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Organizational Behavior

Intergroup Behavior, Negotiation & Team Building Chapter 9

Organizational Behavior

Group Cohesiveness
• Commonness of attitudes or behavior • Greater force holding together than driving apart • Sense of belonging and feelings of morale • Individuals who “are attracted to each other” Note that several of these definitions tend to be circular or confuse cause with effect.

Cohesiveness and Performance
Cohesiveness is beneficial if the group’s goals are in concert with organizational goals ….

Sources of Attraction to a Group/Team

Organizational Behavior

• • •

The goals of the group and the members are compatible and clearly specified The group has a charismatic leader The group has a reputation for accomplishment The group is small enough to have members’ opinions heard The members support one another and help each other overcome obstacles

Organizational Behavior RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROUP COHESIVENESS & AGREEMENT WITH ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS Agreement with organizational goals Low Performance probably oriented away from organizational goals High Performance probably oriented toward achievement of organizational goals Performance oriented toward achievement of organizational goals Low Degree of group cohesiveness High Performance oriented away from organizational goals .

competitor’s achievements to rally the group) .Organizational Behavior Steps Managers Can Take To Enhance the Two Types of Group Cohesiveness • Socio-Emotional Cohesivness – Keep the group relatively small – Strive for a favorable public image to increase the status and prestige of belonging – Encourage interaction and cooperation – Emphasize members’ common characteristics and interests – Point out environmental threats (e..g.

Organizational Behavior Steps Managers Can Take To Enhance the Two Types of Group Cohesiveness (continued) • Instrumental Cohesivness – Regularly update and clarify the group’s goal(s) – Give every group member a vital “piece of the action” – Channel each group member’s special talents toward the common goal(s) – Recognize and equitably reinforce every member’s contributions – Frequently remind group members they need each other to get the job done .

objectively evaluate performance) – Predictability (be consistent. keep your promises) – Competence (demonstrate good business sense and professionalism) . give feedback.” Propensity to trust: “A personality trait involving one’s general willingness to trust others.” • How to Build Trust – Communication (keep everyone informed. tell the truth) – Support (be available and approachable) – Respect (delegate. be an active listener) – Fairness (give credit where due.Trust Organizational Behavior Trust: “Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior.

Organizational Behavior Interpersonal Trust Involves a Cognitive Leap Cognitive leap Faith in the other person’s good intentions Assumption that other person will behave as desired Firsthand knowledge of other person’s reliability and integrity Distrust Trust .

participation. Virtual Teams and Self-Managed Teams Self-Managed Teams Production.Organizational Behavior Basic Distinctions Among Quality Circles. technical specialists Quality Circles Virtual Teams Type of team Type of empowerment Advice Consultation Advice or project (usually project) Consultation. project. or delegation Managers and technical specialists Members Production/service personnel . or action Delegation Production/service.

Organizational Behavior Basic Distinctions Among Quality Circles. depending on use of information technology Quality Circles Basis of membership Relationship to organization Amount of faceto-face communication Voluntary Parallel Strictly faceto-face Virtual Teams Assigned (some voluntary) Parallel or integrated Periodic to none . Virtual Teams and Self-Managed Teams (continued) Self-Managed Teams Assigned Integrated Varies.

Schedule work assignments Work with outside customers Conduct training Set production goals/quotas Work with suppliers/vendors Purchase equipment/services Develop budgets Do performance appraisals Hire co-workers Fire co-workers 67% 67 59 56 44 43 39 36 33 14 .Organizational Behavior Survey Evidence: What Self-Managing Teams Manage Percentage of Companies Saying Their Self-Managing Teams Perform These Traditional Management Functions by Themselves.

Characteristics of an Effective Team Organizational Behavior • • • • • • • • • • • • Clear purpose Informality Participation Listening Civilized disagreement Consensus decisions Open communication Clear roles and work assignments Shared leadership External relations Style diversity Self-assessment .

Having a sense of common purpose about why the team exists and the function it serves • High communication. Creating a climate of trust and open.Organizational Behavior Eight Attributes of High-Performance Teams: • Participative leadership. freeing up. Creating an interdependency by empowering. Keeping meetings focused on results • Creative talents. Applying individual talents and creativity • Rapid response. Seeing change as an opportunity for growth • Focused on task. Establishing an environment in which all team members feel as responsible as the manager for the performance of the work unit • Aligned on purpose. honest communication • Future focused. and serving others • Shared responsibility. Identifying and acting on opportunities .

management resistance)  Teams adopted as a fad. no long-term commitment  Lessons from one team not transferred to others (limited experimentation with teams)  Vague or conflicting team assignments  Inadequate team skills training  Poor staffing of teams  Lack of trust . competitive/individual reward plans.Why Work Teams Fail Organizational Behavior Mistakes typically made by management  Teams cannot overcome weak strategies and poor business practices  Hostile environment for teams (command-and-control culture. a quick-fix.

Why Work Teams Fail Organizational Behavior Problems typically experienced by team members  Team tries to do too much too soon  Conflict over differences in personal work styles (and/or personality conflicts)  Too much emphasis on results. self-appointed experts do not fit in)  Lack of trust . destructive conflict. win-lose negotiation)  Poor interpersonal chemistry (loners. not enough on team processes and group dynamics  Unanticipated obstacle causes team to give up  Resistance to doing things differently  Poor interpersonal skills (aggressive rather than assertive communication. dominators.

” Functional conflict serves the organization’s interests while dysfunctional conflict threatens the organization’s interests. .Conflict Organizational Behavior Conflict: “A process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.

Inc. . Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Massachusetts. Reading.1 on page 8.Organizational Behavior The Relationship between Conflict Intensity and Outcomes Positive Neutral Too little Negative conflict Appropriate conflict Too much conflict Low Moderate Intensity High Source: LD Brown.. Managing Conflict of Organizational Interfaces. © 1986.. Figure 1.

school.Why do we try to eliminate conflict? Organizational Behavior • Ingrained – reinforced at home. church • Managers are often evaluated and rewarded for lack of conflict – part of the culture of the organization • Avoid disturbing the status quo “If it isn’t broke”… do you break it or move on? .

Competition for limited resources. production & marketing • Interdependent tasks. Differences in perceptions or inaccurate perceptions Inadequate communication.Antecedents of Conflict Organizational Behavior • • • • • • • Incompatible personalities or value systems. Functional differences – line and staff. Overlapping or unclear job boundaries. . • Organizational complexity. Interdepartment/intergroup competition.

Antecedents of Conflict (continued) Organizational Behavior • Unreasonable or unclear policies. . • Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure. • Unresolved or suppressed conflict. • Unmet expectations. standards. • Decision making by consensus. • Collective decision making. or rules.

Change and adapt. less concern for individual satisfaction – defeat the enemy. (Dysfunctional consequence) • Develop loyalty – conformance to norms tends to become important in conflict situations.Conflict Outcomes Organizational Behavior • Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last. (Dysfunctional consequence) . Search for solutions (Functional consequence) • Stronger relationships: Build bridges of cohesiveness. goodwill and trust for the future. (Functional consequence) • Focus on activity: become task oriented. (Functional consequence) • Learning: Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.

Conflict Outcomes Organizational Behavior • Distorted perceptions: members may develop stronger opinions of the importance of their unit. (Dysfunctional consequence) • Also – violence and aggression. (Dysfunctional consequence) . (Dysfunctional consequence) • Negative stereotyping: as conflict rises. (Dysfunctional consequence) • Decreased communication: decision-making process can be disrupted. See fewer distances in your group and greater differences between groups than really exist. stereotypes are reinforced. Survival of the fittest.

• Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork. compassion. • Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departments. • Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments.An Updated Contact Model for Minimizing Intergroup Conflict Organizational Behavior Level of perceived intergroup conflict tends to increase when: • Conflict within the group is high • There are negative interactions between groups (or between members of those groups) • Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative Recommended actions: • Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups (and members). • Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups (empathy. . sympathy).

rather than overly competitive Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership Compromise rather than dominate Build rapport through conversations Be compassionate and understanding Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony Nurture others (develop and mentor) Rank 1 2 Tie 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .Ways to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships Organizational Behavior Behavior Be a good listener Be sensitive to the needs of others Be cooperative.

• Superordinate goals: develop a common set of goals and objectives that can’t be obtained without the cooperation of groups involved. and decision-making. Involves identifying all issues.Organizational Behavior Managing Intergroup Conflict through Resolution • Problem-solving: reduce tensions through face-to-face meetings of conflicting groups. . Identify conflicts and resolve them. debates. Manager does not take sides – may only be a short-term solution. • Resources: Try to expand resource if the source of conflict is limited resources • Avoidance: effective only in short-term. Does not resolve or eliminate conflict – eventually it must be faced. • Smoothing: emphasize the common interest of the conflicting groups and de-emphasize their differences.

Again. short-run solution. identify a coordinator. • Altering the human variable: changing human behavior • Altering structural variables: change the formal structure of the group. Changing members. Subs usually follow. . whether or not they agree with it. • Authoritative command: management steps in and expresses desires to groups. • Identifying a common enemy: groups in conflict may unit to defeat a common enemy.Organizational Behavior Managing Intergroup Conflict through Resolution • Compromise: No distinct winner or loser – not an ideal situation for either group.

“A Strategy for Managing Conflict in Complex Organizations. Used with author’s permission.Five Conflict-Handling Styles Organizational Behavior Concern for Others High Integrating Obliging Compromising Low Dominating Avoiding High Concern for Self Low Source: MA Rahim. January 1985. p 84. Human Relations. .

• Mediation: Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. • Ombudsman: Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.Organizational Behavior Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques • Facilitation: Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other. • Peer review: Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. • Arbitration: Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision. • Conciliation: Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants. .

Must ask questions. and evaluate options to resolve the conflict. . understand. Attempt free exchange of information. – Know all options: develop. Identify all needs and positions of the other group(s).” • Only successful negotiations have all parties walking away feeling like they have won.Group Negotiations Organizational Behavior • “A give-and-take decision-making process involving interdependent parties with different preferences. Outcomes may differ if issue is renegotiated. Managers can: – Understand the other side.

Questionable/Unethical Tactics in Negotiation Organizational Behavior  Lies  Puffery  Deception  Weakening the opponent  Strengthening one’s own position  Nondisclosure  Information exploitation  Change of mind  Distraction  Maximization .

• Joint problem solving: what can be done so that both sides win? • Power of competition: outsource the group (or put the fear of that on the table) • Splitting the difference: useful if groups are at an impasse • Low-balling: lower other groups expectations .Negotiation Tactics Organizational Behavior • Good cop/bad cop • Nibble: receiving an additional concession after an agreement has been reached.

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