. That is.0 0_9 0. Hence.5 0.5 1.i . the cylindric I. Some basic operations on functions. n is a fuzzy relation on Y.0 0. The resulting relation is usually called a cylindric closure .0 0. Contrary to functions from X to Y.2 0.5 0.. such as the inverse and composition. The range of Ra.(R12 . Y) may assign to each element of X two or more elements of Y. its domain is a fuzzy set on X. R2.2 1. whose membership function is defined by clorn R(x) max R(X.0 I•P" c C1 0 0.5 0.124 Fuzzy Relations Chap. each element of set X belongs to the domain of R to the degree equal to the strength of its strongest relation to any member of set Y.5 0. Cylindric closures of three families of projections involved in Example 5.0 0_5 0. binary relations R(X. dom R.3 BINARY FUZZY RELATIONS Binary relations have a special significance among ndimensional relations since they are.9 0.0 0. given a set of projections (Fidi E I} of a relation on X. based on these projections is defined by the equation closure.3 • . Given a fuzzy relation R(X. FLCS 1::Z1 xA 14CD cy? .
y) in R. h(R).W) = P (X . which is based on the standard inorm and Iconorm. That is. Yer (y. which is denoted by R 1 (Y.. which is denoted by P (X.7) that (P (X .r e X and all z e Z.2. we may have P(X. Z)] a R(Z. Y) together with the corresponding membership matrix is shown in Fig. the standard composition is not commutative. which means that the rows of R1. These lines. Y) .Y) is not welldefined when X 0 Z. defined by  h (R) = max max R(x. because Q(Y. X). We eau then write. P 1 (Y. y). The inverse of a fuzzy relation R(X.6) Consider now two binary fuzzy relations P (X. Elements of X x Y with nonzero membership grades in R (X Y) are represented in the diagram by lines connecting the respective nodes.xGx for each y E Y.Y) are welldefined. using this matrix notation. Y). y) (5. That is. An example of the sagittal diagram of a binary fuzzy relation R(X. P(X. set Y. produces a binary relation R(X. Even if X = Z and Q(Y.Sec_ 5.Y) [Q(Y. This composition. P (X. Y) and (2 (Y.z) [Pa (2](x z) max min[P (x.Z). Z) Q(Y.1 representing R 1 (Y. Compositions of binary fuzzy relations can be performed conveniently in terms of membership matrices of the relations.Y). Y is represented by a set of nodes in the diagram.Q(Y. P(X.Y).  nodes corresponding to one set are clearly distinguished from nodes representing the other set.equal the rows of R Clearly. X).Y) are membership matrices R.Y) a Q(Y.Y). yEY seX (5. .. Z).4) . z)] (53) for all . Z)1 1 = C2 1 (Z . is a relation on Y x X defined by R 1 (y. Q (Y. X) is the for all x E X and all y e Y. the height of a fuzzy relation R(X. Z) with a common. y) Another useful representation of binary relations is a sagittal diagram.5.. and R = [r id be membership matrices of binary relations such that R = P Q. equal the columns of R and the columns of WI. .L. Z) a R(Z. Y).3 Binary Fuzzy Relations 125 ran R(y) = max R(x. is often referred to as the maxmin composition. 2) on X x Z defined by R(x. R for any binary fuzzy relation.). [P(X. Let P = [p al. Q(Y. the strength of the strongest relation that each element of Y has to an element of X is equal to the degree of that element's membership in the range of ft. y). It follows directly from (. A convenient representation of binary relation R(X. A membership matrix transpose of the matrix R for R(X. The standard composition of these relations. 5. = n(x. Y). (5. Each of the sets X. x) = RIG y) = D37. are labelled with the values of the membership grades. Q =. Y) is a number.[gki1.5) That is. in addition. h (R) is the largest membership grade attained by any pair (x. the standard (or maxmin) composition is associative and its inverse is equal to the reverse composition of the inverse relations_ However. where 1 .
7 .7 [ . 5 (a) Y1 y2 Y3 Y4 .126 Fuzzy Reations chap. [r il ] = [pal .7 .5 .4 .8 1 . (b.9 1 0 .8) Observe that the same elements of P and Q are used in the calculation of R.5 .5 .7 .6 . but the product and SUM operations are here replaGed with the min and max operations.8) to perform the standard composition of two binary fuzzy relations represented by their membership functions: [ 3 .3 .6 . min(Pik.[174 .2 0 .2_ 0 /Vat* 52 Examples of two convenient representations of a fuzzy binary relation: (a) sagittal diagram.10) • where r•f = (5.2 .) membership matrix.8 1 .5 .4 . as would be used in the regular multiplication of matrices.1.5 .5 .9 0 0 0 1 A 0 0 1 0 0 I Ys 0 0 0 . q..3 .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 (b) 1 0 0 . The following matrix equation illustrates the use of (5.5 .5 0 .9 .5 . respectively.5 .5 I [ .
Z). is known as the relational join.5. rnint.5). I CA 1 2 2 0 a 0 . min( 6. min(P12 min(pn. q31)]. r32) = max[min(.5.9) for each x E X. . min(P32. (5. z) [E* Ql(x y . q 2 )1. . qn.For fuzzy relations P(X. rain(033.4. A similar operation on two binary relations. CI)] = q12). The fact that the relational join produces a ternary relation from two binary relations is a major difference from the composition.7 . .9). which results in another binary relation. and z c Z.3). inin(. the relational join.6 . the maxrnin composition is obtained by aggregating appropriate elements of the corresponding (a) Composdtion: R P Q (x. z) min(1 2 (x. which differs from the composition in that it yields triples instead of pairs. P * Q. min(. . 53 inary Fuzzy Refaticin5 127 For example.). y.5 1 3 4 g 0 A b) ic) Figure $3 Composition and join of birovy relation.y) Qqy . y E Y.Sec.2)..8(=2rui) = max[min(. corresponding to the standard maxmin composition is a ternary relation R(X Z) defined by R (x .Y) and Q(Y.3. . In fact.6 . 1)] max [min (P (711).
where z. 5. S(1. The generalized compositions are covered in Secs. An example of this diagram for a relation R(X.10) for each x E X and z E Z . sagittal diagrams. If both (x y) E R and (y. If (x. 5 join by the max operator. it is also possible to define a crisp or fuzzy binary relation among the elements of a single set X. z) in Fig.r.5 The join S = P * Q of relations P and Q given in Fig. 3. then the relation is called asymmetric. x) E R. where it can be compared with the other torms of representation of binary relations. 5. X) is reflexive if (x. x) g R for every x E X.3a has the membership function given in Fig. y. 5. Thus.7. they can be conveniently expressed in terms of simple diagrams with the following properties! (1) each element of the set X is represented by a single node in the diagram. For instance. To convert this join into the corresponding composition R = P Q by (5. X) is symmetric iff for every (. g).xf. y. y. tl) rea. X) is called irreflevive. . x) E R for each r X. X) are distinguished on the basis of three different characteristic properties: reflexivity. and (3) each connection in the diagram is labeled by the actual membership grade of the corresponding pair in R.126 Fuzzy Relations Chap. y.313. Formally. b. the relation is called strictly antisyrnmetric. 2. [P Q](.51= . let us consider crisp relations. x) E R implies r = y. 5 . A crisp relation R(X. y) 4 R or (y.x. R(1. y) E R. X) can be exprssed by the same forms as general binary relations (matrices. BINARY RELATIONS ON A SINGLE SET In addition to defining a binary relation that exists between two different sets. Example 5. then the relation is called antisymynetric. A crisp relation R(X. it is also the case that (y.9 and 5..S(1. If either (x. y is also related to r.7. . 5. X) or R (X2 ) and is a subset of X x X = X2 . the relation is called antireflexive. whenever x 74 y. then.10. (2) directed connections between nodes indicate pairs of elements of X for which the grade of membership in R is nonzero. z) max[P * 0(x. that is.3b are aggregated by the max operator. tables)... Binary relations R(X. if every element of X is related to itself. Various significant types of relations R(X. Although the standard maxmin composition and the associated join are used most frequently in typical applications of fuzzy relations. z) y Er (5.4. 4} is shown in Fig. A binary relation of this type can be denoted by R(X.10). however. E X. a. x) G R. whenever an element r is related to an element y through a symmetric relation. X) defined on X = (1. Otherwise. In addition. and transitivity. These relations are often referred to as directed graphs or digraphs. If this is not the case for some x. symmetry. First. some applications suggest broadening these concepts by employing general tnorins and 1conorms. jer)1 maxt. R(X. the two indicated pairs of values of S(x.
See. 5.4
Binary Relations on a Single Set
X
129
1 2 X 3 4
er.
1234 0
0
El o ini
a,g.ittal di .
am
x
1
y
j
Ri(x y)
.7
1 3 2 2 2 3 3 I 34 4 3 4 4 _8 Simple diagram
,1 .9 •,8 .5
Figure 5,4 Fotms of representation of a fuzzy relation R(I, X).
,
Table
A crisp relation R (X, X) is called transitive LIT (x, z, G R whenever both (X, y) G R and (y, z) R for at least one y € X. In other words, the relation of x to y and of y to z implies the relation of x to z in a transitive relation. A relation that does not satisfy this property is called nontranstave. If (x. z) R whenever both ix, y) E R and (y, z) E R, then
the relation is called antiiransitive. The properties of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity are illustrated for crisp relations X) in Fig. 5.$. We can readily see that these properties are preserved under inversion of the relation.
Reflexivity
Symmetry
Transitivity
Figare $4 Characteristic components of reflexive, symmetric, and transarm relations.
13 0
Fuzzy Relatfons
Example 5.1
Chap, 5
Let R be a crisp relation defined on X x X, where X is the set of all university courses and R represents the relation "is a prerequisite of." R is antireflexive because a course is never a prerequisite of itself. Further, if one course is a prerequisite of anOthir, the reverse will never be true, Therefore, R is antisyrnmetric. Finally, if a course is a prerequisite for a Seca Ltd course that is itself a pLezequisite for a third, then the first course is also a prerequisite for the thild Thus, the relation R is transitive_
These three properties can be extended for fuzzy relations R(X, X), by defining them in terms of the membership function of the relation. Thus, Ra X) is rejtr . ive iff
R(x .x) = 1
for all x X. If this is not the case for some x e X, the relation is called irreflexive; if it is not satisfied for all X E X. the relation is called antirefkrive. A weaker form of reflexivity, referred to as erejlerivily, is sometimes defined by requiring that
R(x,x)>
E,
where 0 < e < 1, A fuzzy relation is symmetric iff
R(x, y) = R(y,x)
for all x, y € X. Whenever this equality is not satisted for some x, y A, the relation is called asymmetric. Furthermore, when R(.. , y) > 13 and R(y,z) > 0 implies that .7c = y for all x, y € X, the relation R is called antisymmetric. A fuzzy relation R(X, X) is transitive (or, more specifically, maxmin transitive) if
R(x, z) > max min[R(x, y), R, z)1 (5.11) is satisfied for each pair ix z) e X2. A relation failing to satisfy this inequality for some members of X is called nantransitive, and if
,
R(x z) < maxnain[R(x, y), (y, z)]
ycl
for all (x, Z)
E X2,
then the relation is called antitransirive.
Example 5.7 Let R be the fuzzy relation defined on the set of cities and representing the concept very near. We may assume that a city is certainly (i.e., to a degree of 1) very near to itself. The relation is theretbre reflexive. Furthermore, if city A is very near to city lit, then B is certainly very near to A to the same degree.. Therefore, the relation is also symmetric. Finally, if city A is very 'near to city B to some degree, say .7, and city B is very near to city C to some degree, say .8, it is possible (although not necessary) that city A is very near to city C to a smaller degree, say 0.5 . Therefore, the relation is nontransitive.
Observe that the definition of the maxrain transitivity (5.11) is based upon the maxmin composition (5.7). Hence, alternative definitions of fuzzy tralisitivity, based upon other tnorms and tconorrns, are possible (Secs. 5.9 and 5.10) and useful in some applications.
Sec. 5.4
Binary Relations on a Single Set
131
By considering the four variants of reflexivity, three variants of symmetry, and three variants of transitivity defined for binary relations, we can distinguish 4 x 3 x 3 36 different types of binary relations on a single set. Some of the most important of these types are discussed in Secs, 5,5 through 5.7; their names and properties are given in Fig. 5.6.
ric
70.[XP URYI)LI V
Equivalence QuasiequivalenceCompatibility or tolerance Partial ordering
Preordering or
quasiordcring
Strkt ordering
w. .„ . II Imr, z,mil Ir ZIr Z vAM/r imr w` VA. • 1111111117 ir, .• .A1
••
eFor F #Fr
The ITIVISitiVe C1051417C of a crisp relation R(X, X) is defined as the relation that is transitive, contains R , X), a.nd has the fewest possible members. For fuzzy relations, this last requirement is generalized such that the elements of the transitive closure have the smallest possible membership grades that Still allow the first two requirements to be met. Given a relation R (X, X), its transitive closure RT(X, X) can be determined by a simple algorithm that consists of the following three steps:
1. Ri .RU(RoR). 2. If fe R, make R = ir and go to Step I_ 3. Stop: = RT.
This algorithm is applicable to both crisp and fuzzy relations. However, the type of composition and set union in Step 1 must be compatible with the defmition of transitivity employed. When max min composition and the max operator for 3 et union are used, we call RT the transitive max min closure.

No.rx aup li
:14t !l !Stitr j,
,,,r•zr„ m
,
Some important types of binary relations R(X, X).
figure 5.6
Example 5.8 Using the algorithm just given, we can determine the transitive tnax min closure fuzzy relation R (X, X) defined by the membership matrix

RT
(X, X) for a
132 .7 0 0 0 .5 0 .4 0 0 0 0 .8 I) l. 0 0
Fuzzy Reations
Chap. 5
R,
Applying Step 1 of the algorithm, we obtain
R
[
_7 0 0 0
.5 0 0 ,4
0
.8
0 0
.5 0 .4 0
R U (R., R)
=
[
.7 0 0 0
.5 0 .4 .4
0 .8 0 .8
.5 1 .4 0
Since It R. we take. R' as a new matrix R and, repeating the previous proce.dure, we obtain .7 .5 .5 .5 " .4 .8 .4 4EI .4 .4 .4 0 4 .4 .4_
R
(R. R)
.7 .5 .5 0 .4 .8 [ 0
.5 1

Since W R at this stage, we must again repeat the procedure with the new relation. If we do this, however, the last matrix does not change. Thus, [ .7 .5 .5 .5 0 .4 .8 1 0 .4 .4 .4 0 .4 .8 .4 is the membership matrix of the transitive closure Rr corresponding to the given relation
R (X, X)_.
5.5 FUZZY EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS
A crisp binary relation Ra X) that is reflexive, symmetric„ and transitive is called an
equivalence relation. For each element x in X, we can define a crisp set A, which contains all the elements of X that are related to x by the equivalence relation. Formally,
Ax =(y1(x, y) e R(X X)).
A, is clearly a subset of X. The element x is itself contained in A, due to the reflexivity of R; because R is transitive and symmetric, each member of is related to all the other members of A x . Furthcrmorc, no member of A„ is related to any element of X not included in A. This set A, is referred to as an equivalence class of R(X, X) with respect to z. The members of each equivalence class can be considered equivalent to each other and only to each other under the relation R. The family of .all such equivalence classes defined by the relations which is usually denoted by X/ R, forms a partition on X.
Example 5.9
Let X = 11, 2, , 101. The Cartesian product X x Y contains 100 members: (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), , (10, 10). Let R(X, X) = {(x, y)[x and y have the same remainder when divided by 3}. The relation is easily shown to be reflexive, symmetric, arid transitive and is therefore an equivalence relation on X. The three equivalence classes defined by this relation are:
Sec. 5.5
Fuzzy Equivalence Relatons
AL
133
= i to 7= (1, 4, 7, 10),
A4
A2
A5
As
A3
A6 A9
(2, 5, 8), (3, 6, 9).
Hence, in this example, ER = 1{1„ 4,1, 10), (2. 5, 81. {3, O. 9)}. A fuzzy binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive is known as a fuzzy equivalence relation or sim ilarity relation. In the rest of this section, let us use the latter term. While the maxmin form of transitivity is assumed in the following discussion, the concepts can be generalized to the alternative definitions of fuzzy transitivity. While an equivalence relation clearly groups elements that are equivalent under the relation imito disjoint classes, the interpretation of a similarity relation can be approached in two different ways. First, it can be considered to effectively group elements into crisp sets whose members, are "similar" to each other to some specified degree. Obviously, when this degree is equal to 1, the grouping is an equivalence class. Alternatively, however, we may wish to consider the degree of similarity that the elements of X have to some specified element x E X_ Thus, for each x E X, a similarity claxs can be defined as a fuzzy set in which the membership grade of any particular element represents the similarity of that element to the element x. If all the elements in the class are similar to r to the degree of 1 and similar to all elements outside the set to the degree of 0, then the grouping again becomes an equivalence class. The following discussion briefly elaborates on each of these approaches in turn. • Due to Theorem 2..5, every fuzzy relation R can be uniquely represented in terms of its CCcuts by the formula
R
it
U crR.
a(0.11

(5,12)
can easily be shown, if R is a similarity relation, then each a cut "R is a crisp equivalence relation. Effectively, then, we may use any similarity relation R and, by taking an acut aR for ay value a c (0, 11, create a crisp equivalence relation that represents the presence of similarity between the elements to the degree ce. Each of these equivalence relations forms a partition of X. Let r(R) denote the partition corresponding to the equivalence relation R. Clearly, two elements x and y belong to• the same block of this partition if R(x, y) > Each similarity relation is associated with the set
n(R) (nT2R)Cce E (0, 111
of partitions of X. These partitions are nested in the sense that reR) is a refinement of z(13R) if a >
ExainplE 5.10
The fuzzy relation R (X, X) represented by the membership matrix
a b C —
abcd
e
0 0 1
fg
0 0 .9 0 0
1 .8
0
.8 1
0
û
0 1
.4 .4
.4.4 0 0
f g 0 0 0 0
O
1
.9
0 / 0
0
0 1
.9
O
.9
1
.5
0
.5
.5
.5 0 .5 .5 1
134
.4
Fuzzy Relations
Chap. 5
a
.5
Œ. =
1.0
NO II
Figure 5.7 Partition tree far the
s.inailarity relation In Example 5.10.
is a similarity relation on X = {a, b, e, d, e, f, g). lb verify that R is retie/dye and symmetric is trivial. To verify its transitivity, we may employ the algorithm Pat catualating transitive Liusures introduced in Sec. 5.4. If the algorithm is applied to R and terminates after the first iteration, {0, .4„5, .8, .9, 1. Therefore, R then, clearly, R is transitive. The level set of R is A R is associated with a sequence of five nested partitions Jr('R), for a E AR and a > O. Their refatement relationship can be conveniently diagrammed by a partition tree, as shown in Fig. 5.7. The equivalence classes famed by the levels of refinement of a similarity relation can be interpreted as grouping elements that are similar to each other and only to each other to a degree not less than cr. Thus, in Example 5.10, c. e, f, and g are all similar to each other to a degree of .5, but only c and e are similar to each other to a degree of 1. Just as equivalence classes are defined by an equivalence relation, simUariey dus ses are defined by a similarity relation. For a given similarity relation R(X, X), the similarity class for each x E X is a fuzzy set in which the membership grade of each element y E X is simply the strength of that element's relation to x, or R(x, y). Thus, the similarity class for an element represents the degree to which all the other members of X arc similar to x.. Except in the restricted case of equivalence classes themselves, similarity classes are fuzzy, and therefore not generally disjoint_ Similarity classes are conveniently represented by membership matrices. Given a similarity relation R, the similarity class for each element is defined by the row of the membership matrix of R that corresponds to that element. For instance, the similarity classes for the element c and the element e of the similarity relation in Example 5.10 are equal. Therefore, the relation defines six different similarity classes. Fuzzy equivalence is a cutworthy property of binary relations RC X, X) since it is preserved in the classical sense in each a cut of R. This implies that the properties of fuzzy reflexivity, symmetry, and 1711RX131111 transitivity are also cutworthy.

Sec. 6.6
Fuzzy Compatibility Relations
135
Binary relations that are symmetric and transitive but not reflexive are usually referred tu as qua.si equivalence relations. They are, however, of only marginal 5 ignificance, and we omit a detailed discussion of them.

5.6
FUZZY COMPATIBILITY RELATIONS
A binary relation R(X, X) that is reflexive and symmetric is usually called a compatibility relation or tolerance relation. When R(X, X) is a reflexive and symmetric fuzzy relation, it is sometimes called a proximity relation. An important concept associated with compatibility relations are compatibility classes (also tolerance classes). Given a crisp compatibility relation R(X, X), a compatibility class is a subset A of X such that (lc, y) E R for all x, y E A. A maximal compatibility class or maximal compatible is a compatibility class that is not properly contained within any other compatibility class. The family consisting of all the maximal compatibles induced by R cm X is called a complete cover of X with respect to R. When R is a fuzzy compatibility relation, compatibility classes are defined in terms of a specified membership degree a. An acompatibility class is a subset A of X such that R(x, y) > a for all x, y € A. Maximal acompatibles and complete acover are obvious generalizations of the corresponding concepts for crisp compatibility relations. • Compatibility relations are often conveniently viewed as reflexive undirected graphs. In this context, reflexivity implies that each node of the graph has a loop connecting the node to itself; the loops are usually omitted from the visual representations of the graphs, although they are assumed to be present. Connections between nodes, as defined by the relation, are not directed, since the property of symmetry guarantees that all existing connections appear in both directions. Each connection is labeled with the value of the corresponding membership
grade R( x,
y) =
R(y x).
Ng
Example Sal Consider a fuzzy relation R(X, X) defined on X
1 1
2
by the following membership matrix:
7
0
2 S
1
3 0
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
8 0 0
0
9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.
—1
.8
000 0
1 1 .8 .7
.5 0 0
3 4
5
6 7 8 9
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0
LI
1 1 .8 0
0
,8 _S 1 .7
.5 .7 0
0 _7 .7 1
.4 0 0
0
.5
5
.4
1
.7 0
0
CI
0
0 0
0 0
1 0
Since the matrix is symmetric and all entries on the main diagonal are equal 101, the re/atiort represented is reflexive and symmetric; therefore, it is a compatibility relation. The graph of the relation is shown in Fig. 5,8; its complete acovers for cr > O and e AR {0, A. .5, .7,.8, 1) are depicted in Fig. 5.9.
136
Fuzzy Relations
Chap. 5
Figure 5.8 Graph of the compatibility ration in Example 5.1, 1,_
The complete acovers of compatibility relations R(X X) may, for some values of a, form partitions of X; in general, however, this is not the case due to the lack of transitivity. For example, the complete acovers illustrated in Fig. 5.9 form partitions of N9 for a .8. It is obvious that similarity relations are special cases of compatibility relations for which all complete acovers fOrni partitions of X. Since the lack of transitivity _distinguishes compatibility relationa from similarity relations, thy transitive closures of compatibility relations are similarity relations.
a = .4
.r3c 5
a
.g
= 1'
Pigmy 5.9 All complete ofcowers for the compact:NH1y relation R itt Exam:310e 5.11.
Sec. 5.7 5.7
Fuzzy Ordering Relations
137
FUZZY ORDERING RELATIONS
While similarity and compatibility relations are characterized by symmetry, ordering relations require asymmetry (or antisymmetry) and transitivity. There are Several types of ordering rel atioas. A crisp binary relation R , X) that is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive is called a partial ordering. The common symbol is suggestive of the properties of this class of relations. Thus, x < y denotes (x, y) E R and signifies that x precedes y. The inverse partial ordering R 1 (X, X) is suggested by the symbol ›. If y > x, indicating that (y, x) E then we say that y succeeds x. When x < y, x is also referred to as a predecessor of y, while y is called a successor of x. When r < y and there is no z such that x <z and z < y, x is called an immediate predecessor of y, and y is called an immediate successor of x. If we need to distinguish several partial orderings, such as P, Q, and R, we use the symbols <. and <, respectively. Observe that a partial ordering ‹ on X does not guaran_tee that all pairs of elements x, y in X are comparable in the sense that either x < y or y < x, Thus, for some x, y c it is possible that x is neither a predecessor nor a successor of y. Such pairs are called noncomparabire with respect to <. The following are definitions of some fundamental concepts associated with partial orderings:

FQ
• If x E X and z< y for every y E X, then x is called the first member (or minimum) of 2( with respect to the relation denoted by < • If x € X and y < x for every y E X, then x is called the last member (or maximum) of I with respect to the partial ordering relation. x implies x = y, then ../c is called a minimal member of X with • If rE X and y respect to tl)e relation. • If x c X and x < y implies x = y, then x is called a maximal member of X with respect to the relation. Using these concepts, every partial ordering satisfies the following properties: 1. There exists at most one first member and at most one last member. 2. There may exist several maximal members and several minimal rnenab ers. 3. if a first member exists, then only one minimal member exists, and it is kle'ntieal with the first member.. 4. If a last member exists, then only one maximal member exists, and it is identical with the last member. 5. The first and last members of a partial ordering relation correspond to the last and first members of the inverse partial ordering, respectively, Let X again be a set on which a partial ordering is defined, and let .41 be a subset of X(A c X). if x € X and x < y for every y 4, then x is called a lower tiound of A on X
138
Fuzzy R elatons
Chap. 5
for every y A. then r iq rallnd X and y < with respetet to the partial ordering. If x an upper bound of A on x with respect to the relation. If a particular lower bound succeeds every other lower bound of A, then it is called the greatest lower bound, or infinuttn, of A. If a particular upper bound precedes every other upper bound of A, then it is called the least upper bound, or suprernum, of A. A partial ordering on a set X that contains a greatest lower bound and a least upper bound for every subset of two elements of X is called a lattice. A partial ordering < on X is said to be connected if for all x, y G X, X 744 y implies either x < y or y < x. When a partial ordering is connected, all pairs of elements of X are comparable by the ordering. Such an ordering is usually called a linear ordering; some alternative names used in the. literature are total ordering, simple ordering, and complete ordering. Every partial ordering on a set X can be conveniently represented by a diagram in
which each element of X is expressed by a single node that is connected only to the nodes rcprzscutiug its immediate pi CLICCCSNOIS and inamcdiate suocessor3. The connections arc directed in order to distinguish predecessors from successors; the arrow indicates the inequality < Diagrams of this sort are called Hasse diagrams. Example S.12 and R on the set X = fa, b, c, e) are defumd by their their Hasse diagrams in Fig, 5.10. The underlined entries in membership matrices (crisp) and each matrix indicate the relationship of the immediate predecessor and successor employed in the corresponding Hasse diagram. P has no special properties, Q is a lattice, and R is an example of a lattice that represents a linear ordering. Three crisp partial orderings
13 Q,
A fuzzy binary relation R on a sa X is a fuzzy partial ordering iff it is reflexive, antisymmetric, and transitive under some form of fuzzy transitivity. Any fuzzy partial ordering based on max min transitivity can be resolved into a series of crisp partial orderings in the same way in which this is done for similarity relations, that is, by taldng a series of a
cuts that produce increasing levels of refinement. When a fuzzy partial ordering is defined on a set X, two fuzzy sets are associated with each element x in X. The first is called the dominating class of x. it is denoted by R> pl and
is defined by 1?›[x](y) R(x,
where y E X. In other words, the dominating class of x contains the members of X to the degree to which they dominate x. The second fuzzy set of concern is the class dominated by x, which is denoted by Lt../ and defined by where y e X. The class dominated by x contains the elements of X to the degree to which they are dotuinated by x. An element x c X is unclonsinated
f(x, y) = 0
Sec. 5.7
Fuzzy Orderirg Relations
c
d
N
139
a
+1
a
b
c
d
a
l3 1 1
0
0
0 0 0
al
b
0
C
0
I.
0
alOCC bi 1 I CIOC 1 0 0
I
0
00 1 0
I
10.
00
CI
dt1010
dl
e
Li
1
1
0
11111113 1. I 1
•ss.,
eI
0101 Last and maximal element
II
I Last and
maximal
element
Last and maximal
utcnient
MiHiirial
element
element
Firat and mirjmI
element
First and
minima) element
Figure 5.10 Examples of partial cirderiag (Examplc 5.12).
for all y
EX
and x y; an element x is undominating iff
R(y) = 0
for ally e X and y Ox. For a crisp subset A of a set X on which a fuzzy partial ordering R is defined, the fuzzy upper bound for A is the fuzzy set denoted by ti (R, A) and defined by
xsA. where r1 denotes an. appropriate fuzzy intersection.. This definition reduces to that of the conventional u.pper bound when the partial ordering is crisp. if a_ least upper bound of the set A exists, it is the unique clement x in U (R, A) such that
U (R, A)
U (R, _4)(x) > 0 and R(x y) >0,
far all elements y in the support of U (R, A).
Example 513
The following membership matrix defines a fuzzy partial ordering R on the set ;IC = {a, b, e, d, e):
8 0 1 b R 1 0 c dl . it can be thought of as a fuzzy preordering .9 . Under this ordering. . All distinct crisp orderings captured by the given fuzzy partial erdering R Ire shown in Fig. 5 a a C de I. We call see that the orderings became weaker with the increasing value of n.8 ce. a =A o o o o a=. For the subset A = b).=. A fuzzy weak ordering R is an ordering satisfying all the properties of a fuzzy linear ordering except untisynimetry. the element d is undorainated. The unique least upper bound for the set A is the element b.91d. b)) = .5 a=. 5.9 a1 Figure 5. Alternatively.5 .7/b + . aad the element e is =dominating. A fuzzy preordering is a fuzzy relation that is reflexive and transitive. The columns of the matrix give the dominated class for each element.11.1a Several other concepts of crisp orderings easily generalize to the fuzzy case. we obtain U(R.7 1 . (a.7 0 .7 a 0 1 D 0 1 I _9 Lo 0 G . the preordeling is not necessarily antisynunetrie. Unlike a partial ordering.1 The doiminating clasz for each element is given by the row of the matrix corresponding to that element.140 Fuzzy Relations Chao. the upper bound is the fuzzy set produced by the intersection of the dominating classes for a and b. Employing the min operator for fuzzy intersection.11 The set of all distinct crisp orderings eapriured by the fuzzy partial ordering R in Example 5.
the inverse of h for each element of Y is a set of elements from X instead of a single element of X. 5. =. R) to (Y. homomorphic images of two elements that are themselves unrelated under R. for all xi . X) and Q(Y. x2) < Q (h(x1 ). it can clearly be derived from any partial ordering R by replacing the values R(x.bi) = Q(yi y2) . In other words.MORPRISMS If two crisp binary relations R(X. x2) e R for all xi . then a function h X Y is said to be a hornomorphism from X. for ail xl. h (x2) in set Y are related under the relation Q. X2) E R implies (11 (x1). When this is never the case under a homomorphie function h. an } and b„} be two blocks of this partition rrh. MaXR(ai.h (x2 ). antisymmetric. h (X2)) E Q implies (x 1 . on the set X such that any two elements Il l x2 e X belong to the same block of the partition iff h maps them to the same element of Y. The function h imposes a partition rzi. Q) if (xi.x1). their homomorphie images h(. y) > 0 or R(y x) > 0 for all x y.8 FUZZY . x2 e X. and (Yi y2) E Q for all Yi yz E Y. x2 E X and their images h(x 1). A fuzzy sirict ordering is antirellexive. where x1 E h1 (yi) and x2 E h 1 (y2). . then the criteria that a manytoone function h must satisfy in order to be a strong homomorphism are somewhat modified. the strength of relation between two elements under R is equaled or exceeded by the strength of relation between their homomorphie images under Q. x2) E R implies (h (x i ). a homomorphisna implies that for every two elements of set X which are related under the relation R. x2 e X. This equality must be satisfied for each pair of blocks of the partition irh. X) and Q(Y. the function is called a strong hontornorphisin. Thus. and let all elements of A be mapped B b2 to some. h(x2) e Y.Y) are fuzzy. this implication can be generalized to R(xi. Observe that when h is manytoone. R) to (Y. Let A = 1at a z. and transitive. It satisfies the two implications. Note that it is possible for a relation to exist under Q between the . Y) are fuzzy binary relations. 1 with zeros for all x € X. If relations R(X. When R(X.Sec. . X) and Q(Y. Y) are defined on sets X and Y. Then the function h is said to be a strong homomorphism from (X.element y1 E Y and all elements of E to some element y 2 E Y. (Xi.8 Fuzzy Merphisrrs 141 in which either R(x. Formally. respectively. 5. Q) iff the degree of the strongest relation between any element of Aand any element of E in the fuzzy relation R equals the strength of the relation between Yi and y2 in the fuzzy relation Q. h(x2)) E Q.
In this case. that all the pairs (xt . X) and Q(Y.9 1 . Consider now alternative relations R(X. R) to (Y. In fact. The notion of a crisp or fuzzy homomorphism can be generalized from binary relations on a single set to relations on two or more different sets.5 0 .5 0 . fi. Y) defined on X = {a. 5  The following membership matrices represent fuzzy Refarions R(X. _ and elements e and f to element y.6 0 0 = • .9 0 . For instance.4 1 0 1 In this case the second relation. If h : X ÷ Y is a hornomorphism from (X. dl and le. x2) € X < X which are members of have corresponding homomorphic images (h (r e ). more properties of the relation R are preserved in the relation Q. the function maps the set X to itself.8 y . Here. however. Other members of Q may exist. A function that is both an isomorphism and an endomorphism is called an automorphisnr.3 . which are represented by the following membership matrice: a . and element d to element y.8 R bcdef .9 0 0 . elements b. respectively. Figure 5. c. Q). element c to element ft.5 d 0 0 0 0 0 . then it is called an isomorphism.14 Fuzzy Relations Chap. R) to (Y.5 0 0 c( Cf [ fit Y o 0 . and onto.12b depicts this strong hornomorphism. Y) pieserves some of the properties of the relation R(X. This is effectively a translation or direct relabeling of elements of the set X into elements of the set Y that preserves all the properties of R in Q. c. is the homomorphie image of R under the homomorphie function h i which maps elements a and b to element a.X) — namely. Note that the pair (y. and 4 to element a. Q.c.8 = [ _7 . the relation R. and if h is completely specified. then h is called an ersdomopphisnt.142 Example 5. respectively d .9 0 1 The second relation. Each of these terms applies without modification w fuzzy homomorphisms.9 G 1 . such as ordering or similarity. Figure 5. The set X is therefore partitioned into the three equivalence classes lai. b.12a illustrates this fuzzy homomorphism. If Y c X. X) and Q(Y. b.9 0 1 0 0 . Q represents a simplification of R in which elements belonging to the same block of the partition created by the function h on the set X are no longer distinguished. a homomorphism . Q.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 . then the rektion Q(Y. which maps element a to element 0. f } and Y (a. onetoone. This is not the case when the homomorphisra is strong. If a horaomorphisra exists from (X. e. c.d.4 0 0 0 0 a Q 13 0 . dI and Y = yl. and the relations R and Q are equal. that are not the counterparts of any member of R. Q). lb. j3) in Q does not correspond to any pair in. Y) de5ned on sets X = la.0 . These fUnctions are useful for performing various kinds of simplifications of systems that preserve desirable properties in set. is a strong homornorphiic image of R tinder the homomorphic function h.5 0 0 0 . Is (x2)) GYxY which are members of Q. f J.
Y) Figure 5.. 5.1.r.4).a•• .s •• WAYF •s• .Sec. (a) ozdirurzy fuzzy komomorpkion.s•s h (b) Strong fuzzy hornorncrphisin Q(Y.8 Fuzzy Morphisms 143 Ordinary fuzzy horriomorphism  ss• .12 Fuzzy homomorphisms (Example 5. (b) strung rum homoznorphism .
V). Given fuzzy relations P (X. z) sup i[P (x. and . Y2) would consist of two functions. Given a particular tnorm and two fuzzy relations P (X Y) and Q(17.21) R The set of all binary fuzzy relations on X' forms a complete latticeordered monoid (F (X2).Y). that is. Y). 5.16) (n PI) JE' Q fl (P1 Q). PEI (5. Y). and their verification is left to the reader as an exercise.. and R(2. (p 01 = Q1 p1 . (17 . z E Z.The properties described earlier must then be satisfied by each of these functions. Z). S between two relations such as R t (Xi .13) for all x E X. where fl and U represent the meet and join of the lattice. These properties follow directly from the corresponding properties of tnorms. Z).  (5. such as approximate reasoning and fuzzy control. Y .15) P (nQI ) s JEJ n(P ier (5. respectively. When t is chosen to be the min operator. a t (Y.Z).20) (5. P Q becomes the standard composition Po Q. h1 : X2 and h 2 . n. P JQI = (P CO. Y1 ) and R2(X2. where j refers to a tnorm. y). V). for any fuzzy relations P(X. The need to study these generalizations emerges from some applications. Q 2(Y. where j basic properties of the supi composition takes values in an index set J. the sup4 composition of P and Q is a fuzzy relatiot P Q on X x Z defined by [P Q](x. Supi composition is also monotonic increasing. P j (X.14) jJ (5. (T. . generalize the standard maxmin composition. and R(Z . Li.144 Fuzzy Relations Chap. Z). Z). z)] yeY (5. if Qi C Q2 then PQ 1 Qi P QZ Q2.9 SUPI COMPOSITIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS Supi compositions of binary fuzzy relations. ). the following are under the standard fuzzy union and intersection: (P Q) R = P (0 R). (y.
which may be used as an alternative definition of i transitivity. 3. let Rcn ) =R for n =. y) = 0 when x y. Consider now a fuzzy relation S that is itransitive and contains R(R c S). 5. y.(1) that is the smallest itransitive relation conmiring R. z E X.Sec. We say that relation R on X2 is itransitive iff R(x. Using this notation. Proof: First. the fuzzy relation BT(i) = n=1. we can now formulate two theorems regarding itransitive closure. z)] (5. then =RL .17).22) for all x. y). The identity of is defined by the relations I. x = y E (x. When a relation R is not itransitive. moreover. Rru) = (1:IR (n) ) ( re=1 OR (*)) 'n=1 0:3 r1=1 m=1 U za. R (1) =R RcS1P ScS and.23) is the itransitive closure of R. It is easy to show that a fuzzy relation R on 12 is itransitive iff R R c R. 5. where R is a fuzzy relation on X and R(1) = R. . Then. Theorem SA. which is introduced in terms of the mammin composition in See. z) i[R(x. R Q° (5. To investigate properties of the itransitive closure. if Rk") c S. For any fuzzy relation R on X2. 2.9 Supi Compositions ot Fuzzy Relations 145 represents the semigroup operation of the monoid.m=1 U (leli) ROO) Ç UR (k) k=1 This means that kro) is Itransitive. we define its itransitive closure as a relation R 2.4. can be generalized in terms of the supi compositions for the various tnorms i. when. The concept of transitivity of a fuzzy relation. R(y. by (1 15) and RT(1) (5.
x) = Ro . While the tnorm i may be interpreted as logical conjunction. N It follows directly from this theorem that any given fuzzy relation on X2 is itransitive if R = RT (0. RT(i) = h 1 R(k) C That is. z_._p_i). y)] R(z i. can be used for defining fuzzy iequivalence. 11 I i (a . RTy) is the smallest itransitive fuzzy relation containing R. . therefore.°= R. the sequence x zo. the itransitive closure has a simpler form. b e [O. if x 0 y. y) < R ('1) (x 1 y). y) Rog 1) (x. then R ("J(x. k'' ) follows that Roo = 1011) and. R(z. together with reflexivity. Zr ). zi) i[R(x. Hence. referred to as operation coi . Thus. It The itransitivity. antisymmetry. therefore.l) (x x) = 1. R(z. Assume zi. R ro) Let R be a reflexive fuzzy relation on X 2. 1. y)] < (x. z1. zv4. y € X.. Theorem 52. where j t2kes values from an index set J. the corresponding operation (Di may be interpreted as logical implication. operation col has the following properties: For any a. where r < s. and so on. consequently. and other types of fuzzy relations. (zi.. where [XI n > 2. E c R and R = E R Ç R R = R (2) . Basic properties of coi are expressed by the following theorem. For finite and reflexive fuzzy relations. 11. y G X and. a Theorem 53. WM. (k < n .146 Fuzzy 1=1elation Chnp_ Hence. z. symmetry. plays an important role in fuzzy relation equations (Chapter 6). we prove that R ('. Now. z 1 ).1). Proof: Since R is reflexive. d E [O. icompatibility._3 .. R(zr_i . zn = y of n + 1 elements must contain at least two equal elements. as expressed by the following theorem. if x = y. . then. y) for any x. For any x. R(') c RO'÷i) for any m E N.1) fl(E.. then = sup i[R(x. R (') (x. R T(g) _let 1) _ kil1) . a 10 INFwi COMPOSITIONS OF FUZZY RELATIONS Given a continuous tnorm î let . coi (a b) sup[x E [0. Since n. z 1). lek) c S for any k e N and. This operation. z ? ). x) b) for every a. but the coverage of these generalizations is beyond the scope of this text. 11. Then.
b).x) (4] = supfi(a. x) eoi [i (a b). cl ] . wi(a. [inf a' . inf air(a b)) b. by property 1 we have i(a hi inf cpi (aj. i (a x)] :5 d 0. inf ai] = hit w g (b.. b). 1. (a d). Let s =. 6)] 15 b. Again by property 1. i(a. icf consequently. b). d ]} 7. a i). Hence.b). sup{xii(a.Sec. b) 2. 3. inf coi (a1 . xl < d <=t. 1. x) < d} and. coi . ai s and /4(s b) < 42)(af . d) > b.ig(d b). stipai] > sup coi 0. (sup a b) = w s b) = inf toi (a b). coi(s b) < inf a)1 (a 11 b). d)} = coi [a wi (b . d). i (a. since inf 1E1 E jEJ b) (air b) for all /0 i s ( J .. x) (a. Thus. roi [cof (a . (b cl)]. d). jEf 1E1 10. Proof: We illustrate the full proof by proving only properties 1. ill . x) < d) (since i is continuous) d) [b. a < b implies wi (a. ifwi (a. and leave the rest of the proof to the reader.sup af . lf b < tog (a. f el o. b) < i[a. cl] = coi [a. we have (s b) > inf (ai b).b)) < b for alt jo E J. 3. then h g fx[i (a. iJ sup(xjx :5 co i [i (a . i inf (Di (a .b]. a). and 7. . if i(a • b) d. Hence. then i (a. b) for any j f by property 4. coi [i (a. b). 12 ] > sup o (a j ). 5. d) > (b d) and wi (d a) 5. isi iEJ 9. b)) = sup i (ajo . On the other hand. Then.10 infce Compositions cf Fuzzy Reiatcns 147 d iff (a. cl)] wi (a. co [b.4(b. wi [sup ai . b). b < supfxli (a. i[a. x) [i(a. b). 8. x) d) = al. JO' which completes the proof of property 7. 7. x < (b. 6.d)] = suptx ]i (a. d)} = d. consequently. b] > a. codb. dl. i[i (a . 4. a1 ). By property 1. 3.
7).148 Fuzzy Relations Chap. Z).3. and S(Z. C (5.Y). 5' Given a tnolyn i and the associated operation wh. the infcol composition. Then: (1) the following propositions are equivalent: PIQc R. (U P1) Q = /El jJ n (F1 Y • Q) .26) (Q R1)1. Proof: Q g Q implies Q Qz = Qi and Qi U Q2 = (P Qi) (F 6:. 7) be fuzzy relation. P fuzzy relation P(X. y) . Y) and Q(Y.32) P 411 (UQi) 2 U(P 4°4 Q1). where j takes values in an index set I Then. Q(Y. and R(Z.29). Y). Q 2 (Y. R (X . Q C P 16' R. Let p(r. (5. V) be fuzzy relations. of (P Q)(x.31) (5. if 02. n Q2) = R by (5. Theorem 5.5. z)] for all X E X.31). JO' (5. Q(Y. (527) (5. Q2. (5. Z) is defined by the equation Q.4. we omit their proofs. Z E Z. Qi C Theorem 5.29) (5 .3 0) t' Q P. Let P (X. Q(y.28) p (Q S) (p Q)  Let p (X. ' This theorem is instrumental in proving the two properties of monotonicity of the infcDE composition that are stated by the following theorem.24) Basic properties of the inf coi composition are expressed by the following two theorems. y). U (Pi Q)." Q 2) = P (Qt Hence. Since these properties follow directly from the properties of operations coi expressed by  Theorem 5. pj (X. Y).6.25) (5. Q2 ti (Q t R) n (Q2 R) = (QiU f22) III R by (5. and Q 1 (Y. 7). 2 p (2) Theorem 5. P (IIIQ 1) jent = n (15' Q. Z). Q i (Y. which implies that P Q c P Q/. and this implies Qi R 2 Q2 °01 R. z) = inf wi[P(x. . V) be fuzzy relations. Z).). then P Qi P az and Qi R D Q2 T5T R.
and cylindric closure. The concepts of projection. Then.35).35) (5. bi.f. The fazzy relation R is defined on sets XI = {a.Y).34) (5. By (533).I (P Q) = 42. cylindric extension. when the trivial proposition P 1 R c and then replaced with the equivalent proposition (5_26). which plays an important role in fuzzy relation equations based on the inf. R is interpreted in terms of (5.1.36) R c F (F1 R). = (1.34) indicate that the supi composition and infcoi composition (P 66' Q) C Q instead of are opposite compositions in the following weak sense: P 1 (P 1 R). Relational mopplasm were studied in great detail for both crisp and fuzzy relations by Bandler and Koliout [1986a.36) follows then directly from (5. 6.33) and (5.7. Q(Y. and Ovehianiknv [1984 they are also extensively covered in one of the early books on fuzzy set theoryjKauftnann. P C (la Q) Q 1 RÇ (RQ') t' Q.26). Proof: When the trivial proposition P Q C (P 1)1 Q is interpreted in terms of (5 26) and then replaced with the equivalent propcsition (5. Yeh and Bang MIS]. 19751. 5. compatibilzty.5). we obtain (5. R) instead of R NOTES 5. Z). for n . Binary fuzzy relations were further investigated by Rosenfeld 119751.2. we directly obtain (5 33). (P Q) Q.25). Z) be fuzzy relations. Theorem 5. and R(X.25) and then replacing it with the equivalent proposition (5. Q 1 D (P Q) 1 t P. 5 Exercises 149 This theorem and its predecessors in this section enable us to prove another theorem.33) (5. and fuzzy orderings were introduced by Zadth [19714. and R c P (P' . X3 (X: yl. we t hence. X2 = fellows: (S.dimensional crisp relations arc cluek Zadeh [1975a.34). The basic ideas offazzy reiaftons and the concepts of fuzzy equivalence. (5.25) Similarly.35).w.Chap. composition (Sec.i! (P proposition in terms of (5. Interpreting the last have Q 1 D [P 1 . C}. SI. EXERCISES Si. Or. 121. Proposition (5. Yager [10i1 a]. P . b. these concepts are essential for procedures of approximate reasoning. Note that (5. Let P(X.11 as . we E obtain (5.
4 as pages in a threedimensional array that rcpawflis a fuzzy ternary relation.3 Ms = 0 .8 0 .7 0 .5 . Chap.3 0 .7 0 .7 . 1 .2 0 0 .2 .7 .3 0 0 . (d) Is the cylindric closure from (c) equal to the original relation R? 52.8  .9 1 1 .6 . s. OR X Y = 1 0 .8 .1 .1 .7 .7 0 1 0 00 G 1 1 0 _7 .4.6 .6 0 .3 M6 .3 4 0 . Consider Inatrices M1 M2.5 0 0 .8 O 0 / .6 . M3 in Table 5.3 J.2 0 0 .5 L 1 1 .3 .4 O O . .2 0 0 .9/b.2 O .1. 5.7 0 0 O 0 1 0 A 0 .3 3 .8 .4 .7 0 MQ = .R 0 .3 t PC2.5 1 .7 .5 .4 0 1 .6 _3 0 O 0 . .4 t (. X4) = .2 0 0 . y.1 0 1 0 1.6 / .7 0 1 . (R1.  TABLE 5. 0 0 0 .5 1 M2 = 0 . j X3.4 . .8 0 . in terms Qf a faurdimensional array. Given any nary relation.2/c.5 0 0 2 0010 . Express the relation defined in Exercise 5.9 . j ta) Compute the projections R0.8 0 MI2 .2 .6 0 1.15 1 0 L.4/b. how many different projections of the relation can be taken? 53. s.4 .3 .9 0 .s. y.5 0 1 .4 0 .2 0 0 0 .2 0 0 O M4 [ 1 • 0 .7 i . y.2 0 . t. X3 )1. (e) two threedimensional arrays expressing the difference between each of the cylindric closures and the original ternary relation. Determine: (a) ail twodimensional projections. .6 ..Ni.6 1 . y. x + i .2 0 .4. _3 0 0 .2 . [R4 t fXi.4 .5/a.6 .5 1 1 1 .3 . 5 s.1 o .4 0 E.4.6 0 0 0 .7 0 1 .7 .3 .7 .5 0 [ . X4)1.9 I .4 .8 1 0 0 .2 .2 M13 = .5 0 . (lb) cylindric ertensions and cylindric closure of the two dimensional projections.1 1 M3 = [ 0 3 .1 0 .1 .0 .4 3 0.6 1 0 2 1 0 0 / 1 2 . X.3 0 O 0 t .8 0 0 1 1 . 5. (c) all onedimensional projections.5 O 1 ..6 6 .5/a.3 .5 .7 .2 0 .1 0 1 0 .7 0 1 1 .2 .4 MATRIX REPRESENTATIONS OF FUZZY BINARY RELATONS ON X x Y EMPLOYED IN EXERCISES (ASSUME EITHER n 3. 7) E X (xi[i E N „) r4„1. and R4(b) Compute the cylindric ertensions (P 1 r7 .8 .7 [ .3 . (d) cylindric extensions and cylindric closure of the onedimensional projections. (c) Compute the cylindric closure from the three cylindric extensions in ().3 .3 1 .8 0 .i .6 0 .150 Fumy Relatons R (X !.6 0 0 0 G .
5. 5. irreliexive. and transitive. (b) a simple diagram of the relation under the assumption that X = Y. 5.16. atitisymmetric. and transitivity (or the lack of the= properties) are preserved under inversion for both crisp and fuzzy relations.16 for maxproduct transitive closure. Repeat Exercise 5 .13. determine for some of the relations whether they are reflexive.6.. perform the following relational joins: 5." It is defined by membership ffinetion R(x. 2. 5. antisyminetric. For example: (a) Mi 4 M2 r M4 a M5/ Ma 6 M97 M12 6 M13. range. 5. (b) 'is a parent of".  . (d) "is the same height as".S. nontransitive„ or antitransitive: (a) "is a sibling or. asymmetric. strictly antisymmetric.4.4. (d) Miz * Prove that the properties of symmetry. irrellexive." For some of the binary relations given in Table 5 4. Assuming X = Y. 5.x is much Smaller than y. antirsve Assuming that X Y. y) = { 1 for x < y — . antireflexive.s given in Table 5. For some of the binary relations given in Table 5. 5. 51. Assuming that X = Y for binary relations given in Table 5. (b) the inverse of the relation.4 under the assumption that (r14 .11 for some other maxi compositions.13.10. symmetric. (a) What is the domain of R? (b) What is the range of R? (c) What is the height of R? (d) Calculate For each of the following binary relations on a single set. (10 M1 M2 ° M31.7. perform the maxmin composition of some sequences of comparable relarion. The fuzzy binary relation R is defined OIL sets X = {I. Using binary relations given in Table 5. (a) the domain. 0 otherwise.Chap. or antireflexive. ereflexive (for some 0 < e < 1). symmetric. 00 M4 * AG.4. or strictly avtisymmetric. M4 O//f5 M6 ° M71 etc.. Repeat Exercise 5. 5 Exercises 151 S. . draw each of the following: (a) a sagittal clia. 5.11. (e) "is at least as tall as. Prove that the maxmin composition and min join are associative operations on binary fuzzy relations. and height of the relation.. 100) and represents the relation ". where x X and y € Y. (c) Is smarter than". 5. or (assuming maxmin transitivity). nontransilive. . detmlnine . Repeat Exercise 5.17. (e) Ma 44 M9. state whether the relation is reflexive. Dii7 are panes of a fourdimensional array that represents a fuzzy quaternary relation.4.4.12.grant of the relation. 5. (a) M1 *M2 . reilexiviry.9. M5 ) and Ms. determine the maxmin transitive closure for some relations given in Table 5. 5.15. „ 100} and Y (50. transitive.14. asymmetric.
5.25. _ and Ro) R. the sets of undorninated and undominating elements of X are nonempty.3.16) is a equivalence relation.13. Prove that Rr = Lim R {k where Rck) defined recursively kpoo 5. 5. 5. for examples on the Yager (norms i.4 are compatibility relations (assume X = Y). as Kim . construct simplifications of some of the relations given in Table 54 under appropriate homomorphie mappings defined by you. Prove Theorem 5.20. Let R he a reflexive fuzzy relation. Assuming X Y. Given a fuzzy equivalence relation R(X. 5. Prove Theorem 5.10.19. 5. R R 00 .27.23. Prove (5. The transitive closure of the relation defined by matrix Mi2 ill Table 5. (a) all complete cecovers of the relations. for k = 2.1?).4 (Exercise 5. 5. Show that for every fuzzy partial ordering on X.24.19). 5. Prove ii1C following proposition: When R(X. 5. Determine its partition tree. Relations defined by matrices M3 and M12 in Table 5.14)(5.4.11. X) and two partitions ir(*El) and 7r (°.. X) is maxmia transitive. 3..152 Fuzzy Relations Chap. for some infcoi compositions based. where ‘‘i? and oft are acuts and o > prove that each element of 7e(u1i) is contained in some element of 71.21.22. Prove Theorem 5. Repeat Exercise 5. then R R J.23.0. for various values of the parameter co. 5. . Determine: (a) simple diagrams of the relations.26. 5 5. 529. 5.
j e I (= MO and k e matrices P. where =N„ Let the membership matrices of P. Z). This form is not only viewed as the most fundamental  composition of fuzzy relations. and X where we assume that I = N„. the multiplications and additions are replaced with the min and max operations.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION The notion of fuzzy relation equations is associated with the concept of composition of binary relations. Q and R are real numbers in the unit interval [0. 1]. Q (Y. respectively. For the sake of simplicity and clarity. 1 153 . Consider three fuzzy binary relations PC X. which are defined on the sets X = P E f Z [zdk E 10. in terms of an operation on the membership matrices of P and Q that resembles matrix multiplication.2k) N5 ). and R be denoted by respectively. zk). R = fro]. Z) and R(X. In the maxmin composition. As explained in Sec. in general. the multiplications and additions that are applied to these _combinations in the matrix multiplication are replaced with other operations. in each given context. This operation involves exactly the same combinations of matrix entries as in the regular matrix multiplication. but it is also the form that has been studied most extensively and has the highest utility in numerous applications. Y)).FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS 6. However. Z) can be defined. Y) and Q(Y.Y). for example. these alternative operations represent. the composition of two fuzzy binary relations P(X. qfk= Q(yi. Q Nik1. This means that all entries i n the fo all i E f (= Ngt ). the appropriate operations of fuzzy set intersection and Ulli00 1 respectively.. let our further discussion in this section be limited to. 53. = r(xi. the Triax min form of composition. rik = R(xi. Q.
alternatively. When matrices P and Q are given and matrix R is to be determined from (6. then. The problem becomes far from trivial when one of the two matrices on the lefthand side of (6. the problem is trivial. alternatively. 6. Q R. Clearly. with respect to P). P and Q.1) encompasses n x s simultaneous equations of the form (6.1] and ri E .1) by (Q1 )1 = Q. obtain the solution of (6.154 Assume Fuzzy Relation Lquations now that the three relations constrain each other in such a way that P.2). the solution in this case exists and is unique. It is easy to see that this problem can be partitioned. alternatively. (6.1) in. into a set of simpler problems expressed by the mattix equations pi Q (6.3) employing transposed matrices.1) is unknown. we can indirectly utilize this method for solving the second decomposition problem as well. It is solved simply by performing the maxmin multiplicationlike operation on.4) denote the set of all solutions (be solution set).5) for all i e I. Let each particular matrix P that satisfies (61) be called its solution. the form P1 = R1 . the solution is guaranteed neither to exist nnr to be unique.3) for Q1 by our method and. That is. Since many problems in various contexts can be formulated as problems of decomposition. In this case. Chap.  (6. Then.1) is obtained by composing P and Q. R) = (PIP o Q RI (6. it is suggestive to view the problem of determining P (or. as defined by (62). let us assume that a pair of specific matrices R and Q from (6. Q) from R and Q (or.1). the matrix equation (6. where pi [pJ E . these equations are referred to as fuzzy relation equations.. We simply rewrite (6. without loss of generality. The use of fuzzy relation equations in some applications is illustrated in Part II of this text...ihat satisfy (6.1) where ci denotes the maxmin composition_ This means that max min (Pzi 10 qj ra (6. R and P) as a decomposition of R with respect to Q (or. and let S(Q.2 PROBLEM PARTMOVING In the following discussion. Assume that we have a method for solvin]g (6.2) for all t E I and k e K. Since R in (6. the utility of any method for solving (6.1).1) only for the first decomposition problem (given Q and R).1) is quite high. When two of the components in each of the equations are given and one is unknown.1) is given and that we wish to determine the set of all particular matrices of the form P. We can now solve (6.
min(pu .1) bas no solution. max [rnin(pii . for each t E I the solution set of one of the simpler problems expressed by (6. respectively.1). and po.5). .7). . ri) fur all i /(= It follows immediately from (6.2 1 P211 whose general form is [NI = [rid. and ri in (6. Then. . not sufficient. max rrnin(p21 . min(pu.7 . rain(p22. min(p4 . and our problem is to determine all particular con figurations of its entries for which the equation is satisfied.2) contains unknown identified only by one particular value of the index i. 6.2) that if IllaX qik <r (6. The pen matrix represents the following four equations of the form (t5. and a fuzzy set on Z. The first matrix in this equation is unknown. is only a necessary.' Let (6.2 Problem Partitioning pi.4 • [ .5).4)1 = 1.9 .6) (Q.3. whereas equations .2. Q. its negation.2): max [min(pu . then S(Q..11 exist (j E ) that Satisfy (6 1.Sec. to determine quickly that (6. R) 0 Example 61 Consider the matrix equation [ P21 Piz Ai .5 [ . however. (pip i Q = ril denote. the unknowns AI distinguished by different values oft do ttot appear together in any of the individual equations. .4) can be viewed as onecolumn matrices r" pi — P2 P =Prr  where pi e (Q. This proposition allows us. . that is. that is. the matrices P in (6. min(p13 1)] max [rnin(p u min(p12. a fuzzy set on y. P12. Observe that pi .7) foi some I e I and some k K. 155 Indeed. a fuzzy relation on Y x Z. therefore. where i N2. j N3. This proposition can be stated more concisely as follows: if max qik < max tik (€.1 (6. condition for the existence of a solution of (6. min(p.8 1 .4) . R) 0.1 = . Observe that equations (a) and (b) contain only unknowns pii.8) for some k E K. for S(Q.9).„ .5) represent. then no values pu e [0. rnin(p73 . no matrix P exists that satisfies the matrix equation.8). each of the equations in (6. 1)1 = . ). and k NI. in certain cases.
Q=[qfi c if cJ.5. which is associated with I = 2. Q. poz4 .9 [ . let us.1 3' be defined as follows: for P P 1ff Pj 2 PI . . as prcviousEy argued.7 We see. Hence.156 Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap.r= frkfkc Kj. a fuzzy relation on Y x Z. . the given set of four equatioas can be partitioned i n to two subsets. We may therefore restrict our further discussion of matrix equations of the form (6. and any pail 1p e P.8. therefore.9 pu] ° • I. specifically. 1.9) where [pilj E. q32) r21.4) Thus. = [PIT' Q = r) denote the solution sot of (6. 4722. roax(q12.4 P 2 31 .3 SOLUTION METHOD For the sake of consistency with our previous discussion. Th is means that each of these pairs of equations can be solved independent of the other. max(.5 . 1] for all j J. assume that p. respectively. we need to introduce some additional concepts and convenient notation. 1 let a partial ordering on 2 . again r represent.9). awl and a fuzzy set on Z.12 22 . First.8 I= t. (6.1].1) can be partitioned without loss of generality into a set of equations of the form (6. the given matrix equation has no solution. or.5). however. Since (6. a fuzzy set on Y. we need only methods for solving equations of the latter form in order to arrive at a solution. satisfies the inequality (63) for k = 2 (and i 2) and.k CK]. .4 .5 8 .9). In fact. has no solution.. let J = N„. 2 .1) to matrix equations of the simpler form P 4:2 = (6. 6 (c) arid (d) contain only unknowns pi . In order to describe a method for salving (6.10) Moreover. p= 5. that the second matrix equation. let g' denote the set of all possible vectors P = [Pfli E such that pi G [O. and K Ns and let S(Q. expressed by the matrix equations  (pit Piz arid LP2i Pzz [ .
r). if. let an element f of S(Q.4 the solution set . p a. r).3 Solution Method 157 for all j E J. 6.9) if. let an element 0 of S ( D. r). r) 0 0. kor fl then is is the maximum p E S(Q. the meaning iof (6. P] . all the minimal solutions. jS p. r) is not empty. 2p E P such that 1 p < 2p. For quick orientation. Employing the parti al ordering on 7". r).1 qi'31 solutEons ' Figure 6. Similarly. for all p E S(Q. Consider now some properties of the solution set S(Q. When S (Q. for all p e S(Q. U[P. r) be called a if. 0 implies p = 0./ Strecture of (shaded area) of (6. 2p ] . S(Q. r).11) enables us to solve (6. ([1 p. Formally.. It is known that the solution set S(Q. 2 p Y. r) of its minimal solutions. and it may contain several minimal solutions_ Let r) denote the set of all minimal solutions. p <j implies p = solution (unique).Sec. the maximum solution Maximum solution (unique) . Equation (6. 6.11) where the union is taken for all e 34(Q. (6.9) if. r).1.9) solely by detçrznining its unique Maximum solution 0 and the set g(Q. r) is fully characterized by the maximum and minimal solutions in the following sense: it consists exactly of the maximum solution Li. it always contains a unique maximum solution. for solution. It is well established that whenever the solution set S(Q. Given an arbitrary pair 1 13.1. and all elements of P that are between is and each of the minimal solutions. then is the minimum all p E S(Q. let ['L P. r) be called a maximal solution of (6.11) is illustrated visually in Fig. f. p minimal solution of (6. Rn any pair l p. Lattice 1] . 2 P] = {P e I 1 P P 2'14is clearly a lattice.
9). For convenience. (This claim is justified in Sec. otherwise. as determined by (6. which has exactly the same set of solutions as the original equation. clearly. and that i has been determined by (6. since each p (p E T) must satisfy./(p) by . is a necessary and sufficient condition 0.9).) for S(Q. The method we describe here for determining all minimal solutions of (6. and the set g((). we permute them appropriately and perform the same permutation on the columns of the matrix Q.9). Given Q.§(Q.k 0 for allkeK= ris ). At this point. I. Although this reduction is not necessary. in this Case. r). p i (J for all jeJ= N„„ and r. when rk = 0 for some k E K. r) of all minimal solutions of (6. keg (6. r) = 0).9) is based on the assumption that the components of the vector r in (6.12).9) can be determined by the following procedure:  Determine the sets min(fii. Furthermore.9) may he reduced in some cases. Assume now that Q and r cif (6..4. pi = 0 implies p1 = 0 for each p e S(Q. we simply extend them by inserting zeros at the locations that were eliminated in the reduction step. Assume further that components of r are arranged in decreasing order.158 LfIj E 1 1 of (6. r) of its minimal solutions. That is. we may eliminate this component from fl as well as the jth row from matrix Q. and that we wish to determine the set .9) are given. we may eliminate this component from r and the kth column from matrix Q.12) and has been verified as the maximum solution of (6. and rk = O. r) = ø . the existence of the maximum solution 13. the max min equation represented by p. the kth column of Q. we must check to see if it satisfies the given matrix equation (6. and we next determine the set j(Q. When fi determined in this way does not satisfy (6. then 5(Q.12) where Pk 1:1(4rik'rtc)—{ = if eik rk .9) is a reduced equation and ift is its maximum solution (i. 6._ If the components are not initially ordered in this way. Denote elements (stuples) of .9) is determined as follows: Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap. (6. of all minimal solutions of the equation. min a (tpk. r) ..9) are ordered such that ri r2 > > r. 6 =. qjk) = rk) for all k K and construct their Cartesian product MO) =U E . the reduced equation is easier to deal with. When pi = 0 for some j E J.1 (IN =Ç Jk t). Once fs is determined by (6. If it does nor.12). When we obtain solutions of the reduced equation.e. Otherwise. fi is the maximum solution of the equation. then the equation has no solution (S(Q. r. assume for our further discussion that (6. since. This procedure clearly yields an equivalent matrix equation.
1.8 _7 .12): mina.Sec. .8.4) a IC (0.7 1 .2 . 1.3 . respectively. Next.134 = rain(1.5 01. We can easily check that # S(Q.7 .€ . The resulting set of mtuples is the set r) of all minimal solutions of (6.1 — 0 and r 0 0 [.6 = (. and p in this reduced equation represent p2. hence. pi . [0 . o 4. determine all solutions of (6. From all the mtuples g(P) generated in Step 3. Since 0. Appropriate references are given in Note 6. .5 . determine the set j).3 Solution Method 159 a I_ For each fk E f() and each j E Lailk G .3 . 6. S(Q. .1 .) = tain(1. IC(P. 1) . 1.9 [ .1. r) of all ratatnal sohniom of this reduced /matrix equation. We must remember that pt . P2 = rain(. we determine the maximum solution fe by (6.2 .5 .51. j) o 0„ otherwise. First.9). Example 6_2 Given Q . 1. 1.8 .1 .1 .4 . The described procedure is based on several nontrivial theorems. 1. generate the mtuple 03) = [gi (p)ij e J1 by taking I max rk = kcic02.51.7. For each 13 E J di). The redaced equation has the form [ [Pt P2 P1' 3 8 .r) 0 0. and p4 of the original equation.7 1 . .8 . since r4 r.7.7 .5. 15. 0.§(Q. we may make a further reduction by excluding r 4 and the fourth column uf 1:). p2 . we apply the four steps of the procedure for determining the' set . j) = lk E Kii3k 3.9).6 .5 .1) Thus. which we do not consider essential to present here. 0) 0.r). select only the minimal ones by pairwise comparison. we may reduce the matrix equation by excluding pi and the first t ow of matrix Q.
For each 3 E J(0). .5].7 . By adding O as the Brst component to each of these triples.5) ( .160 Fuzzy Palation Equations Chap.511. which are also listed in Table 6.0 . . The sets K(13. 4.1 are minimal: (. 20 [0 .1) into equations of the form (a) one for each row in P and R (p is associated with index j Q with indices j and k. TAOLE 6.7.11 (0) (1).2 i KCP.5 0]. 0.80 . 2.8. we have S(Q. we obtain .2) (1. max gift < utax ric :Fe" . 2 113 122 123 i 2 3 g(0) (. 8 1. and the twn Tni nimal solutions . According to ( . (Q.3). The set S(Q. J(0) (1) x { 1. r) fp p 0) {p 31 2P P Let us now summarize concisely the described procedure for solving finite maxmin fuzzy relation equations.7 .J) 13. hence.5) {1. 2.1 ILLUSMAT1ON TO EXAMPLE 6. if . 2} x (2. = 1. Jai) = (1.8 0 .1.S . r) of all solutions of the given matrix equation is now fully captured by the maximum solution =[0 . 2) (1) ( 1) 131 0 (2. = to . 3) 121 • 0=1 (31 0 (3) 3. we generate the triples g( (3). ={ 1 =j0 .8 .8 . and r with index k). J3 (0) 12. 2} . 0.5 0].5].5.51 of the reduced equation. Employing the maximum solution [. Hence. j) that we mu.st determine for all 13 . . 3). .8.5.1(0) and all j E J are listed in Table 45.3. For each equation (a). we obtain the minimal solutions of the original matrix equation.8„7..1. Basic Procedure 1.5). No of the triples g(f3) in Table 6. 0) 1. 0) (A. These therefore comprise ail the minimal solutions of the reduced matrix equation.11). Partition (6.8 . .8. . 0) and (.
1] in which jI = 1. 2. where we assume j E 6.3 Solution Method 161 for some k. 5. 9. cr (qjk. exclude these components as well as the corresponding rows j and columns k from matrix Q in (a): This results in the reduced equation p'Q1 ( 3) kE . this results in the solution set S(Q. 6. 3. proceed to Step 5. If # is not a solution of (a). Determine fi by Procedure 1 . determine the set . othervise. For each 13 G . r) of equation (a).. Determine the solution set of the reduced equation (b): SOT . r) 0 and the procedure terminates. Procedure 1 Form the vector = E . 7./(fe) and each j G .1). Repeat Steps 28 for alI equations of type (a) that are embedded in (& 1): this results in all matrices P that satisfy (6. Determine all minimal solutions of the reduced equation (b) by Procedure 2: this results in 'S (Q le). 4 where a (Rik r.k) rt Tr krk t otherwise. then the equation has no solution: S ( D. Permute elements of r' and the corresponding columns of 42' appropriately to arrange them in decreasing order. r) by zeros that were excluded in Step 5. otherwise. then the equation has no solution: S(Q. 3. Determine sets E for all k E 1C and form *I f ] rainVii J ( lj) =k6. For each fii 0 and rft = 0. Extend all solutions in S(Q. = U[P1 te where the union is taken over all #i e JOT.1'. Jk(1)1 ).Sec. Procedure 2 1. 4. 8. proceed to Step 3. r) 0 and the procedure terminates.
. R). Proof. R are matrix where denotes the supi composition. Chap. we to show that ft E S(Q. For each 13 by taking E J ( ) . otherwise. generate the tuple g(0)= fgi(P)ii gi a3) =t0 f rnaxr. As in Sec. 6 4. From all tuples g(13) generated in Step 4. R) (i. (6. The matrix equation (6. R). procedure for determining the maximum solution of (6. if Ka3. and X x 2. By (5.13) is to be determined. then P (Q 1!.13) provided that the equation is solvable at all. qa) = r ii 4 for all j E N. Let P LP/kb = [qki] . respectively. R NIL (6. 6. analogous to (6.27). . based upon a tnann representations of fuzzy relations on X x Y.)'` R1.13) and P.. F x Z.of Theorem 5. select only the minimal ones: this results in 6..4. Theorem 6.Assume that Pf have It remains E S(Q. ly Q C (Q R1 ) 1 = P.14) • where j E N„ k of the form E Ni. R) incpnbcr of S(Q. has the form P 4 Q R.. 0 for (6.e. 0. we assume that Q and R are given and P that satisfies (6.. = Q = RI denote the corresponding solution set. Let S(Q. and 1 E N.13) represents the set of equations 5aZi(Pik . If S(Q.13). Let T (Q = Q.1. Q.4 FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS BASED ON SUPi COMPOSITIONS A matrix formulation of this kind of fuzzy relation equations. The following theorem provides us with a. j) 5.162 IC (13. and 1 E N. j) {k Fuzzy Relation Equations j). where i is a continuous tnorm.1.)1 is the greatest .1).k € Ka3.
Sec. (6.6 1 . 6.12 . and let . we have (P iJ P2 ) g S(Q.9 . P c S(Q. we have P 4 Q R.6 .6 Li 1 ...9 [ 1 . Then. that is 1'' 4 S(Q.18 . and R [ .27] (= Q ‘=4. simple: S(Q.3 [ 1. .2 (.4 il # is the greatest solution of Q . R). [ .27 • R).18 . (P1 Li P2) Q = (P1 Q) 1. Let P1.13) be the product..1 .6 .. proofi (i) since R — rbi Q c p Q Q R.4 . i Q = R. R).J (P2 if: Q) = R U R R.9 .6 . where U denotes the standard fuzzy union. consequently. R) 0 0 (i.9 .15) Let the tnorrn j employed in (6. (6. r ii :1 2 8 L. T=15 QDP1 IQ= R and. consequently..4 1 . X Theorem 6_1 can be utilized for testins whether (6. (i) C P c P2 implies that P e 5(Q. _27 Then.9 Since 1 . we 0I (0 '2: R1)C R1' and. by (5.13) has a solution) if (Q 1' R 1) 1 Emunple 6.2. Theorem 6. P2 E (ii) P1 U P2 E $(0.3 The test is very = . hence. T C R. On the other hand. R). W I ) .e. R). .17).1 1 • .4 Fuzzy Relation Equations Based on have Supi Compositions 163 By (5.33) of Theorem 5.3.12 Q= [ .7.6 .2 .[ J.13) has a Aolation.9 1 . (ii) Since.
but no method is currently known by which all minimal elements of . • It follows directly from Theorem 6.5 FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS BASED ON INFw i COMPOSITIONS Equatiuns of this kind are expressed by the matrix form PQ = R . 0 _1 ) cgi (R. R).13) has been developed as yet. R Q'= (P Q 1 P.4. (6.6 :8 j 9 Since . R). 6 Unfortunately. i Q =R and. employing the method described in Sec.4 Let the tnorm i employed in (6.S(Q.3 that (6. 6. let S(Q. R) 0. The maximum element of the solution set is given by the following theorem. P Q = Ft and.16) for P. we can find minimal solutions for some particular equations.Jations Chap. Example 6. R).9 Then. However. R have w the same meaning as in Sec. R) could be determined.3.1 .we have that 11 S(Q. Given Q and R.35) of Theorem 5.non n and P. no general method for obtaining all minimal solutions of (6.11 .6 and R [ .3.1. 6.6 and (5.6) be the product. 6. we have R (R cg' Q 1) Q P Q R.7. then fb R Q. . R) denote the solution set of (6.. by Theorem 5. Q. '03 (646) where t' denotes the infcol compositio i based upon a continuous r. Proe AsAurne If 5(0.7.S(Q.17) fis the greatest element of .164 Fuzzy Relation Ecii.16) has a solution for P if it. Then. and let . by (6. . Hence.30 of Theorem 5. by (5.L is the greatest member of 5 (0.17) Moreover. Theorem 6.8 .
16) has a solution for Q if P (PI .26 1 . the previous problem Since (P Q) 1 (determine P for given Q and R) cannot be directly converted to the problem in which p and R are given and Q is to be determined. P2 E R). P1 R P1 (P Q) c Q.4 that (6.7. we have If S (P . the standard fuzzy union (max) and intersection (min): L if 1)1.5 .. R). if Q1.6 A .1 . 0 is the smallest element of S(P. R).4 . . when Li and ri dcuotc.33) of Theorem 5.4. Moreover. .9 = { .5 .9 and R = . by (5. Then. no method is known for determining all maximal elements of S (P . 8. R) of (6.9 ° .R). then P1 U P2 E 5(Q.18). Hence.Assume that Q E S(P.16). then Q Q e S (P . thcn P E S(Q. R). Denoting the solution set of the latter problem by S(P.7.8 . 25 1 1 Then.9 fi I. 2* if r1. the (unique) minimum element of this solution set is given by the following theorem. P Q R and. R) and S(P. R).5 [ . R).5 Fuzz Relation Equations eased on I fl fwr Composltians 16.5 Let again the t norm I in (6. [ . R). R).nd P1 3.16) for the. R) a. Unfortunately. given Q and R Q1 P1 for the info). composition. 4. R). It is easy to verify the following properties of the solution sets S(Q.. which is a counterpart of Theorem 6. if Example 6.16) be the product. then E R). and let  p { . we have (6.2 .9 i [ . r2 e 5(Q. 6.18) R P(P' R) P aeti Q = R. Proof. R) R. Qz E S(P. then 4::1 = P1 R is the smallest member of S (F. P P2. R) 0. 3 .5 9 A . Theorem.9 R Q1) is the maximum solution of (6. and R) antl e ith. It follows directly from Theorem 6. by Theorem 5.Sec. by (6.6 and (534) of Theorem 5. P = R and. respectively.
21) Q" R". have no solutions for P. it is important to consider the notion of approximate solutions. and 1r such that Q C Q" C CY.2 .1 .19) if the following requirements are satisfied: 1. [ : 225 1 :45 9 (_=.20) has a solution It is reasonable to view any solution of (6. we may slightly modify Q and R into Q. by Theorem 6. 6. where is the algebraic product. Requirement I means that we pursue the approximate solution of (6./ and respectively. A flUZZY relation 15 is called an approximate solution of (6.6 APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS It is quite common that fuzzy relation equations of the general form P Q R. such that the equation P' 4 Q = (6.225 . Given (6.19) that has no solution for P.21) are the closest relations to Q and R. 2.5 .25 1 9 [ . .19).5 9 .6 .essential in some applications. if there exist PH. Definition 6. making Q larger and R smaller. .2 I.19) in which Q and R are given. [ .20) as an approximate solution of (6.1.166 R— Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap.6 Consider the ciluation . 1: II) is the minimum solution of (6.' and Ir satisfy the requirements specified in the following definition. Pr' then Q" = Q and R" (6. Then. there exist Qi D Q and W R such that 15 4 Q' Ri .49 [ . (6.9.19) provided that Q.2 1 25 :5 Since 49. Q". Example 6. Since a solution is . 6 L . le C R" C 11..1.16) for the given P and R.25 1. for which a solution exists.4 9 . respectively.1 { . requirement 2 means that tar and Ir in (6.
1 75.4p2) = r2 .6 :51 .c (0.3. Then.. then Q" [ .1. If there is Q' such that Q C Q" C and there exists a solution for F".6 f.5 . This implies that. and the equation •1 •3 .3 . These equations can be satisfied only when r1 . Furthezzuore. 6. . (0 a: [1.4.3 .4. Assume that there exists R" such that R c R" C R.6 []] 1 R since . .3p t .1.1 .4 •< q22 . . 1.01 ]. .6]. =.6 Approximate Solutions f) 4[ L and. Then.' To pursue approximate solutions of the equation. q = .2 and r2 :5 .6. 11' = 11'.5 .6] to R. 5j. [q. [1 1] is an approximate solution of the original cluation. we can easily see that [a 11 for any a .4 has a solution for r. . 6. 1j is also an approximate solution of the equation.2.] and r IL I r . That means that IC Ç R" and..1 .2p2) max(.2 .6 ]. . R=[. This weans that +711 = ..1 is a solution of the equation [ .1pt . (p l p21 and R" = [ri F21. since '1 . hence.2 . Let us pursue now approximate solutions of the given equation by increasing Q to where P" = Then.1. by Def. apprortmate solutions are not unique. . The previous equation now has the form [PI p2 Jo q21 q3 _ 22 [ •61 which represents the simple equations . let us reduce [.2 _41.Sec. and qz? E 1.5 _6 [ { 1 iJ r 1. That is.4 I .1 11 . qn Let 11" [pit p2 ] and Q" .5.max(. and qu..4 2 '3 { 11J [ :2 3 1 4 1 167 =[ 1 11 [ 1 the equation has no solution. Then.421 e [. (Qog and 11 1.
1 is the greatest element in 5(0.1. hence. 6.6. The following theorem guarantees that approximate solutions of (6. Q R" I Q = Q [Q1 (Q R1 )1 2 Q R.33) of Theorem 5. it does not give us any iudkation of ilyw good .7 that Proof: First. by Theorem 6.5 and i122 27. 6. Ri (Q Q.1.) . Then. qm p. (Q th R1 ) 1 . Since It C R" c R. but also the modified relations Q' and Ft that facilitate the approximate solutions are not unique.19) always exist Theorem 6. .r fp by Theorem 5. It remains to show that "P' is the greatest approximate solution of (6. cirzt p2 equation.6 that not only are approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations (in the sense of Def. 171 (2' = R. of Def.5 provides us with a method fox obtaining the greatest approximate solution of (6. Then. there exist Ol and It such that la' D Q.'.R"). Thus. moreover. P satisfies requirements I and 2 of De 6. We . consequently. 6. Assume now that there exist r and R" such that Ir c R" c R and r 4 Q = R". Q" Q' Again. (0 t' R" 1 ) 1 Q = R".la approximation it is. clearly. Q" and. It follows from (5. and R. 6 . moreover. =Q Er' and.5. therefore. that is. Q R1 c Q We may now conclude that Q = (Q 1. Q Therefore.1 pi. we need to verify that = [Q1 (Q R1 )]1 s = R. Assume that P' is another approximate solution.19). which by Theorem 6. ifr C (Q' It1) 1 . by Def.6.max(p Chap. R"). S(Q. Hence. c R." R"1 ) 1 Q = (Q R1)1 Q Thus. Then (Q R"1 )1. which implies that q21 > . requirement I. we have Q and.6. 5. we also have to show that Et D R. 1 c 5''' P. We can see from Example 6.168 Fuzzy Reiation Equations max(.1. requirement 2 of Def_ 6_1 is verified.5 and qp2= . c Q R".1 is satisfied.'. i . Let QJ = Q. q2iP2) = . Hence.6. • Although Theorem 6. IS (Q ti R1)1 is the greatest approximate solution of (6_19).19).1) not unique. However. P is an approximata solution of the original Clearly.' Ç Q et' R1 .
6 Approximate Solutions 169 need a suitable index to characterize how well given fuzzy relation equations are approximated by a calculated approximate solution. analogous to II. coi[(B(x). this definition is applicable only when X is finite. cri and rie g AN Ail (monotonicity). is = lA n B rA1 (6. IN [IA= (c) if CCBC A. [IA = C and IIC = Bli IIC = Al] (monotordrit» _ Th.24) is applied to the definition of FIA B II given by (622). When 11A C BIl defined by (6. A(x)]) xer zed' inf min(coi [A (x). E Although. let IA = B II be cand an equaliiy indeT. we need to measurt. for any acceptable definition of 11A Moreover. (6. Let 1102 11 denote the degree of truth of a fuzzy propositinn P (see Chapter 8) Then. . if C C B.24). It seems essential. He ever. these conditions are necessary for an acceptable definition of ILA C B II. we prefer to use the definition . iff A Ç B (boundary condition).22) from (6. (6.3. 11A g 8 11 E [0. substituting to (6. we obtain IIA Bu i = min(inf coi[A(x). it is easy to verify that IIA = B i tisfies the following properties. To formulate such an index. that is. they are not sufficient to determine it uniquely. which may be viewed as a reasonable measure of the degree to which the two sets are equal.`.23) satisfies the three conditions.Sec. we have to determine the meaning of IIA c B I! and 11A D B Ii first. B(x)1. for any given fuzzy sets A and B on the saine universal set X. on intuitive grounds.. then 11A = Bli ?. that [FA c B I! must satisfy at least the following nndi tions: 1. ou intuitive grounds. This index. inf cei [B(x). and n denotes the standard fuzzy intersection.24) which also satisfies the three conditions and is applicable to infinite sets as well. 11A c 811 1 ifE A(x) B(x) for all x . 1] (range).23) 1 where IA n B1and 1AI denote the sigma counts (scalar cardirialities) of the respective fuzzy sets. to utilize this formula. Hence. the extent to which two given fuzzy sets are regarded as equal. It is easy to verify' that 11A Ç Bil defined by (6. in a justifiable way. then riA g Bn X.: required conditions 13 for HA B I: (a) 11A B E 10.e 114 g B =. 1] (desirable range) 2. = 1 iff A B (boundary value). (x)]. . 6.ese properties are essential. which is often used in the literature.InltzifrA(x). A(x)1).One possible definition of 11A c BO. should be determined (in analogy with crisp sets) by the formula (6_22) A g Rik 11A = II A = BIDHowever.8 (x)].25) .
27) . from condition 3 of II A C B II. the goodness of lv is expressed in terms of the degree of equality of the lefthand side of (6. called a solvability index. • Let us introduce another useful index.22) and (6. tv c and. consequently. (6.19). we have to show that a(r) < G(15) for any approximate solution Iv of (6. Then. Q2 Q 2 n 11 R. (626) where P' Q and R are matrix representations of fuzzy relations on X x Z . That is. ° Q 2 WI. According to G (PI. The fuzzy relation P = (Q R1 ) 1 is the best approximation (in terms of the goodness index G defined by (6. a meaningful goodness index of P'.19).6. Assuming that Pi is an approximate solution of (6. Furthermore. 6 Let IIA = B II given by this equation he called an equality index.26)) of fuzzy relation equations (6. Hence. Assume now that is any approximate solution of (6.19). HP G(i) = I Q Rli =1.5 P' IQcfs It follows.19). G(P) = I if P' is an exact solution of (6. which characterizes the ease in solving fuzzy relation equations of the general form (6. Theorem 6.19).19). Q R.5). that HO Renee. then. when 13/ is employed in the composition.170 Fu=y Robtion Equation* Chap. Q Rfl Q RID = G(Pe).19). is defined by the equation G ( Y) = = R11. 13. and its righthand side. G059 = iÎ Q 2 Rif L. if Q C R (see the proof of Theorem 6. ft in ohvions that the index may have different values for different tnorms The equality index plays a key role in measuring the goodness of approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations. by Theorem 6.19). Employing the goodness index defined by (6. By (6. we have G(1=lLf Q = RII = Since 1 5 QRIlL1 Q 2 R11).26) the following theorem shows that the greatest approximate solution P is the best approximation of (6. Proof: To prove this theorem. G(1)). the better Pi approximates (6. The solvability index.26).19). the greater the equality degree. is defined by the formula = sup UP ?X Y) Q = Rh).
zeZ xex The inequality (6. When 3 1.. a lot of research is needed to develop its full potential. They provide us with a rich framework within which many problems emerging from practical applications of the theory can be formulated. Q)(x.28) then follows immediately from the definition of S.x . z).d. sup Q (y z)). These problems can then be solved by solving the corresponding fuzzy relation equations.le in fuzzy set theory.7 THE USE OF NEURAL NETWORKS Fuzzy relation equations play a fundamental rc.28) Proof: For all P g. z). (6. the given equations have no exact solution.Sec. jiff x. z). sup Q(y. the inverse implication is still an open question. ki. The smaller the value of S. then 6 = 1. if (6. and we want to E N. the possibility of using neural networks (see Appendix A) for solving fuzzy relation equations has lately been explored. Q)(x. Our aim in this section is rather modest: to illustrate the way in which fuzzy relation equations can be represented by neural networks. While the feasibility of this approach has already been established. the more difficult it is to solve the equatio ns approximately.Exr 3. JJP Q = = < IIR P itZ xeX EZ QRJjBçP OD Q11 1. To overcome this difficulty.51' (6.27 ) . 6.19) defined by (6. Our discussion is restricted to the form P. sup Q(y. Moreover. (1 .(X x Y). We assume that relations Q and R . z)] = tuf inf ce. 'theorem 6. That is G(P) is the lower bound of 3. 41 .7.01. [R(x. Let 6 be the solvability index of (6.zz zer Ye yeT = inf (Di [sup R(x . where where n is the maxproduct composition. j E NuT .7 The Use of Neural Networks_ 171 It is obvious that 6 E [O.Q=R. k E N.29) [ra]. . 2)1 inf lof coi [R(. It follows directly from the definition of 8 and from property (c) of the equality index that 3 > G(P). z). Let P . 1].19) is solvable exactly. Unfortunately. This groat utility of fuzzy relation equations is somewhat hampered by the rather high computational demands of all known solution methods. its upper bound is stated by the following theorem. 'then 8 < z2 (of (sup R (x . < tuf inf wi [R(. z). Q are given.x. • 6.
The solution is then expressed by the weights W as wit W21. First. The structure of neural networks b. the activation function employed by the neurons is not the sigrnoid function.sext fen solving avay relatiNa ecrusdous.3). Given (6. k Ns). we assume no biases. the output yi of neuron j is defined by f (max Mix') Jerif„„ E NO. as in Appendix A. j E Dim ). Observe that. we do not employ the extra input x0 by which biases of individual neurons are defined. 1] if a 1. we can use a feedforward neural network with m inputs and only one layer with n neurons.31) Second. (6. For our purilose. Applying this training set to the learning algorithm described in Appendix A.„ k G N5 . 6. .29) represents the set of equations MIX f /Ex. contrary to the analogous onelayer neural network discussed in Appendix A (Fig.30) for pii (i c KT . we obtain a solution to (629) when the error function reaches 0.. 6 determine P_ Equation (6.30) for all i E l'i. To solve (6.2. (6. shown in Fig. A.29). called linear activation function f defined for all a E IFE by f(a) = /0 a t ifa0 ' if a E [0.2 ON oN. • • Wt2 W22 Wra2 Witt W2n r Figure 6.172 Furry Relation Equations Chap. the training set consists of columns cu of matrix Q as inputs (x = qf k for each j N„„ k G NO and columns rk of matrix R as expected outputs = rik for each ' e N. There are two deviations of the neural network considered here other than the one introduced in Appendix A. but the so.
P [ .6 was introduced by Gothvald [1985].1324 . this unorthodox way of Solving fuzzy relation equations is n.1) wa s originaly proposed by Wu L1986].2. and Miya_koshi and Shimho [1985 1 .3. 2.1 To illustrate the described procedure. . 6. 6 3 . The training set consists of only one input (.. The method for solving fuzzy relation equations described in Sec.12. This training pair is applied to the learning algorithm. the error function docs not reach Zen). but it seems to have great potential. . repeatedly until the error function reaches zero. Example 6. GeneratizatientS to L fuzzy relations were explored by numerous authors. In this case. .3.32) foralU €N. kt us consider the same fuzzy relation equation as in Example 6. The final weights are shown in Fig. 6.1. The notion of fizzsy relation equations based upon the maxmin composition was first propio3ad and investigated by Sanchez [19761 A comprehensive coverage of fuzzy relation equations is in a book by Di Nola et al.4 .3.404 .2 . 11989]. the cost function reached zero after 109 cycles. They were further pursued by Wu [1986]. Sanchez [1984b ].2513 .Chap. The way in which we define approximate solutions (Def_ 5. We form a neural network with three inputs and three neurons in the output layer. any set of weights for which the error function reaches its minimum is not necessarily an approximate solution of (6_29) in the sense defined in Sec_ 6_6. all theorems by which the method is justified can be found in this paper_ Fuzzy relation equations for other types of composition were studied by Pedrycz [198313].ot fully developed as yet.2925 _5636 .18 27 . . [19847 19891 Investigations of this topic were initiated by Pedrycz [1983c].6 . and Sessa [198 4] . 6. Existing methods for obtaining approximate solutions of fuzzy relation equations are reviewed by Di Nola et al.1.2647 . Di Nola and Sessa [1983]. That is [ .12 . Gottwald and Pedrycz (19861.3 is based on the paper by Higashi and Klir [198411. 6.1 P* . 6 Notes Pii = 173 (6. and Pedrycz [1988 ]. In our experiment. the solution is . for example. NOTES 6.3 = . The speed of convergence depends on the choice of initial values of the weights and on the chosen learning rate. Hence.9 Observe that this so)ution is not the maximum solution obtained in Example 6. and Wang L1993b1.j EN. AS already mentioned.29) has no solution.3) and one expected output (. Solving fuzzy relation equations by neural networks was proposed by Fedrycz [1991b]. The solvability index employed in See.18_27). When (6.
174 Fuzzy Relation Equations Chap..2925 OS ON ON2 ON3 Y2 y3 (b) Figure 6. 0.2513.6 0.2647 0.4 0. 6 Y2 (a) 0. (a) neural network with initial welght% (a) mural network representing a solutiOn.1324 x2 X3 0.3 alustraduu ExampIe 6.404 0 5636 0. ..7.
6 0 . . prove the preposition: if there is a common solution for both equations.9 .7 1 = .2 1 . If it bas.4 .2.8 0 .4 0 .1 0 ri = [ •6 0 1 .4 . then (Q R 1) n Q 1 ) is the greatest solution for both equations. (a) p.7 0 3 . Determine if each of the following fuzzy relation equations has a solution.2 Determine if the above equation has a solution for ï = min./ .6 ( 3) .2 .4 1 0 .5 :7 .3 1 .7 .5 0 .3.4. Solve the following fuzzy relation equations for the maxmin composition.6 . where Cl stands for the standard fuzzy intersection.9 .2 j (d) P.6 4 .6 _5 . product.5 .8 .4 . respectively. respectively.4 .7 .3 .3 .1 .9 .2 . find the maximum or minimum solution.4 .8 . .5 o . where 17 and Q are the standard fuzzy complements of R and Q.1. Given two fuzzy relation equations P Q=R P 1 on a finite universal set with a continuous tnorm i.3 .3 .6 .1 1 . 2 [ • • s• .4 .8 .2 6.3 .7 .8 .3 1 .5 .4 G .4 .8 0 0 .5 . and bounded difference.4 . . respectively. and hounded difference.4 . 6.2 . (c) P' [ .Chap.6 .• .2 0 1 .0 6 .5 . 6 Exercises 175 EXERCISES 6.3 .2 . .5 .5 .6 . product. 6. Let i he the min.1 . Let I be a tnorm in the equation P .
5 [. Let I be the min.2 .5.176 Fuzzy Relation Equations _Chap. .2 .7] . 6 (b) 6.6 . express the goodness of the solution obtained.8 Q [ . (13) .by the goodness index. P (a) . product.2 .4 .3 .6 [ .26). Also try to find approximate solutions other than the maximum solutions and compare them. respectively. 81 • Using the goodnesz index (6. and bounded difference. Find an approximate solution for each of the following fuzzy relation equations: L.
it will allow us to explicate differences between fuzzy set theory and probability theory. assigns a value to each crisp set of the universal set. Note how this method differs from the assignment of membership grades in fuzzy sets. Consider. which is now well developed Mang and Kir. a value is assigned to each element of the universal set. This value would indicate the degree of evidence or certainty of the element's membership in the set. In order to represent this type of uncertainty. therefore. the concept will provide us with a broad framework within which it is convenient to introduce and examine possibility theory. a theory that is closely connected with fuzzy set theory and plays an important role in some of its applications. if ever. is not with the degreeto which the defendant is guilty. () is a function e of subsets of X. on the other hand. the set of people who are guilty of the crime and the set of innocent people are assumed to have very distinct boundaries. perfect. a 177 . is rarely. The uncertainty in this situation seems to be of a different type. 1992]. the jury members for a criminal trial who are uncertain about the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The concern. Given a universal set X and a nonempty family fizzy measure on (X. but with the degree to which the evidence proves his membership in either the crisp set of guilty people or the crisp set of innocent people. we could assign a. However. We assume that perfect evidence would point to full membership in one and only one of these sets. is uot of primary interest in this text.1. First. Definition 7. In the latter case.PossiBILITY THEORY 7 1 FUZZY MEASURES The fuzzy set provides us with an intuitively pleasing method of representing one fOrtti of uncertainty. Fuzzy measure theory. our evidence. However. signifying the degree of evidence or belief that a particular element belongs in the set. and some uncertainty usually prevails. however. we need to introduce the concept of a fuzzy measure for at least two reasons. value to each possible crisp sot to which the element in question might belong. Second. The fuzzy measure. Such a representation of uncertainty is known as afu=y measure. signifying its degree of membership in a particular set with unsharp boundaries.
The boundary requirements (gI) state that. either as the limit of g(Ai) for i oc of by application of the function g to the limit of Ai for i oc. but it cannot be smaller. The empty set. we always know that the element in question definitely does not belong to the empty set and definitely does belong to the universal set. if flAg.). That is. Three additional remarks regarding this definition are needed.70. Jim g(Ai) = g Y02 ( ) (continuity from below). of nested (monotonic) subsets of X which converge to the set A. then our degree of certainty that it belongs to a larger set containing the former set can be greater or equal. then C. does not contain any element. Requirement (g2) states that the evidence of the membership of an el enaent in a set must be at least as great as the evidence that the element belongs to any subset of that set. consists of the full power set T(. the universal set.178 Possibility Theory Chap. First. if A c 13.1=1. (g2). it must contain our element as well. 47 algebras. Requirements (g3) and (WO may also be viewed as requirements of consistency: calculation of g(A) in two different ways. if UA i E then e. must converge to the number g(A). where A = u A i for increasing sequences and A = n A i for decreasing sequences. 7 g : e > [0. they are either continuous from below (satisfy (g3)) or COtainuOus from above  e . Requirements (g3) and (g4) are dearly applicable only to an infinite universal set. Indeed. and either (g3) or (A are equally important in fuzzy measure theory as functions that satisfy all four requirements (g1)(g4). 00 the sequence of numbers g(A / ). (boundary requirements). B E e. therefore. functions that satisfy (g1). They can therefore be disregarded when the universal set is finite. etc. (g2) for all A. is required to yield the same value. g is required to be a continuous fiinction. that satisfies the following requirements: (g1) g(0) = 0 and g(X) = I. In some cases.. A. The requirements state that for every itirlite sequence A t . (g3) for any increasing sequence A 1 c A2 c. on the other hand. sernirings. ilrn g(Ai) = g irco . A2. (g4) for any decreasing sequence A t D A2 in C. These functions are called senticontinuous fizzy measures. by definition. (n (continuity from above). then g(A) g(B) (monotonicity). hence.. when we know with some degree of certainty that the element belongs to a set. either. Fuzzy measures are usually defined on families C that satisfy appropriate properties (rings. contains all elements undef Consideration in each particular context. e. regardless of our evidence. g(A 2). it cannot contain the element of our interest.
Sec. 7.1
Fuzzy Measures
179
Second, it is sometimes needed to generalize fuzzy measures by extending of function g from [0, 1] to the set of normegative real numbers and by excluding the range the second boundary requirement, g(X) =1. These generalizations are not desirable for our purpose. Third, we can easily see that fuzzy measures, as defined here, are generalizations of probability measures or, when conceived in the broader sense, generalizations of classical measures. In either case, the generalization is obtained by replacing the additivity requirement with the weaker requirements of monotonicity and continuity or, at least, semincontinuity. The number g(A) assigned ta a set A E e. by a fuzzy measure g signifies the total available evidence that a given element of X, whose characterization is deficient in some respect, belongs to A. The set in C to which we assign the highest value represents our best guess concerning the particular element in question. For instance, suppose we are trying to diagnose an ill patient. In simplified terms, we may be trying to determine whether this patient belongs to the set of people with, say, pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, or R common cold. A physical examination may provide us with helpful yet inconclusive evidence_ For example, we might assign a high value, say 0.75, to our best guess, bronchitis, and a lower value to the other possibilities, such as 0.45 for the set consisting of pneumonia and emphysema and 0 for a common. cold. These values reflect the degrees to which the patient's symptoms provide evidence for the individual diseases or sets of diseases; their

(satisfy (g4)).
collection constitutes a fuzzy measure representing the uncertainty associated with several
welldefined alternatives. It is important to realize that this type of uncertainty, which results from information deficiency, is fundamentally different from fuzziness, which results from the lack of sharp boundaries. The difference between these two types of uncertainty is also exhibited in the context of scientific observation or measurement. Observing attributes such as "a type of cloud formation" in meteorology, "a characteristic posture of an animal" in ethology, or "a degree of defect of a nee in forestry clearly involves situations in which it is nut practical to draw sharp boundaries; such observations or measurements are inherently fuzzy and, consequently, their connection with the concept of the fu=lif set is suggestive. In most measurements in physics, on the other hand, such as the measurement of length, weight, electric current, or light intensity, we define classes with sharp boundaries. Given a measurement range, usually represented by an interval of real numbers [a, b]. we partition this interval into n disjoint subintervals [a, a L ), [al, a2), fizz, ai),
bl
according to the desired (or feasible) accuracy. Then, theoretically, each observed magnitude fits exactly into one of the intervals In practice, however, this would be warranted only if no observational errors were involved_ Since measurement errors are unavoidable in principle, each observation that coincides with or is in close proximity to one of the , a,i between two neighboring intervals involves uncertainty regarding boundaries al, its membership in the two crisp intervals (crisp subsets of the set of real numbers). This uncertainty clearly has all the characteristics of a fuzzy measure. Since both AnB cA and AnB c B for any two sets A and B, it follows from the monotonicity of fuzzy measures that every fuzzy measure g satisfies the inequality
g(A n B) min[g(A), g(B)]
for any three sets A B, A n 1 I
(7.1)
e. similarly, since both A gAuB and BgAUB for any
180
Possibility Theory
Chap.. 7
two sets, the monntonicity of fuzzy m Ensures implies that every fuzzy measure g satisfies the inequality
g(A Li B)
max[g(A),
g(B)]
(7.2)
for any three sets A., B, AuB e e.
Since fuzzy measure theory is nul uf ini=rcst in this text., we restridi our further consideration in this chapter to only three of its special branches: evidence theory, possibility theory, and probability theory. Although out principal interest is in possibility theory and its
comparison with probability theory, evidence theory will allow us to examine and compare the two theories from a broader perspective. Before concluding this section, one additional remark should be made. Fuzzy measure theory, as well as any of its branches, may be combined with fuzzy set theory. That is, function g characterizing a fuzzy measure may be defined on fuzzy sets rather than crisp sets.
7.2
EVIDENCE THEORY
Evidence theory is based on two dual nonadditive measures: belief measures and plausibility measures. Given a universal set X, assume:1i here to he finite, a belief metzTure is a function
.Bel :
(X) 4 [0, 1]
such that
Bel
(0) = 0, Bel (X) =1, and
Bel
(A 1 L' A2 U
U A.) >
E Eci
j
(A i ) —
E
Bel (A )
r)
A.)
—
(1 )+1
n A2 n
(7.3)
for all possible families of subsets of X. Due to the inequality (7.3), belief measures are called superadditive. When X is infinite, function lEiel is also required to be continuous from
above.
For each A e P(/), Bel (A) is interpreted as the degree of belief (based on available a given element of X belongs to the set A. We may also view the subsets of X as answers to s psrtioutar question. We .as.qurrie that some of the answers are correct, Nit we do not know with full certainty which ones they are. When the sets A i , At, A„ in (7.3) are pairwise disjoint, the inequality requires that the degree of belief associated with the union of the sets is not smaller than the sum of the degrees of belief pertaining to the individual sets. This basic property of belief measures is thus a weaker version of the additivity property of probability measures. This implies that probability measures are special cases of belief measures for which the equality in (7_3) is always satisfied. We can easily show that (7.3) implies the monotonicity requirement (g2) of fuzzy measures. Let A C B(A, B T(X)) and letC=B—A. Then, AUC.B and A n C = 0. Applying now A and C to (7.3) for n = 2, we obtain
evidence) that
Bel (A IJ C)  Bel
(B)
Bel (A) ± Bel (C)
—
Bel (A
C).
Since A
ri C = Of and Bel (0) = 0, we have
Sec, 7.2
Evidence
Theory
Bel (B) › Bel (A) + Bei (C)
181
and, consequently, Bel (B ) Bei (A). Let A i = A and A2 = X in (7.3) for n = 2. Then, we can immediately derive the
following fundamental property of belief measures; Bel (A) + Bel (A) < 1.
(7.4)
equation
Associated with each belief measure is a plausibility measure, PI, defined by the Pl (A) = 1 — Bel (74.)
(7.5)
for all A
E 3, (1).
(7.6) Belief measures and plausibility measures are therefore mutually dual. Plausibility measures, however, can also be defined independent of belief measures. A plausibility measure is a function
.
Bel (A) = 1—
Pl : T(X)
[0, 1 ]
such that Pl (0) = 0, Pl (X) = 1, and
Pl (A I
n A z n n A n) <
E Pl (A i ) — j<k Pl (Ai U Ait)
(  1) +1 PI
(A I A2U
A„)
(77)
for a/I possible families of subsets of X. Due to (7.7), plausibility measures are called subadditive. When X is infinite, function PI is also required to be continuous from below_ Let n = 2, At = A, and A = Aill (7.7). Then, we immediately obtain the following
basic inequality of plausibility measures:
Pl (A)
+ PI (A) a 1.
(7.8)
Belief and plausibility measures can conveniently be characterizd by a function m P(X) such that m(0) = 0 and
E0, 1],
(7.9)
E
E
m(A) 1.
This function is called a bcz..ic: probability ci.ssignment. For each set A
Y(X), the value m (A) expresses the proportion to which all available and relevant evidence supports the claim that a particular element of X, whose characterization in terms of relevant attn`butes is deficient, belongs to the set A. This value, fri(A), pertains solely to one set, set A; it does not imply any additional claims regarding subsets of A. If there is some additional evidence supporting the claim that the element belongs to a subset of A, say B c A, it must be expressed by another value rn(B). Although (7.9) resembles a similar equation for probability distribution functions, there
182
Possibility Theory
Chap. 7
is a fundamental difference between probability distribution functions and basic probability assignments: the former are defined on X, while the latter are defined on 0)(X). Upon careful examination of the definition of the basic assignment, we observe the following: 1. it is not required that m (X) = 1; 2. it is not required that rn(A) < m(B) when A c B; and 3. no relationship between m(A) and m(71) is required. ft follows from these observations that the basic assignments are not fuzzy measures. However, given a basic assignment m, a belief measure and a plausibility measure are uniquely determined for all set A e 0) (X) by the formulas Bel (A) =
E
rrt(B),
(7.10)
(7.11)
AB CA
Pl (A)
E • nt(B).
3JAr a
The invetse procedure is also passible. Given, for example, a belief measure Bel, the corresponding basic probability assignment rn is determined for all A 53 (X) by the formula
/71(A)
=
E (_ 1) 14B I Bel (B).
(7.12)
Ilf4cek
If a plausibility measure is given, it can he converted to the associated belief measure by (7.6), and (7.12) is then applicable to make a conversion to function m. Hence, each of the three functions, in, Bel and Pl, is sufficient to detetmine the other two. The relationship between m(A) and' Bel (A), expressed by (7.10), has the following meaning: while m (A) characterizes the degree of evidence or belief that the element in question belongs to the set A alone (i.e,, exactly . to set A), Bel (A) represents the total evidence or belief that the element belongs to A as well as to the various special subsets of A. The plausibility measure Pl(A), as defined by (7.11), has a different meaning: it represents not only the total evidence or belief that the element in question belongs to set A or to any of its subsets, but also the additional evidence or belief associated with sets that overlap with A. Hence,
Pl (A) > Bel (A)
(7.13)
for all A E P(X). Every set A E T(X) for which in(A) > 0 is usually called a focal element of tn. As this name suggests, focal elements are subsets of X on which the available evidence focuses. When I is finite, in can be fully characterized by a list of its focal elements A with the corresponding values m(A). The pair ( .f, in), where and in denote a set of focal elements and the associated basic assignment, respectively, is often called a body of ePidence. Total ignorance is expressed in terms of the basic assignment by rn(X) = I. and in (A) = 0 for all A 0 X That is, we know that the element is in the universal set, but we have no evidence about its location in any subset of X. It follows from (7.10) that the expression of total ignorance in terms of the corresponding belief measure is exactly
Sec. 7.2
Evidence Theory
183
the same: Bel (X) 1 and Bel (A) = 0 for all A 0 X. However, the expression of total ignorance in terms ,of the associated plausibility measure (obtained from the belief memure by (7.5)) is quite different: P1(0) 0 and PI(A) . 1 for all A 0 0. This expression follows directly from (7.11).
Evidence obtained in the same context from two independent sources (for example, from two experts in the field of inquiry) and expressed by two basic assignments m 1 and in2 on some power set P(X) must be appropriately combined to obtain a joint basic assignment ln general, evidence can be combined in various ways, some of which may take into consideration the reliability of the sources and other relevant aspects. The standard way of combining evidence is expressed by the formula
Br)C=A
E
in1(8) • )212(c)
1111,201
1— K
(7.14)
for all A 0 , and mi.2(0) = 0, where
K= nrc0 Formula (7.14) is referred to as Dempster's rule of cmbination . According to this rule, the degree of evidence in 1 (B) from the first source that focuses on set B E 7(X) and the degree of evidence m2(C) from the second source that focuses on set C E T(X) are combined by taking the product m i (B) m2(C), which focuses on the intersection B li C. This is exactly the same way in which the joint probability distribution is calculated from two independent marginal distributions; consequently, it is justified on the same grounds. However, since sonic intersections of focal elements from the first and second source may result in the same set A, we must add the corresponding products to obtain m1.2(A). Moreover, some of the intersections may be.empty. Since it is required that m/40) = 0, the value K expressed by (7.15) is not included in the definition of the joint basic assignment m 1,2. This means that the sum of products mL(.151) • mz(C) for all focal elements B of m and all focal elements C of is equal to I — K. To obtain a normalized basic assignment in 1,2, as m2 such that B nC required (see (7,9)), we must divide each of these products by this factor 1 — K, as indicated in (7_14). Example 7.1 Ass111118 that an old pain ies was discovered which strongly resembles paintings by Raphael. Such a discovery is likely to generate various questions regarding the status of the painting. _Assume the following three ciucations:
1. Is the discovered painting a genuine Fainting by Raphael' 2. Is the discovered painting a product of one of Raphael's many disciples? 3. Is the discovered painting a counterfeit? ,nt(B) m2(C).
(7.1.5)
Let R. D, and C denote subsets of our universal set X—die set of all paintings —which contain the set of all paintings by Raphael, the set of all paintings by disciples of Raphael, and the set of all counterfeits of Raphael's paintings, respectively. A.ssumc now that two experts performed careful examinations of the painting and subsequently provided us wit basic assignments 77 1 and m z, specified in Table 7.1. These
184
Poezibility Theory
Chap. 7
are the degrees of evidence which each expert obtained by the examiloation and which support the various claims that the painting belongs to one of the sets of our concern . For example, rn z (R U D) = _15 is the degree of evidence obtained by the first expert that the painting was done by Raphael himself or that the painting was clOne by one of his disciples. Lsing (1.10), we can easily calculate the total evidence, Bel, and Be12 , in each set, as shown in Table 7 1 .

TABLE 7.1 COMBINATION OF DEGREES OF EVIDENCE FROM TWO INDEPENDENT SOURCES (EXAMPLE 7.1) Expert 1 Focal elements
rn 1 0 .015 .15 .1 .05 .6 13e1l gca ' el
k'l
Expert 2
ilta
Combined evidence
rrr1,2 .21 .01 .09 .12
Bela
.15 0 .05 .2. .4 .1 /
He11.2
.21 .01, .09 .34 .5 .16 1
.15 0 .05 .05 .2 .05 .5
Applying 1D el:1100.0es rule (7.14) to m k and m z, we obtain the joint basic assignment which is also shown in Table 7.1. To determine the values of mo, we calculate the mi,2, normalization factor 1  K first. Applying (7.15), we obtain
The normalization factor is then 1  K = .97. Values of m 1.2 are calculated by <7_14). For example,
t(R) . In 1,2 (R = Lint (R) • nzz(R) m (R) n12 (.L5Z D) i(Ru D) rit i (R) tri2(.R u D C)
) 
—
Ci D c4
.2
.06 31
rni (R) • rn r(D) + ral(R) m2(e) + m i (R) • rn,(D C) m i (D)•m 2 (R) m i (D)'m 2 (C) +,D) • frui (R C) frz i (C) on 2 (R) m i (C) gr2 (D)
rn i (C) D) m i (R D) • yn z (e) rn i (1? C) • m2(D) trz i (D C) ni2 (R)
.03.
1
(RUC)
• ni t (R U D) m 2(1? UC) + m1,2(D) = .21,
in L (1? U C) • m2 (R) i (R U C) ni2 (R U .0) + in i (R U D U C) 7n z (R)1/.97
[ni(D) • m 2 (D) + inl(D) • Piz(R U D) + mi(D) in 2(D C) ▪ Mi(D) • #12(1? D u C) m u D) m AD) (RU D) • m z (D U C) mi(J) C) • ni2(D)
▪mi
Pin1(D1..r
m2(R
D)
Pn i (R U D C)  rn z (D)11 .97
= 01,
Sec. 7,2
Evidence Theory
"n1,7(R t ) C) [m i (R (...) C) ' m(R LiC) +m 1 (R UC) • irg 2 (R Up
+ m i (R
= .2, nt1,2(1?
185 C)
D C) , m 2 (R C)]/.97
D u C) = [m i (R u D u C) • mi (R u D u C)1/,97
= .31,
and similarly for the remaining focal elements C, R U D, and D U C. The joint basic assignment can now be used to calculate the joint belief Bel i ,z (Table 7.1) and joint plausibility Pl t,2. Consider now a basic assignment m defined on the Cartesian product Z = X x Y; that is,
m 9(x x y)
[0, 1].
Each focal element of m is in this case, a binary relation R on X x Y. Let Rx denote the projection of R on X. Then,
Rx {x E XI (x y) E R fiDr some y Y}.
Ry
fy E Yl(x. y) E R for some x
X}
defines the projection, of R on Y. We can now define the projection mx of in on X by the
fornaula.
inx(A)=
E
RIA rR
m(R) for all A E P(1).
(7.16)
To calculate m1(A) according to this formula, we add the values of m(.1?) for all focal elements R whose projection on X is A. This is appropriate since ull the focal elements R whose projection on X is A are represented in mx by A. Similarly,
my(B)
E
RIBRy
m (R) for all B
Tim
(7.17)
defines the projecticrn of ni on Y. Let Mx and my be called marginal basic assignments, and let (9x, mx) and (Ty, my) be the associated marginal bodies of evidence. Two marginal bodies of evidence (Tx, pri 3O and (Ty, My) are said to be noninteractive iff for UA Tx and all B E g'y
m(A
B) = mx(A) my(B)
(7.18)
and
m(R) = 0
for all ROANR,
That is, two marginal bodies of evidence axe noninteractive ifi the only focal elements of the joint body of evidence arc Cartealari products of focal elements of the marginal bodies and if the joint basic assignment is determined by the product of the marginal basic assignments.
186
Possibility Theory Example 7.2
Chap. 7
Consider the body of evidence given in Table 7.2a. Focal elements are subsets of the Cartesian product X x Y, where X = 11. 2.3) and Y = (a. b. cl; they are defined in the table by their characteristic functions. To emphasize that each focal element is, in fact, a binary relation cm R12 . Employing (7.16) and (7.17), we obtain the marginal X x Y, they are labeled R1 , R2, . bodies of evidence shown in Table 7.2b, For example,
nix({2, 3 }) = ni(R1) nt (R2) ± m(R3) = .25,
mx(fl, 2 1) = m (R5) 1 rn (R$) PPI(Rii) = my ((a)) = P12 (11z) + m(R7) m (R3) ± in(R9)
25,
rny({a b, ci) = pn(R3)
M (Rio) + rn(R11) M(R12) = .5,
TABLE 7..2 JOINT ANC MARGINAL BOCES OE EVIDENCE: ILLUSTRATION OF (NDEPENDENCE (EXAMPLE 72)
(a) Joint body of evidence ixY
la lb le 2a 2b 2e 3a 31, 3e in (B r )
(b) Marginal bodies of evidence 1
X 2
3
m,(1)
II
ir
00 0 0 0 R3 .00 0 = &= 0 1 1 R= 0 1 1 RG = 0 1 1 R7 1 0 0 R4 . 1 0 0 R9  1 0 0
RI = IC% =
0
0
1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
Y)
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
0
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
RID = 1
.R1 1. = 1
R12= 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1 .062 5 0 0 .125 1 1 1 1 .0375 0 0.075 1 1 .015 0 0 .375 D0 .075 0 0 .075 1 .r. .075 0 0 .15 1 1 .15
A= 0 1
I. 101 110 111
i PI
ri
mx
TVO
abc
[0 ,
my (B)
B.
01 100 111
.25 .25
[0,1] T(y) 4 p,
and similarly for the remaining sets A and B. We can easily verify that the joint basic assignment in is uniquely determined la this case by the marginal basic assipments through (7.18). The marginal bodies of evidence are this noninreractive. For example,
m(Ri) = mx({2,
Observe, that 2 3) x ib, c) =( 212,
.
inv({b,
= .25 x 25 = .01525.
3b, 3c
24 Similarly,
in (R io) = m x ( ( 1, 3)) 
(la, b,
— .15 x .5
.075, •
where Rlo = [1, 31 x fa, b, cl
{ l a, lb, 1c, 3a, 3b, 3c),.
Sec_ 7.3
Possibility Theory
187
In addition to the basic probability assignment, belief measure, and plausibility measure,
it is also sometimes convenient to use the function
Q(A) =
E
m(B),
BIACH
which is called a commonality fiinction. For each A e T(/), the value Q (A) represents the total portion of belief that can move freely to every point of A. Each commonality function
defined on the power set of X is a unique representation of a body of evidence on the power
set All conversion formulas between in, Bel, Pl, and Q are given in Table 7.3.
TABLE 7.3
CONVERSION FORMULAS IN THE EVIDENCE 'THEORY
m ,
Bel Pl Q
...
m(A) = Bel (A) =
m (A )
E ( _ 1)1Asi B41.(B)
BS4
E (_ ipalp._ pi (TA
3SA
E ( _1) 1BAi Q(B)
4
2
E ni(B) acA.
De (4)
1—B el (7t) .
1
—
P1 (71)
gcA 11(A)
P1 (A) . .
E ;n (B )
BFLA.01
E (1)1lti0(B)
zr
..Fic:4.'
Q(A) . : :
E m(B)
Ago
E (—i)1si Bel (27)
Bcek
E (._ 1)161+1 pi (II)
12%.9i,P3 cA
Q(A)
Z3
POSSIBILITY THEORY
A special branch of evidence theory that deals only with bodies of evidence whose focal elements are nested is referred to as possib ility theory. Special counterparts of belief measures and plausibility measures in possibility theory are called necessity measures and posabilay measures, respectively. The requirement that focal elements be nested (also called consonant) restricts belief a.nd plausibility measures in a way that is characterized by the following theorem. Theorem 71. Let a given finite body of evidence (3', /n) be nested. Then, the associated belief and plausibility measures have the following properties for all A, B E (0 Bel (A fl B) = min [Bel (A), Bel (J3)1; (ii) Pl (A 013) = max [Bel (A), Bel (B)]. Proof: (i) Since the focal elements in a are nested, they may be linearly ordered by the subset relationship.. Let 7 = [A i , Az, , AO, and assume that Ai c Ai whenever i < j. Consider now arbitrary Subsets A and B of X. Lot it be the largest integer i such that A C A, and let i2 be the largest integer ï such that Ai CB. Then, Ai c A and Ai c B if AnB ifr I < minCi1, i2). Hence, i t and i < h, respectively. Moreover, A
188
min
Possibility Theory
Bel (A
Chap. 7
n a)
ni(A i) min[Em(A,), Ern (AF ) iL i=t min[ Bel (A), Bel (B)]. ti
E
.i 2 )
il
1
for
(ii) Assume that (i) holds. Then, by (7.5), Pl (A U B) = 1  Bel (A t.) ATT) = 1  Bel Bel (T1)] =. 1  minp3e1 raax[1  Bel (A), 1  Bel (w)] = maxr Pl (A), 131(B)] A, B T(X). U
Ti)
Let necessity measures and possibility measures be denoted by the symbols Nec and Pas, respectively. Then, Theorem 7.1 provides us directly with the following basic equations of possibility theory, which hold for every A, B
Nec (A n B) = minf Nec (A), Nec (B)], max[ Pos (A), POS. (B)]. Pos (A Li B)

(7.19)
(7.20)
When we compare these equations with the general properties (7.1) and (7.2) of fuzzy naeasums, we can see that Possibility theory is based on the extreme values of fuzzy measures with respect to set intersections and unions. From this point of view, necessity and possibility measures are souletimes defined axiomatically by (7.19) mid (7.20), and their underlying . nested structure can then be proven as a theorem in the theory_ This approach allows us to
define necessity and possibility measures for arbitrary universal sets, not necessarily finite. This general formulation of necessity and possibility measures is given by the following two
definitions.
Definition 7.2. rsecessily measure iff
Let Nec denote a fuzzy measure on (X, C). Then, Nec is called a
Nec inf Nec (AO (7.21)
(fri
Ak) EK
ke,K
for any family {Ilk lk E 1‘) in e such that
kez
n A E e, where K is an arbitrary index set.
Then, Pos is called a (7.22)
sup Pos (Aid
icK•
Definition 73 , Let Pos denote a fuzzy measure on (X, C). possibility measure iff
Pos
for any family Odic E K} in.
t Ak)
(k el< keK
C such that U Ak C C, where K is an arbitrary index set.
Since necessity measures are special belief measures and possibility measures are special plausibility measures, they satisfy (7.4)(7..6) and (7.8). Hence,
Sec. 7_3
Possibility Theory
180
Nec (A) ÷ Nec (71) 1, Pas (A) ÷ Pas (A) > 1,
Nec (A) = 1 — Fos (747). Furthermore, it follows immediately from (7.19) and (7.20) that
(7.23) (7.24) (7.25) (7.26) (7.27)
min[ Nec (A), Nec (.71.)1 = 0, max(Pos (A), Fos (..7) .1
L
In addition, possibility measures and necessity measures constrain each other in a strong way, as expressed by the following theorem. For every A E 3)(X), any necessity measure, Nec, on associated possibility measure, Pus, satisfy the following implications:
Theorem 7.2.
(X) and the
(1) Nec (A) 0 Pos (A) = 1; Nee (A) = O. (ii) Pos (A) ‹ 1
Proof: (i ) Let Nec (A) > 0 for some A E P(X). Then, Nec (71) = 0 by (7.26). and Pos (A) 1 — Nee (71.) = 1. (ii) Let Pus (A) <1 for some A E ,g). Then, Pos = 1 by (7.27), and Nee (A) 1 — Pos(A) O. •
Given a possibility measure Pus on T(x), let function r : I —› [0, I] such that ir (x) Pus ( (x]) for all .x E X be called a pa,ssibility distribution fiznacion associated with Pos. An important property of possibility theory is that every possibility measure is uniquely
represented by the associated possibility distribution function. For finite universal sets, the
property is formally expressed by the following theorem. Every possibility measure Pas on a finite power set Y(X) is uniquely determined by a po.ssibilily distribution function rX via the formula Pus (A) = max r (x)
X EA
Theorem 73.
[0, 1 ] (7.28)
for each A e ,(X). Proof: We prove the theorem by induction on the cardinality of set A. Let A = 1. Then, A = (x), where x c X, and (7.28) is trivially satisfied. Assume now that (7.28) is satisfied fur jA = n 1, and let A = [x i , , x„}. Then, by (7.20),
—
Pus (A) = max[Pos ((xi. x2, ... x1), Pus (fx,a)] = m_ax[max[Pos ((xi)), Pos (42)),   , Pus (ixnti)], Ps *On =. max (Fos ((xi », Pas (( r21). Pos ((x„))1 = max_ r (x).
•
we define _< 2y if r <4 for all i E N. m(A) = 0 for each E m(Ai) = 1. • • • . as . . (7. jrz). • .28) must be rep/aced with the more general equation Pos (A) =. E nY. respectively. 2r2. . jrz). rn).. is partial and forms a lattice whose join. ilszsaum. For each n E N..29) Let us now introduce a curivenimu nutation applicable to finite universal set. zrn) E for some n E N. and let ?. That is. Then. is called a possibility distribution associated with the function r_ The number of components in a possibility distribution is called its length.. A. x eA (7. x2 . . the ntupie r = (r1. 1 This ordering on 'R. where ri r (xi ) for all xi G X. let ('R. without any loss of generality.. (7.max(r7s. = ( 1 71.190 Possibility Theory Chap. I E NIT as illustrated in Fig.2 = U m R • n Given two possibility distributions. V and meet. Let jr denote the set of all ordered possibility distributions of length n. xi ). • • jrn» for all ir. fr of length n. A A. irri)) and r A ir = (minCrt. that the focal elements are some or an of the subsets in the complete sequence of nested subsets where Ai = fx1 . are defined. Assume that a possibility distribution function r is defined on the universal set X = tx x2. This requixes (by the definition of possibility measures) Una all focal elements be nested.} and assume that a possibility measure Pos defined on 3' (X) fri terms of its basic assignment m.1a.(i E N) and AL c A2 C C An(= X). r2. • . r \. sup r (x). It is convenient to order possibility distribution in such a way that rE > rj when i < j. ‹) be called a lattice of possibilily distributions Consider again X ={X j .2 and 2r = (27%. 7./ ir = (max(frii 41). x. 7 When X is not finite. 17. max('r2.30) . min(r2.
ssibility measure defined on 7.3 r(x4) Pi . • • • xx): (a) (=plate serapenee of nested subsets of X: (h) 2 poss. 7.ibility raeasum defined on X.2 .3 (b) A Po.1 Nested focal elements of possibUity measure on Y(X).Sec. zz.3 Passibility Theory 191 m(A 3 ) m( A m(A i ) ) m(A4 ) m(A) Pi r(xn )= 03) P 3 (a} Complete sequence or nested subsets of X rrt(A2)= m( A7 ) . where X = (xi.2 r(x) p i =1 11X2) P2 3 1'0E6) 00 =Pi = . aware .
Given r r„ E N. Hence.32) and (7..r i p and thus obtain a set of equations r i = Fl (p) = E in (AO = Ernk.5 M for some n e N.32) with calo equation for calch I N. and vice versa. 11 for all j E N. Let "M.31) i=1 and nri E [0.1b.33) define a oneto M between possibility distributions and the underlying basic distributions. r 1 (m) r iff (7. Equations (7. we obtain (7. it follows from (7. Let m be called a basic distributinn. It follows from the previous discussion that every possibility measure on a finite tinivefsal . where mi = (Ai) for all i E 1'1.) for some finite N . .set Call be uniquely characterized by the ig niple  ai tn. Solving these equations for mi (i for all L E lkin . First. that m(A) Fig. 7. Clearly.• • + "1 11/  inn r2 =. t (r) m if (7... Written wore explicitly.33) is satisfied. • m2 + m3 ± • mi • • ± m„ in + ni.11) to PI((. let us demonstrate now that each basic distribution m M represents exactly one possibility distribution r e 1. Erni = 1 (7.192 Pos_sibility Theory Chap. where rni. and let n01 U n3Y( ' Using the introduced notation. 7 0 for all E Nn .+1+ . Ic=1 (7. and m = rn. similarly. these equations are: Ti mri M2 + . we can apply (7.1 One correspondence N„).±/nit =na. denote the set of all basic distributions with n components (distributions of length n).28) and from the definition of possibility measures as special plausibility measures that = r(x) ((xi ]) for all xi E X.33) CP by convention. as illustrated by an example in It is not required. however.32) is satisfied..
.5 0 +.1b. 1) with n — I zeros. the less specific the evidence and. the larger the possibility distribution. Degrees of possibility Pus (A) can now be calculated for any subset A of X = (x l . 1 has the same form. 75 ) = max(. N7. 7 k=.28) .7. r5 Em k=. a situation in which no relevant evidence is available.3) = . x3. xk)) for each k e NT. similarly. . 'In M. in(A i ) The basic distribution is iii c (1. This distribution represents total ignorance. /max i . . . the smallest possibility distribution f of length n has the form = 0.„) = (0. A.3 Consider the basic assignment m specified in Fig. For example. 33. reprc. we define < z in if and only if t —I ( I m) Example 7.30) is satisfied.1b. . 1 ±.2). 0. 0. x4 . 1. r4. x2 . max(ri.. 7.2)..2 = 3 . . For instance. It follows from (7. x2. from components of the possibility distribution r by (7. 7. We observe that (7. The largest possibility distribution in of length n consists of ail and t (f. For instance. .3 Pcssibility Thecry ig3 Function t enables us to define a partial ordering on set NE in terms of the partial ordering defined on set 2. the more ignorant we are. ffence. 3.xil) A7 0 and rn(A4) . In general.7. whose basic assignment t() = (1. . This possibility distribution. xs}) = max(r. consequently.32) that r.sents perfect evidence with no uncertainty involved. O. . 0.3. that is. For all Ina. 0) with n — 1 zeros. . but 0 in this case for sonic subsets of the complete sequence Ai c of nested subsets.Sec.31) and (7.3. 0. Applying (732) to this basic distribution for all I E we obtain the possibility distzihwion r as shown in Fig. = (0.  A7) rk) 1.1 = I for each possibility distribution r= (ri. Pos ax). Pus ( (x1 . 7. .7. 0. rk) Ena N(1.3 (1. = O. .
28). To see this. respectively. it does not confonxt to the general definition of noninteractivc bodies of evidence as expressed by (7.6 . Consequently..194 Possibility Theory Chap.2b. Y) I y G where Posy. r) rain(. The product mie cannot be used for defiring possibilistie noniateraction because it does not preserve the nested structure of focal elements. We can argue similarly for (7. we have rij = min(ri where r. Applying (7. These formulas follow directly from. Hence. for which the marginal distribution rx is defined.35). (7. This is illustrated by the following example. respectively. which are called marginal possibility distributions.2.35) for each y E Y. j r32 or 743 = min(r4. This definition of possibilistic noninteraction (see (7.3) = _3.34) is obtained. are defined by the formulas rx (x) for each x X and = max r(x.36)) is clearly not based upon the product rule of evidence theory. and Pos are possibility measures corresponding to rx and r.28) to the lefthand side of this equation. y) y E Y» = maxr(x. . y) yer xX (7. 1) = . ri are the respective marginal possibilities given in Fig. note that each particular element x of X. = (r3 . 7. are called noninteractive (in the possibilistic sense) if r (x . Nested bodies of evidence on X and y represented by possibility distribution functions rx. 7. (7. For instance. yEY Hence.18). 7 Let us consider now joint possibitily distributions r defined on the Cartesian product X x Y.y). Projections rx and ry of r.and ry.even in Fig.34) ry (y) = max r y) (7. 7. it must be that Posx({ r}) = Pos({(r . An example of noninteractive nested bodies of evidence is . y) = mintrx (x) rr(y) I (7. which is selfexplanatory_ Observe that for each joint possibility r 1 in Fig. we obtain Posx (tx = and applying it to the righthand side of the equation yields Pos(((x.36) for all x G X and all y E Y. stands for the set y)ly E 17) of pairs in I x Y for which the joint distribution is defined.2a.
36).) — 3 (3..3a. When we combine them by (7.5 195 Pe. we obtain thc joint possibility distribution shown in Fig.3 Possibility Theory 4 itt4 = . That is.) (b) Joint consonant (nested) body of evidence Figure 72 Example of noninteractive sets with possibility measure: (a) marginal consonant bodies of evidence. when the product rule is employed. 7. the result of Goinbining two nested bodies of evidence by the min operator is again nested so that we remain in the domain of possibility theory. it is not a subject of possibility theory. 3 3:. we obtain the joint basic assignment shown in Fig.Sec. (b) joint consonant body of evidence.3c.35) that .4 Consider the marginal possibility distributions and basic distributions specified in Fig. In contrast to this. ).1 '3= . which represent two nested bodies of evidence. 7. This basic assignment does not represent a nested body of evidence.3b. Example 7. It follows directly from (734) and (7.3 (a) Mnrginni consonant (nested) bodies of evidence A P42 «ç A „ . consequently. 7. 7.
and r.3c.36).nds..38) P(X) and all B T(Y).2 0.32 0. .igtte nt c) Figure 73 Combittations of consonant (nested) bodies of evidence by tbe minimum operator vertus Dempster's rule (Example 7.6 Chap. it represents the least specific claim about the actual joint distribution. Let rx.6 I. y) :5 rx (x) and r(x.' . assuming that Fos'.4). Posy(B)1 for all A G (7. r (. to &fine noninteraction in terms of this extreme condition. y) Hence.. rosy.. respectively.and ry be marginal possibility distribution functions on X and Y. equivelontly.CY)1 (7. where . .48 0. y) rniarrx (x). It is certainly desirable.. and Pos denote the possibility measures corresponding to rx. 7 Marginal 0..08 01.1 96 08 Marginal possibility distributions Possibility Them 0. l'os caa be calculated from Posx and Posy by the equation Fos (A x B) = raireosx(A).. As such.36) is the largest joint distribution (or. Then. at least on intuitive grou. loint possibility disiribution ( Joint basic a.6 ..12 0. 8 0. 0. ry. . the kt cotnstrained joins distribution) that satisfies the given marginal distributions. r(x. rr.6 a) 0.8 ba5ic ansignrnat 04 0. and let r be the joint possibility distribution function on X x Y defined in terms of rx and ry by (7.37) This means that the joint possibility distribution defined by (7.
40) and (7. we obtain (7. Hence. Posy. Posy()] — Pos (74 x = Nec (A + B). is distinguished from possibilistic noniateraction. rxiy(x ly)1. by (725). Nec (A ± B) = max[Necx (A). . y) = mia[rx. 7. contrary to their probabilistic counterparts.25) and (7.42). zrEA 197 Pos y (B) raa. ry(y)] for r(x.Sec.36). assuming (7. Nec x. ry (y)] Solving this equation for rx iy (xf y). ryix (y which must be satisfied for any two marginal possibliistic bodies of evidence and the associated joint body of evidence. We say that two marginal possibilistic ' bodies of evidence are independent iff the conditional possibilities do not differ from the corresponding marginal possibilities. where Ne.3 Po5sibiiity Tbecry 131)Sx(A) = TrIaX tx(X). substituting rx (x) for rxiy(xly) in (7. Pos x .42) (7. the property of possibilistic independence implies the property of possibilistic noninteraction. and NCCy are the necessity measures associated with possibility measures Fos. Assume now that (7. regardless of their status with respect to independence. Assume first that (7. To show that these concepts are not equivalent. y) in (7. Observe that possibilistic independence.43) r (x.40) is satisfied (independence). substituting min[rx (x). Necr(B)] (739) for an A E 1P (X) and all B E T(7). Then. Necy(B)1 = magi — Posx (X).36). we employ the basic equations r(xy) = min[ry (y). which is expressed by (7.41) and substituting ry(y) for rrq(yfx) in (7. y Pos (A x B) = max r (x y). expressed by (7.. (7. which is essential for defining possibilistic independence. where riir (xly) and ryix(y ix) denote conditional possibilities on X x Y. Furthermore. respectively. rxiy (x I y)j.).(x). (7.38): max[Necr (24. Then. we obtain rainfry (y).43).42). we obtain (7.41).36) (noninteraction).x ry (y) . This equation can easily have been derived by using (7.40) (7. Let is now discuss the concept of a conditional possibility distribution function.. we obtain the equation nait*x (x). and A ± B is the Cartesian coproduct i x Tt. t — Pos y (T)1 = I =1 — in:M[Posx(X).36) is satisfied (noninteraction). Similarly. This is expressed by the equations rziy(xiy) = rx(x).41) FM 07 1X = rY(Y) for all x E I and all y € Y.
Then. be used for describing the fact that the value of V is v. This alternative formulation of possibility theory is suggestive since fuzzy sets. given a fuzzy set F on V and the proposition "V is F7 the possibility. and lot the equation V = LI. given the proposition "V is F" based upon F. similar to possibilistic bodies of evidence. Nec. for each A E Nec (A) = Pas (A) = 0 CO) when CO) 0 when C(A) >0„ (7. possibilistic independence is stronger than possibilistic noninteraction. are also based on families of nested sets. it is more meaningful to interpret F(u) as the degree of possibay that V = v. given a particular value v € V. function C is defined by the equation C (4) = Nec (A) + Pos(A) — 1. the appropriate acuts. 1 ] . while its negative values express the degree of disconfirnration of A by the evidence. 11 depend on some additional conditions. .198 Pos. F(v) is interpreted as the degree of compatibility of tr with the concept described by F. the property of possibilistic noninteraction does not imply the property of possibilistic independence. 1] or one value of ry1x(y1x) from. Pos.46) C(A) +1 when CO) < 0 1 . Consider now a fuzzy set F on V that expresses an elastic constraint on values that may be assigned to V. We overview these proposals in Note 7. Fur each A (X). and possibility measures. To explain this connection. Possibility measures are directly connected with fuzzy sets via the associated possibility distribution functions. possibility theory is based on two dual functions: necessity measures.47) (7. 7 (7. 7. 1]. let V denote a variable that takes values in a universal set V. As explained in this section. Positive values of C (A) indicate the degree of confirmation of A by the evidence available. On the other hand.sitallity Theory Chap. That is. We can see from (7. 1] xy y (y ) for rx (x) < r y (y) for rx(x) > ry (y). C.4 FUZZY SETS AND POSSIBILITY THEORY Possibility theory can be formulated not only in terms of nested bodies of evidence. 1) (7. Several distinct conditions proposed for this purpose in the literature are still subjects of debate.45) Hence. can be converted to a single combined function.45) that conditional possibilities are not uniquely determined solely by the constraints of possibility theory. we can obtain ryi x ( ir t.=  (rx ( x ) .8. for ry (y) rx(x) for ry (y) y ix) ". whose range is [1.48) (7. whose range is [0. but also in terms of fuzzy sets. The two functions. The two concepts are thus not equivalent. The choices of one value of rx x(xly) from the interval fry(y). where v G V.44) rxjy(xIY) In a similar way. when C (A) > O.44) and (7. Conversely. the interval [rx(x).
. . This measure expresses the uncertainty regarding the actual value of variable V under incomplete information given in terms of the proposition "V is F. FF(V) F(v) (7. the associated possibility measure.6 0.51). As an example. of 17 = y for each ir e V is numerically equal to the degree F(u) to which u belongs to F.0 0.3) = O./ (b) Figure 7." For normal fuzzy sets.4a. V "V is around 21C" in which the concept around V be given in terms of the proposition 21°C is expressed by the fuzzy set F given in Fig. A3 = (19. Pos (L) = 1/3. 22. according to (7.49) is clearly a possibility distribution function Function rF.50) which is a counterpart of (7. is numerically identical with the membership function F. S clefuied for all A T(V) by the equatinn PinsF(A) = suprF(Y).4b. Formally. 7.e.8 0.4 0.4 fuzzy Possibility distil1=ton for a propositon. 21. 7. which are nested as shown in Fig.49) for all yE V. 7. 1. focal elements and ce cuts correspond to each other in the two formulations of possibility theory. Using (7. Nec. using (7. I — PosF(71).50).4 Fuzzy Sets and Possibility Theory 199 rF(v). pi 11 defiled by (7. The etcuts of F. Then.1113e. PosF. we obtain Nec (A1) = 1/3. the cccuts (or focal elements) are A 1 (211.. That is.that only Let information about the actual vallie of its integer values are recognized (i. (7. V .49). we can readily find that Po s (A 4 ) = Pos (Az) 4= Ns (As) I and Pus (A i ) 2/3. the associated necessity measure. on V. 20.51) which is a counterpart of (7.25). A2 = (20. Pos (71. can then be calculated for all A E 2(11 ) by the equation Necp (A) =.29). 221.Sec. This incomplete information induces a possibility distribution function rF that.231. Given r F. let variable V be temperature measured in °C and aSS1. play the same role as the focal elements in possibilistic bodies of evidence formulated within evidence theory. 21.2 00 (a) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 9. (7. In our example.
. assignment: tn(A 1) 1=. It is shown that probability theory and possibility theury are distinct theories.3). I — 2/3 = 1/3.4.. is required to satisfy the equation Pro (A U B). While the various characteristics of possibility theory within the broader framework of evidence theory are expounded in Sec.This implies that probability measures. and In(A) = 0 for any set A that is not an otcut.52). 7. a probability measure. Converting functions Pos and Nec into the combined function C. Proof: Assume that Bel is a probability measure. C(A 1 ) 1/3. C(A3) L C(A1) = —1/3. is not directly applicable. x2. We can also easily see that Nec (A) = 0 for any set A that contains no el cut. which is defined in terms of the differences in values of function rF.. Pro (A) Pro (B) (7. . m(A3) = 1/3 — 0 = 1/3. the two formulations of possibility theory are equivalent. within which probability theory and possibility theory are recognized as special branches.7 ) = —2/3. and nither is subsumed under the other. 12 When rF is derived from a normal set F. However. It provides us with appropriate tools for processing incomplete information expressed in terms of fuzzy propositions. and to use this comparison in comparing probability theory with fuzzy set theory.. 7 Nec (A 2) = 2/3. we obtain.5 POSSIBILITY THEORY VERSUS PROBABILITY THEORY The. we can calculate the basic probability . the basic probability assignment function.. B E SU') such that A n B This requirement is usually referred to as the additivity axiom of probability measures. 7. consequently. Theorem 7. by repeated application of the additivity axiom (7. In this case. the theorem trivially holds. we need to introduce their probabilistic counterparts to facilitate our discussion. as in our example. For the empty set 21. C(A3) = O. C(A2) = 2/3. Nec (A 3 ) 1. We can see that possibility theory is a measuretheoretic counterpart of fuzzy set theory based upon the standard fuzzy operations. Such a perspective is offered by evidence theory. . C(. The reason is that the differences do not add to 1 when F is not normal. The best way of comparing probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty is to examine the two theories from a broader perspective. As is well known. we obtain . it plays a major role in fuzzy logic (Chapter 8) and approxlinate reasoning (Chapter 11). rising (7_33). are a special type of belief measures. since In(0) = 0 by deftnition of m_ Let A 0 0 and assume A = (x i . all other properties of possibility theory remain equivalent in both formulations. Observe that this axiom is stronger than the superadditivity axiom of belief measures expressed by (7. A belief imagine Bel on a finite power set T(X) is a probability measure if and only if the associated basic 'probability assignment function m is given by m(fx}) = Bel ((x)) and m(A) = 0 for all subsets of X that are not singletons. Then.3. X. This relationship between belief measures and probability measures is more precisely characterized by the following theorem.}. Pro.771(4 2) 2/3 — 1/3 = 1/3. Furthermore. The full equivalence breaks when F is not normal.52) for all sets A.200 Passibility Theory Ctiap. purpose of this section is to compare probability theory with possibility theory.
Let us denote probability measures by Pro.201 = Bel *1» ± Bel ((x2)) H Bd (fil. by utilizing the notion of a probability distribution Bel (A) = Pl (A) function. Pro (A) = X Cet p(x) (7. Hence. total ignorance is expressed by the tiniforra probability distribution . This function i3 usually called a probabilily distribution jeunction. Assume now that a basic probability assignment function m is given such that Emax}) =1.11) becon:Le equal. we have Bel (A) ± Be (B) mari) Emax» E xM.Îrn((xj)).Sec. 13c1 (A) = PI (A) ' Eni ((x }) for all A E P(X). xeA 'This mea= that the dual beilef aud plausibility measures merge Ulldel the additivity axiom of probability measures. for any sets A. 1] such that p(x) maxi). as required for probability measures. Bel is defined lu ternis of a basic assignment that focuses Qu'y on singletons. B E P(X) such that A fl B 0.53) for all A € Within probability measures. sxn}) + Bel ((x}). Then. 7. Then. Bel is a probability measure. then the righthand sides of (7.. Hence.4. = &l axi» 4.Bel (ix. In ) \ .Bol ( x2)) Since Bel (frI) = m(fri) for any x X by ( 7. in this case.5 Possibty Theory versus ProbabUity Theory Bel (A) Bel ((x E » 4.10) and (7.6). Let p (p(x)rx E X) be referred to as a probabiliay disiribution on X. This completes the proof. When the basic probability assignment function focuses only on singletons.UB m(lx)) = Bel (A U ..10). consequently. According to Theorem 7. to denote them by a single symbol. It is therefore convenient. we have Bel (A) =. this can also be written. as p(x). probability measures on finite sets are thus fully represented by a function pX {0.
similarly. Projections px and py of p on X and Y. it is called a joint probability distribution. we briefly review a few concepts from probability theory that are employed later in the text. TWO conditional probability distributions. are called marginal probability distributions. This follows directly from the fact that basic assignments of probability measures are required to focus only on singletons (Theorem 7. Probability measures. is abundant. Prix(y1x) designates the probability of y given x. The literature of probability theory.Y) PY(. The two marginal distributions are called indelendem iff x(x) IA *= Px(x).7 for all x X. y) (7.xlY y) = Pxn4xi.202 Possibility Theory fqx) = m (tx Chap. y) for each y G Y. Priz(ylx) = PTO') for all x e X and all y e Y. have been studied at length.55) for all x € X and all y E Y.18). When a probability distribution p is defined on the Cartesian product X x Y.54) for each x G X and Ep(x.4). We are now in a position to discuss similarities and differences between probability . This definition is a special case of the general definition of nortinteractive bodies of evidence expressed by ( 7. (7.PY (y) (7. We therefore assume that the reader is familiar with the fundamentals of probability theory.61) Fri(*) we can immediately see that the marginal distributions are independent if and only if they are noninterative.59) (7. Since the joint probability distribution is defined by P. they are defined by the formulas pz(x) YGY p(x. consequently. However.0 = (7. which are the subject of probability theory. The marginal distributions are called noninteractive (in the probabilistic sense) with respect to p iff P(.and pyix are defined in terms of a joint distribution p by the formulas PX1Y 1Y I XX I y) = — PY(Y) (7.57) and PriX(Yix) — 19 (X.r y) Px(x) . The value pxly (xly) representsth probability that x occurs e provided that y is known. including textbooks at various levels.60) (7.Y). . respectively. we do not attempt a full coverage of probability theory in this book. pxiy.5S) for all x I and all y E Y.
= of O. Let us examine now some aspects of the relationship between probability theory and possibility theory in more detail. 7. As obvious from their mathematical properties. This results from a fundamental difference in the structure of respective bodies of evidence. Basic mathematical properties of both theories are summarized and contrasted in Table 7. possibility. which is characterized by only one focal element. necessity. the latter requirement may even be abandoned when possibility theory is formulated in terms of fuzzy sets. These differences in mathematical properties of the two theories make each theory suitable for modeling certain types of uncertainty and less suitable for modeling other types. which are special versions of belief and plausibility measures. This is clearly the only measure that represents perfect evidence. while for possibility distributions the largest values are required to be 1. with all other clement being assigned a val. possibilistic bodies of evidence are families of nested sets. FUZZY MEASURES: monotonic and continuous of semd œntinucum PLAugiature FASUFts! subacklitive and C1iuus IrOrn below • pl1r313AmirrY MEASURES: • additive mEAsuRES • niury • LIEF lifgASURES4 and contInUCLIS from ahovgi Suporadclitioe Ectssrry mr_dauRgs Figure 1_5 Inclusion mIanfonship among the discussed types a ramarcs.. probability theory coincides with that subarea of evidence theory in which belief measures and plausibility measures are equal. a singleton.5 possibil[ty Theory versus Probability Theory 203 theory and possibility theory.Sec. The two theories are similar in the sense that they both are subsumed not only under fuzzy measure theory.5. 7. but their normalization requirements are very different Values of each probability distribution are required to add to 1. but also under the more restricted evidence theory.4 to facilitate our discussion. The inclusion relationship among the six types of measures employed in thcse theories is depicted in Fig. Both probability and possibility measures are uniqueiy represented by distribution functions. . While possibility theory is based on two dual measures. Moreover. and probability measures do not overlap with_ one another except for one very special measure. The two distribution functions that represent probabilities and possibilities become equal for this measure: one element of the universal set is assigned the value of 1. While probabilistic bodies of evidence consist of singletons.
and necessity measures. Nec (A) +Nec (2.Neo (A)] v=. 0 Total ignorance: p(x)=111X1 for all x E X Conditional probabilitims.=4 0 Pos (A) = 1 Nec (A) 0  Not applicable Pro(A)+Proa) . Nec Body of evidence commis of a family of nested subsets Unique representation of Pas by a possibility distribution function r : X > [Cli.I B) =Pro(A)+Pro(B)—Pro(A...Pos (B)] Nee(A n . 1] for FT.204 TABLE 7.12(x.4 PROBABILITY THEORY VERSUS POSS16ILIIY THEORY: COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL PROPERT1ES FOR FINITE SETS Probability Theory Based a i Possibility Theory Chap..py(y) Probabilistic independence: Pill' (X I Y) •. Total ignorance: r(x) := 1 for all x E X Conditional possibilities: PziAxiY) = Pox(*) = P(x .61) = min[Nec (A). Y) PT O) r xir (x1Y) = { Cry (y).EA Normalization: Normalization: E p(x) — 1 xex max r (x) . Pas... 7 Possibility Theory Based on measures of tw6 types: possibility measures of one gyp probability measures. rY(Y)] (a) Possibilistic independenm (19 Trry(X1Y) = rX(X) rrIX(YIX) = FS' (y) 0) (8) (a).Pos (71)) —1 mia[Nec (A).. n B) MaxIMin rules.. 1 — Pas (A) Pos (A) <1 . Pro(A) . Pro Body of evidence consists of singletons Unique representation of Pro by a probability distribution function p : X > [O.. but (a) 4` ( 5) .0> (b) (a) Awl:Wink noninseraction: r (x • Y) = Milk [rX(X).. Pos (A U 11) = max[Poa (A).Nec (B)1 Nec (A).. (y ) > rx(x) Probabilistic noninteraction: P(x.. y) = px(x) .7.) max[Pos (A).= 1 Ps (A) + Pos (7) ? 11. xer 1 Additivity: Pro(A 1.Nec (A) . E p(x) . 1] via the formula —  measures..Y) Px(x) ry(y) [rx(r). 11 via the formula Po s (A) =.riX (X) PrX(Y IX) = MY) (a) . TOJIX r (x) /CA .r. il rrx (Y Ix) = rX(x) for rx(x) < ry(y) for rx (x) > fr(y) for /10) < Fx(x) .
but we have no rationale to narrow down this range. That is. Possibility theory may also be interpreted in terms of intervalvalued probabilities. the two dual measures. If no information is available about the situation under consideration. Bel and FI.g. An important interpretation of possibility theory is based on the concept of similarity. is ideal_ for formalizing incomplete information expressed in terms of fuzzy propositions. hence. total uncertainty is expressed in the same way as in evidence theory: ma) = i and nt(A) = 0 for all A X or. the closeness may be determined objectively by a defined measurement procedure. belief measures and plausibility measures may be interpreted as lower and upper probability estimates. this requirement is too strong to allow us to obtain an honest characterization of total ignorance. A fundamental difference between the two theories is in their expressions of total ignorance.4. other interpretations of possibility theory. it is expressed by the uniform probability distribution on the universal set: m((x}) 1/1X I for all x. If Pcs (4) <1. xi . it may be based on a subjective judgement of a person (e. In other cases. However. for example. an expert in the application area involved). are employed to form intervals [Bel (A). which is based on imprecise probabilities. there are multiple interpretations of possibility theory. On purely intuitive grounds. provided that the normalization requirement is applied. however. 7. r(x) = I. is foreign to probability theory. if Bel (A) > 0. for all x A. These estimates are derived fvoni coarse evidence expressed by the basic probability assignment function. on the contrary. PI (A)] for each A E P(10. a choice of one particular distribution does not make any sense. In this interpretation. I. where it is required that every uncertainty situation be characterized by a single probability distributi9n.Sec. on the other hand. which allows us to adjust some of the interpretations of probability theory to the intervalvalued probabilities of possibilistic type. 11: in face of total ignorance... Due to the nested structure of evidence. in turn. we know. Possibility theory. 7. that the value of each probability is in (0.j. in probability theory. Similarly. 1 1. However.. In possibility theory. r (x) is expressed by a suitable distance between x and xi defined in terms of relevant attributes of the elements involved. . the possibility r(x) reflects the degree of similarity between x and an ideal prototype. This choice is justified on several grounds within probability theory. probability theory is an ideal tool for formalizing uncertainty in situations where ciass frequencies are known or where evidence is based on outcomes of a sufficiently long series of independent random experiments. As is well known. then no distribution is supported by any evidence and. appear to be even more fundamental. for which the possibility degree is 1. The closer x is to xi according to the chosen distance. as exp/ ained in Sec. It is significant that the mathematical structure of evidence theory allows us to describe and deal with intervalvalued probabilities. Pl (A)]. Due to their properties. that the probability of each element of X should be allowed to take any value in [0. then the estimated probabilities are in the interval [Bel (A). which are viewed as imprecise estimates of probabilities. by definition. equivalently. the intervals of estimated probabilities are not totally arbitrary. Viewing necessity and possibility measures as lower and upper probabilities opens a bridge between the two theories. Total ignorance should be expressed la terms of the full set of possible probability distributions on X. In this interpretation. such a formulation. This means.5 Possibility Theory versus Protiab lay Theory 205 As is well known. then the estimated probabilities are in the interval [0. the more possible we consider it in this interpretation of possibility theory in some cases. there are multiple interpretations of probability theory. totally devoid of any connection to probability theory.
the two measures should satisfy some consistency condition.65).66) Probabilitypossibility consistency. It is also known that for each ordering <pos there exists a dual ordering. It is known that the only measures which conform to comparative possibility ordering are possibility measures. between Pro and Pas can be measured in terms of the amociated probability distribution function p and possibility distribution function r by the formula c(p.„s B 4A Nec B.7. other interpretations are not.„ defined on the power sct 9) (X). Pro. Pcs. The motivation to study probabilitypossibility transformations has arisen not only from our desire to comprehend the relationship between the two theories of uncertainty. and a possibility measure. (7. A <p„. That is. While some interpretations of possibility theory are connected with probability theory. Other consistency conditions may also be formulated that are stronger than (7. When information regarding some phenomenon is given in both probabilistic and possibilistic terms. an event that is probable to some degree must be possible at least to the same degree. distinct from the similaritybased interpretation.65) for all A E T(X). but also from some practical problems. The strongest consistency condition would require. The growing literature on interpretations of possibility theory is overviewed in Note 7.64). the weakest one acceptable on intuitive grounds can be expressed as follows. is founded on special orderings. When <pas satisfies the requirement A <pc6 BAUC <Ng B UC (7. constructing a probability measure from a given possibility measure in the context of . that Pus (A) = 1 (7.. (7. c. Examples of these problems are: constructing a membership grade function of a fuzzy set from statistical data. Pro (A) > 0 (7. defined by the equivalence A <p.64) and weaker than (7. the weakest consistency condition is expressed formally by the inequality Pro (A) < Pas (A) any event with nonzero probability must be fully possible. Although interpretations of possibility theory are still less developed than their probabilistic counterparts. the two descriptions should be in some sense consistent. at least in its weakest form (7. Formally. is an essential requirement in any probabilitypossibility transformation. Although various consistency conditions may be required. given a probability measure. For any A.64) for all A G 13 (X).63) These dual orderings are called compartffessity relations: the only measures that conform to them are necessity measures. B means that 13 is at least as possible as A. it is called a comparative possibility relation. The degree of probabilitypossibility consistency. 7 Another interpretation of possibility theory. zp.C E I' (X). r) = Ep(x) x€X r(x).B. <Ncc . B E P(X).62) for all A. That is. both defined on P(X).206 Possibility Theory Chap. it is already well established that possibility theory provides a link between fuzzy sets and probability theory.. on the other hand.
where ce is a positive constant They are expressed by the equations TI = Pt rE (7. ri 1. it is not unique.r are based on the ratio scale: ri i. . Assume that elements of X are ordered in such a way that possibility distributions. Let X = (x 1 .5 Passibility Theory versus Probability Theo ry 207 decision making or systems modeling. n — 1. • • are always nonincreasing sequences_ That is.bilitypossibility transformations have been suggested in the literature. 7. where a and l3 are positive constants. This transformation type depends on the value of a and. or transforming probabilities to possibilities to reduce computational complexity. 2. ranging from simple ratio scaling to more sophisticated transformations based upon various principles. To discuss these various possibilityprobability transformations.71) is based on the view that the degree of . 2. let us introduce convenient notational assumptions first. less common. . . hence.p. xn } and let pi p(xi) i ri r(zi ). To deal with these problems. they differ from one another substantially..72) (ri ri+i) are often cited in the Literature. r2.71) (7. various proba.See. we have ri+1 and pE pi+i for all • = 1 and E. The most common transformations p +4. Equation (7. respectively. P = (PI.70) where denotes the arithmetic mean of the given possibilities ri. Furthermore. r= (r1. pia for all (7_67) as possibilistic and probabilistic normalizations. Except for the normalization requirements. the value can be determined by adding a requirement regarding the relationship between p and r_ Transformations defined by the equations • Emin(Pii Pi) . These transformations are defined by the — equations: • = 1 — cf (Pi — pi). and probability distributions. is based on the interval sca1c r1 = pi a ± )9 for all i.69) (7.68) ri r2 ± • rn Another type of transformations. combining probabilistic and possibilistic information in expert systems. =a — ) (7. (7.. 1=1 = 2.
I] for all A Ø 0 and A IC in the face of total ignoeance.71) in these transformations with the formula r.5. A body of evidence thus represents for each A E YGTO. Lower and upper probabilities were first investigated by Dempster [1967] independent of the concepts of belief and plausibility measures. 73. Lite twovolume book by Quart and Bell [1991.4. Individual probability measures in the set can be defined by the following allocation procedure: 1.72). p70 . 1978] and his critical examination of the Bayesian approach to evidence [Shafer. 1981 ]. Given a body of evidence (a'. as well as by Shafer's historical reflection upon the concept of probability [Shafer. f (7.3 are given in the books by Shafer 1 19761 and Guan and Bell [1991. by Dempster [1967 ]. Choose a particular xe A for each A 2. the inequalities Bel (A) < Pro (A) S Pi (A) (7. this range is clearly (0. 7 necessity of event A c X is the extra amount of probability of elementary events in A over the amount of probability assigned to the most frequent elementary event outside A Equation (7. These transformations.73) which yields the smallest possibility distribution that satisfies the weak probabilitypossibility r and r consistency (7.74) x A= 4 for all A e 7. 1977j. 19921 is mtire lip to date and covets the rapidly grevring literature dealing with this theory. Set PrO (tX1) p(x) E m (A) for all x X  For all probability measures Pro that can be assigned in this way. Additional probability possibility transformations. then p where pt p. The mathematical theory of evidence that is based on the complementary belief and plausibility measures was originated and developed by Glenn Shafer [1976]_ It was motivated by previous work on upper and lower probabilities. 9. were proposed in the literature. This explains the interpretation of Pl and Bel as upper and lower probabilities. when (7. Derivations of the conversion formu as in Table 7.7. A graduate textbook on fuzzy measure theory was written by Wang and Fair [1994. respectively. which employ relevant information measures. However. The concept of a fuzzy measure was introduced by Sugeno [1974. referred to as informationpreserving transformations.208 Possibility Theory Chap.73) is combined with (7. Observe that p) = p in each of the other pairs of transformations. Evidence theory is only one mathematical tool for dealing with imprecise probabilities.1. It was also suggested to replace (7. 19921 7. 7.2. 7. the corresponding functions Pl and Bel can be viewed as upper and lower probabilities that characterize a set of probability measures. Although Shafer's book f1976] is still the best introduction to evidence theory. 1976.72) expresses a probabilistic approximation of the given possibilistic body of evidence obtained by distributing values of the basic probability assignment equally among singletons of the respective focal elements.64). PM)] of feasible probabilities. the range [Be/ (A). A are 'mown to hold . are discussed in Sec.  NOTES 7.
1976].1. 1987. Other publications that deal with various interpretations of possibility overiwd theory include ERuspini. Mr and Harreanee. general coverage of statistical reasoning and decision making with imprecise probabilities. 7.1 (Raphael's paintings).7. = 1. and 771 y ((b. Zadeh. b)) = .4. 1989. Repeat Exercise 72 for some of the basic assignments given in Table 7.1. Bel ({. b. For each of the focal elements in Example 4. Plz(A)]. fBel2 (A).sibility theory are atho in the paper. Shackle. Given the basic assignment rn ((a.6. P1L (A)]. the degree of education of a person.2. Calculate mr. the size of a city or a country. 7. Shafer.. feasible p3robabilites corresponding to these bodies of evidence (Note 7. Calculate the joint basic assignment m /3 for the focal elements C.10) for any given basic assignment m is a belief measure. d). Connections between probability theory. 1978b] or from evidence theory [Shafer. b. and so on. 7. Let X =. 7.44) and (7. and fuzzy set theory are explored in a paper by Dubois and Prade [ 1 99314 Some interpretations of pos.1. the age of a painting or a collector's coin.RLJD. m1 (1).5. 7 Exercises 209 7. A book by Dubois and Prade 119S&J is the most comprehensive coverage of possibinty theory ft is interesting that the need for possibility theory in economics was perceived by the British economist Shackle [1961] well before it emerged from fuzzy set theory tZadeh. for example. 1994.2.45) for conditional possibilities were derived by Hisdal [1978]. 19914 Nguyen [19784 Ramer [19891. d)) . the degree of inflation or unemployment in a country.5.2. Various forms of probabilitypossibility consistency are overviewed in a paper by Delgado and Mora/ [1987].3. was prepared by Walley [19911 Possibility theory was originally introduced in the context of fuzzy sets by Zadeh [1978b]. possibility theory. which can be viewed as ranges of [Bell (A). cl) in Example 7.4).2. determine the corresponding basic assignment. lb.6. ([1. Repeat Exercise 7. 7.Chap. Various proposals for choosing one value from the interval of conditional possibilities were preseuted by Dubois and Prade [1985a.9. and D U C in Examp/e 7. the distance betwe:en two citic a. Show that the function Bel determined by (7. Given the belief measure Del ((b)) — . EXERCISES 7. 1991b. where subsets of X are defined by their characteristic functions.7. 1301 (tb . and m(X) = _A.11. Show that the function Pl determined by (7. 7. Also determine Bek2 for these focal elements. 1986b. 7. determine the ranges PI12 (A)]. Let X {a.8. 7. not restricted to evidence theory. 19611 Equations (7. determine the corresponding belief and plausibility measures.(a. Using (7_5) and (7i 2). Be ab. c.5. . and Cava llo and Klir [1982j.3. 7.9. derive a formula by which the basic assignment for a given plausibility measure can be determined. 7. b. 3}).8. 1978b. = 7. 7 3. in((a. d).  . c .10. Compare the concepts of fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures ha some situations connected with. 1990a.11) for any given basic assignment in is a plausibility measure. 7.9 for sore of the basic assignments given in Table 7. c)) = .
M5 Me.2 0 . Assume in each case that ri = r (xi ). 7.. . .1 0 0 0 0 A . c) and ry (I.1 A .1 .7. 0.3). 0.2).5.1 0 0 :2 0 0 . .3 0 .210 TABLE 7. Show that a plausibility measure that satisfies (7.1 . ..1 .3 0 0 0 0 0 0 . (h) by the rules of evidence theory. are rtoninteractive.4 0 . .2).2. 7 d 1111 fff 2 riI 3 m4 .1 .19.1 0 . .2. . /3).1 .7.1. Show that a belief measure that satisfies (7.19) is based on nested focal elements.8.1 0 0 0 A . 1.3 0 0 0 0 0 .7). . . 0 0 (d) (e) r = (1.8. .2. M7 nix dno nd 1 el 0 .6„5. and necessity measure for each of the following possibility distributions defined on X E NO for appropriate values of (a) 1r = (1.20) is based on nested focal elements. calculate the joint bask distribution in two different ways: (a) by the rules of possibility theory.3 CI . . determine the corresponding basic distributiogs.3.1. CF  Chap.5) and rr (1_7) OD SCtS X = fa.12.5 .2. 0.2) on X = {z t. yj. (d) n = (0. .1 0 _7 .17.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 a C}  7.4.1 . (c) 3 r =119.8.4 1 0 .4) on Y = [cc. possibility measure. fi.Ii E k} for appropriate values of n: (a) tm (0. 7. TA& Determine the basic assignznent.7.5.. . 0.3. .14. Possibility Theory BASIC ASSIGNMENTS EMPLOYED IN EXERCISES I b C •c. Verify completely that the marginal bodies of evidence given in Table 7. Show visually (as in Fig. 1.8. and necessity measure for each of the following basic distributions defined on X = (x.1 . 0 . possibility measure.7 0 0 0 . 1. .1 0 0 0 0 .3) the focal elements of the marginal and joint distributions.3 0 . b. .2b. 7.14 for the following marginal possibility distributions: (a) rz (1.1. 0. .1. 7. . . which were obtained as projections cif the joint body of evidence given in Table 7. . .5.5). 1. .1 A . aetCD C.2 O 0 0 0 0 .2 a . 0. .16.1 _1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0. possibility measure. respectively.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 . . . Determine the possibility distribution. Determine whether each of the basic assignments given in Table 7. (b) 21o1= (.1 0.1. .1 .13 . 7.1 0 0 2 0 .. .1 .7. .1 . Given two nortinteractive marginal possibility distributions rx (L . Then. 0:0 211` = (1.8. .5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . C} C. 7. cl and Y la. 0 0 0 0 0 0 .8. 5 „5.15.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 G 0 0 0 0 0 . or neither of these. .5 represents a probability measure. .2 0 . (c) 3nt = (0.2. 0.1).2a. Repeat Exercise 7.1 .1 0 .1 . i c 7.3.3 0 0 0 .
7. b. 7.22.3. . Determine Nec (A) and Pos (A) induced by F for all A 37(11.4.4).1/2 113 4. 2.s in Table 75. 5».4. m2.411 . . 7.8 0 . (e) both conditional possibilities given by (7_44) and (7. b. ci) = . . e) and Y N. 3.3. (13) joint and marginal basic assignments. 7 Exercises 211 (e) 5 m = (A. 4. Let C (A ) for all subsets of X = 1a. . d. determine: (a) marginal possibilities. b. c. Let basic probability assignments m i and m2 on X independent sources.7 . .9/4 + . .4. Using a joint possibility distribution on lt Y givcu in terms of the matrix 1 0 0 1 . Calculate the commonality numbers for some of the basic assignments given in Table 7. —.((b. c .4.3.6. bility assignment in 1 . which are obtained from twg 7. Let X — (a.5/5 and A (i) = 0 for all x V11. IN. .25. xi. d).4. (d) hypothetical joint possibility distribution based on the assumption of noninteraction.5 1 0 0 0 0 1 .5 1 1 0 1 .46) for the bodies of evidence defined by m a . . —.9. (a. x.6. d) be the numbers 0. b )) .1 .24. 7.3 .23. (I) Assume in each case that rn i m ((xi.5). b. .7. and 1 (listed in the same order as in Table 7. Let a fuzzy set F be defined on H by F — .2. .7.5 . 2.7 .45) . b. c)) . 7. c)) = .7. . ({a . e i d. .n2 (fa.21. Calculate the combined basic proba.4 . .31.9 .3 . 8.2.20. e. mi.. dJ ) = .5.9. e. . ma.Chap. . .2 0 0 0 . awl in. 2. .4.2 where rows are assigned to elements a.2.4 1 1 1 . and columns are assigned to numbers 1.6 0 _5 0 . 5. —.5.4 . —. (lb. Determine values of function C given by (7. in.2 by using the Dempster rule of combination.7 . Determine Nec (A) and Fos (A) for all A.3. be defined as follows: In ((a .6.
Fuzzy LOGIC 8. A proposition and its negation are required to assume opposite truth values. there are 27 possible logic functions of these variables. . are given. all the logic functions of two variables are listed in Table 8. It is not concerned with the internal structure of the propositions that the logic variables represent. One of the main concerns of propositional logic is the study of rules by which new logic variables can be produced as functions of some given logic variables. A new logic variable can then Assume that . This function is usually called a logic filmdom Since n logic variables 32:tay assume 211 prospective truth values. respectively. referred to as propositional logic. Logic functions of one or two variables are usually called logic operations.the basic concepts of classical logic and to intioduce tenniuulogy and notation employed in our discussion of fuzzy logic. As each variable stands for a hypothetical proposition. and the resulting 16 logic variables are denoted by wi.1 CLASSICAL LOGIC: AN OVERVIEW We assume that the reader of this text is familiar with the fundamentals of classical logic. For example.1. 1) 2. These simple functions are 212 . w16. it may assume either of the two truth values. where falsity and truth are denoted by 0 and 1. this section is solely intended to provide a brief overview of . the number of which grows extremely rapidly with increasing values of n. The key issue of propositional logic is the expression of all the logic functions of n variables (n e 14). Each proposition has its opposite. with the aid of a sate' number of simple logic functions.n logic variables th. Therefore. the variable is not committed to either truth value unless a particular proposition is substituted for it. which is usually called a negation of the proposition. be defined by a function that assigns a particular truth value to the new variable for each combination of truth values of the given variables. These variables are usually called logic variables (or propositional variables). Logic is the study of the methods and principles nf reasoning in all its passible forms_ Classical logic deals with propositions that are required to be either true or false. One area of logic. w2. deals with combinations of variables that stand for arbitrary propositions.
vr f1/2 T.1 Classical Logic: An Overview LOGIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES 1 0 0 213 TABLE 8. v] Di . v? vl A vi Per function Proper ine44uaIity F. 11)15 1V16 Disjunction One fonction vi V tP2 intivality Or function Verwn . conjunction. a A b zuld a y b In the definition with CFa = b to the definition. preferably logic operations of one or two variables. Identity Chnditionat. By combining. . the only logic formulas are those defined by the previous two rules.1. The most common is the usual use of parentheses as in any other algebraic expressions.1 vi 4. We may b. ul el vi vittr2..22 to ]. To define a unique function. conjunctions.. _ .43 12/14 rt 1s1 Assertion Implickakii rirF 01 vi = r_P2 inequality Identity Conditiumd. u2. if y denotes 3.1=1 uz ir. and (ii) negation and implication. u2) Lit › 11..7 u2 ut tv i .conditional Assertion Truplicntion C:q 11 1sI And function Equivalnce eC5 vi 0.. referred to as logic formulas. It is known that this can be accomplished only with some sets of logic primitives We say that a set of primitives is complete if any logic function of variables 1. NoR(ut. then y and Ti are logic formulas. ut. Every logic formula of this type defines a logic function by composing it from the three primary functions. the order in which the individual compositions are to be performed must be specified in some way. 2.. (for any finite n) can be composed by a finite nuniber of these primitives. fur example. then a A b and a V b are also logic formulas. Two of the many complete sets of primitives have been predominant in propositional logic: (i) negation.n5 u.1. NAM:1 0. m Vr7 u)s tu9 win W1i ruw. ni > 712 1 2012 . and disjunction.. rr .tiun Nand function Conjunction W. . There are various ways in which this order can be specified. Logic formulas are then defunct recursively as follows: a logic variable.P2. for example. u. and disjunctions (employed as primitives) in appropriate algebraic expressions.I 1. CZ}I vl 1 ni C nz . which are called logic primitives..ft 31. .1PD ut&v7. Other types of logic formulas can be defined by replacing some of the three operations in this definition with other operations or by including some additional operations. 1..Sec_ 8. negations. if a and b denote logic formulas. I).1P2 Hi ‹ nj —Vi.16 12)7 Complement Proper inequality Comp le m ent e rl C CP P Exclusiveor Nonequivaience Sheffer stroke ui 0 1. qsf r1 vl 2 vi D 02* 'i. Er1 vs. u2 ut . v.2 . v i C) Negation Tn hibition Neg a tion 41CZ1 7. or we may simply add replace. ut tt 171 vt e vz.:„. tr. ED 1.04 L I O O Adopted name of fametion Zero function Adopted syraboi Other names used in the literature Fal sum Other symbols ustd in the literature Nor &ruction Enhibition G vi NA. we can form any other logic function. v1v2 vi. D '''' v2 . 1 .
For example. the truth of the proposition "b" (the conclusion) may be inferred_ Every tautology remains a tautology when any of its variables is replaced with any arbitrary logic formula. are true on logical grounds alone. The isomorphisms between finite Boolean algebra. it is called a contradiction. bounded (B. and is a unary operation ou B for which the properties listed in Table 8. for instance. different formulas may represent the same function and variable. ((a => b) A (b (a c) (hypothetical syllogism). (ii i. They are referred to as inference rules. ( n0d11. due to their are important form. This property is another example of a powerful rule of inference.5 b)) c)) tollens). +. we present this larger set of properties in order to emphasize the relationship between Boolean algebras. ). b" (the Modus pollens. which is a mathematical system defined by abstract (interpretationfree) enfities and their axiomatic propertiesA Boolean algebra on a set B is defined as the quadruple = (B. Tautologies for deductive reasoning because they represent logic formulas that. v2 .2 are satisfied. Examples of some tautologies frequently used as inference rules are equivalent. states that given two true propositions.. Various forms of tautologies can be used for making deductive inferences. where the set B has at least two elements (bounds) 0 and I.3) = (r)2 A t73) y (i 1. and propositional logic guarantee that every theorem in any one of these theories has a counterpart in each of the  . 8 While each proper logic formula represents a single logic function and the associated logic variable. as can be easily verified by evaluating each of the formulas for all eight combinations of truth values of the logic variables vi . and complemented (37)(B9). Furthermore. when il is always false. + and are binary operations on B. then a (a A (a = b)) (6 A (Ci (mndus ponera).e regardless of the truth val ties assigned to the variables participating in the formula. which is defined as follows. and propositional logic. This means that each Boolean algebra can also be characterized in. both of these systems are isomorphic to a finite BocAean algebra. Properties (R1)(B4) are common to all lattices. It is well established that propositional logic based on a finite set of logic variables is isomorphic to finite set theory under a particular correspondence between components of these two mathematical systems. we write a = b. when two logic formulas a and b are b is a tautology. lf they do. while the formula a A b is a contradiction. v3 .214 Fuzzy Logic Chap. Boolean algebras are therefore lattices that are distributive (B5). terms of a partial ordering on a set.6). When the variable represented by a logic formula is always tru. we consider thorn equivalent. a b IC a • b a or. referred to as a ruile of substitution. "a" and "a premises). set theory. For example. A th) V (y1 A t/3) y 0/2 A 1. it is called a tamcdogy. set theory. Not all of these properties are necessary for an axiomatic characterization of Boolean algebras. 'When logic formulas a and b are equivalent. A V3) y (tii A v2). alternatively.
= a +Fi = 0 =0 (a  (no Involution (B9) Dualization a 4(1=0 a b + b TABLE 8. the one containing only falsities is denoted by O. in effect. a set of logic variables and the set of all combinations of truth values of these variables.1 a . In other words. language.sal bounds Complementarity + b) F c = a + (b + c) (ci • b) c = a • (b • c) a + fa • b) = a • (a + b) =a a (b+c) =( I?) + (da • c) a + (b • c) = + • (a + c) a.. Each sentence representing a proposition can fundamentally he broken down into a subject and a predicate. to cover ail these theories by developing only one of them. and f. AND PRO POSMONAL LOGIC other two theories.a+1 . Propositions are sentences expressed in soma. These latter propositions are treated as unanalyzed wholes.(17) be equal. Propositional logic is concerned only with those logic relationships that depend on the way in which propositions are composed from other propositions by logic operations. 'This. BOOLEAN ALGEBIRA . These isomorphisms allow us. It is required that the cardinalitles of sets OD(X). The combination containing only truths is denoted by 1.. which denote here. B. AH symbols used in this table are previously defined ln the text except for the symbols V and Zi(V). 8_1 Classical Logic: An Overview 215 TABLE 8.2 (BI) PROPEFMES OF SCOLEAN ALGEBRAS a +a a •a Idernpotenct Conunutativity = a = a (tri) ab=b•a (B3) Associativity (114) Absorption (B5) DistributivitY (136) (B7) Univc. respectively. is not adequate for many instances of deductive reasoning for which the internai structure of propositions cannot be ignored. .Seo.• a s a . These counterparts can be obtained from one another by applying the substitutional correspondences ii Table 8.3.1 =.3 CORRESPONDENCES DEFINING ISOMORPHISMS BETWEEN SET THEORY.
177y Logic Chap_ a a simple proposition can be expressed. The symbol V is called a universal quantifier. We have the following equality: (Er)P(r) = V P(x). "All x E X are F"). the following equality holds: eex)P(x) = zeX P(x). This proposition is true. It is useful tu extend the 4. x2 .2) . X is P.(i E Na ). xi is a citizen of x2 is a binary predicate. This leads to the notion of an nary predicate P(xi . which represents the sentence For every individual x (in the designated universal set). The predicate P then plays the role of a function defined on X. in general. This function is usually called a predicate and is denoted by P(x). c EX (8. where xl stands for individual persons from a designated population X1 and x2 stands for individual countries frciat a designated set 12 of countries.21 6 P. Existential quantification of a predicate P(x) is expressed by the form (ax)P(x). . For convenience. of a predicatcin wu ways. For example. they are referred to as existential quantification and universal quantification. we may use the general form "x is P. Clearly. which for each value of x forms a proposition. nary predicates for n = 0 are defined as propositions in the same sense as in propositional logic. the property of being a country whose inhabitants speak German. elements of dY2 are usually called objects rather than subjects. Clearly. For example.uncepl. it is natuudl to extend it to more than one variable.ary relation among subjects from designated universal sets X. Here.. a predicate becomes a proposition which is either true or false when a particular subject from X is substituted for x. "Austria is a Gennanspeaking country" is a proposition in which "Austria" 5 rands for a subject (a partictAar country) and "a Germanspeaking country" is a predicate that characterizes a specific property. Another way of extending the scope of a predicate is to quantify its applicability with respect to the domain of its variables.ntification have been predominantly used for predicates. in the canonical form where x is a symbol of a subject. Fit. namely. Two kinds of qua. (8. which represents the sentence "There exists an individual x (in the universal set X of the variable x) such that x is P" (or the equivalent sentence "Some x E X are P"). and P designates a predicate that characterizes a property.1) Universal quantification of a predicate P(x) is expressed by the form Cex)P(x). x is (or the equivalent sentence. The symbol is called an existential quantifier.. which for n 1 represents a property and for n 2 an n ." where x now stands for any subject from a designated universe of discourse X. Instead of dealing with particular propositions.
hence.valued logics.4*. It is common in these logics to denote the truth. then the sentence is true (assume x = 0 and x3 = 1). XIP(r) is falselt.Sec. are now well established. for example. when a > fit. are defined in terms of these four primitives in Table 8. labelled by the names of their originators. a= ilP(x) is true)I. Five of the bestknown threevalued [agies. 1 0. x3) stands for the sentence "there exists an x i E XI such that for all x 2 E 12 there exists . as a binary relation  ((u." For example. when Q is defined by the condition a 0 0. P N. that is. at least prior to the event It is now well understood that propositions whose truth status is problematic are not restricted to future events. he maintains. but potentially either. are neither actually true nor actually false. 1] and P (x i . a + lx11. which may be called indeterminate. Propositions about future events. are the essence of predicate logic. and 1/2 1/2.New predicates (quantified or not) can he produced from given predicates by Logic formulas in the same way as new logic variables are produced by logic formulas in propositional logic. The standard existential and universal quantification of predicates can be conveniently generalized by conceiving a quantifier Q applied to a predicate F (x). and 1/2. resEectively.x3 G 13 such that P (xi . expressed by the word "most. x3 ) means < x2 x3 . For example.2 MULTI VALUED LOGICS The basic assumption upon which classical logic (or twovalued logic) is based—that every proposition is either true or false—has been questioned since Aristotle_ In his treatise On Interpretation. 0. such as A. = Ix E . These formulas. x2. 1. where ai fi specify the number of elements of X for which P(x) is true or false. x2 . their truth value is undetermined.4. we obtain the standard existential quantifier. if X1 = X = X3 [0. and indeterminacy by 1. It is also common to define the negation a of a proposition a as 1 a. x E X. Several three. In order to deal with such propositions. As a consequence of the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty. each applying to one variable_ For instance. 9. Other primitives. Formally. differ from one threevalued logic to another. V.2 Multivalued Logica 217 For nary predicates. — . which are called predicate formulas. we may use up to n quantifiers of eitber kind. and . Aristotle discusses the problematic truth status of matters that are futurecontingent. when = O Q becomes the standard universal quantifier. x2. each with its own rationale. The classical twovalued logic can be extended into threevalued logic in various ways. falsity. x3)." . we obtain the socalled plurality quantifier. P)Icr. it is known that truth values of certain propositions in quantum mechanics are inherently indeterminate due to fundamental limitations of measurement. (3x 1)0' x2) (3x P(x1. we must relax the true/false dichotomy of classical twovalued logic by allowing a third truth value. 8. respectively.
s...0 L'4 C=1. 1 ± b — a). 004 0 +.. __• __• ss• C391M • C.. = { .4.es this value_ Therefore.r. 1].4.. it became desirable to explore generalizations into nvalued logics for an arbitrary number of truth values (n ›.. the law of excluded middle (a v a = 1).. It MSC'S truth values in Tli and defines the primitives by the following equations: 41' = l — a. b). . PI. ayb= max(a. Several n valued logics were. the truth value in these generalized logics arc usually labelled by rational numbers in the unit interval [0. ••X L. s1 s•• ..464CI. 1 — la — bl. 0"'I CD. C. and that they differ from each other only in their treatment of the new truth value 1/2.4 PIRIMITEVES OF SOME THREEVALUED LOGICS Lukasie wicz [ . The drst series of n valued logics for which n > Z was proposed by Lraragiewicz in the early 1930s as a generalization of his threevalued logic._... the usual concept of the tautology to the broader concept of a quasitautology.n — 1 n — 1 These values can be interpreted as degrees of truth.. Similarly... since each of its primitives produces the truth value 1/2 whenever at least one of the propositions a and b assum. We toexnd say that a logic formula in & threevalued logic which does not assume the truth value 0 (falsity) regardless of the truth values assigned to its proposition variables is a quaskautology .1" . . in fact. ___. 04 . ^. The set 1. •lltsIGI . • s....11•••• He:. 414NI. 4  • . I (83) . we say that a logic formula which does not assume the truth value 1 (truth) is a quasicontradiction.k.21 8 TABLE 8.. developed in the 1930s.49 .. clearly does not satisfy any of the tautologies of twovalued logic.. a b = inin(1. . b E (0.4=4.Ivr••29s44. These values are. Reichenbach Q Q Q Q rir. 4s4 . For any given n. ___.s a A b = rain(a.k . We can also easily verily that none of these threevalued logics satisfies the law of contradiction (a A d = 0).101ssI 1 4. and some other tautologies of twovalued logic. of truth values of an nvalued logic is thus defined as 2 0 1 T.I 9let ..1. obtained by evenly dividing the interval between 0 and 1 exclusive...*Is1 ..f21.. b)..4.4 that all the logic pxiaiitives listed for the five threevalued logics fully conform to the usual definitions of these primitives in the classical logic for a.. ..mw 'Lampti4ipsy . C' v.1%.k1 . a Bcchvar I . _ .. Once the various threevalued logics Were accepted as meaningful and useful. for example.r C. 1 ). ..• .. . r4 Ci We can see from Table 8. The Bochvar threevalued logic.•w• 9.JIC • C.IN . = 1 . 0 n—1n—1 n — 1 .2).  C.  i src ._. • apCICI Fuzzy Login Chap. CI' 9M4 skn t) . "44..49r••1 sIef . a 4> b . it is common .101CIm4. .• Kleene He yting .W. ___.
some fundamental differences between the two logics enierge.]: is P" in L1. the nvalued logic of Lukasiewicz is usually denoted in the literature by Lp a . In fact. a 44. This is also quite often called the standard Lukasiewicz logic L 1 .L • and The sequence (L2 .is isomorphic to fuzzy set theory based on the standard fuzzy operators.3). Logic L is an infinite valued logic whose truth values are taken from the countable set T of all rational numbers in the unit interval 1 0. etc.2 is clearly the classical twovalued logic discussed in Sec. which is the symbol commonly used to denote the cardinality of the continuum. in the same way as the twovalued logic is isomorphic La the crisp set theory. can be interpreted as the membership degrees P (x) by which the fuzzy set characterized by the property P is defined on X. the membership grades A (x) for x G X.1.). 1]. have exactly the same mathematical form as the corresponding standard operations on fuzzy sets.valued logic when n = 2. 2. We can see that the standard Lukasiewicz logic L l . However. by which a fuzzy set A on the universal set X is defined. and its primitives are defined by (8.valued logics in the same sense that the standard fuzzy set theory is only one of a variety of fuzzy set theories which differ from one another by the set operations they employ_ For each particular inanitevalued logic. these two infinitevalued logics are established as essentially equivalent in the sense that they represent exactly the same tautologies. where the subscript is an abbreviation for $ 1 (read aleph 1).x € X of any proposition ". The isomorphism follows then from the fact that the logic operations of L 1 . L3. the truth values for all . Unless otherwise stated.. we can derive the isomorphic fuzzy set theory. this equivalence holds only for logic formulas involving propositions. It  . The standard Lukasiewlez logic L l is only one of a variety of infinite . The truth values of L„ are taken from Tn . b (a b) A It can be easily verified that (83) subsumes the definitions of the usual primitives of two . of these logics contains two extreme cases—logics . defined by (8. the term infinite valued logic is usually used in the literature to indicate the logic whose truth values are represented by all the real numbers in the interval [0. young.4. we obtain an alternative infinite .valued logic. and defines the primitives of Luicasiewices thrcc valued logic as given in Table 8. where P is a vague (fuzzy) predicate (such as tall. in facts used only negation a V b = (a a b) b. dangerous. but rather accept as truth values any real numbers in the interval [0. 8. 8. the other employs the set of all real numbers in the interval [04 In spite of this difference. for predicate formulas with quantifiers. The insufBciency of any single infinitevalued logic (and therefore the 'desirability of a variety of these logics) is connected with the notion of a complete set of logic primitives. 1 3 .3) . When we do not insist on taking truth values only from the set T. A b =5vb.2 Muitivalued Logics 219 and implication as primitives and defined the other logic operations in terms of these two primitives as follows: Lukasiewicz. Logic L. Primitives of both of these inOritevalued logics are defined by (83). Conversely. expensive. they differ in their sets of truth values. While one of these logics uses the set T as truth values. 1 ). For each n >.Sec. can be interpreted as the truth values of the proposition "x is a member of set A" in L 1.
conditional and unqualified propositions. T(p) F(v) effect a fuzzy set (8. the corresponding fuzzy proposition. This means that T is in on [a. expensive. is expressed by the sentence p V is F. 4. using a finite set of primitives that defines an infinitevalued logic. we introduce relevant canonical forms and discuss their interpretations. p. For each type. That is. While each classical proposition is required to be either true or false. the degree of truth of each fuzzy proposition is expressed by a number in the unit interval [0. 8. in a given context.220 Fuzzy Logic Chap. 8. normal. ii which assigns the membership grade F (v) to cad/ value y of variable V. it may become necessary to resort to alternative Logics. Assuming that truth and falsity are expressed by values 1 and 0. • To illustrate the introduced concepts. Because some applications. low. we can obtain only a subset of all the logic functions of the given primary logic variables. unconditional and qualified propositions. Then. Given a particular value of V (say. such as tall. assuming that all relevant measurement specifications regarding the temperature are given. Hence. and so on.4) where V is a variable that takes values y from some universal set V. unconditional and unqualified propositions. the predicate high. conditional and qualified propositions. This membership grade is then interpreted as the degree of truth. 3. is expressed by the sentence . In this section. 7" (p). the truth or falsity of fuzzy propositions is a matter of degree. p. we focus on simple fuzzy propositions.1a represent. require functions outside this subset. this value belongs to F with membership grade F(v). 8 is known that there exists no finite complete set of logic primitives for any oac infinitevalued logic. . 1 ]. let variable V be the air temperature at some particular place on the Earth (measured in °F) and let the membership function shown in Fig. of proposition p.5) for each given particular value y of variable V in proposition p. (8. 2. u). Unconditional and Unqualified Fuzzy Propositions The canonical form of fuzzy propositions of this type. p temperature (V) is high (F).3 FUZZY PROPOSITIONS The fundamental difference between classical propositions and fuzzy propositions is in the range of their truth values. which we classify into the following four types: 1. and F is a fuzzy set on V that represents a fuzzy predicate. respectively.
The degree of truth of this proposition.4. that I is a set of persons. each person is characterized by his or her Age. is then determined for each person i in f via the equation T (p) = Young (4ge(0).31ac44 of am fuzzy propo5ition p./ (b) Comp4. is numerically trivial for unqualified propositions. In sonic fuzzy propositions. 7. T (p).75 4 I I 10 20 30 40 11L1 50 60 V I 70 140 110 120 RS (a) Figure S.5).1b. Tempvraturc (V) i3 high (F) The degree of truth. 8. it has a conceptual significance. we can exemplify the general form (8. For example. values of variable V La (8. deperids on the actual value of the temperature and on the given definition (meaning) of the predicate high. which represents (8.75 and T (p) = 0. where 17(i) is the value of V for individual f in V The canonical form (8 4) must then be modified to the form p V(i) is F.4) are assigned to Ludividuals in a given set I. r(p).6) by the specific fuzzy proposition p Age(i) is Young. it is defined by the membership function T in Fig.5). this interpretation applies to propositions of the modified form (8. That is. then F(8. . Clearly. Consider. As explained in Sec.Sec.4) can be interpreted as a possibility distribution function FF on V that is defined by the equation r F(u) = F (v) for each value y V.5) = 0. (8 0 where I E Ï . any proposition of the form (8. and a fuzzy set expressing the predicate Young is given. variable 'V becomes a function V: V. if v = 85.3 F( v) 1— Fuzzy Propositions 221 0. as expressed by (8. Although the connection between grades of membership in F and degrees of truth of the associated fuzzy proposition p. 8. for example.6) as well.75. We can see that the role of function T is to provide us with a bridge between fuzzy sets and fuzzy propositions. Denoting our variable by Age and our fuzzy set by Young.
87 Figure 82 Truth values of a fuzzy proposition. where V and F have the same meaning as in (8.87 Tina (h) 0. Pro (V is F) is the probability of fuzzy event "'V is Fi" S is a fuzzy truth qualifier. which has the same meaning as in (8.4). in turn. of any truthqualified proposition p is given for each y E V by the equation  T(p) (8_9) 0. to fairly true. the degree of truth. while the proposition (8. 8.2. In general." where the predicate young and the truth qualifier very true are represented by the respective fuzzy sets shown in Fig_ 8.87. shc belongs to the set representing the predicate young with the membership grade 0. An example of a truth cpialified proposition is the proposition "Tina is young is very true. V may be replaced with 1. our proposition belongs to the set of propositions that are very true with membership grade 0. Both S ancl P are represented by fuzzy sets on [0.222 Unconditional and Qualified Propositions Fuzzy Logic Chap.g. If the proposition were modified by changing the predicate (e. we would obtain the respective degrees of truth of these propositions by the same method.76. Hence. etc. that the degree of truth of our Ltuth valiCed proposition is also 0.2h.7(1). and P is a fuzzy probability qualifier. 8 . Piupositions p of this typ aie çharactorized by either the canonical form p :V is F is S (83) (8. very false.. We bay that the proposition (8.76.g. T (p). as illustrated in Fig. Assuming that the age of Tina is 26. to very young) or the truth qualifier (e. . This means. If desired.8) is probabilityqualified..8) or the canonical form p: Pro (V is F is P.1].6).7) is truthquailficd.).
the probabilityqualified proposition p Pro (temperature t (at given place and time) is around 7.3 Exampie pf a probatilltyvallfied proposition_ . Let us discuss. hence. eV As an example.2b.with similar propositions regarding other aspects. from relevant statistical data over many years) is given: A (t) Vary Likely o 70 72 74 76 78 aa 82 0 .8).5°F) is likely may provide us with a meaningful characterization of one aspect of climate at the given place and time and may be combined.5 . That is. It specified in Fig.8) is true is given by the T (p) P (E f (v) F OW_ J.lb and 8. now probabilityqualified propositions of the form (8. such as humidity. and so on. special truthqualified propositions.7) as the unqualified proposition "17 is G. Assume now that the following probability distribution (obtained.3b. 0))) F (v) for unqualified propositions.3a and the qualifier "likely" be expressed by the fuzzy seton 1] defined in Fig.25 . wind speed. Then." Observe that unqualified propositions are. let variable V be. we have Pro f V is F = and.. then. e_g.8 • If '3 F) (a) ( 3) Figure 3.Sec.3 Fuzzy Propositions 223 Viewing the membership function G (u) = S (F (r)) . f on V. For any given probability distribution. (8. the average daily temperature t in °F at some place on the Earth during a certain month... S may be ignored for the sake of simplicity. the degree formula E f(u) v F (v). Let in our example the predicate "around 75'F" be represented by the fuzzy set A on. 8. S (P. Each proposition cf this type describes an elastic restriction on possible probability distributions on V.10) r(p) to which proposition p of the form (8. As shown in Figs. 8. the membership function representing this qualifier is the identity function. in which the truth qualifier S is assumed to be true. we can interpret any truthqualified proposition of the form (8. rainfall. 8. where u E V . in fact. 8. as a simple predicate.
This low degree of truth would not make the new proposition a good description of the actual situation. Observe that the degree of truth depends on the predicate F. a 70 1 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 1 83 f( ) . time. applying this result to the fuzzy probability likely in Fig. then y is B.16 x 1 + _14 x . t'70 and T (p) becomes practically equal to 1 even if we apply the stronger qualifier very likely. y2 ÷ + 1/x2. where R is a fuzzy set on X x Y that is determined for each x E X and each y e Y by the formula R(x.04 x .04 .005 .) is around 75T. (8.11)).21 x 1 . given the definitions of around 75 and likely in Fig. the degree of truth of the new proposition would be only _32. where 3 denotes a binary operation on [0.10).224 t Fuzzy Logic Chap.2 and 11. 1 lowvier.12) where X.01 .14 . we obtain Pro (t is close to 75°F) . Y respectively. Here.11 x . we obtain 74 f (t) = . 11 representing a suitable fuzzy implication.1/x3 and B =.01 x . Y2 . Pro t is ia the 70s} Conditional and Unqualified Propositions Propositions p of this type are expressed by the canonical form p: If X is A. the Lukasiewicz implication (8..95 for our proposition.011.75 + . y2 + .16 . respectively. let us only illustrate the connection between (8.95 that it is likely that the temperature (at a given place.5 + .8. and A B are fuzzy sets on X .51x3. Let A — . and.3b).1/x1 + .15 .13) PC.3.04 .11 x _5. it is true with the degree of .. using (8 . 11. 8.14) 3(a. Y) is R. R = 1/xi. for example. That is.005 . we find that î(p) = . Fuzzy implications are discussed in detail in the context of approximate reasoning in Secs. we may conclude that our proposition is a good characterization of the actual situation.12) for one particular fuzzy implication.001 69 68 Then.3. 8. I a + b).002 . 5 /Yi I 1/y2• Then .75 ± _15 x 1 + . B(y)]. Due to this high degree of truth.+ .005 . etc. 'Y are variables whose values are in sets X. 8. the qualifier P. our fuzzy predicate around 75 with a crisp predicate in the 70s.21 . Yi 1/xi .0021. y) = 3[A(x). b) = snin(1. Replacing.98.13) and (8.11 .25 + .11 . if we ioplaced the qualification likely in our proposition with very likely (as also defined in Fig.3b (according to (8.8/x2 I. Y.04 x = . y ± 1/x3. and the given probability distribution. These propositions may also be viewed as propositions of the form (8.
and Q is a fuzzy number expressing the linguistic term about 10. (8.18) where Q is the same quantifier as in (8. Fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind are defined on 2. p'. Fuzzy quantifiers of the second kind are defined on [0. I.19) for all I E I. 1 ]). for example.g. 13.a conditional probability.4 FUZZY QUANTIFIERS Similar to how the scope of classical predicates can be extended by quantifying their applicability. There axe Q E's. (8. where Pro (X is AN is B) is .1] and characterize linguistic terms such as almost all.16) or the canonical form p Pro (X is AN is BI is p. and characterize linguistic terms such as about 10. They are of two kinds. 8.17) where V is a variable that for each individual I in a given set 1 assumes a value V(i).Sec.4 Fuzzy Quantifiers 225 This means. Propositions of this type can be characterized by either the canonical form p: If DC is A. In general. for example. One of them is the form p : There are Q i's in I such that V(i) is F. I is an index set by which distinct measurements of variable V are distinguished. e. much more than 100. at least about 5.15) (8.. T (p) Conditional and Qualified Propositions . Since methods intrcrduccd for tfic other types of propositions can be combined to deal with proposikions of this type. and Q is a fuzzy number on R. then 'J is B is S (8. that (p) = 1 when X = x 1 and J = yi . Any proposition p of the form (8.y set defined on the set of values of variable V. by numbers in [0. and E is a fuzzy set on a given set / that is defined by the composition E F(V(i)) (8. and so on. fuzzy quantifiers are fuzzy numbers that take part in film propositions. There are two basic forms of propositions that contain fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind. most. An example of this form is the proposition: "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is high. the proposition . the value V(i) of variable V represents in this proposition the degree of fluency in English of student i (expressed. In general. and so on. we do not deem it necessary to discuss them_ further.7 when X = x2 and=yi.17) can be converted into another proposition. F is a fu27.17). of a simplified form. Thus.so. F is a fuzzy set defined on the set of values of variable V that expresses the linguistic terni high." Given a set of students. about half. we can extend the scope of the fuzzy predicates by the use of fuzzy quantifiers.
Eve]. 95. For the sake of simplicity. any given proposition "W s Q" induces a possibility distribution function.625. Bob.18) may be viewed as a simplified expression of proposition p of the form (8. W . 17(David) =. The proposition provides us. we calculate the cardinarity of E Finally. David.1ED." and F is a fuzzy set on [0.25) 0.4. we are not able to construct the set E." Proposition pi' of the form (8. 7." Here. 100] that captures the linguistic term "high fluency. It is common in natural language to use the simplified form in lieu of the full form.21) to obtain the truth value of our proposition: T (p) = Q(2. that the students' scores are not 'mown. that is ro(f E expresses the degree of possibility that W = E I.21) As explained in Sec. 1E1 = EE(i) = 2.4. The truth value of the proposition  is then determined as follows. we adopt this usage. V(i). Assume that I = [Adana.. in our case.5/Eve.17).18) may be rewritten in the form W is Q of fuzzy set E (i. Then. 100] that express degrees of fluency in English. Assuming. Assume now that the following scores are given. Comparing this proposition with its general counterpart (8. V(Eve) = 70. a fuzzy quantifier "about 3. E is the fuzzy set of "highfluency Englishspeaking students in a given class." Both Q and F are defined in Fig. V(Adana) = 35. wc have (P) = T(p') = OE D.20) where W is a variable taking values in 1R that represents the scalar cardinality (sigma enunt) F(V(i)) and. As an example. First.17). a p "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is high" can be replaced with the proposition ntere are about 10 highfluency Englishspeaking students in a given class. and V is a variable with values in the interval [0.e. 8. with information about the . is high. we use (8. we construct the fuzzy set defined hy (8 _19): E 0/Adam + 0/13ob + . 25EJ Next. Obviously. 1E1 EE(i) ier iel (8. for each given fuzzy set E. in this case. proposition p' of the form (8.226 Fuzzy Logic Chap. we can see that Q is.V(Cathy) = 80. let us discuss the proposition p There are about three students in I whose fluency in English. rQ that is defined for each 1E1 E R by the equation (822) r (1E 1) = (1E 1) This possibility distribution acts as an elastic oonstxaint on values of variable W. Cathy. on the other hand. (8. V(Bob) = 20.75/Cathy + 1/David + .
F2 are fuzzy sets on V1. variables V1 and V. Fuzzy quantifiers of the first kind may also appeal in fuzzy pmpo." respectively. ..23) where. 1. Q is a fuzzy number that captures the linguistic term "about 10.4 Fuzzy Quantifiers 227 2. degrees of possibility of various values of the cardinality of E.25 1E1 IQ! "about Figure 8. V.24) un El.26) with (8.4 Fuzzy sets in a quantified fuzzy proposition..Ei and EzYs. Moreover. Q is a fuzzy number on R. (8.25) E2(i) = F2CV2(i)) I. characterize fluency in English and age of the students.26) (8." In this proposition.24) may be interpreted as p' There are f2(. r is an index set by which students in the given class are labelled. F2 are fuzzy sets that characterize the linguistic terms "high" and "young. .23). E2 are fuzzy sets I that ate defined E 1 (t) = F1R1(0) for all i E (8. V2. (8. and (8. For instance. respectively. and so. where Q 15 the same quantifier as in by the compositions (3. VI. since Q(3) the possibility of 1E1 = 3 is 1. since Q(5) = 0. QE 1 's E2's." and F1 . I is an index set by which distinct measurements of variables V1.27) Comparing now (8. it is impossible that 1E1 = 5.26) in the form p' W is Q. we may rewrite (8.18).on. An example of this form of a quantified fuzzy proposition is the proposition "There are about 10 students in a given class whose fluency in English is .. V2 are variables that take values from sets VIL. respectively.sitioas of the form • p There are Q i's in I such that Vo(i) is F1 and 172(i) is F21 (8. Any proposition p of the form (8. measurements on a set of individuals or measurements at distinct time instants).g.high and who are young.23) can be expressed in a simplified form. 8. V2 are identified (e. and F1.Sec.
" "most. we have W E rnin[FICVI (0). W 1E 1 n E21).4  0.2.. These are quantifiers such as "almost ar "about half. 1]." and so on.e.29) Furthermore. and the meaning of the remaining symbols is the same as previously defined. also the equivalent proposition p) induces a possibility distribution function. that is defined for e2ch W 1E. Most 0. F. Examples of some quantifiers of this kind are shown in Fig.25).5. 1 ]. Among i's in I such that Vi (i) is F1 there are Qi's in I such that 172(i) is F2. hence. for any giywl sets E2 and £2.(V2(i))] jEf (828) Now. r a . Using the standard fuzzy intersection and (8. 8 where W is a variable taking values i R that represents the scalar cardinality of the fuzzy set n E2 (i.31) where Q is a fuzzy number on [0. T(P) = (11) = Q(W). (8.63 Figure SS Examptes of fuzzy quantifiers of the second kind.30) Let us now discuss fuzzy propositions with quantifiers of the second kind. proposition p' (and.228 Fuzzy Logic Chap. Fuzzy propositions with quantifiers of the second kind have the general form p . n E2 1 by the equation rci (W) = Q(W)(8. 8. (8. An example of a proposition of this form is the proposition "Among . They are represented by fuzzy numbers on the unit interval [0.
fairly. For example. more or less. there are almost all whose fluency in English is high. (8. Quantifiers of the first kind are also called absolute quantifiers. F2(172(0)] (8. and the second kind.Sec. lEr C1 E21 1E11 Using the standard fuzzy intersection and (8.32) with (8. and E1.31) may be written in a simplified form.32) where Q is the same quantifier used in (8." which is assumed to mean "x is young is true.34) where W is a variable that represents the degree of subsethood of £2 in E l." may be modified by the hedge very in any of the following three ways: is very young is true.35). we obtain a possibility distribution r Q defined by (8. fuzzy truth values." "X . we can see that both these propositions have the same form. while quantifiers of the second kind are called relative quantifiers. we obtain w ief E min[Fi (171(i)). Clearly. but the quantifiers involved are different.5 Linguistic Hedges 229 students in a given class that are young. or extremely are examples of hedges. 5. £2 (8. On the other hand. we may rewrite (8. This terminology makes sense when we compare the definitions of variable W for quantiEers of the first kind." "x is very young is very true.33)." "x is young is very title." Comparing (8. that is.24). They can be used for modifying fuzzy predicates. tly analogy of the two forms. T (p) is obtained by (8.31). 8. EI(i) = E2(i) = F20 72(i)) are fuzzy sets on X defined by (8.33) for all i € 1. the previous example is modified as follows: "Almost all young students in a given class are students whose fluency in English is high." As previously explained. p' QEV's are E2's. any proposition of the form (8. given a proposition p of the form (8. given by (8. In this form.32) in the form pl W is 12. given by (8.29).31). and fuzzy probabilities. Linguistic terms such as very.28).5 LINGUISTIC HEDGES Linguistic hedges (or simply hedges) are special linguistic terms by which other linguistic terms are modified.30).35) for any given sets E l and E2. the proposition "z is young.
according to the fuzzy set YOUNG representing the fuzzy predicate young. (836) This means that properties of linguistic hedges can be studied by studying properties of the associated modifiers. Assume now that John is 26 and. T(p1) = 0. consider three fuzzy propositions: John is young. very teenage. and T (p3) = 0. very pregnant. Let unary operations that while the hedge fairly is interpreted as h(a) = hedges be caned modifiers. A strong modifier strengthens a fuzzy predicate to which it is applied and. consequently. the truth value of the proposition increases.230 Fuzzy Logic Chap. Any modifier h is an increasing bijection.82 = 0. the hedge very is often interpreted as the unary operation h(a) (a c [0. Hence. T(p 2) = 0. It is important to reah7e that linguistic hedges are not applicable to crisp predicates. where I1F denotes the fuzzy predicate . hence. VERY YOUNG (26) = 0. For example. 1]. it is easy to prove that every modifier h satisfies the following conditions. 8 Similarly. le3 : John is fairly young. which are self expl an atory . or probabilities. on the unit interval [0.8. H. Pi and let the linguistic hedges very and fairly be represented by the strong modifier a2 and the weak modifier Va. A weak modifier. En general. p2 John is very young. Given a fuzzy predicate F on X and a modifier h that represents a linguistic hedge H the modified fuzzy predicate HF Is determined for each x E X by the equation represent linguistic H F (x) = h(F(x)). may be interpreted as a unary operation.a for all a e tO.89. truth values. H. For example. Hence. the modifier is called strong. 1." and so forth. the modifier is called weak. we can construct a modified proposition. hedges do not exist in classical Any linguistic hedge.64. the linguistic terms very horizontal. Then. on the contrary. h. given a fuzzy proposition p x is F and a linguistic hedge.89. The special (vacuous) modifier for which h(a) = a is called an identity modifier. Bp: xisHF. If h(a) < a for all a E [O.8. weakens the predicate and. For example. 1]). lj. if h(a) ›.1. These values agree with our intuition: the stronger assertion is less true and vice versa. the proposition "x is young is likely" may be modified to '4. YOUNG (26) = 0.1C is young is very likely.64 and FAIRLY YOUNG (26) = 0.obtained by applying the hedge H to the given predicate F. it reduces the truth value of the associated proposition.ot meaningful. Additional modifications can be obtained by applying the hedge to the fuzzy truth value or fuzzy probability employed in the given proposition. or very rectangular are r.
h„ is a strong modifier. we describe generalizations of three classical inference rules. 8. we always view any Iin_guistic term . Observe that this inference may be expressed equally well in terms of characteristic functions Km x57 X R of sets A.6 inference from Conditional Fuzzy Prepositions 23 1 1. we should avoid various ambiguities of natural language. sel" for all y e Y. then so are the compositions. X R (x. Let us proceed now one step further and assume that R is a fuzzy relation on X x and A'. we can infer that y e B. not necessarily a function. 8.7b. y) R}. IA. if R and A' are given. as illustrated in Fig. h and g are strong (weak). 2. Then. In this section.611 Assume now that the variables are related by an arbitrary relation on X Y. we can infer that ê = f (x). of constructing a membership function. For example.6 = fy e 1114. as INFERENCE FROM CONDITIONAL FUZZY PROPOSMONS As explained in Sec. modus ponens. but it may also be viewed (as some authors argue) as a new hedge that is somewhat weaker than the hedge very. B. h / is the identity modifier.sup min[x A (x).15a. given t= u and a relation R. compositions of g with h and h with g are also modifiers and. when a > 1. B respectively. When a < 1. In our further considerations. then h' is weak and vice versa. h is a continuous function. These generalizations are based on the socalled compositional rule of inference.Sec. respectively. Consider variables X and I) that take values from sets X and Y. 3. the linguistic term not very may be viewed as the negation of the hedge very. as the negation of H. by the equation (8.. y) E R. y)] . A convenient class of functions that satisfy these conditions is the class (837) where a E le is a parameter by which individual modifiers in this class are distinguished and au [O. we can infer that 9 E B. In representing modifiers of linguistic hedges.1. Similarly. where H is an arbitrary hedge.38) X(Y) . we can obtain B by the equation . 8. These inference rules can be generalized within the framework of fuzzy logic to facilitate approximate reasoning. 8. B' are fuzzy sets on X and Y. 4. we can infer that the value of '9 is in the set B = {y G Fly = f (x).wt if. given another modifier g. where B = fy E YI (x.7a. and hypothetical syllogism. which is discussed in Chapter 10. h„ is a weak modifier. moreover. X E Al. x e A}. knuwing that X e A. mod= eotlens. and assume that for all x € X and an y E 1r the variables are related by a function y f Then. 8. h(0) = 0 and h(l) = 1. respectively. where . as illustratçd in Fig. if both. as shown in Fig. 8. This is a similar problem as the problem. knowing that the value of X is in a given set A. as shown in Fig. This class of modi fiers (as well as any other acceptable class) enables us to capture the meaning of each relevant linguistk hedge in a particular context by determining an appropriate value of the parameter a. Similarly. Then. given X = x. if h is strong. inference rules in classical logic are based on the various tautologies.
R(x. is called the compositional rule of inference. The fuzzy relation employed in (8.39) is timidly not given directly. 8 (a) y  f(i) X (13) Figure 8. (I» A y B (y E Yly y. is discussed in Chapter 11. 8. This rule is illustrated in Fig.38) obtained by replacing the characteristic functions in (8. where . A more general case. which can also be written in the matrix form as = AP R. 8.3. In this section. but in some other form.8. whore f (x). we consider the case in which the relation is embedded in a single conditional fuzzy proposition.232 Fuzzy Lc Chap. As explained in Sec.38) with the corresponding membership functions. then is B eY by the formula Opt (x). y)) rer (8.39) for an y E Y. in which the relation emergeg from several conditional fuzzy propositions. This equation. B R(x y) (8. which is a generalization of (8.6 Functional re/al:ion between two variables: (a) f (x).40) where g denotes a fuzzy implication (Chapter 11). relation R that is embedded in a conditional fuzzy proposition p of the form p is determined for all x X and all y is A. . x 4 AJ Bt (y) = sup minpli (x).
8. X Figure 8.6 Inference from Ccndtiartai Fuzzy Proposftions 233 X Flgssre 8.38).8 Compositional rule of inference expressed bi (819). .Sec.7 Inference cpressed by (8.
9).39).5/x i + 1/x2 ± .39). we want to use the generalized modus ponens (8. then V is B V is B' Conclusion: X is A' case. then l4 is fr is given.6. Yi.1 sets of values of variables X and V be I = (x1 . B' is calculated by (8. x2 . and given another • proposition q of the form q: is . 1)." Using. Viewing proposition p as a rule and proposition q as a fact.9/y1 + . by the compositional mie of inference (8. Then.40). Assume that a proposition "if X is A. . the generalized modus ponens is expressed by the following schema: Rule Fact : Conclusion : If X is A. x3. thenli is B I is A' is D' (8. This procedure is called a generalized madus ponens.40).7/y2." where A' = .9 (Yz> — = EAT min[A'(x). respectively. +. Yi + 3e2 //xl. Exampie 8.4). rain(. the compositional rule of inference has the form .. y t) 2€X inaxlmin(. where A = .9/x11 y2 + 1/x2. for example.1 and Y fyi . Yi)] xeg max[rain(. min(. . y2 by (8.9.41) becomes the classical modus ponens when the sets are crisp and A' = A.14).39). B' = B. R(x. is expressed by the following schema: Ride Fact : In this If X is A. we may conclude that is 13' by the compositional rule of inference (3. we obtain Let R l/zY+ .R(x. we may conclude that 1z1 is 13'. . 1)1 = .8/r3 .7.61x1+ .7.4. and R in this equation is determined by (8.234 Fuzzy Logic Chap. inin(. given a fact expressed by the proposition "x is A'. Another inference rule in fuzzy logic. 1).9.41) to derive a 0011GIUSi Oa in the form "y is B'.7 thus. 40). 8 Using relation R obtained from given proposition p by (8.7/x3 .41) In this schema. . whoreB = .6/x3 and B = iiyt .42 • Then. yil. Observe that (6.9/x2 + . which is a generalized mocha toliens. rain(. we obtain RV]) = sup min[A(x).8)] . the Lukasiewicz implication (3.i5.
C art fuzzy sets on sets X„Y.43) Conclusion : if is A . X. R(x. min(.B Irrference frorr Conditional Fuzzy Propositions 235 (8.R2(y z) = inn (y) C (z)1. y Y.Z. and B are the same as in Exa.1.45).mpe 8. 7iY2. respectively.40). R3. then . obtained by these equations2 we say that the generalized hypothetical syllogism holds if R3 (x z) = sup mitt[R (. Then. = A B = B. and z Z by the equations Ri (x. R(x l . Assume now that a fact expressed by the proposition "141 is . z)]. _FEY and R in this equation is again determined by (8. C (i) Given R2 .45) . then Z is C (8. Y. R2(y. A. 1). y). y)] ytY Imax[min(. B.Then. R(x3. tnin(.9. there is a fuzzy relation determined by (8.1.Sec. by (S.7‘ . min(7. 1). which is based on two conditional fuzzy propositions. and A.9/Yi . . where = .40). y)1. AVO = sup min[B1(y). yeir (8. When the sets are crisp and Example 8. we obtain the classical modus tollens. y)] ytY max[rain( 9. R (x2. (8. 1).8)] = .b1 is B is B.9. 1 (x 2) = sup minfr (y). . R is also the same as in Example 8.9/x3. . R2.9)] = . A.4)] = 9. then Z is C In this case.7. Far each conditional fuzzy proposition in (8 . Z are variables taking values in sets X. Hence. let us discuss a generalization of hypothetical syllogism.R3 (x. 8.7. This equation may also be written in the matrix form R3 R1 R2. These relations are determined for each x e X. y.9. 3 ) ] yY = maxim/it( 9.2 Let x. y) = . .42). we conclude that X is A' where A' = . respectively.8' is gives.9/xi + /xz .42) A1 (x) = sup min[B'(y). Finally.44) which again expresses the compositional rule of inference. Z. z) = [A (x). AV3) = sup rain[fr(y). The generalized hypothetical syllogism is expressed by the following schema: Rule 1 Rule 2: If is A .
the role of the qualifier S is to modify the truth value of 0(a.6. where S is the fuzzy qualifier in (8. clearly. 1 . b). 11. (8. then S(3(a. Step 3. Given a conditional and qualified fuzzy proposition p of the form p: If X is A. 8.2 1 . and we obtain the case discussed in Sec." Step 2. 1 ]. b)) 3(a. b)." One method developed for this purpose.7 INFERENCE FROM CONDITIONAL AND QUALIFIED PROPOSITIONS The inference rule of our concern in this section involves conditional fuzzy propositions with fuzzy truth qualifiers." we want to make an inference in the form "II is E'. 8. _2 1 [ . .4 [ 1 R2 r .46) is interpreted. 1]. Select a suitable fuzzy implication I by which the fuzzy proposition (g.4 RI . called a method of truthvalue restrictions.46). tj so (a . Step 1. b.TTACi)ma sup A'(x). The relative fuzzy truth value RT(A7A) expresses the degree to which the fuzzy proposition (8. denoted by RT (Al A). Y be the same as in Example 8.. B = Chap. This is similar to the selection of fuzzy implication in Sec..6/x3. (8. 8 Z (zit . Calculate the relative fuzzy truth value RT (B' 1B) by the formula (BV B)(b) sup mini RT (AV A)(a). is based on a manipulation of linguistic truth values. and a fact is in the form "X is A'. which is a fuzzy set on the unit interval idefincd by RT (A' I A)(a) .2jrz1 1iz2 .2 1 1. Moreover. and 1 if a < b if a . Clearly..236 Fuzzy Logic Example $3 Let X.47) for all a E [O.e.4 1 . Calculate the relative fuzzy truth value of A' with respect to A. 5(a) = a) for all a [0. and let 5 /x1 +1/x2 1.2 1 The generalized hypothetical syllogism holds in this case since 144 R2 = R3. Note that when S stands for true (i. then 11 is B is S. 1 . Then.46) is true given the available fact '`)C is IV.. The method involves the following four steps.1.48) for all b (0.6. whose purpose is to express a conditional but unqualified fuzzy proposition as a fuzzy relation. z2 1. let A c .46) where S ig a fuzzy truth qualifier. 8. b))] (8.
'. 8.6. and S stands for very truc let S(a) a2 for all a . Hence.b) A graph of this function RT (13' f B) is shown in Fig.48): RT(B 1 B)(b) = raax(roin[. Step 4.737.9. Wc select the Lukasiewicz fuzzy implication 3 defined by (8. where A = 1/x1 + .375) for b 1.737) (.e. (8 49) for ail y E Y. We calculate RT (137B) by (8. We calculate _RT (A' jA) by (8.6 b))]. Calculate the set 13' involved in. .9/x1 + .7 for b [0.537. we make the inference "'Y is B'. Step 2. Step 1. I]... 11 .8 1/B)(1) = . Step 3. — (.7  Infenanca from Conditional and Qualified Propositions 237 The relative fuzzy truth value RT(B1B) expresses the degree to which the conclusion (If the fuzzy proposition (8.9.375. as stated in the following theorem. . .7.7/yi .7 B . mi4.7) = A.6/yi 1/yz. .e [0.Se o.49) B i (yi) br(y2) Step 4. PT (A 1/A)(a) = 0 for all a [0.b) 2 for b [.1 4. 349) .46) is true.9 . p If X is A then y is B is very true. S is the identity function)..6 (. b))]. . S(2.(x 3) = .7/x3 . 11.5) A(x 2) .7 for b E [.46) stands for true (i." where A' .9. 8.7.8 1 /13)(B(y1)) = RT CB I 45)(.5/x2+ .849.475) b) 2 for b e‘ [A75_537) .RT(. Given a fact "X is A'. s (a(.5.4 Suppose we have a fuzzy wildtitional and qualiEed propositim. the inference " 1J is It'" by the equation (y) RT(B' I BYB(y)).6) = RT(397B)ta(y)). We calculate B' by (8.4 + . RT (A i fA)(. RT(.47): _RT (AV A)(1) = /1. soc.9.9/y2.1 (x1) = RT(A7A)(. . When S in (S . . we conclude that y is where B' is calculated by the following steps." where B' .15/x2 + .14). the method of truthvalue restrictions is equivalent to the generalized modus ponens under a particular condition. Example 8.6.9 for b E [.
49). S stands for true). g(a.52). becomes (8.51) and (8.(v) .8 0. B(y))] sup A' (x') = HT (A / IA) (A (X )) ezAGT1=4. E'..1 0 0..9 Function RT(B/B f) in Examp)e 3_3. becomes (8. let Bi." where Theorem 8.3 0.46) be given. B(y))] for all y e Y_ To prove the theorem. B denote the functions defined by (831) and (8.e. Then. a(A (x).52) define the same membership function B' To facilitate the probf.1 01 0.7 0. 0. where S is the identity fnaction (i.51) B r(y) = sup min[RT(A7A)(a). Let a fuzzy proposition of the form (8. Since Ai(x) for all x E X.9 0. defined by (8. B(y))1 for all y e Y. we have to show that (8.52) (y) = sup min[A1(x).(x). Proof: When S(a) = a for all a E defined by (8. the inference 11 is B' obtained by the method of truthvalue restrictions is equal to the one obtained by the generalized modus ponens (i. provided that we use the same fuzzy implication in both inference methods.41) and (8A9) define the same membership function Bf).6 0. respectively.50) for all a E [0. 8 O.2 0. Using the same fuzzy implication zeX g.3 0_4 0.8 Fuzzy Logic Chap. (8.e.238 1 0.5L0. B(y)) 1 min[RT(AVA)(A(x)).9 Figure $.1 sup Al(x) = A1 (x0 ) (8.4 0.5 O. 064(x).1] and some xo such that A(x0) = a. we have min[Ai (x).41). and Jet a fact be given in the form "X LS Ai. a(A.
25)). sup nain [I? T (K/A) (A (x)). XE.53) Pi W is Qi Ci E Ni. hence.a for all y E = 3(A (x0). consequently. BO/DI = Bi(Y) Y. the two inference methods are equivalent when S stands for true. Bi = Observe that the condition (8.x. are finite_ The significance of the theorem is that.(3. a (A (x ). where Qi is either an absolute quantifier or a relative quantifier. 8(y))1 sup minVi'(r). Under these circumstances.15) may be considered equivalent. For example. 11. a. g(a. it is satisfied whenever the universal set X is finite or the sets fx E XrA(x) a [0. B(y))] x :Mx ). B(y))] xeX < sup rairt[RT (A7A) (a).4. Given n quantified fuzzy propositions of the form (8.Sec. On the other hand. easy to satisfy. propositions (8. 30.19)). 83 Inlerence from Quantified Propositions 239 for all y E Y. B(y))1 = B. Ii(y))1 = mini sup Ai (x).50). To discuss this principle. 8. when Q is an absolute quantifier. _Bi (y ) = sup min[RT(AVA)(a)..). we have min[RT(A7A)(a). Hence. or as Prop (E21E1) = [E1 n E21/IE1KEi. (x).. the problem of inference from quantified fuzzy propositions may be stated as follows. all quantified ft=y propositions can be expressed in the form p :W is Q where W is a variable whose values are specified either as 1.50) is rather weak and.12) and (8. when Q is a relative quantifier. B(y))] 8 (y) = Sup rain[A r(x). 00(x). by condition (8. and Wi is a variable compatible with the quantifier Qi for each e N„.. let us assume that the prospective . ) for all y E Y. Ez defuled by (8. a INFERENCE FROM QUANTIFIED PROPOSITIONS As explained in Sec. a(a. B(y))] 14(y) for all y e Y and. Ez).ei (E defined by (8. what can we infer from these propositions? One possible principle that addresses this questide is known in the literature as the quantifier extension principle.. a(a. Observe that ?Top (EVE L ) = In general. Thus. under this weak condition.
where the meaning of f (Q 1 . W2. pn . rcspectiveIy rurthc . W2) = WiW2 IE nFl . there exists a function :f . „ . Icspectively. An alternative. IF respectively.1E1 1E1 • IE n Fl= l_Fi = Hence. by the extension principle. Q„„) and g(Qi. To facilitate our discussion. P2 About half of the persons in the room are females. W are variables p W is Q. [E n FIJ1E. It is the product function. the set of persons and the set of females in the room.. R2 . Q„) are again obtained To illustrate the quantifier extension principle. Qz. 23). If we want to make an inference in terms of the proposition p There. Q2. follows from p i . Using these symbols. (834) The principle slates the fulluvifing: if theru exists a funçtiun f . inference is expressed in terms of a quantified fuzzy proposition of the form p W is Q. Now. by the quantifier extension principle. we need to determine Q.. p2. with values 1E1. and f (Wi t W2.R such that f (V9 1 . such thdt W = .(Q 1 . more general formulation of the principle is: if there exist two —r. let the quantifiers "about 10" and "about half" be denoted by Q 1 and Qz .JR such that R and g functions f f (WI. b) = ab f Ovi. let the following quantified fuzzy propositions be given: pi Thele are about 10 persons in the room. if Q Qi • Q2 is the quantifier in_ proposition . P2 where W1 . W2 is /22.rmorc. f (a. • • • QP1)1* „). f (Q1. W 2) W for the variables in our example. Q = f (Q 1. 02. is defined by the extension principle (Sec. Q2. Wn ) W then we may conclude that p specia/ quantifier denoted by g(W 4 . Q z . Q2. kt E • F denote. W2. • • pn. Q2 1 at) and at most 8. are Q females in the room. then we may conclude that p follows from p2. Let us discuss how this can be accomplished by the quantifier extension principle. "at least f (Q i . we can now be given propositions in the form Pi W1 is Qi. Q) Q).240 Fuzzy Logic Chap. . W2. where Q in proposition p is a Q [?: f(Qt. 8. ." Fuzzy sets whose meaning is. Q2r • • • g(Qi.
propositions p i . Using the intersection/product syllogism (8. One of the inference rules is caned the intersection/product syllogism. then p is a correct inference from p i and pz . where (2t . 8. G are fuzzy sets on a universal set X. F. is expressed by the following schema: . To prove that the inference schema (8. we have to demonstrate (according to the quantifier extension principle) that W W1 W2. p2 W2 is Q2.55) p : Q i .Q z E's are (F arid Gys where E.. Q i and Q2 are relative quantifiers (fuzzy numbers on [0.55) is valid. the inference schema (&M) is valid.EnFi lEnFn61 IE fl F I 1E1 IE n F G[ E1 = Prop (F r1G/E). 1]).W2 = Prop (FIE) • Prop (GIE fl F) 1.55).4). It is expressed by the following schema: Pz Qi L's are F's Q2 (E and F)'s are G's (a. As previously explained (Sec. the The quantifier extension principle can be used for deriving various inference rules for quantified fuzzy propositions. p W is Q where 'W 1 = Prop (F/E). and p may be expressed in the form WI is Q. p2. p. and W = Prop (F n G/E). lei us consider quantified fuzzy propositions Pi : Most students are young. This demonstration is rather simple: . ez inference from Quantified Prepositions 241 p. we may infer the proposifion p Q of students are young and males. where Q is a quantifier obtained by taking the arithmetic product of fuzzy numbers that represent the quantifiers ?most and about half Another inference rule.Sec. ] • Hence. W2 iggi Prop (a/E n F). Let us mention two of them. and Qj Q2 is the arithmetic product of the quantifiers. which is called the consequent conjunction syllogism. As an example.W. : About half young students are males.02 is the arithmetic product of fuzzy numbers 0 1 and Q2 employed in given propositions.
. 7 (c) (a b) (76 a). Q. Fuzzy propositions of the various types introduced in this chapter and (be various fuzzy inference rules based on these propositions were introduced. b.4. Gaines [19781 Baldwin [1979aj. Define in the form of a table (analogous to Table 8. 1987]. Important contributions to this subject were also made by Goguen [196869]. determine the truth values of each of the following logic expressions for all combinations of truth values of logic variables a.2. Q 1. We leave the proof that inference schema (8.56) p Q E's are (F and G)'s where E. 1990j. Pavelka [19791. Q2 are relative quantifiers. 4. Give an example from daily life of each type of fuzzy proposition introduced in this chapter. 199214 Baldwin [1979b].242 Q i E's arc F's Q 2 E's are G's Fuzzy Logic Chap.4. Various aspects of the relationship between muitivalued logics and fuzzy logic are examined by numerous authors. b. height. bl. 1984a.10. Q2).56) follows from the cp2. by Zadeh in numerous articles. including Bellman and Zadeh 119771 Giles [1977]. 8. Here.4) the primitives A. (b) v T') 4* (a A b). Mizurnoto 11981]. ASSIUT:IC four types of fuzzy predicatez. and Nova [1989. a p2 (8. that is. and level Of education). 83. weight.1.5). Baldwin and Guild [1980a. which also contains an extcusive bibliography on the subject. 1991a. and Turkscn and 'A° [1984]. 82. MIN and MAX Q E> MAX(0. Gottwald [1980]. EXERCISES 8. Q is at least MAX(0. For each of the threevalued logics defined in Table.G are fuzzy sets on some universal set X. V 4. A survey of more recent developments was prepared by Wolf [1977]. 8. of the Lukasiewicz logics L 4 and L 5.F. Skala [1978]. Apply these Membership . Dubois and Prude [1979b. and express the proposition in its canonical form. 8. NOTES 81. applicable to persons (ago. by and large. and Q is a relative quantifier given by MINQL. and <4.c (assume that negation IT is defined by 1— a): (a) (Ti A b)c. Most of these articles are included in tYager et ai. Lee and Chang [1971]. Q2)1.ntifiet extension principle to the reader as an exercise. At excellent and comprehensive survey of raultivalued logics was prepared by Rescher [1969].8. Several specific fuzzy predicates for each of these types are represented by fuzzy sets whose membership functions are specified in Fig. Qi + Q2 — 1 )] CI are extensions of min and max operations on real numbers to fuzzy numbers (Sec. ± Q2 — 1) and at most MIN(Q i .
D.4. . E3 Exert Eses PA( 0 243 :31) 60 75 Age [years I H short H tall 2 24 36 48 60 72 Height (inches] 150 200 250 Weight [poundsi (x) somewhat educated i highly educated E = not highly educated aw— AIL—E Elementary High schOol school College Ph.ry sets fir Exercise 8. Degree of 0 dueation rignire S.Chap..10 Fn.
Using the quantifiers specified in Fig. determine the truth values of the following fuzzy propositions: (a) There are about three persons. 112 .. max.se there are five people in a wairliCil'S figure 5kating çampetibicia. x is very heavy or old or not highly educated is fairly true. Consider some other linguistic hedges than those discussed in Section 8. Imposing such a requirement means that pairs of truth values of A and B become restricted to a subset of 10.6/x 1 +1.7. 1 — a).u1 performance_ (c) About half of them have good performance. not very young.Approximately how many young girls in the class are good students? Suppu. Cathy.5. and somewhat educated is true.5. x is very young. and highly educated is very true.odifiers for them. S. 8.1/Eve. Diana.are good students.6/y1 + Ilyz .10. (13) Most of them have gt. Consider a fuzzy logic based on the standarci logic operators (min. 8. 8. not heavy.4 and 8.2h to some person s (perhaps mused) to detenaine the truth values of various propositions such as the following: x is highly educated and not very young is very true. Solve the..9/x2 .942 +1/x3 . Assume that their relative goodness of performance is given by a fuzzy set E = 1/Anny . Thcy arc Anny. and A' . problem in Example 8./x+ .. Using the quantifierg specified in Figs. 8. For any two arbitrary propositions.5 an d determine  reasonable m. assume that we require that the equality A AB = B A B) holds. 8. Show exactly hew they are restricted_ 8. in the logic. 13Qunie.5/Cathy + . Use the method of truthofalue restrictions to solve Exercise 8. Most of those young &Is . B = .1 by using A . use standard fuzzy set operators (min.6. .. who had good performances. taii. x is more or less old or highly educated is fairly true. answer the question:.8. 8. — a).5/x1 ± .9/Diana + . In your calculations. x is short. A and B.244 Fuzzy Logic Chap. 8 functions and the fuzzy truth values defined in Fig.N.6. max. and Eve. About half of them are young girls..9/13ormie + .5. Assume that there are ten students in a class..
contradictory.UNCERTAINTYBASED INFORMATION 91 INFORMATION AND UNCERTAINTY The concept of information. fragmentary. independent of the concept of uncertainty. the amount of information obtained by the action may be measured by the reduction of uncertainty that results from the action. Then. or discovering a relevant historical record). receiving a requested message. designing a relevant experiment and observing the experimental outcome. or deUcient in some other way. In this approach.. is intimately connected with the concept of uncertainty. these various information deficiencies may result in different types of uncertainty. imprecise. Furthermore. In general. however. It does not ignore them. that information viewed in terms of uncertainty reduction ignores these aspects. The most fundamental aspect of this connection is that uncertainty involved in any problemsolving situation is a result of some information deficiency. It should be noted at this point that the concept of information has aLso been investigated in terms of the theory of computability. the notion of information as uncertainty reduction is sufficiently rich as a base for an additional treatment through which human communication and cognition can adequately be explicated. not fully reliable. as a subject of this chapter. This does not mean. but they are assumed to be fixed in each particular application. the amount of information represented by an object is measured by the length of the shortest possible program written in some standard language (e. Assume further that the amount of uncertainty can be reduced by obtaining relevant information as a result of some action (finding a relevant new fact.g„ a program for the standard Turing machine) by which the object is described in the sense that it can 245 . Assume that we can measure the amount of uncertainty involved in a problemsolving situation conceptualized in a particular mathematical theory. vague. Information (pertaining to the model within which the situation is conceptualized) may be incomplete. Information measured solely by the reduction of uncertainty does not capture the rich notion of information in human communication and cognition_ it is not explicitly concerned with semantic and pragmatic aspects of information viewed _in the broader sense.
which is connected with sizes (cardinalities) of relevant sets of alternatives. it involves greater computational demands. this chapter is restricted to the three currently recognized types of uncertainty (and the associated information). uncertainty based irforrnation is now well understood in fuzzy set theory. proofs of their uniqueness. and evidence theory. lnforrnation of this type is usually referred to as descriptive information or algorithmic information. and uncertainty began to be conceived in terms of the much broader frameworks of fu7ff. In addition to classical set theory and probability theory. 9 be computed. a more general theory is capable of capturing uncertainties of some problem situations more faithfully than its less general competitors. which results from imprecise boundaries of fuzzy sets. uncertainty is manifested only in one form.y set theory and fuzzy measure theory. which uncertainty type is manifested in it and how the amount of uncertainty of that type can adequately be measured. in terms of probability theory. for each of the five theories of uncertainty. When the seemingly unique connection between uncertainty and probability theory was broken. we do not cover axiomatic characterization of the various measures of uncertainty. it soon. and other theoretical issues associated with them. Three types of uncertainty are now recognized in the five theories. we are concerned solely with information conceived in terms of uncertainty reduction.246 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. liberated from the confines of classical set theory and probability theory. When we commit ourselves to a particular mathematical theory. Uncertainty based information was first conceived in ternis of classical set theory and. It is shown. Hence. The name generalized information theory was coined for a theory based upon this broader conception. The chapter is intended as a summary of existing results rather than a detailed expositiori of the broad subject of uncertaintybased information. To distinguish this conception of information from various other conceptions of information. These three uncertainty types are nonspecificity (or imprecision). Although this goal has not been fully achieved as yet. Rather than speculating about this issue. In probability theory. In this chapter. Clearly. which expresses conflicts among the various sets of alternatives. and strife (or discord). fuzziness (or vagueness). later. became clear that uncertainty can be manifested in different forms. It is conceivable that other types of uncertainty will be discovered when the investigation of uncertainty extends to additional theories of uncertainty.  . in which measurement of uncertainty is currently well established. the ultimate goal of generalized information theory is to capture properties of uncertaintybased information formalized within any feasible mathematical framework. The term information theory has almost invariably been used to refer to a theory based upon the well known measure of probabilistic uncertainty established by Claude Shannon [1944 Research on a broader conception of uncertaintybased information. Each formalization of uncertainty in a problemsolving situation is a mathematical model of the situation. The nature of uneertaintybased information depends on the mathematical theory within which uncertainty pertaining to various problemsolving situations is formalized. As a rule. our modeling becomes necessarily limited by the constraints of the theory. These forms represent distinct types of uncertainty. possibility theory. substantial progress has been made in this direction since the early 1980s. began in the early 1980s. however. let us call it uncertaintybased informafion.
its range is 0 U (A) log2 1X1. the amount of uncertaintybased information.uncertainty. Observe that uncertainty expressed in terms of sets of alternatives results from the nonspeoificity inherent in each set.Sec. Assume that this set is reduced to its subset B by some action. c ›. when A is a set of possible U(A) is a measure of prescriptive uncertainty. (9.1.1) One bit of uncertainty is equivalent to the total uncertainty regarding the truth or falsity of one proposition. When the Hartley function U is applied to nonerapty subsets of a given finite universal set X. is equal to the amount of reduced uncertainty given by the difference U (A) — U(B). Consider now a situation characterized by a set A of possible alternatives (predictive. U(A) is a measure of predictive. full specificity is obtained when all alternatives are eliminated except one. 9. which is the most conimon bits. when A is a set of possible diseases of a patient determined from relevant medical evidence.B). it has the form In this case. and we obtain choie. Hence. c are positive constants (b ›. of alternatives can also be proven axiomatically. retrodictions. U(A) is a measure of retrodictive uncertainly. prescriptive.0). and so forth than their smaller counterparts. I(4 E) lAI 1BI  (9. That is. For example. etc. Let the set function U defined by (9A) be called a Hartley function_ Its uniqueness as a measure of uncertainty (in bits) associated with sets.unrtaysmedin U(A) = log2 AI. is the only sensible way to measure the amount of uncertainty associatcd with a finite set of possible alternatives. Large sets result in less specific predictions. It was shown by Hartley [1928] that using a function from the class of functions U(A) = c . produced by the action. and b. (A. when A is a set of predicted states of a variable (from the set I of all 4tates ideftaed for the variable).2) . The meaning of uncertainty measured by the Hartley function depends on the meaning of the set A.2 Nonspecilicity of Crisp Sets 247 9. which is relevant to the situation.2 NONSPECIFICITY OF CRISP SETS Measurement of uncertainty (and associated information) was first conceived in terms of classical set theory. Each choice of values of the constants b and c determines the unit in which uncertainty is measured. where IA I denotes the cardinality of a finite conempty set A.).logs 1A1. When b = 2 and c = 1. when A is a set of possible answers ta an urmttled historical question. uncertainty expressed by sets of possible alternatives and measured by the Hartley function is well characterized by the term nonspecificity. Then. U(A) is a measure of diagnostic uncertainty. 1.
(9. defined on the power sets of X. and ET (R). Observe also that the conditional uncertainties can be expressed in ternis of the joint uncertainty and the two simple uncertainties:  U(X1Y) = UX. while function log2 IRA.12) (9. Then. U(Y). Two additional Hartley functions are defined by the formulas U (X P') (9 5)  log2 1R1 (9. Function ti(YIX) clearly has a similar meaning.1(R1).10) which follows immediately from (9. 9 When the action eliminates all alternatives except one (te. U(X. Cf(X1Y) = U(1). Assume further that the domain and range of R are sets Rx C X and Ry C Y. and assume that a relation R cXxY describes a set of possible joint alternatives in some situation of interest. (9 8) cr (x) (9 . respectively.248 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. U(Ry). Y) U(Y). To identify clearly which universal set is involved in each case.). these equations become the inequalities . Y) instead of 1. ET(Y[X) = Cf(X. Then three distinct Hartley functions are applicable. (9. when IBI 1.9).means that U(XIY) incasuies the average norispecificity regaxdiug alternative choices from X for all particular choices from. Y . we obtain may also be viewed as the amount of /(A. clearly. EI(YIX) = U(Y).8) and (9. when sets X and Y are interactive. Y) log7 is called a joint uncertainty. Y.4) U(Y) = log. IRyl LT (X. respectively. Consider now two universal sets. then R X x Y and the sets X and Y are called noninteractive.13) In all other cases.6) (9.7) iRi UcylX) = log z — which are called conditional uncertainties. This means that U(A) information needed to characterize one element of set A. X and Y. This .leg2 1A1 U (A). (93) (9. and vice versa. Y) Furthermore. B) =. If possible alternatives from X do not depend on selections from Y.11) (9. Y) = ti(X) + (ICY).. U(X. Functions U(X) are called simple uncertainties. it is useful (and a common practice) to write U(K). and X x Y.9) U(X) U(Y) = U(XLY) U(Y1X). with the role s of sets X and Y exchanged. Observe that the ratio IRVIRyt in U(X1Y) represents the average number of elements of X that are possible alternatives under the condition that an element of Y bas already huen scleded.
Y) = 0.8 = u(X.6 = + 2 2. Y) < (X) + t. expresse d  by the matrix 1234 Low [ 1 1 1 1 Medium 1 0 1 0 High 0 1 0 0 We can see that the low value of x does not constrain y at all. Y) = log2 FR I = log2 7 = Er(ItY) = Er(X. 2.r) 2.8 — 2 .Y) = U(X)+U(Y)—U(X. Y) — U(Y) U(11.18) (9.8) and (9. a meaningful counterpart of (9. an d the high value constrains it totally. 3.17) When the sets are noninteractive.Y) > 0. 9.1) for infinite sets takes the form .8.Sec.f (Y).1 Consider two variables x and y whose values are taken from sets X = {low.20) Example 9. respectively. Li (X.9). otherwise.6.19) T(X. le for some natural number k). troo + U(Y) — trai The Hartley function in the form (9. Y).2 Nonspeeificity of Crisp Sets (X1Y) < U (X).y)mx). However. U(Y1X) < LT(Y).16) The following symmetric function. (9. U(2. is a useful indicator of the strength of constraint between sets X and Y: T(I. Using (9. high) and Y = 11.15) (9. this form may be appropriately modified to infinite sets on R (or. T(X. X2. 2. medium.8 — 1. Formally. The following types of Hartley information can be calculated in this example: y if(X) lega IXI 4IM log2 3 1. 4). T(X. (9. U(Y) log2 IYI Iog2 = 2. It is known that the variables are constrained by the relation R.Y) = U(Y) —U(Y1X). which is usually referred to as information transmission.14) (9. Y) can also be expressed in terms of the conditional uncertainties T(X.Y) u(x) U(XJY). the medium value of constrains partially. 249 (9. It is always expressed as the difference betvvecn the total information based on the individual sets and the joint information. • Xrt)= EU(X1) • • • Xn)• (9. T(X. Given a measurable and Lebesgueintegrable subset A' of R (or le). Information transmission can be generalized to express the constraint among more than two sets. more generally. MI.1) is applicable only to finite sets.70 = T(X.
consequently. 0 . then U(A) = U (B). The amount of nonspecifity associated with the given fuzzy set is thus approximately three bits. of cut and the immediately preceding acut.1 log. Applyiag formula (922) to A.4 3da . Observe that U(A). . lida . 7 13). 15 + . For eAample.4 . For any nonempty fuzzy set A defined on a finite universal set X. This is equivalent to the nonspecifity of a crisp set that contains eight elements.1). 9. 12 + .250 Uncertaintybased information LT (A) = log[l + Chap.21) do not yield any meaningful interpretation in terms of uncertainty regarding truth values of a finite number of propositions and. 11 + .1 log.1 log2 3 —2.1 by the shaded area.01h(B) for all x X. h(A) B(. 9.22) Example 9. then g(A) = b — a and ([a b]) = log[ 1 + b The choice of the logarithm in (921) is less significant than in (9. the generalized Hartley function has the form 1 f h(A) a h(A) where 1AI denotes the cardinality of the aout of A and h(A) is the height of A. for example.9 = .2 Consider a fuzzy set A on N whose membership function is defined by the dots in the diagram in Fig.  WA) log2 l Aldot.& 9da + if to g2 7dee + f log. B Y(X) (0). 0 + .2 log2 9 + .6 4 f 1 log.1 log. when A is an interval [a. if A(x) .1 log.99. defined by A (x)/h(A) for all x X. we assume that A(x) — 0 for 1111 x> 15.21) i4A)) . !Ida + A f 3 .1. 5cla ÷ j./. al.2 log. 7 ± 2logl 5 + . For its mathematical convenience. b] on 1R.7 . we obtain: 1 1 10g2 VIA Ida = 0 .7 9 r I. the natural logarithm is a suitable choice. whose characteristic function is illustrated in Fig. fuzzy sets that are equal when normalized have the same nonspecificity measured by function U. That is. which measures nonspecificity of A. Each weight is a difference between the values of a of a given. they are not directly comparable with values obtained for finite sets by (9. 9.4 log. is a weighted average of values of the Hartley function for all distinct a cuts of the normalized counterpart of A. where g(A) is the measure of A defined by the Lebesgue integral of the characteristic function of A. For any A.15dee + f _1 logj. 9 (9.3 NONSPECIFICITY OF FUZZY SETS A natural generalization of the Hartley function from classical set theory to fuzzy set theory was proposed in the early 198(Is under the name U uncertainty.1) since values U(A) obtained for infinite sets by (9. the set 16..
„ IMII um E „. NE.23) 10g[1 p.• 2_.9 .1 Ta calculate the nonspecificities of these fuzzy sets by (923). whose membership functions are depicted in Fig.3 Ncmspecificity cf Fuzzy Sets 1 .. defined by (9.A. we have to determine for each set iki (1 = 1. For Ai. .Sec.5.eintegrable function.. ism ma J.. • EN NUMB • iminimmiwp. . ) = bi (ce) Ai (x) = 2 — x/2 0 — and at ((y ) and b1 (a) are determined by the equations a = al(a)/2 and ce..7 _. f 1n(5 — 41442 = [— — (5 4 = 5 1 — 4œ)In(5.WAD = 4 — 4. the a(c).. and the acuts c'A are infinite sets (e. cuts "Ag are Intervals 'Ag = [a i (iz).. 9. .) as a function of a.g.4a)— ce] i cs0 In 5 — 1 L012.. 4] otherwise.1 = tag...=. . :..:.. 9.. MIME.5 m 7777 .t(nA ..g . • :45. 11] and '. intervals of real numbers).ZA . ::MT. Figure 9.0. z 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 X 111 I Soo x/2 • 111 • — for x e [0. : EE8. which is a generalization of (9_21).8 251 MEE 111•11111z. • • •• v: . and hence. 3: . 1 1 i. • mum • FÛ. 1111 1 II.4 . 16. we have to calculate U(A) by the modified form j hot) (9.•. .q.3 Consider fuzzy sets A 1 .. 3) the measure g.2.. .a.CA)1dce. bi(a)1. Now applying (9. . Example 9. ...3 'MINI 4.23) and choosing the natural a.1 Membership &odious of fuzzy set A (defined by the dots) and crisp set C (defined by the shaded area)... ittf'A) is the measure of 24 deined by the Lebesgue integral of the characteristic function of "A. .: : .1 III ::: • IN • immilima. As in the discrete case. U(A) = T7 .:`. A3 on R. M. 1. fuzzy sets that are equal when normalized have the same noaspecificity._.22). 2 bi(a) /2. 0 4. When a nonempty fuzzy set A is defined on R (or Rk for some k E N).. 1 U(Ai ) . 21 for x E (2. III. 4 convenience. Hence ..:.(2A. It is assumed that 'A is a measurable and Lebesgu. . .6 5 . we obtain logarithm for —  . In each case..
can be normalized by replacing A3(x) With 2A(x) for each x E R .S 2 [— (3 — 4ce) 1n(3 — 4) — ct j Zf(A3) 2J In(3 — 4a)det = 4 o 0 3 El (A2) . which is true far any fuzzy set and its normal counterparts (the latter may. rn ) such that 1 ri > r2> > r. From this point of view. its height may be viewed as the degree of validity or crectibiticy of information expressed by the fuzzy set.3. regardless whether X is finite or infinite and we apply (9. . all fuzzy sets B in the infinite f. Since 2213 (x) = 2412 (x). utilizing ordered possibility distributions. theory.2 Fuzzy seta employed kt Exa npie 9.22) or (9.252 Uncertaintybased information Chap. r2. each of which represents a normal fuzzy set. respectively.  . of course. they are dearly distinguished by their heights h(B). function U has the form U a R+ . 2 . which is not normal. These two sets have the same nonspecificity. In general. This explains why it is reasonable to exclude the empty set from the domain of function U.648. given a normal fuzzy set A E g'(X).(ri .mily (9. Similarly. information expressed by the empty set has no validity. For each fuzzy set B E SA. Given a possibility distribution r =. we have 2 2 0 a 3 = — In 3 — 1 = 0. set A2 may be viewed as the normalized wuntetpart of A. Although the sets in 23A are not distinguished by the nonspecificity. f 1i(3 — 2a )chr [— — (3 — 2a) lu( 3 — 2a) — I 2 a] 4 2 Observe that ct A3. The Uuncertainty was investigated more thoroughly within possibility. where 3Z denotes the set of all finite and ordered possibility distributions...5 . In this domain.24) have the same nonspecificity. fur the other two fuzzy sets. 9 Figure 9.23).. be the set itself).
X and Y. First.1. (r) = f2 — log2 (925) where r. .1.7.. . 7. respectively.22) in the way discussed in Sec. 0. Now we apply components of m to (9. Y) denote the joint Uuncertainty. .25) represents a normal fuzzy set A in (9. 10. we determine in t(r) = t31.27).2.. and let U(X) and U(Y) denote simple Uuncertainties defined on the marginal possibility distributions rx and ry.4. .11o82 8 + 01°82 9 + . we have U (X) = E mx(A)log 2 IA r. . . 1. . 0.7..26) = Emi 1og i=2 (9.2). Let us use (9.31082 6 + J1082 7 + . . U(r).3. 0.2. Example 9. . . Then.30) U(Y) = E A x.8. Adopting the notation introduced for the Hartley function.18 Consider now two universal sets. let U(X. and a joint possibility distribution r defined on X x Y..4.obtain U(r) = O log2 1 + .1. 9.29) (9. . Then it is easy to see that ti(r) U(A) whenever rf+i > D i represents the cardinality of the cedut with a When ternis on the righthand side of (9. using the equation in = r1 — r for all i = 1. in 2 . which is particularly convenient for calculating the Uuncertainty.27) and.1 1og2 3 + 01082 4 010g2 5 + . Assume that the possibility distribution r in (9..27) where m = (m1.2 log2 2 + . 1B Y) = E m(A x B)logz IA x BI. .4 Calculato U(r) for th possibility distribution w r = (1.2).2. . .28) (9. . and assuming rit = 0.25) can be written as (M) ET` tr2 log2 (9. U(r) = Furthermore.4.3.3.7. 7.r (9.1 0 by convention. m„) represents the basic probability assignment corresponding to r in the sense of the convention introduced in Sec. the U uncertainty can be expressed by another formula: . mr(B) log.21082 10 2.• Sec. . can be expressed by a convenient form. (9. T.3 Nonspeccity of Fuzzy $ets 253 the Uuncertainty of r.25) are appropriately combined.
mevns that . information transmission can be defined for the t I uncertainty by (9.22). we have U (XIY) 1 ITE x F)1 .11T 1A x BI 1B i IA (931) (9. U(X110 and U(YtX).g.4 FUZZINESS OF FUZZY SETS  The second type of uncertainty that involves fuzzy sets (but not crisp sets) is fuzziness (or vagueness). In general. fuzziness.8) from crisp sets to normal fuzzy sets. of the corresponding conditional Hartley functions: ii(XIY) U(YIX) E in (A x B) log2 Ax. B in (9.17)..18) and (9. a measure of fuzziness is a function f T(X) where .31) represents for each focal element A x in T. Furthermore. according to our intuition. Furthermore.19) are also valid in the generalized framework. In order to qualify as a sensible measure of fuzziness. 9.33). g in.22) tn sub normal fuzzy gets. f (A) ç f (B) when set A is undoubtedly sharper than set B. and. it can easily be shown that (9./(17). and by (9. f (A) attains its maximum iff A(x) = 0. respectively. respectively.ot log2 —r w—d 2 z f logz r(E x F)Idel U (X. Y) r. this function assigns a nonliegative Mai annibcr f(A ) that expresses the degree to which the boundary of A is not sharp. 2.‘E in (9. In a similar way. the average number of elements of A that remain possible alternatives under the condition that an element of Y has already been selected.31) correspond ta the acuts ŒE . where Y3 y .5 for all x e X. are sets of focal elements induced by rn as the following generalizations we dehne conditional Uuncertainties. a generalization of (9. Using these two generalized equations. which. Expressing U(X1Y) in the form of (9. f(A) 0 iff A is a crisp set. which is intuitively conceived as the highest fuzziness. (9. The following three requirements are essential: 1.(X) denotes the set of all fuzzy subsets of X (fuzzy power set). 0 log2 rF .32) E rit(A x B) log2 Axi3E7 x IA Observe that the term IA )( R1/1131 in (9.10)–(9A6) are also valid for the Uuncertainty. function f must satisfy some requirements that adequately capture our intuitive comprehension of the degree of.9) can be derived. then. For each fuzzy set A. Observe that the focal elements A.This equation is dearly a generalization of (9. 3.254 Uncertaintybased Information Chap.
f (A) = t(1 12A(x) i =1 5 — CS±_g+. Employing the standard fuzzy complement. is to view the fuzziness of a set in ternis of the lack of distinction between the set and its. is then obtained by adding allthese local measurements: f (A) = E(1_ 12 4 0) 1 1) .5 when Iit(.2 4 . Measuring fuzziness in terms of distinctions between sets and their complements is dependent on the definition of a fuzzy complement (Sec. defined by the sum of absolute values of differences.5 with the equilibrium of the fuzzy complement employed.1. One that is simple and intuitively easy to comprehend is the Hamming distance.2±. f (A) = O iff A is a crisp set. This issue is not discussed here. the measurement is not unique. the fuzzier it is.. 9. = 15 — 9 6. Choosing the Hamming distance. If other types of fuzzy complements were alsb considered. For the sake of simplicity. Another way of measuring fuzziness. we have to choose a suitable distance function. 1 2)._24 .5 for all x E X. The less a set differs from its complement.34) to the fuzzy set A defined in Fig. To make it unique. .8+4+.4+.4+. Applying. we can still choose different distance functions to express the tack of distinction of a set and its complement. the second and third of the three properties required of function f would have to he generalized by replacing the value 0. Let us restrict our discussion to this view of fuzziness. we assume that only the standard fuzzy complement is employed.5 255 and A(x) > E(x) for all x E X . we obtain . There are different ways of measuring fuzziness that all satisfy the three essential requirements. it is precisely the lack of distinction between sets and their complements that distinguishes fuzzy sets from crisp sets.2±A) . f (A) = IX when A(x) = 0. 9 4 Fuzziness of Fuzzy Sets A (x) B(x) when B (x) < 0. which seems more practical as well as more general..t) 0. One way Is to measure fuzziness of any set A by a metric distance between its incinbeTship grade function and the membership grade function (or characteristic function) of the nearest crisp set. Even when committing to this conception of measuring fuzziness. for example.Sec. (9. the local distinction (one for each x e X) of a given set A and its complement is measured by IA(x) (1 dit(x))1 = 12A(x) — and the lack of each local distinction is measured by 1— 12A(x) The measure of fuzziness.. Indeed.34) xX The range of function f is [0.8±1+1 1 1+. f (A). IXI]. (9. complement. which is currently predominant in the literature.
. 4 .xldx ..35) 12A(x)  ExaEaple 9. 4 . contrary to nonspecificity.625. 9 FornitilA (9 '14) is applicable only to fuzzy sets definer..A ..5 . 7 2 4 3 f (A 3) .8x)dx a (. happen to be equally fuzzy.f I2x .x)dx 2 2 J2 .4 and h(.. Then. 9.f dx o i .. 4 . of sets in a given family defined by (9..021/ r 3 ) 14 2 =4 jo IL 2 3 L 2 i3 4 4. This replacement results in the formula f (A) = (1 .5 Calculate the degrees of fuzziness of the three fuzzy sets dented in Fig. 1 2 f(24. set. and we obtain: 1 2 2 3 f (At) 4.5  Although set A3 and its normal counterpart.f2A(x). h(A) (3 ...A z. That is. we obtain: f (A1) L. 4 Jo 4 f i x— 1trix .1) for x E R. A4 and As. Ih(Ak)(x . 0 where k 4.24).1 .J gix .(1..1Ddx (9.4)dx .f dx .1 .3)dx 3 —D12 [(3—.. which is perhaps the most practical case. bi.f 12 . Consider. it can be readily modified to fuzzy sets defined on infinite but bounded subsets of IZ (or le for some natural number k). this is not a general property. 5. = 1.21 Ak(x) _. on finite. 4. To illubtrate this difference between nouspecifkity aud fuzziness.L.2_ Assuming that the sets are deftned within the interval [f.5 . for example.j a 1 i r 15— 2x Idx .. . Ict US calculate the degree of fuzziness for two additional fuzzy sets.j dx . both of which belong to BA2 with /3 (A4) 7 .x) for x otherwise.I f Ix 21dx .45) = . that X [a.256 Linoertaiitybased Information Chap..if (x .8 .jr (x 1)dx i f (3 .31dx .2) = 4 . (934) needs to be naodifted by replacing the summation with integration. dx 2 3 5 ./r'.8„ _ 1.if 0 1 2 2 4 1 3 —x idx 3 4 2 0 (1 _x )dx .1. universal sets. 41 and using (9.3). However.
5 o 1 f(A2 )1 1(A. .3. 9.35) in the context cif Example 9. tile shaded areas indicate for each x E [0.4] the difference between membership grades of the set and its complement.. 4] and each of the fuzzy sets A L—A5 . it is measured by the total size of the unshaded areas in each diagram. For the universal set [0.5.75 — 1.straticm of thc tnatning if (9..25xIdx — 3 dx 4 — I — . Since the degree of fuzziness is expressed in terms of the deficiency of these differences with respect to 1. 9.25Idx — 2 12.Sec. .425 — 1 = The meaning of the calculations in this example is illustrated ill Fig.25x — 2.)=08 Figure 93 Illu.425 .4 Fuzzlness of Fuzzy Sets 13 4 257 f(A 5) = 4 — dx f 11.
Moreover. When nonspecificity.1.648 . was first generalized from classical set theory to fuzzy set theory and possibility theory (Sec. The opposite. for example. regardless of the associated change in fuzziness. Although there is virtually no change in nonspecificity. We have now U(B) = 3 and f (B) = O. Once this generalized function.2). however. but it is questionable when nonspecificity increases. they are totally independent of each other. 7.2. This defines a crisp set B [6. .4 Example of a fuzzy set with very different monspecificities.view the amount of eliminated fuzziness as a result of some proportional amount of information gained.. the action helped us to completely eliminate fuzziness. 9.5 UNCERTAINTY IN EVIDENCE THEORY Nonspecificity The Hartley function. but their degrees of fuzziness are quite different. 9. it was relatively easy to generalize it further and make it applicable within all of evidence theory. ti(A). a special branch of evidence theory. 13} whose characteristic function is illustrated in Fig.1 have almost the same nonspecificity (Example 9. . 9. The view is reasonable when nonspecificity also decreases or remains the same. g It is important to realize that nonspeciftcity and fuzziness. that the two fuzzy sets defuicd by their membership functions in Fig. which are both applicable to fuzzy sets. is not tnic.99. that the actual value of the variable is at least 6 and no more than 13.is reduced. Assume now that we learn. as a measure of nonspecificity. consequently. 9. was well established in possibility theory. Whether it is meaningful to view a reduction in fuzziness as a gain in information depends on the accompanied change in nonspecificity. f(A)=. To illustrate this point. This informatien is incomplete. are distinct types of uncertainty. Fuzziness and nonspecificity are also totally different in their connections to information. it results in uncertainty regarding the actual value of the variable: U(A) = 2. we view the reduction as a gain in information.1 but equal fuzziness.079 . but the only available information regarding its value is given in terms of the fuzzy set A whose membership function is defined by the dots in Fig. the Uuncertainty. but their degrees of fuzziness are exactly the same. fuzzy sets depicted in Fig_ 9_4 have very different nonspecificities. Figure 9. Observe.1.1 by the shaded area. On the other hand.. as a result of some action.0.3). let us consider an integervalued variable whose exact value is of interest.256 Uncertairtybased Information Chan. It is reasonable to. 9. 0)=1 U(8. f (A) = 6.
rn (A) indicates the degree of evidence focusing on A. All probability measures are fully specific and hence.e. assumes in evidence theory the form H(m) = ze. as expected. the larger the set A (and log2 IA I). m) is an arbitrary body of evidence. 9. let the latter be denoted by N _ It is derine. The weights are values of the basic probability assignment. AO' (9. For each focal element A. Consequently. Function N is clearly a weighted average of the Hartley function for all focal elements. IA log2 IX1 . are not distinguished from one another by their nonspecificities.19) for the Hartley function remain valid when it is generalized to the N uncertainty.37) This function. The minimum. from several well justified axiomatic characterizations.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 259 TO distinguish the Uuncertainty from its more general counterpart in evidence theory. one of the basic types of uncertainty...38) Ytx . is actually measured by the Shannon entropy. [AA = 1 and logz IA] =for each focal element. which is a wellestablished measure of uncertainty in probability theory? Before attempting to answer this question. H(m) 0 when m ({r)) I for some x E X.36) where ff. (9. Since focal elements in probability measures are singletons. H. 11(m) = log2 1X1 when in defines the uniform probability distribution on X (i. xe. let us review the key pro perties of the Shannon entropy. is reached for m(X) 1 (total ignorance). As the name suggests.n(fx)) 1/1X1 fur all E X). which is applicable only to probability measures.37) can be rewritten as  H On) —Ein({})10gD—Enit(ym.d by the. which forms the basis of classical information theory. When focal elements in 9" are nested. AI (m) = log2 !XI. N(m) = is obtained when //l ( x)) = 1 for some x E X (no uncertainty). the stronger the evidence. 0 for every probability measure. while log 2 IA I indicates the lack of specificity of this evidential claim. the less specific the evidence. What. The larger the value of m (A). The range of function Pi+ is. That is.. It can easily be shown that (9. it is reasonable to view function N as a measure of nonspeoficily.8) (9. formula (m) = E m (A) log2 IA I. N becomes the U uncertainty. It is also well known that (98)(9. Clearly. that this function is the only sensible measure of uncertainty in probability theory.Sec.X (9. function H was proposed by Shannon 11948).. log2 12:11.1. measures the average uncertainty (in bits) associated with the prediction of outcomes in a random experiment. —  The Shannon Entropy The Shannon entropy. the maximum. It was proven in numerous ways.19) are valid when function U is replaced with function H. N(m) .1' (t » log2 in ({X}). Consequently. then. This function was proven a unique measure of nonspecificity in evidence theory under welljustified axioms and the choice of bits as measurement units. probability theory is not capable of incorporating nonspecificity. Since values m ({ x }) are required to add to 1 for all (9. its range is [0.
. f y). (x) Ix € X) = E p(x) Iog2 p(x) . y). Function D measures uncertainty in relative rather than absolute terms. D becomes equivalent to the information transmission given by (9. 11 for each x € X_ The function — log1(1 — Con (fx1)j. This means that the continuous counterpart of the information transmission can be expressed as D(f x.41) which involves two probability density functions. g(x)lx E f (x) [a. f (x) counterpart is the function' D(p(x). Let us introduce and critically examine each of Two of the candidates were proposed in the early 1980s. ex which is known in information theory as the Shannon crossentropy or directed divergence.38). When f (x) in (9.39) in (938) represents the total evidential claim pertaining to focal elements that are different with the focal element (x). Its finite (9. of a joint probability distribution on X x Y. and g(x) is replaced with the product of density functions of marginal distributions on X and Y. It follows from these facts and from the form 01 (9. 9 The term emi pa({y}) (9. dl) = A I fa them.1 ] to [0. Clearly.40) is replaced with a clenity function. q(x) 1.38) that the Shannon entropy is the mean (expected) value of the conflict among evidential claims within a given probabilistic body of evidence. b G fc. b]) fb f (x)log2 — dx . One of them is function E.17). D( f (x). f x (x) fy (y). The choice of the logarithmic function is a result of the axiomatic requirement that the joint uncertainty of several independent random variables be equal to the sum of their individual uncertainty. f(x) fr(Y)Ix [a. is monotonic increasing with Con ((x)) and extends its range from [0.40) on [a. as exhibited by several proposed candidates for the entropylike measure in evidence theory. y)log 2 uxu v fy fx (9A2) Entropylike Measure in Evidence Theory What form should the generalized counterpart of the Shannon entropy take in evidence theory? The answer is by no means obvious. Con (41) E [0. the Shannon entropy is not directly applicable as a measure of uncertainty. defined by the formula . When a probability measure is defined on a real interval [a. g(x) a and g(x). which is employed in (9. &I by a probability density function f. It can be employed only in a modified form . Con WO) expresses the sum of all evidential claims that fully conflict with the one focusing on (x). That is.260 Uncertainty Oased information Chap. f (x. co). cleaned (9. bl.
is monotonic increasing with K(A) and extends its range from [0.Ein cB) =1. That is. The choice of the logarithmic function is motivated in the same way as in the classical case of the Shannon entropy. To decide if either of the two functions is an appropriate generalization of the Shanno n in evidence theory.et we get C(m)= Etn(A) log 2 [1 — 010g A.44) which is referred to as a measure of confusion.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory E(In) = — 261 ar (A) log2 Pl (A).45) represents the total evidential claim peril Tnitig to focal elements that are disjoint with the set A. Thisbroader view of conflict is expressed by the measure of confusion C given by (9. AsT (9 . IC(A) expresses the sum of all evidential claims that fully conflict with the one focusing on the set A. It follows from these facts and the form of (9A5) that E(m) is the mean (expected) value of the conflict among evidential claims within a given body of evidence Ç3. Clearly. log2 pfll. Function E is not fully satisfactory since we feel intuitively that m(H) conflicts with nt(A) not only when B fl A = 0. we have to determine what these functions actually measure.46) The term .13=0 148) in (9. It is obvious that both of these functions collapse into the Shannon entropy when m defines a probability measure .Sec. 9. entropy From (7. Let us demonstrate this fact. IC(A) 11. 45) The term K(A) = E A11.11) and the general property of basic assignments (satisfied for every A E AnsgatO ni(B)1Ar1177150 we obtain E(m) —Ens(A) log2 E1 — Ael E drIB—re rrt(li)].e7 RIA (9. but also when B g A.43) which is usually called a measure of dissonance..10) and the general property of basic assignments (satisfied for every A E m(B)1. 1] to [0.45). AO' (9. m). Itcdi B. (9.44). defaied by the formula C(m) =—E m(A)logz 1301 (A). co). The other one is function C. and its range is 1 0. it measures the conflict in bits. The function —1°82[ 1 — which is employed in (9. From (7.
The conclusion is that C(m) is the mean (expected) value of the conflict. In addition. co). XL To overcome_ the deficiencies of function E and C as adequate measures of conflict in evidence theory. Clearly. This conforms to the intuitive idea of conflict that emerged from the critical reexamination of functions E and C_ Let function Con.47) expresses the sum of individual conflicts of evidential claims with respect to a particular set A. D. each of which is pioperly scaled by the degree to which the subsethood B C A is violated. This monotonic transformation extends the range of Con(A) from [0. but for a different reason than function E. and more satisfactory.50) Observe that 1B — AI = 1BI —1A rl B 1. was proposed: 0(m) = Em(A) log2 [1 — Em(B) Ae3. (9. It is clear that the more this subsethood relation is violated.47) Observe that the term Con (A) = 347 rn(B) 1B — At I (9. Function C is also not fully satisfactory as a measure of conflicting evidential claims within a body of evidence. consequently.47) can be rewritten as .39).262 . view of conflict. furthermore. K(A) < Con (A) The reason for using the function — log2 i  (9.48) in (9. (9.8. The reason for using the function — log2 [1 — (A)] instead of L (A) in (946) is the same as already explained in the cnntert of function E .. the greater the conflict. Function D. a new function. it does not properly scale each particular conflict of m (B) with respect to m(A) according to the degree of violation of the subsethood relation B c A. It follows immediately (9. m).47) is exactly the same as previously explained in the context of function E. 9 in (9. 1] to [0. Con(A) E O. function C also has some undesirable mathematical properties.47) that E(m) D(m) COO. whose application to probability rIleaS111W is given by (9.46) expresses the surn of all evidential claims that conflict with the one focusing on Eh e set A according to the following broader view of conflict: m(B) conflicts with m(A) whenever B g A. its maximum is greater than log. For example. be called a conflict.4A Uncertaintybased Information (A) = Em(B) Chap.49) Con (A)1 instead of Con in (9. 1] and. among evidential claims within a given body of evidence (F. viewed in the broader sense. LB — All_ Beg iB (9. Although it employs the broader. which is called a measure of discord. is clearly a measure of the mean conflict (expressed by the logarithm Ec transformation of function Con) among evidential claims within each given body of evidence.
This conflict is not captured by function Con since IB — AI = O in this case. should not be the case: the claim focusing on B is implied by the claim focusing on A (since A C B). say. the claim m(B) is taken to be in conflict with the claim m(A) to the degree IB — IIBI. as an example. (9. AF 7 (9. Consider. the weaker second claim does not conflict with the stronger first claim. Furthermore.53) It is trivial to convert this form into a simpler one. B I IA I rather than function Con given by (9. In this case. Assume that the information is expressed by two evidential claims pertaining to the age of Joe: "Joe is between 15 and 17 years old" with degree m (A).48) be such that A c B.. Equation (9.36). which is better justified as a measure of conflict in evidence theory than function D. the situation is inverted: the claim focusing on B is not implied by the claim focusing on A and. and "Joe is a teenager" with degree m(B). consequently. It follows from these observations that the total conflict of evidential claims within a body of evidence (g.54) can also be rewritten as S(m) = "TO Ein(A) log2 Em (B)fAri BI.55) where N (m) is the nonspecificity measure given by (9. Clearly. let sets A and B in (9. where A = 15 171.eY (B) )A. m) with respect to a particular claim m(A) should be expressed by function CON (A) = E zr. introducing . — 1_ e7. however. Assume now that A n B. we obtain a new function. Replacing Con(A) in (9. and hence.52) Although function D is intuitively more appealing than functions E and C. 19]. Joe. incomplete information regarding the age of a person.48). 9. m(B) does conflict with m(A) to a degree proportional to number of elements in A that are not covered by B. according to function Con.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 263 D(m) = —EPn(A) log2 iteT ZreT lAnBr IB (9. This.47) with CON(A). which is called strife and denoted by S.51) It is obvious that Bel (A) E m(B) A • n Br BEY Pl (A). m(B) should not be viewed in this case as contributing to the conflict with m(A).Sec. Then. further examination reveals a conceptual defect in it To plain the defect. IA1 (9. This new function. is defined by the form SOn) E rn (A) logz [ E m(B) IA BIl . where B = f13. 5(m) = —Ern(A)1og2Em(B) AO' 3G7 I4 n Bi IA1 (9_54) where the term IA C BVIAI expresses the degree of subsethood of set A in set B.
r3.o.892 as n c. Combining the two terras in (9.57) where U(r) is the measure of possibilistic nonspecificity (Uuncertainty) given by (9. In particular. are severely wustrdined withia the domain of possibility theory. 1=1 (9.264 Z(ni) Uncertaintybased Enformation Chap. it becomes the Shannon entropy for probability measures. 3. we can express S(r) in a more compact form.. We can observe the perfect rn are shown for match of maxima of the two functions. 21 by the circles and diamondsorespectively. > r„.6. the maximum of possibilistic strife. . and its range is [0. However. lug.57). which the maxima are obtained (2 < n 21). It also has some desirable mathematical properties: it is additive. Maximum values of possibilistic discord and possibilistic strife are plotted in Fig.stic discord. these measures can be considered negligible when complred with the other type of uncertainty. Neglecting strife (or discord). log2 IX1 ] . is reasonable to conclude that function S is well justified on intuitive grounds. when justifiable.  . We may conclude from these results that the measures of both discord and strife. whose range in evidence theory is DO. In Fig. 9. — rf÷i ) log2 E r (9.58) Er It turns out that the mathematical properties of this function are almost the same as those of possibilistic discord function D. depends on n in exactly the same way as the maximum value of possibilistic discord: it increases with n and converges to a constant. For large bodies of evidence. its measurement units are bits. . ÷1) log2. We may say that possibility theory is almost conflict free.. 9 (9. given by (9. n) It (m). 9. may substantially reduce computational complexity in dealing with large possibilistic bodies of evidence. S(r) i=2 — r. the form of function S (r. we have S(m) N (.56) Em (A) logz Em(B)1A n Bi.5 for n 2. where 5(m) = 0 when m({x}) = 1 for some X E X and 5(m ) log2 IXI when tn(fx}) 1i[X1 for all x E X. Strife in Possibility Theory Employing ordered possibility distributions 1 = (strife) in possibility theory is very simple: (r) (r) i r1 > r2 > _ . the possibility dimributions for which the maximum of possibilistic strife are obtained (onc for each value of n) are different from those for possibili.25). at least. nonspecificiry.57). estimated as 0. III]. values of r2.
is defined by the equation N S (in) = N(m) S (rn).fur = 2.5 Uncertainty in Evidence Theory 265 0= Max 0Max en 1.2 0_6 [IA 0.Sec. NSOn) E in (A) log2 A€7 I412 rn(B)1A Bey B the form (9.0 2 Figure 9.3. more compact form. 22_ 10 20 of possibaisLic discofd (circles) and pcssibilistiosuita (diasyLond0 Total Uncertainty Since the two types of uncertainty. Following this idea and choosing the measure of strife defined by (954) as the best justified generalization of the Shannon entropy. and both are measured in same units. in a. NS .55) and for N (m) from (936). the measure of total It uncertainty clearly ri+1 ) log2  aSSurctes N S(r) Dr i2 E . coexist in evidence theory. 9.5 Maximum vaiucs .. Substituting for 5(m) from (9.. we obtain N S(m) 2 E (A) log2 I AI — AE7 . nonspecificity and strife. the total u_ncertainty.„(A) logz E B e5 B or.2 0. it is reasonable to consider the possibility of adding their individual m_easures to form a measure of total uncertainty.59) In passibility theory..0 C11.
re obtained: (a) . 0 * * 9 09 0 00 0 000440 6 0 .5 1 :0 fur wilich the maxima shown in_ Fig. (b) 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 . 0 0 el ( C n 000c1000 00o 00000000000 0 0 0 0 .00090 * 9 0 4 0 a 0 0 0 0 0 0 900000 0 0 0 0 0 9.0 9 0 6 V 4 0 0 0 0 0 9 09 8 4 4 40484 4 4 4 o 4 4 4440 6 a a 4 4 a 9 0 6 0 a 9 0 00. 95 2. a 4 9 0 6 0 600 0 6 0 cp. discord.:0 00 0 0 Q004 0 0 0 0 0 ci 0 0 6 0 ea O 0 0 0 o 0 C 0 4 0 (a) 10  0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 000 0 0 0 Goo GI C o 0. 9 Discord ri 20 r 06000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 C 0 0 0000000006 0 0 o O C0 0 0 0QQ000000 0 r. 0 094099 V.6 06 4 0 9 6 44 9 60 a 4 a 0 9 9 6 2 o Figure 9.266 Uncertaintybased information Chap. 0 8 9.5 Strife ri 1 oe04164044 0 a aa 0 4 4 o 4 6 9 0 0 0 0 0 20 Œts46446 a a a 6 4 6:079. 0 =00 0 0 0.6 Whigs Ti .0 9 OÔOO 0 0 O O C 0 Q9 000000 0 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. (b) strife_ 0.
fuzzy set theory. Ix e X) that satisfy the constraints: (a) pE [0. and evidence theory are summarized . 1.SOTO = tog2 IX[. However. one has the largest value of the Shannon entropy. log. which is the same as the range of each of its components. IX11. x4. it is reasonable to express the 'total degree of fuzziness. Another measure of total uncertainty in evidence theory is based on the recognition that any given body of evidence defined on T(X) may be viewed as a set of constraints that define which probability distributions on X are acceptable.36) and (9. The measure.6 SUMMARY OF UNCERTAINTY MEASURES The three types of uncertainty whose measures are now well established in classical set theory.6 Summary of Uncertainty Measures 267 The range of the total uncertainty NS is (0. as can any other mathematical theory. Focal elements in fuzzified evidence theory are fuzzy sets. is obtained ill m((x)) = 1 for some x e X. Two significant maxima are obtained for m(X) = I (when S(m). The maximum. 9. Given a body of evidence (77 . possibility theory.Sec. Observe that the formulas for nonspecificity and strife. N. each ' weighted by m(A). F (m)..54). F ( n) WA) f (A).54). but it is computationally More cumbersome. 3") in which elements of are fuzzy sets.— Epxiogz px). It is reasonable to take this value as a measure of total uncertainty associated with the body of evidence. (9. Among the acceptable probability distributions. probability theory. 9. the theory can be fuzzifed.61) • where f (A) is defined by (934). where the maximum is taken over all distributions (p. of this body by the weighted average of the individual degrees of fuzziness.0) and for max }) = 1/IX1 for all X G X (when N(m) = 0). given by (9. and the standard fuzzy intersection is employed in (9. That is._X This measure has even stronger justification in terms of mathematical properties than the measure NS . provided that the set cardinaliries involved arc interpreted as sigma counts of the respective fuzzy sets. is a function whose domain is the set of all belief measures. each of which has some degree of fuzziness. of all focal elements (A e a). NS (in) = 0. f(A). 1] for all x kb) x X and E rp. It is defined by A U (Bel) =.maxi. which is the correct representation of complete certainty (full information). is not unique. The minimuna. remain =changed when evidence theory is fuzzifted. Fuzziness in Evidence Theory Evidence theory normally operates with focal elements that are crisp subsets of a given universal set. denoted by AU.
268 Uncertaintybased Information Chap.7 Three basic types of uncertainty. which seems well captured by the term ambiguity. .12. The third uncertainty type. no direct counterparts exist for some of these uncertainty measures. the uncertainty types.IndlatInctoess . g OffEE[RWEll Lack of definite or s h p.anamars several alternatives . 9. it results from the lack of viharpness of relevant distinctions.sharp Iessness Two or more alternative‘ are left unspecified • variety • generaiiiv ISCOHDA reen Dias g_milig . and the number of equation by which the function is defined_ When dealing with infinite sets.7. respectively. fuzziness.6ft mu conflicting aistinctions. or from both of these. 1lowover. higher uncertainty type. . For each function.. the uncertainty theory to which the function applies.511 toitist • vagueness • cloudiness hatiness . nonspecificity and strife. Functions by which the various types of uncertainty are measured are summarized for finite sets in Table 9. Two of. are viewed as species of a.1.dissonance • Incongruity • diserepancy • Gtpriti iut Figure 9. Each type is depicted by a brief commonsense characterization and agroup of pertinent synonyms. in Fig.unclea mess . the latter is associated with any situation in which it remains unclear which of several alternatives should be accepted as the genuine one. for nonspecificiry and fuzziness of fuzzy sets defined on bounded subsets of such counterparts exist and are expressed by the formulas (9.21) and (9_35).ambiguity results from the lack of certain distinctions characterizing an object (nunspeciacity). four pieces of information are given in the table: the type of uncertainty measured by the function. In general.diversity • equivocation roc 1=ion 9 st. the year in which the function was proposed as a measure of the respective uncertainty. is different from ambiguity. particularly in probability theory arid evidence theory .
36) If(m) — Er.7 PRINCIPLES OF UNCERTAINTY Once uncertainty (and information) measures become well justified. r— 1.58) Strife 1992 Er. Evidcarx theory PP S (n t) = A47 E m(A) logs E . the relevant measures of uncertainty are applicable only in their conditional or relative terms. max)) xex 271(B)— . — E rn (A) teg z E AeY .= ((x}) log.1 SUMMARY OF BASIC UNCERTAINTY mEAsupt Es FOR FINITE SETS Unicertainty Theory Classicei set theory Uncertainty Measure Equation (9. assessing the strength of relationship between given groups of variables. they can very effectively be utilized for managing uncertainty and the associated information. 2 PCSSibay theory isrS(r) . 1948 gvidenee theory 5(m) . they can be utilized for extrapolating evidence. 9..59) Total: N (en) + S(m) 1992. measuring the loss of information when a system is simplified.Z  .26) NonspeciEcity Nonspecificity 1983 1985 1.. In many problem situations. E wn(A)klgz rAl (9.i=2 1 .2 • ( 960) .34) f (A) .7 PrinipeS o r Uner iriy 269 TABLE 9.. Total. E ri Log i=z el.11(m) =. For example.. Fuzzy set theory E ili ni _ (9.. xex Ell — 124(=> — Fuzziness Fuzziness 1979 ruzzIfted evidence theory F(ni) = E RI (A ) f (A) (9A1) 1988 9.ET (9.Dri — r) logg. assessing the influence of given input variables on given output variables..rnalMA B OY A i 11 BI (9.1 .22) Nonspeci&ity 1983 Possibility theory Evidence theory Probability theory U (r) . (937) Shin. Although the utility of relevant uncertainty measures is as broad as the utility of .1) Uncertainty Type Nonspecificity Year 1928 U (A) = log A I Fuzzy $et theory U (A) = —jl h (A) 1 h (A} logz 'A !da i i —1 (9. I AI (9_54) Strife 1992 Possibility theory 1 5 (r) = t(n — r) log2 i. ( 9. and the like.: N(r)S(r) 1992 f.3 S7 lArIBI .Sec.
when we integrate several overlapping models into one larger model. which can perhaps be classified into three main classes: 1. The total loss of information may be expressed.ubsystems.). When properly applied. if the given models are valued differently. 2. we should accept only such simplifications of a given system at anydesirable level of complexity for which the loss of relevant information (or the increase in relevant uncertainty) is minimal. and the principle of uncertainty invariance.. It is used. Examples of relevant uncertainties are predictive. from among all otherwise equivalent solutions. the models may be locally inconsistent. simplifications made by breaking overall systems into appropriate subsystems. by the sum of all individual losses or by a weighted sum. A sound simplification of a given system should minimize the loss of relevant information (Cr the increase in relevant uncertainty) while achieving the required reduction of complexity. the loss of some information contained in the system is usually unavoidable. Since types and measures of uncertainty substantially differ in different uncertainty theories. in general s for narrowing down solutions in various systems problems that involve uncertainty. states. we only explain the principal characteristics of each of these principles. 9 any relevant measuring instrument.). retrodictive. . the principles result in considerably different mathematical problems when we move from one theory to another. the principle of maximum uncertainty. Another application of the principle of minimum uncertainty is the area of conflictresolution problems. That is. their role is particularly s.270 U nee n tylo as ed 1 eformaton Chap. the principle of minimum uncertainty guarantees that no information is wasted in the process of simplification. When a system is simplified. It is reasonable. we should minimi7e this loss of information. It is obvious that some information contained in the given models is inevitably lost by these adjustments. The amount of information that is lost in this process results in the increase of an equal amount of relevant uncertainty. For example. simplifications made by aggregating some entities of the system (variables. There are many simplification strategies. This is not desirable. The Principle of Minimum Uncertainty The principk of rilirdiffiUM uncertainty is basically an arbitration principle. the principleof minimum uncertainty is utilized in the same way. to require that each of the models be appropriately adjusted in such a way that the overall model becomes consistent. etc. It is an arbiter that decides which simplifications to choose at any given level of complexity.ignificant in three fundamental principles for managing uncertainty: the principle of minimum uncertainty. then. whose uncertainty (pertaining to the purpose concerned) is minimal. 3. Regardless of the strategy employed. In this section. we should accept only those adjustments for which the total loss of information (or total increase of uncertainty) is minimal. The principle states that we should accept only those solutions. simplifications made by eliminating some entities from the system (variables s. for example. That is. A major class of problems for which the principle of minimum uncertainty is applicable are simplification problem. etc. or prescriptive uncertainty. Hence.
This principle guarantees that our ignorance be fully recognized when we try to enlarge our claims beyond the given premises and. A general formulation of the principle of maximum entropy is: determine a probability distribution (p(x)lx e X) that maximizes the Shannon entropy subject to given constraix ' el..whenever you find yourself getting angry about a difference in opinion. n) = . be on your guard. employing the connection between information and uncertainty. In other words. where.. the principle of maximum unceminty. The most typical constrainrs employed in practical applications of the maximum entropy principle are mean (expected) values of one or more random variables or various marginal probability distributions of an unknown joint distribution. but make sure that no additional information is unwittingly added. This is reasoning in which conclusions are not entailed in the given premises.. 1950): ". we must resort to ampliative reasoning. x. 2. is essential for any problem that involves ampliative reasoning . Ampliative reasoning is indispensable to science in a variety of ways. x2. 2. by solving the following optimization problem: maximize function 1. which is related to the unknown probabilities by the formula (x) = Exi p (xi) . use all information available. at the same time. 9. as well as general constraints (axioms) of probability theory." The principle of maximum uncertainty is well developed and broadly utilized within classical information theory. which express partial information about the unknown probability distribution. consider a random variable x with possible (given) nonnegative real values xi. but we know the mean '(expected) value E(x) of the variable. the principle of maximum uncertainty is not always adhered to. the principle requires that conclusions resulting from any ampliative inference maximize the relevant uncertainty within the constraints representing the premises. The problem of the identification of an overall system from some of its subsystems is another example that involves ampliative reasoning. we estimate the unknown probabilities p (x ) n. . that all information contained in the premises be fully utilized. by Bertrand Russell in his Unpopular Essays (London. unfortunately.Sec. Its violation leads almost invariably to conflicts in human communication. = H(p(xe)li =1. That is..„. As an example. as well expressed. Similarly. you will probably find. Assume that probabilities p(xi) are not known. ez . E p(x. that your belief is getting beyond what the evidence warrants. whenever we utilize a scientific model for predictions. For example.) log2 p(xi) (9. Using common sense. Ampliative reasoning is also eotnmon and important in our daily life. we employ ampliative reasoning.7 Ftinciptes of Uncertainty 271 The Principle of Maximum Uncertafnly The second pdneiple. when we want to estimate microstates from the knowledge of relevant rnacrostates and partial information regarding the microstates (as in image processing and many other problems). the principle guarantees that our conclusions are maximally noncommittal with regard to information not contained in the premises. on examination. the principle may be expressed by the following requirement: in any ampliative inference. where it is called the principle of maximum entropy .62) Employing the maximum entropy principle.
where: 18 fls fx:tinsE (9. smaller than uncertainty expressed by q .. and the maximum entropy principle would yield the uniform probability distribution (the only distribution for which the entropy reaches its absolute maximum). we must choose one from several possible optimization problems. n As a. A generalization of the principle of maximum entropy is the principle of minimum crossentropy. we obtain p(xi) = E . for example. uncertainty expressed by p is. It is expressed by (9. that represent the total beliefs focusing on A and B.. are given numbers_ When solving this problem. . respectively (a. If R (x) were not known.62). and A n B. The principle of minimum crossentropy helps us to determine how much smaller it should be. possible interpretation of this problem. strife. g subject to the axiomatic constraints of probability theory and an additional constraint expressed by (9. Hence. The entropy of the probability distribution given by (9_63) is`smaller than the entropy of the uniform distribution. as follows: given a prior probability distribution function q on a finite set X and some relevant new evidence.272 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. or both nonspecificity and strife viewed as two distinct objective functions. _ ac ta:n h_ta:k E b: solv. New evidence reduces uncertainty.ing (numerical1Y) the equation le nie_d_ 3 n. the principle of maximum uncertainty yields four possible optimization problems.62) as a constraint on the set of relevant probability distributions.63) for all j = 1. let X be a set of diseases considered in an designed for medical diagnosis in a special area of medicine. that emerge from the maximum uncertainty principle outside classical information theory have yet to be properly investigated and tested in praxis. o (9. as well as to the standard constraints of probability theory. we would be totally ignorant about x. let us consider a finite universal set X. the posterior probability distribution function p estimated by the principle is the largest . x. x2. That is. l]). It can be formulated. in general. which represent the new evidence. When several types of uncertainty are applicable. B. total uncertainty. Our aim is to estimate the degree of support for A B based on this evidence. and let A and B be sets of diseases that are supported for a particular patient by some diagnostic tests to expert system . a and b. in evidence theory. It allows us to reduce the uncertainty of q in the smallest amount necessary to satisfy the new evidence.64) i=t Our only knowledge about the random variable x in this example is the knowledge of its expected value E(x). As a simple example to illustrate the principle of maximum nonspecificity in evidence theory. i E [0. three nonempty subsets of which are of interest to us: A.entropy 19 given by (941) subject to constraints el. Assume that the only evidence on hand is expressed in terms of two numbers. Optimization problems. where E (x) and Xi. 2. which are distinguished from one another by the objective function involved: nonspecificity. determine a new probability distribution function p that minimizes the cross . but it is the largest entropy from among all the entropies of the probability distributions that conform to the given expected value E(r).among all other distribution functions that conform to the evidenee.
whereas the third equation specifies its lower bound. for example. b). m(A n B) > 0. „Iyv — zyg (A ri B). n B) = a.K2 where (967) IXitA n BI IA1 • IBI and . in addition. in (A). m(A).Sec. 1] are given numbers. in (A CI B) as the free variable. it is reasonable to estimate the degree of support for diseases in A n B by using the principle of maximum nonspecificity.7• Principes of Uncertainty 273 degrees a and 1. we obtain in (A n B)Liog2 log2 IA I — log2 I B + log2 IA n Bll b 10g2 FBI. Ft1 — a — b) Iog2 expression as + a log2 14 Clearly. The use of the principle of maximum nonspecificity leads.. only the first term in this expression can influence its value. K. we readily obtain m(A) = a — tit (A n . m(B). ( B) rn(A n B) = m(X). I. m (Z ) = 1 — a — b + m(A (9_65) • Since all the unknowns must be nonnegative. the first two equations set the upper bound of In (A n B). 171 b G [0. the bounds are max(0. in our example. a + b — 1) < tn(A 11 B) < min(a. nr(X) + m(A) where a. the objective function can now be expressed solely in terms of the free variable in (A n B). Hence. 9. The equations are consistent and independent. so we may rewrite the m(A B) log.151). they involve one degree of freedom. (9_66) n B). The first two equations represent our evidence. and nt(A (1 B) for which the function m(X) log2 I + (A) log2 Al + m(B) Ing z IBI m (A ri B) log2 IA fl BI reaches its maximum subject to the constraints in(A) +rn(A. to the following optimization problem: Determine values m(X).65). The constraints are represented in this case by three linear algebraic equations of four unknowns and. After a simple rearrangement of terms. by the requirement that the unknowns be nonnegative real numbers. respectively Using this evidence. This principle is a safeguard which does not allow ns to produce nu answer (diagnosis) that is more specific than warranted by the evidence. Using (9. (B) + m (A n B) b.t. m(B). the third equation and the inequalities represent general constraints of evidence theory. Selecting.
the use of the principle 0 MaXiMktril nonspecificity leads. . Based on various studies.. as given by (9. The use of the maximum nonspecifcity principle does not always result in a unique solution. it t (A n B) = min(a. b)] when IC 1 = 1 m(A n B) = fmax(0.6. b) The three types of solutions are exemplified in Table 9. that any value of in (A n B) in the range (9. Since A. If Kt <1.2. a ± b — 1) due to (9. If Ki > t then log2 K1 > 0. hence.4] 0 in(B) rn(A 171 B) 10. as demonstrated by the case of K1 =.to obtain the maximum of expression (9. given by (969). Furthermore.6) is a solution to the optimization ploblem.2 [A. different theories may be appropriate at different stages of a problemsolving process or for different purposes at the same stage. TABLE 9. .3 [0. K1 > 0. and it is likely that additional theories will be added to it in the future. If the solution is not unique. this is a good reason to utilize the second type of uncertainty—strife.1yriri Ne 11A .61 . This is a great advantage when compared with the maximum entropy principle.2.131 are constant coefficients.5 10 20 5 10 4 12 2 4 . robustness. a + b — 1) b — 1). 2 1 _i .1 in (9. as a more refined objective function. We may either add the measure of strife. The solution to the optimization problem depends only on the value of K1.4 Observe that. hence. a + (963) min(a.4 .7 b m CX) m(A) S [. .5 . rn(A n B) max(0. These variations of the maximum uncertainty principle have yet to be developed.61). Principle of Uncertainty invariance Our repertory of mathematical theories by which we can characterize and deal with situations under uncertainty is already quite respectable. The use of the latter leads to nonlinear optimization problems.68). b).6 5 . generality.67) is independent of m (A n B). When K 1 = 1. then log2 K1 <O. which are considerably more difficult computationally. due to the linearity of the measure of nonspecificity. and expression (9. 9 (1 — a — b) Iog2 1X] ± a log2 fAl blog2 1. as a second objective function in the optimization problem. The theories differ from one another in their meaningful interpretations. and other aspects.274 K2 Uncrtaintybased information Chap. and we must maximize In (A n B). it is increasingly recognized that none of the theories is superior in all respects and for all purposes. computational complexity. or use the measure of total uncertainty. when K1 ‹ 1 /max(0. more precisely. 1og2 K1 = 0.2 EXAMPLES OF TlE5 THREE TYPES OF SOLUTIONS OBTAINED BY THE PRINCIPLE OF MAXIMUM NONSPECIFICITY : !X i 1A1 5 ' 1BI 5 IA ri B 1 2 a .to linear programming problems. The complete solution can thus be expressed by the following equations: . given by (9.21 . this implies that the solution is not unique or. B.66).. and A n B are assumed to be nonempty subsets of X.0 10. In order to oppornmis lly utilize the advantages of the various theories of hN' q r. min(a.66).54).8 . and we mast minimize ni(A r 1?) . when K1 > 1.
. or transformations. this basically means that we want to replace one type of Information with an equal amount of information of another type. . we want to convert information from one type to another while. These moves. T1 . the principle of uncertainty invariance can also be conceived as a principle of information invariance or information preservation Indeed. ›• pi+t and ri ri+1 for all i = 1. This is equivalent to the assumption that values pi correspond to values ri for all i = 1. which must be at least ordinal. the following principle. is germane to this purpose. formalized in some mathematical theory. the amount of uncertainty associated with the situation be preserved when We move from T1 into r2. and the degrees of belief in T1 be converted to their counterparts in T2 by an appropriate scale. Let us illustrate the principle of uncertainty invariance by describing its use for formalizing transformations between probabilistic and possibilistic conceptualizations of uncertainty. To transform the representation of a problemsolving situation in one theory. then either some information not supported by the evidence would unwittingly be added by the transformation (information bias). In either case. where only nonzero components of the probability distribution p and the possibility distribution r are listed. When we approximate one model with another one. with the principle of energy preservation in physics. The general idea is Illustrated in Fig. in a metaphoric way. Due to the unique connection between uncertainry and information. When wellestablished measures of uncertainty are available in the theories involved. 2. formalized in terms of a different mathematical theory. the principle of uncertainty invariance requires that: 1. at least ordinal Requirement I guarantees that no uncertainty is added or eliminated solely by changing the mathematical theory by which a particular phetromenon is formalized. T2. contains information of some type and some amount. we need the capability of moving from one theory to another as app ropriate. . 2. If the amount of uncertainty were not preserved. from one theory to another should be based on some justifiable principle. It is also assumed that the corresponding components of the distributions are ordered in the same way: pg.Sec. 2. n — 1.7 Prindpies of Uncertainty 275 uncertainty.  . preserving its amount. n by some scale. each model of a decision making situation. This expresses the spirit of the principle of information invariance or preservation: no information should be added or eliminated solely by converting one type of information to another. or some useful information contained in the evidence would unwittingly be eliminated (information waste). which are considered essential in a given context (such as ordering or proportionality of relevant values). of a numerical variable remain invariant are known in the theory of measurement as scales. The amount is expressed by the difference between the maximum possible uncertainty associated with the set of alternatives postulated in the situation and the actual uncertainty of the model. 9. 9.8. called a principle of uncertainty invariance. at the same time. the model obtained by the transformation could hardly be viewed as equivalent to its original_ Requirement 2 guarantees that certain properties. Transformations under which certain propertie. It seems reasonable to compare this principle. are preserved under the transformation.. into an equivalent representation in another theory. That is.
9 PrObabili5t[C kjrr F izution P ( Pi 13 2' Passibilistia formaNzaticri r2 . These additional requirements may be expressed.) Figure 9.. and (4) ordinalscale transformations that preserve uncertainty always exist in both directions. They nvsult. such as projections. their basic properties (existence. Pram another point of view. but. in general. For ordinal scales. are. uncertaintyinvariant transformations exist and are unique in both directions. uncertaintyinvariant transformations p et r are not unique. A scheme of these transformations is shown in Fig. are not unique. 9. (3) for loginterval scales. From one point of view. which are obtained by solving appropriate linear inequalities constrained by the requirements of normalization and uncertainty invariance. which implies that the possibilityprobability consistency condition (ri p i for all i 1. consequently. for example. the lack of uniqueness is a disadvantage of ordinalscale transformafions. n).8 ProbabilityposAbiiiry transformations.... . 2. in closed convex sets of probability or possibility distributions. When the traz2sformations are simplified by excluding S(r) in Equation which for large n is negligible. consistency) remain intact. uncertaintyinvariant transformations p r exist and are unique for all probability distributions. it is an advantagesince it allows us to impose additional requirements on the transformations. then. or conditioning. uniqueness. the following results regarding uncertaintyinvariant transformations p r under sifferent scales have been obtained: (1) transformations based on ratio and difference scales do not have enough flexibility to preserve uncertainty and. is always satisfied by these transformations. First. rr. while the inverse transformations r p that preserve uncertainty exist (and are unique) only for some possibility distributions. It is known that 0 < r < 1. noninteraction.9.276 Uncertaintybased Information Chap. in terms of secondorder properties. the obtained value of a is substituted to the transformation formulas (Equation I for p r and Equation Ill for r g). The loginterval scale is thus the strongest scale under which the uncertainty ipariance transformations p ‹+ r always exist and are unique. Thus far...  . not applicable. (2) for interval scales. in general. a transformation coefficient a is determined by Equation which expresses the required equality of the two amounts of total uncertainty.
. The developments regarding nonclassical measures of uncertainty and uncertaintybased 93. which is abundant. information are overviewed in a paper by K]ir [1993]. and Wonneberger [1994].1. 9.9 Uncertaintyinvariant probabilitypossibility transformations based ca scales. log. it was justified on axiomatic grounds by Rdnyi (19701.interyal NOTES 9. Klir and Parviz [1992b]. is overviewed in [Klir and Paige.4. The Hartley function discussed in Sec. Tim principle of uncertainty invariance was innInduced by Klir [1990b] and further developed by Geer and Mir [1992]. 9 1 was derived by Hartley [1928]. Jumatie [1994]. which introduces the welljustified measure AU of total uncertainty in evidence theory. The original paper by Shannon [1948] is also available in a book [Shannon and Weaver.Chap. a chronology of the main events in these developments is also presented in a paper by Harmanec and Mir [1994]. 9 Notes F rorn prObabiiiiieS b 277 &Lbijjtj. Liiviattne on information theory based on the Shannon entropy. 1988]. 19641. p 4— r Figure 9.
Lr(X.5 1 0 . (e) 3r (1.. 8. 150). . 9. miG0= ni2((c}) =. Calculate the Eluncertainty and shife for the following possibility distributions: (a) Ir (1. CossWar the following basic assignments defined on X = (a.„ and U(YIX). 150). (c) some of the fuzzy rutaims specified in Table 5.4 0 0 0 0.3. 0 .4 (p.278 Uncertaintybased intirmatioin Chap. • 9. .s: (a) A. and Y . and check the additivity properties of the three measures for basic assignments that represent noninteractive marginals.2.2/g. b.4 0 . 5Â8. Calculate the nonspecificity and fuzziness for eatzh of.5/17+ . 9 EXERCISES 9.6).8 0 93 For some relations on X < Y specified in TabLe 5. (4) joint basic assignments reconstructed from.4 (p.3. ( 3) B(x) (e) C(x) = x/5 for 5. 227).9. nonspecificity. 0» which of the basic assigornents represent aoniriteractive marginal bodies of evidenoe. and their measures of strife. .4 (pp. rn3 ({n. calculate U(1'). and NS(m i) for each  .7 Prove that the nonspecificity function N defined by (936) is subaddilive and additive.3. 1Y6(20 7n 2 abb = . Focal elements are specified in the table by their characteristic functions. 101: (a) A(x) x /10. = . b. Determine(a) which of the basic assignments represent probability or possibility measures. axe given in Table 9..31.3. .3/a +.5 0 . pr. nonspecificity.4ff (11) fuzzy relation R defined by the matrix [ 1 .1. E(m i ). el: < 5 and C(x) 2 x/5 for. 2. 9.5  1.9 . defined by the matrix 7 0 0 1 000 1 0 . 3. C(nf ). where X = (1. S(mi). 9 4.71g + . and total uncertainty for all the given joint basic assignments as well as the associated marginal basic assignments (projections).x mi((c)) = mz(iai) rrtA{c}) ((b.6.7 R . (d) fuzzy sets in Fig. zr (1. 1.T(Y).2_ Cakulate the nonspecificity and fuzziness for each fuzzy relation involved in the procedure for obtaining transitive closure of the relation R. (e) measures of strife.3 . tu. CuEowing fuzzy s0. Calculate the nonspecificiry and fuzziness for the following fuzzy sets defined on the interval O. 2. Calculate N(fa i )..9 .5 1. + lid ± . Eir(Xil"). and total uncertainty. Six joint basic assignments on X x Y. their marginals on the assumption of noninteraction. c).
V . A n C. el 2 N. CD CD 0 CD CDCD CD0 CP CR CP CD CR CR CD 0 co.3 ki la lb 1c 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 3c 1 0 0000000 010000000 001000000 000100000 00001000. $?:cD. CR CP cP1.08CD tn .1on CR71 CDel oo . 0C>CD CD CD CDCDCD cpC) CD CD <D CD CD ' 2cz 6• 8 El CD CD CD In. The only evidence we have is expressed by the equations rn(A n B) ns(A n B n irr(A c) m6.Chap_ 9 Exercises JOINT BASIC ASSIGNMENTS FOR EXERCISE 9.4 m(B nC) nt(AnBnC)= .. .1 CD CD CD C. (d) 4 r= (0 5 r . <D flCD CD .2_2_2_2). _ . .1 CD0.2. Estimate. 'G Ej Q0CD CD CD CD CP nC. 279 TABLE 9.1Z' .1.6(R) CD CI CD CD CD .2. .CD CD‹RCR CD CD n. 4n 4pmtv3re. 000100100 000000101 00100'000 10010 10010 000000111 111000000 000011011 000101101 101101000 01E011000 101101101 000111111 111111000 011011011 111000111 1111/1111 mgRi) nix(Ri) QCA CD CD CD CD m4(Rf) rel. 02'. 2S 8. and m(X).9.2. 9. B). CR CR CR mlf RI) c VV CD CP VCR CP VCP. . four monerapty subsets of which arc of interest A n B n C. rl SgcDcD6 . and AnBn C. (I. 1 B.0 00000/000 000000100 000000010 0000000n. pn(A il C). . 4PCD CD CDcDcDcD V O c) C) = . the values of rn(A m(B nC) i nt(AnB nC). " onr. V 1 . usiag the maximum nonspccificity principle.6 sril(Ri) . Consider a uuiversal set X.
depend not only on the items to which they are applied (e. driving. painful. as °very ewed hi Part I of this text. we have at our disposal theoretical resources of great expressive power and. the examples are ComitteSS. they enable us to express and deal with various relations. We 'may go on and on. and to manipulate them in a great variety of ways for various purposes. and equations that involve linguistic concepts. These tools enable us to represent linguistic concepts most of which are inherently vague. or talented certainly have many different meanings.PART Two APPLICATIONS CONSTRUCTING FUZZY SETS AND OPERATIONS ON FUZZY SETS W. We have to determine which of the tnorms.. very expensive. great utility. or air travel. applied to a patient or a nuclear reactor. and so on. a house versus a vacation trip). which may differ from person to person even under the same CirCanistanees. the concept of large distance has different meanings in the contexts of walking. and they allow us to fuzzify any desired area of classical mathematics to facilitate emerging applications . functions. provides us with a respectable inventory of theoretical tools for dealing with concepts expressed in natural language. have different meanings in different contents. We have to determine.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION Fuzzy set theory. but also on the affluence of the buyer and a host of other circumstances. That is. not. pleasing. the concept of high temperature has two very different meanings when.  280 . and they change even more drastically when applied to mountain formations in geology or stars in astronomy. It is now experimentally well established that the various connectives of linguistic terms. or. of the available operations on fuzzy sets best represent the intended operations on the corresponding linguistic terms. concepts such as beautifid. consequently. in each particular application. the concepts cheap. Par example. but also meanings of operations on linguistic terms.. tconorms. such as and.g. and ifthen. expensive. Linguistic concepts are not only predominantly vague. but their mennings are almost invariably contextdependent as well. the meanings of young and old change when applied to different animal species. by fuzzy sets of various types. which. The context dependency involves nut only meanings of linguistic terms.
In the second stage. as approximators of meanings of relevant linguistic terms la given contexts. as well as the problem of determining meanings of associated operations on the linguistic terms. who are assumed to possess it. one or more experts in this domain. That is. The following is a general scenario within which the construction of fuzzy sets (or fuzzy set operations) takes place. the problem of constructing membership functions of fuzzy sets is essentially the same as the problem of constructing functions that represent fuzzy set operations. In the first stage. In our discussion. For a fuzzy set. Knowledge can be elicited only through an Interaction of the knowledge engineer with the expert(s). Numerous methods for constructing membership functions. the knowledge is supposed to be expressed in terms of propositions involving linguistic variables. Therefore. It is during this second stage of knowledge acquisition that functions representing fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets are constructed. The problem of constructing membership functions that adequately capture the meanings of linguistic terms employed in a particular application. X is a given universal set. The role of the knowledge engineer is to elicit the knowledge of interest from the experts. fuzzy set theory provides a framework within which the process of knowledge acquisition takes place and in which the elicited knowledge can effectively be represented. 1. it is crucial for applications of these tools to realworld problems. METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION: AN OVERVIEW Both fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets are characterized by functions of the form X 10. Hcwever. The scenario involves a specific knowledge domain of interest.2 Methods of Construction: An Overview 281 complements. and a knowledge engineer. a prerequisite to each application of fuzzy set theory are meanings of relevant linguistic concepts expressed in ternis of appropriate fuzzy sets as well as meanings of relevant operations on fuzzy sets. 13oth fuzzy sets and fuzzy set operations are also employed.= [O. Knowledge acquisition is a subject of a relatively new field of study referred to as knowledge engineering. X . almost invariably based on experts' judgement. we overview basic types of methods that are applicable to the construction of membership functions of fuzzy sets and to the selection of appropriate operations on fuzzy sets. the knowledge engineer attempts to elicit knowledge in terms of propositions expressed in natural language. These problems belong to the general problem area of knowledge acquisition within the underlying framework of fuzzy set theory. That is. While context dependency is not essential for developing theoretical resources for representing and processing linguistic concepts. methods developed for constructing membership functions are applicable for constructing fuzzy set operations as well. That is. 10. he or she attempts to determine the meaning of each linguistic term employed in these propositions. We do not attempt to cover methods of knowledge acquisition comprehensively . In our case. 1]. in general. have been described in the literature. All these methods may usefully be . we focus primarily on the construction of menabership functions. for a fuzzy set operation. and to express the knowledge in some operational form of a required type.Sec. In addition. or other operations on fuzzy sets best approximate the intended meanings of the connectives. we describe some representative methods in more detail. are not problems of fuzzy set theory per se. The various linguistic hedges are context dependent as well.] 1' for some positive integer k.
indirect methods/lone elipert. an expert is expected to assign to each given eierdent x X a membership grade A(x) that.282 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. where e is the largest acceptable least square error. 10 classified. Although it is often not feasible to define the membership function that adequately captures a given linguistic term. when e(x) < e. lines x for which e(x) . 0_ Given a particular line x. This results in four principal classes of methods for constructing membership functions: direct methods/one expert. experts are expected to give answers to questions of various kinds that explicitly pertain to the constructed tnemborship function. The ideal prototypes are in these cases all perfect straight lines. and indirect methods/multiple experi. according to his or her opinion. and e expresses the largest dissimilarity (in the opinion of the expert) to capture the concept of lines that are approximately straight. e(x). alternatively. in the most fundamental way. 10. experts are required to answer simpler questions. which are usually called ideal prototypes of the concept. For example. S. the expert may define a fuzzy set of straight lines. best captures the meaning of the linguistic term represented by the fuzzy set A. in terms of the least square straightline fitting with minimum error. The exemplification may be facilitated by asking the expert questions of the form  "What is the degree of membership of x in A? or. into direct methods and indirect methods_ In direct methods.3 DIRECT METHODS WITH ONE EXPERT In this category of methods. It is feasible for any concept that satisfies two conditions: the concept is perfectly represented by some elements of the universal set. in pattern recognition of handwritten characters. we describe representative methods in each of these four classes. direct !methods/multiple mperts. The complete definition of the membership function in question by the expert is feasible for sortie linguistic concepts. Both direct and indirect methods are further classified to methods that involve one expert and methods that require multiple experts. Then.i. that is. In indirect methods. is a meaningful membership function that captures quite well the linguistic concept straightitess in the context of handwritten_ character recognition. This can be done by either defining the membership function completely in terms of a justifiable mathematical formula or exemplifying it for some selected elements of X. e(x) expresses the dissimilarity between x and Its best straightline approximation. easier to answer and less sensitive to the various biases of subjective judgement. otherwise. the expert should be able to exemplify it for some representative elements of X. the function s(x) {0 1 — e(x)/e. In the following four sections. for each given line x. which pertain to the constructed membership function only implicitly_ The answers are subject to further processing based on various assumptions. and the compatibility of other elements of the universal set with these ideal prototypes can be expressed mathematically in terms of a meaningful similarity function. .
the questions may be formulated in reverse forms: "ligtich elements x have the degree A(x) of membership in A?" 5Ct A. such as high violence. regardless of their form.7). for each object.) that are relevant to the concept in question and evaluating the concept in terms of these scales for each given object of the universal set. If "Which elements x are compatible with LA to degree A(x)?" These questions. where A is a fuzzy set on X that represent a linguistic term associated with a given linguistic variable. Assume that ai (x) . or highly stressful situation. the opinions of individual experts must be appropriately aggregated. in a vector whose entries are values assigned to the object under the chosen scales.4 Direct Methods with Mu Itjpie Experts "What is the degree of compatibility of x with L A? " 2 83 where LA is the linguistic term that we want to represent in a given context by fuzzy desirable. the full description of which is beyond the scope of this test. referred to as the method of a semantic differential. bellshaped. Sshaped. 10.One such procedure. and ai (x) O when it is valued as false. The described procedure of direct exemplification and curve fitting is feasible only for linguistic terms that describe simple concepts such as high temperature. generally.Sec. Then. This results.1) may be viewed as a probabilistic interpretation of the constructed membership function. Assume that n experts (or. Given a particular element z G X. 10. etc. fet ai (x) denote the answer of expert i (i E Na ). More elaborate procedures are needed to determine meanings of concepts that do not enjoy this simplicity. (10. usualunusual. depressed economy. The degree of compatibility of a given object with the concept is then expressed by calculating a normalized distance of this vector from the vector (0. 0). This general method for 'measuring meanings of linguistic terms. etc.) by an appropriate curvefitting method (Sec. 1 when the proposition is valued by expert î as true. result in a set of pairs (x. One of the most common methods is based on a probabilistic interpretation of membership functions. This results in the formula A(x) = E i=1 a. and the like.). is well developed and widely used. It is based on selecting a set of scales for polar adjectives (badgood. subjects) are asked for some x e X to valuate the proposition "x belongs to A" as either Mie or false. of the individual experts (1 e N. trapezoidal. 0. [1957]. 10.2) . A (x)) This set is then used for constructing the membership function _et of a given shape (triangular. .4 DIRECT METHODS WITH MULTIPLE EXPERTS When a direct method is extended from one expert to multiple experts. is thoroughly covered in a monograph by Osgood et al. close driving distance. It is often useful to generalize this interpretation by allowing one to distinguish degrees of competence c. chaoticordered. normai blood pressure. (x). E a(z) A (x) (10.
8] (x) [A Li i[A(x). and so forth.bi (x)l. 1[A n pl (x) Eci[ai(x ) .. etc.3) (10.E.2).4) a i (x) • bi (x)]. we can combine valuations ai (x) and b.B. they are such that all properties of the Boole. Then. that is. respectively. These inequalities are exactly the same as those for t norms and r001:101711S. B(x)]. for all x E X.an lattice are locally satisfied for each X E X.).2). B(x)]. f [A U BI (x) = E c [a (x) toi (x) (10.(x)i. (x) for each expert I by relevant operations of classical logic (V for for n. depending on the vectors a(x) and b(x). union. Using (10. These values are uniquely determined by the vectors a(x) and b(x). A n B.A U B.5) Observe that fuzzy intersection and union defined in this way are unique. 10 where Consider now two fuzzy sets. We can thus obtain unique operations of fuzzy intersection. it is easy to see that fuzzy intersections and unions defined by (10.5) satisfy the inequalities 0 < [A n B] (x) 5_ min[A(x). 4x) PI (10. [A n . A and B. By this I:procedure. B (x)] < [A U B] (x) 1 for each x G X. Alternatively. Moreover. each fuzzy operation is unique for each x E X. Observe also that a fuzzy complement defined in this way is always the standard fuzzy complement  . max[A (x).[1—.5) yield for each x E X values which  coincide with the values of a particular tnorm and a particular c conorm. Let a(x) (ai (x)Ei Nep ) and 13(x) (bi (x)ii E be vectors of experts' valuations associated with fuzzy sets A and B.4) and (10. both defined on the same universal set X arid constructed in the same context. B(x)J.4) and (10. defined oa the same universal set X. 131(x) u[A(x). we obtain 7 . but they are not truth functional. This means that operations defined by (10. we can calculate A(x) and B(x) for each x E X. In general. and then choose appropriate fuzzy operators to calculate :47. employing the genet lized formula (10.284 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. different operations are used for different elements x G X.. and then aggregate the resulting vector. However. and complement that preserve the Boolean lattice at the cost of losing truth functionality. respectively.
subjective perceptions of distinct subjects may be too different to justify their aggregation. 2. Membership functions were constructed for each subject by randomly generiting different stimuli (each one at least nine times) and then averaging the subject's responses. not tall. the subject is presented with a random series of persons (houses) and asked to use this method of indicating membership degree to rate each one as tall (or pleasing).  Membership ratings in both experiments are indicated with movable pointer along a horizontal line segment. Two techniques. Experiments were performed with 30 subjects.g. the results may be summarized in terms of an appropriate intervalvalued fuzzy set. Instead. An example of the Jrnenibership functions obtained for the fuzzy sets of tall. 10. The second experiment involves the notion of aesthetically pleasing houses among one story houses of fixed width and variable heights. 10. The righthand end of this segment corresponds to the membership degree of those persons who are definitely "tall" (ox to those houses' that are definitely "pleasing"). the same method of depicting membership degree is used to give the ubject a random membership rating. were used.Sec. The plots in this Ague represent the mean response to nine stimuli based on the direct rating procedure. perfomdbyNwichan The experiments to be described are based an the assumption that the interval scale is employed. . The distance at which the pointer is placed between these two endpoints is interpreted as the strength of agreement or truth of the classification of each person (or house) as tall (or pleasing). again representing the mean response of a particular subject to nine stimuli based on the direct rating procedure. The first experir nent involves the subjective perception of each participant of the notion of tall persons.2. 10. 12 inches and of height adjustable from 0 inches to 34 inches. A cardboard model of a house is used. very tall. and the lefthand end to those persons felt to be definitely not tall (or to those houses that are definitely not pleasing). 1984]. This is reasonable since the graphs of membership functions elicited from/ different subjects tend to have the same shape. as perceived by a particular subject. and short persons. The following is a brief characterization of each of the two experiments: ' 1. • In the reverse rating procedure. As a specific example of eliciting membership functions that characterize subjective perceptions of a linguistic term by different subjects.1. let us describe two relevant experiment s Turksen [1982 a—c. referred ta as direct rating and reverse rating. these are described later.. is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. It uses a life sized wooden figure of adjustable height. In the direct ratings procedure. which consists of a chimney and a triangular roof sitting on a rectangle of width . the subject is then presented with an ordered series of persons (houses) and asked to select the one person (house) that best seems to correspond to the indicated degree of membership in the category of tall persons (or pleasing houses). those involving aesthetic judgements). An example of a membership function for the fuzzy set of pleasing houses.4 Direct Methods with Multiple Experts 285 For some concepts (e.
00 62 00 70. and Tarksen f1984]).00 10200 Height in inches Figure Ill Metnbetship grzde functions of four fuzzy sets expressing the subjective perception tall persons (adopted from Norwich and of a particular subject related to the concept of r 941).00 Figure 1 02 Membership grade function of the fuzzy set expressing the subjective perception of a particular subject of aesthetically pleasing houses (adopted from NeirWieb. . 00 78 00 86 00 94. Turksen Membership grmile 15 00 25 00 35 00 55 00 65 00 45 00 Height iii 1/10 inches 7500 85 00 95.286 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. 10 Mem bErship gxa de 50.
Sec. 10.5
10.5
indirect Methods with One Expert
287
INDIRECT METHODS WITH ONE EXPERT
dr
Unless a membership function can be defined in terms of a suitable similarity function with respect to an ideal prototype (or a set of ideal prototypes), direct methods have one fundamental disadvantage. They require the expert (Cr experts) to give answers that are overly precise to capture subjective judgments. As a consequence, the answers are always somewhat arbitrary, which becomes critical for complex concepts, such as beauty, talent, creativity, and the like. Indirect methods attempt to reduce this arbitrariness by replacing direct estimates of membership grades with simpler tasks. As an example, let us describe a method in which direct estimates are replaced with painvise comparisons. Given a linguistic term in a particular context, let A denote a fuzzy set that is supposed to capture the meaning of this term. Let x i , x2, , xi, be elements of the universal set X for which we want to estimate the grades of membership in A. That is, our problem is to determine the values ai = A (xi ) for all i E Ni,. instead of asking the expert to estimate values ai directly, we ask him or her to compare elements x l , x2„ , x, in pairs according to their relative weights of belonging to A, The pairwise comparisons, which are easier to estimate than the direct values, are conveniently expressed by the square matrix P = [pia 1, j which has positive entries everywhere. Assume first that it is possible to obtain perfect values p ii . In this case, pii aila i , and matrix P is consistent in the sense that (10.6) for all î, j, k E N., which implies that pa = 1 and Ai = Furthermore,
E pij ai
for all j where
Eai =nai
(10.7)
N„ or, in matrix form., Pa = na, a
rat a2
Equation (10.7) means that n is an eigenvalue of P and a is the corresponding eigenvecton The equation may also be rewritten in the form
(P nl)a = 0,
(10.8)
where I is the identity matrix. This matrix equation represents a system of homogeneous linear equations, which have a nonzero solution if the determinant of (P n1) is zero (i..e„ n is an eigenvalue of P). If we assume that
then ai for any I
N. can be determined by the following simple procedure:
288
Constructing Fuzzy Sets arid Operations on Fuzzy Sets
Chap. 10
hence,
al =
1
(10.9)
E Pil
In practice, the pairwise comparisons p. elicited from the user are usually not fully consistent. That is, (10.6) is violated to some degree. In this case, matrix P can be viewed as a perturbation of the ideal, fully consistent matrix. It is well known that when the values pii change slightly, the eigenvalues of P change in a similar way. As a consequence, the maximum eigenvalue remains cloac to n (always grcator than n), while all the other eigenvalnes are close to zero. The problem of estimating vector a from matrix P now becomes the problem of finding the largest eigerwalue A. F,„„ and the associated eigenvector. That is, the estimated vector a must satisfy the equation
Pa
—
Xa,
(10.10)
where is usually clos: to n. la fact, the closer is to n, the more accurate is the .cliinate of a. That is, the relative deviation of A.., from n, (X n)/ n, may be employed as a measure of the accuracy of the obtained estimate. Various numerical methods for obtaining the largest eigenvalue and the associated eigenvector are available, but coverage of them does not belong in this text. We should mention, however, that an initial estimate of a by (10.9) is in many cases sufficiently accurate,' and no further procedure is needed. Fuzzy sets obtained by the described method are not normal. We can normalize them by divIding each entry of the estimated vector a by its largest entry.
—
10.6
INDIRECT METHODS WITH MULTIPLE EXPERTS
Let us illustrate methods in this category by describing an interesting method, which enables us to determine degrees &competence of participating experts, which are then utilized, together with the experts' judgments, for calculating grades of membership of relevant elements in the fuzzy set that is supposed to represent a given linguistic concept. The method is based on the assumption that, in general, the concept in question is ndimensional (based on n distinct features), each defined on R. Hence, the universal set on which the concept is defined is W. Let kit ] denote the interval of values of feature j that in the opinion of expert i, relate to the concept in question (i E N„„ j e NO. The full opinion of expert regarding the relevance of elements (nAuples) cf IEFT to the concept is then expressed by the hyperparallelepiped
hi —
With m experts, we obtain in hyperparallelepipeds of this form, one for each expert. Membership function of the fuzzy set by which the concept is to be represented is then constructed by the following algorithmic procedure:
Sec. 10.6
Indirect Methods with Multiple Experts
289
L For each j , ennAider all intervals obtained from the experts, and con s truct a union of each subset of intervals that overlap. This results in a set of nonoverlapping intervals
(j E N ti E Nmd.
where m is an appropriate integer for each j,
2. Employing the intervals obtained in Step 1, construct the hyperparallelepipeds
gk =1.1 1,,571„i
for all k e
X [1 E Din }
T2sd X
K.
X Llni,
t2, t„)iti e j 3. Evaluate for each x e ek the function
when gk n hi 0 0 otherwise,
where i E 4. Let r = J. (r denotes the number of an iteration). 5. Define the initial coefficients of competence, rci, the same for all experts:
1 = — for all rn
i e Tim
(r =
6. Calculate approximate grades of membership, 114(x), of dements (ntuples) x in fizzy set A that, according to experts testimony, represent the given concept by the formula
for all x E gs, and all k E K where values rci are assumed to be normalized in the sense that i=t 7. For each t L. calculate the aggregated difference
r61 =
itEK LW&
['A (x)  VE(X)1 2
between the opinion of expert i and the opinion of the whole group of participating experts in iteration r. 8. Calculate hi = 1/z. 9, Increase r by one. 10. Calculate rci = r U. If max r e, where e is a small positive number chosen by the knowledge engineer, then we take A (x) = r (x) for all x E ge and all k c K (assuming that for any k IC); otherwise, go to Step 6. A (x) 0 for all x
290
Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets CONSTRUCTIONS FROM SAMPLE DATA
Chap. to
10.7
of membership grades for some elementa of the given universal set X_ We restrict our discussions to the case X = R.. Two approaches to this problem are overviewed. One of them is based on the mathematical theory of curve fitting, which is exemplified here by two methods, the method of Lagrange interpolation and the leastsquare error method. The other approach is based on learning through artificial neural networks and employs the method of backpropagation.
In each of the discussed methods, we assume that .•11 sample data
In this section, we address the problem of constructing a membership function from samples
(10.11) ai), (x2, az) • • (rnt ay..) are given, where xi E X R) for each t N„, and ai is a given grade of membership of xi in a fuzzy set A (i.e., ai A(x i )). The problem is to determine the whole membership function A.
(xi
Lagrange interpolation
The method of Lagrange interpolation is a curvefitting method in which the constructed
function is assumed to be expressed by a suitable polynomial form. According to this method, the function f employed for the interpolation of given sample data (1(111) for all x g If? has the faim
f (x)
ai L
(x) + a2L 2 (x) + • 
(10.12)
where (x al) (x ezi_i)(x — a 1 ) . . . (x — a„) (xi — al) . (xi — a1+1) — an) (10.13)
for all t E Since values f (x) need not be in [0, 1] for some x E R, function f cannot be directly considered as the sought membership function A. We may convert f to A for each x E R by the formula A (x) = maxi°, rain[ 1 , f (x)I]. (10.14) .A.n advantage of this method is that the membership function matches the sample data exactly. Its disadvantage is that the complexity of the resulting function (expressed by the degree of the polynomial involved) increases with the number of data samples. Furthermore, the method does not work well for values of x that are less than the smallest value in the set (x1 , x2, ... x„} or greater than the largest value in this set Hence, the method requires that the sample data be well distributed over the estimated support of the constructed membership function. Another disadvantage of this method is that the data may be overfitted, Example 10.1 To realize some difficulties involved in using this method for constructing membership functions, let us consider the following sample data: (0, 0). (.5. .2)., (.8. .9). (1. 1). (1.2. .9), (1.5..2). (2. 0).

Sec. 10.7
Constructions from Sample Data
29 1
These data are shown graphically in Fig. 10.3a. Using (10.12) and (10.13), we obtain function
f()
= 6.53x 6 39.17x 5 92.69x 4 109.65x 3 + 64.26x 2 — 13.66x,
whose graph is shown in Fig 10313_ Applying now (10.14),. we obtain. function A who graph is given in Fig. 10.3e. We can see on intuitive grounds that this function is not a reasonable representation of the data outside the interval ro, 21_ It can be corrected by assuming that the estimated support of A is the interval [0, 21 The corrected fitimtion is shown in Fig. 10.3d. This example illustrates that the method of Lagrange interpolation requires that the resulting function be critically evaluated and appropriately corrected . In particular, an
0.R
e re .
0.2
*
i
•
;1 .r 1
—I
0.5
tit
0.8 /.2
1.5
2
3
x 0.5 1
(e)
1.5
2 x
(a)
1
o
0.5
1 .5
Fitiare
103 Illustration to Example in.i.
292
Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fumy Sets
Chap. lo
estimate of the support of the constructed membership function plays an important mie in this evaluation and correction_
Least square Curve Fitting

Given sample data (10.11) and a suitable parametrized class of functions f (x; et, fi . .), are parameters whose values distinguish functions in the class from one where a, .) from another, the method of leastsquare curve fitting selects that function f Gv; uo, the class for which
.
reaches its minimum. Then, A(x) = max[0, min(, f (x; a0 00, .))1
for all
(10.16)
x
The method of leastsquare curve fitting requires that a suitable parametrized class of functions be chosen. The choke may reflect the opinion of an expert or, alternatively, it may be based on some theory, previous experience, or experimental comparison with other classes. An example of a class of functions that is frequently used for this purpose is the class of bellshaped functions, f (x; p, y), defined by the formula
f (v;
r,
P,
= YeCxa)/S,
(1(117)
where a controls the position of the center of the bell, Ni0/2. defines the inflection points, and control the height of the bell (Fig. 10.4a). Given sample data ( 10.11), we determine (by any effective opt1rni7ation method) values ao, po , yo of parameters ot, 41, y, respectively, for which
E Ef y 17,1.
_
(10.18)
reaches its minimum. Then, according to (10.16), the bellshape membership function A that best conforms ta the sample data is given by the formula A(x) = max[0, min(L ytire(' '°321115)] (10.19)
for all x E R. Another class of functions that is frequently used kir representing linguistic terms is the class of trapezoidalshaped functions, f (x; a, )5, y 6), defined in the following way:
1(a —
0
8
when x <a and x
x)9
when a < <
whenp <x < y wben y .‹ ‹ 6
f (T ;
as
P, )1 , 8 , 8 ) =
9 ° — i5
— .09
—
(10.20)
y
The meaning of the five parameters is illustrated in Fig, 10.41)
Sec,
10.7
Constructions
from .5arnple Data
293
(a) Da 11sbaped functions defined by (10.17) (8
3 Trupezoidalsbaped funcnons
defined by (10.24
Fignre 10.4 Frequently used classes of functions to the leastsquare =rye tting tuethoid; (e) bellshaped functions defined by (10.17) (6 = At,f5/T); (b) 'trapezoidalshaped functons defined by (1020).
Example 10.2 To illustrate the leastsquare curve fitting method, let us apply it by using the class of bellshaped functions to the sample data given in Example 10.1 (Fig. 10.3a). First, we find that, Oren the sample data, the minimum of function E defined by (10.18) is reached for te„= 1, A = 0.164, and ya 1.074. Hence, we obtain function fix) = 1.074e 4`1)2"4 with L (f) = 0.0146. Now applying (10.19), we obtain function A, shown in Fig 10.5a, and E(A) 0.0091. This function is certainly acceptable as a membership function representing the given dais. Assume now that it is required that the constructed membership function A have only one maximum . This is a reasonable requirement when, for example, A is supposed to represeir the concept aroun d one or approximately one. To satisfy the requirement, we may constrain the
294
Constructing Fuzzy
Sets
and Operations on Fuzzy Sets
Cap IO
(a)
(b)
figure 1045 Two possible membership functions constructed from sample data by the method of kaztEquare curve Attiog.
Sec. I0.7
Constructions from Sample Data
295
class of bell  shaped functions by choosing p = 1. Then, vie directly obtain the membership
flinction
f which is shown in Fig. 10.5b, and E (A) = 0.0246. Although this function does not fit the data
A(x)
as closely as the function in Fig. 10.5a (due to the imposed constraint on the class of acceptable functions), it keeps the bell sbape and atisfies the requirement of a unique maximum.
Constructions by Neural Networks
Neural networks have lately been recognized as an important tool for constructing membership functions, operations on membership functions, fuzzy inference rules, and other context dependent entities in fuzzy set theory. They are increasingly utilized for this purpose in many application areas In this section, we discuss only the construction of membership functions. In general, constructions by neural networks are based on learning patterns from sample data. For basic ideas of neural networks and associated learning algorithms, see Appendix A_ To explain the process of learning a membership function from sample data by a neural network, let us consider the twolayer network structure shown in Fig. 10.6, In describing this network and the learning process, we use master symbols that have the same meaning as symbols introduced in Appendix A_ • The network has two inputs: input x, which accepts values ..7cP(p E Pia ) of the sample data, and input b, whose purpose is to represent the bias of each neuron and which is
Figure 10.6 The stracture of a neural netwoxk for constructing a membership trlaaion from sample data.
296
Constructing F0221, Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets
Chap. 10
permanently set to —1. The output layer consists of one neuron, ONI , whose output y is expected to produce value tP for each input value X P ; the actual output value is denoted by yP. The hidden layer consists of m neurons, fIN 1 , HN2 , Hisf„„ which are connected to both inputs and the output neurons as shown in Fig. 10.6. The neurons operate under a suitable activation function (e.g., a particular signioid function). Following the backpropaGation learning algorithm, we first initialize the weights in the network. This means that we assign a small random number to each weight. Then, we apply pairs (xP. rP ) of the training set (xP,
p E pin )
to the learning algorithm in some order. For each xP, we calculate the actual output y" and calculate the square error
I EP= — (yP 2 t P )2 .
Using E p (for each p E N), we update the weights in the network according to the backpropagation algorithm described in Appendix A. We also calculate a mom/wive cycle error,
1n E =—E(yP tv) 2 .
2
P=I
At the end of each cycle, in which each sample in the training set is applied once, we compare the cumulative error with the largest acceptable error, E,.„, specified by the user. When E a solution is obtained, which means that the neural network represents the desired membership function; when E> E„,„„we initiate a new cycle. The algorithua is terminated when either we obtain a solution or the number of cycles exceeds a number specified by the user. Example 103 Let the sample data tre the same as in Example LOU (Fig. 10.3a), and let the neural network employed have the structure specified in Fig. 10.6, with three neurons in the hidden layer (m = 3). Before applying the backpropagation algorithm, we nave to select an activation function (or functions) under which the neurons will operate, initial weights, and various parameters required by the learning algorithm (maximum acceptable error, maximum number of iterations, learning rate, etc.). Two neural networks that represent distinct solutions to our problem, which were obtained for different initial weights and different activation functions, are shown in Fig. 10.1. They are based on the sigmoid functions with fi 1 and /3 2, respectively. Graphs of the membership functions represented by these networks are shown in Fig. 10,7 under the respective block diagrams. This example illustrates that„ given the same training set, we are likely to obtain different solutions for different activation functions or different parameters in the backpropagation learning algorithm_ Hirswever, the differences are, by and large, rather small and insignificant, provided that we stay within reasonable ranges of functions or parameters, as determined by previous experience.
Example 10.4
In this example, we want to illustrate bow a neural network can learn from a training set a membership function that captures the conception of a "close driving distance" in a particular
Sec. 10.7
Constructions from Samphe Data
297
1 ,9


.a
.7 .6 _5 .4 .3 .2 .1 0
1


.1 .2 .3 .4 .
.6 .7
.8 .9
1 1 1 1.2 1.3 1.4 ES 1.6 1.7 1,8 1.9 2
{2)
Figure 10.7
Illustration to Example 10,3; /3 =1.
10 3 .6 L7 1.2 13 L4 1.5 1. .5 L9 2 (b) Figure 10.3 .2 .298 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap..1 .4 — — .7 (comb wed) illustration ta Example 103: 013 2.6 — .4 5 6 7 9 1 IA 1.
8 Blustration to Example /0.52041 0.4757 HN i HN2 HN4 0.1  0.4 HN t HN2 HN3 0.4447 0.47463 0.54018 0.25003 0.12023 0.43.1 0.0Z7ir 036E254 0. .63057 0.Sec.1513.00466 —1.121 S4 1.27276 0.49 1 HN4 0.478.4.215/6 ONI (l) 20 (c) 60 80 100 Figure 16.41.2009.04506 (a) O .7 Constructions from Sample Data 0. 10.55079 0.18711 2.32212 1.33768 299 0.26101 TV 0.3S95 1 0.
The neural network with these weights represents a continuous function on R4. 1991. 1992.. including the notion of .. 1994. Indirect methods based on pairwise comparisons of relevant elements by experts (Sec. Direct methods with multiple experts can be formulated in terms of models of modal logic based On possible worlds [Resconi et al. 1992.2 70 80 90 1013 . of uuœrt4inuty.2. [19791. h (a) . can also be interpreted in terms of models of modal logic [llarnaanec et at.8e.6 . the resulting weights. Jang. which is illustrated by the graph in Fig. Hayashi et a. starting with the initial weights specified in Fig.8b. context. The training set is given in terms of the following pairs (xi'. were pursued by Nowakowska [1977]. Assume that the chosen network has four neurons in the hidden layer. statistical data were explored by Devi and Sarusa [1985 ] Ci vaular and Trussell 119861. 1992b. 10.8 40 50 . 10. the following are a few relevant references: [Takagi and ). rP). This formulation seems promising biucc other thurieh. More general studies regarding the measurement of fuzzy concepts. are shown in Fig.05 o 0 A neural network with the structure shown in Fig. 1992.. Chu et al.000 eyolea.. Overview papers of different methods for constructing membership functions were written by Chameats and Santamarina [19873 and Turks= [1991].. 19854 The literature dealing with the use of neural networks for learning membership f unctions or inference mies is rapidly growing. and Kovalerchnk and Taliansky [1992] . where zia denotes a with the particular driving distance and t Y expresses the perceived degree of compatibility of conception of a "close driving distance" in a given context: XP t.4 . Mir. 1994 ]. 0 10 20 30 1 . Smithson [1987]. Wang and Mendel. Keller and Tahani.1 1 . and Dubois zustd Prade 11985c. Wang. 1992. 1993. and rough set theory. 10. Berenji and Mara. 19941. 10 5 ) were investigated by &laity [1974. 10.1. Assume further that the activation function chosen for the hidden layer is the signaoid function with )5 = 1.300 Constructing Fuzzy Sets and Operations on Fuzzy Sets Chap. and Eihkova [19891  . Methods for constructing membership functions from. Berenji. 1977 7 1978.8a (chosen randomly by the computer program employed). 1992. tangh a — e NOTES 10. 19861. while the activation function chosen for the output neuron is the hyperbolic tangent function ea Then. 10 context. Hayashi. pusibility theory. Experimental studies regarding fuzzy operation used by human beings were performed by Zimmermann [19784 Zimmermann and Zysno [19801. Nair. hua evidecAx theory. 10. 1992. and Triantaphyllou and Mann 11994 103. 1993.6 is agai u suitable for our problem. 1994 ]. obtained by the backpropagation learning algorithm for 10.
_1).._ W.zy operators (or some other t norms and rconorms).7). Germany 1/5 115 1/5 114 7 5 3 3 3 3 1/3 / 1/2 1/3 2 1 10. . Apply the indirect method with one expert expInkied in Se. or diagonal (two kinds) 10. . (17.1 1) a(x4) = (0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1. . Assume that the support of A is [0.c.S. determine the membership function of A. U. (b) A (x.. 103.(x3)=(01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1) b(x4)=(1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1) b(x5). 0). la Exercises 301 EXERCISES 10. 4) and (10.5 to the matrix of pairwise comparisons (matrix P) given in Table 10.5). . (11.8).K.. . x4..1) mad IA il /3/(xi). (18. x5} and propositions "x1 belongs to A" and "x.3)..). 20].1). [. (3. 0 1) a(xs)=(1010000000) b(x L).9).) by th cstandard fuz. .s listed in the tabk in the fuzzy set of wealthy nations (adopted from [Chu el al. Given valuations of these propositions by 10 experts in Table 10.1. . where A and B are fuzzy sets. 10. 1 USSR China France 4. 6 5 1/3 1 1 Japan 5 3 1 17 1f3 W. .5). . . clefirm fuzzy sets of straight lines that arc horizontal. (7. . vertical. ti) for a fuzzy set A.7. (6. (5. . [A Li B](x.9).A U 131(x 1 ) by (1 0. Gen:0am 5 4 1/5 1/3 USSR China Prance U..1) and [A n 8] (xi). 1).2). (9. (8. . . Consider X = r3. 1/4 1/9 116 1/6 1 1 17 115 1/5 9 7 1 5 5 6 5 115 1 1 Japan .K. (14..Chap.. (2.5). (20. (1. Compare results obtained by different methods.ri) by (10. (4. (13.2). a fuzzy set of straight lines is defined as an exarnpk of using the method of mathematically defined compatibi li ty of given elements with ideal prototypes .6). Suppose we have the following sample data (0. belongs to B" (i E NO. Using some of the methods described in Sec.4). (15.(1101110101) NX2)7(iiiiiiiiii) 1.2 to determine the degrees of membership of the countrie.) = (1 L 1 1 1 1 1 1. (19. 19791). . Using this method.6).4). TABLE 102 Catiatry WEALTHOFRELATIONS MATRIX (MATRIX P IN EXERCISE 103) U. in Sec. respectively_  TABLE 10. BC.7).0) in the form of (xi.1. . (12. (16.(0001101110) 103.1 EXAMPLE OF VALUATIONS OF TWO FLIMFY PROPOSMONS BY TEN EXPERTS (EXERCISE 1112) X xl xl X3 x4 . respectively.8). determine for each xi X: (a) A (x). _3).:s A B 4(x1)=(Q110110110) a(x2)=411100111fl a (X. (10. 10.2.4. B(x1 ) by (10.
such data are parameters of the problem or other relevant facts. The kernel of any expert system consists of a knowledge base (also called a longterm memory). diagnosis. available data are supplied to the expert system. The klowledge base contains general knowledge pertaining to the problem domain. In addition. and an inference engine. Typically.8. is a computerbased system that emulates the reasoning process of a human_ expert within a specific domain of knowledge. the knowledge is usually represented by a set of fuzzy production. These three units. In this case. actions. They most commonly have the form "If A.rules. The purpose of the database is to store data for each specific task of the expert system. learning. understanding. and problemsolving capabilities of the expert in a particular subject area available to the nonexpert in this area. as the name suggests. together with some interface for communicating with the user. Other data may be obtained by the inference of the expert system. An alternative method of evaluation is goaldriven. Our focus is. on fuzzy expert systems.11 APPROXIMATE REASONING 11. or conditions with. decision support. Expert systems are primarily built for the purpose of making the experience. they may be designed for various specific activities. The first is data driven and is exemplified by the generalized mocha ponens. design. form the minimal configuration that may still be called an expert system. The inference engine of a fuzzy expert system operates on a series of production rules and makes fuzzy inferences. ILL Let us describe the role of each of the units shown in the diagram. The data may be obtained through a dialog between the expert system and the user. a database (also called a shortterm memory or a blackboard interface)." where A and B are fuzzy sets. or research. There exist two approaches to evaluating relevant production rules. it is exemplified by the generalized modus toile= form of logical  302 . which connect antecedents with consequences. A typical architecture of an expert system is depicted by the block diagram in Fig. such as consulting. which then uses them to evaluate relevant production rules and draw all possible conclusions. planning. In fuzzy expert systems. of course. then .1 FUZZY EXPERT SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW An expert system. premises with conclusions.
Here. it .1 Architecture of an expert system. and these are only potentially necessary. if certain data are difficult to obtain. inetabiowledge. BASE .. the expèrt system searches for data specified in the IF clauses of production rules that will lead to the objective. This type of knowledge..1 Fumy Expert Systems: An Overview USER I 303 EXPERT A r" KNOWLEDGE ACQUISMON MODULE EXPLANATORY INTERFACE 1 ! KNOWLEDGE BASE iN FER ENCE ENGINE DATA RASE 1 1 1 'ef Dil ETAKNOWL MG E . The inference engine may also use knowledge regarding the fu2zy production rules in the knowledge base. is located in the unit called a metaknowledge base. these data are found either in the knowledge base. inference.. since the goaldriven method proceeds backward. it is commonly called forward chaining.(. in the THEN clauses of other production rules. This unit contains rules about the use . Since the datadriven method proceeds from IF clauses to MEN clauses in the chain through the production rules. since only the rules leading to the objective need to be evaluated. it is commonly referred to as backward charting. whose appropriate name is. Moreover. from the THEN clauses (objectives) to the IF clauses. Backward chaining has the advantage of speed. then the backwardchaining method is clearly superior. in its search for the required data. Similarly.Sec. or by querying the user.. EXPERT SYSTEM 1 Figure 11.
1] of truth values in fuzzy logic. When the knowledge domain is removed from an expert system. However. It is also very important for the identification of errors. stopping criteria. and so on. In classical logic. prescribe. is a function of the form : [0. The explanatory interface facilitates communication between. by which fuzzy productions can be learned from exampies obtained from human experts. such as algorithms conceptualized in terms of artificial neural networks (Appendix A) or genetic algorithms (Appendix B). which is usually referred to as approximate reaavnirw. In general. This capability is crucial for building user confidence in the expert system. This material is. Ra. require precedences in applying certain production mies under various conditions or whether a needed fact should be inferred or requested from the user.2 FUZZY IMPLICATIONS The logic operation of implication is as essential for approximate reasoning as it is for reasoning within classical two valued logic. a fuzzy implication. 11 of production rules in the knowiedge base. in principle. essential for the design of inference engines for fuzzy expert systems. This capability allows the expert system to expand or modify its knowledge base or rnetaknowledge base through feedback during operation. b E (0. 3. then q. 3 can be defined in several distinct forms. 11 [0. which for any possible truth values a. makes it possible to update the knowledge base or metaknowledge base through interaction with relevant human experts. for different expert systems. where a. or rather merarules. the remaining structure is usually referred to as an expert system shell. b of given fuzzy propositions p. The applicability of an expert system shell is not necessarily restricted to one particular knowledge domain. thus.304 Approximate Reasoning Chap. inconsistencies. the user and the expert system. It enables the user to determine bow the expert system obtained various intermediate or final conclusions. The primary purpose of the rnetaknowledge base is to simplify computation by pruning unnecessary paths in the search space. An inference engine embedded in an appropriate expert system shell is thus. b). defines the truth value. In general. p q. we guide the reader through the literature on this topic in Note 11. or why specific information is being requested from the user. during the debugging of the knowledge base or inference engine. this unit must implement suitable algorithms for machine learning. of the conditional proposition If p. The purpose of this chaptei is to cover fundamentals of reasoning based on fuzzy production rules. 11. q. which is included only in some expert systems." This function should be an extension of the classical implication. their extensions to fuzzy logic arc not equivalent and result in distinct classes of fuzzy implications. While these forms an equivalent in cla4sical logic. reusable for different domains of knowledge and. These rules. omissions. 11. 1) to the full domain [0.. respectively. This fact makes the concept of fuzzy implication somewhat complicated The purpose of this section is to discuss the  . 11 x [0.1. 1]. from the restricted domain (0. for example. The knowledge acquisition module. The actual design of fuzzy expert systems or even inference engines for approximate reasoning is beyond the scope of this book.
b) = or y (a A b) (115) (116) The extensions of these equations in fuzzy logic are. (11. c are required to satisfy the De Morgan laws (i. Again. u and i are dual with respect to c). their extensions (112) and (11. (11. b E 10. while definitions (11.e. we adopt symbols that are usually used for them in the literature. tconorms. h and negation as a fuzzy union (t conornn) and a fuzzy complement..2).8) thus yield distinct classes of fuzzy implication operators. (11.8)..6) pertaining to classical logic are equivalent. Equations (11. and (11.2). b) = naax(x {0. First. or fuzzy complements. b E [0.Sec.3) of implication in classical logic are equivalent. respectively. as relevant in each class. 11. (113). Specific implication operators are obtained by choosing specific tnorms. While the definitions (11. b) for all a. a in fuzzy logic is then defined by the extended formula a(a. we interpret the disjunction for all a. b) (11.1). let us examine fuzzy implications that are obtained from (11.1) and (11. due. b) = where a. all of which are based on the standard fuzzy complement and differ from one another by the chosen fuzzy unions: . We also adopt names that are commonly used for these implications. to the Taw of absorption of negation in classical logic. 1} I a A x < b} for all a. 1]. as either 3(a. The following are examples of four wellknown Simplications.3) Another way of defining J in classical logic is to employ the formula 3(a.7). 11. 11 where i denotes a continuous fuzzy intersection. Ll(a. and (11. One way of defining d in classical logic is to use the logic formula 0(a. their cdunterparts in fuzzy logic—(11. and (11. 11. respectively.1) may also be rewritten. When extending this formula to fuzzy logic. 11 i (a.7) (11.8) 3(a.2 Fuzzy Implications 305 issues involved in a comprehensive manner and to overview the specific operators of fuzzy implications that are most common in the literature. b E 10. x) b} (11. which are usually referred to in the literature as Simplications (the symbol S is often used for denoting rconorms). respectively— are distinct (the law of absorption of negation does not hold in fuzzy logic in general). Interpreting the conjunction in this formula as a fuzzy intersection (tnorm). where u and c denote (11. b) = u(c(a). (11. (11. Moreover. Let us examine each of these classes by looking at a few examples and discussing some general properties of the class. This results  in defining a in fuzzy logic by the formula a (a.2). To denote specific fuzzy implications.2) a fuzzy union and a fuzzy complement.7).4) in fuzzy logic are not.4) for all a. b) = Try b (0. b) = sup(x G [0.4). respectively.
x) < bi 1 when a < b when a b. respectively. and let ai. When we choose the drastic fuzzy union u. b) = 1 — a which is the largest Simplication. we obtain s (a b) = max Euin(a. Similarly. he tconorrcis such that uaa.. 11. 3r. min (1 . g2 be 5implications based on the same fuzzy complement c and u2. b) = ab.4). b) for all a. b) max (1 — a. Choosing i (a. we obtain a. as they are closely connected with the socalled residuated gb semigroup. They ate usually called R implications. 1). :5 3.(a. Let ui . which is called a Lufrasietvicz 4. Then g i (a. we obtain . Let us proceed now to fuzzy implications' that are characterized by (11.(a b) = min (1 . which is called a Reichenbach The choice of the bounded sum u(a. aLs(a. which is the largest tconorrn. is the smallest SAmplicatiom FurthErrnore. we obtain gp.306 Aporox[rnate Reasoning Chap. b). we have a i (a b) . which establishes that Yimplications based on the same fuzzy complement are ordered in the same way as the associated tconorms. 1 — a b). b) = a ± b ab). rz(a. b) = 1— a ± ab 3. b) a + b) results in the function di. b e Theorem 111. b) < 07(a. u t (c(a) b) < '112(c(a). b) Proof: For all a. b) for all a. Choosing the algebraic sum as a fuzzy union (i. When we choose the standard fuzzy union. which would require that we introduce the appropriate mathematical background first. II by the formula a function ab defined for all aga. The following are examples of four wellknown R I. • Since ts is the largest tconorm. b) < u2(a. When we choose the standard fuzzy intersection. aLs is the largest Simplication by Theorem 11. b e [O. b). which is called a KleeneDienes 2. [O.1.bc 10. we obtain lb when a 1 when b = 0 otherwise. which is called a G&Iel 2. 11 1. 3. We do not deem it necessary to discuss this connection.e. This fact is a consequence of the fo ll owing theorem.(a. b E [O..
we obtain the KleeneDienes implication 36. b. 11. 3. b) for all Proof: Since for all . h) i2(a. . we have ii(a. Another implication. 02 be Rimplications based on i . .E [0. where the znorm i and rconorm u are required to be dual with respect to the complement c.2. b) 2 . The following are four examples of QLimplications. b Li} Then. xo) < i2(a. For this reason. rotall a. When I and u are the standard min and max operations. (a. When t is the bounded difference and u is the bounded sum. These fuzzy implications are called QLimplications. h E [0. x) b) < i 2 (a. = sup(x I i2 (a .4). x) b) 3 1(a. When is the algebraic product and u is the algebraic sum. respectively. since they were originally employed in quantum logic. which is sometimes called a Zadeh implication. 1—a + b). b} supfx (a. 1 ]. although it cannot be defined through (11. b) = supxzt <b .. Theorem 11. Let i h be t ncnns and let 3 1 . defined by aLit(a b) = when a = I otherwise. in all of which the standard fuzzy complement is assumed. is actually the limit of all Rimplications. min(a b)]. 11. x0) < b L (a . consequently. b) for all a. (xii2(a. 1 ] . let us examine fuzzy implications based on (11.Sec. b) > (a. we still categorize it as the largest R implication. when a a. x) bl and.} = which is called a Goguen 3. b) It follows immediately from this theorem that Og is the smallest Rimpdication and < Oa < øg < Next. a Fx — 1) = rain(1. 1. the Lukasiewicz implication is both Simplication and R 4. It serves as the least upper bound of the class of Eimplications. a +b— 1) implication (bounded difference) results in the Lukasiewicz sup(xl max(0.  such that (a . . Hence.7). we obtain gy (a. 320. 2. Then 31 (a. we obtain am (a. xe e ix [0.2 Fuzzy improatrcos a07 1 b/a b when a > b. The choke of i b) max(0.b) =1— a ± ab. b) = max[1 — a.x) bi c (xli i (a r) Hence.zu (xli2 (a.
1 — a)1. they collapse co the classical implication when truth values are restricted to 0 and 1. b. but we leave it to the reader to explore this source.17. and a = u. That is. g(a. for example. Axiom 1. (nronotonicity in first argument). 1 — a)j. (a ==>. Agg (a — b. 2(a. This means that the falsity implies 2(1. This means that the truth value of fuzzy implications increases as the truth value of the consequent increases. 08.a(r.8) as a source of another class of fuzzy implications. a) a(x. a) = 1 (dominance of falsity). A(I. 308 4. 1 — a ) 17.1). .) = min[g g (a. we obtain b f 1— a gq 1. which may be viewed as reasonable axioms of fuzzy implications.(a b) = minfOs (a.1 — a)]. x)) = g(b. b) = b (neutrality of truth). bp) (nonotonicity in second argument). x)) (exchange property). This means that fuzzy implications are true whenever the truth values of the antecedent and consequent are equal. g(a b) 1 if a < b (boundary condition). we may use (11. Axiom 3.. Axiom 2. Axiom 3. 0(0. Axiom 4.(1 — b. b).1. which are predominant in the literature. g g (1 — b = A(a b). . b) . We may also form new fuzzy implications by combining existing ones (Table 11. a b implies . When i . a) = 1 (identity). minta g (a . This means that the truth value of fuzzy implications increases as the truth value of the antecedent decreases.x) that holds for the classical implication. 3 (a. b when a 0 l i b . Approximate Fiaasoning Chap. The following combinations. This is a generalization of the equivalence of a (b = x) and b sgo. (1 — b. other fuzzy implications are possible. Axiom 7.b)= 1. x) > 3(b. g(b.. All fuzzy implications are obtained by generalizing the implication operator of classical logic . a < b implies a(a. Axiom 6. For example. b). bave been suggested in the literature: asg (a b) = rnin[aJa. b) as.. i„„. 11 when a = 1 1 when a (a. b) . This means that fuzzy implications are true if and only if the consequent is at least as fille as the antecedent. everything. This means that the truth does not imply anything.3(a. In addition to the three classes of fuzzy implications. Identifying various properties of the classical implication and generalizing them appropriately leads to the following properties.
6. . min(a. 3.v 1994 1 . QL R. (I  ?sentiraLukssiewiez 2 (w au. 4. 8 1969 G6tlei ag R Il h I1 b a>h 1. _ 1 1 12' 1  a . 8. 9  1987 1935 1990 Reichenbach Willmati 1 . 8.a). 7.a . 2. 4. 2. 2. 9 1938. 6 2. R S.. b) me. 5.4 Klir iuld 'Yuan 2 QL 6 1  a : 7 1.b 1. b) 1. 0 utherb 1.b)ii  1.} 1a 1 + hr.r 1973. 5. (1 . max. 6. 9 Ye. 4. 4. 9 2. 3. 7. 6.0 R.Eaïly Zadell Gainc. 2.a . 4. Syniboi Canipiement c (a) Miss QL Funciion 8(a. 4. 3.a +. 7. 4._a . 2. 5.S IlliR [1. Kiir and 'Aima 1 I a'y . b .. 3. b) a <h a. 1  a + b) ' 1  a PsoudoLukasiewiez 1 (X > 1 1 . 1 1. 9 . Yagn. 04 I a + a 2 /9 a. 4.Rescher a. 3. 1 . 3.. 1 . 6. 6. 6. S . 2. 2. 8. 1 1 .a. max (b. S Mill a <b 1..71. 5. Or 3. 9 • 1.)b [1. 9 1969 1a Ots max(1 . b). 5. 8. 4. 8 1986 . 8. 5. ak mina. LIST DF FLJZZY IMPLICATIONS Narne. 3. 3.1949 1920 1987 g. 6. bji { 0 Axicnns /. 1980 1a 1994 J p. 7 1976 Gap= KleeneDients Llikasiewiez je.b .a 1a 1 a Li)] 4. a' I. 6. 4. 3. as ia D ‹b aI > b 41 ‹ 1. 9 iniiiii(1  a. 4.a F ab minfmax(1 . 3. 5. (1 + A. 6.a. S R.7.x{1 . 2. 7. 2. 7 . J. 2. 2. 8.309 TABLE Tt. 1.
and c(a) = f 1 ( f (1) f(a)) for ail a € [0.. 1 2 ] [0. These nine axioms are not independent of one another. but not the stronger Axiom 7. 0 is a continuous function (continuity). 11 satisfies Axioms 1 9 of fuzzy  implications for a particular fuzzy complement c if there exists a strict increasing continuous . Ill Let us_ apply Theorem 11. b) = f (1) (f (1) fa) f (b)) (11. . co) such that f(0) = 0.3.310 Approximate Reasoning Chap.10) for all a. f: [0. a E [0. 1]. In the simplest case. This property ensures that small changes in the truth values of the antecedent or consequent do not produce large (discontinuous) changes in truth values of fuzzy implications.3 to some functions f. 0(a LP) = 3(c(b). Theorem 11. In(1 ± la). Its pseudo inverse is  f(1)(a) = 1 when 0 <a < In2 otherwise. The reason for listing the weaker axioms as well is that some fuzzy implications suggested in the literature satisfy Axioms 3 and 5. but not vice versa. 1 a 2b 1+a ) for all a. 1 ]. This means that fuzzy implications are equally true when the antecedent and consequent are exchanged and negated. This example can be generalized by using f (a) . the. Fuzzy implications that satisfy all the listed axioms are characterized by the following theorem. 1987]. b) min (1. . 1].only fuzzy implication that satisfies _Axioms 19 is the Lukasiewicz Consider now the function f (a) 111(1+ a). 11 Axiom 8. Then. b e [0. A function a [0. functio [0. Proof: See [Smets and Magrez. where is a positive parameter (X > 0). For example. 1}. we obtain the Lukasiewicz implication and c is the standard fuzzy complement. when f is the identity function. This also means the following: given the standard fuzzy complement. Axioms 3 and 5 can be derived from Axiom 7.9) (11. and the fuzzy complement generated by f is given by 1a c(a) +1 a for all a E [O. 1 ]. b [0. The resulting fuzzy implication is defined by the formula j(a. c(a)) for a fuzzy complement c (contraposition). Axiom 9.
1a and we obtain the Sugeno class of fuzzy complements.1 311 f (1) (a) = 1 when 0 < a < Ina ± otherwise. 112. The latter has the form 33(a.1. Axioms 19. Under this fuzzy complement (Sugeno complement for X 3). b) = mint!. (1 a ± b Xb)/(1  la)]. the greatest fuzzy implication is on top of the diagram. Fuzzy implications in this class. which can be extended to X > 1 by using f(a) . b [0. for all a e implication 1a 1± 3a 1]. Again. 1]. a particular Sugeno fuzzy complement for X 0 0. let f (a) = 24/(1 + a). (I. b) increases with increasing A. However. we show ordering among some of these implications. cl(a) = awl the parameteriz ed class of fuzzy implications. In Fig.a + 4)/(1 + 3 42)].1. according to Theorem 113. Given. a E [0. b) = min (1 . is defmed by the formula gia. 1) satisfies. associated with the Yager class of fuzzy complements. min[1.a 1 otherwise. 11. (1  a + where w > O. are called pseado Luicasiervicz implications. 0). the associated pseudoLukasiewicz implication is not necessarily the only fuzzy implication that satisfies Axioms 19. ow increases with increasing iv. a when 0 < a < f (1) (a) = { 2 .aw) liw. the fuzzy c (a) = g(a .Sec. This class of fuzzy implications is based on f (a) = Some of the main fuzzy implications discussed in the literature are summarized in Table 11. 1—a +3b+ab 1 + 3a — biab ) (a. Observe that 3. D denotes the classical implication. b) = tnin[1. cw(a) (1 .Ina Xa) for X G (1. . Another class of pseudoLukasiewicz implications. it is not the pseudoLakasiewicz implication 31 for X = 3. Then. . To illustrate this point.2 Fuzzy InvRations ea . 3 (a . .
Our presentation is restricted to reasoning with unqualified fuzzy propositions. Although some theoretically supported guidelines are now available for some situations.11) (11.3 SELECTION OF FUZZY lAfPLICATIONS To select an appropriate fuzzy implication for approximate reasoning under each particular situation is a difficult problem. where a denotes a fuzzy implication. We recall from Chapter 8 that any unqualified conditional fuzzy proposition p of the form p: If T is A then V is B (.312 JLR Approximate Reasoning Chap. 11. In titis section. and we also examine some theoretical results pertaining to it. 11 513 Figure Ili Ordeal 1gof ftuzy ' implications. we discuss some of the issues involved in dealing with this problem. B( r )) for all x e X and y e Y. and R expresses the relationship .12) is determined by R(z y) = 364(x).1. we are still far from a general solution to this problem.
Proof: Since i[a. d(A(x).11) (Le.. Theorem 11. modus tollens.12). Consequently. _BUD] B(y) . Let us begin with the generalized modus ponens.. B(y)) for all x G X„y E Y. 1]. y) represents the truth value of the proposition pxy If X = x.6: the generalized rules of modus ponens.11) and a fact "X is A'. That is. where is the sup1 composition for a tnorm 1. given a fuzzy proposition of the form (11. Let A be a normal fuzzy set. ciN(A(x). For any continuous rnorm i and the associated ak operator. 113 Selection of Fuzzy Implications 313 between the variables X and y involved in the given proposition. (11. b)] < b for all a.13) This equation provides us with a meaningful criterion for selecting an appropriate fuzzy implication any fuzzy implication suitable for approximate reasoning based an the generalized modus ponens should satisfy (11. Since the meaning of fuzzy implication is not unique. we have i[A(x).Sec. contrary to classical logic. the compositional rule of inference for this special case should be or. we have to resolve the following question to make (11. respectively. then id y. (11. According to this fuzzy inference rule. y). Then.12) operational: which fuzzy implication should be used for calculating the fuzzy relation R? To answer this question.(x). 8. 3CA. However. B (y) = stit LA (x). The generalized modus ponens should coincide with the classical one in the special case when A' = A. B(y))]. the membership grade R(x." we conclude that "Y is B'" by the compositional rule of inference B=A R. that is.13) for arbitrary fuzzy sets A and B.4. Although no general results regarding this criterion have been obtained as yet. more specifically. In the following. This is formally expressed by (11. in the classical modus ponens. b [0. and hypothetical syllogism. Now. 13) holds. the truth value of proposition Airy . the fact is always given as the proposition "X is A" (Le. we examine criteria that emerge from the three fuzzy inference rules introduced in Sec. and we obtain the conclusion "Y is B" by (11. the truth values of propositions "X = x'• and "Y = y" are expressed by the membership grades A(x) and R(y). B' = B). involves a fuzzy implication in which A (x) is the truth value of the antecedent and B(y) is the truth value of the consequent. B(y)) = coi(A(x). some restricted but useful results are expressed by the following two theorems. For each x E X and each y E Y. it is tacitly assumed that A' = A). we need to identify meaningful criteria in terras of which distinct fuzzy implications could be evaluated and compared. given by R(x. let a = eat . It is obvious that these criteria must emerge from the various fuzzy inference rules.
It is now obvious that we can derive a criterion for the selection of fuzzy implications from each fuzzy inference rule that has a counterpart in classical logic. Gödel implication gg .1) altt4 = maxi sup (a. Let the range of the membership function A in (11. 2. B(y))] a c(A(x)) = supi[c(B(y)). B(y))11. gum (a. from the . 3(a. since A is normal. there exists x0 e X such char A(x 0 ) = 1. B(y))} = sup i[a. 11. y E Y. 0(A (x). It is again assumed that the ranges of both membership functions A and R are [O. B(y)) = sup i [A (x). Proof.. For all y E Y. x GX (A(x). sup Ira.13) cover the whole interval [0. 11 for aLl x € X. B(y)) = (1.13) for any 1norm 1.3. B(Y))i. min(1 — a. and we have [A(x0). sup i{a. B(y))1 at <0.314 Approximate Reasoning Chap. Hence. (A (x). (A(x0). B (y))1 y elr (11. B0)))) maxfB(y).5. 'Then. fuzzy implications suitable for approximate reasoning based upon the generalized modus tollens should satisfy the equation  sup i [A (x). B(y))] x g.. X B (y). GrainesRescher implication 0. sup i[A(r).2 for sortie fuzzy implications and some r norms. In this case. We show the proof only for the Wu_ implication and leave the other two proofs to the reader as an exercise. 1).5) regarding the outcome of the expression xa are A unirnari7ed in 'Table 11. a>11(y) Known results (including those stated in Theorem 11.3. These results are based on the assumption that the ranges of membership functions A and B are [O.14) for all x E I. for example. . 11. Wu implication 3„. wi (x). Theorem 11.5. On the other hand. the following fuzzy implications satisfy (11. Known results regarding the outcome of the righthand side of this equation for some fuzzy implications and some t.norms are summarized in Table 11. Another criterion for selecting an appropriate fuzzy implication may be derived from the requirement that the generalized modus mans coincide with the classical modus tollens.
Voillmott 2— B 11 max — B 1 p 4— 4 min(B.15) is sati.13) and (11.sEed (Y) ot not (N).Rescher 1 li 13 .3 TABLE 11_2 Selection of Fuzzy I mplTcations GENERALIZED MODUSPONGNS 315 Name Eaxly Zaden Standard intersection Algebraic product I Bounded difference 13 Drastic Mimed:km B 1 Gaine. 1 ]. (1 + 3)2 1 B B Reichenbach 8.8 ass B B B B D ast a B D gst 3g! B D generalized hypothetical syllogism. It is again assumed that the ranges of all membership functions involved are [0.211. B (y )). B B Gadel ag ronsilm IN B B B ' B 3112 B B B Kiel:me.4. C (z))1 (11. the counterpart of (11. The derivation is analogous to the described derivations for modus ponens and modus toIlens. (y).Dienes h Lukasicuricz gv max [11 . we indicate for some fuzzy implications and some tnorms whether (11.Sec.B B B 1 .s .14) is the equation a (A (x). For the generalized hypothetical syllogism. we can see that the only fuzzy implications (among .15) for all x e X and z E Z. In Table 11. 13] 2 1 —(1 + B) 2 1 max max I .4. 1/2)] max 11 B B i' B B B Wu Otaill B B B B  B 7 It B B B . C (z)) = sup ila (A (x ye?' ). 11. By examining Tables 11.
It does not mean. modus tollens. 71 Wu glilli AIX _X orOP max [l... A X those listed in the tables) which satisfy all the three derived criteria with respect to the four considered tnorras are the following four: 1. 4 max [ 1 . 2 1 X oodet ag GOguen max max 1 . 211 2 1— 7 X . 1 Or 1 + A J 4A(x) A (x) A 7 44 A(x) A(x) < 2 7 4' X Willman awr max .. A. 11 Algebraic product LIMIC Elotiadcd difference I Drastic interaccIdon 2/.ri.FL X A X A gs A 1 7 A . however.. CrairtesREvzher MAX 11 7. X] 4A max [L.i 1 Rziatc. 1 . and hypothetical syllogisms.2)2 4 1 Tt 1 a. A (A ..2 .3 Name Early Zadeh Approximate Reasoning GENERALIZED MODUS TOLLENS Steurdarcl interscction Chap. g. Al 4 X A KleentDfents Ob max [ 1 .b. Xj 1 4 . . ri 1 max .b. taking into account all feasible fuzzy inference rules (including qualiEed and quantified fuzzy propositions) and the whole continuum of tnorms.. This =Leans that these four fuzzy implications are suitable for the generalized modus ponens. Any general claims in ibis regard will have to be based on a comprehensive study.316 TABLE 11. Xj 2 4 max [. 3 and Ia .ri 7 Luicasitwicz g. that these fuzzy implications are superior in general.A z1 .
See. Goguen Y iv Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y . Rig Y Y au ge.4 MULTICONDMONAL APPROXIMATE REASONING The general schema of multiconditionai approximate reasoning has the form: Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule n Fact is Ai. Gadel a. h KleancDioncs gb Lubsieivicz N ad Reichenbach N N N Y N N N . 1 1A MOIconditional Approximate Reasoning 317 TABLE 11. Algebraic product Bounded differellœ Drastic intersection g N Y N Y N Y Ar Y AT GaLikesRescher 3. then is B2 If If X is X is A' thei:a is Conclusion : is . then is Bi IfXisA. Y N N Y g wiilmort Wu PT Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y r Y Y Y Y g.4 Nam Early Zadeh G NEFIALI2Eil HYPOTHFrICAL SYLLOGI SM S Standard Latereection. Y Y r y 11..
y)1 (A' R)(y).B1 TOO for all j Step 1.16) is referred to as a method of interpolation. and taking the union of the truncated sets.' obtained. .19) for all x E X. The interpolation method is actually a special case of the compositional rule of inference. This equality can be easily demonstrated. for each j E r J (A ') = or. B i (y)] = sup sup[min(A1 (x). sup initt(Ai (x). B')1 jENT. y) = sup min[Al jEN B (Ai (11. The most ooraroon way to determine 13' in (11. ' = sup =Lizt[A'(x).xer = sup sup min[A1 (x). R(x. A i (x). using n Aj ) the standard fuzzy intersection.then rule j in terms of the height of intersection of the associated sets A' and Al. 11 Given n ifthen rules. Ai (X)1. Using (11. Bf (y)) sup rrkinEsup min(A t (x). 13. rf (X).17). assume that R is a fuzzy relation on X x Y defined by R(x.18) An illustration of the method of interpolation for two ifthen rules is given in Fig. r i(N) = sup tnin[A1 (x).18) and (11.18) is equal to A' a B. Then.Y are sets of values of variables X and This kind of reasoning is typical in fiVa'y logic controllers (Chapter 12). It consists of the following two steps: where A'. (11.by (11. Calculate the conclusion IV by truncating each set Bi by the value of ri(N). That is. x el (11. Bi(y) = sup rnintri (A). between the given fact and the antecedent of each zf.1 (x)). 13f. B i (y))1 xer ze2 feN.3.1:61 Bj (y))1 = sup rdia[A1(x). for all y E IF. Bi (y))1 fer41. 11. rules 1 through n. where 0 denotes the sup min composition. To show this. and X.. and a fact "X is A'." we conclude that "Y is NR. . x€. A 1 J(X). which expresses the degree to which the antecedent A f is compatible with the given fact A'. which is selfexplanatory. rnin(A i (x). Calculate the degree of consistency.318 Approximate Remcning Chap. the fo/lowing holds:  B f (y) = sup rainfrf(A 1). That is. y € Y.17) Step 2.
Then.21) R .y c Y. Wt. we define . U R 1.Sec. Bi (y)1 (1120) for all x E X. This means that we obtain a conclusion for a given fact A' whenever r > CI fur at least one rule j.4 Multiconditional Approximate Reascriing 319 RUL5 PULE G GIVEN FACT CONCLUSION Figure 11. we treat the ifthen rules as disjunctive.in the following way. That is. 11. Hence.16). Observe that the fuzzy relation R employed in the reasoning is obtained from the given ifthen rules in (11.16). In this case. B' = A R.3 Illustratiou of the method of interpolation. y) = min[A (x).16). R is defined by the union of relations R1 for all rules in (11. we determine a relation Rj by the formula Ri (x. For each rule f in (11. (11. The ifthen rules in (11. we say that rule j fires for the given fact A'. When Ti (At) > 0.16) may also be treated as conjunctive. In this case.
320 Approximate Reason[ng Chap./ The four distinct fuzzy sets obtained. and then. y)1 Je eNft = Pi e n R.70. c B c B. Next. y)] xgr Proof. B. after it is calculated by either (11.23) (11_24) (11.21) or (1122).sup min[A f (x). 133 = f B= A r R. Theorem 11. by these formulas are ordered in the way stated in the following theorem. or the cornpositionL rule is applied locally to each relation R 1. . x'sx (x.26) ( n R 1).(y) = inf A'°R)(y) inf sup min[A'(.. 11 R by the intersection R= fl R 5 . First.22) We obtain a conclusion for a given fact A' only if ri (A') > 0 for all f EN. the realigns fuzzy sets are combined in either disjunctive or conjunctive ways. The interpretation of the rules in (11. there are two possible ways of apply iug the compositional nile of inference: the compositional cute is applied to the fuzzy relation R. sup rainfAi (x)..16) as either disjunctive or conjunctive depends on their intended use and the way RI is obtained. That is. This is rather trivial.oyy) Jot.Rj (x. since = B(y).16) must fire. Hence.8.6. sup inf niittfA i (x). we have the following four possible ways of calculating the conclusion B': /3'1 = A'0( U f t (11. xv. (11. we prove that B A' Ri C A' (U R j) . B. . y)] y)] ieN. Hence. to obtain a conclusion. we prove that B Ç Op For all y E Y. B Ç B. For either interpretation. all rules in (11._25) (11. = B.x . ( fl Ri)(x.
sup sup rnin[A.Eq = B. and. However. 11.27) is a general counterpart of (11. rather than by aggregating Ri _ 11. provided that the tnorm i is continuous. Furthermore.5 for all j E The Role of Fuzzy Relation Equations N. f (x). R i may be determined by a suitable fuzzy implication.Sec. In general. Let us mention that this theorem is not restricted to the stprnint composition.3. One way of determining R. Finally. 321 B. For each rule of inference. the equation to be solved for modus ponens has the form (11. hence. Rj(x. Bi(y) = sup mintAl (x) U R i (x y)] zex f eN„ — sup sup min[A P (x). e. Once it is determined. which operates on fuzzy sets involved in the given proposition. R (x. Bi = 4 which completes the proof.28) . One of the key issues in approximate reasoning is to determine this relation for each given proposition. and to express R in terms of g (see. Rj (x.20).. as discussed in Sec. this requirement is expressed by a fuzzy relation equation that fuzzy implications suitable for the rule must satisfy. we prove that . we require that the various generalized rules of inference coincide with their classical counterparts. 11.5 THE ROLE OF FUZZY RELATION EQUATIONS As previously explained.= n AP Ri C Of. y) a[Ai(x).g. B(y)] (11. (11. y)] }Erin x jN U A t ' Ri)(y) Hence. any conditional (yethen) fuzzy proposition can be expressed in terms of a fuzzy relation R between the two variables involved. it holds for any supi composition.12)). As criteria for determining suitable fuzzy implications. R may fuzzy relation equations. as discussed in the relations be determined by solving appropriate next section. y)1 xeX j N . For all y e Y. 113. (U Rd ) f€roi„ Bi. As explained in Sec. the problem of determining R for a given conditional fuzzy proposition may be detached from fuzzy implications and viewed solely as a problem of solving the fuzzy relation equation for R. we can apply the compositional rule of inference to facilitate our reasonin_g process. which is discussed in Sec. That is. is_ to determine a suitable fuzzy implication g. 113.
' c(A) or R C [c(B) c(A) ] 1 since c(B) = c(A). RCA V B since A R 1 g c(B)T.32) is satisfied. Proof: The "if" part of the statement is trivial. respectively. We recall from Chapter 6 that this equation is soWable for R if A B is a solution.7. h is the ?1 greatest solution to (11. the greatest approximate solutions to the first and second equation in (11. We know from Chapter 6 that A V B and fc(B) c(A)] 1 are. Hence. Since Rc AC (A B). This theorem has at least two implications. consequently. The system of fuzzy relation equations (11. assume that R is a solution to (11.30). it allows us to use formula (1131) to test whether (11. Second. the antecedent and consequent in the conditional fuzzy proposition involved.322 Approximate Reasoning Chap.30) has a solution for R if and only if = (A I B) is the greatest solution.30).32) The then 14 = A B is also the greatest approximate solution to the system (11.30). A satisfies the second equation in (11.30) has a solution. if A V D ic(B) c(A)1 1 . First. Therefore. following theorem establishes one case in which (11. Then. respectively. When the equations in (1130) have no solutions for R.30). 1 satisfies the first equation in (11. and i is a continuous tnorm. if h giiiren by (1131) is not a solution to (11. the required equation has the form c(A) = c(B) (11. Theorem 11. Obviously. the problem of determining R for a given conditional fuzzy proposition with antecedent A and consequent B becomes the problem of solving the following system of fuzzy relation equation: B= A c(A) = c(B) R (11.29) where c denotes a fuzzy complement and R 1 is the inverse of R. where [e(B) c. (11. there are no fuzzy implications for the given conditional proposition that are suitable for both modus poncns and modus tollens.30) The question of solvability of this system of equations is addressed by the following theorem. .4)) ( (11. II.30) has no solution and. For modus tollens. To prove the "only if" part. let us R = B. since R 1 C 1. Similarly. Then. then the system of equations (11. C c(B) c(A). . 11 where A and B are given fuzzy sets that represent.30). Suppose now that both modus ponens and modus tolleas are required. we need to search for appropriate approximate solutions.30).31) n is the standard fuzzy intersection. R c (A V B) n [c(n) c(A)T' A. furthermore.30).
(11_33) may be written in a shorthand notation as (11. It should be clear from the examples examined in this section that fuzzy relation equations play a fundamental role in approximate reasoning.B(y)) + (1 . b Luka. b E [0. Proof For all x E X. (A and [c(11) c(A)] 1 (x. clearly. Then. a + b .33) for each x e X. Hence. 1 .6 INTERVALVALUED APPROXIMATE REASONING Although this text is largely restricted to ordinary fuzzy sets.siewicz implication.32) holds for any fuzzy sets A. The basic issue of approximate reasoning with intervalvalued fuzzy sets can be expressed as follows: given a conditional fuzzy proposition (ifthen rule) of the form (11. However. where L A. Let i (a . A becomes an ordinary fuzzy set. 11. (11. Let A denote an iiirervalvalued fuzzy set. we occasionally explore some issues that involve other types of fuzzy sets. y) [413) c. This section is one of those explorations.(1 .A(x))] = nil*. be the „ (a .6 IntervalValued Approximate Reasoning E [0. A (x) = A(X). B and. x) = coi Lc(B(y)). Then. (11. Its purpose is to characterize approximate reasoning with intervalvalued fuzzy sets. 11. respectively_ For convenience.34) A =. 1  a+ for all a. (Ace: . This subject is important for the development of inference engines of expert systems in any application area in which it is not sensible to define exact membership grades.35) . 323 Theorem 11. 1  A(x) ± B(y)]. UA(X)1 g pi. = A w B is the greatest approximate solution to (11.Sec. b) = max(0. b) = min(1. 1 ] .30) for the standard fuzzy cbmplement o' c... 1] (11. [L A .32) holds.1) for all a. and let 5. UA are fuzzy sets that are called the lower bound of A and the upper bound of A. 17) 1 ] . y Y.(A)1(y.8. more research is needed to fully utilize their potential in this area. consequently. c(A(x))] = = miii[1. UAL When LA = UA. that is..
0 denotes a fuzzy implication satisfying at least Axioms 1 and 2 in Sec. . hence. how can we derive a conclusion in the form is B' (11. x3 ). Yi + 1/x3. 11. Given A' we derive a conclusion IF = [LB. It is easy to prove that LROC.11) is chosen. and given a fact X is Al . y2). UA = 1/x3. L.6/X3. 8 are intervalvaiued fuzzy sets deflued on universal Eets X and y.4/y1 + 1/y2. Uor = . y) = a[U. Y2 ÷ . where = (xi .1/y2 . y. and choosing i (a b) = max[0. Given now LA = .1/y2.38): LR UR yt + lixt. The choice of the rnorrn depends on the choice of fuzzy implication in (11.4/xi ± . let a proposition of the form (11.35) be given.324 Approximate Reasoning Chap. we obtain the lower and upper bounds of the conclusion B' by (11. we have to use some interpretation of the conditional fuzzy proposition (11. T = (11.2 + 1/x2. U3] by the compositional rule of inference B' A' [L 4 . UB (y)] for all x E X.40) UBI = U4. UN]. Y tyi . h ± 4/x3. UB = .6/x2±1/x3. y) for all X E X and y e Y and. 1/xi.9/y 1 I.7 1/x i .6/yi 11y2.g(Y)11 UB(X.. Yi + 1/x2.37) from (11. LA = 5/xi + . b [0. y2. R is well defined. Assuming that the Lukasiewicz implication a(a.40): L B.4/yi 4. y) < T Ri(x .9/x 2 + 1/x3.38) as well as other circtunstances. Y2. 1 — a + b) (a.8/x2 + 1/x3 and UA.2. where L R (I.t0c).345)? To address this question. a + b 1]. it facilitates the reasoning process. U.b) = min (1 .39) where i is a tnorm and L. LB . To illustrate the described reasoning procedure. yi +1/x3.36) (11. R is determined. 11 where A . = . UR].35). y E Y. Once relation.35 ) and (11. y2 + .5/x1 + . R (11. yi +142. a[LA(x). respectively. we obtain the lower and bounds of relatio n R by (11. x2 .642. One possible interpretation is to view this conditional proposition as an intervalvalued fuzzy relation R [L R.
1. each of which contains many additional references to papers in journals or conference proceedings .8). u = algebraic stun. 19921. in the following cases: max. Trillas and Valverde [1985]. Verdeway and Delgado [1990]. Dubois and Prade [1991a. 11. 11. e))_ (d) (i (i2. Let i and a be the standard fuzzy intersection and fuzzy union.2. Gupta :t al. e).Chap. c e [0.3) are equivalent in the sense of classical twovalue logic. Thorough overviews of the role of fuzzy sets hi approximate reasoning were prepared by Dubois and Prado [1991a. (e) 3„. Determine the fuzzy intersection. Important contributions related to the material in Secs. and Heinsohn [1991].] and Nakanishi et [1993 ] .6.collected in [Yager et ai. Prove that the following equations hold for any a. [1985].1. Suppose that 3 is a fuzzy implication satisfying Axiom 'I and Axiom 2. respectively. 11. The first systematic study of fuzzy implications was undertaken by Ila_ndier and Kohout [1. A few additional contributors to approximate reasoning should be mentioned: Baldwin [1979a. N. u (b) I = product. a(a. i(12. ) ) = gi(3(a. This issue of fuzzy implication in approximate reasoning was addressed in an early paper by Gaines [1976].7. Liehara and Pujise [1993a. Gorzalc2any [1987. Thornber [19932. c) u(3(a. Hall and Kandel [1981 ]. Prove that the following fuzzy implications satisfy the generalized modus ponens. 11.2. Assume that c is always the standard fuzzy complement.980a. (b) g. Prove that (11. b. (a) i = min. most ideas associated with approximate reasoning Were fast presented by Zadeh and later developed by other researchers. u(b.1.. ZemankovaLeech and Kandel [1984]. respectively. Prove that Axiom 7 implies Axiom 3 and Axiom 4. Weber [19831. we deem it sufficient to refer only to books on the subject. (d) I = i. 0. b]. c)). tO.2 and 1. 11 Exercis es 325 NOTES 11. for cadi fuzzy iaplication obtained in E=eise 11. 0). (11) 3(a. Perhaps the most comprehensive study of fuzzy implications was undertaken by Ruan and Kerre [1993] and Kerre [19911 Numerous articles by Zadeh . 1989a. which axioms it satisfic5. fuzzy union. and Whalen and Schott (198514 EXERCISES 11. Giles [1982 ] . c (c) 3(i (a. 3(a. ce = bounded sum. (c) i hounded difference. ] (go. The key books on this subject were written or edited by Negoita [19851. 11. 1 (a) 3(a. Simets and Magrez [1987]. . c)). (a. Let f be a function defined by f(a) = ea for all a E [0.„. b.1) and (11. Explore fuzzy implications defined by (11. 1993a. and Kandel 11991j. Schwecke. In fact.3 were made by Will:nett [1980]. Turicsen [1989]. 115. Oft and Bancher [ 1987]. fuzzy implication. Wu [1986 ]. b]. Kruse. b). h ] . g(5. 1987] are also relevait to this chapter. c)) = b). Mizumoto (1981]. Raha and Ray [1992].4. b. ICoczy and Hirota [19931. • bl. and fuzzy complement generated by f 11. 11. and Fodor [1991b]. b. 11. b).1. modus tollens. (d) On. and hypothetical syllogism: (a) 3.2. Literature dealing with fuzzy expert systems is quite extensive.„.3 iDetcrzoine. To guide the reader. u u.7) and (11.
326 11.  . y) =. and B1 in (11.8? 11. If modus pollens is required. 2) arc fuzzy sets  Approximate Reasoning Chap. find fuzzy relation for Rule (I) in Exercise 11.8.2/Y2.13.(A 1 (x). tollens were required..2 0/Yi ± . where A i E g(X). for all z E X.3. 11. If modus pollens is required.11.8.6 holds for supi composition based on a continuous :norm j.9. Provo that Theorem 11. then 'Ef is Hi. calculate . where A' = 81x1+. find fuzzy relation . Given the fact . 11 A.11. Generahze Theorem . (2) If X is A2.R for both rules in Exercise 1]8.10. 11. use the method of interpolation to calculate the conclusion 11.13 .12. If both modus ponens and modus.14.91x2+_1/x3. y Y. 11. 11. E2 = . Let the Lulcasiewicz implication 3 be employed to calculate fuzzy relation R i in 01. I is it f .9/y2.0. . 91/5C4 ÷ 1 1 /YL + . that is. 11. Consider the if then rules (1) If X is A1.9/x2 + . If modus Miens is required.12). B e T(Y) ( j = 1.7 to multiconditional cases. find fuzzy relation R for Rule (1) in Exercise 11. Ri (x. what would happen to fuzzy relation R for Rule (1) in Exercise 11. B1 (y)).8.24) and (1L26) for Exercise. then y is B2.15.14r2 : A2 = . 11.
a frizzy system is any system whose variables (or. expressed for each measuring instrument by a particular coarseness of states of the associated variable. two decimal digits. states of any quantized variable are representatives of equivalence classes of actual values of the variable. at least. Assume that the measuring instrument employed allows us to measure the variable to an accuracy of one decimal digit.85. two significant digits.9.1a. In gcneral. and so on. . general. let us consider a variable whose range is [O.. 1] that are labelled. .1. appropriate quantization. as explained in Sec. states of the variable are associated with intervals O. Measurement uncertainty. and these labels are viewed as stales of the variable.2 FUZZY SYSTEMS • 121 GENERAL DISCUSSION ln. are considered equivalent.25). The subintervals are labelled by appropriate real numbers (i.. by their representatives 0. Due to the finite resolution of any measuring instrument. forced uncertainty is a result of information deficiency. 1 ] . Representing states of variables by fuzzy sets is a way of quantizing the variables. . That is. 4. Measurement uncertainty. .. a particular quantization takes place. relevant real numbers with one significant digit. 321 . respectively. This example of quantization is shown in Fig. and the associated variables are linguistic variables (Sec. [.05). etc. For example. For each variable. . That is. .. The interval of real numbers that represents the rangc of values of the variable is partitioned into appropriate subintervals.2.95.05. which is often an interval cif real numbers. Distinct values within each subinterval are indistinguishable by the measuring instalment involved and. some of them) range over states that are fuzzy sets. is an example of forced uncertainly. 1.15). 9. [.2). when measurements of values of a variable can be obtained only to an accuracy of one decimal digit. To illustrate the usual quantization just described. consequently. [. . [. This uncertainty can be measured by the size of the equivalence class.2.). the fuzzy sets are defined on some relevant universal set.95). is inevitable whenever a variable represents a realworld attribute. the fuzzy seta are fuzzy numbers. .e.15„ . whose coarseness reflects the limited measurement resolution. In this special but important case. Each given state of a quantized variable is associated with uncertainty regarding the actual value of the variable. 12.
325 . 12. around _T '} .it can be made more realistic by expressing the states as fuzzy sets.2 around T LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW HIGII (d) Figure 12.7cry opted.1b. While representing states of a variable by appropriate equivalence classes of its values is mathematically convenient. Fuzzy Systems . (d) fu. fuzzy numbers with .of any measuring instrument to overcome its limiting finite resolution. Chap. results from the principal inability . IF . This is illustrated for our previous example in Fig. J. / 7E' •  / oF j AE •T' ' (a) around t) around 2 around .g . (b) fuzzy forced. 'r • .6 around . 12  F. the everpresent measurement errors make this representation highly unrealistic... Although the usual quantization of variables is capable of capturing limited resolutions of measuring instruments. for example. .F arsawd . (c) r:risp opted.3 zraund 4 romd arenaid . it completely ignores the issue of measurement errors. i a OE . Fuzzy sets are. in this example..C aruund .1 Examples of distinct types al quantization: (a) crisp forced.
. political. one is certain to strike a dissonant note by questioning the growing tendency to analyze the behavior of humanistic systems.:mutation._ in our view.). our ability to make precise and yet significant statements about its behavior diminishes until a threshoid is reached beyond which precision and significance (or relevance) become almost mutually exclusive characteristics. it would not be practical to specify values of these variables with high precision. economic.1c and d. speed. As is well known. differential. A crisp definition of these states and its more meaningful fuzzy counterpart are shown in Figs. respectively. 12. it is this fuzzy. is based on the premise that the key elements in human thinking are not numbers. results from the lack of need for higher certainty. This additional quantization allows uS to reduce information regarding the variable to a level desirable for a given task. Essentially. for that matter. The latter is not a result of any information deficiency but..ollections which are relevant to the performance of the task at hand. but labels of fuzzy sets.1 General Discussion 329 the shown triangular membership functions. 12. The basis for this contention rests on what might be called the principle of incompatibility. instead. namely. for example. Stated informally. direction of its movement. while forced uncertainty is a subject of epistemology. and fuzzy rules of inference. and other types of probLems which involve humans either as individuals or in groups. Considering our previous example. For example. and as yet not wellunderstood. classes of objects in which the transition from membership to nonmembership is gradual rather than abrupt. Forced uncertainty must be distinguished from opted uncertainty. Hence. medium. . opted uncertainty is of a pragmatic nature. Indeed. the ability to guntntarize information—to extract from the collection of masses of data impinging upon the human brain those and only those subc.2.. or integral equations. logic that plays a basic role in what may well be one of the most important facets of human thinking. that is. fuzzy quantization is often called gr. by quantizing a variable beyond the coarseness induced by the measuring instrument involved. Opted uncertainty is obtained..See. fuzzy connectives. around 1 . our contention is that the conventional quantitative techniques of system analysis are intrinsically unsuited for dealing with humanistic systems or. and high. One reason for eliminating unnecessary information in complex systems with many variables is to reduce the complexity when using the system for a given task. but a logic with fuzzy truths.as if they were mechanistic systems governed by difference. the pervasiveness of fuzziness in human thought processes suggests that much of the logic behind human reasoning is not the traditional twovalued or even multivalued logic. and their representations are the linguistic labels around 0. It is reasonable to label these states as Ion. assume that we need to distinguish only three slates of the variable instead of the eleven states that are made available by our Measuring instruiment. around . etc. the essence of this principle is that as the complexity of a system increases. An alternative approach. a description of this procedure in approximate linguistic terms is quite efficient. It is in this sense that precise analyses of the behavior of humanistic systems are not likely to have Much relevance to the realworld societal. to describe a procedure for parking a car in terms of a set of relevant variables (position of the car relative to other objects on the scene. and so forth. This important role of uncertainty in reducing complexity is well charaterized by Zadeh [19731 Given the deeply entrenched tradition of scientific thinking which equates the understanding of a phenomenon with the ability to analyze it in quantitative tenns. any system whose complexity is comparable to that of humanistic systems.
The most successful application area of fuzzy systems has undoubtedly been the area of fuzzy control. Furthermore. It is thus appropriate to cover fuzzy control in greater detail than other topics_ Our presentation of fuzzy control includes a discussion of the connection between fuzzy controllers and neural networks. we need approaches which do not wake a fetish of precision. and an appropriate inference engine to solve a given control problem. Thus to deal with such systems radically. the traditional techniques of system analysis are not well suited for dealing with humanistic systems because they fail to conic to grips with the reality of the fuzziness of human thinking and behavior. are capable of utilizing knowledge elicited from human operators. a summary is an approximation to what it summarizes. fuzzy controllers are special expert systems (Sec. Hence. However. the timevarying nature of the Processes to be controlled.skrelevant" (or "decisionrelevant") information into labels of fuzzy sets which bear an approximate relation to the primary data In this way. and other senses is eventually reduced to the trickle that is needed to perform a specific task with a minimal degree of precision. Thus. Fuzzy controllers vary substantially according to the nature of the control problems they are supposed to solve. auditory. knowledge base.rules. A lot of work has already been done to explore the utility of fuzzy set theory in various subareas of systems analysis. rigor. the importance of which has increasingly been recognized.330 Fuzzy Systems Chap.2 FUZZY CONTROLLERS: AN OVERVIEW In general. Since specialized books on fuzzy controllers are now available (Note 12.2). the ability to manipulate fuzzy sets and the consequent summarizing capability constitute one of the most important assets of the human mind as well as a fundamental characteristic that distinguishes human intelligence from the type of machine intelligence that is embodied in presentday digital computers_ Viewed in this perspective. For many purposes. we also discuss the issue of fuzzifying neural networks. typical in robotics. Control problems range from complex tasks. large unpredictable environmental disturbances. Each employs a. a very approximate characterization of a collection of data is sufficient because most of the basic tasks performed by humans do not require a high degree of precision in their execution. expressed in terms of relevant fuzzy inference. the stream of information reaching the brain via the visual. This is crucial in control problems for which it is difficult or even impossible to coesteect precise mathematical models. we restrict our exposition to relatively simple control problems. the subject of systems seelysis is too extensive to be covered here in a comprehensive fashion. The human brain takes advantage of this tolerance for imprecision by encoding the ta.These difiuculties may result from inherent nonlinearities. . such as maintaining a prescribed state of a single variable. which require a multitude of coordinated actions. and mathematical formalism. to simple goals. Fuzzy controllers. we can cover only a few representative aspects and rely primarily on the Notes at the end of this chapter to overview the rapidly growing literature on this subject. 12. tactile. 12 By its nature. or for which the acquired models are difficult or expensive to use. III). and which erupioy instead a methodoLogical framework which is tolerant of imprecision and partial truths. contrary to classical controllers. degrading sensors or other difficulties in obtaining precise and .
. pressure values. A general fuzzy controller consists of four modules: a fuzzy rule base. This linguistic description consists of set of control rules that make use of fuzzy propositions. The vague terms very high. and famficationidefuzzification modules. First. and heat change values. slightly ioi and slightly negative can be conveniently represented by fuzzy sets defined on the universes of discourse of temperature values. an imprecise linguistic description of the manner of control can usually be articulated by the operator with relative ease. While this knowledge is also difficult to express in precise terms. This step is called a fuzzification. This type of linguistic rule has fanned the basis for the design of a great variety of fuzzy controllers described in the literature. The interconnections among these modules and the controlled process are shown in Fig. measurements are taken of au variables that represent relevant conditions of the controlled process. Next. The result of this evaluation is a fuzzy set (or several fuzzy sets) defined on the universe FUZZY COPMOLLER AcliOnS Detuzzikatico module If Controflecl process Con&lions Fuzziricalicel r6odule Mgare Ill A general scheme of a fuzzy controller. A typical form of these rules is exemplified by the rule IF the temperature is very high AND the pressure is slightly low THEN the heat change should be slightly negative. and heat change is the action to be taken by the controller. these measurements are converted into appropriate fuzzy sets to express measurement uncertainties. A fuzzy controller operates by repeating a cycle of the following four steps. where temperature and pressure are the observed state variables of the process. and a host of other factors. The flizzified measurements are then used by the inference engine to evaluate the control rules stared in the fuzzy rule base.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overviaw 331 reliable measurements.2. 12. it has been observed that experienced human operators are generally able to perform well under these circumstances. a fuzzy inference engine. The knowledge of an experienced human opeirator may be used as an alternative to a precise model of the controlled process.. 12.Sec. revectivety.
expressed by the scheme in Fig. The design involves the following five steps. 123. these linguistic states by triangularshape fuzzy numbers that are equally spread over each range. 12 of possible actions. respectively. we obtain the fuzzy quantizations exemplified for variable . for example. This conversion is called a defiazification. positive small. NM—negative medium NS—negative small PM—positive medium PS—positive small AZ—approximat4 zero Representing. To characterize the steps involved in designing a fuzzy controller. c]. these fuzzy sets are fuzzy numbers. This fuzzy set is then converted.autrolling a cle. the problem of keeping a desired value of a single variable in spite of environmental disturbances.sirect value ctf a saUgie variable. In this case. which represents relevant control actions. After identifying relevant input and output variables of the controller and ranges of their values.—positive large — Step 1. in some sense.Ly coutiollei in individual control cycles. and so on. The defuzzified values represent actions taken by the fur. let us consider a very simple control problem. 451. in the final step of the cycle. two conditions are usually monitored by the controller: an error. Assume further that the following seven linguistic states are selected for each of the three variables: NL—negative large E. defined as the difference between the actual value of the controlled variable and its desired value. Using values of e and è. and the derivative of the error. al and f b. is the best representative of the fuzzy set (or fuzzy sets). the fuzzy controller produces values of a controlling variable y.3.332 Fu rzv Systems Chap. which represent linguistic labels such as approxiniately zero. assume that the ranges of the input variables e and è are [—a. negative small. In most eases. To illustrate this step by the simple control problem depicted in Fig. and the range of the output variable u is [—c. positive medium. 12. & which expresses the rate of change of the error. into a single (crisp) value (or a vector of values) that. Let us now discuss the basic steps involved in the design of fuzzy controllers and illustrate each of them by this simple control problem. e. Disturbances Figure 123 A general scheme for e. we have to select meaningful linguistic states for each variable and express them by appropriate fuzzy sets.
12. for each measurement e = :co the special form f(x0) = x0. For various reasons.(x 0 ). 12. The purpose of the fuzzification function is to interpret measurements of input variables. a] and the seven given linguistic labels are only a reasonable example. if desirable. In this step. For each measurement e xo. Step 3. as more realistic fuzzy approximations of the respective real numbers. the knowledge pertaining to the given control problem is formulated in terms of a set of fuzzy inference rules. 12. a fuzzification function jr. as an example. e in Fig.Sec. They are later modified by appropriate learning methods. The shapes need not be symmetric and need not be equally spread over the given ranges. A possible definition of this fuzzy number for any x0 [—a .4 is replaced with values b and c.g.4 for the range [—a. It is important to realize that the fuzzy quantization defined in Fig. (x0) is a fuzzy number chosen by L as a fuzzy approximation of the measurement e = x0. Moreover. function fe has. There are two principal ways in which . other shapes of the membership functions might be preferable to the triangular shapes.4) are usually chosen only as preliminary candidates. the fuzzification function has the form [—a.4. the fuzzy set f(x) enters into the inference process (Step 4) as a fact. 12. 12. Some intuitively reasonable definitions of the membership functions (0. each expressed by a real number. a] where R denotes the sei.. where e denotes a parameter that has to be determined in the context of each particular application. measurements of input variables are employed in the inference process directly as facts. In this step. and f. a fiazification function is introduced for each input variable to express the associated measurement =certainty. other shapes of membership functions may be used to represgnt the fuzzy numbers f.4 Possible fuzzy quantization of the range [—a. a] by triangular . those given in Fig.5.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview NL NM NS AZ PS PM PL –a a 3 3 3 Figure 12. applied to variable e. different fuzzy quantizations may be defined for different variables. input variables are not fiizzified_ That is. respectively. Consider. In these cases. It is obvious that. In some fuzzy controllers. Step 2.of all fuzzy numbers. Then.shaped fazzy numbers. emerging from specific applications. value a in Fig. often implemented by neural networks. for variables ê and I). a] is given in Fig. 12.
è and I).6 A.ile base may be guided.2. One way is to elicit them from experienced human operators. NS. Appropriate pruning of the fuzzy n. the inference rules have the canonical form . in this example. seven linguistic states. as exemplified Fig. PS. by statistical data regarding the utility of the individual fuzzy inference rules under specified circumstances. relevant Inference rules can be determined. In practice.5 An example of the fuzadfication function for l'afidtbld e. B.1) where A.334 Fuzzy Systems Chap. e = A and é = B. a small subset of all possible fuzzy inference rules is often sufficient to obtain acceptable performance of the fuzzy controller. This matrix and the definitions of the linguistic states (Fig. the total number of possible nonconflicting fuzzy inference rules is 72 = 49. In aux example with variables e. then v C. 12. 12 none 12.h. 12. AZ.12 example or a boxy rale base. NM. PM. (12. and C arc fuzzy numbers chosen from the set of fuzzy numbers that represent the linguistic states NL. Figure 1. and PL . usually with the help of neural networks. They can conveniently be represented in a matrix form. . The other way is to obtain them from empirical data by suitable learning methods.4) form the fuzzy rule base of our fuzzy controller. Since each input variable has. for example.
Step 4. 12. when calculated for all rules activated by the inputoutput data. Among rules that conflict with one another.. ta. u. we express the fuzzified input measurements fe (x0) and f(yo) as a single joint measurement. 2. 11. the reasoning schema has. 6. then 7) is C2 Rule Fact : If (e. b ] . we may use (11. there is a correspondia relation R. Let A(4). In our example with variables e. Similarly. allows us to avoid conflicting rules in the fuzzy rule base.2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview 335 To determine proper fuzzy inference riles experimentally. C i (j = 1. n) denote fuzzy sets that represent the linguistic states of variables e è. we can directly utilize some of the material covered in Chapters 8 and 11. we need a set of inputoutput data [(xi. When the fuzzy rule base consists of n fuzzy inference rules. the form Rule 1: If (e.1) into equivalent simple fuzzy conditional propositions of the form If (e. 6.resp e ctively.4. it is reasonable to define a degree of relevance of the rule (12. 83. For each rule in the fuzzy rule base. and K is an appropriate index set. Measurereents of input variables of a fuzzy controller must be properly combined with relevant fuzzy information rules to make inferences regarding the output variables. This degree. First. é) is A x B. we convert given fuzzy • inference rules of the form (12.Sec. then (e. This is the purpose of the inference engine. zk )lk KJ.1) by the formula [ie (it B (AP. then u is Ci Rule 2. which is determined as explained in Sec. B(yk). Then. which is discussed in Sec. y) = enin[A(x). then y is C. C (4)1. we select the one with the largest degree of relevance. where zk is a desirable value of the oirtput variable e for given values xk and yk of the input variables e and 6 . éo) = Mxo) X f(yo). yk. 11 (e. k) is A i Bi„. é) is fe (x) X fi (yo) y is C„ Conclayion v is C The symbols A i .25) to conclude that the state of variable u is characterized by the fuzzy set . . é) is A1 x B1. /31 . B(y)] for all x € [—a. where j1 iz are tnorms. the problem of inference regarding the output variable u becomes the problem of approximate reasoning with several conditional fuzzy propositions. Since the rules are interpreted as disjunctive. Then. . respectively. al and all y e [—b. where [A x /3](x.. te respectively. In designing inference engines. we may proceed as follows. C(z) denote the largest membership grades in fuzzy sets representing the linguistic states of variables e. is Azx 132. (ea.. in our case.
the formula is E cr(z)zk dcA(C) k (12. for any input measurements e = x0 and à = yo. summarize the elastic constraint imposed on possible values of the output variable by the fuzzy set.3 is the usual method employed in simple fuzzy controllers for determining the resulting fuzzy set C in the described reasoning schema.t) If dc(C) is not equal to any value in the universal set. 11. z2 . It must. i) are fuzzy sets defined on [—a. we take the value closest to it.3) z„}.4) E C(Z. In this last step of the design process. The purpose of defuzzification is to convert each conclusion obtained by the inference engine. cwidz (z)iiz For the discrete case. Observe that the values . The method of interpolation explained in Sec. Each method is based on some rationale. in some sense.4 can be applied to our case by taking X = (e. dcA(C). The tnorm can be either elicited from domain experts or determined from empirical data. The set to be defuzzified in our example is. . 11.336 C=U Ife) Fuzzy Systems fè(Yo)1 Chap. the action taken by the fuzzy controller. which is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set. 11. the set C defined by (12. is not arbitrary. Step A number of defuzzification methods leading to distinct results were proposed in the literature. which deftnes. Linguistic states of (e. the designer of a fuzzy controller must select a suitable depazificatiorz method. to a single real numben The resulting number. 12 Ri.2) where is the supi composition for a tnorm î. which is sometimes called the center of gravity method or centroid method. 5. This value is calculated by the formula dcA(c). The formulation of the method in Sec. (12. The choice of the tnorm is a matter similar to the choice of fuzzy sets for given linguistic labels. a] x [—b b].4 and illustrated in Fig. the defuzzifted value. is defined as the value within the range of variable y for which the area under the graph of membership function C is divided into two equal subareas. e) and u. which are calculated from their counterparts for e and à by the m in imum operator. in which C is defined Ori .s finite universal set (r 1 .2). The following three defuzzification methods have beeu predomiliaat in the litcraturc on fuzzy control. (12. Canter of Area M thod In this method.
2 Fuzzy Controllers: An Overview 337 n form a probability distribution obtained from the membership function . 6/CM (C) = inf M + sup M (12. the defuzzified value dcA(C) obtained by formula (114) can be interpreted as an expected value of variable u.8). k =1 1. Formally. the defuzzified cimm (C). For the discrete case. dcm Aim .6). cilc (z) = h(C)}. may be viewed as special members of parametrized families of defuzzification methods. and dmm weighted) to a particular fuzzy set is illustrated in Fig.Sec. h(C). for 0. including intervals of Length zero.7. which is usually defined only for the discrete case. (12. dmm(C) may be defined as the arithmetic average of mean values of all intervals contained in M.8) Mean of Maxima Method In this method. E M) (12. It is now increasingly recognized that these defuzzification methods.5) where M = tz For the discrete case.c dp(C) = k"11 (12. Alternatively. C by the ratioscale transformation.v(C) may be defined as a weighted average of mean values of the intervals. is defined as the average of the smallest value and the largest value of u for which C(z) is the height. E dmm(C) zl€41 zk (12.7) (12.9) In the continuous case. dm. as well as other methods proposed in the literature. raaxtzk izi. An application of the four defuzzification methods (dcA . 2.6) dcm (C) where min(zklzk E M) 2 M = tzklC(zk) =h(C)). is the average of all values in the crisp set M defined by (12. in which the weights ari interpreted as the relative lengths of the intervals. an interesting family is de fined by the formula E cP(zk)z. Consequently. when M is given by (12. value. L—c. Center of Maxima Method In this_ method. dcm(C).10) a E CP (zk) k=1 . the defurzified value. of c. That is. 12. 12.
we obtain the mean of maxima method. the value of p of the chosen defuzzification may be interpreted as an indicator of the confidence placed by the designer in the reason ing process.7. zli ) are given equal probabilities and. Observe tlrat one particular value of p is obtained by the uncertainty invariance principle explained in Sec. When p 0 1. the center of area method is obtained. where p E (0. . Taking do (C) as a value that represents a summkry of fuzzy set C may be interpreted as an expression of very low confidence in the inference process. 4 — dmm (weighted). the parameter introduces a bias into the probability distribution obtained from C by the ratioscale transformation.9). the probability distribution that is used for calculating the expected value of variable y preserves all information contained in the fuzzy set C Hence. all values in {z1. the biasing effect is inversed. but it is reasonable an analogy with the discrete case) to define d dmm . In this case. when p cc. the shape of the membership function C is totally discounted. The magnification increases with decreasing value p . Hence.di C (z)dz (12. that Ls.338 Fuzzy Systems Chap. 00) is a parameter by which different defuzzification methods ate distinguished. the following formula is a counterpart of (12. probabilities of values zk for which C(zk ) h(C) are magnified . 9.and. 12 Ht t 234 Figure 12. and taking d(C) = dm(C) may be interpreted as the expression of full confidence in the reasoning process. The reduction increases with decreasing values C(zk) and increasing values p. When p <1. When p> 1. 2— 44M. it increases with decreasing value of C(zk). In this case.10): dp (C) = C F (z)z. When p 01. the defu2zification method based on this value is the °illy method fully justified in informationtheoretic terms.7 Illustration of tlic described . 3 — dCAt. for each given value of p.given by (12. This parameter has an interesting interpretation_ When p = 1.defuzzificatiort methods: 1— dcit.11) The formula is not directly applicable for p o*. probabilities of value ±k for which C(z) < h(C) are reduced. At the other extreme. hence. For the continuous case. do(C) is equal to their arithmetic average.
which has been quite popular in both clas. Variable is a suitable electrical quantity (electric current or volt age)_ Its values determine. tie. We chose to describe a fuzzy controller whose control problem is to stabilize an inverted pendulum. and under environmental disturbances that are not too severe. and yet it is not overly simple. which consists of only seven fuzzy inference rules. A movable pole is attached to a vehicle through a pivot. is described as follows. respectively). 12. respectively). While variable e is directly measured by an appropriate angle sensor. è is the derivative (rate of change) of variable e. the total number of possible nonconfticting fuzzy inference rules would become 74 =. For convenience. Again. The model consists of a system of four differential equations. This situation can be interpreted as an inverted pendulum. which is illustrated in Fig. we may express u in a 'suitable scale for which it is numerically equal to the resulting force. we briefly describe a mathematical model of the mechanics involved by which proper movements of the vehicle would be determined in a classical controller. Then.401. through an electric motor driven by an appropriate servomechanism. The problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum. Although performance can be greatly improved by enlarging the fuzzy rule base. of the vehicle. say 20 or so. the simple version is preferable from the pedagogical point of view.3. It turns out from experience that only a small fraction of these rules. the force is viewed as negative (or positive) when it causes the vehicle to move to the left (or to the right. is sufficient to achieve a high performance of the resulting fuzzy controller. When the pole is tilted toward left (or toward right). 12. whose derivation is outside the scope of this text.2. propositions about u may be directly interpreted in terms of the force applied to the vehicle. its derivative è is calculated from successive measurements of e. This control problem. the force applied to the vehicle. We describe a very simple version.. It was desised and implemented by Yamakawa [19891 He demonstrated that even such a simple fuzzy controller works reasonably well for poles that are not too short or too light. To compare fuzzy control with classical control in dealing with tue problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum. The three variables involved in this control problem have the following meaning: e is the angle between the actual position of the pole and its desirable vertical position. as shown ie the figure. has a pedagogical value. We use only one example since descriptions of many other fuzzy controllers. due to its appeal to common sense.See.2).sical control and fuzzy contra. 12. we describe a particular fuzzy controller of the simple type characterized in Fig. Two additional input variables would have to be included in the fuzzy controller to deal with this requirement: a variable defined by the distance (positive or negative) between the actual position of the vehicle and its desirable position. Observe that this simpli fi ed formulation of the control problem does not include the requirement that the position of the vehicle also be stabilized. and u is proportional to the velocity. designed for a great variety of control problems. The equations are . and a similar convention applies to é. e is viewed as negative (or positive. and the derivative of this variable expressing the velocity of the vehicle (positive or negative). Assuming that seven linguistic states were again recognized for each of the variables. can readily be found in the literate (Note 12.8.3 12 3 Fuzzy Centro Hers: An Example 339 FUZZY CONTROLLERS: AN EXAMPLE In this section. It can easily be understood. The control problem is to keep the pole (pendulum) in the vertical position by moving the vehicle appropriately.
(e. to Solve analytically. special a. Ie VLsine—HLcose. The discussion is organized in terms of the five design steps described in Sec 12. when one pendulum is replaced with another of different size and weight). however. 21 is the length of the pendulum. It is clearly difficult to comprehend this model intuitively. This. Step 2.2. the distinction made in the inference process by fuzzified inputs is illustrated in Fig.340 Furry Systems Chap. V is the driving force given to the vehicle. 12 Figure 12. However.2 Fuzzy controller as a stabilizer id an inverted pendula.sinnptions arc_ usually introduced to make the model linear. Hence.. in and IV are masses of the pendulum and the v ehicle. Let us choose this representation for all three variables. è é are the angle and its first and second derivatives. such as those defined in Fig.based classical control is that the model must be modified whenever some parameters change. that measurements of input variables are employed directly in the inference process. H= e. and I rriL 2 /3 is the moment of inertia. Another difficulty of the model . The linguistic states axe usually represented by fuzzy sets with triangular membership functions. for the sake of simplicity. H and V are horizontal and vertical forces at the pivot. since the first three equations are nonlinear. each defined for the appropriate range. based on intuitively understandable linguistic control rules.g. Assume. if not impossible. the system is difficult. which is not suitable for realtime control due to excessive computational demands. 12. V — mg —1nL( sine ± é2 COS e) H = tnii) rni.4. Fuzzy control. restricts the capabilities of the controller. Moreover. Let us now discuss the main issues involved in the design of a fuzzy controller for stabilizing an inverted pendulum.11. is not subject to these difficulties. we have to resort to computer simulation. where Stop 1. h is typical to use seven linguistic states for each variable in fuzzy controllers designed for simple control problems such as the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. To ovarcomo these difficalties.(ècuse sin e). . 12. ft) is the second derivative of the position of the vehicle.
the value of the output variable u is approximated by a fuzzy set C(z) determined by (12. M. 11. We can see by a careful inspection of our fuzzy rule base.4 and extended as explained in Sec. when the angle is positive small . 12.ro) and è My).9 Minimum set of linguistic inference rules to stabilize an inverted pendulum. Step 4. For example. (170) no more that two rules can fire when the measurements of input variables are crisp. yo) > 0. 12. 12. the velocity of the vehicle should be approximately zero (y = AZ).2). Fuzzy Controllers. PS Figure 12. as illustrated in Fig.(e = PS) and its rate of change is negative small (è = NS). e their compatibility r j ( to._. NM AZ PS AZ AZ AZ PM PM 6 Ns AZ PS NS Ns NM • .10. consequently.11 for both crisp and fi. and 3 file for their fuzzified counterparts. Observe that only rules 1 and 3 fire for the given crisp input measurements. 12.10.Sec. 12.3). The inference rules can easily be understood intuitively. then it is negative small (e = . Step 5.3 Stop 3. if the angle NS). we say that rule j fires for the measurements. The most frequently used defuzzitcationS Method in the simple fuzzy controller is the centroid method. Other rules can be easily explained by similar commonsense reasoning. as exemplified in Fig. the movement of the pole is selfcorrecting. If we accept it for our controller.NS) and its rate of change is negative small (è is quite natural that the velocity of the vehicle should be also negative small (7) = NS) to make a correction in the way the pole is moving. 2.9. This method is frequently used in simple fuzzy controllers.12fLeci measurements. crisp or fuzzified. as depicted in Fig. let us choose the interpolation method explained in Sec. 12. For each pair of input measurements. . we first calculate the degree of or their fazzified counterparts. On the other hand.2. The complete representation of these linguistic rules by the fuzzy sets chosen in Step 1 is shown in Fig. To illustrate the inference engine. Observe that the linguistic states NL and PL do not even participate in this very restricted set of inference rules. When rj (xo . e = xo and é yo.. An Example 341 Following Yarnakawa [19a9 ] . while rules 1. yo) with the antecedent (a fuzzy number) of each inference rule j. we select the seven linguistic inference rules defined by the matrix in Fig. that: (a) at least one rule fires for all possible input measurements. (c) more than two rules (and perhaps as many as five) can lire when the measurements are fuzzited. For each pair of input measurements.11. we obtain our defuzzified values by (12. 12.
12 Figure 12.342 Fuzzy Systems Chap. .10 Fuzzy rule base of the kneed pendulum. desabed fuzzy controller designed for stabilizing amp.
3 Fuzzy Contra Vers: An Example 343 e=x0 i. .t y0 (a) Crisp rnassuregnents (1)) FuzzMeZ measuroments e=fix o) i=f00) Figure 12. 12.10) that fire for given measurements of input variables: (a) crisp measurements.Sec. 11.11 Example* of fluzy inferesc lulus (of the firczy rule base specified in rig. ( 3) fazzified Measurements.
e. ln this section. n . the neural network representation is eminently fitted for introducing suitable adaptive capabilities into the system. 11. Comparable neural networks with more than one hidden layer are. The motivation for approximating fuzzy systems by neural networks is based upon the Inherent capability of neural networks to perform massive parallel processing of information. Fuzzy expert systems based on multiconditional approximate reasoning (Sec. While A is usually a subset of C(X. provided that the range of the input variable is discretized into n values and the range of the output variable is discretized into in values. m outputs.0. An important connection between fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. and fuzzy expert systems (Note 12.7).. The discussion is restricted to the classical raultilayer neural networks.4) can approximate feedforward neural networks with n inputs. n. This is due to the inherent learning capabilities of neural networks. is a set of functions g of the form g X a" that satisfies the following: for any given function f G C(tr. mbre generally.344 12. For example. in this context.. 12 It has increasingly been recognized that the areas of fuzzy systems and neural networks are strongly interconnected. of course. all relevant fuzzy inference rules are processed in parallel. neural networks have already been proven very ugefui in numerous applications of fuzzy set theory for constructing membership functions of relevant fuzzy sets and other contextdependent entities from sample data (Sec. is that they are both universal approximators of continuous functions of a rather general class. in outputs (n > 1. Then a let C(X. The following is a summary of the main results regarding computational equivalences between continuous functions.4): 1. we discuss the possibility of approximating a rven fuzzy system by an appropriate neural network. fuzzy expert systems. which is crucial in many applications. Furthermore. 10. which are introduced in Appendix A. one hidden layer. there exists a function g e A such that f (x) g(x)1 < e for all x X. that are required to process large numbers of fuzzy inference rules in real time. When the neural network representing a given fuzzy expert system is implemented in hardware. in) denote the set of all continuous functions f of the form f X universal approximaror. m) and any real number s ›. which. 2. the two sets may also be disjoint The latter case takes place when functions in A are. a subset of W that is closed and bounded). This results in high computational efficiency.7). the sigmoid function) in each neuron are universal approximators. They also show great promise as an efficient tool for solving fuzzy relation equations. in > 1). which has been recognized and investigated since the early 1990s.. The term "universal approxirnator" has the following precise mathematical meanirtg. one or more hidden layers.not continuous. universal approximators as well..4 Fuzzy Systems FUZZY SYSTEMS AND NEURAL NETWORKS Chap. which play a fundamental role in dealing with many practical problems involving fuzzy systems (Sec. This is important in those fuzzy controllers and. and a continuous activation function in each neuron.g. Feedforward neural networks with n inputs. . n. and R. and a continuous activation function (e. A. n2). neural networks. 6. can be utilized for modifying fuzzy inference rules of the system on the basis of experience. Let X be a compact subset of R' (i.
61. Each fuzzy inference rule is. 1. 5. we describe an example proposed by Fatrikar and Provence [1993] for approximating the inference engine of a simple fuzzy controller by a feedforward neural network with one hidden layer. 0. are thus far of limited practical value. 0. which have the same meaning as in Sec. and one output variable.4 is interpreted for each variable as [6.3. Seven linguistic states are distinguished for each variable. 0. Assume. the range [—a. and the ba. e and é. 12. 12.4. 0. 6. Most of these results. as depicted in Fig. which specifies the linguistic states of the input variables e and 6.2. According to available heuristic rules (no definite formulas have been developed as yet). and an output vector. —5. 0. which are of considerable theoretical significance. For example. 12. 0) and the output vector . layer by which the inference engine of our fuzzy controller can be approximated is sketched in Fig. 3. y. In the rest of this section. 0.2. the fuzzy inference rule If e is AZ and is NS. 0. They are primarily existence results.6 are all included in the fuzzy rule base of our controller. cir > 6. It follows from (1) and (2) that fuzzy expert systems of the type described in (2) are also universal approximators. fuzzy expert systems based on multiconditional approximate reasoning and a defuzzification of obtained conclusions. We assume that the neural network has q neurons in the bidden layer. Its value specifies. that the variables have the same range [6. Inputs of the neural network are partitioned into two subsets that correspond to variables e and é as shown in Fig. —2. at the given discrete point in the range [6. that is. 12. 0.Sec. 6]. Each input is assigned to a fuzzy number that represents a particular linguistic state of the respective variable. Each output is allocated to one of thirteen equally distributed discrete points in the range [6. It is obvious that any given range can be normalized to this convenient range. 6].4 Fuzzy Systems and Neural Networks 345 3. which do not provide us with procedures for constructing practical approximators. 12. 4. _Assume further that the 49 fuzzy rules specified in Fig. 12.12. the membership grade of the fuzzy number that represents the output vari able v.ckpropagation algorithm (Appendix A) is employed for training the neural network to map a set of given input patterns into a set of desirable output patterns. 1. then t) is PS is represented in the neural network by the input vector (0. 0. The fuzzy controller has two input variables. for convenience. For convenience. Fuzzy inputoutput controllers. but not necessarily its special application to the problem of stabilizing an inverted pendulum discussed in Sec. A possible structure of a feedforward neural network with one bidden. which are the integers —6. are universal approximators. —41 —3. 61 That is. let us consider a simple fuzzy controller of the type introduced in Sec_ 12. which are represented by triangularshape fuzzy numbers equally spread over the range of values of the variable. 12. 0. a] in Fig. 2. 0. which defines (at 13 discrete points) the corresponding fuzzy number of the output variable y. It is assumed that the sigmoid function_ is chosen as the activation function for each neuron. 1.12. 12. 4. represented in the neural nawork by an input vector.
12 DESIRED OUTPUT OUTPUT LAYER RIDDEN LAYER INPUTS NI A/ <Q NM NS AZ PS A2 PM PL. 0 . 0.6. NL NM NS AZ PS A.11 A neural network approximating a fumy inferenem engine_ (0. 0. 12. 1 .. 0 PM 36 PL B7 . A4 As As Bi B2 B3 B4 B6 . the neural network gradually learns to associate the proper fuzzy number at the output with each of the possible pairs of input linguistic states. . 12. 1 . The role of the fuzzification module is to feed appropriate input values into the neural network for any given measurements e = x0 and . 0 .5. the neural network responds correctly to each input vector in the training set. 0. 0 . 0. it must be supplemented with ft=ification and defuzzification modules. 0 .346 Fu=y Systems Chap. After training. 0. When this training set is applied to the backpropagation algorithm (Appendix A). 0.5. 1.12. These two vectors represent. . 0. To utilize the network for producing appropriate control actions. The full training set consists of all 49 fuzzy inference rules speciRed in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. 0. . in this application of the neural network one inputoutput pair of a training set. 0 . 0 > o Fignire 12. 0).
Once framed. They are obtained by directly fuzzifying the classical feedforward neural networks with one or more layers. hence. 12. If desirable 1 the output representation of the neural network can be made more refined by dividing the range of the output variable into more discrete values and increasing the number of output neurons as needed. vector (C6. Cs.5. b2.  .Sec. This. All real numbers that characterize a classical neural network become fuzzy numbers in its fuzziffed counterpart. 12. 4. al. and bf the degree of compatibility of h(yo) with the antecedent é = B. we describe basic characteristics of only one type. the neural network provides us with a blueprint for a hardware implementation. but by some other aggregation operation (Chapter 3). C3. (j =1. b3 b4 1 b5 b6. Although classical neural networks can be employed for this purpose. C4. A deviation from classical neural networks in any of these features requires that a properly modified learning algorithm be developed. Fuzzy neural networks to be described here were proposed by Hayashi. more attuned to the various procedures of approximate reasoning. C3. These alternative neural networks are usually referred to as fuzzy neural networks The following features.5 Fuzzy Neural Networks 347 = yo . in Note 12. As an example. 2. Its actual hardware implementation involves massive parallel processing of information. C. these values form the input vector (a az. C6). neural networks are eminently suited for approximating fuzzy controllers and other types of fuzzy expert systems. in some cases.2. Ci.5 FUZZY NEURAL NETWORKS As discussed in Sec. b7) where ai expresses the degree of compatibility of f(x0) with the antecedent e= A 1 . 3.4. C2. with relevant references. 12. expr&s the neural network produces an output Receiving an input vector of this form and meaning. Various types of fuzzy neural networks have been proposed in the literature. 015. as well as for implementing these approximations in appropriate hardware. inputs are fuzzy numbers. it is computationally very efficient. or some of them. outputs are film numbers. distinguish fuzzy neural networks from their classical counterparts: 1. The following are basic features of the resulting networks: 1. by which a fuzzy set representing the conclusion of the inference is defined. This fuzzy set must be converted to a single real number by the defuzzification module. ( [4. weighted inputs of each neuron are not aggregated by summation. CI. /11. and Czogala [1993]. attempts have been made to develop alternative neural networks. These are numbers that characterize inputs to the network. C2. C4. is not an easy task.5. weights are fuzzy numbers. Some other types are listed. Buckley. For general fuzzitication functions A and A. 613 ai.
and weights at all layers. employed in the backpropagation learning algorithm in a fuzzy neural network with m outputs for each training sample p is defined by the formula = 2 11) 2. = SA(Ak).13. 12. is then determined by using the extension principle. 12 outputs of neurons at hidden layers and the output layer. 3. Choosing now some number s ›. 2.0 must be calculated by fuzzy arithmetic.12) where So is a sigmoid function for some chosen value of the steepness parameter A (Appendix A). which represents a perfect snatch of the actual outputs with the.0 as an acceptable deviation from the value of Ep . is defined by the formula Yz Sitt W iXkj). Then. also of YiP) is the interval [tr. 1. for example.13) where TkP is the target output and is the actual output of output Karon ONk for training sample p. 014.4) in Appendix A). 1 Driz to2 .„ and the output Yk of this neuron are all fuzzy numbers. all numbers relevant to a particular output neuron. exemplified here by the neuron characterized in rig. where A. Here. 12. the sum Ak = E vv. (12.13 EuzEy numbers characterizitg a sizglc fuzzy neuron. 4. (12. X].x„. the weights K. assuming that the support of Tyr (and. Assume that TI = II for all k. Xkl . fuzzy arithmetic must be used to calculate Otherwise. The output of each neuron.. error function Ep .13) with (A. this formula for Ep is exactly the same as its counterpart for classical neural networks (compare (12. mare 12. Xk h . as depicted in Fig. Consider. Since symbols firi and Xki in (12.. rib the support of Ep is included in the interval [—X. If ON is a fuzzy neuron. IV. The output of the neuron. in this case. again. then the inputs X. The stopping criterion for fu7:zy neural networks must also be properly fuzzified. of a singleIayer feedforward neural network.12) designate fuzzy numbers.13. W11.348 Fuzzy Systems Chap. target outputs.
The sequences may be finite or conatably innnite. 12. the response of the system is determined an the basis of the received stimulus and the internal state of the system. A ± sj. Given a sequence AL. R is a fuzzy relation on Z x V. Ct = Et 1 for each tinie t G N (1). Y is a nonempty finite set of output states (responses). the stimulus. Z is a nonempty finite set of internal states. response. which replaces its predecessor. A fuzzy set C'. and &merging internal state (next state) of the automaton at time t. and let tzi.tion is accomplished by the concept of a dynamically changing internal state. S.1Z a — response relation and 5 a statetransition relation. a new internal state is determined. fuzzy relations R and S allow us to generate the corresponding sequences .Z. S). 12. which characterizes the initial internal state. Z •. and the production of responses and next states is facilitated by appropriate fuzzy relations. C E' denote the fuzzy sets that characterize. where • • • • • X is a nonempty finite set of input states (stimuli). current internal state. J3t E and 0. The equation C = E' 1 is assumed to be implemented by the block called storage in Fig. R. [1993]. Clearly. B'. x2.6 Fuzzy Automata 349 when T1 = 11 for all k. One way. Y = zq ).14. At the same time. must be given to make the fuzzy automaton operate. Finally. and an initial characterization Cl of the internal state.6 FUZZY AUTOMATA A finite automaton (also called a finitestate machine or sequential machine) is a dynamic system operating in discrete time that transforms sequences of input states (stimuli) received at the input of the system to sequences of output states (responses) produced at the output of the system. the fuzzy automaton operales as follows. The new internal state is stored in the system to be used the next time.Sec. C3 E 2 1 Due to the roles of relations R and S.• • xn}. A finite fitzzy automaton. At E T(X). Given A and Cr at some time t. A2 .14. An automaton is called a fuzzy automaton when its states are characterized by fuzzy sets. . Assume that X = {x1. .5 to replace the real numbers in the standard formulas (Appendix A) with their fuzzy counterparts and apply fuzzy arithmetic to them_ 12. E T (Z ). and C2 = £ 1 .131 . The idea of a fuzzy automaton is depicted in Fig. it is reasonable to stop the learning algorithm whenever E p included in the interval [—A — e. 1. Then. respectively. Assuming the standard fuzzy set operations. 12. . we need to fuzzily the backpropagaticn learning algorithm. fuzzy relations R and S allow as to determine 13' and E'. z2.sfortna. it is reasonable to call .Y. At eacb discrete time. is a fuzzy relational system defined by the quintuple A = (X. Its role is to store the produced fuzzy set E' at each time t and release it the next time under the label C. proposed by Hayashi et al. A. The tran. and S is a fuzzy relation on XxZx Z.
15) . Ifwe are interested only in the formulas Er rina internal state and the final output state.14)(12. SA'.16) Equations (12. £2 E 1 SA Er = Eri s and the corresponding sequence of fuzzy output states B 1 Cl 0R. 12 7 Figure 12. Then. Br =7 Er 1 R. a sequence A1 .14) max(min [A' (xk). For any given fuzzy input state A'.5. (12. S is converted into a (12. assuming the present fuzzy state C' is given. B e = C i c'SAi°. 3 2 tg R. the fuzzy automaton produces the sequence of fuzzy internal states 1E 1 = el SAt. (12. Consider a fuzzy . Consider. Zj) E Z x Z.16) are sufficient for handling sequences of fuzzy states. zi )i) keti j for all pairs (xi. for example. the fuzzy _next state E t and fuzzy output state B e are determined by the maxmin compositions Et = ° SAs . Bt = CoR. . Ar of r fuzzy input states applied to a given initial fuzzy state C.00 Let us illustrate the concept of fuzzy automata by a simple example. the ternary statetransition relation binary relation. on Z c Z by the formula SAt(zi. .350 Fuzzy Systerns Chap. Then.14 Bosic scrinie of fuzzy automata. we can use the C i SA7 S. Rx/r. 4 2 .
Sr1 .ri .4 / 1 1 For example. Et = C = [C t (z/).15) and (12. the To calculate the fuzzy next state El and the fuzzy output state El of use (12.3 and the threedimensional array X1 Z1 x2 22 23 Z4 Zi 22 23 24 [zi1 .8 . Assume now that the initial fuzzy state of the automaton is Cl = [1 .6 .• = [ . mint. = [ 1 .4 0 0 0 1 . 1]) .3 0.: (xi).6 . SAi (21. z41 whose output relations R and statetransition relation S aie defined.2 S= z2 z3 Z4 0 0 1 0 . . 12.6 Fuzzy Automata F 361 automaton with X = fx1.3 . x2).4 .2 0 0 1 z3 500 1 j1z4 _ 0 001 000 1. Y = fYi. Ct (z3).2. 0 0 1 .4 .4 El. Mx2)1.3 .8 . r3 ) = max(rnintAs (xi). let fuzzy sets describing input. zi .3 1 0 . r3)1.3(x2.4] and its fuzzy input state is Al. by rho matrix Y1 Y2 Y3 Z 1 0 0 R Z2 Z3 Z4 010 0 0 1 1 . z. Y2. .4 . and internal states at any time t be deftned by the vectors A = [A.See.4.3 0 1 automaton.4 .4 . C I (z4)1.6 To describe bow this fuzzy automaton operates.2 zz . C t (z2). output.4 ] :5.4 1 0 . rnin[A (x 2).14).4 1 1 0 .16): [. re3pectively.zi 0 . we now .= [1 Al Then.5 1 .8 . using (12. Z2 2'3 Z4 SA 1 = Z2 Z4 0 `.5 . Yait Z = tzt z2. = rnax(.5 . z3 )]) = max(min[1.4. 1 1.
7 we obtain the classical deterministic automaton of the Moore type.. similarly.3 _5 1 . for exactly one z i E Z and exactly one yi Y.. be replaced The operations min and max employed in with other tnorms and tcorionns. When. respectively. we can produce larger sequences of fuzzy internal and output states for any given sequence of fuzzy input states. The concept of a fuzzy automaton is a broad one. yiEY E EZ = 1 for each 04.. zi E X x Z.14)412_16) may. zi) EX x Z. we must require that R( z 1 . and for each zi E Z yi) = 1 for at least one yi E Y. some next internal .yk.5 1 . we call the relations deterministic.4 .4 1 1 0 0 01 0 001 1 .3 Fuzzy Systems Chap. That is.8 . 2.2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 _3 0 . Zi F zi) > 0 for at least one c Z. Similarly. To define a meaningful fuzzy mzt.ez E RCzi. of course. When these requirements are satisfied.zi . For each replacement. and we require. respectively. (12. ate and some output state must be assured for any given . which subsumes classical crisp automata (deterministic and nondeterministic) as well as classical probabilistic automata as . For example. zi ) € X x Z. in addition. be stated in a stronger form: for each pair xk.zj ) =1 for at least one zi G Z.352 [ 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 . we obtain a classical probabilistic automaton of the Moore type. in addition) that input states are singletons and 1.S(x k . we must require that S(ik.6 . Z and relations R. Y.4 .guaton. which. we obtain SAr I 0010 . yE ) > 0 for at least one Yi e Y. all states are singletons taken from sets X. is nondetermin_istic.6 Assuming now that the next fuzzy input state is A2 [ . When all states of a fuzzy automaton are defined as crisp sets and R.6 [ [ . relations R and S cannot be arbitrary. = I for each z1 c Z. for each pair (.5 R]. for each z E Z. These requirements may also.input state and present internal state.5 _8 _4 [0 1].5 1 . we obtain a crisp automaton. . in general.8 . When min is repla* with the product and max is replaced with the algebraic sum. 12 Bt 1 . 5 are crisp relations. S axe deterministic. we obtain an automaton of a different type.
• s is a global statetransition function. there are different types of classical dynamics systems. L5T. clearly extends the domain of applicability covered by the various classical types of finite automata. (c) s(t2. t1. Z. r:TxZxA B. q I. t z. where • X. under which all types of crisp dynamic systems are subsumed. Then.7 Fuzzy Dynamic Systems 353 special cases. we obtain Z are finite and the global discretetime dynamic systems. 12. let us introduce the classical concept of a general dynamic system. When. s:T xixZxZT bave the following properties: (a) . 12. is a total ordering of the time set T. and the issue. to) when u(t) = v(t) for tit t • r is a response function (or an output function). z. respectively. z. Special types of dynamic systems are obtained when some properties of the eight components of 8 are modified or additional properties are required. z. T = R (or R÷). Z are sets of input. y E U and r T. m. ti .Sec. tr. for example. u). u) = s[t3. • . T. in general.functions.u. • T is a time set. the rconcatenation. 12. Z. We explained in Sec. the behavior of the system is timeinvariant). output. sets X statetransition function is replaced with a local statetransition function s:ZxX Z (Le. in addition. u T X. Y.U is a set of lime. u. s(t2 property). we obtain classical finite automata. S. A general dynamic system. However. u) z (consistency). When T = N.s involved in the fuzzifica_tion may be very different from one type to another.6 how these special dynamic systems can be fuzzified.140) = u(t) v(t) when t < when t > r. is a mathematical structure that is captured by the Btuple S4X Y. u) = s(t2.70. which is required to be closed under a composition that is called a rconcatenation and defined as follows: for any u. we obtain continuoustime dynamic systems. h (causality).. which is required to r. u] for any t 1 < t2 < t (statesubstitution (b) s(t3. and internal states of the system. in general.7 FILEEY DYNAMIC SYSTEMS Fuzzy dynamic systems.U.. • <7. timevarying and nonlinear. When. systems. statetranition functions are expressed in which are. X = E. This concept. In this important class of dynamic terms of appropriate differential equations. One way of fuzzifying these systems is to ." Y = Z RI for some integers n. is the function fu 0. whose further study is beyond the scope of this text. tz. To discuss these issues. z. as the name suggests. are fuzzifications of classical (crisp) dynamic systems.
in addition. the specialty of the hook is its emphasis on the use of fuzzy relation equations in dealing with various problems involving fuzzy systems. the interest in fuzzy controllers increased very rapidly in Japan. Some of these efforts resulted in laboratory prototypes.3. and control systems for cement Idins Pur3_y controllers have also been installed with great success in a . Many other industrial projects that employ fuzzy control have been completed in Japan since the opening of the subway system in Sendai City in 1987. The hook edited by Sugeno [1985a] covers a broad spectnua of applications of fuzzy control and contains an excellent annotated bibliography on the subject A handbook edited by White and Sofge 11992] covers the role of fuzzy logic and neural networks in intelligent control. an_ automaticdrive fuzzy control system for subway trains intbSenclai City. 1971a. 12. traffic control systems. Another way is to apply the extension principle directly to the differential equations involved. Literature on fuzzy controllers in the period 19751985 is well overviewed by Tong [198 $]. Mamdani's work influenced 1 other researchers to explore the applicability of fuzzy controllers to various control problems. This requires. Important work along this une has been pursued by Dubois and Prade [19824 Puri and Ralescu [1983]. 1976.1. and only one of them led eventually to the development of a commercially available fuzzy controller for cement kilns [11olmblad and Ostergaard. It is generally praised as superior to other comparable systems based on classical control. and classical integrals become fuzzy sets. air conditioning systems. this was the first commercially available fuzzy contro ll er. A complete list would be too long./anishicli etal. The fuzzy. but makes each stop more comfortable. Mamdani. see also [Sugeno. as explained in sec.1970s [Marodani and Assilian. 1974a. 12. additive pleasures. and fuzzy integrals. NOTES 12. Uncertainty resulting from resolutiou limitations of measuring insturnents is _analyzed by Fridrich [1994a1_ He introduces the concept of 'Rnite resolution. Tong. 1973. Several specialized books on fuzzy control arc now available. and Kaleva [1987]. but this topic is beyond the scope of this text. b ] . it covers the theoretical foundations of fuzzy control. it saves about 10% of energy. by which classical mathematical concepts such as crisp sets. with somewhat greater emphasis on neural networks. Initial ideas of fuzzy systems were introduced by Zadeh [1965a. 1972b] and [Chang and lade]. [19931 is 013o suitable as a text. elevator control systems. relevant software and hardware.3. Harris et aL [1993} wrote a comprehensive tembook with a strong emphasis on the connection_ between fuzzy logic and neural networks. the final product was extremely successful. 1975.controller achieves not only a higher precision in stopping at any designated point. the development of a fuzzy differential calculus. and eleven application areas. in which fuzzy control is covered more thoroughly than other topics. 19851 . control of bulldozers. La the late 1980s. 1984 ] . This increased interest was likely an outcome of the first implementation of fuzzy control in a significant project. In these papers. few examples are chlorine control for water purification plants. 1982 ] . Although it took seven years to complete this project in 1987. according to the literature. fuzzy measures. 19721 the idea of applying fuzzy sets to control problems was presented for the first time. 12 use linguistic approximation.354 Fuzzy Systems Chap. A multiauthor book edited by . Vhe actual research on fuzzy controllers was initiated by Mamdani and his students at Queen Mary College in London in the mid . 1977.2. A. Pedrycz [1989] wrote a more general book on fuzzy systems. 12.2 and 12. but more explicitly in [Zadeh. Another good overview of fuzzy controllers and other applications of fuzzy set theory was prepared by maiers and Sherif [19851. in some sense.
Toyoda. Litetature regaraug this symbiotic relaLiuuship is extensive. was developed by IVIabuchi [1993]. and Uchikawa [1992]. Yager [1992a. This implies that fuzzy systems and neural networks can approximate each other. Another example is a fuzzy controller that can stabilize a triple inverted pendulum [Zhang et al. b.& [1991]. in which fuzzy systems provide a powerful framework for knowledge representation. and Tahanit [1992]. Defazzification of fuzzy intervals is addressed by Zhao and Govind [1991]. Tbe. 12. The following are a few representative papers: Berenji [1992]. Buckley. Takagi and Hayashi (19911. Various 1 ways of implementating fuzzy controllers by neural networks were explored. Fuzzy automata have been studied by Santos [1968. General classes of parametrized defiizzification methods. automatic transmissious). and Buckley. Mizumoto. in general. 19S2a]. while neural networks provide learning capabilities and exceptional suitability for computationally eineitat harthvaro impierneutaLions. and Keller and Tahani [1992]. learning. 12 Notes 355 12. Wechler [1978 ] . fuzzy systems) and neural networks (Notes 12. which attempt to extend their capabilities or make them more attuned to fuzzy systems for the purpose of hardware implementation.7.Chap. TV sets. A d. 1973. 1993]. Research on fuzzy controllers in the 1990s is also characterized by exploring the integration of rulebased and modelbased approaches in fuzzy control.1971a. Keller and Hunt [1985]. Moeden [1982]. refrigerators. Funthashi. and many others. Pal and Nara [1994 Simpson 1 1992. 1993j.5). Keller.. which bas already been completed and successfully tested. Pedrycz [1991b. Gaines and Kohout [1975]. as exemplified by the work of Filev [1991. Hayashi. and Czogaia [1993]. 1984]. in addition to the particular way proposed by Patricar and Provence [19931 and described in Sec. d]. vacuum cleaners. video cameras. 197$]. b]. One example is a fuzzy control system for an unmanned helicopter iSugeno and Park. including the one described in Sec. 12. and Pal and Maiainder [1986]. and Ray et al. Mon. ]. formal languages and grammars. and Tanaka [1969].4. They also show how a proper defuzzification method can be determined by learning algoritbres. 12. Jang [1992.4 and 12. including washing machines. and Wang and Mendel [1992h]. b. but also explore I2. This leads to a symbiotic relationship. The nation of fuzzy dynamic systems emerged from a series of papers by Zadeh [19658. b]. 1993]. Berenji and Kb_ealcar [1992]. Yager. Hayashi.eft=zification based upon the principle of uncertainty invariance was proposed by Mir [19g1a]. An interesting strategy for dealing with the defuzzification problem. Wee and Fu [1969j. based on sensitivity analysis. 1973. 1974a. their applicability in various areas. and Pedryez and Rocha [1993]. by Yager [1992a. such as faulttolerant design. Various fuzziftcations of neural networks have been suggested. 1993.6.4. [1991]. as originally recognized by Koko [1992] and further investigated by 13uckley [19934 Buckley and Hayashi [1993a. 1993a] and Yager and Filev [1993a. Kandel and Lee [1979]. Carpenter et al. These writings not only cover theoretical aspects of fuzzy automata. were explored by Filev and Yager [1991. Chen and . broad variety of consumer products. d]. b]. These efforts are exemplified by the following papers: Lee and Lee [1974. a project headed by Sugeno at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. some researchers began to explore the use of fuzzy controllers t o control problems that are considered beyond the capabilities of classical corarco solvecrtain theory. Properties of various types of fuzzy dynamic systems were farther investigated by Negoita and Ralesou [19751. 1993a].5. 12. and Czogala [1993 ] . Gupta and Qi [1992]. automobilcs (antiskid brake systems. [1992]. In the 1990s. Santos and Wee [1968]. 1975]. 12.2. Dal Cm n [1975a. They are also covered in the books by Negoita and Ralsocu [1975b]. and by investigating connections between fuzzy controllers (and. b. or pattern recognition. An overview of defuzzificetion methods was prepared by Hellendoom and Thomas [1993]. Horikawa. Fuzzy systems and neural networks are now established as universal approximators.S. 1992] and Sageno and Yasakawa [1993]. De Glas (1983.
whose appbcations seem quite promising.4]. Pedrycz. Teodorescu [19921. the input states are Al = [2 11. 12. Discuss possible ways of fuzzifying the general dynamic system introduced in Ses. the input fuzzy states are = [. 1 11. Repeat Exercise 12.4]. A2 = [1 0). A2 = (1 ) the initial fuzzy state is C2 = 1[10 Li 0]. Gaines [1979a]. Garg.5/x2y3zz + lix2y2z3 125. + 1/x2y3zi 1/x2yiz2 +. Diamond and Pokrovskii 0994 and Fridrich [/994b]. 12. 12. A2 = [1 CI [1 . Iterated fuzzy systems were proposed by Cabrelli et al. Sugeno and Kang [1988]. and Iiirota [19931.1/xLYz2 1. Sugeno and Tanaka [1991].2. Generate sequences of three fuzzy internal and output states under the following conditions: (a) the initial fuzzy state is CI [ 1 . ect. Grim [1993]. and Gupta [19911.6 by defining R as a fuzzy relation on XxZ x Y. 123. A3 = [1 . 1985a. 12. Yi and Chung [1993].2 11. The role of fuzzification of dynamic systems that exhibit chaotic behavior has been investigated by Diamond [19921. the input Jazzy states art = [1 0]. Reformulate all equations for the modiRed automaton.1dixtY3E3 1/xi y2z4 1/x2y2z4.1_ .6 as an example.1. 1990a. and Yoshinori. Delgado and Gonzalez [ 1 993]. Ke. and ScarpIli and Gomide [19931 are representative of this area.9. EXERCISES 12. Consider the fuzzy automaton enaployed in Sec. [1992] and applied to the inverse problem for fractals. Hirota and Pedrycz 11983i„ Higashi and Mir [198413 ] . The contributions by Chen.6 is replaced with the fuzzy ternary miation R 1. Fuzzy Petri UCtS. 12. 12. Pedry [1984b. b„ 1989. and Chang [1990]. (c) the initial fuzzy state is CI = [1 0 0 1]. 12. Ahson.4. Literature dealing with various issues regarding the construction of fuzzy models is quite extemive.2 for the fuzzy automaton formulated in Exercise 123 under the assumption that the fuzzy binary relation R employed in the example in Sec. are currently emerging as an important area of fuzzy systems. Sugeno and Yasakawa [1993].41. The folitswing ale but= repisentativc publications ou this sub .8 „6 . Forma/ate reasonable fuzzy inference rules for an airrondirioning fuzzy control system.356 Fuzzy Systems Chap. 1991cj. and Kong [1993a. A3 = [1 1]. Modify the fuzzy automaton introduced in Sec. 12 Tsao [1989].
it is covered in this chapter. and the literature dealing with fuzzy pattern recognition and fuzzy clustering is new quite extensive. pattern recognition has been evolving since the early 1950s. and soci4 groupings based on various criteria. for example.. However. each object is represented by a vector of measured values of r variables. pattern recognition may be defined as a process by which we search for structures in data and classify these structures into categories such that the degree of association is high among structures of the same category and low between structures of different categories. This is tailed a sensing problem. Relevant categories are usually characterized by prototypical structures derived from past experience. The classification of objects into categories is the subject of cluster analysis. Our aim in this chapter is to characterize the spirit of fuzzy clustering and fuzzy pattern recognition.1 INTRODUCTION 1_ The capability of recopying and classifying patterns is one of the most fundamental characteristics of human intelligence. . It plays a key role in perception as well as at the various levels of cognition. which may be viewed as a special branch of fuzzy pattern recognition. Each category may be characterized by more than out prototypical structure. There are three fundamental problems in pattern recognition. In addition to our discussion of general issues of fuzzy pattern recognition. in close connection with the emergence and evolution of computer technology. The first one is concerned with the representation of input data obtained by measurements on objects that are to be recognized. As a field of study. the applicability of cluster analysis is not restricted to pattern recognition. classification of documents in information retriev_al. The utility of fuzzy set theory in pattern recognition and cluster analysis was already recognized in the mid1960s. to the construction of taxonomies in biology and other areas. It is applicable.3 PATTERN RECOGNITION 13. This is not surprising. In general. we also overview the area of fuzzy image processing. since most catedgariaS we commonly encounter and employ have vague boundaries. Since cluster analysis plays a crucial role in pattern recoguition.. From a general point of view.
The following are examples of areas in which the. Given a finite set of data. but describe only a few typical methods of fuzzy pattern recognition. and other medical diagnostic tools. It is obvious that we cannot describe the use of fuzzy set theory in all these application areas of pattern recognition. is called a fi. The second problem concerns the extraction of characteristic features from the input data in terms of which the dimensionality of pattern vectors can be reduced_ This is referred to as a feature extraction problem.2 FUZZY CLUSTERING Clustering is one of the most fundamental issues in pattern recognition. The other method. Computer based automatic pattern recognition systems have vast applicability. It plays a key role in searching for structures in data. Fuzzy pseudopartitions are often called fuzzy c pqrtitions. Similarly. based on fuzzy equivalence relations. where c designates the number of fuzzy classes in the partition_ The reader should be aware of the difference between fuzzy pseurlopareitious. Each pattern vector is classi fied to that class whose discrimination function yields the largest value. the problem of clustering in X is to find several cluster centers that can properly characterize relevant classes of X. the latter are obtained from associated fuzzy equivalence raltions. The features should be characterizing attributes by which the given pattern classes are well discriminated. 13  where ai (for each i E NO is a particular characteristic of the object of interest. automatic screening and classification of Xray images. while the former are not. we refer to the emerging problem area as fizzy clustering.tzzy cmeans clustering method. Individual pattern vectors are evaluated by these discrimination functions. which assigns. speech recognition and speaker identification. Many additional examples could be listed. we cannot cover all methodological nuances. use of these systems is well established: handwritten character and word recognition. and human face recognition. Both of them are generalizations of classical partitions. In classical cluster analysis. When the requirement of a crisp partition of X is replaced with a weaker requirement of a fuzzy partition or a fizzy pseudopartition on X. classification of seismic waves. and their classification is decided by the resulting values. However. classification of remotely sensed data. There are two basic methods of fuzzy clustering.  13. electroencephalograms. We can only examine a few representative examples. these classes are required to for ni a partition of X such that the degree of association is strong for data within blocks of the partition and weak for data in Afferent blocks. image understanding. is called a fuzzy equivalence relationbased hierarchical clustering . which is based on fuzzy cpartitions. This is usually done by defining an appropriate discrimination function for each class. Pattern Recognition Chap. target identification.a513 = fa x a2 _ . this vector is usually called a puitern vector. as defined later in this section. However. analysis and elassitlarion of chromosomes. fingerprint recognition. this requirement is too strong in many practical applications. One of them. electrocardiograms. and it is thus desirable to replace it with a weaker requirement. X. and regular fuzzy partitions. The third problem of pattern recognition involves the determination of optimal decision procedures for the classification of given patterns. a real number to each pattern vector.
1. is then defined in terms of the cluster centers by the formula . The performance index of a fuzzy pseudopatrition P.0.1) for all k G N„ and 0< E Aif.3). To solve the problem. given X = (X I .. k E [Ai (xir)]m xk (133) . is a vector [xki • rkp ] E RP for all k N.2 Fuzzy Clustering 359 method. in general. Fuzzy quantizations (or granulations) of variables in fuzzy systems are also examples of fuzzy pseudapartitions (see..3. We describe basic characteristics of these methods and illustrate each of them by an example. This requires some criterion expressing the general idea that associations (in the sense described by the criterion) be strong within clusters and weak between clusters.9/x3 . 12.. associated with the partition are calculated by the formula t=1. Various modifications of the described methods can be found in the literature.a.4M1 ± 0/X2 4. we need to formulate this criterioa in terms of a performance inder.2) for all i E N„ where c is a positive integer. E [A= (x0]" vi= for all i Nc.). is actually the weighted average of data in A. where xk. A fuzzy pseuflopartition or fuzzy cpartition x21 of X is a family of fuzzy subsets of X.rk) k=1 n (13. where in > 1.. of fuzzy clustering. Az b .See. Figs. e. denoted by f44 1 .. Given a set of data X = ixi . Given a pseudopartition = Al.4).A. A2.. is a real number that governs the influence of membership grades. x2. the performance index is based upon cluster centers... Usually. For instance. Fuzzy c Means Clustering Method  Let X . The weight of a datum xk is the tnth power of the membership grade of xk in the fuzzy set Af. Xn } be a set of given data.(T). then "(A i .1 and 12. which satisfies (1. x3} and A/ = 6/x1 + 1/x2 + A2 = . v. 13. A21 is a fuzzy pseudopartition or fuzzy 2partition of X. . x.. v1. Observe that the vector vi calculated by (13.. which is viewed as the cluster center of the fuzzy class A i . Ad. the problem of fuzzy clustering is to find a fuzzy pseudopartition and the associated cluster centers by which the structure of the data is represented as best as possible.z. the c cluster centers.
satisfying E A ri1) (x. Step Z value of nt .k) I (133) In the algorithm. go+i) — P(`) 1 denotes a distance between V#» and r) in the space IV". vP by (13. the parameter in is selected according to the problem under consideration. That is. X if for all î Pic . the goal of the fuzzy emeans clustering method is to find a fuzzy pseudopartition I' that minimizes the performance index . — v? ) 11 2 . E Step 3. the clustering problem is an optimization problem. In Step 4. the better the fuzzy pseudopartition Y. Calculate the c cluster centers vr.JJ is swipe impel product induced noun in space RI and 1174 — Y1ll 2 represents the distance between xj. then stop. and Tif . This performance index measures the weighted sum of distances between cluster centers and elements in the corresponding fuzzy clusters. Select an initial fuzzy pseudopartition VG) . Therefore. Let t = O. then define > l) (74 Ar) = [ ÷ L L: —.IA rt) (xk) — A 1 (x. When in › 1. in addition. 13 (134) or(T)  E C (x r ) vi 11 2 where J .(P). serving as a stopping criterion are chosen. . Step 4.1„.k) = 1.350 Pattern Reciognition Chap. increase t by one and return to Step 2.t ) O for I € Pic — I. and a small positive number 8. a particular distance.3) for 170) and the chosen Update 5)0+1) by the following procedure: For each xi. f [Vr#I) — 1'4)1 < e.0+1) — To) I max.(T). That is. Fuzzy cMeans Algorithm The algorithm is based on the assumption that the desired number of clusters c is given and. the partition — . An example of this distance is 1. The followingfiary emeans algorithm was developed by Bezdek [1981? for solving this optimization problem. the smaller the value of .1„. Step 1. the fuzzy cmeans converges to a "generalized" classical c means. oe). 0 for some iEIC IN„ then define 4+1) (xk) for i E I by any nonnegative real numbers.7)— — 7 it Pik — vj 11 2 (tixk if ilxi. otherwise. When co. a real number Trt c (1.. $ El and define Af +1) (x. Clearly. all cluster centers tend towards the centroid of the data set X. Compare 1)(') and 070+1) .
1981] To illustrate the fuzzy cmeans algorithm. kt us consider a data following 15 points in 1k2: 1 xn set X that consists of the 14 15 6 4 2 0 2 3 0 4 4 1 1 5 1 2 6 1 3 7 2 2 8 3 2 9 4 2 10 5 1 11 12 13 xn 0 0 5566 2 0 23 The data are also shown in Fig. c = 2).854/xz = . .01 0 .0/ 0 . ttere is no theoretical basis for an optimal choice for the value of in.01 0 0 0 .854/x0 . II • II is the Euclidean distance. and the initial fuzzy pseudopartition is P(4') = fA a .01 0 0 0 .Sec. However.146. (I) fuzzy pseudopartition . Example 13. A2 } with A 1 = ..1 illustration to Example 111: (a) data. Currently.01 1 . XkI k 11 II I IS A1(X0 .3.1 [Bezdek..1 a. 00). +.146/xis.2 Fuzzy Cluster[ng 361 becomes fuzzier with increasing m.01 ( 3) Inn 3 Ell IM 10 91.42+ .99 Figure 13.47 .14641 I.99 .99 3 11111 9 1 1 . g= 0_01. Assume that we want to determine a fuzzy pseudapartition with two clusters (Le. Assume further that we choose in = 1 25.854/xi 4 . it is established that the algorithm converges for any E (1.'13.
is clearly computationally much more efficient than the more general algorithm in Sec. 2) and vz = vi Clustering Methods Based Upon Fuzzy Equivalence Relations The fuzzy cmeans method requires that the desired number of clusters be specified. 1 ] . on X be defined in terms of an appropriate distance function of the Minkowski class by the formula  R(xi . X.4. since R is a compatibility relation. Proof: Left to the reader as an exercise. the structure of given data. symmetric. 5. As discussed in Sec. Clearly. in a natural way. Although this cannot usually he done directly. we can utilize the following theorerri to formulate a more efficient algorithm_ 4 Let R be a fuzzy compatibility relation on a finite universal set X with 1X1 n. 13 Then.xk) I — — (13.1b. applicable only to fuzzy reflexive relations. — . we can readily determine a fuzzy compatibility relation (reflexive and symmetric) in terms of an appropriate distance function applied to given data. and 8 is a constant that ensures that R(xi . In such problems. R defined by (13. In general. Methods based on fuzzy equivalence relations work in this way. but not necesS arily a fuzzy equivalence relation. and we obtain the fuzzy pseudoparntion defined in Fig. every fuzzy equivalence relation (a relation that is reflexive. a _meaningful fuzzy equivalence relation is defined as the transitive closure of this fuzzy compatibility relation_ Given a set of data X of the same form as defined earlier in this section (n p tuples of RP).6) for all pass (xi xic ). where q E It'. RT = R (41) by calculating the . the number of dusters should reflect. This can be done by the simple algorithm described in Sec. we usually need to determine the transitive closure of R. This is a disadvantage whenever the clustering problem does not specify any desired number of clusters. Hence. This algorithm. the maxmin transitive elosure_of R is the relation Theorem 13. the algorithm stops for r 6. Then. R. Then. N The theorem suggests calculating the transitive closure. sequence of relations R (2) = R R (4) RCe = kzki) Rai') until no new relation is produced or 21 a 1. 5. However.362 Pattern Recognition Chap. and maxmin transitive) induces a crisp partition in each of its acuts_ The fuzzy clustering problem can thus be viewed as the problem of identifying an appropriate fuzzy equivalence relation on given data.5. 0.88. & is the inverse value of the largest distance in X. 5A. let a fuzzy compatibility relation.1. 13. The two cluster centers are 2). Xk) E [0.6) is a fuzzy compatibility relation.
6).2 . let us analyze the data for q = 1.2 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 3 1 G The data are also shown in Fig. 0.6) on the results.21 _1 _44 1 . {x3 } . It us use a small data set X consisting of the following five points in IR2 : 1 2 3 4 5 .651 ▪ E (.65 .11 itX1). x3 ) = 1 .65 0 .F.65 1 A .5.6 .5 . (. we need to determine the value of 3 in (13. which corresponds to the Euclidean distance.25.44 1 .44.2 To illustrate the clustering method based on fuzzy equivalence re/ations. we have 3 = 1/4 0.6 .. .65 •44. X5)}. .5] ce E {(x1.2 . .1 . R(x i .Set.2 0 .2a. 115 .4 1 .6 1. its transitive closure is r 1 RT = .44 .5 . .65 / .65 1 .21 . X4.1 .5 .0. relation R may conveniently be represented by the matrix I. we have 8 .6 0 . . (x. Now.5 .2 R= 0 . Let us now repeat the analysis for q 1 in (13.4 0 .44 . This result agrees with our visual perception of geometric clusters in the data. x.44 1 . we can calculate membership grades of R by (13.21 0 .65. which represents the Hamming distance. Since the largest Hamming distance in the data is 5 (between x i and xi and between x3 and xs). (X4). 2. x5}.4 .5 .1.44 .6 1 and its transitive closure is . As the first step. 13.5 .6).5 A4 1.5 . This is undoubtedly due to the use a the Euclidean distance.65 1 R= This relation is not maxmin transitive.2 Fuzzy Clustering 363 Example 13. When determined. _65 _1 .2. This relation induces four distinct partitions of its ctcuts: ce E [0.414 ] ((x1. 13. To see the effect of the value of parameter q in (13.44 . For example. (x3 ).44 .4 3. (x1)).44 .6 . we perform the analysis for q 2. X3.6).5 . x21. First.x.21 . Since the largest Euclidean distance between any pair of the given data points is 4 (between xl and x5). fx 5 j). The matrix form of relatiOn R given by (13.2 . .6) is DOW [1 .. X2. [x2). x5 )) (. x.25(22 + 32)05 0.44 .2 .5 .t. {(xi .
6 .5 .6 1 This rdation yields the following partitions in its acuts: E 09.clktance Liktance.4 . 04.6 .4 1 A .4 . x5)1.6 . xt.6 .6 .364 Nit 2 Pattern Recognition Chap.6 6 4 1 .6 1 4 .6  .6 . 13 o .44 . ((t) RT = 1 .6 .4 . . (13) elusterifig tree for Enclidean clustering tree fur Hamming .4 .65 fIfsP a x3 X1 x2 (b) idg Figure 13.2 Ulattration to Example t12 (a) data.
1971].7. The only violation of the constraints by this partition is that portrait 3 forms its own class. This must be rejected and the portrait left unclassified. since visually perceived clusters fx. An .1b. Both results are illustrated in Fig..pattern class is characterized by a set of Patterns that are stored in the pattern recognition system. Irs ) are not distinguished . One of them consists of generalizations of classical membershiproster methods. we want to illustrate some additional aspects of clustering methods based on fuzzy equivalence relations_ e (. Assume that the similarity degrees obtained. but not between parents themselves. These results are quite impressive. 12.3 Fuzzy Pattern RecogriJtian a E (.Sec. each . In classical membershiproster methods of pattern recognition.6:  «3 ).3. and 12% rejection (unclassifiability). An interesting feature of this example is that similarities can be expected between parents and their children. 5. the other one consists of generalizations of classical syntactic methods. However. a degree of similarity for each pair of portraits must be determined.. 15)}. This is due to the coarseness of the Hamming distance. each congisting of three families They report the overall rate of 75% correct classification. (Duly its lower triangle is shown. First. (x3 )}. (4.. 13. considering the extreme vagueness of information in this application and the full dependence on subjective judgment. but it is less refined. are given in terms of the matrix in Table 13. 112 by their clustering trees. (2. Tamura et al. x4 . 14).Since the matrix is symnietric. adopted from [Tamura et al. since this unclassifiable portrait may be a portrait of an adopted child or a child from a previous marriage. This is reasonable. 8.1a.. (x5}}. 13% misclassification. x2 ) and (x. Applying the algorithm based on Theorem 13. (x21. Our aim is to duster these portraits according to the families. 13. 365 ((xi). each with four to seven members.11. the latter is shown in Table 13. 6. 9. 13. {TA. which we know are portraits of members of three families. x2. (113}. We also know that each family consists of four to seven numbers. In the next example.1.. by a group of people and some method by which their individual judgements are aggregated. This result again agrees with our visual perception. 10.4* . we overview two classes of methods of fuzzy pattern recognition. the connection between 'parents can be established through their similarities to children by converting R into its transitive closure RT. We cap see that none of the partitions fully satisfies the known constraints regarding the fRrnilies: three families. 16). ((xi . (1. the partition that least violates these constraints is the one for a = 0. which are selfexplanatory. This can only be done subjectively. which may be viewed as membership grades of a fuzzy compatibility relation R on NIA. However. x5 ). 1] Example 133 Consider 16 portraits labelled by the integers in N:6. we obtain RT = R<S) The clustering tree of R I is shown in Fig. 1 1 9711 mention in their paper that they performed an experiment with 60 families divided into 20 groups. 6 . 13 3  FUZZY PATTERN RECOGNITION In this section.6] .
4 0.8 0.4 0.8 0 0.4 418 0.4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 / 0.8 0.8 05 0.5 0.8 0 1 D 0 0 0 / 0.2 0 0.8 0 0.4 0.8 0.4 1  0. 12 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 118 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.366 Pattern Recognition Chap.2 0 0.4 1 .2 0. 0.4 0.8 0. ri1.8 0 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.4 0.3 (a) Matrix of fuzzy compatibility telation R on Pi 16Portrait Number / 2 3 4 5 1 / 0 0 lU 0 2 1 0 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 0.0 ririri 0.8 0.4 MS 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 2 1 0.4 1 0.4 1 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 03 0.2 0.4 0.8 1 0.4 0.5 clIttin.4 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 1 0 0.4 0.8 0. Portrait Number ric1rtNVInV7 1 1 0.2 0 0.1 FUZZY RELATONS tN EXAMPLE 13.2 0 0 0 0.4 0 0.4 0.4 0 15 16 0 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.8 1 0 13 14 0.4 0.4 0.1 0 0 0.8 0.4 1 0.  03 04 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.4 03 04 / 0.8 0.5 04 0.4 1 6 7 8 9 10 11.5 0 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.5 1 0.4 .4 0.8 1 0 0.8 0 0 0.4 0.6 0 0 1 0 .4 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.0.4 03 0.8 0.5 0.4 1 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5 1 .4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.8 0.4 0 0.8 1.2 0 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.2 a4 0 0.6 05 0.8 0.8 0.4 0 0 0 1 G 0.5 0.4 0.4 ' 1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0 0 0 0 0.4.2 0 0.2 0.2 0 0_4 1 0 0. t3 TABLE 13.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 03 0.6 0 0 0.2 1 0 1 (b) Matrix of the transitive closure RT R.8 1 0.4 0.4 0. 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.8 0.s1 1 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 0.5 04 0.5 0.8 04 QS ti.8 0 0 0.5 06 0.
6 . All patterns whose sentences are generated by the same grammar belong to the same pattern class.8 a 3 1 13 8 16 4 9 10 12 15 2 5 7 11 14 Figurc 1 3 .3. in an appropriate way. In classical syntactic methods of pattern recognition. let Ak(u) denote the degree of compatibility of u with the standard pattern representing class . 13. we need to store only one standard pattern for each pattern class. For a given unknown pattern.Sec. These primitives are viewed as the alphabet of a formal language. Fuzzy MembershipRoster Methods In fuzzy Enembershiproster methods. contrary to their classical counterparts. For example. Assume that ir pattern classes are recognized. a pattern is represented by a string of concatenated sub patterns called primitives. letters of all relevant fonts must be stored in a printed character recognition system. A pattern. then. U 2 1  p) where u i is the measurement associated with the ith feature of the pattern (I E NO.3 Clasterizig tree in Exam])lc 13. which are labelled by the integers in NR . For efficient pattern recognition. Given a relevant pattern = (u1.5 . unknown pattern to be classified is coLupared with the stored Olktteins one by one. The pattern is classified as a member of a pattern class if it matches one of the stored patterns in that class.3 Fuzzy Pattern Recognition 367 A . its degree of compatibility with each standard pattern and then classify the pattern to a particular class according to some criteria. we measure. An unknown pattern is thus classified to a particular pattern class if it can be generated by the grammar corresponding to that class. an appropriate set of patterns must be stored for each pattern class to capture its pattern variety. is a sentence generated by some grammar.
which compares the angles and arm lengths of the chromosome with those labeled in the ideanzed skeleton in Fig. A given pattern is usually classified by the largest value of Ak(u) for all k but other classification criteria have also been suggested. which are shown in Fig. 133. Example 13. Figure MS Idealized pattern for ettomosome classmcation. That is. determining the degrees A k (ii). Therefore. Specific methods for selecting pattern features.5. each pattern ii is characterized by 13 features (angles and distances). (1)) submedian. We illustrate this class of fuzzy pattern recognition method by a paraçular example. . It is difficult to identify sharp boundaries between these three types. the classification scheme is based on the ratio of the length of the arms of the chrOMOSOMO to its total body length.368 Pattern Recognition Chap. 13. As can be seen from this figure.4 Lee [1975 ) describes one straightforward method of examining the shape of chromosomes in order to classify them into the three categories pictured in Fig. 13 k(k E N. His method belongs to the chum of frwry memhershiproster methods. and classifying given patterns according to these degrees have been developed for specific types of pattern recognition problems.4. 13.1 ). Lee uses a method of film pattern recognition. A Figurt 13 4 Clammouomc itnagcm: (a) (a) (t) (c) median. (0 =acentric.
414 1+ d2 — 41+121. 14d 1 441 14d2 — 6/31) . As can be seen from this example. Ea. including the empty string. to median. 4dr where eir = + d2+ d3 + cr.Sec. These methods are suitable for recognizing patterns that are rich in structural information which cannot be easily expressed in numerical values. If the maximum is not unique. Some languages can be defined by grammars. / dAc = 4di [. a fuzzy set of symmetric chromosomes. S. If the maximum value falls below some designated threshold. geometric %iroilarity is conveniently represented in terms of membership grades in the interval [O. +61s . Fuzzy Syntactic Methods Classical syntactic methods of pattern recognition are based on the theory of formal languages and grammars. or contraction of the chromosome image. each of which is a set of strings of symbols from a vocabulary that are generated by the pattern grammar.SM. 2 d31). and acrooentrie chromosomes respeetwely.3 Fumy Pattern Recogniton u 02. G.cb chromosome can be c1a5sified as approximately rnedian. Fuzzy sets M.8 19 y d2 . these factors do affect the way in which humans are able to classify images. is the quadruple . and AC. is defined first.• In order to determine membership grade functions corresponding to the three classes of chromosomes. and AC. then the image is rejected from all three classes. Let V be a vocabulary. • • • 369 . or approximardy acrocentric by calculating each of the three membership grades in M. expansion. Then any subset of V* is called a language based upon the vocabulary V. rairt(idi i(idt — dsm 2d4i + id2 — 2d3i. In these methods.SM. and AC. A grammar. M. are then defined in terms of S. ] . and let V* denote the set of all strings formed by symbols from . then the classification is based on a priority defined on the three classes. the category in which the chromosome attains the maximum value is chosen if that value is sufficiently large. pattern classes are represented by languages. approximately submedian.SM. The membership grade 5(u) of each chromosome characterized by pattern u in the fuzzy set of symmetric chromosomes is defined by the formula 4 S(a) = 720° E1074. 1=. corresponding. — idr dAc AC(u) = SOO [1. are defined in terms of S by the formulas M (u) S(u) Id i — 41+1 (12 d3 1 dr SM(u) = S(u) [1 —414 1 . 1 ] The further advantages of this type of shapeoriented classification scheme lie in the fact that the method is insensitive Co rotation. translation. 13. The three fuzzy sets of primary interest in this pattern recognition problem. subrriedian.
S).7) where • VN is a nonterminal vocabulary.2 . As an example of a grammar G. n2) and VT t2} and let P consist of the following eight production rules: (1) s (2) s (3) n 1 n2it1 nit2 sr" (4) n1 ti (5) ni (6) n2 ± st2 (7) n2 . it is desirable to increase the descriptive power of syntactic pattern recognition by fuzzifying the concepts of a gra.1..e. Fu (Academic Press.2 > 4. let VAr ni.. and each pattern class is defined by a grarmAr that generates strings representing patterns in that class.  . 1974). Chao. VT .8) where • Vffii is a nonterminal vocabulary as in (133). consequently.1 (7) n2rtvin —4 (8) .mrnar and the associated language. 4 . A fuzzy grammar. They are usually called primitives_ Each pattern is reptesented by a string of these primitives. is defined by the quintuple (7. FG (13.i4i 2t212 E L(G)  „ (5) „ 4 (1) lu n2. • P is a imite set of production rules of the form x y. 13 (13.370 Pattern Recognition G = (VA'. r syntactic pattern recognition. A). also the language defined by the grammar (i.\ 107) (2) rl1t2 (4) n ln1tzat2 1t1n1t2n1n1t242 . where x and y are strings of symbols from V VN U VT such that x contains at least cue symbol of VN.. the language becomes a fuzzy set of strings formed by symbols from the terminal vocabuiazy). and • s is the starting symbol (5 • VT The language generated by grammar G. . s. For background in this area of classical pattern recognition.z. FG. P. P. This can be done by fazzifying the primitives involved (i. the primitives become labels of fuzzy sets) or by fuzzifying the production rules of the gramraar and.pi 4 4.2q 4 (5 ) y fn. is a terminal vocabulary such that VT CI Ja. VD. is the set of all strings formed by symbols in VT that can be obtained by the production rules in P.n2pt2t1 (8 ) n2 ÷ t2 The following are examples of generating strings x E VF that belong to the languaq L (G). defined by this grammar: 1 ( 1) 1.. In many applications.. features of patterns are represented by the elements of the terminal vocabulary VT.e. we recommend the book Syntactic Methods in Pattern Recognition by IC S.141+2. structural information is inherently vague.5 n2t1 (4) (6) stz ti (2) n i t2. denoted by L(G). In such applications.
and A is a fuzzy set defined on P. 1986]. Every fuzzy grammar defined by (13. Given a particular image of this kind. To illustrate the basic ideas of fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition. a threelevel hierarchical classification scheme (shown in Fig.7) is employed. t (13. Nine stages of skeletal maturity are usually distinguished. — nu. each of which characterizes one of the pattern classes to be distinguished.. Ci is . Example 135 Consider the problem of identifying the skeletal maturity of children from Xray images.. where the subscripted symbols FG designate the various fizzy grammars involved in this pattern recognition process. its members/alp grades in languages generated by the various fuzzy grammars are calculated by (13. The use of fuzzy grammars relaxes this requirement by allowing overlaps between the associated fuzzy languages. n2 .8) has an associated crisp grammar defined by (117). P is a finite set of production rules as in (133). a clockwise curve. these features form a terminal vocabulary VT Appropriate fuzzy grammars are then defined for this vocabulary. 13.9). 13. we use the following example. In classical syntactic pattern recognition.. s is the starting symbol (s E VN). the basis of shapes of the epiphysis and metaphysis as well as palmar and dorsal surfaces. and a doe. No grammar is assigned in this figrt to Aage 1 lae C1) since opilepsits is totally absent in this stage. Fuzzy syntactic methods are suitable for dealing with this problem. languages generated by grammars representing different pattern classes are required to be pairwise disjoint This requirement is too strong for many practical applications.  Since some stages are more dincult to distinguish from each other.3 Fuzzy Pattern Recogniton 371 • • • • VT is a terminal vocabulary as in (13.Sec. L (FG). hence. defined on the language generated by the associated crisp grammar. In all fuzzy grammars in this example. 13. r4 denote a line segment of unit length.6 in terms of typical images of the radius of band aid wrist The first stage (labelled by 1). characterized by the empty string. are illustrated in Fig. an anticlockwise curve. — 8. are labels of the associated pattern classes. the problem is to classify it into one of the nine claaaes on. The language generated by the flizzy grammar is a fuzzy set. respectively. is not shown in the figure. during which the epiphysis is totally absent.9) where in is the number of derivations of string x by grammar FG. The nionterminal vocabulary VAir consists 01 13 symbols n 1 . irk). vr where t1 t2 . . 3. expressed in terms of the radius of hand and wrist and labelled by the integers 2. and the symbols C1 . For each string x E L (G). C2. Given an unknown Rattan to be classified. nk is the length of the kth derivation chain. . The pattern is then classified by the largest membership grade.7). t. and pf denotes the th production rule used in the kth derivation chain (z = I. Eight of the stages. Fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition proceeds as follows. whose features form a string x e VI!. adopted in a simplified form from [Fathak and Pal. 2. L (FG)(x) = max min A(pt). After determining significant features of patterns to be recognized.
FA. whose membership function is defined for any given curve c by the formula a)41 ARC o (c) (1 — — . PATTERN F4G2 PG3 FG4 FG5 (CI) (C2) 3. together with membership grades of the associated fuzzy sets A3. Grammar F02 is not included in Table 132 SifiCC it is trivial: class C2 is characterized by a single siring. and production rule 12 with the membership grade S11(t2). 9. production rule 11 with the membership grade FA(t2). for example. We can see. clearly.4 (C 31 ) ( 5 C 32) 6 (C4:1) 7. and gentie. and . hence. 13 2 3 4 5 Figure OA Different stages of skeletal maturity of radius Page /. and GE in this table denote fuzzy sets defined on the set a curves (both acwkwise and anticlockwise) that represent the linguistic tabelA sharp. FG. A5.8 > O is a parameter by which the definition can be adjusted as needed. Symbols SH.4.a (C 42) Level 2 Level 3 Figure 13 . in which epiphysis is totally absent.. denoted by ARC.. A4. 10. 7.5 —0. (13.2. grammar FG2 is actually crisp and consists of the single production rule .7. Fuzzy sets Sil. 8.5 (C 3) 6. is not shorn] 9 here). Production rules of fuzzy grammars at the first classification level (FG. FG5) are listed in Table 13. pit .3 (C4) Level I (C s) FG31.10) where a is the length of the straight line segment joining the two extreme points of curve c..5). FA. and GE are defined in terms of another fuzzy set. the lower the ration . respectively. that the fuzzy grammar 17G consists of production rules 1.372 Pattern Recognition Chap. 1 1P64 1 3.1 Threelzvel hierarchical classification procedure (Example 1 3. b is the length of the curve. string t4.4. The value ARC fr (c) expresses the degree of archness Df c.
134 7Joi 4 4 n5 /2 5 n4 6 n4 h 7 135 4 ns n u n ion g 8 n5 • n) > n5 + n sni2 10 n 5 4 n sn ion sn 12 11 nikinsfi E z 115 12 s Membership • n(pi ) O G rade A41(pi) 2 3 S n i ntn1 03111 o 1 4 5 .2 PRODUCTION RULES OF FUZZY GRAMMARS IN EXAMPLE 13. n2 ri n1 11.1'0 2 n 9 1 0 FA OD H (12) Ii 0 10 11..TABLE 13. 12 fr 1 1 1 1 1 113 12 13 n4 n2ns /2 13 n 5 lb n i0 irg51 14 15 n5 n t.› 21 43 sn3 s 5 n i 2n6n i3 6 s ni 112113 7 8 ni 4 n 3 . 02) 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 18 11 7 + nin7 19 ri g >. 16 in g > rina !I17 18 n i 0 na 19 0 1 1 1 1 (JE(t3) 0E02 ) 1 20 21 23 24 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 1 GE o 0 27 28 29 30 31 ?in n9n3 o E (t2 ) 1 11 12 4 119 n9n3n9 L.12n2 n4 n 4 n2 3 n.pi112 23 /4 4 n2nii nu > /3 24 /2 n ii 25 ?I + n9n3n9 26 o o o o 1 1 1 1 1 14 n 6 n e.5 (a) Level 1 (b) Level 2 373 Production rules Membersh ip pi pi ) 1 s —4.3t9/13 20 119 > n2 n2n 1 gt2 ng 21 22 ng 11... 16 n7 P1 7 —4 r3 n 7r3 n 1 ne/8 ninVitnz GE. Grades A4 (p i) A5 (p Production rules pi Mt 2 s —4. 4. n 3n 9 o n i3 11 9 0 . 15 1 0 — G E(2 ) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 . P.
we proceed to level 2. The whole procedure of pattern classification in this example can now be summarized. and classification of remotely sensed data.. 1a4 FUZZY IMAGE PROCESSING Image processing is connected with pattern recognition in the sense that data in many pattern recognition problems are given in terms of digital images. are employed for farther classification. b. it is classified to C1 . and Cs according to the largest membership grade in fuzzy languages generated by the associated fuzzy grammars FG3 . and each j E N„. 1. it is classified to C2. Many additional details of this interesting example. If the string is classified in C3 or C4. If the string is empty. which are referred to . Classification at level 3 (Fig. Given an Xray image to be classified. FG. C4.51 and PO.2. It respectively. alCrwise. Examples of such problems are printed and handwritten character recognition. Such an approximation is conveniently represented by the x n matrfx [ ri t 21 rI2 R r72 r1 rii„.„ where rij expresses. (1. in a simplified manner.374 ufb. it is first converted into a string of symbols in V.31 general. 11 and g and h are monotonically decreasing functions on 10. target identification. where f is a monotonically increasing function on [O. are covered in the original paper by Pathak and Pal [ 1 986] as well as in the book by pal and Majumder [19814 . 1.. let us consider only monochrome or greytone images. Each element of R is usually called a pixel. and FG. human face recognition. There are basically two classes of methods for image processing. the string is classified in one of the classes C.7) is based on spci6i measurements ad crisp criteria.}i We assume values 14 inctease with increasing k Pio. Production rules of fuzzy grammars at the 5 econd classification level (FG31 and FG) are fisted in Table L32b together with membership grades of the associated fuzzy sets A32 and A41. Now. The role of image processing is to enhance a given image in an appropriate way to make the subsequent pattern recognition and classification easier. a greytone image is a discrete approximation of a black and white picture. as follows. omitted here for the sake of simplicity. and rii is assumed to be a value from a discrete set { b1 — 0. the higher The dq7ee of archnesu. if it is /4 . The ordering of entries in 11 is assumed to be the same as the ordering of points in the grid.q . FA . S (c) Pattern Recognition Chap. automatic classification of Xray images. For the sake of simplicity. the level of brightness at the spatial point whose position in a twodimensional grid of discrete points is identified by the vertical index and the horizontal index J. fingerprints recognition. 13. 13 f (ARC fi (c)).5 (c) ag(IA p (x) — GE A (0 = h(ARC0(c)). where fuzzy irammars FG3t and FG 41. for each I 14„. which is essential for computer processing.2 rill 1 r2„ r.
5.Sec. DzT. e [0. When function MIT is applied to entries of matrix & let ENT(F) be denoted by F:i .gc is converted into its fuzzy counterpart. where i. example and.. 1). ft. 31) for all I. each pixel is modified independent of other pixels.. Observe that this conversion function is an. The intensification operation employed in this example is defined by INT (Fij ) { 2. TWo ways of manipulating images represented by fuzzy matrices are illustrated by a particular example adopted from [Pal and King. 0. we consider only spatial domain methods. t/. 13.F2 when Poi E [0. hence. 11 • .11) for all I g N. while in other methods. For converting R into it. the processing directly involves the pixels of matrix R. 3L Any contrast intensification operation.8a.4 Fuzzy Image ProcessIng 375 as frequency domain methods and spatial domain methods. In frequency domain methods. 19811. 0.5). u when u (43. 13. 7if (1 + 31 — where appropriate values of parameters /3 and y are selected on the basis of the requirements imposed upon the following contrast intgnsification operation. b1 is a reference constant defining the degree of brightness for which F = 1. ?In fuzzy imageprocessing methods. Sshape function.5. In some of these methods. by a 96 x 96 spatial grid of points and 32 levels of brightness (grey levels). .. 1NT (a) = a when a = 0.. Mu. shown in Fig. 1 h . it is modified on the basis of pixels in its neighborhood. where = 31 is chosen in this rii E (101 . I. Example 116 The image considered in this example is the discrete approximation of a picture of three handwritten letters. To illustrate the use of fuzzy sets in image processing. which is one of the operations intended to enhance the image for subsequent pattern recognition and classification. 1] [0. in spatial domain methods . = [Fii]. The conversion from R to it is usually done by the formula Fgi = ( ± 6rli ) Y A 0 (13.5.5 ] 1 —2(1 — Fil) 2 when Fjj E 10. y are positive parameters that affect the conversion formula and are determined from required properties of enhancement operations to be applied to a given image. matrix R = [FIJI of a given ima.13. j E N. The image is represented by a 96 x 96 matrix R = j ]. since it is based on 6. 1] such that INT (a) 5INT (a) a when a (0.. which is then manipulated by appropriate fuzzy operators. the image is processed in terms of its Fourier transform.„ and j E N. and fi. is a function of the form 1'T: [0.
376 Pattern Recognition Chap. 13 4 (e) Resuk of smoothing Figure 13. . (b) rtsuit of contrast strttching: (o) rosult of emootbing.6: (a) orfginal image.8 Image discussed Ea Egamp /3.
13.8b.8.. k. bna l. NOTES 13. we obtain the image in Fig. 13.8b. Considering.Chap. A more recent book on fuzzy pattern recognition [Pal . The second operation on fuzzified images to be illustrated by this example is smoothing. 13. and so on. (u + 1.i011 function to ensure that > F.5.. Similarly. we obtain the smoother image in Fig.064 entries) of funny set theory that focuses particularly on fuzzy pattern recognition. that we want to apply the intensification operation within the subinterval [x. 13. Assuming the use of the arithmetic average. for example. Comparing the three images in Fig.•+ 1). and Majumder. including the use of fumy sets in image processing. and numerous applications of the various types of pattern recognition problems. i for > bfr. The role of fuzzy logic and neural networks in pattern recognition is also discussed in the book by Pan [19891. Knaders book contains a large bibliography (with 3. choosing y = 2. 1986] has a broad coverage. Books by Bezdek [1981] and Kandel [19821 are classics in fuzzy pattern recognition. contrast stretching (intensification) and smoothing (averaging). u).8c. After the original image is processed by these two operations.5 and ( 1+ 3. 13. Then k = x + 0. Both books also cover fuzzy clustering and various applications of fuzzy pattern recognition. <i for j < bd . v) (u — 1. we obtain fi = 52.8a for tl = 43 and y =2. One of them is based on averaging the brightness levels within neighbors. bj within which we want to apply the intensification operation.11) for all u e N„„ and u N„. fuzzy grammars and their use in syntactic pattern recognition.1 — bc) = 0. A book edited by Bezciek and Pal f1992] is currently the main resource of information regarding the varions aspects of fuzzy pattern recognition_ It contains reprints of 51 key articles in this area. The intensification operator may be applied repeatedly. as well as thorough overviews of the whole area and four of its subareas: cluster analysis. 13 2. x + 1] of [0. for example. 13 Notes 377 Observe that this operation can also be expressed by a sigmoid function (Appendix A). we can determine vaducs of )9 and y in the conversion function that satisfy this requirement. Assume. Applying this operation to the image in Fig. we can clearly see the effect of the two operations illustrated. x = 9 and choosing y = 1. (u„y — 1).  .. The purpose of smoothing is to equalize the level of brightness of image points that are spatially close to each odier.1. of the conVerl. tin is the neighborhood of pixel (u. The intensification operation INT requires selection of a suitable equilibrium point. There are several known smoothing operations (or algorithms). we obtain 1 (1 + = /5 which yields fr = 21_5. nc2 E  (13. the smoothing operation is defined by the formula " 1 4 t. By choosing a subinterval of [0. it is undoubtedly more suitable for the subsequent pattern recognition and classification. where Q ((u. When it is applied twice to the image in Fig. and i.
13.8/3rs. . +.sed on the transitive closure of firm.1.1 for q =1. and fuzzy logic. 13 classifier design and feature analysis. 2. + .3. Describe differences between fuzzy pseudopartitions and regular fuzzy partitions resulting from fuzzy equivalence relations.1. 13.2»ra .4.2 with c =2 and c 3.2/xis .2/x9 + . Each of these overviews contains a relevant bibLiography. image processing and machine vision. (preferably by writing a computer program for the fuzzy cmeans algorithm) for different initial fuzzy pseladopartitions .6) to the data in Example 13.relation defined by (13. EXERCISES 13. Apply the fuzzy cmeans algorithm to the data in Example 13. Piov Thum =.841.8/xs + . Apply the clustering method ba. 13. for example. Az . Repeat example 131. . .2/x1 + 13..2. 13.5. neural networks and learning in pattern recognition.378 Pattern Recognftion Chap.
and values that can be specified in linguistic terms. and fuzzy expert systems. however. Although information retrieval may be conceived in terms. but also subjective expert opinions. information retrieval may be handled by a specific database system. For example. In this chapter. "Which industries are forecasted to experience significant growth by a substantial number of experts? or "Which reasonably priced hotels are in close proximity to the city center?" often capture the relevant concerns of database users more accurately and easily than precise queries. the agendas of database systems and information retrieval systems arc sufficiently different that it is preferable to discuss them as separate subjects. The principal difference between expert systems and database systems is the capability of expert systems to make inferences. investment. It is important. where "soft" subjective and imprecise data are not only common but quite valuable. This capability is examined for fuzzy expert systems in Chapter 11.14 FUZZY DATABASES AND INFORIVIATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS 14. of a specific database system. The motivation for the application of fu7zy A et theory to the design of databases and information storage and 'retrieval systems lies in the need to handle imprecise information. we focus on fuzzy database and information retrieval systems. These three areas are not independent of one another. particularly in those endeavors concerned with the storage and manipulation of knowledge in a manner compatible with human thialdng. Vague queries such as "Which employment candidates are highly educated and moderately experienced?". each expert system contains a database as a subsystem. employment.1 GENERAL. that the database system which incorporates imprecision be able 379 . This includes fuzzy databases. In addition. and geological exploration. it is also desirable to relieve the user of the constraint of having to formulate queries to the database in precise terms. This type of information can be quite useful when the database is. On the other hand. DISCUSSION Applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic within the field of computer science have been quite extensive. to be used as a decision aid in areas such as medical diagnosis. judgments. fuzzy information retrieval systems. The database that can accommodate imprecise information can store and manipulate not only precise facts.
.to shops in the regions. the request. handle fuzzy information completely in its linguistic form. despite large amounts of stored data with their degrees of membership..m.. The second request is more precise but the first represents far more accurately the actual rneaning of the retrieval required. Translating it into. It would be equally ridiculous to say nothing.03 p. one that says "in 3 days time"the latter is more "businesslike".000. i. it will not list the chap of 245 who has made a real killing. generates =necessary work and makes no allowances for the whole spectrum of tradeoffs possible. etc. and "see you with the goods over the weekend". we will deliver some heavy equipment to your site % Saturday evening". it is preferable to store fuzzy information in linguistic form and generate the implied membership functions as required or. i. The significance of fuzzy databases is well characterized by the following excerpt from a paper by Gaines 11979111: The initial applications of computers were in the exact sciences and comparable commercial areas such as accountancy. "list salesmen under 2$ years old who have sold more than E20. However. If we prefer the precision of the first statement it is not for its own sake but because the tighter tolerances it implies on the actual situation allow us to plan ahead with greater accuracy and less use of resources. However. each conveys an exact meaning that (presumably) properly represents what is to occur. It is possible to argue that precision in itself is always virtue—a reply to a reqtrest for a delivery data that says "soon" would be rated less satisfactory than. unwarranted precision can itself be highly misleading sines actions may be taken based vu it—'we will deliver 7 parcels each weighing 15..380 Fuzzy Databases and information Retrieval Systems Chao.. A key aspect of executive action is planning under uncertainty and normal language provides a means foi imprecision to be clearly and exactly expressed. e. 14 to appropriately propagate the level of uncertainty associated with the data to the level of uncertainty associated with answers or conclusions based on the data_ Precise answers should not be 8eoerated Low impr ccise data. is perfectly comprehensibleto a person.'.g... even though it allows for nonnumerical data. Database theory and practice in developing from this. if t he.". alternatively.'. third statement really represents all that Car be said it would be ridiculous to replace it with either of the previous ones. these systems must be able to perform quickly enough to make interaction with human users feasible. however. The implementation of these systems is thus strongly dependent on the availability of integrated circuits designed specifically to implement fuzzy logic (Sec. since even the least precise of the three statements does provide a basis for planning and action.1 u 15th February at 0.2 kilograms at the rear entrance a building 6A 4. "list the young salesmen who have a good selling record for household goods in the north cf England". As applications move out of the realms of the accountant and into the less quantitative areas of the firm so also does a requirement for high precision in specifying retrievals and updates of a database become increasingly unnatural.000 of goods la the categories.e. In retrieving information from a database the requirement for artificial precision is at least irritating and at worst highly misleading. 16_ $ ). lu general. may each refer to the same event but are clearly not interchangeable. One of the major concerns in the design of both fuzzy database and information retrieval systems is efficiency. or the one of 19 who sold 119. still requires it to be precise and welldefined.e.
and second. The fuzzy relational database proposed by Buckles and Petry differs from this crisp model in two ways: first. such as Complement. The columns of these tables correspond to fields or attributes and are usually called domains.2 Fuzzy Databases 381 FUZZY DATABASES A database is a computerbased system the purpose of which is to store information regarding a set of entities and to provide users with the capability of organizing. and MAJOR. ADDRESS. The rows are elements of the relation. if our database contains a ternary relation STUDENT with domains NAME. they correspond to records or entries. The first qualification allows the elements of tupies to consist of either singletons of the domain universal sets (as in the conventional relational database model) or crisp subsets of the domain universal sets. good) small (good. medium) (moderate. as in th relation MARKETS with the domains AREA. Union." The algebra also contains other relational operations. The model of a classical relational database consists of a set of multidimensional relations conceptualized as tables. which perform the corresponding tasks on the relation and domains specified in order to produce the desired information. Several models for representing information in databases have been proposed. To illustrate the issues involved in fuzzy databases. ADDRESS) where MAJOR = "computer science. as a special case. we can obtain the names and addresses of all students whose major is computer science by constructing a new relation with domains NAME and ADDRESS as a projection of the original relation. SIZE.2 14. relational algebra. and retrieving the stored information as requested. Each domain is defined on an app. Intersection. manipulating. and an optional conditional expression. and POTENTIAL represented by the table RELATION: mmucErs POTENTIAL AREA east midwest SIZE south good large 'gage. 14. This algebra consists of the procedural application of operations containing four basic elements: an operation name. elements of the tupIes contained in the relations may be crisp subsets of the domain universal set. the names of relations and the names of domains to be operated on. has become predominant. Virtually all fuzzy databases described in the literature are conceived in terms of the relational model. For instance. the classical crisp model of a relational database. 1983] developed a model for a fuzzy relational database that contains. The algebraic operation performing this task would be Project (STUDENT: NAME. we describe one of several known approaches to fuzzy databases. referred to as a relational model. a similarity relation is defined on each domain universal set.Sec. Access to the database is accomplished through a. excellent) . and are called upies. and Join. One of these models. Buckles and Petry [1982.ropriate domain base (or universal) set.
In the special case of the conventional databas c .8 . and highly negative (1/20): HF F SF SN N IIN HF SF SN — HN 1 . X. Moreover. the following fuzzy compatibility relation. since the value or meaning structures of different individual database users may be reflected by modifying the domain equivalence relations appropriately. Suppose now that our query to this fuzzy database consists of the following question: "Which sociologists are in considerable agreement with Kass concerning policy option Y?" The first step is to retrieve the opinion of Kass concerning option Y... suppose our database contains the opinions of a gronp of experts on three policy options. This introduction of fuzziness provides an interesting element of flexibility. This is accomplished with the relational algebraic operation .8 1 . in addition.8 1 .8 0 0 .8 1 Crisp equivalence relations in which equivalence classes are singletons are assumed to be defined on domains NAMF.2 0 0 .1. which has domains OPTION. and ASSESSMENT. in addition.382 Fuzzy Databases aind inforrnntion Flt.. all threshold levels are implicitly assumed to be equal to 1. the merging of the opinions or judgments of several experts. In the fuzzy database model. NAME. and OPTION.6 . Most often. 14 Domain values that are not singletons may indicate. favorable (F).3 1 . for example.. The second qualification is based on the assumption that in the classical database model. By dropping transitivity. thus requiring strict equivalence for the merging or elimination of tuples. when redundant ruples are to be eliminate d or ignored. as argued by Shenioi and Melton [1989. 1. Two relations' are contained within the database: EXPERT. FIELD.6 .trievai Systems Chap. which has domains NAME and FIELD and associates the name and field of each expert. negative (N). slightly favorable (SF). In the fuzzy database. tupies may be merged if they are considered sufkicudy As an example of the use of this fuzzy database mode/ and its associated fuzzy relational algebra. The fuzzy relational algebra used to access this fuzzy database consists of the same four components as the conventional relational algebra and. slightly negative (SN). users of the fuzzy relational database are given more freedom to express their value structures.6 . These two relations are specified in 'fable 14. allows for the specification of a threshold level defining the minimum acceptable degree of similarity between elements in some specified domain.2 .6 .8 .8 1 ..6 . a crisp equivalence relation is defined on each domain universal set which groups together elements that are strictly equivalent This equivalence is utilized. Y s and Z.6 0 .990 ] „ it is desirable to further generalize the model by allowing fuzzy compatibility (or proximity) relations in each domain rather than requiring fuzzy equivalence relations.8 . this equivalence relation is generali7ed tn a fuzzy equivalence relation (or a similarity relation).2  . the equivalence classes generated by this relation are simply the singletons of the universal Set.2 .6 . for instance.6 2 0 .2 ..8 . is defined for the domain OPINION on the domain universal set (highly favorable (HP). and OPIIsTION and associates the name of each expert with their expressed opinions on the policy options.
383 RELATION: OPTION NAME AssEssmF. P 2 is a temporary relation on domain NAME listing only sociologists..NT oribrioN favorabk negative slightly favorable highly favorable slightly favorable slightly favorable highly favorable favorable favorable negative TIEID Fee Felifroan Kass Osborn Schreiber Specterman sociologist economist attorney ecOrtorniSt kkkk Osborn Fee Factetn physician sociologist sociologist sociologist Feldman Cohen Osborn Fee Schreiber Kass pedant Spectoonan FeIdle an Osborn Kass Fee highly favorable slightly negative negative slightly negative slightly favorable (Project (Select ASSESSMENT where NAME = Kass and OPTION = Y) over OPINION) giving Ri.1 EXAMPLES OF RELATIONS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE RELATION: EXPERT NAME Cohen Fadem.Sec. 14. which . The resulting temporary relation RI on domain OPINION is given by RELATION: RI OPINION favorable The next step involves the selection of all sociologists from the table of experts. This is accomplished by the operation (Project (Select EXPERT where FIELD = Sociologists) over NAME) giving R2. Here. temporary relation R3 must be constructed on domains NAME and OPINION. Tt is equal to  RELAIION: NAME Cohen Osborn lareler Specterman Next.2 Fuzzy Databases TABLE 14.
3 NAME OPNION slightly negalive slightly favorable 1 Cohen Osborn Schreiber faimrable highly favorabie Spezlerroan Filially. and TIERES(IsEAME) O. The speciffcation of a zero similarity threshold level for NAME is necessary to allow the nmcging of uanles into sets. The algebraic expression for this task is "(Join R3 and RI over OPINION) with "1"1IRES(OPINION) >. OPINION) giving R3. higlily favorable) Note that the response which results is less than precise and contains less information than a response of NAME Osborn Schreiber OPINION slightly favorable favorable highly favorable Specterman In this way. 1983] introduces fuzziness only by means of fuzzy equivalence relations or. fuzzy compatibility relations on individual domain universal sets. we perform a join of relaticas RI (giving the opinion of I(ass) and R3 (giving the opinion of the sociologists) that specifies a threshold similarity level of . The illustrated fuzzy database model developed by Buckles and Petry [1992. Fuzziness in data is not addressed . which is chosen for this example to represent the condition of "considerable" agreement. the uncertainty contained in the specification of "considerable agreement" and in the similarity defined over the possible opinions is propagated to the response given. 14 lists the opinions of the sociologists in R2 about option Y. in the result given by NAME (Osborn. The relation R3 that is produced is given by RELATION:.) (slightly favorabLe. OPINION Speerermse.75 on the domain OPINION.75.384 Fuzzy Databases arid information Retrieval Systems Chap. favorable. accomplishing this is The algebraic expression (Project j(Select (Join R2 and ASSESSMENT over NAME) where OPTION Y) over NAME. more generally. Schreiber. as shown. R.
by authors of the documents. R:XxY [0. The problem of information retrieval involves two finite crisp sets. Yi) specifies for each xi . One way of determining the grades objectively is to define them in an appropriate way in terms of the numbers of occurrences of individual index terms in titles and/or abstracts of the documents involved_ This can be combined with other criteria. X2. Although these sets change whenever new documents are added to systems or new index terms are recognized (or. Other possible criteria in defining the grades of relevance are to discriminate among different types such that the membership value R(xi.. 14. The problem of information retrieval is to match the Werds or other symbols of the inquiry with those characterizing the individual documents and make appropriate selections. in words or other symbols. as the problem of the selection of documentary information from storage in response to search questions. Readers interested in this subject should consult the abovementioned monograph. a set of recognized index terms.than the various classical methods of information retrieval.10. they are fixed for each particular inquiry. in general. These methods are increasingly recognized as more realistic. by some algorithmic procedure. These grades are determined either subjectively. The aim is to select. . as reviewed in Note 14.3 FUZZY INFORMATION RETRIEVAL Information retrieval may be defined. Our aim in this section is to characterize the role of fuzzy set theory in dealing with the problem of information retrieval_ We do not attempt to describe specific methods of fuzzy information retrieval. possibly. e X and each y 3 E Y the grade of relevance of index term eci to document yi . the only comprehensive treatment of this subject is covered in a monograph by Miyamoto [19901. when some documents or index ternis are discarded). at minimal cost. One possible criterion is to discount the grade of relevance involving old documents or old index terms by some rate.4. Each search question is a statement. Among publications dealing with fuzzy information retrieval. the relevance of index terms to individual documents is expressed by a fuzzy relation.Sec.• • . X= and a set of relevant documents. 1 ] . It is assumed that the subject of each document in the storage is characterized by a set of key words or other symbols. which expresses the subject of interest of the inquirer. docHrnents that are of maximum relevance to the inquirer.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval by this model. or objectively. (X/. 14. In fuzzy information retrieval. The term fizzy information retrieval refers to methods of information retrieval that are based upon the theory of fuzzy sets. However. other fuzzy database models have been proposed in which attribute values may be expressed in vague linguistic terms (Note 141).
Another important relation in fuzzy information retrieval is called a fuzzy thesaurus.. 14 of documents (journal articles. la which the inquiry involves only the following three index terms: fuzzy logic. Grades of membership in T are then determined by averaging the scores for each pais. by composing A with the fuzzy thesaurus T. . x k) expresses the degree of association of x i with xk. Let A denote the fuzzy set representing a particular inquiry. set B).. old index terms are tmally discounted at some rate_ In fuzzy information retrieval. For each pair of index terms (xi .1) max rain [A(x).Ex for ail xi € X. xj )] x. we obtain a new fuzzy set on X (say. defined on X2. expressed by a fuzzy set D defined on Y. T (xi. '4"A = (x 1 . to rank relevant jou rn als. That is. pairs whose meanings they consider associated (or. which represents an augininted inquiry (Le. (14. A.. expressed by fii7zy set B. x2.1) and (14. so that 1/(x1 ) (14.386 Fuzzy Databases and informatian Retileval Systems Chap. xk) r T(x. to give degrees of association for each pair). experts in a given field of study are asked to identify. The rehtion helps to identify relevant documents for a given inquiry that otherwise would not be identified.1 ].). that is. Then. in a given set of index terms. T where is usually understood to be the maxmin composition. are thenobtained by composing the augmented inquiry. To illustrate this process. x 2 = fuzzy relation equations. The retrieved documents. When a fuzzy thesaurus is updated by introducing new index terms. with the relevance relation R. For example. Another way of obtaining these grades is to use statistical data obtained from the documents or such as frequencies of occurrence of pairs of index terms in the same document or frequencies of associations based on citations. possibly. These and other criteria may be specified by the user. the degree to which the meaning of index term xk is compatible with the meaning of the given index term x i . Various methods have been developed for constructing fuzzy thesauri. x3 = fuzzy modus ponens. and so on. This happens whenever a document is characterized by an index tenu that is synonymous with an index term contained in the inquiry. x3} is the support of fuzzy set A expressing the inquiry. This is a reflexive fuzzy relation. [ 1 _A . T. That is. unpublished reports.2) Thus (14.2) represent the process of fuzzy information retrieval. That is. an inquiry can be expressed by any fuzzy set defined on the set of index terms I. augmented by associated index terms). let us consider a very simple example. etc. Assume that the vector representation of A is Xi X2 X3 A. The role of this relation is to deal with the problcra Of synonyms among index terms. . papers in conference proceedings.
7 .4 1 1 . layers of retrieved docuraents distinguished by . by its acuts. the composition A T results in fuzzy set B. its vector form is ' .4 .5 .9 1 . which characterizes the retrieved documents. .3 . 14 Then.8 .1). yie are the only documents related to index terms xt .5 The user can now decide whether to inspect all documents captured by the support of D or to consider only documents captured by some a cut of D.9. y ' . x6 = ftazy implication. 14. and fuzzy inquiry provides the user with greater flexibility in expressing the subject area of interest.2 T =X2 X3 .8 0 .ssuale further that the relevant part of fuzzy the5aurus (restricted to the support of A and nonzero columns) is given by the matrix Xi /2 /3 X4 X5 X6 1 .9 .2 1 1 . The use of fuzzy set theory in information retrieval has at least the following advantages in comparison with classical methods: fuzzy relevance relations and fuzzy thesauri are more expressive than their crisp counterparts.7. Assume now that the relevant part of the relevance relation (restricted to the support of B and nonzero columns) is given by the matrix Y1 12 Y2 Y3 Y4 Ys Y6 Y7 Ys Y9 Y10 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 .their relevance (the value of ci) and thus provide the user with a guideline regarding the order in which the documents should be inspected or which documents to neglect when the total number of retrieved documents is too large.1.4 0 .500. .Sec.2 0 1 0 0 .5 1].3 1 0 1 where = approximate reasoning. x2. .5 1 . by (14. x6.3 0 0 0 . /9 /10 D = [ 3 1 1 . and their constmction is more realistic.3 Fuzzy Information Retrieval 387 A. its vector form is Xj X2 X3 X4 15 X6 B [ 1 . _ .4 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 R 13 X4 xs 16 0100000. By (142). the composition B z R results in fuzzy set D.9 7 . the fuzzy set characterizing the retrieved documents establishes.6000 0 0 1 0 0 . /1 /2 /3 /4 z6 .4 1 1 .5 10.5 where y i . xs = maxmin composition. which represents the augmented inquiry.
whose focus is on the use of fuzzy Prolog and a fuzzy relational query language. 14 The reader should be aware that our presentation of fuzzy information retrieval in this section is rather restricted.1) and (14. including Negoita [1973]. and Ogawa et al. 1988]. etc. and Pan [1992 ]. Lopez de Mintaras et al. 1993. 14. FSQL. Prade and Testemale [19841. fuzzy lossless join decompositions. Ullman (Computer Science Press. attribute values may be exxessed in linguistic terms. 14. 119901 Nomoto et aL [1990].") (e) "Which sociologists are in considerable agreement with any economists concerning option Y?" 14. An attempt to develop a framework under which all these models can be integrated was made by Medina et al. [1986]. which are represented by appropriate possibility distributions. 1 EXERCISES 14. 14. 14. Research regarding theoretical issues pertaining to the design of fuzzy relational databases (fuzzy functional dependencies. .2.2) in information retrieval. similarity of 0. Kohout et al. such as the effect of the type of composition in (14. Tripathy and Saxera [1990]. Murai et aL (1988. Negoita and Plondor [1976]. 1983]. or aspects of information retrieval with feedback. We ignore some important issues. 14. and Shenoi. [1985]. Repeat the example discussed in Sec.5 represents the condition of "somewhat in agreement. [1994].2. 1983] and generalized by Shenoi and IvleIton [1989. which is well Covered by Miyamoto [1990 ]. Larsen and Yager [1990. Repeat the exampk discussed in Sec. we recommend the book _Principles of Database Systems by 11). [1984]. Boy and Kuss [19861. An overview of these issues and other aspects of fuzzy relatioaal databases is covered in a book by Li and Liu [1990].2. Radecki [1981.source of information about fuzzy inform_ation retrieval is the previously meutioued book by Miyaraoto [19901.388 Fuzzy Databases and Information Retrieval Systems Chap. The principal . We also do not discuss the important role of fuzzy clustering (See. Various issues of fuzzy information retrieval have been investigated since the early 1970s by niimerous authors. three alternative models were developed by Umano [19821. 1980).In addition to the fuzzy database model developed by Buckles and Petry (1982. For background regarding classical relatioeal database systems. 14.1. Bezdek et al. the rote of citations. as described in Sec.3. [1991]. Zenner et al. 1990 1 . and Zemankova and Kandei [19851. In each of these models. Melton.3 for the fue2y inquiry A ltri + 7/X2. NOTES 141. 13.2 with the following questions: (a) Which sociologists or economists are in considerable aweement with Feldman concerning option Y?" (I)) "Which experts who are not sociologists are somewhat in agreement with Fee regarding option X?" (Assume that a threshold.4. The models differ in methods of data manipulation and retrieval.2) on the performance. Tong [1986]. 19891.) has been pursued since the late 198015 by Raja and Majumdar [1987.
Chap.8 1 1 [ 1 1 0 0 . xs = fuzzy inquiry.9 where x3 = fuzzy clustering. and xis = fuzzy relations.3 1 . Assume that the relevant part of a fuzzy thesaurus is given by the matrix Xi X: X3 X4 Xs X6 1 . calculate the fuzzy set D that characterizes the retrieved documents_ .saunts. Assuming that the relevance relation R is the same as in Sec. 143.7 . x4 = fuzzy the. 14 Exercises 389 where x1 = fuzzy information retrieval and x2 = fuzzy databases.
Much of the focus in developing the field has been in the area of management. are actually made and bow they call be made better or more successfully. While decision making under conditions of risk have been modeled by probabilistic decision theories and game theories. ' The subject of decision making is. Applications of fuzzy sets within the field of decision making have. the field is concerned. with both descriptive theories and normative theories. 'investment. Classicaldecision making generally deals with a set of alternative states of nature (out comes. to the late 1 8 th centnry. of decision making. most part. newproduct development. decision making has evolved into a respectable and rich field of study. can be traced. a relation indicating the state or outcome to be expected from each alternative action. we have to decide which of the available actions to take. In this chapter. at least in some instances. consisted of fuzaifications of the classical theories of decision making. fuzzy decision theories attempt to deal with the vagueness and nonapecificity inherent in human formulation of preferences. in general. Decision making. we overview the applicability of fuzzy set theory to the main classes of decisionmaking problems. as the name suggests. and allocation of resources. results). presumably. . is enormous. and goals. itself. a set of alternative actions that are available to the decision maker. in which the decisionmaking process is of key importance for functions such as inventory control. The beginnings. We all are faced in our daily life with varieties of alternative actions available to us and. however. That is.1 GENERAL DISCUSSION Making decisions is undoubtedly one of the most fundamental activities of human beings. The current literature on decision making. and. as a subject of study.. when various studies were made in France regarding methods of election and social choice. based largely on theories and methods developed in this century. and is therefore of importance in many fields in both the "soft" social sciences and the "hard" disciplines of natural sciences and engineering. Since these initial studies. personnel actions. the study of how clecisicos. is broadly deftned to include any choice or selection of alternatives.5 FUZZY DECISION MAKING 15. for the. as Well as many others. constraints.
This chapter is structured. Our intuitive attitude to life implies nonillusory. According to another criterion. in a world without natural order. when the only available knowledge concerning the outcomes cnnsigrg of their conditional probability distributions. Furthermore.. we . In this case. according to these classifications. the decisionmaking problem becomes an optimization problem. each of which is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set defuied on A. as well characterized by the British economist Shackle [19611: In a predestinate world. decision would be ilasoiy. In the first paper on fuzzy decision making.king. we say that decisions are made under uncertainly. or an optimization under multiple objective criteria. A decision situation in this model is characterized by the following comportalIts: • a set A of possible actions. These problem classes are referred to as individual decision making and midtiperson decision making. and a decision is determined by an appropriate aggregation of these fuzzy sets. the decisionmaking problem becomes an optimization problem of maximizing the expected utility. That is. non empty. in a world of perfect foreknowledge.2 Individual Decision Making 391 finally. When probabilities of the outcomes are not known. an optimization under constraints. • a set of goals G i (i NJ. the alternative that leads to the outcome yielding the highest utility is chosen. This is the prime domain for fuzzy decision'making. 15. 15. on the other hand. This would require a large book fully speciali7. According to one criterion.2 INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING Fuzziness can be introduced into the existing models of decision models in various ways. empty. Decision making under uncertainty is perhaps the most important category of decisionmaking problems. as applied to the various classes of decision problems. A decision is said to be made under conditions of certainty when the outcome for each action can be determined and ordered precisely. . non powerless decision — Since decision in this sense excludes both perfect foresight and anarchy in nature. and outcomes for each action are characterized only approximately. decision problems are classified as those involving a single decision maker and those which involve several decision makers. the problem of maximizing the utility function. a utility or objective function. powerless. respectively. In this case. Beaman and Zadeh [1970] suggest a fuzzy model of decision making in which relevant goals and constraints are expressed in terms of fuzzy sets. each of which is also expressed by a fuzzy set defined • a set of constraints C on A. Instead.). we distinguish decision problems that involve a simple optfrnizatibn of a utility function. or may not even be relevant. which orders the outcomes according to their desirability. This indicates the importance of fuzzy set theory in decision rna. by and large.. decision making can be done in one stage. or it can be done iteratively. one for each action.ed on this subject. Several classes of decisionma]dng problems are usually recognized.want to convey the spirit of fuzzy decision making. it must be defined as choice in face of bounded uncertainty. in several stages. We do not attempt to cover fuzzy decision making comprehensively. E r4.Sec. A decision is made under conditions of risk.
where j E N„ and j Ni. D. for each j E N„ and each j E N describe the meanings of actions in set A in terms of sets Xi and ri by functions A A Y. 15. we denote the fuzzy set expressing the goal by G A possible definition of G' is given in Fig. and must he defined by the individual in a given context.. ea. _Before discussing the various features of this fuzzy decision model and its possible modifications or extensions. Once a fuzzy decision has been arrived at. . Then.000. let us illustrate how it works by two Simple examples.. Let G. His or her goal i4 to choose a job that offers a high salary under the constraints that the job is interesting and within close driving distance. When A is . 122). to choose. that the underlying universal set is To express the goal in terms of set A. In this case. This may be accomplished in a straightforward manner by choosing an alternative a e A that attains the maximum membership grade in D.000.1 Suppose that an individual needs to decide which of four possible jobs. is conceived as a fuzzy set on A that simultaneously satisfies the given goals GI and constraints C. it is preferable to determine â by an appropriate defuzzification method (Sec. a2 ..) = $50.1) (15. according to our notation. the set of actions. Gi (a) C (a) =•' C. The goal is expressed in monetary terms. it May not be desirable in all situations. and the fuzzy sets involved represent the concept% of high 3a1ary. . it may be necessary to choose the "best" single crisp alternative from this fuzzy set. g(a2) = $45. Hence. . Assume the following assignments: g(a) .• niinfinf Gi (a). a3. Example 15.= S40.000. independent of the jobs available. (15. Assume that these fuzzy sets represent goals and constraints expressed by the decision maker. a4 .2) for eacha A.detmed on Et.through other sets that characterize relevant states of nature. a3 . inf Lc. g(a4) = $60.(c (a)) • (15. A {a l . for convenience. ai . Given a decision situation characterized by fuzzy sets A. provided that the standard operator of fuzzy inters. we need a fu_nation g: A + which assigns to each job the respective salary. G1( E N„). that is. (a)) tem. where we assume. interesting job. These concepts are highly subjective and contextdependent. 15 It is common that the fuzzy sets expressing goals and constraints in this formulation are not defined directly on.ection is employed. That is.000.1a. and C i (j E a fuzzy decision. 1 and express goals G i and constraints Cj by the compositions of gi with GP:i and the compositions of c1 and C.392 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. a2. f for all a e A. a4 j.3) D(a) =. and close driving &glance. but indirectly. and C_ be fuzzy sets defined on sets Xi and Y1 respectively. Since this method ignores information concerning any of the other alternatives.
48/a3 + . which expresses the goal in terms of the available jobs in set A.4 a a3 al (b) Constraint Ci: Close driving distance_ Figure 15. 45 50 55 60 Salary 15 in KJ a3 (a) Goal G': High salary. The first constraint.1).4/a1÷ . Composing now functions g and G'. according to (15.Sec.1a.e. high salary. This assignment is also shown in Fig. (a) gal 0'.8/a4 . a4 t 4— function g 20 30 Distance [rnilea) NE— function c1 A: . is esrpre. we obtain the fuzzy set G = .2 Individual Decision Making 393 _1 1_ 31 40 I_ I I L 64 . requiring that the job be intemsting. 15. 1.2/a3 ± . in (15. ci ..1 razzç goal aid constraint (Example 15..11/a 1. Assume that the individual assigns to the four jobs in A the following membership grades in the fuzzy set of interesting jobs: C1 .ssAd directly in terms of set A (i.3/a2 F .1). ( 2) constraint C :dose drv di tanœ.6k2+ .2) is the identity function and C1 Ci). 15.
The job to be chosen rt. this lack of compensation may not be appropriate. the dividend should be atiractive (goal G). A. The goal as well as the constraint are expressed directly as fuzzy sets on A = O.394 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. Bycomposing functions e2 and C. Formula (153).. Specifically. for reasons of wage negotiations. which is self. we obtain the fuzzy set . we denote the fuzzy set expressing this constraint by C. is expressed in terms of the driving distance from home to work.1421 4_ . we obtain the fuzzy set D = .5 miles. does not allow. The board of directors of a company needs to determine the optimal dividend to be paid to the shareholders. we illustrate a case in which A is not a discrete set. Example 15. A possible scenario is shown in Fig.1/a1 . A passible definition of is given in gig.2.9iia2 4_ . however. for any interdependence. Unlike the classical theory of decision making under constraints. adopted from Zimmermann (19871. Following our notation. or tradeoff between the goals and constraints under consideration. explanatory. 15. c2 (a2) c2 (a3) 7.5sunaed here to be the interval [O. Therefore. For many decision applications.21a3 which represents a fuzzy characterization of the concept of desirable job. where ar„. 12 miles.3).7/a 3 / 01 114b which expresses the constraint in terms of the set A. based upon the standard operator of fuzzy intersection. linguistic terms.„ denotes the largest acceptable dividend. where distances of the four jobs are also shown. requiring that the driving distance be close.. For financial reasons.2 .2 In this very simple example. the symmetry between the goals and constraints under this fuzzy model allows them to be treated in exactly the same manner. it should be modest (constraint C). a. The described fuzzy decision model allows the decision rtAer to frame the goals and constraints in vague.. . is the set of possible dividends. C21 provided that we aggregate the goal and constraints as expressed by (153).a ] .3/a2 . which may more accurately reflect practical problem solving situations_ The membership functions of fuzzy goals In this model serve much the same purpose as utility or objective functions in classical decision making that order the outcomes according to preferability. this is the most desirable job arnong the four available jobs under the given goal G and constraints CI. 15 The second constraint.1 of real numbers. the full compensation or tradeoff offered by the union operation that corresponds to the logical "of' (the wax operator) may be inappropriate as well. The set of actions. c2(a4) = 2. a. interaction.1b. Applying now formula (15. according to (15. however.2). an alternative fuzzy set intersection or an averaging operator may be used to reflect a situation in which some degree of positive compensation exists among the goals and constraints. 27 miles. cr.5 miles. 15.
2. second.3 Muitiperson Decision Making 395 G: attractive dividend a*: optimal dividends A: Set of possibie dividends Figure 152 Mushat:ion to Example 15. mira[ inf Gi 'r(a). D (a) • prra However. that is.1. team theories of decision making deal only with the second. Theories known as npersoa game theories deal with both of these considerations. 15. In this case.kers may differ such that each places a different ordering on the alternatives. the goals of the individual decision raa.=. such that .3 MULTIPERSON DECISION MAKING When decisions macle by more than one person are modeled. . the individual decision makers may have access to different information upon which to base their decision.5) where the weights ui and vj possess the abovespecified properties. two differences from the case of a Single decision maker can be considered: first. a direct extension of formula (15.). the fuzzy decision D can be arrived at by a convex combination of the n weighted goals and in weighted constraints of the form D (a) = Eu.3) may be used as well. . (15. 15. This fuzzy model can be further extended to accommodate the relative importance of the various goals and constraints by the use of weighting coefficients. l'if C feN. respectively.(2)+EuX j (a) (15A) G i (i C for all a E A. Sec.44.G.„. and groupdecision theories deal only with the first. where ui and yi are nonnegative weights attached to each fuzzy goal and each fuzzy constraint C 1 (j G N.
N(x„ j ) S (Xf Xi)  (15. x i ) = I 1 if x i > x j for some individual k 0 otherwise. given the individual preference orderings. The largest value Cif for which the unique compatible ordering on X x X is found represents the maximized agreement level of the group. One procedure that maximizes the final agreement level consists of intersecting the classes of crisp total orderings that are compatible with the pairs in the acuts "S for increasingly smaller values of a until a single crisp total ordering is achieved. each member of a group of n individual decision makers is assumed to have a reflexive. where > represents the preference ordering of the one individual k who exercises complete control over the group decision. z) as follows: a total preference ordering . a dictatorial situation can be modeled by the group preference relation S for which S(xi . y. which assigns the membership grade S(xi . by the total number of decision makers. over x. xi ). 15 A fuzzy model group decision was proposed by Biin [1974] and Blin and Whinston [1973]. E Kg) on a set of alternatives X (w. denoted by N(xi. This scheme corresponds to the simple majority vote. Once the fuzzy relationship S has been defined. antisymmetrk. x j ) that lead to an intransitivity are removed. Each value cc essentially represents the level of agreement between the individuals concerning the particular crisp ordering S. any pairs (x i . n. The expression of this group preference requires some appropriate means of aggregating the individual preferences. Basically.ii which is the union of the crisp relations 'S comprising the crcuts of the fuzzy relation S. For instance. the social preference may be defined as a fuzzy binary relation with membership grade function S:XxX—)[O. x. In this process. this model allows for the individual decision makers to possess different aims and values while still assuming that the overall purpose is to reach a common.x j ). Here. This procedure is illustrated in the following example. indicating the degree of group preference of alternative x. and transitive preference ordering Pk k G N„. One simpie method computes the relative popularity of alternative xi over x 1 by dividing the number of persons preferring x i to x j . Thus. the final nonfuzzy group preference can bc &tornlaird by converting S into its resolution form 5 = US go. which totally or partially orders a set X of alternatives. and the crisp ordering itself represents the group decision. In order to deal with the multiplicity of opinion evidenced in the group. each scaled by cr. A "social choice" function must then be found which.6) Other methods of aggregating the individual preferences may be used to accommodate different degrees of influence exercised by the individuals in the group. Example 153 Assume that each individual of a group of eight decision makers has P(r..396 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. acceptable decision. produces the most acceptable overall group preference ordering.
1 5 = {(X. 75(9 = 1. z. y). Jr. of course. (W. we arrive at the following fuzzy social preference relation: w X y z S= The crcuts of this fuzzy relation S are: = 0 75 0 . (Y. it is relatively easy for each individual to make painrvise comparisons between the given alternatives. z. 2) . (z.5 25. M 7= ((y. (w. w).5 . w y).625 . (w. x). (r*7 )'r r (X* W). (y. (x. (x.y). y)} tr. (y. (x. y). z). (w. x. (z. z). This requirement may be too strong in some cases. y). z). (x. z. x). z).z. tv.9. (w. y). (z.z) PS 397 (7 * y.6250 = (( zi). (w. (z.x.P. w) P3 = P7 = (. z. 3. (Zi Y) .25 .() Th zorderings compatible with 'S are '6250 = [(Tv.625 represents the group level denoted by the total.5 (r.x. ordering ifte. y)). Thus.5 0 . x). X) .375 375 0 5 = ( ( 1). (x. y)) We can now apply the procedure to arrive at the unique crisp ordering that constitutes the group choice. (z. compatible with the empty set of 1. Y). (x. the value . z. A simple method proposed by Shiraura [1973] is designed .625 . it is required that each group member can order the given set of alternatives. (u. y). (w. UP . 15Z Multiperson Decision Making = (w. r.6) for the fuzzy group preference ordering relation S (where n = 8). w).375 . (W* 3). The total orderings 150 that are compatible with the pairs in the crisp relations 35S are '750 = ((z.25 .). y)1. (tv.7) (xi 39. (W. y) a agreement concerning the social choice In the described procedure of group decision making. All total orderings on X x X are. (Z. y. Wp y.y.y.r .y. X/ Y) Using the membership function given in (15. w.7C. y). (z.x. 375. y). z. z). However.75ct n . Zr X.z). w). z) P4 = PEI = ( IV* Zi Xi Y) P6 = (Z. (w. (z*7C) . w.Y). (W.x)) and 'o r . y). x).625 .Y)1 = {Our '625S 5 * {Z. x. w. r).(x.Sec. r. Thus. w).75 35 0 .
the evaluation prepared by one person in the group is given in Table 1 5. 11 for all pairs . has for each pair (xi .x . xi ). the method for multiperson decision making described in this section can be applied to these pzefercuce orderings to obtain a group decision. Function F. The latter induce the fonowing preference ordering of the car models: ICarary. F(xi . yl) E 12 the property max[F(xi. Example 15. xi). are made by the individual for all pairs of alternatives in the given set X. 15 to construct an ordering of all given alternatives on the basis of their pairwise comparisons. For each xi E X. Assume. Clearly. for the sake of simplicity. using the numbers suggested in Table 15. xi) x j ). denotes the attractiveness grade given by the individual to xi with respect to x j . The correvoeiding relative preference grades (calculated by (15. They are then converted ro relative preference gracies. that only five car models are considered: Acclaim. Acclaim. at least one must be as attractive as the other. xj )if (. x j ) E V. Accord. Cutlass. we can now calculate the overall relative preference grades.7)) and the overall relative preference grades (calculated by (15. These primitive evaluations. . and Sable. Then. Cutlass. consider a.8)) are given in Table 15. which may be viewed as a membership function of a fuzzy relation on X.xj). xi ) = 1. Sable. To do that.1c. F(xj. Canary.398 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. When FOci .4 To illustrate the described method. f (xi . The method described in this section can be used but each person in the stoup hns to order the available alternatives first. x. is considered at least as attractive as x. To decide what car to buy is a multiperson decision problem.1a for specifying the attractiveness grades. the method based on the degrees of attractiveness can be used..8) The pref=erciace ordering of alternatives in X Is then iaduced by the anracrical ordering of these grades p(x i ). Accord.x1)1 = 1. by the formula F(x. which are expressed by positive numbers in a given range. f(xi. xi). p(xi ). of with respect to all other alternatives in X by the formula p(xi) = min F Cri . group of people involved in a business partnership who intend to buy a common car for business purposes.1b. f (xi .70 E X. In this method. F(xi . xi )] min[1. Orderings expressing preference by the other members of the group can be determined in a similar way. xj )1 rnax[f (15. The property means: for each pair of alternatives.xj) E [0.7) for each pair (xi. xtEx (15. Assume further that. i x j ) f(xi..
00 1_00 1.ss 1 7 Sable a 3 1 3 (c) Relative preferince exade. with respect to xi Little attractive Moderately attractive Strongly attractive Very strongly attractive Extremely attractive Intermediate values between levels 1 3 5 7 9 2.00 1.00 0_43 0.25 ' 1.00 1. that the number of considered alternatives is also finite. . 15.43 1.625 Cutlass 0.00 0.       _ Attractiveness of x.4  399 TABLE 15.. respectively. in addition. Each criterion induces a particular ordering of the alternatives. we assume. The number of criteria in raulticriteria decision making is virtually always assumed to be finite.00 1. a set of alternatives and a set of criteria characterizing a decision situation. relevant alternatives are evaluated according to a number of criteria.67 1.33 LOU 0_29 0. 4..1 ILLUSTRATEON (a) Suggested numbers for attractiveness grading  f (xi .39) Accord 7 1 1 7 '6 Canary 9 3 Cutlass 3 2 Sable 8 4 5 7 1 rades p(ri ) Acclaim Accord Carary Catla.11 0.63 15A MULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKING In multicriteria decision problems.Sec.00 Sable 0.7. cnz i be. Cutlass Sable 0.x„) and C = c2. and we nccd.45. The difference is that the multiple orderings represent either preferences of different people or ratings based on different criteria. 8 (b) Given attractiveness grades Acelabn 1 3 1 2 2 f (e. xi ) . There is a visible similarity between these decision problems and problems of ranitiperson decision making. the basic information involved in raulticriteria decision making can be expressed by the matrix . multiple orderings of relevant alternatives are involved and have to be integrated into one global preference ordering.00 0_29 0..4 Multicriteria Decision Making TO EXAMPLE 15. Then. In this section. Decision situations with infinite sets of alternatives are considered in Sec. which deals with fuzzy mathematical programming Let X =txt 1 x..43 1. 15.7— Acr_laim 1 1 Accord 0. In both cases. 1 1.s and overall relative preference F(xii x j ) .66 Camry 0. a procedure by which to construct one overall preference ordering.33 1.00 Acclaim Accord Camry I.11 0.
are weights. c2. A frequently employed aggregating operator is the weighted average = (j E KO. It can be converted to the desired matrix R by the formula min r.10) where wi.9)). This results in matrix R (or in a matrix that can be converted to matrix R by (15. c.„ Assume first that all entries of this matrix are real numbers in [0. (15. r„. is initially given. say x . r21 . In this particular problem. and j E N„ the degree to which candidate xi conforms to the required profile in terms of criterion ei . r'n') . are weights that indicate the relative importance acriteria ci.9) for all i N„. The entries rii of R express. instead of matrix R with entries in [0. that for each xj E X is an adequate aggregate of values rii . and weights are specified in terms of fuzzy numbers gig on [0. A class of possible weighted aggregations is given by the formula r.= he! r72 • • • . Function h may be any of the aggregating operations exanained in Chapter 3. .. . 15 X r22 . w„. It may happen that. jErilt ieD4 " jeN. c2 .400 Xi Fuzzy Decision ivial<ing Chap. 1]. using the operations of fuzzy addition and fuzzy multiplication. ri h (r i p. Then. for each j e N„. The most common approach to multicriteria decision problems is to convert them to singlecriterion decision problems. r2j . This is done by finding a global criterion. where h is an aggregation operator and w w.• (15. Then R may be viewed as a matrix representation of a fuzzy relation on C x X.j ). we can calculate the weighted average Fi by the formula . the selection of conditions from a given set of individuals. r'. to which the individual criteria ci. . 2 71.„. x2 . • x„ is guided by comparing candidates profiles with a required profile in terms of given criteria cl . — An example of multicriteria decision problem is the problem of recruiting and selecting personnel. 1 1 7 an alternative matrix trl whose entries are arbitrary real numbers. cm . In this case. r. and j N.. Consider now a rnore general situation in which the entries of matrix R are fuzzy numbers Fzi on RI". x.. w2. 1]. and each entry rii expresses the degree to which criterion ci is satisfied by alternative x i (i c N„„ j E 14„).1 ri2•• r21 . are satisfied.
6. for each discrete time t (r E N). Under the mentioned restrictions. 15. we explain basic ideas of this formulation. is that of dynamic programming [Belirrian.Sec. 12. This type of automata are used 2+1 . the automaton. of the automaton in terms of its present internal state.6. In general. dynamic programming can be fuzzified. which is based on the concept of a finitestate fuzzy automaton introduced in Sec. x' . The most important theory of multistage decision making.ation of dynamic programming extends its practical utility since it allows decision makers to express their goals. • 12. whenever desirable. characterized by the usual statetransition function of classical automata. theories of multistage decision making may be viewed as part of the theory of general dynamic systems (Sec. These decisionmaking problems.Fuzzy dynamic programming was formulated for the first time in the classical paper by Bellman and Zadeh [1970]. . f). are dependent on one another in the dynamic sense. the sets of input states and output states of A. a ranldng method is needed to order the This issue is addressed in Sec. respectively. and f:ZxX Z is the statetransition function of A.5 Murtistage Decision Making E f=1 Since fuzzy numbers are not linearly ordered. Z. To see connections between the two sections. A required goal is not achieved by solving a single decision problem. . Any taskoriented control. the automaton. As can any mathem_atical theory.3a. where X and Z are. That is. fuzzy terms. the next internal state is also utilized as output and. and so on in approximate. That is. A fu2zific..12) . z'.  15. we adopt here the notation used in Sec. However. 12.6. (15. F2. the two need not be distinguished. decisions. Another restriction is that no special output is needed. and its present input state. the next internal state. 1957 ].7). 12.st ). involved is a special version of the general fuzzy automaton examined in Sec. One restriction of the automaton in dynamic programming is that the statetransition relation is crisp and. but by solving a sequence of decisionmaking problems. and it is thus fuzzy in this sense. involved in fuzzy dynamic programming is defined by the triple (X. 15. resulting fuzzy numbers F1. 15. = A scheme of the described automaton is shown in Fig. hence. A. which is closely connected with dynamic systems. Otherwise. for example. consequently. In this section. which represent stages in overall multistage decision making. constraints. the automaton operates with fuzzy input states and fuzzy internal states.5 MULTISTAGE DECISION MAKING Multistage decision making is a sort of dynamic process. whose meaning is to define.e+ 1 . A decision problem conceived in terms cf fuzzy dynamic programming is viewed as a decision problem regarding a fuzzy finitestate automaton. is basically a multistage decisionmaking problem.6.
the fuzzy input state and fuzzy internal state at time t. for any sequence x". For fuzzy dynamic programming they must be fuzziftecl by using the extension principle. . xiv = min[Mx13). A' is a fuzzy set on X.3 C'l • b) PtIzzified automaton ' Tim autvmatan omphalcd in crisp ar fuzzy dynamic program:m. we can now proceed to a description of dynamic programming In this conception of decision making. which defines the number of stages in the decision process. x 1 . IN' of input states such that . this definition assumes. .402 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. in classical dynamic programming.N defined by ful.12). is assumed to be given. xl. Cg (zw)].13) where zw is uniquely determined by . Clearly. where At.3b. viewed as a sequence of decisions. Employing the fnzzifi•d automaton depicted in Fig.. the membership grade of D is defined by D (x° x l . It is also assumed that the input of A is expressed at each time t by a fuzzy state Al and that a particular crisp initial internal state i° is given. Cv as fuzzy goal in a fuzzy decision making. The decision problem IS to find a sequence . 15. where N is the time of termination of the decision process. . xN1 and 20 via (15. we need to apply a principle known in dynamic programuning as the principle of optimality [Raman. of course. The value of N.V) .31.1n g: ( a) crisp autiainatt3n. (15. 15. A scheme of the fuzzified version is shown in Fig. 1957]. AN1 as constraints and fuzzy internal state Considering fuzzy input states A °. and eiv is the fuzzy set on dr''' that induces CN on Z That is. that we use the standard operator of intersection. N 1. 15. (b) fuzzified autmnatork.zy D= Au ri Al AN1 ri where At is a cylindric extension of A' from X to XN for each t 0. fey 1) max D(x° . which can be expressed as follows: An optimal decision sequence has the property that whatever the initial state and . while C' and Ct+' axe fuzzy sets ou Z. AN1 (xN1 ). the desired goal is expressed in terms of a fuzzy set C5 (the fuzzy internal state of A at time N).14) To solve this problem by fuzzy dynamic programming. and C'+' denotes the fuzzy internal state at time t ÷ 1. C 1 denote. we may conceive of a fuzzy decision (in the sense discussed in Sec. 1.. Al (x t ). respectively.2) as a fuzzy set on X. 15 1 At iC t Onetime stomp zL+1 (a) Crisp a•toznataa Figurv 15.x 0 . Y1 (15.
X cAr 1 tzti 1) where (2N2) ra. 19701 Let us consider an automaton with I = (xi .15) for k = 1.. r11. e N (f xN1 ))fil max train[An (x.. A t (x i ). and the fuzzy goal at r =2 is . z2. 2.3/11 + 1. 15.x N L C N (f (z/v1 . x2). o N max min[AN1(xN1) . Pe Ar 1 of decisions can be obtained by successively maximizing values x in (15. N ..4°(x°) . (e )] l} AN2 (x N2) . AN2 (eV2). Al(xl) " ' AN1(xN1). At (x 1) • .02+ 8/2'3. the remaining decisions must constitute an optimal policy with regard to the state resulting from the first decision. cxk41 (ztVk+1 ) ] (15..13). .. A l (X 1). Applying the principle of optimality and substituting for D from (15. R I . N X iP4. This equatioa can be rewritten as DU ° r 1 • " 2 111) = max 2 frain[A ° (x).iX MaXMin[A N (X jV 1 ) 1 C AF XN A iv2 (xN2). Assume that N .. .1 Repeating this backward iteration. where . the optimal sequence 10. Example 153 Rtellman and Zadeh. 2. and the state transition function expressed by the matrix  xl X2 Z'2 Z1 r1 [ zi Z2 Z3 Z3 z3 whose entries are next internal states for any given present internal and output states. we obtain the set of N recurrence equations c/Yk(zNk) = max mintAlfk (xivig ). This results successively in values P4 • 1. xN1 ))11. z3 }..72 ° .. • . Z = (z1 ..T min[AN1 (xN1).1 1 . 2..15) for k =1. we can write (15. N. .1. 10 .o). 0 X max (i. Zi C2 = .. CAT (zN)] z..5 Multistage Decisron Making 403 initial decision are... X )= max {max min[g(x°).14) in the form 13(.Nk+1 RZNk Hence.Sec.
.))i) . mini 6. .404 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap.6 Hence.6. C2( f (z 2 .x°). min PA° (x2). a is obtained. 1.6/x2 . = . Applying the first backward iteration for t = 1. min[A l (. .6/zi .3.0 • C2 (z 2)1} = max(min[1. C2 ( f (z z . C2 (f (z3.61. x2))1} max{rnin[A. (z3 )] rnin[A L (x2).6].8]. we need to find a sequence i ° . x1) )J . max tnin(A° (.8 f(. C2 (zi)]. C I (zi)] . C 1 (z3)]. rain[A L (xz). 111 . C 2 ( f (zi. .1. x i ))].1 1 of input stales for which the maximum.6 Cl (z2) = max ftniniA l (x1).31) = . 15 Aikssuine further that the fuzzy constraints at input at times t .„ .8)} = . min[1. minjA° (x2) C l (f (z2 . C2(2 . To solve this decision problem.maximin[g(x L). C l (f (z2. C l (z1)1} = max train[. min4. CL . rain (x2). we obtain C l (xi ) = maxtmin[A l (x 1). C2 ( f(z'x 1))1.] I C° (4) = maximinfg(x4 ). maxirrtin[g(x1). z2))]) . . are = A L = 1/x/ + . Cl (zi)l) = max imin(i. min(. '(x2). C2(z3)] • maximinEl.6 .(x1). x2. xj ))1. xi))1.8/z2 ± By maximizing the expression minfli i (x i). Min[A i (X2)t C 2 ( f (z3.. C 1 ( f (z i . j ..0 and r J. we find the following Ina decision I' for each state z1 E Z at time t = 1: z l z1 X A Z2 Z3 X2 X1 X2 Applying now the second backward iteration for t = O we obtain CD(z0 ' maximin[A (xi ).6. Cl (z2)] ) 3 ]) max(nainf7.max (min [A (xi ).x2)). rain[A(1 (x).. A' (x') C 1 ( f (21 .6 ] 1 = .8 Cl (z3) = max (niin(A l (x1).7.. C 1 ( f xi ) ) min [4 ° (7cz). x2))1) = max tmin(A l (xi).
when the initial state is zi . hence. 1.6/z3 . (2.6.4).6/z2 . Thus. .6.tain(A° (x2 ). A 1 40.z3 ) = max(min[A ° (x1 ). as discussed in Sec. When the initial state is z2. C 2 (Z3)] That is. regardless of which of the two maximizing decisions is used. C l (Z3 )]) max {min [ . 1] = .6. mil:4A • min[1. C 2 (z2)] min[1. we have two maximizing decisions (rig. rnin[ 4 ° (x 2). the maximizing decision is to apply action x2 followed by xi. . xfl we find the following best decision 0 for each state z° E Z at time t — 0: z° Z1 X2 Xi Or X2 Z3 xi or X3 The maximizing decisions for different initial states z'ci are summarized ia Fig. In order to express a crisp preference of alternatives. the lattice of fuzzy numbers. . C° = . rain[A Œ (x2). there are two ways of calculating C° (z2): Ca (z2) = rainfA° (xa.. In this case.„ MIN. Al (x2). A (xi). We can easily find the same result for the initial state z3 . That is. 45. . where zi is the initial state. FUZZY RANKING METHODS 15. the final scores of alternatives are represented in terms of fuzzy numbers. C l (f (z3 .6 Hence. x2»]) 405 C (xi)). this goal is satisfied to the degree . 6] ] .8/zi . is not linearly ordered. the degree to which the goal is satisfied is expressed in terms of CD (zi. Unfortunately.8] C2 (z3 )11 • min[A° (x2 ). .8] = .). we need 'a method for constructing a crisp total ordering from fuzzy numbers. For example. C°(z1) = min[A ° (x2).7 .5 In many fuzzy decision problems.Sec.6 Fuzzy Ranking Mothad5 C0 (. min [1. MAX). the goal is satisfied to the degree .6]. . 15. 15.6 when the initial state is z2. 154. C 1 (z 2)1 . C I ( f • taaX [ta_in fit 1/ (x).6 C°(z2) = min[rnx2). C2 (z)] min [7 . By maximizing the expression min[Aci (x°). C f . some fuzzy numbers are not directly comparable_ .
However. B). The second method is based on acuts. hence. In fact. For any given fuzzy numbers A and B. B). B). That is. Each method appears to have some advantages as well as disadvantage. in the lattice. B). 15 r=0 ZC1 1/ I =1 0 X2 ell I . then MAX (A. we first determine their feast upper bound. A) and el(MAX (A. a number of variations of this method . the issue of choosing a proper ordering method in a given context is still a subject of active. B). B) f IA(x) B(x)Id x. which we want to compare.5 for different initial states 014 11111 0 e. some methods seem more appropriate than others. the Hamming distance. we describe three simpte methods and illustrate them by examples. Observe that we can also define a similar ordering of fuzzy numbers A arid B via the greatest lower bound MIN (A . A < E. In the context of each application. research. To illustrate the problem of total ordering of fuzzy numbers.406 Fuzzy Deci s ion Making Chap. Then.4 Maximizing decisions in. B). MAX (A. (15. is defined by the formula d (A.e. d(A.16) For any given fuzzy numbers A and B. the ordering defined by the Hamming distance is compatible with the ordering of comparable fuzzy numbers in T.2 g : • 0 0 Figure 15.. B) = B and. Numerous methods for total ordering of fuzzy numbers have been suggested in the literature. The first method is based upon defining the Hamming distance on the set A of all fuzzy numbers. Example 15.11 410 0 II t . and define A If A B (i. we calculate the Hamming distances d (MAX (A. fuzzy numbers are directly comparable).
B). A) and d(vfAX (A. Then.Sec.5. 15. say A1.5a. B) = f 1dx 3 1 ' (x lid. %Tic. from Fig. P is defined for each E N„ by the formula P(Ai ) = sup min A t(r. we rn ay conclude that. of course. B(r2)] = 0_75. A) ›. we construct the priority fuzzy set P on {A.!ct a particular value of a E 10. This deEnition is.)] = 1.uldng methods. keis (15. More sophisticated methods based on acuts.25 [ — x + 3 — 3 id. 15. 11 and determine the ci cuts = a21 and c'73 = [h i .17) rn ) E IM such that ri > ri for all where the supremum is taken over all vectors (r 1 .25 3 3]clx 3 (4— 31 1 = 12 + 24 ÷ § = 1 1 cl(TvfAX (A. Given fuzzy numbers A and B to be compared. The basic idea is to construct a fuzzy set P on 1/1 1 . A) = Ex —1— 3 X 2 2. When applyhg the second method to the same example. This method can be employed for ordering several fuzzy numbers. d(MAX (A. that A < B for any ce e (0. Example 15. called a priariV set. BI as follows: P(A) = sup truin[A (r1).x = — A. B(r2.6 In this example. B). b2 1.6 Fuzzy Ranking Methods 407 have been suggested in the li terature. respectively. A2 1 A„.7 a25* Since d(MAX(A. such as P(A1) is the degree to which Ai is ranked as the greatest fuzzy number. 1]. . Using the extension principle. we Illustrate and compare the three fuzzy rs. Then. B).k). A simple variation of this methods proceeds as follows. A 2 . obtain 2 d(MAX (A B).(ri).16). The third method is based on the extension principle. According to the third method. B). 15. we sel. such as the one developed by Mabuchi [1988]. MAX (A. B). AO. B) are expressed by the areas in the figure that are hatched horizontally and vertically. A < B.r 4 + + f2. It is usually required that a > 0. Using (15. dependent on the chosen value of a. we define  A < B if a• < b. Lei A and R be fuzzy numbers whose triangulartype membership functions are given in Fig. El) is the fuzzy number whose membership 'function is indicated in the figure in bold. B). we can easily find. aggregate appropriately defined degrees expressing the cionainance of one fuzzy number over the other one for all acuts. We can see that the Hamming distances d(isefAX (A.5a. Pi ?r7 P(B) = sup min[A. E N„. according to the first ranking method.
A < B. We can easily find that d(MAX (A.75 3 33 4 5 Figure 155 Ranking of fuzzy numbers (Example 3. we conclude that A .75 and . inconsistent. Consider now the fuzzy numbers A and B whose membership functions are given in Fig. The second method gives the same result only for > 0. we again obtain P(A) = 0. hence.13 (.408 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap.9 2 (11 ) 2. A ‹ B according to the Brat method. AMAX (A. again. B). B) = 0.‹ B. This shows that the method LI.5. A) =1.B) = 1. According to the third method. 15.511 The horizontally and vertically hatched areas have the same meaning as before. The most typical linear programming problem is .).7 FUZZY LINEAR PROGRAMMING The classical linear programming problem is to find the minimum or maximum values of a linear function under constraints rcpresonted by linear inequalities or equations. B). 15 (a) 0 1 1. Hence. Hence. 15.25.
and the vector b 1171.t.. . 15.x2 . the formulation of the problem can be simplified as Min z = cx s. x i. When we take the intersection of the five . where x = (xt. Exarupie 15. and s. and 2x± 4x2 = 6.) r is called a righrliand." The set of vectors x that satisfy all given constraints is called a feasible set.x2 . is a vecto of variables.6.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming Minimize (or maximize) ctx + c2.7 To illustrate the spirit of classical linear programming. 15. e 21 . Ax <13 > 0. we can draw a family of parallel straight lines representing the equation XL 2x 2 = p. where 1: G N. . 15.].half planes.18) 0 < x2 < 2 0 ‹ Using Fig. To find the minimum of the objective function z within the feasible set. ) 7. As is well known. we can show graphically how the solution of this linear programming problem can be obtained.1x„ < b2 ax. express the five inequalities in our example. First. x2. t. . 3x1—x2== 1.L 3x1 — 2x x2 > I. the feasible set i s obtained in Fig.nd j N. These straight lines. the direction in which p increases.. each of which constrains the whole plane into a halfplane. side vector. . x2 = 0. we would move the line in the opposite direction. Then. if the requirement were to maximize the objective function. The numbers ct (I E Nn) are called cost coefficients. (15. Using this notation.6 by drawing straight lines representing the equations x 1 = 0. stands for "subject to. we can imagine a straight line parallel to the others moving in that direction until it touches either an edge or a vertex of the convex polygon.Sec.• ± cirrn Subject to 12 11X1 409 + a 12rZ • • • ± alzrXtr a2oc1 a 2 . where p is a parameter. .t < bm The function to be minimized (or maximized) is called an objective function. and the vector is called a cost vector_ The matrix A = [ah. 15. 'let us consider a simple example: Min z s. b. let us denote it by z. we need to determine the feasible Set Employing an obvious geometrical interpretation. x2 = 2. we obtain the shaded area in Fig.a. At that point„ the value of parameter p is the minimum value of the objective function z. am ixi a m2x2 • a2.6 as a guide. This area is always a convex polygon. which represents the feasible set. many practical problems can be formulated as linear programming problems. C is called a constraint matrix. and observe the direction in which p decreases.
we exernplify the issues involved by two special cases of fuzzy linear programming problems. . and < denotes the ordering of fuzzy numbers.) (15. the operations of addition and multiplication are operations of fuzzy arithmetic. and Xi axe variables whose states are fuzzy numbers (i E Nm j e N„). it is not reasonable to require that the ccnstraits or the objective function in linear programming problems be specified in precise. In such situations. Fuzzy linear programming problems Bi are fuzzy numbers: in which only the righthandside numbers . C j are fuzzy numbers. crisp terms.1 E N„).'3. In many practical situations. 15 Figure 1S6 An example of a classical linear prognimming problem.19) where Ai). e N. Instead of discussing this general type.410 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. it is desirable to use some type of fuzzy linear programming The most general type of fuzzy linear programming is formulated as follows: max ECJXJ J1 EAuXi J=1 Xj.0 (. B1. Case 1.
20) s. to which x satisfies the fib constraint (I NO by the formula (x) = (E J1 These degrees are fuzzy sets on IV. E aux.. Ea qx3 B i (I x ?:. which represent a compromise in terms 01 the fuzzy numbers invulved. Aiixi s< Bi jr.21) In general. which are then solved by standard methods.t. Aij of the constraint matrix are fuzzy numbers: max E . Next. x.x • 7 )=1. . fl Di . For each vector x = (x1. is a fuzzy feasible set. Case 2. . This is done by calculating the lower and upper bounds of the optimal values first. 15.7a). fuzzy linear programming problems are first converted into equivalent crisp linear or nonlinear problems. Fuzzy linear programming problems in which the righthandside numbers B t and the coefficients. fuzzy numbers Bi typically have the form kti(x) 414 1 1 when x + — when bi <x < + O wieub1 +pj . 15. Di (x).„) (15.).1 X1 ?0 E c 14. St. x2. The final results of a fuzzy linear programming problem are thus real numbers. we fist calculate the degree. where x R (Fig.24 In this case.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming max 411 E CiX1 N) (15. O (j E N„).Sec. The lower bound of the optimal values. x„).t. and their intersection.? b i Ci xj> O ( j N. is obtained by solving the standard linear programming problem: 11 rriax z j=1 ex E Nin ) s. we detennine the fuzzy set of opt:Waal values. Let us discuss now fuizy linear programming problems of type 05.
20 becomes the following classical optimization problem: max 24. Then. (15.20). the fuzzy set of optimal values.2».20).r ) xi 0 (f N„).21.75 to. < ex I ex when z1 < ex G(x) = — z. E aux.(Z11 — Zg) — ex c —Zi Apg E azixj f ( + N. the upper bound of the optimal values. (i G KO A.412 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap.' .). 15 5 (a) "Fuzzy numbers in (15. is defined by when zi.7=Ly numbers employczt in fuzzy /bazar programming problem: (a) fazzy number in (15. Xj2O . the problem 05. )1. G.1 Types of fa. (15. Now. is obtained by a similar linear programming problem in which each bi is replaced with b + max z Cx s. z„.t. (b) triangular fuzzy numbers employed in (b] Triangular fuzzy numbers employed in.). 0 Zg when ex zt. which is a fuzzy subset of 1R. + p i i1 E ri. Figure 15.
t.0. 15. Then the problem can be formulated as the following fuzzy linear programming problem. a problem of finding a point which satisfies the constraints and goal with the maximum degree. 2/1 4x2 < 500 xi . x2 denote the number of units of products P1 .2. x2 > 0. The method employed here is called a symmetric method (Le.3x2 + x2 < 400 st. we obtain re = 130 and z11 = 160. xi ± x2 Bi (material) 2.8 Assume that a company makes two products. per day.4x1 + . the constraints and the goal are treated symmetrically). P2 made in one day.t. First we need to eldeulate the lower and tipper bounds of the objective function. Example 15. respectively. As discussed in Sec.5.r. how many units of products P.40 per unit profit and product P2 has a $0. but may possibly be extended to 500 units per day according to previous experience.Sec. .3x2 (profit) s.7 Fuzzy Linear Programming 413 The above problem is actually a problem of Ending x E EV such that [(( 1Di) n G1(x) reaches the maximum value. The following example illustrates the described method. Product P 1 has a $0. where B1 is defined by B7 (labor hours) f1 5011— 100 O and B2 is defined by when x < 400 when 400 < x < 500 when 500 <. this idea is due to Bellman and Zadeh [1970 ]. The supply of material is at least sufficient for 400 units of both products. 1. (PI) max r .30 per unit profit.. max r = . and may possibly be extended to 600 hours per day. and P2 should be made per day to maximize the total profit? Let xl. The problem is. x2 > O. Ile total available labor hours are at least 500 hours per day. Pi.4x1 + . that is.00 O when x < 500 when 500 < x <0O when 600 < x. due to special arrangements for overtime work. 1 600— 1. Each unit of product P i requires twice as many labor hours as each product P2.4 ± ›. By solving the following two classical linear programming problems. and Pa. (PD max z + S. There are also nonsymmetric methods. X1 + X2 < 500 2x1 4x< 600 xi'.
r2).141 + < —1 2 0 100A.2 = 350.7b.2 and si r1 < s2 r2.01 SA. Curry linear programming problem becomes: Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. 12. we flad that the maximum. A ›. 1. ri 1r2) and (si . Let us consider now the more general problem of fuzzy linear progrnirning defined by (1 5. A < B tif si < S2 — 1.?. is obtained for = 10+0. x2 . Summation and multiplication are operations on fuzzy numbers. 1.24 in this case.) f4.414 Then. 11+12. r. X. DUX E(Sif Jrm1 ( — c ti vi (1 E N„. we write A (s. 15.4 Xi > ( Ecj x„ vi) E rim) j N). s. (St. is then calculated_ by = + 145. Then.r. and the partial order < is defined by A ç B ifr MAX (A.O. +x1 +x2 < 500 100A + 2x1 + xi < 600 xi. ri) and B = (s2.C s 11X. ri) + (52.5. rix) for any nonnegative real number x.1 (i NO. It is easy to prove that for any two triangular fuzzy numbers A (s i . the. 15 max A. 1. r2) = (51+ 52. 1 = 0. Using this representation. The maximum profit. Moreover. the problem can be rewritten as M2X Ecizi i=1 . s. we assume that all fuzzy numbers are triangular.21) can then be rewritten as max si. v t ) are fuzzy numbers. .12. 301 — (. I. whose meanings are defined in Fig. where Aii ru ) and Bi = (ri ut . Any triangular fuzzy number A can be represented by three real numbers.rix (51. 1i. B) = B. Solving this classical optimization problem. Problem (15. r).
we obtain i = L5. x2 We can see that this is a classical linear programming problem with a smaller number of constraints than the one converted from a fuzzy nnnar programming prob/em. A .4. Therefore. Notice that if we defuzzified the fuzzy numbers in the constraints of the original problem by the maximum method. 1. this is a classical linear programming problem. 1)xt + (5.ca < 24 4x4 + x2 < 12 2x1 2 1c2 < 19 3xt + 0. = 19. this 'book is still pedagogically the best comprehensive introduction to the subject. Au early book on tr.Chap. while fu2Tiness in (15. O.t. 15 Notes 415 However.3) s. 3. 2. 2)xi + (1„5..21) results in stronger constraints.x2 15 X1 X2 ›.7zy decision making was written by Xickert t197dil.1)x2 xl.20) =nits in weaker constraints.5. (4. 1)x2 (4. Solving this problem.52.5x2 < 6 5x1 6x2 <32 6x t + 2. 6. we would obtain another classical linear programming problem: max z 5xi 4x7 • c 12 O. 1987]. 4xt 5x2 < 24 4:irl+x z xl . 8) (12. The classical paper by Batman and Zadch [19701 is a rich satuce of ideas regarding fuzzy decision making and certainly worth reading it is also reprinted in [Yager et al. since ail numbers involved are real numbers. Example 15. although it is not fully up ' to date. We can rewrite it as max z + 4x2 4xi . fuzziness in (15. 22 = 3. 5. NOTES 111.9 Consider the following fuzzy Linear programming problem: max z Sx L 4x2 (24.1.
3. 0.6. 15 15. they should be read in the given order. d. respectively. 1. and interest are expressed by the weights of .416 Fuzzy Decision Making Chap. Borto Ian and Degaui [19851. 10. Assume that each individual of a group of five judges has a total preference ordering Pi (i E N5) on four figure skaters a. Another important source on the subject. $5. 152.5 for the fuzzy goal  C 2 = .fuzzy constraints .4. and . For a systematic study. Then. The orderings are: P = (a. b. Use fuzzy multiperson decision making to determine the group decision. c. d. 15. = (a.1. $10. focusing on the comparison between fuzzy and stochastic approaches.4. are now available. which consists of 30 properly selected articles. 153. They cover the subject in great detail and provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of relevant literature. Repeat Exercise 15. a. A rich source of irformation on various aspects of fuzzy decision making. Another notable reference is the paper by Baldwin and Pilsworth [19821 The problem of fuzzy ranking or. d).000. 15. and $7.4.1/x2 + . Repeat Example 15.1 under the assumption that the importance of cost.9771. Literature dealing with multistage fuzzy decision making is rather restricted.4 for solving Exercise 15.8/z1 I. is the book edjted by Slowinski and Teghem [1990]. A. more generally. 28. a3 . $3. we recommend the book edited by Kacprzyk and Fedrizzi [1990].3.9/z3 and the. e). Two important monographs on the subject.215.000. the book by Lai and Hwang [1992] is a comprehensive overview of this subject as well as relevant literature. a3.000.5. d.6. was prepared by Zimmermann et at [19841 An approach to decision making (both fuzzy and crisp) based on binary relations that encode pairvvise preferences is systematically investigated by Kitainik [1993]. Literature on multioriterla fuzzy decision making i5 CAtt135jVC. P2 (a. respectively. b. and 15. Define your own fuzzy set of acceptable costs and your own fuzzy sct of acceptable travel times.5. 0. 115 = 0. 10. 15. b). Employ the fuzzy multicriteria decision making method described in Sec. and use this set to choose one of the five travel packages. Fuzzy linear programming is covered in the literature quite extensively. determine the fuzzy set of interesting travel packages whose costs and travel times are acceptable. deeper and more uptodate introduction to fuzzy decision making was written by Zimmermann [1987].6. and Sande and Schwarzlander [1992]. For information on the various issues of multiperson fuzzy decision making. some major representative references or this subject: Baas and Kwakernaak [1. 0. Efstathiou.2. and Tong [19 2] .5. A good overview of fuzzy ranking methods is in Chapter Pf of the hook by Chart and Hwang [1992].000. c). 15. Consider five travel packages a i . c. travel time.000. EXERCISES 15. respectively. b. from which we want to choose one. a2. written by Hwang and Yoon [1981] and Chen and Hwang [1992]. The discussion is still ongoing. their costs are $1. a4. ordering of fuzzy sets defined on R has been discussed in the literature quite extensively. 15. respectively. 152. The following are . Pi. The book written by Kacprzyk [19831 is undoubtedly the most important source. Their travel times in hours are 15. Assume that they are viewed as interesting with the degrees 0. c. Dubois and Pragie 11983]. d.
Ctiap. 15
Exercises
417 =
lixi and A L = 1/x i + .7/x2. 15.6. Let A be a symmetric trapezoidaltype fuzzy number with "A = [0, 4] and LA = [1, 31 and let /3,, C be symmetric triangulartype fuzzy numbers with centers cB = 4, cc = 5, and spreads sB = = 2. Rank these fuzzy numbers by each of (he three ranking methods described in Sec. 15,6.
15.7 Solve the following fuzzy linear programming problems.

(a)
max z = .5x1
2r1 +x2
, /C/ >
.2x2
< s.t. x1+x2.B1
B2 Oi.
where Ii for x < 300
400 — x for 300 ‹ x < 400 100 for x 400 0
and
1i
500 — x
B2(X)
for x < 400
100
for 400 <x < 500 for
500
O
max z = 6x1 5x2 s.t. 0, 3, 2)xl I (6, 4, 2)x2 < (25, 6, 9),
(5, 2, 3).E/ + (2, /.5, 1)_2‘2. .< (13, 7, 4)
X2 > O.
6
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
18.1
INTRODUCTION
in applications of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic, and fuzzy measure theory, the field of engineering has undoubtedly been a leader. All engineering disciplines have already been affected, to various degrees, by the new methodological possibilities opened by fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures. The whole field of engineering is too broad to be covered here in a comprehensive way. Hence, we characterize only some typical and easily understandable engineering problems in the main engineering disciplines in which the use of fuzzy set theory has already proven useful. As always, further information regarding relevant literature is given in the Notes. By developing fuzzy controllers, which are cun ently the most significant systems based _ on fuzzy set theory, electrical engineering was the first engineering discipline within which the utility of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic was recognized. Since fuzzy controllers and other topics related to electrical engineering, such as fuzzy image processing, electronic circuits for fuzzy logic, or robotics, are covered elsewhere in this book, no special section on electrical engineering is included in this chapter. However, relevant literature is overvieweld in Note 16.5. Among other engineering disciplines, the utility of fuzzy set theory was recognized surprisingly early in civil engineering. Some initial ideas regarding the application of fuzzy sets in civil engineering emerged in the early 1970s and were endorsed by the civil engineering community quite enthusiastically. Since these beginnings, many civil engineers have become active in exploring the potential of fuzzy sets for dealing with a variety of specific problems in civil engineering. In Sec. 16.2, we examine a few representative problems in civil engineering in which the utility of fuzzy sets is now well established. In mechanical engineering, the prospective role or fuzzy set theory was recognized only in the mid 1980s, and its full potential has not been fully realized as yet_ Nevertheless, the number of publications dealing with applications of fuzzy sets in mechanical engineering has been steadily growing. The special nature of these applications is illustrated by a few typical examples in Sec. 16.3.

418
Sec. 16.2
ChM Engineering
419
Since the mid1980s, interest in fuzzy set theory has also been visible in industrial engineering. This interest is primarily connected with the use of fuzzy controllers in manufacturing, fuzzy expert systems fer various special areas of industrial engineering, and virtually all types of fuzzy decision making, as well as fuzzy linear programming. The role of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering is overviewed and illustrated by a few examples in Sec. 16.4. Fuzzy set theory is also becoming important in computer engineering and knowledge engineering. Its role in computer engineering, which primarily involves the design of specialized hardware for fuzzy logic, is discussed in Sec. 16.5, Its role in knowledge engineering involves knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation, and humanmachine interaction; some aspects of this role are implicitly covered in Chapters 1014. Other engineering disciplines, such as chemical, nuclear, or agricultural engineering, have not been much affected by fuzzy set theory as yet, but some successful examples of the use of fuzzy controllers in chemical engineering are described in the literature.
CIVIL ENGINEERING
16.2
Civil engineering, when compared with other engineering disciplines, is fundamentally different in the sense that available theories never fully fit the actual design problem. This is because each civil engineering project is, by and Jarge, unique; hence, there is almem never a chance to test a prototype, as in other engineering disciplines. As a consequence, the uncertainty in applying theoretical solutions to civil engineering projects is large. How the designer deals with this uncertainty is crucial, because the standards. of safety required by the general public regarding civil engineering constructions (such as bridges, buildings, dams, etc.) are extremely high. The designer has to make decisions in spite of the high uncertainty he or she feces. The most fundamental knowledge of the civil engineer concerns the materials employed; how they are made, shaped, and assembled; how resistant they are to stress, weather, and use; and how they may fail. Before scientific knowledge regarding these aspects of materials was available, civil engineering was a craft. Design decisions (e.g., regarding the great cathedrals or elaborate mansions) were made by subjective judgments based on the experience of the designer and "rules of thumb" derived by accumulating design experience over the centuries. In spite of the scientific knowledge now available, great uncertainty concerning the application Of the knowledge to actual design problems still remains, primarily due to the uniqueness of each design problem in civil engineering, and the use of subjective judgments and relevant "rules of thumb" is unavoidable. This seems to explain why civil engineers so quickly found a strong affinity with fuzzy set theory. One important category of problems in civil engineering for which fuzzy set theory has already proven useful consists of problems of assessing or evaluating existing constrictions. Typical examples of these problems are the assessment of fatigue in metal structure, the assessment of quality of highway pavements, and the assessment of damage in buildings after an earthquake. To illustrate the use of fuzzy set theory in these problems, we describe the problem. of assessing the physical condition of bridges, as formulated by Tee et at. [19881 With approximately 600,000 highway bridges in the United States, about one half of which were built before 1940, the problem of assessing their physical conditions is acute. The
420
Engineering Apptications
Chap. 16
seriousness of the situation is mageified by the fact that many of these bridges, paxticularly the older ones, were designed for less traffe, lighter loads, and smaller speeds than required by current standards. Periodic assessment of bridges is thus essential for establishing priorities of funding for their rehabilitation or replacement. All accumulated experience regarding the assessment of physical conditions abridges is summarized in the Bridge Inspector's Training Manual, published by the 11.S. Department of Transportation. The manual provides bridge inspectors with basic guide Unes and procedures to perform their task. It specifies three components of each bridge, its deck, superstructure and substructure, which are further divided into 13, 16, and 20 subcomponents, respectively. The inspector is requixed to assess the condition of each subcomponent individually, to assess the relative structural importance of the subcomponents in the context of each particu]ar bridge inspection, and to aggregate these individual assessments to obtain an overall assessment of the bridge. Since each bridge inspection involves highly imprecise information, it is based to a large extent on the experience, intuition, and subjective judgment of the inspector. Human subjectivity and imprecision can be taken into account by using an appropriate fuzzy set to express the condition of each inspected component and, similarly, by using an appropriate fuzzy set to express the structural importance of each component. The latter fuzzy sets are obtained by surveying a group of engineers and inspectors regarding the dependence of structural importance on condition rating for each component and averaging their responses.  Once the two kinds of fuzzy sets are determined for all components (see the original paper for more details), the overall evaluation is obtained by calculating the weighted average for all components. Since numbers expressing conditions of the individuel components and weights expressing the structural importance of these conditions are fuzzy numbers, the weighted average is a fuzzy number that is calculated by fuzzy arithmetic_ Let Ci , }Ili denote,
respectively, the fuzzy number expressing the condition of component i and the fuzzy number
expressing the structural significance of component i (weight of i), and let n denote the number of components that are assessed. Then, the fuzzy set expressing the overall evaluation, A, is defined by the formula
(16.1) 11
As a simple illustration of the described procedure, let us assume that only three components ara to be assessed, which are referred to as deck, beams, and piers and labelled with 1 1, 2, 3, respectively. Assume further that each of these components is evaluated in linguistic tetras as poor, fair, and good. The meaning of these linguistic tetras is expressed by the fuzzy sets defined in Fig. 16.1 in terms of the interval 11,5] of assumed condition rating. (the &mailer the number, the worse the condition). For the sake of simplicity, we restrict our example to the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 as the 'only accepted condition ratings_ Then, the three linguistic ternis are represented by the following fuzzy sets
P 0/1 + 1/2 + 0/3 + 0/4 + 0/5 for poor, F = 011 + 0/2 + 1/3 + .5/4 ÷ 0/5 for fair, G 0/1 + 0/2 + 0/3 + .5/4 + 1/5 for good.
Sec. 16.2
Civil Engineering
421
8
.4
.2
o
2
3
4
5
Sridge condition rating
Figure 15.1 Meinbeiship functions in the example of bridge ratings.
Assume that it was found, during the bridge inspection, that the deck is in good condition, beams are in fair condition, and piers are in poor condition. Assume further that the fuzzy sets for structural importance are associated with the given condition assessments as follows:
rp
=oil+ 0/2 +1/3 0/4 for poor, 0/1 + 1/2 + .5/3 ± 0/4 for good.
IF = 0/1. + 0/2 + .5/3 + 1/4 for fair,
rG =
Using the labels I = 1,2,3, the symbols in (16.1) have the following meanings in this example :
That is, (15.1) assumes the form IGiIF +IP After evaluating this expression by fuzzy arithmetic, we obtain
A=
"
A = 0/1 + 0/24 1/3 ± .6/4 + 0 15
(details of the calculation are in the original paper). To interpret the resulting fuzzy set A in terms of one of the three linguistic terms (poor, fair, goad), we may calculate a distance A to each of the fuzzy sets f F, G, and select that linguistic term whose fuzzy representation is closest to A. Employing, for example, the Euclidean distance, a, we have
5
d (A , P)
(EIA (1c) P (1012 );
(0±1+1 +036 10)i =1.536.
Similarly, we obtain d(A,F). 0.1 and d(A,G)= 1.418. Since A is closest to F. we may
422
Engineering Applications
Chap. 16
conclude in this highly simplified example that the overall assessment of the inspected bridge is fair. Several applied areas of fuzzy 5ct theory h.a.ve already been found to be of great utility in civil engineering. They include fuzzy decision making (often combined with fuzzy risk analysis), approximate reasoning (utilized in specialized expert systems), and fuzzy control
(applied, e.g., to the control of traffic in cities). Since these applied areas are covered at other places in this book, we do not deem it necessary to discuss their specific utility in civil engineering. However, we describe an unorthodox application of fuzzy control to a
transportation problem. Consider a terminal where vehicles of different routas arrive and depart ai fixed times. Assume that we want to design a schedule for which the transfer times frona one route to another are minimized. This problem is called a schedule coordination problem Three
variations of the problem are possible, depending on which of the following objective criteria is chosen: • to minimize the maximum transfer time; • to minimize the average transfer time; • to minimize the sum of all transfer times.
It is assumed that arrival and departure times of all vehicles and their routes are known, that the schedule is periodic with a given period (one day, one week, etc.), and that passengers transfer from a vehicle of one route to the next awilahle vehicle of another route. The schedule coordination problem is known to be computationally difficult. In terms of the classical theory of crisp algorithms, it belongs to the class of NPcomplete problems.
We describe an alternative approach to the problem, proposed by Kikuchi and Parameswaran [19931 which is based on the idea of fuzzy control. Let a terminal be characterized by arriving and departing vehicles of n routes, and let til,k‘ denote the transfer time from the kth vehicle of route i to the next available vehicle of route I. Then,
nit
= MaX trk
keNoor
is the maximum time a passenger could wait during a transfer from route j to route j, and
= max 'n.
jr EMI

possible transfer time for all pairs of routes. Assume that the objective in this example is to minimize the maximum transfer combinations. That is, we want to minimize the sum of values in for all i, J E N. This objective is pursued by a fuzzy controller based upon four prpperiy formulated fuzzy inference rules, which determine the amount by which the arrival times of route r are shifted towards the departure times of route s. The rules also specify whether the shift should be made in the positive or negative direction, To formulate the rules, let in = me, and let hs denote the headway (the time interval between arrivals) on vehicles on route s. Using this notation, the rules are formulated as follows.
is the maximum
Sec. 16.2
(a) in
—2
Civi Engineering
423
if in is high, then make a small negative shift. If in is tow, then make a large negative shift.
hs (b) in < —; U in is high, then make a large positive shift. 2 If m is low, then make a small positive shift.
The linguistic terms high, low, large positive (or negative), and small positive (or negative) are represented by fuzzy sets who membership functions are determined in the context of each particular problem. The membership functions employed in this example are defined in Fig. 162 (either rules (a) or rules (b) are applied at each time). Using the inference method described in Chapter 12, restricted in this example to one input variable, in, the rules are combined in the way illustrated for a particular value of 171 in Fig. 16.3. Output fuzzy sets for each inference are cletuzzified in this, example by the centerofgravity method.
lar4141
small
small
large
905 hive
Fleg
hie
negative pas itive
Membemhip wads
l'ArYiNethir) grade
60[mEnj (a) Transfer time Figure 1,62 Membership functions of fuzry sets re/Jr:mating
the lhiguistic labeh in the schedule
comdination problem_
The described fuzzy inference rules are applied to a given initial schedule. St I)) , according to the following algorithm: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let p 0 and let S (P) be a given schedule. For all î j G N,„ determine the maximum transfer times .171 (p) in schedule Identify a route pair r, $ with the largest transfer time (m', = Apply relevant inference rules to the route pair r, s (i.e., in = "). This results in a new schedule denoted by (p +1) in schedule S (R") 5. For all i, j E N„, determine the maximum transfer times and calculate the difference
,
D (P)
=
E Imp)
rnI(p
1)1
6. If VP) 0, increase p by one and go to (step 2). 7. If D (P) < 0 and at least one route pair has not been examined yet, choose a route pair r, $ with the next largest transfer time; otherwise, terminate the algorithm.
424
Engineering Applications
Chap, 16
60 Amount of shift fmrtroid)
(a) m
h 2
CONSEQUENCE
—
low""
60 0 Amount of shift (centroid)
ff. 5st:of ttnrom
' re
(b) m <
5 
h 2
Figure 10 Elam]. if the use of the inference mks in
h, he
the schedule coodhaation problem: (a)
Sec. 16.2
Civil Engineering
425
In Table 161. res.ults obtained by the algorithm based on fuzzy inference rules 2re compared with results obtained by a crisp enumeration method for a given schedule with 25 routes. While the enumeration method improved the schedule by 3.3% in 500 seconds of CPU time, the fuzzybased algorithm made an improvement of 21% in only 34.07 seconds of CPU time. The improvement produced by the two methods in time is expressed by the plots in Fig. 16.4a. Similar plots for a schedule with 50 routes are shown in Fig. 16_41). We can see that the power of the fuzzybased algorithm growth tremendously stronger with the increasing size of the scheduling problem.
s1.1.1
Pe rcentage imp roVement
FLIZZy COntrol
methad
10
Emeneration method
sIVIR
4
.
r
200 400
.1)
0
(a) 25 rotes..(ee
600
Table I
Percentage improvement
400
200
0
1000 2000 Computation time in CPU time (seconds)
(b) 50 routes
Figure 16.4 Comparison of fuzzy control find twimeraitact for the scheduling problem: (a) 25 routes (see Table 16.1); (h) 5û tams.
426
Engineering Applications
TABLE 16.1 C 0 &I PARS I 0 N OF RESULTS OBTAINED FOR THE SCHEDIJUNG PROBLEM BY FUZZYBASED ALGORITHM AND ENUI1.4RATIONI METHOD
Departure 'Ernes (in min. aller the hour)
Chap. 16
Route
Headway
Layover Time at
Terminal (min,)
Ex, 43,
;••s.1
.r.r R4 sCrq
Initial Schedule
5, 25, 43 5 0
After Fuzzy Control
3, 23, 43 5 17 7, 37 11, 41
After Enumeration
5, 25, 45 5 0
0,30
11, 41
0.30 I
11, 41
5 25,55 16. 46 25 35
55
23 4,34 7. 37 6 8
20
5 25,55 16. 46 25

10, 25, 40, 55
30
14, 29, 44, 59
7
35 55 10, 25, 40, 55 30 1, 6, 21, 36, 51 0, 20, 40 12 9 21, 51 29 9, 29, 49 3, 18, 33, 48
0,30
16.3
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
It has increasingly been recognized in engineering that the early stages in engineering design are more important than the later stages. This is a consequence of the fact that any early
design decisions restrict the set of available design alternatives. If good alternatives in a design problem are eliminated by these decisions, they cannot be recovered in later stages of the design process. This means that every wrong early design decision is very costly. Unfortunately, if the early decisions are required to be precise, then it is virtually impossible to determine how good or bad each decision is in terms of the subsequent design steps and,
eventually, in terms of the final design. Experienced designers recognize this difficulty and
fr)
•
8,35
6, 21, 36, 51 0, 20, 40 12 9 21, 51 34 19, 39. 59 13, 28, 43, 58 15, 45 22 24, 54 15685 (ruin).

8,38
6, 21, 36, 51 19, 39, 59 1 /6 0, 30 /6 19, 39, 59 16, 31, 46
3,33
; : ' '.
i
i
7 1, 31 1200 (
47 29, 59
15255
Total !am Transfer Thu* Percentage Improvement Computation Time (CPO' secs.)
(min)
21% 34.07
3.3%
500

Sec. 10.3
Mechanical Engineering
427
attempt to begin the design process with a complete but approximate, imprecise description of the desired artifact to be designed. As the design process advances from the formative stage to more detailed design and analysis, the degree of imprecision in describing the artifact is reduced. At the end of the design cycle, the imprecision is virtually eliminated, except for unavoidable tolerances resulting from. imperfections in the manufacturing process. Classical mathematics is not equipped to deal with imprecise descriptions. As a consequence, it has been difficult to provide the designer with computational tools for the early stages ef the desige process. It was realized 410 Laid the mid1980s, prieuarily in the context of mechanical engineering design, that fuzzy set theory is eminently suited to facilitate the whole design process, including the early stages. The basic idea is that fuzzy sets allow the designer to describe the designed artifact as approximately as desired at the early stages of the design process. This approximate description in terms of imprecise input parameters is employed to calculate the corresponding approximate characterization of relevant output parameters. The latter are compared with given performance criteria, and information obtained by this comparison is then utilized to determine appropriate values of input parameters. To illustrate these general ideas pertaining to engineering design of any kind, we describe their more specific application to typical problems of mechanical engineering design, as developed by Wood and Antonsson f1989] and Otto et al. [1993a, b]. Variables involved in au engineering design are usually referred to as parameters. They are classified into input parameters (also called design parameters), output parameters, and performance parameters. An input parameter is any independent parameter whose value is determined during the design process. An output parameter involved in the design process is any parameter that is functionally dependent on the input parameters and, possibly, on some performance parameters, but is not subject to any specified functional requirement. A performance parameter, contrary to an output parameter, is subject to some functional requirement. The term ftmetional requirement refers to a value, range of values, or fuzzy number that is specified for a performance parameter. Functional requirements, which are included in the formulation of each design problem, are independent of the design process. Performance achievable by the design is expressed in terms of the performance parameters. After relevant parameters in a particular design problem are determined, the first step iu appiying fuzzy sets to this problem is to express preferences regarding values of input parameters by appropriate fuzzy sets. Given an input parameter te that takes values in set VI , which is usually an interval of real numbers, let preferences for different values of vi be expressed by a fuzzy set Fi on V1 . For each z E Vt , the value Fi (x) designates the degree of desirability of using the particular value x within the given set of values VI . Set Fi may thus be referred to as the set of desirable values of parareeter te (within the context of the given design problem), and Fi (x) may be viewed as the grade of membership of value x in this set. Index i is used here to distinguish different input parameters in the same design problem. In general, we assume that j E N. for some positive integer n. Membership grades Fi (x), which are interpreted as representing the designer's desire to use the various values v e if for the input parameter te, are obtained either subjectively, by the designer, or objectively, by relevant engineering data. In subjective terms, the designer may express the various dimensions of the design artifact by appropriate fuzzy numbers representing linguistic descriptions such as about 15 cm or smaller than but dose to 50 kg. Triangular fuzzy numbers seem most convenient for this purpose. Consider, for example, the linguistic description about 15 cm pertaining to parameter te. Assume that there is a
The calculation may conveniently be performed in appmdmate discrete fashion by using the following algorithm. 1].1. Membership functions of fuzzy sets representing objective preferences are determined by relevant.L 0. an of the input parameters v1. 15.428 Engineering Applications Chap. such as . they are employed for calculating the associated fuzzy sets for performance parameters. Then. and other characteristics.a. a wide range of materials might be used and the membership function expressed in terms of corrosion. P is the value of the performance parameter p that corresponds to the values al. or some other measurable material property.. For example.4  0. e fi ned in Fig. The latter fuzzy sets express the achievable performance of the design project.. S(GPa) Filure 165 Pmferetee function: steel alloy data. Let k = I.. ..2.3 0. 7) is the corresponding triangular fuzzy number expr e ssed by the triple (s. • Once the fuzzy sets expressing preferences of the designer are determined for ait input parameters. may also be used. .6 0. which takes values from_ set Et. F = (15. It is assumed that fuzzy sets Fi expressing preferences for input parameters vi (z e 61. 19891. chemical. . are given. I. Meigi bership grade 0. physical. in (0..2  0. An example of a membership function constructed from the cost data for certain steel alloys is shown in Fig.. v„ respectively (45 E P). it is based on tho designer's preference for minimum cost [Wood and Airwoman. thermal expansion. X V„ For each ai i l i (a t .2 I. including the cost of different materials.5. It is also assumed that a single performance parameter p is involved. Select appropriate values eel. preferably equally spaced.4. and that these sets are normalized and convex (i. they are fuzzy numbers). 0. cr2. 16 restriction on the dimension to be greater than 10 cm and that the designer wants to keep the dimension under 22 cm. 5 Tensile strength. a2. u2. 16.. They are calculated on the basis of known functional dependencies of individual performance parameters on some or all of die input parameters by the extension principle.3 I. î r . The algorithm to determine a fuzzy set G that is induced on P by fuzzy sets F (1 E KO through function f has the following steps. 42 . 5.e. . A combination of several properties. and which is expressed by a function ) f Vi X Vi X .7b. 1. 0.
3 Mechanical Engineering  429 2.7. d = 4 m and w = 20 kr. When only one performance parameter is involved. In design problems with multiple performance parameters. determine  Then. This follows the extension principle as well as fuzzy arithmetic. if it is necessary to use an offpeak value of a performance parameter to satisfy the functional requirements. That is. each combination is an n tuple. target values of performance parameters are specified by functional requirements and do not directly express desires (preferences) of the designer.7a and b. but in a somewhat different way than the input parameters. if it is necessary to use a value of a performance parameter whose performance is 0. max b id. the designer needs to express preferences regarding values of the various input parameters introduced in the figure. While input parameters are subject to the designer's desires (preferences). The output parameter value with preference (membership grade) 1 corresponds to the input values with preference 1. 3. if the designer's desires are fully met. If this output value satisfies the functional requirements. Generate all 2n combinations of the endpoints of the intervals representing the (Yk cu ts of sets Fi (i E NO.. a figure of merit must be introduced to combine the different performance parameter preferences. 16. we assume that values of all these parameters.6 is required. 16. then the designer is justified to use the values of input parameters with preference 1. then the performance is expressed by the output value with preference 1. then this implies that at least one input parameter must have a preference of 0. 5.I.Sec. determine intervals of Vi that represent the ak cuts of fuzzy sets Fi (i E No. . However. In . we describe a simple example of mechanical engineering design that is adopted from the mentioned paper by Otto et aL [1993]. whose purpose is to support a weight w at a distance from a wall. After expressing the preferences for the input parameters. the designer may decide to redefine the input preferences and repeat the procedure. which are based on geometric constraints. ak G = [min b1 . stop. For each te. the fuzzy sets calculated for performance parameters from their counterparts defined for input parameters do express the designer's preferences. If k < r . (et . and so forth.. depicted in Fig. . the method consists basically of two steps: a value of the performance parameter is determined that satisfies the functional requirements and bas the highest performance. In particular. increase k by one and return to Step 2. To illustrate the procedure. For example. customer requirements. After completing the two steps. For the sake of simplicity. except ye.7 or less. otherwise. then input values other than the most desirable must be used. 16. 16. ve. 4. the designer must rate different values of these parameters in terms of their effect on a performance parameter. Assuming that the configuration shown in Fig.6. and suitable values of the input parameters are identified that are functionally connected with the value determined in the first step. e2 .2 (the width and thickness of the supporting beams) that are shown in Fig. Consider the problem of designing a simple structural frame. For each rttuple generated in Step 3. are given. We also assume that the designer specified the preferences for values of ee and 1.
the values of input parameters with the highest preferences (i. That is. this example. To obtain the optional value.7d. a typical performance parameter is the maximum bending stress. we obtain the membership function shown in Fig. This can be done by determining the acuts = for a = G(o. A specification of the range of bending stress (measured in gigapascats.6 De s ign.8 mis2 and p = 7830 kg/m2 are relevant physical constants_ It must be ensured that the bending stress is not excessive.298 [GPa]. hence it does not satisfy the requirement that the bending stress not be excessive. Applying the abovedescribed algorithm based on discrete acuts. Consequently. a' is the value of er for which  sup mintO (a) treR (a)1 is obtained_ This calculation.e. we can see that this value is almost 115.on the input parameter. whose dependence on y 1 and th is expressed by the formula Q .*) and calculating [e11. Given the preferences for values of the input parameters y 1 and y2 . which is illustrated graphically in Fig. 16.7c. of the performance palameter. ideal values) cannot be employed in the design. it remains to determine the corresponding optimal values u and v' of the input parameters e l and u2. the designer can now apply the extension principle to determine the induced fuzzy set G for the performance parameter a. a*.430 Engineering Apeiieratiena Chap. ci. GPa) that is not excessive is represented by a fuzzy set NE whose membership is specified in Fig. [621 e22I . 16. ei21. 16 Figure 16. in the horizontal beam. and the functional dependence of the performance parameter a.2 t y2 2eile pgv 1 v2d 2 13 where g = 9.. example. Once we obtain the optimal values a* of the performance parameter ci. 16. results in 0. we need to fuld a value of a that belongs to the intersection of sets G and NE with the highest membership grade.. Comparing the value of ci for which the membership function G has its maximum with function NE.7e.
.0 0.43.2 (c) . D.4 .0 .02 .0 1 1.4 0.3 u[GPa] .0 Fuzzy sets .. 2 0.14 4..3 1.04 (b) I LC 1 .5 (a) Figure 16.7 VIA.2 0.0 LL 0. 16.0 0.2 .4 0. invotved in the example of inechatical system design depicted in .1 .6 C. Q4 LL G 1 0. (Tv cr[GPal .Sec.5 5'11 0.0 4111 4 (a) p 02 0.0 ..4 0. Mechanical Engineering 431 1.a 1.
Numerous other applications of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering have also been explored to various degrees. 16. Some informatiou about the estimated service life of the equipment is expected from its manufacturer. quality control. traditional techniques for dealing with these problems are adaptations of techniques developed for solving problems of mechanistic systems. The term around x years ils expressed by a fuzzy number whose spread around its peak at x indicates the degree of nonspecificity in the estimate. Although human beings play an important role in most problems of concern in industrial engineering. and a statement in natural language is often the best way to express it. the estimated service life of the equipment is around x years. Then 177 and 14 are equal to the endpoints for which min b) is obtained. ergonomic. and c). Contrary to other engineering disciplines. industrial engineering is concerned with the design. = 0. and money. In our example. The main sources of information regarding these other applications are two books.4 J044 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING In general. b. it is usually not reasonable to request a precise estimate. ergonomics. Two welldeveloped applied areas of fuzzy set theory that are directly relevant to industrial engineering are fuzzy control (Chapter 12) and fuzzy decision making (Chapter 15).298 [Gpaj and G(r) 0. but also with behavioral. we illustrate the utility of fuzzy set theory in industrial engineering by a few examples borrowed primarily from these books.432 1)1 = f(e 1 .07003 [na] and v. control of industrial processes. the optimal values of the input parameters are i = 0. b4 = f (ei7. organizational. "Under normal operating conditions. A realistic estimate of this kind is always only approximate. which was motivated to a large extent by the need for a more expressive mathematical framework to deal with humanistic systems. safety engineering. and control of systems whose components are human beings. economic. and other issues. financial management. organizational design. a book edited by Karweavski and Mitat [1984]. machines.* = 0. and a broader book edited by Evans et aL [19891 In this section. project management. . and others. Fuzzy sets are convenient for estimating the service life of a given piece of equipment for various conditions under which it operates. 17." The terra normal operating cEmditions may conveniently be expressed by a collection of fuzzy sets. However. where o. This implies that industrial engineering is a crossdisciplinary field_ Subject areas covered by industrial engineering include manufacturing. inventory control. human factors.08834 [rni (see also Fig. material. Engineering Applications Chap. which focuses on problems concerning human factors. A typical statement expressing the estimated service life might have the form. risk analysis. industrial engineering deals not only with technical issues involving manmade systems. 16 b2 = b3 = f (el2t en) . has undoubtedly a great deal to offer to industrial engineering . e21). one for each uperational characteric (variable) that is known to effect the service life of the equipment.58. Fuzzy set theory.7a. e22) for all combinations of the endpoints of "F1 and ceF2. operation.
or the difference between two signals. 16. if necessary. set C is defined by the formula C (x) = min[C (x ). The computer. C2r • • r C. however. C2(X). the automobile could be said to be performing a built in test. The term builtin test is loosely defined as a system's ability to evaluate its own state of repair and take appropriate action in the event of an anomaly. respectively. Then. X2 . Assume further that the fuzzy number L is defined on a universal set Y. the warning light is illuminated. fuzzy relation R on X Y by the formula R(x.  where b a fuzzy set on X that expresses the actual operating conditions (not necessarily normal) and L s is a fuzzy number expressing the estimated service life of the given equipment under these conditions. This example illustrates special builtin tests known as range tests. C2.. which are often appropriate subsets of real numbers. we can now define a. L(y)] for all x e X and y Y. In a range test. C is the cylindric closure of Ci. the problem of designing builtin tests for industrial systems. the computer must determine if a quantity is acceptable. Assume that fuzzy sets C1. the quantity is a function of the values of one or more signals monitored by the system. y) = [C(x). We have =. Increasingly.(x. . and. which is a cylindric closure of C and L. say. for all n tuples z  (x1 . alt automobile with a temperature warning light_ If the engine coolant tempera= rises above a certain threshold. That is. as the one in the example above as being actuated by mechanical systems. for example. is a convenient representation of the available information regarding the estimated service life of the equipment in question. Using set C. typically. and let the fuzzy number expressing the estimated service life be denoted C1. we think of warning lights slid. the quantity is observed ordy at discrete instants of time at which samples are taken. the average of several signals. which typically consists of some conditioning circuitry and a digital sampler. appropriate action is taken by illuminating the warning light rather than. C„ on X = X1 X X2 X X X. C2. turning the engine off. • Let us proceed to another application of fuzzy sets in industrial environment. In this case. Clearly. let the fuzzy sets that express the individual normal operating conditions be denoted by C ol . an appropriate action must be taken  . ah normal operating conditions can be expressed by one fuzzy set. The computer obtains data about the monitored quantity through an observation channel.4 industrial Engineering 433 Considering the above statement regarding the estimated service life of equipment.Sec.0 a specified operating range. then. which is always a given subset of real numbers. This relation. is really making an educated guess about the acceptability of the quantity with respect 1. Assuming that the conditions are mutually independent. It can readily be used for estimating the service life under operating conditions that deviate the normal operating conditions. resident in an embedded control or monitoring system. x2. If the quantity is determined to be unacceptable. by L. Consider. .„)1 C. its state of repair is evaluated using coolant temperature.CoR. the signal above. Classically. . . are defined on universal sets Xi. tasks such as this are the responsibility of a computer. x„) E X. This means that information regarding the quantity is Limited by the resolution of the sampler. for example. C.
the general "rule of thumb" is as follows: The tarser the deviation of the quantity value from the required range. the greater the chances are of inclining adverse effects. where all sample values are definitely unacceptable. b(xk) = Ab(ztt).434 Engireering Apprications Chap. 16. Next. b(xk_ 1 ) A(xk) U(x01. respectively. At the other boundaty condition. there is a limit to the amount of time that may be used to make the decision. In general. Lf(x0j. The term unacceptable would frequently require the following definition: sufficiently high degree A quantity is unacceptable if its sample values violate the range of acceptable. and the faster a failure must be declared. ln between these boundary conditions. Membership functions of then fuzzy sets may conveniently be defined by the trapezoidal shapes shown in Fig.8. In the boundary condition. Define a universal set X consisting of all possible sample values of the given quantity. where k denotes the kth iteration of the builtin test logic and xk denotes the kth sample of the quantity being evaluated. a meaningful procedure for constructing a range test is described as follows: 1. To develop a procedure by which to decide when the action is needed. the number of samples required to record a failure is large enough to provide sufficient noise intolerance and overall belief that the actual signal is indeed unacceptable. A reasonable specific function f is given by the formula: b(x k) = max[0. Using all these considerations. 2. Define an overall level of belief. . which are assumed to be discrete.values to a renriy violates and often enough to berieve that the quantity itself co this range. we must examine the linguistic term quickly enough. we need to make sure that in this case. 3. 1€ quickly enough to allow the prevention of adverse effects. While it is evident from the above discussion that more than one sample value should be collected before declaring a failure. the idea of consistency is introduced into the definition of the term unacceptable. as long as the sample values of the quantity are definitely acceptable. and quickly enough must be examined. the linguistic terms acceptable. yet small enough that the associated execution time is safely less than the worstcase reaction time of the system. a failure should never be declared. A (xk). unacceptable. that the actual behavior of the quantity is unacceptable as a function of the accumulation over time of the membership of the individual sample values in the sets A and U. This definition takes into account the fact that the amount of noise introduced due to the physical characteristics of the electronics and/or the harshness of the operation environment is not always insignificant. this limit is governed by the shortest amount of time required by the system to incur adverse effects. Define fuzzy sets A and ZT on X that characterize the set of acceptable sample values and the set of unacceptable sample values. Thus. It is recognized that an occasional violation Of the range of acceptable values is not necessarily indicative of an unacceptable condition ln order to avoid failures due to noise or some other inexplicable fluke of nature. b. such as permanent damage of the machinery involved.
each edge is associated with a particular activity and is characterized by the approximate length of time of that activity. for example. 16_4 Industrial Engineering 435 Figure 16. This use of the fuzzy sets. and edges are viewed as the routes that connect them. In these networks. Such a point is called an absolute center. Other fuzzy networks arc used for describing complex production processes consisting of many mutually dependent activities. These systems use automated guided vehicles that deliver materials to robotics workstations as required. In general. A range builtin test using this procedure was applied to turbines. a network is a graph whose edges are associated with one or more numerical characteristics. possibly.8 range builtin tests. Readers interested in this topic are referred to [Evans et al. Some important problems pertaining to industrial engineering have been formulated in terms of networks of various kinds. Each edge is described by the estimated travel time between the two places and. 1989].). quality of the route. To cover details of the many problems involving fuzzy networks of various types that are relevant to industrial engineering would require too much space. The solution to the problem is a fuzzy set of points of the graph that is called a figzzy absolute center. upon which the procedure is based.. The objective is to find a point on the graph (at a vertex or along an edge) for which the maximum travel time to any place (vertex) is Plirtilllized. In location problems. such that b(rk) to declare a failure.. etc. possibly under constraints specified in terms of the other characteristics. . and such that the time required for b(xk ) > t to occur is consistent with the needs of the boundary conditions discussed above. A fuzzy absolute center is a very useful concept by which the resting area for these vehicles is efficiently characterized. in flexible manufacturing systczes. Define a threshold value. Fuzzy sets in the example of t is a necessary and sufficient condition 4. where the monitored quantity was the turbine blade temperature.Sec. 1993]. t. It is easy to understand that the network for a location problem can be formulated more realistically if the estimated travel times and other characteristics are allowed to be expressed in terms of fuzzy numbers. vertices of a network represent places of demand for service. for example. The location problein is important. One problem regarding this kind of network is to determine critical paths in each given network (paths of maximal duration) and time floats of other paths. by other characteristics (safety. showed a substantial improvement in carefully designed simulation experiments when compared with procedures based on crisp sets [Brown and Klir.
Fuzzy sets representing these linguistic labels for antecedents may be expressed by membership functions of either triangular or trapezoidal shapes. can be found in the references mentioned in Note 16. One of seven linguistic labels can be chosen for each antecedent and each consequent: Ari. 12. The triangles or trapezoids can be positioned as desired by choosing appropriate values of voltage in the circuits. The primary focus of these developments has been on the impkmentetiou of fuzzy rules of inference and cleruzzification procedures for fuzzy controllers. it is suitable for implementing complex schemes of multistage fuzzy inference. date from 198. fuzzy sets are represented in terms of continuous electric signals (electric currents or voltages) by appropriate electric circuits. A block diagram of the hardware implementation of a fuzzy controller with n fuzzy inference rules is shown in Fig. fa Since the mid1980s. Initial attempts to develop hardware for fuzzy computing. when the utility of fuzzy controllers became increasingly visible. PS (positive small). as explained later. In digital mode. which are predominantly digital.9. fuzzy sets are represented as vectors of numbers in [0.4. we outline a few basic ideas regarding fuzzy computer hardware of the analog type that was developed by Yarnakawa 11994 Technical details which are not covered here. As an illustration. and eventually resulted in commercially available hardware for certain types of fuzzy computing. In principle. AZ (approximately zero).2 and 113.436 16. In general. as a consequence. PM (positive medium). It consists of units that implement individual fuzzy inference rules (rule units). Either of the two modes of fuzzy computer hardware bas some favorable features. or PL (positive large). NM (negative medium). it is thus particularly suitable for complex online fuzzy controllers. This increases efficiency tremendously and. 16. is characterized by high speed and good compatibility with sensors. 'These developments intensified in the late 1980s and especially in the 1990s. Digital fuzzy hardware is characterized by flexible programmability and good compatibility with existing computers. Yamakawa's hardware is designed for fuzzy controllers of the type discussed in Secs. extends the scope of applicability of fuzzy controllers and. 1]. NS (negative small). The principal reason for using specialized hardware for fuzzy computing is to increase operational speed via parallel processing. Each rule unit is capable of implementing one fuzzy inference rule with three antecedents or less. and defuzzification units. on the contrary.5. Analog fuzzy hardware. (negative large). computer hardware for fuzzy logic is implemented in either digital mode or analog mode. and their left and right slopes can be adjusted as desired by choosing appropriate resistance values of variable resistors in the circuits. fuzzy computer hardware allows all inference rules of a complex fuzzy inference engine to be processed in parallel. the shapes of membership functions may be arbitrary. the rule unit k is characterized .5 Engineering Applicatons COMPUTER ENGINEERING Chap. For consequents. other fuzzy expert systems. units that implement the Max operation needed for aggregating inferences made by auzleiple inference rules (Max units). at least those described in the literature. the need for computer hardware to implement the various operations involved in fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning has been recognized. In analog mode. Inputs for each antecedent are required to be crisp. These circuits play a role similar to function generators in classical analog computers. Operations on fuzzy sets are thus performed as operations on vectors. For each k e N„. potentially.
. the membership function of one particular antecedent and to determine the degree of compatibility of the actual value of the relevant input variable with the antecedent. ci(C). rigure 169 T. The output is a single real number. YL. Zk have either triangular or trapezoidal shapes with required slopes. I. in addition. The resulting membership function C. denoted in Fig. The membership function is defined by three inputs to the circuit The first input specifies one ot the seven linguistic labels and. unit k) is shown in Fig. . 18. Functions Xk.Sec. C. Crisp input signals x. which represents the associated consequent. one for each antecedent. are fed to a unit that determines their componentwise maximum. is then defuzzified by the unit referred to as the defuzzifier. but there is no reason why they could not be extended to a parametrized family of defuzzification methods. z are applied to all rule units iu parallel. All these outputs. Zk. which represents the value of the control variable. y.] represented by appropriate voltages on 25 signal lines. The output of each lulu unit. At the input of the unit are three membership fiatction circuits.5 Computer Engineering 437 by membership functions Xk. 16. which represent the antecedents in fuzzy inferencerule k. and membership function Gk. The aim of each of these circuits is to express. expressed again in discrete form. may also specify that no linguistic label is assigned (denoted by NA).9 by symbols Ci. is expressed in discrete form by a vector of 25 numbers in [0. The current dlefuzziliers are based on the centrold method of defuzzilication. 16.10. in analog mode.Tanturare implementatinn of a fuzzy contrrillem A block diagram of one rule unit (say. which represents the inference obtained by the associated fuzzy inference rule. which is needed for implementing inference .Yk.
CI. 4 Min Circuit Truncation Grate Slope Labot ga) 0 . drk Is of trapezoidal shape and rt is of triangular shape. 1] and by setting the input z to any convenient constant in i1.e) is PS and Yk the type of inference rules discussed in Secs.utilized in this case. The output of this circuit is then applied to a circuit called a truncation gate.r. This function is approximated in discrete form by a circuit referred to as a membership function generator. 12. rules that contain less than three antecedents. 11.5 Shape Scope 1 + Membership Function Circuit Figure 14. does not have any effect on the output produced by the rule unit. the outputs of the three membership function circuits are fed to a circuit that determines their minimum." which conforms to 123. is conveniently handled by defining Zk as the whole interval [1.. 16 I abaiCkl 5 Generator 1 1 11. 16. in our example. The purpose of this circuit is to produce a truncated vector C:e of 25 values that approximate the membership function of the consequent Ck of the inference rule. The circuit for Zk is thus not. 1].10.i. The output of the circuit is then equal to 1 and. This degenerate case. i) is N5 .2 and (= u) is AZ.11106i Chap. In our example. The third input specifies the left and right slopes of the membership function. its 25 outputs .strated in Fig.(. labelled by NA. (=. is illin. NA 0. then Au example of the fuzzy inference rule "If 43f. According to the inference procedure.438 Engineerina Apprications Marriborship F 11. consequently.0 2 o L) 0 0:t Label (V ia c1Stiape o. 25 . The second input specifies whether the shape of the membership function is triangular or trapezoidal. no linguistic label is assigned to Zk.10 litIcnk diagram of rule unit k. Since the niie has only two antecedents. as indicated in the figure.)) is a triangular membership function representing the linguistic label AZ.. The ranges of values of the three variables for which the various membership functions are defined are assumed here to be normalized to the interval [1.
1] is done by a circuit called a control matrix. the second one Is a probabilistic reliability theory based on fuzzy events. by and large. including diagrams of the various electric circuits. When (D') is combined with. similarly. we obtain two types of probabilistic reliability theories. reliability is a measure of the expected capability of an engineering product to operate without failures under specific conditions for a given period of time.6 Reliability Theory 439 are fed to the truncation gate. They make sense only when the mathematical ideal of crisp events is acceptable in a given experimental context. is reliability. (b) Probability assumption The behavior of the engineering product with respect to the two critical states (functioning and failed) can adequately be characterized in terms of probability theory. and Z shaped). The classical reliability theory. we obtain two types of possibilistic reliability theories. trapezoidal. and observed frequencies are indicators of the underlying physical process. the engineering product is either functioning state or in failed state. are.At any given time. rooted in fuzzy sets and possibility theory. Further details. questionable in. under closer scrutiny.  The decoding from the five bit characterization to the 25   tuple of members in [0. We feet that this level of detail is sufficient for general understanding of one type nf computer hardware for fuzzy logic. since World War II. S shaped. large collections of relevant data are available. (13') Possibility assumption The behavior of the engil:teering product with respect to the . 16. the engineering product may be in functioning state to some degree and in failed state to another degree. which in the classical reliability theory are taken.Sec. are covered in the mentioned article by Yamakawa [1993]. — By accepting either assumption (a) or assumption (a') and. The seven linguistic labels and the special label NA (not assigned) are specified by three binary digits. for granted. either (b) or (b). — These assumptions. When (b) is combined with either (a) or (a). either (a) or (a). has been proposed. many practical situations. The first one is the classical reliability theory. Assumption of dichotomous states—At any given time. which is based on fundamentally different assumptions: (a) Assumption of fuzzy states. as the name suggests. is based on two basic assumptions: (a). and two additional binary digits are used for defining four distinct shapes of the membership functions (triangular. fn a broad sense. which has been developed. An alternative reliability theory.6 RELIABILITY THEORY Reliability theory is a crossdisciplinary engineering discipline that studies the dependability of engineering products in behaving as required under specific operating conditions when put into service. The . The central concept of reliability theory.. we can recognize four types of reliability theories. 16. two critical fuzzy states (fuzzy functioning state and fuzzy failed state) can adequately be characterized in terms of possibility theory.
Such machines are referred to as robots.6. Readers interested in this area are given a few relevant references in Note 163.1. for example in astronautics (reliability problems of space shuttles. the first commercial robots were produced only in the 1970s. Advances in computer technology and in the area of artificial intelligence in the 1980s stimulated greater ambitions in robotics. space probes. refined motor controls. However. ctc) and softwarc engineering. highlevel capabilities of pattern recognition and image understanding. in [Bezdek 1987]. and a host of others. All these reliability theories are meaningful and have been developed. an intelligent robot must have some key capabilities that distinguish human beings from classical nonintelligent machines. were designed for repetitive actions of a typical production line. These early robots. while the second one is based on fuzzy set theory. We do not deem it necessary to cover the new. Research in robotics became oriented primarily on robots with high intelligence. which are called industrial robots. appropriate percepwal functions facilitated by visual. we provide readers interested in these theories with relevant references in Note 16. intelligent robots must be equipped with at least three types of function s :.  NOTES 16. Brown et id. r In robotics. and fuzzy decision inakin g. Chameau et al. Which of them to use depends on the context of each application. auditory. The main subjects of fuzzy set theory that are relevant to robotics include approximate reasoning. They include the capability of commonsense reasoning in natural language that is basedon incoming information as well as background knowledge. and . intelligent information processing functions that allow the robot to process the incoming information with respect to a given task. nonnlassica/ reliability theories here. fuzzy data bases. [1983]. In general. as is typical. Existing and prospective applications of fuzzy set theory in civil engineering are overviewed in articles by Blockley [1982]. and the capability of making decisioas in the face of bounded uncertainty_ It is clear that the use of fuzzy set theory is essential for all these capabilities. are utilized as components integrated in the overall architecture of intelligent robots.. 16. possibilistic reliability theories are more meaningful than their probabilistic counterparts when only a small number of statistical samples is available. fuzzy controllers and other kinds of fuzzy systems.440 Erioineoring Appticaticns Chap. Although industries began interested in robots in the 1960s. To achieve humanlike behavior. to cover them adequately would require too much space.like behavior.7 ROBOTICS Robotics is a crossdisciplinary subject area that is concerned with the design and construction of machines that are capable of human . 16 first one is based on classical set theory. fuzzy partem recognition and image processing. and mechanical fibuctiorts with appropriate controls to allow the robot to move and act as desired. information retrieval systems. all these subjects. To cover this important role of fuzzy set theory in the formidable task of designing intelligent robots would require the introduction of a prohibitively extensive background information. and other sensors to alluw the rohul tu perceive its environment.
In addition to the hooks mentioned in See. and Hachisu. [19931.4. Au important contribution to fuzzy logic hardware is a design and implementation of a fuzzy ffipflop by Hirota and Ozawa [1989]. 16. Yamakawa [19884 Diamond et al. signal detection [Saacie and Schwarziander.Chap. Hirota.6 are covered in several papers by Cal et at [1991 a—d. Kim. No book or major survey paper describing the use of fuzzy set theory in robotics is currently available. The primary source of information regarding specific applications of fuzzy sets in civil engineering is the journal Cast Engereering Systems. and also in books by Kaufmann and Gupta [1988] and (erre 03911. 16.5. 1992. and Miki Other approaches to fuzzy logic hardware are described in Gupta and et al. Yamakawa's fuzzy logic hardware of analog mode is described in several papers by Yamakawa [1988. bi and by Wood et a/. [1991. [ 1992] are also valuable sources. written in 1920.16. and proceedings of various conferences in the 1990s (particularly USA and IEEE). Conference proceedings edited by 13rowrt et al. 16.8. The new. However. 1993 a.  EXERCI S ES 16. 16. nonclassical reliability theories mentioned in Sec. on Reliability. 1993. 16. 1989. in particular IEEE Conferences and IFSA Congresses.1.7. 16 Exercises 441 Ayyub 11994 Using fuzzy sets in architectural design is explored by Oguntade and Gen [19811. a good overview of the 'milky of fuzzy sets in industrial engineering was written by Karwowsld and Evans [1986]. The use of approximate reasoning and fuzzy Petri nets in flexible manufacturing systems is explored by Scarpelli and Gomide (19931. [19897 1990.4. Electrical engineering has been affected by fuzzy set theory primarily through fuzzy controllers and fuzzy computer hardware. This is a memory element that allows us to store onediet fuzzy information. el al. 16. Issues of dealing with fuzzified networks are discussed by Mare g and Hoak (1983]. Arai. lilieradectronics and Reliability and Reliability Engineering and System Safety published in the 1980s and 1990s. The following are a few relevant journal articles: (Dodds. Repeat the example of bridge evaluation discussed in Sec. and piers are in fair condition. 1989. . A thorough coverage of the role of fuzzy sets in risk analysis was prepared by Schmucker 119841. Yamakawa and Kaboo [19881 Tarnakawa and Miki 119861. Ka.3. 1994]. [1985 ] and a book edited by Ayyub et al.2. The name "robot" was coined by the Czech writer Karel Capek in his play Rossuntis Univemal Robots. 1993 ] .6. Nedungadi. there are other areas of electrical engineering where methods based on fuzzy sets have been proven useful. and the use of fuzzy cognitive maps to qualitative circuit analysis [Stylaiins Id and Meyer. 16. . The use of fuzzy adaptive filters to nonlinear channel equalization [Wang and Mendel.2 by assuming that it was found daring the bridge inspection that the deck is in poor condition. 19931. and Chung. 1989. 1993 ] . Applications of fuzzy set theory in isle chemical engineering are discussed in articles by °etc. [19921. 1988. 16. Additional contributions to tlamo thcories and their applications to specific problems can be found in many issues of IEEE Trans. Many specific applications of fuzzy set theory irk robotics are described in short papers in procccdings of çonfercnc5 oritntcd to cither fuzzy systtin5 or robotics. It is essential for implementing multistage procedures of fuzzy inference. 19911 are three examples. 1992] . Palm. 1994). beams are in poor condition. 16.
8/900i.5/8. 16. Assuming now that the actual operating temper:ature is. its service life is estimated around 7 years.3. Using the procedure of estimating service life of a given equipment discussed in Sec.45 and 0.8/860 + 1/880+ . and spreads 0. determine the estimated service life of the furnace under this operating condition.06 and 1107.4/920.4/860.4/840 + .3 by replacing F 1 and Fz with symmetric triangulartype fuzzy numbers with centers 0. respective ly. 16.' Assume that the linguistic terms normal temperature [in QC1 and around 7 years are approximated ].2.characterized by the fuzzy set = . . L 5/6 + 1/7 + . by the fuzzy seta T 4/780 .442 Ertg[neering Applications Chap.8/800 + 1/820 + . respectively. Repeat the example of mechanical design discussed hi See. 16 16.3. 16..8/840 + .4. consider the following fuzzy proposition regarding the estimated life of a furnace: "If the furnace is operated under normal temperature.
unconvincing. but appear to involve insurmountable difficulties. in the mid1970s.1 INTRODUCTION The inventory of successful applications of fuzzy set theory has been growing steadily. These have been covered in previous chapters. and the performance of many exceeds previous expectations. However. some areas of human endeavors have been particularly active in exploring the utility of fuzzy set theory and developing many diverse applications. Scattered applications of fuzzy set theory in some additional areas can also be found in the literature. biology. science. The last section in the chapter is devoted to our speculations about prospective future applications of fuzzy set theory. various areas of engineering. these applications are still rather isolated. political science.7 MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS 17.11 medicine is one field in which the applicability of fuzzy set theory was recognized quite early. or insufficiently developed. These areas include physics. and many others. Some emerging applications were previously unsuspected. We mention some of them in the Notes. We do not attempt to. nuclear engineering. and engineering remain that have not been affected by the theory. In these speculations. These include information auad knowledgebase systems. we attempt to look far into the future to stimulate imagination. and future developments seem quite promising. ecology. We focus on applications that are generally recognized as very important. chemistry. Thus far. The purpose of this chapter is to overview applications of fuzzy set theory in other areas. 17. particularly in the 1990s. Few areas of mathematics. and virtually all problem areas of decision making.2 MEDICINE As overviewed in Note 17. meteorology. Within this field. geology. be fully comprehensive_ The utility of fuzzy set theory in each area covered in this chapter has already been established. it is the uncertainty found in the process of diagnosis of disease that has most frequently been the focus of .
The measurements provided by laboratory tests arc often of limited precision. and final diagnosis within the diagnostic process itself. and other investigative procedures such as Xrays and ultrasonics." where the linguistic terms printed in italics are inherently vague. figlobulins are slightly decreased. Furthermore. The best and most useful descriptions of disease entities often use linguistic terms that are irreducibly vague For example. and the exact borderline between normal and pathological is often unclear. the process of classifying different sets of symptoms under a single name and determining appropriate therapeutic actions becomes increasingly difficult. Although medical knowledge concerning the symptomdisease relationship constitutes one source of imprecision and uncertainty in the diagnostic process.444 apphcations of fuzzy set Miscellaneous Applications Chap. The knowledge provided by each of these sources carries • with it varying degrees of uncertainty. 17 theory. ID the face of the uncertainty concerning the observed symptoms of the patient as well as the uncertainty concerning the relation of the symptoms to a disease entity. The desire to better understand and teach this difficult and important process of medical diagnosis has prompted attempts to model it with the use of fuzzy sets. Thus. The past history offered by the patient may be subjective. it is nevertheless crucial that the physician determine the diagnostic label that will entail the appropriate therapeutic regimen. physical examination. and the stages of hypothesis formation. aglobulins are slightly decreased. These models also form the basis for computerized medical expert systems. The fuzzy set framework has been utilized in several different approaches to modeling the diagnostic proQess. underestimated. relations between diseases themselves. and symptoms may be overlooked. preliminary diagnosis. In the approach formulated by Sanchez [1979]. and yglobulins are increased. the varied symptom patterns of different disease stages. or incomplete. With the increased volume of information available to physicians from new medical technologies. then the fuzzy set B of the possible diseases of the patient can be inferred by means of the compositional rule of inference . the physician's medical knowledge is represented as a fuzzy relation between symptoms and diseases. In this section. albumin is decreased. given the fuzzy set A of the symptoms observed in the patient and the fuzzy relation R representing the medical knowledge that relates the symptoms in set S to the diseases in set D. These models vary in the degree to which they attempt to deal with different complicating aspects of medical diagnosis such' as the relative importance of symptoms. and the presence of several diseases in a single patient may disrupt the expected symptom pattern of any one of them. Mistakes may be made in the physical examination. we examine some basic issues of these applications. laboratory test results. which are usually designed to aid the physician in the diagnosis of some specified category of diseases. A single disease may manifest itself quite differently in different patients and at different disease stages. Thus. a single symptom may be indicative of several different diseases. the state and symptoms of the patient can be known by the physician with only a limited degree of precision. exaggerated. hepatitis is characterized by the statement: "Total proteins are usually normal. Xrays and other similar procedures require correct interpretation of the results. the knowledge concerning the state of the patient constitutes another. The physician generally gathers knowledge about the patient from the past history.
D be the crisp universal set of all diseases.1 summarizes the meanings and uses of fuzzy relations Q. The membership grades in fuzzy set B denote the degree of possibility with which we can attach each relevant diagnostic label to the patient. Figure 17. it corresponds to the question.2 for patient p could lead to a membership = . By solving the fuzzy relation equation (17. the accumulated medical experience can be used to specify the relation between symptoms and diseases that was evidenced in the previous diagnoses.Sec. may be relatively rare with a given disease. R(s.2 medicine or max[min(A (s). s) (where p E P. "How strongly does symptom s confirm disease d?" The distinction between occurrence and confirmability is useful because a symptom may be quite likely to occur with a given disease but may also commonly occur with several other diseases. respectively. Another symptom. it may be necessary to interpret the results of applying relation R to a specific set of symptoms as a diagnostic hypothesis rather than as a confirmed diagnosis. However. 17. The fuzzy relation R of medical knowledge should constitute the greatest relation such that given the fuzzy relation Q on the set P of patients and S of symptoms and the fuzzy relation T on the sets P of patients and D of diseases. if s represents the symptom of increased potassium level and the normal test result range is roughly 3. For instance. this can lead to cases in which R shows more symptomdisease association than exists in reality.. then a test result of 5.Rs(p. but its presence may nevertheless constitute almost certain confirmation of the presence of the disease. on the other hand.5. Therefore. Adlassnig and Kolatz [19821 and AcIlassnig [1986j elaborate on this relational model in the design of CADIAG2.5 to Si. The first provides knowledge about the tendency or frequency of appearance of a . We illustrate their approach with a somewhat simplified version of part of this design. (17.d))1 scs for each d C D. where RD (s.2) for R.2) Thus. Let us further define a fuzzy relation Ro on the universal set . For this example.5 x D. the symptoms that were present and diagnoses consequently made for a number of known cases. grade . "How often does symptom s occur with disease dr The second relation describes the discriminating power of the symptom to confirm the presence of the disease. d) (s E S. The maximal solution to (17. The model proposes two types of relations to exist between symptoms and diseases an occurrence relation and a confirmability relation.s G S) indicate the degree to which the symptom s is present in patient p. Let us define a fuzzy relation Rs on the set P x S in which membership grades RAp. d E D) indicates the frequency of occurrence of symptom s with . T.2) must be chosen for R in order to avoid arriving at a relation that is more specific than ow information warrants. R. The membership grades et observed symptoms in fuzzy set A may represent the degree of possibility of the presence of the symptom or its severity. and P be the crisp universal set of all patients.symptom when the specific disease is present. relations Q and T may represent. it corresponds to the question. a computerized system for diagnosis assistance. and R and fuzzy sets A and B. let S denote the crisp universal set of all symptoms. then B (d) T = Q. therefore limiting its power as a discriminating factor among them.
All missing relational pairs of symptoms and diseases are assumed to be unspecified and are . the fuzzy occurrence and confirmability relations arc determined from expert medical documentation. Assume that the following medical documentation exists concerning the relations of symptoms s2.75 . .Cl3 x S 24 a S Medical experience Diagnostic process lutowledge (to be determined) Diseases Symptoms ACT Possible diseases of patient (to he determined) Observed symptoms of patient Figure 17. In this example.446 Miscellaneous Appl]eations Compilation of medical knowledge Chap.1 FILI27). Let Re also be a fuzzy relation on the same universal set. 17 Diseases Symptoms ai Diseases Q . disease d. or O in fuzzy sets R0 and Rc for the linguistic terms always. • Symptom si often occurs in patients with disease 112 but seldom. unspecific. Since this documentation usually takes the form of statements such as "Symptom s seldom occurs in disease d" or "Symptom s always indicates disease d7 we assign membership grades of I. • Symptom 33 very often occurs with disease et. often. and often confirms the presence of d2.25. where Rc (s.. We use a concentration operation to model the linguistic modifier very such that A2 (x). and s3 to clisases dri and d2 : • Symptom S1 °CCU's very seldom in patients with disease d1 . respectively. sets and fuzzy relations involved in medical diagnosis. and (obviously) its presence never confirms disease d2. d) corresponds to the degree to which symptom s confirms the presence of disease d.5. . • Symptom s2 always occurs with disease di and always confirms the presence of disease 32 never occurs with disease ch. . seldom and never. • Symptom 33 seldom occurs in patients with disease d i . confirms the presence of disease d2.
6 9 [ . and s3 for three patients pi.9 0 1 Using relations Rs. this results in .7 112 = [ _8 . • .8 . as defin = For our example. s2.4 .9 0 .9 . and p3 as follows: Rs = [ .75 The conArrnability indication relation R • is calculated by R2 =F.2 Medicine 447 given a membership grade of .75 Ro . we can now calculate four different indication relations defined On the set P x D of patient g and diseases_ The first is the occurrence indication R I.06 .7 .8 .5.. 17. pl. and Rc.7 .5 The nonoccurrence indication R3 is defined as = Rs c' (1 RO) .8 . the nousymptona indication R4 is given by R4 = (Z RS) 13 RO .25 Rc =[ 1 o.Sec.94 Finally.56 }11 = [ .75 .56 _5 .6 . R1 is given by the following matrix: • .6 _25 .25 .[ :I 0 . Rc.. From our medical documentation we construct the following matrices of relations R o .75 and specified here by R3 . Now assume that we are given a fuzzy relation R s specifying the degree of presence of symptoms st . Ro. R eSxD (the rows and columns of the matrices are ordered by subscripts of the corresponding symbols): .
s3 . d) =L Although this is not the case for any of our three patients. sa). d)] is satisfied. both diseases d1 and d2 are suitable diagnostic hypotheses for patients Aral and p2. For instance.56 I . we may draw different types of diagnostic conclusions. (The severity of the symptoms present can be designated with degrees of membership in fuzzy sets representing each symptom category. The most likely diagnostic candidates are those disease clusters in which the patient's degree of membership is the greatest. 11 denotes the grade of membership in the fuzzy set characterizing patient set S = (Si .6/54. We must determine a diagnosis for this patient among three possible diseases di . el). 1980. d2. between symptoms themselves. We may make an excluded diagnosis for a disease d in patient p if Ri(p.5% in achieving a correct diagnosis. s3. 17 and equals . 1983]. We describe a simplified adaptation of the method employed by Esogbue and Elder [1979. The diseases d1 . whereas the symptoms of patient p t do not strongly resemble the symptom pattern of either disease d1 or d2 alone. 19831 to illustrate this te hnique. d2.448 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. that disease dl is strongly confirmed for patient p.R2 (p. we may include in our set of diagnostic hypotheses for patient p any disease d such that the inequality 3 mar[R i (p. d) = 1 or & (P d) = L In our example. s2 . 1 From these four indication relations. whereas the only acceptable diagnostic hypothesis for patient p3 is disease d2. which indicates the severity level of the symptom xandefioth si for the patient.R2(p. V). Models of medical diagnosis that use cluster analysis usually perform a clustering algorithm on the set of patients by examining the similarity of the presence and severity of symptom patterns exhibited by each.) Often the similarity measure is computed between the symptoms of the patient in question and the symptoms of a patient possessing the prototypical symptom pattern for each possible disease. The patient tu be diagnosed is then clustered to varying degrees with the prototypical patients whose symptoms are most similar. and 43 .4/s3 + . Our three types of diagnostic results. and 34 at the levels of severity given by the fuzzy set A. [ . and between combinations of symptoms and diseases.25 . seem to point to the presence of disease d2 in patient pi and disease dl in patient p2. and d3 are described in this way . R2 does seem to indicate. for instance. Let us assume that we are given a patient x who displays the symptoms sa. sa. we may make a confirmed diagnosis of a disease d for patient p if .25 .6 Ra =a. ln our example. therefore. we may exclude disease d1 as a possible diagnosis for patient p3 . Finally. . The actual CAMAG2 system incorporates relations not only between symptoms and diseases but also between diseases themselves.„ where A(s) + :7/s2 . This type of technique is used by Fordou and Bezdek [19791 and Esogbue and Elder [1979. 1980. Another alternative approach to modeling the medical diagnostic process utilizes fuzzy cluster analysis. Partial testing of the system on patients with rheurnatological diseases produced an accuracy of 94. a patient with the disease. Each of the diseases is described by a matrix giving the upper and lower hounds of the normal range of severity of each of the four symptoms that can be expected in.
(11) denotes the weight of symptom si for disease d) _ In order to diagnose 1 patient x. The most likely disease candidate is the one for which the similarity measure attains the . lower upper lower upper [ 0 .F(si)). where B ii (si ) and B(s) denote.4 . I A.2 Medicine 449 by the matrices B1 = B2. To compute this similarity. (si ) RJ.9 .9 1 0 0 . 3.7) (.5 . 2. The relation W of these weights of relevance is given by d1 id.3) Eiwcsi. we use a distance measure based on the Minkowski distance that is appropriately modified. 17.3 ..70 . Choosing. This clustering is performed by computing a similarity measure between the patient's symptoms and those typical of each disease di . and 113) the patient is most similar.3) with p 2 to calculate the similarity between patient x and diseases 41 . d2 . di)(Bi. B2.5 0 .4 ' [ 0 { 0 •3 B3 lower upper 0 0 For each f = 1. matrix Bj defines fuzzy sets Rj1 and . and in denotes the total number of symptoms.2 .6 43 1 .3 .9 where W(si .7 ..8 . it is given by the formula x) [E [TV (sf . We further define a fuzzy relation W on the set of symptoms and diseases that specifies the pertinence or importance of each symptom si in the diagnosis of the matrix of each disease 4/1 .7 . the lower and upper bounds of symptom si for disease di .9)(0 — .91 „. respectively. . for example.(si) where Ar (51))1/ = i„ e E N„.54.1 .6) r 211J2 = .Sec. and ef3 in our example as follows: D2(d1 x) = (1(. the Euclidean distance. we use (17. we use a clustering technique to determine to which diagnostic cluster (as specified by matrices B.1 .9 .6 . d jr)(B )1 (st) — Ax 0'1))1 P 1 112 (17.2 .3 W= 82 84 [ .6 1 .4)12 + 1(.5 — . D2 (d3.
results in a loss of relevance of these predictions to the real world. we can trade certainty and precision for relevance under given limits of acceptable complexity. reasons could easily be identified why economic theories have not been successful in modeling economic reality. 17 minimum value. The capability of fuzzy set theory to express and deal with propositions in natural language should facilitate the elicitation of this kind of economic knowledge from economists with a high success rate in making economic predictions_ . and classical theory of additive measures. the patient's symptoms are most similar to those typical of disease d2 . These types of applications are covered elsewhere in this book. we are forced to simplify by reducing the scope of the model which in turn. employing the economist's knowledge (distinct from accepted economic theories) and relevant information. in this case. is based on genuine uncertainty embedded in natural language. we need increasingly complex models. At the same time. When the required complexity for obtaining realistic models becomes unmanageable. One reason. based on classical set theory. fuzzy controllers for various medical devices.450 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. human reasoning and decision making in natural language. First. in general. however. Classical mathematics is not capable of expressing this kind of uncertainty. Observing the development of economics since the early 19th century. directly connected with the subject of this book. When we insist that the simplified model give us certain and precise predictions. The second. That is. we must simplify. we are doomed to lose something. which plays an essential role in economic phenomena. In order to capture the ever increasing _ richness of economic and related phenomena. In every implication. such as  "The price of oil is not likely to increase substantially in the near future' Su. human preferences for complex choices are not determined. which are increasingly more precise and more mathematically sophisticated. and fuzzy decision making for determining appropriate therapies. less obvious reason is connected with the complexity of models. Imprecise but highly relevant (and hence valuable) economic predictions are often expressed by experienced economists in linguistic terms. is that these theories are formulated in terms of classical mathematics. Several. This is not realistic in economics for at least two important reasons..1.ch predictions are determined by common sense. Literature regarding applications of fuzzy sets in medicine is overviewed in Note 17.5. Moreover. fuzzy pattern recognition and image processing for analysis of Xray images and other visual data. for example. which is often expressed in linguistic terms as well. We can preserve relevance by allowing some uncertainty in tlic inGdel. twovalued logic. unfortunately. Applications of fuzzy set theory in medicine are by no means restricted to medical diagnosis. Other applications involve. by the rules of additives measures. 17 3 ECONOMICS What is economics? Most modern economists define economics as a social science that studies how societies deal with problems that result from relative scarcity. we can see at its core a sequence of axiomatic theories. we can see a persistent gap between economic reality and predictions derived from these ever more sophisticated theories.
.systems.. when we exanaine an imagined happening as to its possibility.. To develop an alternative. Shackle analyzed the concept of potential surprise at great length and formalized it in terms of nine axioms.of degrees of possibility rather than by probabilities. Althongh . It follows from this formalization that the concept of potential surpris* is mathematically equivalent to the concept of necessity measure in possibility theory. 17. the pervasive fuzziness of almost all phenomena that are associated with their external as well as internal behavior. A semantic point that is in need of clarification at this juncture is that fuzzy systems theory is not merely a theory of fa=ty.. the role of fuzzy set theory in economics was recognind in economics much later than in many other areas.3 Economics 4.. in the moment when decision is made. During the past decade the focus of research in systems theory has shifted increasingly toward the analysis of largescale systems in which human judgement. then. In this sense..Only potential surprise called up in the mind and assessed. One exception can be found in writings by the British economist Shackle. Rather. T will take the liberty of referring to it as fuzzy systeml theory because I believe that its distinguishing characteristic will be a conceptual framework for dealing with a key aspect of humanistic systems—namely.g. more meaningful framework for uncertainty in economics. is relevant for that decision. and emotions play an important role. socioeconomic systems. and the like .. is informative in relation to a stated question. The systems theory of the future—the systems theory that will be applicable to the analysis of humanistic systems—is certain to be quite different in spirit as well as in substance from systems theory as we know it today. tensions and difficulties which arise hi our mind when we try to imagine it occurring.Sec. which is accepted in economics as the only mathematical tool for expressing uncertainty. and in addition. "System S is slightly nonlinear"). a humanistic science. food production systems. it is a potential surprise. it is a theory that allows an assertion about a system to be a fuzzy proposition (e. in general or in the prevailing circumstances.51 It is well known that Zadeh's motivation for introducing the theory of fuzzy sets was to facilitate the modeling and analysis of humanistic systems. is not meaningful for' capturing the nature of uncertainty in economics. This is the surprise we should feel. serious questions have been raised regarding the applicability of systems theory to the analysis of humanistic and. The following statement is his more recent reflection on this issue Radeh. economics should thus have been one of the early prime targets for utilizing fuzzy set theory_ However. that provides the indicator of degree of possibility. 1982a1. In his own words [Shackle. perception. especially. _Despite the widespread use of systemstheoretic methods in the modeling Of large scale systems. criminal justice systems. control systems. Such humanistic systems are typified by socioeconomic systems. health caredelivery systems. 1963 It is the degree of surprise to which we expose ourselves. transportation systems. and assess the obstacles. environmental. if the given thing did happen. . fuzzy systems theory is not so much a precise theory of fuzzy systems as it is a fuzzy theory of both fuzzy and noufuzzy systems. Shackle has argued that uncertainty associated with imagined actions whose outcomes are to some extent unknown should be expressed in terms . What this implies is that an assertion in fuzzy systems theory is normally not a theorem but a proposition that has a high degree of truth. education systems. information dissemination systems. He has argued since the late 1940s As that probability theory. and alone can have any bearing or influence on it.
fuzzy prefeaence theory. No. The book is oriented to microeconomics. two streams of activities regarding the reformulation of classical economic theory are currently pursued One of them focuses on the use of fuzzy set theory. he falls short of incorporating both these measures into one formal framework. Shackle's ideas can be made fully operational in. 49. by and large French. The principal source of information regarding the current status of the use of fuzzy set theory in economics is a book by Bi [1992].3. economics. as well as related work of other economists. The resulting fuzzy genetic algorithms tend to be more efficient and more suitable for some applications. 1992). While the acceptance of both these efforts among economists has so far been lukewarm at best.980s. Thus far. .2. which is substantially refommiated via the conception of fuzzy preferences Since fuzzy preferences introduce a great diversity of possible behaviors of economic subjects or agents to the theory of microeconomics.4 FUZZY SYSTEMS AND GENETIC ALGORITHMS The connection between fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms is bidirectional. . 17. His contributions. 17 Shackle often refers to possibility degrees. are overviewed in a special issue of Fuzzy Sets and Systems that is dedicated to him (Vol. genetic algorithms are utilized to deal with various optimization problems involving fuzzy systems. fuzzified methods for some problems of operations research. General background regarding this application area is too extensive to be covered here. . have actively contributed to this major undertaking. He shows that the introduction of fuzzy preferences does not affect the existence of these equilibria. but results in some nonstandard equilibria. One important problem for which gcactic algorithms have proven very useful is the problem of optimizing fuzzy inference rules in fuzzy controllers. According to this overview. A pioneer who initiated the reformulation of economic theory by taking advantage of fuzzy set theory was undoubtedly the French ecorkoraist Claude Ponsard (19271990).452 Miscetianeous Appl]cations Chap. the theory becomes more realistic. the potential of fuzzy set theory for reformulating the texture of economic theory to make it more realistic was recognized by economists only in the 1. only a few economists. as well as fuzzy economic equilibria. In one direction. In the other direction. Using possibility theory. WC diSCUSS bow classical genetic algorithms (Appendix 11) can be fuzzffled. In this section. Interested readers with stifacient background in economics can find details regarding the role of fuzzy set theory in the above mentioned book by Billot and in other references suggested in Note 17. fuzzy games. classical genetic algorithms can be ftizzified. 1. Included in this category ace. Billot investigates equilibria of fuzzy noncooperative and cooperative games. However. in addition to degrees of potential surprise. There is no doubt that many applications of fuzzy set theory that have been described in the literature since the theory emerged in 1965 are relevant to economics to various degrees. the other on the use of fuzzy measure theory. After careful analysis of properties of fuzzy preferences. the acceptance of fuzzy measure theory seems to be growing more rapidly. which is now well developed. and the various problem areas of fuzzy decision making. the use a genetic algorithms in the area of fuzzy systems is covered only by a few relevant references in Note 17. for example.
5„2. Then. crisp operation of simple crossover. we 'explain. for example. xn) and y em (yi . as an example. where A and 1. O. Assume further that a fuzzy template f ( f„) is given.5 x 23 ± 0 x 22 ± 1 x 21 + . To illustrate this issue. fly employing the gene pool [0. x3. . 1].8. x2. Numbers in this domain are represented by chromosomes whose components are numbers in [0. in general. x2 . f (1. 17.9 x in [0. 31]. .9) represents the number 8. . ci. . t= (tilt' =. 'The alternative routes that can be taken by the salesman may be characterized by chromosomes i(xi . The change can be made gradual by defining the crossover position approximately. more genuine fuzzifi cation requires that the operations on chromosomes also be fuzzifted.ti ).1 for f E N and i) 0 for Ni e t.4 Fuzzy Systems and Genetic Algorithms 453 There are basically two ways of fuzzifying classical genetic algorithms. To illustrate this possibility. is a fuzzy template for some n. 1].5. .. the other one is to fuzzify operatioos on chromosomes.1. 0. Then. the operation of fzi22y simple crossover of mates x and y produces offsprings xf and yl defined by the formulas For example. To employ it. y2 . 1 ]. there is no need to discretize the domain [0. 1. c2.9„8. whose components are. of course.x — x2/16 within the domain [0. Thus. and chromosomes are coded by binary numbers_ These algorithms can be fuzzified by extending their gene pool to the whole unit Interval [0.31]. a fuzzified crossover proposed by Sanchez [1993]. (x A I) V (y A . .1. . let us consider the example of determining the maximum of function f (x) == 2. which isdiscussed in Appendix D. be combined. For example. . and c4.1 x 24 + .. . This is characteristic of the usual. we have to find an appropriate way of coding alternatives of each given problem by chromosomes formed from the gene pool [0. by the formulas (3r A i). 1) is often used as the gene pool.salesman problem with four cities. ye) whose components are taken from a given gene pool. 1} to [0. 31]. ati (x A t) referred to as a template. .. 1. in classical genetic algorithms. let us consider a traveling. One way is to fuzzify the gene pool and the associated coding of chromosomes.e ).1. It turns out that this reformulation of classical genetic algorithms tends to converge faster and is more reliable in obtaining the desired optimum./ are rain and max operations on tuples and i We can see that the template t defines an abrupt change at the crossover position 1.Sec. the chromosome (. 0) denotes the route c2. In the following. the set [0.x and y = [yi y2. . however. (. This can be done by a fuzzy template. c3. e3.. Consider chromosomes x (x 1 . 0) Assume that chromosomes x = (r1. ci. the simple crossover with the crossover position can be formulated in terms of a special ntuple E N. These two ways may. 1] may be viewed as a fuzzification of genetic algorithms.5 = . . 1]. yn) are given. Although the extension of the gene pool from {0. . 1]. numbers in [0. x4 in which xi corresponds to city ci (1 E N4) and represeats the degree to which the city should be visited early.
the total error is expressed by the formula Dr Elk — (Ye ± rlai)]2 I The optimal values of yo and yi arc given by the formulas ?T1 IIT mE in — L 1=. Given a set of observed data (ai. The operation of a double crossover as well as the other operations on chromosomes can be operation fuzzified in a similar way. These formulas can be written. b1). crisp counterparts. y) we want to find values of yo and yi for which the total error of the estimated points on the straight line with respect to the corresponding observed points is minimal. xi. is the most frequent mathematical form in regression analysis. (a2 1 b2). as an example. fi). (a„„ b. x„ are input variables. based on the least square error. 71). The dependence is usually assumed to have a particular mathematical form with one or more parameters.) for the pair of variables fx. nlin(Yf E NO. and yo. robust. are parameters. The aim of regression analysis is then to estimate the parameters on the basis of empirical data. In the usual method of linear regression. Then. a linear regression with one variable. y„./. a E bi i=i — (E a) 2 VI Ebt —yi E yo = t=i which can be easily determined by solving the optimization problem. min(yi.454 Miscellaneous Applications = (X A f) V (y A f). = (maxlmill(tr . Experience with fuzzy genetic algorithms seems to indicate that they are efficient.5) Yo Yix represents a straight line. and better attuned to some applications than their classical. Problems of regression analysis formulated in terms of this linear form are called linear regressions. the assumed form (17. . more specifically. Consider. 17. as X' (max[min(xi . The linear form y = 219 ± Y1X1 — YrtXn3 (17.5 FUZZY' REGRESSION Regression analysis is an area of statistics that deals with the investigation of the dependence of a variable upon one or more other variables.4) where y is an output variable. 17 (x A v Or A f). Chap.
while the other one involves crisp parameters and fuzzy data. be denoted by Ci = (ci.7) where ci is the point for which Ci (ci) = I and s > 0 is the spread of Ci (a half of the length of the support set of Ci). they are too complicated to be covered here. . x2.6) where Ci.6) is also a symmetric triangular fuzzy number given by  1 T(y) JY — X cl srlx1 when x 0 0 x = 0. the dependence of an output variable on input variables is expressed by the form Y = C1 r1 + C2t2 +—  C„x„. bi). C„ ate fuzzy numbers. represents the relationship between the given variables.6) arc symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers defined by C. Assume that the parameters in (17. and xi. Linear Regression with Fuzzy Parameters In this type of fuzzy. 17. The first motivation results from the realization that h is often not realistic to assume that a crisp function of a given form. which in some applications are inherently fuzzy.. it is easy to prove by the c around ci . y = 0 for all y It. While methods fix fu2zy regression with both fuzzy parameters and fuzzy data have also been developed. x„ are realvalued input variables. C2. c < si (17. even though less precise. Let C„ which expresses the linguistic terms approximately for all N. for each n taple of values of the input variables.8) when 0 when x = 0. Cn for which (17. we briefly explain these two types of linear fuzzy regression.6) is a fuzzy number Y.. . (a2. where X= C= and T denotes the operation of transposition. 1'2). such as (17. b„. (17. (a. In this section. extension principle that Y in (17.4). Fuzzy relation.6) expresses the best fit to these data points. Given a set of crisp data points (ai.5 Fuzzy Regression 455 There are two motivations for developing fuzzy regression analysis.Sec. the value of the output variable defined by (17. seems intuitively more realistic..regression. The second motivation results from the nature of data. nett. These two distinct motivations lead to two types of fuzzy regression analysis_ One involves fuzzy parameters and crisp data. according to some criterion of goodness.(c) = 11 0 — when ci Otherwise. C2. y 0 0 (17. the aim of this regression problem is to find fuzzy parameters Ct.
II is A. According to the second criterion.. ear progranuning problem: minimize E i_1 s. fired number —1 —h 1 Solving this problem. (4. . The described fuzzy regression problem can be formulated in terms of the following classical 1i . The nonspecificity of each fuzzy parameter Cf given by (17.t. 1). (2.t_ (1 h)i Ibi — are' > 0. Ca. 17 The original problem of finding the fuzzy parameters CI.6) for suffi ciently good fit (as specified by the value of A). (3. 1 ] That is. we find the optimal values axe 5 and s* 6(1 h) . for each given datum of the input variables. Z. where ai is a vector of values According to the first criterion. can. Y1 (b 1 ) > h for each j N„„ where Y1 is the fuzzy number defined by (17. C7. bi ). That is. s is a fuzzy parameter expressed by a symmetric triangular fuzzy member.t. Then. assume the form Y the linear programming problem has the form: Cx. the total nonspecilicity of the fuzzy parameters must be minirai7ed. where C (c.. i Example 17. b) should belong to the corresponding fuzzy number Yi with a grade that is greater than or equal to some given value h E [0.. 3) be data representing the dependence of variable y on variable x.456 Miscellareous Applications Chap. This problem can be expressed in the following simpler form: Nfbiimize s s. j E (17.1 Let (1. To illustrate linear fuzzy regression for these data.9) > 0. — — cld — — cl) 3 4 h g R.8) fits the given data as well as possible. Minimize s s. Z. s > max(11 — cl. (1 — 2(1 — —11 h)s —12 cl — 2ci > 3c1 3(1 — h)s 4(1 — h)s —13 — 4c1 0 > E O 11 is a fixed number_ . be converted to the problem of finding the vectors c and s such that 1r(y) given by (17. vie want to obtain the most specific expression (17. Two criteria of goodness are usually employed in this problem.7) may be expressed by its spread si.8) for x = a f .
Fuzzy sets example. where ) 1 a zr. 17. C. . 17. a2 2. az. an are realvalued parameters. Then. (17. the dependence of an output variable on input variables is expressed by the form Y = atXt + aaz + + ap. ly — arxi 1 s na l when a 0 0 Y(y 1 0 when a = 0. Flout 17.Sec. and a t . classical linear leastsquare fitting. assumed to be triangular and symmetric. {5/6. Selecting. Let X i sO for all i e N.2 Musttation to Example 17.4 C 3 Y2 = C'2 Y 1 C l. and a4 = 4 are shown in Fig. y = 0 for ail y E R.1/2). . . h = 2/3.1.10) where values of input and output variables are fuzzy numbers. Also shown in the figure is the Linear Regression with Fuzzy Data In this type of fuzzy regression. He ace.X„.2. =.5 Fuzzy Regressïon 457 Y4. for 1. we obtain C = Cai for a3 = 3.
12) Let XP) and YU ) = (y ( i) sO ) ).(J) 1=1 (17. Applying (17. the fuzzy regression (43) . 1/2). According tu the secund Criterion. (3. yo ) ). Example 17. where j E N„1 . (012. where X( J ) is an nruple of symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers. the total difference between the areas of the actual fuzzy number y(i) and the areas of the fuzzy numbers Y for X( i) by (17. and Y(j) is a symmetric triangular fuzzy number for each j E Ni„. 17 Data are given in terms of pairs (VD. ((513. ai ERforaIIli EN.=1 + E atx. the compatibility.13) to this example. the fuzzy numbers Y (i) and yi should be compatible at least to some given degree h pa. (17. should be minimized.2 To illustrate the described method of linear regression with fuzzy data.. let us consider the simple linear form aX and the followitz data in tern* of pairs of input/output fuzzy numbers: {(5/6. yi ) = sup minf Y (1) (y). ((10/3. 0)).458 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. the described fuzzy regression problem can be formulated in terms of the following optimization problem. Minimize E l f Ir(j) FIT (y)dy — 171 (y)dyl A R SA. such that the fuzzy linear function (17. a.13) CO . Then. s) for all problem of this type can also be formulated in the following form. 1/2). . 1)2)). (4. 1/2)). Yi (y)]. Using these two criteria. Minimize E wf) + ¶' i=1 fl ax' y(i) s(i) E 1. 1/2). (1. corn. 0}). (2. is defined by corn (Y(i ) . and all j E Ç. The aim of this regression problem is to find parameters al. we obtain: . min COM h. 11. 112).10) fits the given fuzzy data as best as possible_ TWo criteria of goodness are usually employed.10). According to the first criterion.
). Solving the problem.6 The process of interpersonal communication consists of a vast array of different types of simultaneously communicated signals (words.17] . many of which conflict with each other. we End that the optimal value of the parameter a is a. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 17.5/4]. Hence. lai T a e R. the receiver must respond appropriately in the face of this fuzzy or vague information_ We outline here an approach suggested by Yager [1980h1. a E aE a E [5/6.6 Interpersonal Cornrnunicatior 459 Minimize lal la! Ja Sa Sa T + T 1 ? la[ 5a — 2 + 3 4 2 ' 1. Nevertheless.Sec. which models this process and the vagueness associated with it through the use of fuzzy set theory. body posture. It is therefore difficult to determine the precise intention and meaning of the communication. the form Y = aX with the best fit (according to the chosen criteria) is Y = 24X/23. Instead. etc.24/23. voice tone. • 4' This formulation can be simplified into Minimize !al + 11 — al st. the message received is a fuzzy subset M of . a clear. e [24/23. 17. Because of the distorting factors mentioned above. unique signal may not be available. because of both distortion from environmental noise and ambivalence on the part of the sender.5' • [a 2 la! 5a 10a 10a 3 ?" 2 ± 3 4. clothing. Suppose that X constitutes the universal set of all possible signals x that may be communicated by the sender. a [J8 3 k 9/13 9. 24/17].
Before this new transmission is sent. In this case. In this case. or unclear. On the other band. test of the consistency of M against the expectations and a test of the message M for strength and clarity. In order to determine whether an appropriate response can be_ chosen based on the message received or whether some error was involved in the communication. and r1 is the modified expectations subsequent to the receipt of message M. If both of these values are high. M (x)] for each r G X. r(x) E [0. P(x4) represent the probabilities associated with each of the signals xt. then the message. ambiguous. then the probability of the fuzzy event of the receipt of message. in which M(x) denotes the degree of certainty of the receipt of the specific signal x. the signal attaining the maximum . x. and clear.460 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. x2. p(x2). Difficulty occurs. 17 X. If the support of M is large. unambiguous. Let the maximum value of membership that any E X attains in the set M correspond to the strength of the transmission. E X . Instead of the expectation or background information being given in probabilistic form. if the message is very clear and unambiguous. Our procedure for signal detection now consists of the following: a. When the message received is strong. then Al is considered to be general. is called ambiguous. • . If p(x 1 ). the receiver of the communication possesses some background information in the form of probabilities or possibilities of the signals that can be expected. then an appropriate response can be made even if the probability of the signal was low. xgx The receiver can use this information to assess the consistency of the received message with his or her expectations. this information may be given in the form of a possibility distribution r on X. the receiver must determine whether the problem in the communication lies in some environmental distortion (in which case a repetition of the signal may be requested) or in the sender of the message (in which case a response must be made that is. The total possibility of the fuzzy message M is calculated as r (M) naax[rnin(M (x) r (x))].• . then As in ri (x ) = minK (x). If the probability of the received message is high. an assessment of the quality of the transmission must be made. if the received message conflicts with the expected possibility of communication. the receiver will probably have already modified his or her expectations based on the previous message. when the message is weak. appropriate). If the set M has no unique maximum. then the receiver may attempt clarification by requesting a repetition of the transmission. 1] indicates the receiver's belief in the possibility of signal x being sent. Usually. xex the case of probabilistic expectation. then it can be assumed that little distortion was introduced by the environment. M is given by p(iii) = EM (x )p (x). as far as possible. however. where ft indicates the degree to which past messages are considered relevant in the modi fication of expectations. The clarity of the message can bc measured by the distance between the maximum membership grade attained in M and the next largest grade of any signal x in M. then the signal attaining the maximum membership grade in M can easily be selected as the most obvious intended communication. If ro indicates the possibilistic expectations of the receiver.
let W denote the message that the receiver actually hears. ile(x)] (17. —derisive laughter x6 joyful tears . r) = max[min(M (x). Finally.17) xEx for each y E Y. the new possibilistic expectation structure is given by r1(x) = min[rx).16) for each x E X. If only one of these tests yields a satisfactory value. x) indicates the degree of appropriateness of response y given signal x. then either a new signal is requested or a response is made despite the presence of doubt. Since the receiver will be modifying his or her expectations based on the message thought to have been received. A =R or A(y) = max[min(R (y x) . The following example illustrates the use of 0 . the less Mr resembles M.. R(y. A fuzzy response set A € 2' can be generated by composing the appropriateness relation R with the fuzzy message M. The membership grade of each possible message y in fuzzy set A thus corresponds to the degree to which it is an appropriate response to the message M.14) xEx correspond to the consistency of the received message with the possibilistic expectations. Let us assume that her answer will be chosen from the set X of the following responses: x 1 =simple yes x2 = simple no X3 =request for time to think it over x4 = request for the young man to ask permission of the young woman's parents xs. This allows for creativity in formulating the actual response. an appropriate response must be chosen. The less consistent M is with the expectations.111(x))1 (17. the expectations are modified and a repetition is requested. 17. but instead indicate characteristics or attributes that the appropriate message should possess. where ile(x) = W(x) (17. Suppose that a young man has just proposed marriage to a young woman and is now eagerly awaiting her response.15) for each x E X where s = s(M r).Sec. r (x))1 (17. If both tests yield low values. this model of interpersonal communication. Let Y be the universal set of all responses. A more interesting case occurs when the elements y e Y are not actual messages. once a determination has been made of the signal x € X that was sent. An additional complications is introduced when we consider that the receiver may also introduce distortion in the message because of inconsistency with the expectations.6 lr teroersonal Communication 461 value in M can be comfortably assumed ta be the intended signal. and let R YxX be a fuzzy binary relation in which . Let s(lif. Then.
This message.4/xi ± . Suppose now that. (x)] for each x e X.7/x3 ± .6). . its consistency with the young man's new expectations is WW2. so let us suppose that he distorts the message such that he hears Afz = .sage is stronger. The young man has thus greatly diminished his expectatio i of a simple yes. Suppose.1/xi + . Based on this message.1. . Let us now suppose that the response which the young man makes will have characteristics chosen from the following set Y: y2 pain surprise = happiness y y4 .8/x2 . .25  Thus.16) such that r1 (x) =. let us assume that heintroduces some distortion. This relation is given . anger y patience impatience y7 = affection Let the fuzzy relation RCYxX represent the degree to which the young man plans to respond to a given signal x with a response having the attribute y. and has given.14).4/A5.8/x.4. such that the message he hears is .11 = . ro) = =41. 17 Assume also that the young man has expectations of her response represented by the possibility distribution ro= (.9.15). As measured by (17. however.97/x2 . clearer. or r1 = . up all hope of the possibility of joyful tears. arid clear.462 MiscellaneoLis Applications Chap. unambiguous. .4x3 + . the message is highly contrary even to the revised expectations of the young man. he modifies his expectations according to (1 7. in disbelief. r1) .4. although relatively strong.25/x5. Because the message is contrary to the young man's expectations.7. 3.minh6 (x).9/x2 + This rne$.1/x5. that the following message M1 is received: = . somewhat increased his expectation of a simple no and of derisive laughter.9/x2 + . is rather inconsistent with the young man's expectations. he asks the young woman to repeat her answer and receives the following message: M2 = .1. and less general than the first answer. . J.4/x 1 + . ' His surprise has thus diminished the clarity of the message heard and has led him to exaggerate the degree to which he believes that the young woman has responded with derisive laughter. .25/x2 ÷ . as specified by (17. the consistency is s(Mi. We can see from this distribution that the young man expects a positive answer.743 + .
One exception is quantum mechanics. 17. and some impatience.. Although the interest of psychologists in fuzzy set theory has visibly been growing since the mid1980s or so. This will undoubtedly help us.5 Using (17.1 0 . Applications of fuzzy set theory and fuzzy measure theory in natural scienFes are relatively scaTce. in the long run. but ai.= . for example.7 0 .2 .7 Other Applications 463 by the following matrix (rows and columns are ordered by the subscripts of the symbols involved): .2 . the area of psycholinguistics is essential for studying the connection between the human use of linguistic terms in different contexts with the associated fuzzy sets and operations on fuzzy sets. which are covered neither in previous sections of this chapter nor in previous chapters.5ec.9 0 . consequently.1 .9 _5 Cl .9 .1 0 .2 . a large degree of anger.3 0 ..9/y2 + . 1989]. The principle sources consist of a book edited by Zétényi [1988] and two books by Smithson [1987.9 0 . to better understand human communication and design machines capable of communicating with people in a humanfriendly way with natural language.7 OTHER APPLICATIONS The purpose of this last section is to mention some additional application areas of fuzzy set theory.6 0 _3 _3 0 1 1 . Dvuraenski and Rie?. One area in which fuzzy set theory has a great potential is psychology. therefore. young man will make to the message A = R111. we can now calculate the response t h :. In particular.9/y3 + .2 0 .an [1994 it is 'reasonable to expect that both fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures will play profound roles in quantum mechanics in the near future. Other areas of physics are likely .17). 17. where the need for nonclassical methods is acute. This may be explained by the fact that classical methods based on crisp sets and additive measures have worked quite well in these areas and.S0 one that is very important to the development of fuzzy set theory itself.9 214. 0 . Psychology is not only a field in which it is reasonable to anticipate profound applica_tions of fuzzy set theory. but are not well developed or have not even been tried as yet. These are areas in which applications of fuzzy set theory seem to have great potential..9 . there have been no pressing needs to replace them with the more realistic methods based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures.7/y4 + The young man's response.9 . the relevant literature is too dispersed at this time to indicate any general trends in this area.4 0 1 0 3 0 . To understand this connection is necessary for properly incorporating the notion of a context into the formalism of fuzzy set theory. will have the characteristics of a great deal of pain and surprise. Based on sonic preliminary investigation by.
and often based on subjective judgment. optimal navigation by voice instructions in natural language. Applications in biology have not been visible so far. which has already emerged and will likely play a profound rote in computer technology in the not too distant future. one important area is the development of fuzzy hardware (Sec. and. Fuzzy technology will likely be increasingly important for dealing with the various problem areas involved in health care. which is highly individualized. 17 to be affected by fuzzy sets and measures as well. automatic parking. which is somewhat surprising since the potential is enormous. diagnosis and prevention of failures.5) and massively parallel computer architectures fur approximate reasoning. The primary aim of soft computing is to develop computational methods that produce acceptable approximate solutions at low cost. as already indicated by Singer and Singer [1993]. In general. This aim is pursued by concerted efforts involving several areas. It is reasonable to expect that some applications of Rua)/ sets in biology will be profound. perhaps. genetic algorithms. To facilitate soft computing. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy measures are also likely to have a strong impact upon chemistry. The capability of communicating with home computers or robots in natural language is likely to become available within a decade or so. and robustness. An ultimate challenge involving natural language will be the development of machine capabilities to summarize literary creations. 1992] and dimensional analysis [Singer. III the related area of ecology. Roberts [1989]. which will require studying the relationship between visual and linguistic information. neural networks.464 Miscellaneous Applications Chap. is likely to influence physics in a major way by narrowing the gap between theoretical and experimental physics. and Salski 119921. Areas of physics in which the utility of fuzzy set theory has already been demonstrated include nonequilibrium thermodynamics [Singer. Fuzzy technology will help to solve various safety problems and facilitate automatic driving. a few other areas. Let us close this book with a few speculations about some additional areas in which fuzzy set theory will likely play a major role sometime in the future. low cost. 1994]. A more difficult task will be to upgrade current systems of machine translation between natural languages to the level of experienced human translators. Another difficult task will be to develop the capability of machines to understand images. The concept of a finite resolution limit introduced by Fridrich [1994a1. context sensitive. Fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic will inevitably play an important role in any problem area that involiTeg "natural' language. Fuzzy sets will undoubtedly play an important role in narrowing down the large gap that currently exists between theoretical and experimental biology. One application area in which the use of fuzzy logic and the associated technology is essential is subsumed under the concept of an intelligent car. a few applications have already been explored by Bosserinan and Ragade [19821. and a host of other functions. including fzizzy set theory. 16. which is based on subadditive fuzzy measures that become additive on disjoint sets separated by more than a given finite resolution limit.. Its importance emanates from the nature of medical information. often imprecise (especially when expressed in natural language). fuzzy measure theory. To deal with this kind of information without fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning is virtually  . One such area is soft computing. soft computing attempts to exploit the tolerance for uncertainty of various types to achieve tractability. It is concerned with the effect of applying approximate methods to precisely or imprecisely formulated problems on computational complexity and cost.
psychological factors. and Yu [1933] is a readable overview of some issues of fuzzy economics. Ketie.2. The idea of fumifying genetic algorithins emerged in the early 1990s.1on ei al.Chap.. 1994]. 19824 Vila and Delgado. represent just one facet of this very complex application area. and Sanchez. Sanchez. Expert systems for medical diagnosis and treatment planning that are based on approximate masoning. 1988 ] contain sufficient information about Ponsard 's pioneering contributions to fuzzy economics. and so on. A special journal. 17. the use of fuzzy inference for evaluating orthodontic treatment [Yoshikawa et al. law. a few additional rferences are [Soula. 1982. 1981 ]. 17. particularly in the 1990s. navigation systems aiding the visually handicapped. Kandel„ and Langholz [1994 Numerous other applications of genetic algorithms in the area of fuzzy aygems ca nbe found in Proceedings of the International Conference on Genetic Algorithms. The utility of fuzzy set theory in medical diagnosis was first demonstrated by Albin [1915j. 175. but also on their appearance and behavior. The concept of a fuzzy game was introduced by Burnarin [1978. and Buckley and Hayashi [1994b]. Other applications within the area of medicine include the use of linguistic variables for questionnaires investigating the relation between social stresses. Degani and Bortolan. 17. Other facets include fuzzy control of various medical devices. The first major publication devoted to applications of fuzzy set theory in economics is a book edited by Ponsard and Fustier [1986]. Literature devoted to this topic is now quite large. social policy.5 were proposed in papers by Savic and Pedrycz [19911 and Wang and Li [19901 The principal source on fuzzy regression analysis . Systems Bulletin. The two problems of fuzzy regression discussed in Sec. Some relevant publications are mentioned hi Sec. of symptoms for the purpose of evaluating different treatment procedures [Oguntade and Beaumont 19821. 1988 ]. This book arid two papers by Poniard [1981. 17. An application of genetic algorithms for altering membership functions of fuzzy controllers online. 1986. Sec. the incorporation of fuzziness in an expert system dealing with the treatment of diabçtcb[51. 1985] 173 . 1983. art.1. NOTES 171.Llesoription. Advantages of genetic algorithms for optimizing various parameters in approximate reasoning are discussed by Park. artificial limbs. which we touched upon in. 17. We may continue to speculate about other ways in which fuzzy thinking in its various forms is likely to affect our lifes in the future. Lee. rahnts desivied KJ assist patients. comprehensive evaluation of patients' abnormal physiological conditions based not only on physiological data. but we prefer to leave it to the reader to use his or her own imagination and knowledge learned from this book to form a personal fuzzy vision of the future.. was developed in the context of chemical engineering by Karr and Gentry [1993 ]. Various forms of fuzzy genetic algorithms were proposed by Sanchez [199 3 1.. and other problem domains.Nc of liuguistiL. Xu and Vukovich [1993 ] . Miscellaneous medical applications of fuzzy sets can also be found in books edited by Kohout and l andier [1986] and Gupta and Sanchez 119824. 1986. 17 Notes 465 impossible.. Biomedical Fuzzy has been_ published by the Biomedical Fuzzy Systems Association in Japan since 1990 (in both Japanese and English). A paper by Chen. 1985 ] .4. We may speculate about its effects on education. Umeyarna.2. 1994b and clinical monitoring with fuzzy automata [Steimann and Arl assuig. and the incidence of coronary disease [Saitta and Torasso. L1c u.
Consider the following palm of triangular fuzzy numbers in ( • (1. which was studied by Bouchon [1981] and Akdag and Bouchon [19881.466 Miscarlaneous Appiications Chap. 1983. 17. Heshinaty and Kandel 119851 and Tanaka [1987].4. . 17. the twodimensiona/ space (x. since questionnaires are fundamental tools for analyzing structures of information. 2). 17. (17. 17 is a book edited by Kacprzyk and Fedrizzi [1992]. (16. 18)). Derive (17. (24. Repeat the examples of medical diagnosis in Sec.6.2). Among many papers on this subject.3. 6)).5 to find the bestfitting function in the form of (17. 11). 2). BO)). (8. y): 1(2. 17. 17. Suppose that we are given the following data set in the twodimensional space x. 19). 17. y': Use the regression method discussed in Sec.2 for other numerical values. let us mention papers by Celmins [1987a. 17. (18. 1). 15). EXERCISES 17. 1986]. 12)). 19841 and earthquake research Wet% and Liu. Among other areas connected with natural sciences. 6)). (6. 3). «4.6) to obtain the best fitting of these data points. axe fuzzy questionnaires. Use the fuzzy linear regression method to estimate coefficients in. This application is quite important. (0_5. 22).6. 18). (. An interesting application of fuzzy set theory. 17. (6.7. 14) . Diamond [1988]. (12.(3. (9.8).2.5. the use of fuzzy set theory has been observed in meteorology [Cao and Chen. 17. (4.. 17). Explore other feasible scenarios involving the model of interpersonal communication introduced in Sec. b]. (12. 12». Zhang and Chen. (14.10). 1). ((2.1. (10.
it is then capable of classifying each unknown input pattern with other patterns that are close to it in terms of the same distinguishing features. we want to make the reader aware of their important connections with fuzzy systems.APPENDIX A ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AN OVERVIEW Although artificial neural networks are beyond the scope of this text. the desired response of the network to each training input pattern and its comparison with the actual output of the network are used in the learning algorithm for appropriate adjustments of the weights. we cover only supervised learning and special neural networks. the class to which the pattern is supposed to belong. That is. It consists of simple computational unit. the network forms its own classification of patterns. In this overview. In general. While neural networks can effectively be used for learning membership functions. This is essential for facilitating a convergence to a solution (specific values of the weights) in which patterns in the training set are recognized with high fidelity. This requires that a neural network implementing an unsupervised learning algorithm be able to identify common features across the range of input patterns. Each intercom) ecti on has a strength that is expressed by a number referred to as a weight. In a supervised learning algorithm. usually called multilayer feedforward networks or multi layer perceptrons. Furthermore. In an unsupervised learning algorithm. small adjustments in the weights are macle in the desired direction. An artificial neural network is a computational structure that is inspired by observed processes in natural networks of biological neurons in the brain. for each training input pattern. These adjustments. we describe 467 . fuzzy inference rules. called neurcms. and other contextdependent patterns. that are highly interconnected. That is. The basic capability of neural networks is to learn patterns from examples. The classification is based on commonalities in certain features of input patterns. are made incrementally. for each training pair. This is accomplished by adjusting the weights of given interconnections according to some learning algorithm. the learning can be supervised or unsupervised. learning is guided by specifying. The aim of this appendix is to provide the reader with a few basic ideas regarding neural networks to make some discussions involving neural networks in the text comprehensible. Once a network converges to a solution. whose purpose is to minimize the difference between the desired and actual outputs. fuzz:Wog:ion of neural networks extends their capabilities and applicability.
s. tu t . h. iz.1a. These functions are illustrated in Fig. as depicted irt Fig. whose values are real numbers. the output of the neuron is defined by r. let us consider only the siginoid functions. A single neuron. The output depends on the weighted sum of inputs.x„. which is called an activation function or threshold fiinction. In addition. inputs of the neuron are associated with real numbers. obtained as p oo. which is the most common algorithm for applications of our interest The basic computational units of neural networks are artificial neurons. referred to as weights. one 014q9ut y. A. y = (E — (A2) —1 i X0 = y Sp (! EP) a) Y = (71 wixi) Lo (13) Figure Al Two equivalent representation of a neuron activated by a sigreold function vs with bias 0_ . w2 .X1. Since the Heaviside function is a special sigmoid function. defined by the formula si3 (a) = (1 + e4a ) I „ (A. and the class of sigynold functions.1) where /3 is a positive constant (socalled steepness parameter) whose value specifies a particular sigmoid functiou in this class.2. Then. defined by h(a) for all a E {1 0 when a > 0 when a < 0 R. the socalled backpropagation learning algorithm. has n inputs. The most common activation functions are the Heaviside function. A. and. in terms of a nonlinear function.468 Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview Appendix A only one algorithm for supervised learning. .
since inputs do not do any computation. as depicted in Fig. which produces the output of the network. (A3) In our further considerations. We can now describe the structure of layered feedforward neural networks. weights at each output layer are denoted by W with appropriate subscripts. The set of inputs is sometimes referred to as an input layer. the bias 0 is usually represented by an extra input. their only role is to feed input patterns into the rest of the network. No other connections exist in neural networks of this type. in general. Due to these theoretical results. A. we have to consider only networks with no more than three layers. how many neurons are necessary in the hidden layers. The last layer.5. neurons. and the associated weight zuo = 19_ Then. is called an output layer. A.1b. which is connected to all neurons in the network. Neurons in one layer are connected to. representing the bias of each neuron. Itis established that threelayer feedformard neural networks are sufficient for approximating any function to a given accuracy.2) is replaced with the simpler formula sigE i=o uhx0.2 Examples of activation functions: (a) HeayIsicle function h. while weights at each bidden layer are denoted by w with . and three layers is shown in detail in Figs.3—A. for some A e R where O is the so caned bias of the neuron. Each of these networks consists of a set of inputs and one or more layers of parallel neurons.II neurons in the next layer. We do not use this term. For convenience. The bias defincs the va/ue of the weighted sum of inputs around which the output of the neuron is most sensitive to changes in the sum_ For convenience. The structure of feedforward neural networks with one.a. xo = —1. Inputs axe connected only to neurons in the first layer with the exception of the special input xo. provided that the hidden layer contains at least 2n 1.Appendix A Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview h( a) 469 o (a) a (b) Figure A. It is also known that two layers are sufficient to approximate any continuous function of n variables. but it is not known. two. Any layers that precede the output layer are called hidden layers. we employ this simpler characterization of the neuron. (A. (13) sigmoid functions s p .
associated with the whole training set is given by . Let . the output layer (Fig. TO. tf. A. the error of the neural network in responding to the input pattern Xp is usually expressed in terms of the error function p . _ 2[ tEI' _ s.. E p wedfin is positive and œnverges to zero as the network approaches a solution for the training Niniple (Xp . as shown in Fig.. 1 "P 1 v—i m n (A.. and Y„. „ xf). Clearly.m s— Wm . a training set of correct inputoutput pairs is given. As in any supervised learning. appropriate subscripts. The mtuple Tp is usually called a target output.111.. Wj 2 x. TF.. Y2 YTEL nglare A3 Feedtorward neural network with 'emu layer (simple perciptrea. it is the desired output of the neural network for the input pattern X. Let Y p = (.5. 17 sIsp. . E.4) where the constant 1)2 is used solely for computational convenience. Before we proceed to formulating the backpropagation leaming algorithm..  wn W. their weights are distinguished by the superscripts I and 2.„ win 2 • OUTPUT LAYER ON i 0142. E or _ .. When two hidden layers are employed. which is applicable to neural networks with at least one hidden layer..m.D2 . • •  denote the actual output of the neural network for the input pattern XF.„xf))2. A..). TA denote a particular inputoutput pair in the trairting set. let us describe a simple gradientdescent learning algorithm for networks with only one layer. where X„ = (xf .3). As previously explained ] xg = —1 in (AA) to represent the bias of neuron k by the weight Tirt. (E Nr.31 Yr .o. Given Xp . re).470 WOO Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview W m° Appendix A W211. The cumulative cycle error.
4 proportional to the negative gradient of E. the convergence is slow and less reliable. then.4) ba a simpler form E P 1 mi 2 E[tf k=1 . To calculate the partial derivative in (A.1 • • •w 2 .0 wu w12 w 22 q2 la it V TV HN HIDDEN LAYER HN2 wn W21 W12 W22 wi y OUTPUT ON LAYER • V If y V .6).4 Peedforviard neural network with two layers. Tv). = OE aWki ' (A.r.5) For each given training pair (Xp . the error function depends on the weights involved in the neural network According to the gradient descent algorithm. E= EE . YL Figure A. The choice of n influences the accuracy of the final approximation as well as the speed of convergence.s1s•s•aealih. let us rewrite (A.1. at the present location.. we can reduce the value E p by changing each weight Wju by an amount inkiV. a close approximation can be obtained if n is small but.Appendix A WJ 0 Artificial Neurai Networks: An Overview W 47 1 Win 0 W m. In general. (A. That is..6) where rl is a positive constant referred to as the learning rate. ON.
. • • • ON n„ OUTPUT LATER Y1 Y2 • Mgnre &5 Feeldfor.vard neural network with three layers (two hidden layers and one output layer).472 Arti fi cial Neural Networks An Overview Appendix A Wro HN2 t zt 1 z2 • • 21'121 2 7 SECOND HIDDEN LA \PER W Lo WIL Wl2 W 1r 20 W21 t 2 HN2 V V 2Hilr w2 W2r • ON I ON.
If E < E. lf E initiate a new cycle. during which we calculate a new cumulative cycle error.4.Appendix A wherc Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview 473 1=0 Then. Tp). we also calculate the cumulative cycle error E defined by (A. 3E Wk —ftf s o tafAs s (4)4 i = s (af )x where si'. Output neuron ()Ark then receives the total input P k  (All) E Tirkizi. We adopt all the symbols introduced in Fig. During each cycle. A.3 denotes the derivative of the sigmioid function. Qiven an input pattern X neuron IINJ receives the total input hi! E 7.. Let us describe now the backpropagation learning a/gerithm for feedforward neural networks with two layers. all inputoutput pairs in the given training set are applied to the network either in a predefined order or randomly_ For each pair (Xe .10) and produces the total output s8 (h7.7) g = — yr)4(af) (t yf)flyr(i — yf).) = sti (E wiixf ).„.12) .1) • 'XP I (A. which is based on the gradient descent algorithm described for onelayer networks. which can be written in the form .9) The whole algorithm proceeds in cycles.5:0 (ar) = Os8 (af)[1— s o tia. = Wkoxf E wkis.4) and update all weights in the network by the values ATir.„ we obtain a solution (the network we converged within the required accuracy) and the algorithm terminates.ki calculated by (A..S) the gradient descent correction of the weights is given by the formula . When a cycle is completed. In each cycle.es = 1744' (A. ( (A. E is compared with a maximum acceptable error Em ax specified by the user.9).(E (A. as well as relevant symbols introduced previously.f)j = )34[1 — Introducing now the quantity (A.5). we calculate the error EF by (A.
az? 1U. k=1 7/ m aEp 2. it k=1 I — yf)s. which are more deeply embedded in the expression (A.' were viewed as inputs in a one/ layer network. we must calculate the partial derivatives of E p with respect to weights wii .9) if z. 2 — k=.13) = Si5(Wk04 E wiTsj3( E Using this equation. A. we obtain wii. where .16) — 34)4(a). 7 (A. We obtain aE„ awii =E = = kwel. AWki = 8E = n(tr (of».18) = E vixr. associated with the inputtohidden connections. associated with the hiddentooutput connections. we can now express the error function as Ep = 1 2 1 Eor Eof _ yi)2 = 2 In _ (E WAl k=i 2 7)) (A. (ETVk Z i pr (A. (A_17) For weights Lop. sr can also be expressed as sr = — Yr)( 1 — YlVf.474 Artificial Neural Networks.9 (Of) Wkj ivkisWADxf (Irl!)xP (A.14) Ft =. and produces the output S 0(0r) = S . An Overview Appendix A where zg= x4P by convention (see Fig. where 3 r(tÇ (A.15) would become identical with (A.4). Observe that (A.1 .1 5004404 E wiiso(E j =1 i and use the gradient descent algorithm to make appropriate adjustments of weights W For weights Wki .14). Using (A.15) = 01221.7).
we calculate the error Ep by (A. and various theoretical issues.(W ) z i . HechtNielsen (AddisonWesley. W. Since S:Itr (a) = t function and .3(Wkii5(1 $1.5) during each cycle.19) and 8.(a)kp (a ) for the sigrnoid (A. we compare E with a given maximum acceptable error Em . The only book that deals in depth with the connection between fuzzy systems and neural networks was written by Knsko [1992]. and R. This additional information can be found in numerous books that specialize on artificial neural networks. G. we recommend a collection of classical papers dealing with theoretical foundations and analysis of neural networks.17).. For the benefit of the reader. but we do not deem it necessary to cover the general formulation in this overview. editor. Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation by J. 1990). Jackson (Adam Hilger. In each cycle.18). A.16) or (A.Appendix A Artificial Neural Networks: An Overview 475 (A. in the form il 7 37 =. such as the convergence of learning algorithms. M. 1990). In addition. 2.14) and update weights Wkt at the output layer by values Wk.15) as well as weights wit at the hidden layer by values wit calculated by (A.' calculated by (A. 1992). Artificial Neural Systems by J. other types of neural networks.. Beale and T. A simple overview of the area of artificial neural networks is covered in Neural Computing by R.ng by R. and the like. For each training pair X. Zurada (West Publishing Co. We also do not cover other types of learning algorithms. The following books are recommended for a deeper study of the field: 1. we apply all inputoutput pairs in the given training set.F. let us recommend a few of these books. Neurocomputi. 1991) 3. Lau. Te. We also calculate the cumulative cycle error E by (A. the algorithm terminates. 1992).20) The whole algorithm proceeds in cycles in a similar way as described for onelayer networks. we may also express 3 . The backpropagation learning algorithm described here for feedforward neural networks with two layers can be extended to networks with three or more layers. At the end of the cycle. requisite numbers of neurons in hidden layers. Palmer (AddisonWesley. .. the effect of the number of layers on performance. Hertz. Press. a new cycle is initiated.P is expressed by (A. If E < Erma .). otherwise. Krogh. which is entitled Neural Networks (C.
which were first suggested by John Holland in his book Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (Univ. The whole process is repeated until given stopping criteria are met.APPENDIX B GENETIC ALGORITHMS: AN OVERVIEW Genetic algorithms ate unorthodox search or optimization algorithms. As the name suggests. geneticlike operations are performed on chromosomes of the new population. There are many variations on these basic ideas of genetic algorithms. and their set is called a gene pool. we have to discretize the set involved and select an appropriate finite subset. called offsprings. Genetic algorithms search for the best alternative (in the sense of a given fitness function) through chromosomes' evolution. The new population may contain duplicates.. with the aim of finding the best alternative with respect to given criteria of goodness.) are not met. let G denote the gene pool. genetic algorithms performdirected random searches through a given set of alternatives . First. 1975). Genetic algorithms require that the set of alternatives to be searched through be finite. evaluation and natural selection. genetic algorithms were inspired by the processes observed in natural evolution. This is called natural selection. To describe a particular type of genetic algorithm in greater detail. The same steps of this process.1. Basic steps in genetic algorithms are shown in Fig. of Michigan Press. produce new chromosomes. Then each of the chromosomes in the population is evaluated in terms of its fitness (expressed by the fitness function). some specific. are then applied to chromosomes of the resulting population. If given stopping criteria (e. an initial population of chromosomes is randomly selected. and let n 476 . a new population of chromosomes is selected from the given population by giving a greater change to select chromosomes with high fitness. Next. B. no change in the old and new population. If we want to apply them to an optimization problem where this requirement is not satisfied.g. In general. These criteria are required to be expressed in terms of an objective function. Ann Arbor. It is further required that the alternatives be coded in strings of some specific finite length which consist of symbols from some finite alphabet. These operations. These strings are called chromosomes. The sokation is expressed by the best chromosome in the final population. etc. the symbols that form them are called genes. They attempt to mimic these processes and utilize them for solving a wide range of optimization problems. specified computing time.. which is usually referred to as a fitness fidnction.
3. This selection is made randomly from the set Gfl . The choice of value in is important. if it is too small. This is done by determining for each chromosome x in the population the value of the fitness function. e) . The algorithm. consists of the following six steps: I. Let in denote this constant population size. where g(x) is a relative fitness defined by the formula . Since each population may contain duplicates of chromosomes. exhaustive search. which is iterative. According to this procedure. plk). Evaluate each chromosome in population pck) in terms of its fitness. we calculate the value e(x) ing(x) for each x in p(k) .Appendix B Genetic Afgrithnls An Overview 477 Evaluate each chromosome in the poodalion Stop Figure B. We describe only one possible procedure of natural selection. which is referred to as determinatic sampling.th4evel description of genetic a2gosith. Generate a new population.tas. That is. 2. let f denote the fitness function employed in the algorithm. when new members are added to the population. f (x). of a given size in. we express populations by mtuples whose elements are ntuples from the set Gq. chromosomes are ntuples in G.1 14. denote the length of strings of genes that form chromosomes. The size of the population of chromosomes is usually kept constant during the execution of a genetic Ago/jail/1. the algorithm may not peach the optimal solution. the algorithm does not differ much from an. from the given population p(k) by some procedure of natural selection.. If it is too large. the corresponding number of old members are excluded. Select an initial population. where k = 1. That is. Finally.
5.X n)  Chromosomes x and y. In general. . X11. • .• . y as in the simple crossover and two crossover positions i. . .Yn) • Mutation: Given a chromosome x. • 11„.• . Y25 • Yn) and an integer î e N. the purpose of this procedure is to eliminate chromosomes with low fitness and duplicate those with high fitness_ 4. the operation of mutation replaces x with = (x1 . xl Td (r1. z.1. by operating on chromosomes in population pV. x • +1. 1. otherwise.E pa) E f ( X) Then the number of copies of each chromosome x in p(k) that is chosen for e) is given by the integer part of e(x). They include some or all of the following four operations: • . If stopping criteria are not met. Produce a population of new chromosomes. the operation of double crossover applied to x and y replaces these chromosomes. • Double crossover: Given the same chromosomes mates x.Simple crossover: Given two chromosomes (xt. (Yi. 0. go to Step 5.) and an integer is called a mutation position.tiew Appendix B g(x) f (x) x. x11. j E p osition. • Inversion: Given a chromosome x AI ) and two integers i. stop. x2. Yf. increase k by one.1+1. are called mates. which where z is a randomly chosen gene from the gene pool G. po'÷'. 3rI • • . the operation of inversion replaces j). x2 . to which this operation is applied. Replace population and go to Step 2.4 with population 0111) produced in Step 4. the operation of simple crossover applied to lc and y replaces these chromosomes with their offsprings. • • • . from the highest values down.ri• 6. •• = —• yj+1. j e Nn _di < j).478 Genetic Algorithms: An Over. which are called inversion x with Irr = (34. which is called a crossover position. • . then we select the remaining chromosomes for ko by the fractional parts of e(x). If the total number of chromosomes chosen in this way is smaller than ni (the usual case). Operations that are involved in this step attempt to mimic genetic operations observed in biological systems. = (x1 1 . with the offsprings. . • • Yi Yi+1.
44 g(x) 0.00 15.068 0. and 3 Chromosomes in po) 00010 01001 10011 11000 (b ) k 1: Ste p 5 _ Integers Z 9 19 24 Fitness 3.g(i) 0274 0255 0.104 0..Appendix B Genetic AigCnthrns: An Overview 479 TABLE MI ILLUSTRATION TO EXAMPLE Bi (a) At 1: Sibcps 2.00 g(x) 0.168 1.250 0.267 4g(x) Number of copies selected 0 2 1 1 Imo° 1.291 4g(x) ' Number of selected copies 0 1 2 1 (1 272 1.94 15 44 12.44 10.94 15.00 15.276 0 107 0.94 12.092 Number of selected copies 1 1 1 1 .068 (LI) 2: Step 5 Chromosomes in Pik (2) Mate (randomly selected) 3 4 1 2 Crossover site randomly selected)2 3 2 Resulting chromosomes in pclï 10000 10011 11001 10001 10001 11000 10011 (e) 3 10001 3: Steps 2 and 3 Integers 16 19 2$ 17 Chromosomes in pp) 10000 10011 111101 10001 Fitness 16. Integers 11 17 24 19 Fitness 14.060 0.400 1.096 1.94 g(x) : 4.188 0273 1.11ELCS in pcil 01001 10011 10011 11000 (c) k 2: Steps 2 and 3 10021 01001 11000 10011 01011 10001 11000 10011 Chromosomes in p (Z) 01011 10001 11000 10011 .828 1.75 12.164 Chromosomes in Pa ci) Mate (randomly 3c1eç1ed) : Crossover site (randomly selected) 3 3 1 1 Resulting ChWintY84.292 0350 0. .44 15.752 1.
In this step. consequently. 01001. If given stopping criteria in Step 4 axe not met. E. using the deterministic sampling in Step 3. Then. G 00000 through 11111. in Step 6. Now. Using function f as the fitness function. Example B. as shown in Table Bab. The chromosome 10000.. If these operations are employed. we proceed to Step 5. This role is Sill:Alf to the role of a disturbance employed in neural nctworks. types of genetic algorithms. and code these points by the corresponding t0. Goldberg (AddisonWesley. we obtain the population OP = (01001. Assume that we choose m 4 and p(14 (00010. 0. Their role is to produce new chromosomes not on the basis of the fitness function. and all possible chromosomes are binary integers from binary numbers. which is quite suitable as a selfstudy guide. F. the chromosome in p(k) with the highest fitness represents the solution. the old population pi». Davis (Van Nostrand Reinhold. k is increased by one. The mates in the crossover operations and the crossover positions in the algorithm are selected randomly. Petry (IEEE Computer Society Press. the offspring 1" is produced (Table B. Then. For an overview of practical aspects and applications of genetic algorithms. is the book Genetic Algorithms by D. and we proceed to Step 2. Assuming that the condition 14) pck) was chosen as the stopping criterion in this example. The stopping criterion in Step 4 is again not satisfied.1 Let function f (x) = 2x— x2/16 be defined on the interval [0. they are usually chosen with small probabilities. Important classical papers on genetic algorithms are collected in Genetic Algorithms. shown in Table ale. we recommend Handbook of Genetic Algorithms. 1991)..480 Genetic Afgorithms: An Overview Apperdix B A crossover operation is employed in virtually all. This chromosome corresponds to the integer 16 which is. 10011. but the operations of mutation and inversion. which has the highest fitness. 1989). 10011. 31. we assumethat only simple crossovers are used. . In Step 6. edited by B. indeed. represents the solution. the point for which the function f reaches its maximum. 10011. 11000) in Step 1 gable B.1b). each of which produces one of the two possible offsprings. 1. the algorithm does out stop at this point and proceeds to Step 5. a mate y in p(. the stopping criterion p P = p(3) ( is satiated in Step 4. 1992). in which we employ only the operation of simple crossover. 1). results are shown in Table 13. Steps 2 and 3 are now repeated kink 2. we describe a very simple example of determining the maximum of a given algebraic function. Buckles and E E. The only textbook on genetic algorithms.. are sometimes omitted.1d. When the algorithm terminates. increase k by one and proceed to Step 2. . and the. we calculate the fitness of each chromosome in pœ (Step 2). The application of Steps 2 and 3 for k = 3 results in pr(r. we replace p?) with pc3). 31]. To illustrate a special version of the algorithm. is replaced with the new population pa) of offsprings produced in Step 5. then. but for the purpose of avoiding a local mininaum. The result of this step is shown in Table 13. 11000). Next. we approximate the interval by 32 interger points. we proceed to Step 5.1a). For each x in pi». To illustrate the use of a genetic algorithm for determining the maximum of the function in the given interval. and the algorithm terminates. edited by L.1) and a crossover point are chosen randomly and.1c.
The two subsets are called a lower approximation and an upper approximation. designated as (a). the upper approximation consists of all blocks whose intersection with the set is not empty. and the set A to be approximated by elements of X 1R is 481 . is a representation of a given set A E Y(X) by two subsets of the quotient set X R. R (A) = where R(A) and R(A) are the lower approximation and the upper appi oximation of A. is the union of all equivalence classes in A:7R that are contained in A.1. Sets formulated in this way are called rough sets. The lower approximation consists of all blocks of the partition that are included in the represented set. respectively. the quotient set X f R partitions X` into 10 semiclosed intervals and one closed interval. fl(A) UtLx]fe 1 [xj ÇA. respectively. R (A) and R(A). X is a closed interval of real numbers. The set difference R(A) R(A) is a rough description of the boundary of A by granules of X/R. A rough set is basically an approximate representation of a given crisp set in terres of two subsets of a crisp partition defined on the universal set involved.. There exists an alternative way to formulate sets with imprecise boundaries.r1 R [x]R nA 0. by equivalence classes in X1R. Let X denote a universal set.IfiR that contains x E X. and let [x ]R denote the equivalence class in . RCA). k(A) =(.x E X }. Moreover. approximation. which approach A as closely as possible from inside and outside. The lower approximation. To define the concept of a rough set more precisely. In the first one. That is.)([. A rough set. The upper is the union of all equivalence classes in X I R that overlap with A.. C. Two examples of rough sets are shown in Fig. let X/R denote the family of all equivalence classes induced on X by R (a quotient set).r X}.APPENDIX C FUZZY SETS VERSUS ROUGH SETS The primary feature of fuzzy sets is that their boundaries are not precise.. and let R be an equivalence relation on X.
. Since both types are relevant in some applications. a 13 implies c€EF(A) ç R F (A) and ai67(A) OAFW.11111111 MINIUMMEMMINEMIIIIM •NI••111111•011•••M• )(JR E. In the second example..482 Fuzzy Sets Versus Rough Sets Appendix C XJFI (a) A RR. Rough sets based on fuzzy equivalence relations are usually called fuzzy rough sets. 11111MIEMMEINEMIMMIMMIOM NINIMIEMMEMMIMIUMMI iMiNMEMEMEMBE ME MINIM11111111117EMMILE•• 101111MOMV. Given an arbitrary crisp subset A of X and a fuzzy equivalence relation RF on X. II (A) and R(A). partitions the area X x Y into the small squares shown in the figure. The figure illustrates the rough set approximation of the shown subarea that does not match the equivalence classes_ Fuzzy sets and rough sets model different types of uncertainty. which is deftned by the Cartesian product (X1R)x(11. and the quotient set on it. On the other hand. shown in the Egure.1 EMEIREIMMEMINEMMIIMM NM IIMM.1. The rough set approximation of A in this example consists of the two semicIosed intervals. it is useful to combine the two concepts.I I +I 11 I I 1 i I1 I I 13 3 Figure C. labeled as (b).111•11•11. given a fuzzy subset F of X and a crisp relation R on X. the closed interval shown in this figure..