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HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD
CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Riaz ul Haq Tariq Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Khan Executive Director Member (Acad) Deputy Director (Curri) Assistant Director Assistant Director
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction………………………………………………. 07 Objectives………………………………………………... 09 Frame Work/Template for BS (4-YEAR) in Botany……………………………………………… … 10 Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Botany………………………………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Botany………………………………………………. 13 16
Recommendations……………………………………….. 81 Details of Compulsory Courses (Annexure A, B, C, D, E.)……………………………..... 82
In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. D773/76-JEA (cur. 63. It has to be studied thoroughly and all aspects are to be critically examined before any component is recommended for adoption. According to the decision of the special meeting of Vice-Chancellor’s Committee. the Federal Government vide notification No. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education. it is not possible to accept any curriculum in its entirety. 4 . unlike a machine. The new BS degree shall be of 4 years duration. and 36.PREFACE Curriculum development is a highly organized and systematic process and involves a number of procedures. Many of these procedures include incorporating the results from international research studies and reforms made in other countries. dated December 4th 1976.50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments.). the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. It also aimed to give a basic. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. These studies and reforms are then related to the particular subject and the position in Pakistan so that the proposed curriculum may have its roots in the socio-economics setup in which it is to be introduced. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities. Hence. universities and other institutions of higher education.
is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. DR. Lahorein continuation of its earlier meeting held on Nov 20-21. Karachi.2008 at the HEC Regional Center. The final draft prepared by the National Curriculum Revision Special Committee. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. R&D organizations and respective accreditation councils. degree awarding institutions. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Botany in a meeting held on May 6-7. duly approved by the competent authority.For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level.RIAZ-UL-HAQ TARIQ Member Academics June 2008 5 .2007at HEC Regional Center.
Preparation 6 . LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. REC. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC PRINTING OF CURRICULUM COMMENTS PREPARARTION OF DRAFT BY NCRC IMPLEMENTATION OF CURRICULUM REVIEW Abbreviations Used: NCRC. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF ST 1 DRAFT BY EXP PREPARATION OF FINAL CURRICULUM QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. OF NCRC. R&D.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRICULUM UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRICULUM IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. COL. UNI. EXP.
Chairman. The following attended the meeting. Prof. Department of Botany. Member 4. 2008 at HEC. Khan Rass Masood. Regional Centre. Natural and Applied Sciences. Ihsan Ilahi Kohat University of Science & Technology Banu Road. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf Professor of Botany & Dean Faculty of Sciences University of Agriculture.NATIONAL CURRICULUM REVISION COMMITTEE MEETING IN BOTANY HELD FROM MAY 6-7. Kohat Dr. 1. Member 7 . LAHORE MINUTES OF THE MEETING INTRODUCTION A National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC) meeting in Botany was held from May 6-7. Faisalabad Prof. Off Jarma. Government College University. Dr. Lahore Dr. University of the Punjab. 2008 AT HEC REGIONAL CENTRE. Social. Lahore Prof. Basir Ahmed Arrain Professor Institute of Botany University of Sindh. Member 5. Jamshoro Convener 2. Lahore to finalize the draft curriculum in the light of generic frame work/template developed by the conveners of NCRC in Basic. Zaheer-ud-Din Khan Professor & Chairman Department of Botany. Member 3.
Raza Bhatti Professor Director. Dr. Rashida Zafar. Mohammad Ashraf Chairman Department of Plant Sciences. Dr. Member 8. Member 7. Member 13. Prof. Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Prof. Dr. Karachi Dr. Member/ Secretary Peshawar 8 . Department of Botany. Khairpur Prof. Government College University. Dr. Member 10. Dr. Lahore Dr. Ikram-ul-Haq. Ghulam Murtaza Assistant Professor. Dr. Member 12. Surayya Khatoon Department of Botany University of Karachi. Herbarium & Botanical Garden Department of Botany Shah Abdul Latif University. Farrukh Hussain Chairman Department of Botany University of Peshawar. Member 9. Professor Department of Botany. Member 11. Saeed Malik Professor Department of Botany BZ University. G. Member 14. Lahore College for Women University. Department of Botany University of Azad Jammu Kashmir Muzaffarabad Prof. Multan Prof. Lahore Prof.6. Bilquees Gul Department of Botany University of Karachi Karachi Dr.
general. major and elective courses to be adopted by both the public and private sector universities of the country. Khan. In the programme the knowledge of foundation courses as Diversity. University of AJK. Department of Botany. IT Administrator. As required the Committee developed the template for BS Botany 4 year programme on the provided performa. is incorporated. K. The rationale. Outcome of the Course The BS programme will enable to the students to be acquainted with the latest knowledge of the plant sciences. T. NCRC in Botany). Dr.Khattak.M. Plant Anatomy.M. Afterwards Fatiha was offered for Prof. Tahir Ali Shah. Genetics. The meeting ended with a vote of thanks to HEC for organizing the meeting and extending hospitality during the meeting. This Programme of 4 year BS comprised 130 credit hours spread over 8 semesters. and the major courses as Physiology. May God rest their souls in eternal peace. The four elective courses are left for specific requirement of the students of a university. Muzaffarabad and Mr. Prof. Biochemistry and Biostatistics etc. and Ecology etc. 9 . Faisal A. The Committee also made general recommendations for the consideration of the HEC authorities. May Allah bless all of us. It is imperative to update the existing national curriculum in Botany to bring it at par with the international standards. goals and outcome of the course (on separate sheets) be included while the syllabus is printed.The meeting started with the recitation from the Holy Quran by Mr. This included compulsory. HEC Karachi. foundation. Rationale The subject of plant sciences has undergone tremendous advances all over the world. Goal The goal of BS 4 year programme is to produce competent professionals in the field of Botany who will be capable to face the challenges of the changing world.Aslam (Member.
TEMPLATE FOR 4-YEAR BS DEGREE PROGRAM IN BOTANY SR. Compulsory Requirement (No Choice) General Courses to be chosen from other departments Discipline Specific Foundation Courses Major Courses including research project / Internship Electives within the major Total 9–9 7–8 9 – 10 11 – 13 4–4 40 – 44 25 – 25 21 – 24 30 – 33 36 – 42 12 – 12 124 – 136 Total numbers of Credit hours Duration Semester duration Semesters Course Load per Semester Number of courses per semester 130 4 years 16-18 weeks 8 12-18 Cr hr 4-6 (not more than 3 – Lab / Practical Courses per Semester) 10 . 2. 5. 4. CATEGORIES NO. 3. OF COURSES MIN– MAX CREDIT HOURS MIN– MAX 1.
Cell Biology. Genetics-I 5. ENGLISHVI* 5. Bacteriology & Virology 7. Genetics-II 12. hr 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 25 Discipline Specific Foundation Courses 25 Major courses 9-10 courses 30-33 Credit hours Subjects 1. Genetics & Evolution 4. hr 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 1. Molecular Biology 8. MATHEMATICS II(Biostatistics) 9. Plant Biochemistry-II 9. 2. Plant Biochemistry-I 6. Plant Ecology-II 10. 11-13 courses 36-42 Credit hours Subjects Phycology & Bryology Mycology & Plant Pathology 3. ENGLISH III (Technical Report Writing & presentation skills) 4. Hours Cr. Plant Physiology-I 7. Plant Anatomy 9. MATHEMATICS I ** (Statistical Packages) 8. Environmental Biology Cr. Genera Course-V *** 6. PAKISTAN STUDIES 6. Genera Course-III *** 4.LAYOUT FOR BS BOTANY (4 – YEAR PROGRAMME) Compulsory Requirements (the student has no choice) General Courses to be Chosen From Other Departments 9 courses 25 Credit hours Subjects 1. Diversity of Vascular Plants 8. Diversity of Plants 2. Genera Course-I *** 2. Plant Ecology-I Cr. Plant Systematics. Plant Systematics 4. ISLAMIC STUDIES / ETHICS 7. Genera Course-II*** 3. hr 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 Subjects 1. Genera Course-VI *** 7. Anatomy & Development 3. Plant Physiology-II 11. ENGLISH II(Communication Skill) 3. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER 7-8 courses 21-24 Cr. Genera Course-VIII*** Cr. Genera Course-IV *** 5. Biodiversity & Conservation 6. hr 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 32 36 11 . Genera Course-VII *** 8. Plant Physiology & Ecology 5. ENGLISH I (Functional English) 2.
4. Elective-I / Research Project / Internship/ *Optional Elective-II University option Elective-III Research Project / Internship/ *Optional Elective-IV University Option Cr.Elective Courses within the major including research project/internship 4 courses 12 Credit Hours Subject 1. hr 3 3 3 3 12 * ** *** University has the option to recommend any other course in lieu of English IV University may recommend any other course in lieu of Mathematics To be chosen from list of General Courses 12 . 2. 3.
SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR 4 YEAR INTEGRATED BS PROGRAMME Semester First Name of Subject ENGLISH-I (Functional English) PAKISTAN STUDIES MATH/STAT-1 (Statistical Packages)** GENERAL-I*** GENERAL-II*** FOUNDATION-I Bot-301 Diversity of Plants ENGLISH-II (Communication Skills) ISLAMIC STUDIES / ETHICS ENGLISH IV UNIV. Genetics and Evolution Fourth MATHEMATICS II (Bio Statistics) GENERAL-VII*** GENERAL-VIII*** FOUNDATION-IV Bot-402 Plant Physiology and Ecology FOUNDATION-V Bot-403 Biodiversity and Conservation Theory 3 2 3 3 3 3 17 3 2 3 3 3 3 17 Third 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 15 Lab 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 Cr. hr 3 2 3 3 3 4 18 3 2 3 3 3 4 18 3 3 4 3 4 17 3 3 3 4 4 17 Second 13 . OPTIONAL* GENERAL-III*** GENERAL-IV FOUNDATION-II Bot-302 Plant Systematics. Anatomy and Development ENGLISH-III (Technical Report Writing & Presentation Skill) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER GENERAL-V *** GENERAL-VI *** FOUNDATION-III Bot-401 Cell Biology.
Fifth FOUNDATION-VI Bot-502 Bacteriology and Virology FOUNDATION-VII Bot-505 Diversity of Vascular Plants MAJOR-I Bot-503 Phycology and Bryology MAJOR-II Bot-504 Mycology and Plant Pathology MAJOR-III Bot-506 Plant Systematics FOUNDATION-VIII Bot-507 Plant Anatomy FOUNDATION-IX Bot-510 Plant Ecology-I MAJOR-IV Bot-508 Genetics-I MAJOR-V Bot-509 Plant Biochemistry-I MAJOR-VI Bot-511 Plant Physiology-I MAJOR-VII Bot-601 Molecular Biology MAJOR-VIII Bot-602 Plant Biochemistry-II MAJOR-IX Bot-603 Plant Ecology-II ELECTIVE-I. RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP / *OPTIONAL PAPER ELECTIVE-II MAJOR-X Bot-604 Plant Physiology-II 3 3 3 3 3 3 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 3 18 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 3 3 3 15 3 3 Sixth 3 3 3 3 3 15 Seventh 3 3 0 3 3 12 Eighth MAJOR-XI Bot-606 Genetics-II MAJOR-XII Bot-607 Environmental Biology 3 3 14 .
ELECTIVE-III RESEARCH PROJ / INTERNSHIP/*OPTIONAL PAPER ELECTIVE-IV Total 0 3 9 3 0 3 3 3 12 130 * ** *** University has the option to recommend any other course in lieu of English IV University may recommend any other course in lieu of Mathematics I To be chosen from list of General Courses Note: .Optional and elective papers to be framed by respective Board of Studies. 15 .
Anthoceros iii. Algae (Chlamydomonas. Polysiphonia) Fungi (Mucor.DETAIL OF COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR IN BOTANY) 1st Year 1st Semester Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-301 4(3+1) Inter / A levels with Biology Diversity of Plants Specific Objectives of course: To introduce the students to the diversity of plants and their structures and significance. Penicillium. Spirogyra. Oscillatoria) with specific reference to biofertilizers. Funaria Pteridophytes. their implication on crop production and industrial applications. Bacteria and Cyanobacteria (Nostoc. Vaucheria. Anabaena. Agaricus). Ustilago. Ectocarpus. Riccia ii. reproduction and economic significance of: a) b) c) d) Viruses (RNA and DNA types) with special reference to TMV. Fossils and fossilization ii. Course Outline: Comparative study of life form. i. pathogenicity and industrial importance. Chara. Pinnularia. Psilopsida (Psilotum) 16 e) f) g) . structure. Lichens (Physcia) Bryophytes i. Puccinia. Phyllactinia.
John Wiley and Sons Publishers... Phycology. 4. 2. 9. 2004.M. Prentice Hall. 8.N.D. 3rd ed. Pinus iii. Mims. C. B. 8th ed.Ingrouille & Plant: Diversity and Evolution. R. 1999. C. J. Agrios. Andrew. Cycas ii. Ingrouille . A. Ltd. John Willey and Sons. maintenance. H. UK Prescott.Y. & Taylor. 1996. WM. 2000. Canadian Journal of Botany. Seed Habit Gymnosperms i. Chand and Company. Cambridge University Press. Journals / Periodicals: Pakistan Journal of Botany.J.N. Plant pathology. Lee. and Klein. Introductory Mycology. 10. Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology 3rd ed. Pteropsida (Marsilea) vi. 1961.D.J. Academic press London. Lycopsida (Selaginella) iv. New Delhi. J.P. 2004.R.D. S. 5.. 4th ed. 6. Chapman & Hall . preservation and staining of microorganisms. American Journal of Botany. Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. N. 2003. 3. Harley. M. Diversity and Evolution of Land Plants. Annals of Botany 17 .W. Recommended Books: 1. 1992. and Blackwell. Microbiology. Botany for degree students (all volumes). UK Marti. 7. Mauseth. C. Alexopoulos. 2006 CUP Taylor. G. L. Sphenopsida (Equisetum) v.h) iii. Identification of various types mentioned from prepared slides and fresh collections. Jones and Bartlett Pub. T. M. Vashishta. E. N. 1991.E. Ephedra Lab Outline: Culturing. Studies in Paleobotany. Brown Publishers. Study of morphology and reproductive structures of the types mentioned in theory.
v. economic importance distribution pattern of the following families: i. stem. Classification: brief history of various systems of classification with emphasis on Takhtajan. . Brief introduction to nomenclature. xii. ix. flower.various systems of classification.Vienna code. xi. Anatomy and Envelopment Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific objectives of course: Course outline: a) Plant systematics 1. iv. importance of Latin names and binomial system with an introduction to International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Diagnostic characters. viii. objectives and importance. iii. Plant Systematics. 3. identification and nomenclature of higher plants. inflorescence.2nd Semester Title of the Course: Bot – 302 4(3+1) Bot – 301 To understand 1. Lato) Poaceae (Gramineae) 18 and 4. Ranunculaceae Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Rosaceae Euphorbiaceae Cucurbitaceae Solanaceae Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Asteraceae (Compositae) Liliaceae (Sen. vii vii. x. 5. orphological characters root. ii. 2Structures and functions of tissues and organs at embryonic level. leaf. 2. placentation and fruit types. Morphology: a detailed account of various. Introduction to Plant Systematics: aims.
2. Cell wall: structure and chemical composition Concept. sap and heart wood. c) Development / Embryology Early development of plant body: 1. Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Epidermis (including stomata and trichomes) Xylem Phloem Meristem: types. structure and function of various tissues like: i. iii. Study of stomata. stem and root apices Vascular cambium Structure and development of root.b) Anatomy 1. iv. 5. 6. ii. periderm Characteristics of wood: diffuse porous and ring –porous. 4. 4. Tissues of primary body of plant Study of xylem 3-dimensional plane of wood. epidermis. 6. 3. soft and hard wood. Primary and secondary growth of dicot stem. Capsella bursa-pastoris Structure and development of Anther Microsporogenesis Microgametophyte Structure of Ovule Megasporogenesis Megagametophyte Endosperm formation Parthenocarpy Polyembryony Lab Outline: Anatomy 1.S of angiosperm stem and leaf. Identification of families given in syllabus with the help of keys. T. stem and leaf. 3. 2. vi. v. 2. 3. 19 Taxonomy . annual rings. 1. 5. 4.
U. D.H. 10. 12.S. Eichhorn. Recommended Books: 1 2. Anatomy of Seed Plants. Tata-Mac Graw-Hill Publishing Company. Freeman and Company Worth Publishers. Pullaiah. 20th Reprint. 1990. 1990. An Introduction to Plant Biology: Multimedia Enhanced. 3. Eames A. Raven.M. 1998. T. 2005.E.A. P. Esau’s Plant Anatomy. 14. S. Taxon. S. Raymond E. 2004.N. B. Jones and Bartlett Pub.. Phyton. Esau.J. Evert.D. 3rd ed.. 1998. and Eichhorn. Limited New Delhi. An Introduction to Plant Anatomy.C.H Mac Daniels. 2002. 3.H. 3rd Edition Regency Publications. E. Pergamon Press. TataMac Graw-Hill Publishing Company. USA. 9. Plant Taxonomy.1971.S. New Delhi. Students shall submit 40 fully identified herbarium specimens. John Wiley. 8. T.D. Clarke and Vodopich. New York.P. McGraw Hill Company. 6. R. A. McGraw Hill. Oxford. R. Naik. and L. John Wiley & Sons.2. Panday. S. Technical description of common flowering plants belonging to families mentioned in theory syllabus.New York. 11. G. K. 5. V. 1999. Mauseth. Maheshwari. 7. Embryology of Angiosperms. New Delhi. W. Columbia University Press. Fahn. 13. 2005 Taxonomy of Angiosperms. W. Pakistan Journal Of Botany. Stuessy.H. Journals / Periodicals: 2ndYear 3 Semester rd Title of the course: BOT-401 Credit hours: Prerequisites: 4(3+1) Cell Biology. Chand and Co. Meristems cells and tissues of the plant body. 4. J. 5. Botany. MacMillan & Co. 1951 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Lawrence. 2007. Genetics and Evolution BOT. UK Moore. P.F. 1960. Limited New Delhi. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. Plant Anatomy. Biology of Plants.E.301 & 302 20 . New York. A textbook of Botany (Angiosperms). Inc. Field trips shall be undertaken to study and collect local plants.
Carbohydrates ii. cell cycle Chromosomal aberrations. b) Genetics 1. ultrastructure morphology of chromosomes. deficiency. Aneuploidy and euploidy.familiarization with evolutionary processes. Introduction. 5. Cell biology Structures and Functions of Bio-molecules i. Changes in structure of chromosomes. v. vi. scope and brief history of genetics. Laws of segregation and independent assortment. 4. Nucleic Acids Cell: Physico-chemical nature of plasma membrane and cytoplasm.structure and functions of cell. Course outline: a) 1. ii iii. 2-nature of genetic material and hereditary process 3. duplication. Cell wall Endoplasmic reticulum Plastids Mitochondria Ribosomes Dictyosomes Vacuole Microbodies (Glyoxysomes and Peroxisomes) and and of the and 2.Specific objectives of course: To understand 1. Changes in the number chromosomes. mitosis meiosis. viii. inversion translocation. Lipids iii. Mendelian inheritance. Proteins iv. nucleolus. dominance and incomplete dominance. test cross. vi. vii. karyotype analysis Reproduction in somatic and embryogenic cell. Nucleus: Nuclear membrane. 21 . 6. Ultrastructure of plant cell with a brief description and functions of the following organelles i. back cross. 3.
The nature of evolutionary forces. 5. 8. transduction and transformation. 7. groups.coli. differential reproductive potential. Application of genetics in plant improvement: Induction of genetic variability (gene mutation. Extraction and estimation of carbohydrate. sex limited and sex linked characters. first plant cell. transcription. Introduction to germplasm conservation c) Evolution 5. Principles of genetic engineering / biotechnology. sex linkage in Drosophila and man (colour blindness). RNA and DNA from plant sources. linkage construction of linkage maps. detection of linkage. sex determination. Basic genetic engineering techniques. genetic code. Transmission of genetic material in Bacteria: Conjugation and gene recombination in E. early aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. selection. XY. 3. XO. lac operon). 4. Study of cell structure using compound microscope and elucidation of ultrastructure from electron microphotographs Measurement of cell size. DNA replication. 6. recombination). physical and chemical mutagens. Lab Outline: Cell Biology 1. origin of organized structures.g. WZ mechanisms. first vascular plant. adaptive radiations. 3. regulation of gene expression (e. 2. Linkage and crossing over: definition. 22 . 4. Study of mitosis and meiosis by smear/squash method and from prepared slides. Study of chromosome morphology and variation in chromosome number. Nature of gene. translation. Sex linked inheritance. Molecular genetics. protein synthesis.2. Development and release of new varieties. protein. hybridization and plant breeding techniques.
S. H. 3. Lodish. 2. i. Genetics. Carmine/orcein staining. New Delhi. Carroll. R.R. 3. Strickberger. 2001. Grenier. Freeman and Co.d. 7. Conservation Genetics. Heredity. Cytology and Genetics. Tata and McGraw Hill Publication Co.K. Kluwer Academic Publishers. M. Sinha. Molecular Cell Biology. New Delhi. Cambridge University Press. London. Blackwell Science. 4th Semester Title of the course: Credit hours: Prerequisites: Specific objectives of course: Course outline: 1. S. 6. 9.Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. H. Introduction objectives and scope: Definition 23 Bot-501 3(2+1) Biostatistics . 2. Genetical problems related to transmission and distribution of genetic material. (1988). Dyonsager. (1986). Study of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila.Genetics 1. 8. 2000 Evolution. & B. W. Plant Diversity and Evolution.J. Blackwell Science. 5. R.B. Eddie. A. Principles of Human Evolution. and Welnerbee.. V. 1997. From DNA to Diversity . 2001. 4. Jones & Bartlet Publishers Canada Ingrouille M. Ltd. S. 2006. (1988). Vini Educational Books. Strickberger. Identification of DNA in plant material. MacMillan Press Ltd. Recommended Books: 1. Journals / Periodicals: Theoretical & Applied Genetics. and Sinha. The Cell. W. Hoelzel. 2001. Cytogenesis Plant Breeding and Evolution. M. J. Lewin. U..V..
4. Measures of central tendencies and dispersion: i. Random variables.ii. Concept and design ii. Range v. Formation of frequency table from raw data iii. Mean deviation. 24 . Data transformation. Poisson and normal distributions. Arithmetic mean ii. Characteristics Importance and limitations Population and samples Frequency distribution: i. Planning of experiments v. Probability distributions. Organizing and describing data (Standard distributions): i. Field plot technique vii. Variable types ii. iii. 5. Mode iv. Probability. Latin square x. properties and applications. iii. Randomized complete block design ix. notation and statistical inference iv. Summation. Median iii. Types of Probabilities. Layout and analysis of completely randomized design viii. Factorial design xi. Observational studies iv. Basic experimental design: i. Replication and randomization vi. Combining probabilities. Standard deviation vii. Variance vi. 2. Random sampling and the binomial distribution ii. Treatment comparison 3. Binomial distributions. iv. Standard error of the mean viii. Principles of experiments iii.
10. median and mode. 8. arrangement of data in frequency table. 6. no correlation and curvilinear correlation (second degree polynomial. Bonferroni test. calculating frequency. poisson distribution. How ANOVA works. Chi square test: Basic idea. Chi square test. Linear combination. T-test: (Basic idea. significant difference of means. linear perfect negative correlation. Data collection. 8. standard error. Duncan’s New Multiple Range test (for comparison of individual means). 7. 9. multiple comparisons. Multiple Analyses Of Variance. 25 11. Tests of significance: i. Calculation of mean from grouped and ungrouped data. Problems concerning probability. relative dispersion. 7. Correlation and Regression. Calculating dispersion. iv. Types of sums of squares. third degree polynomial). cumulative frequency and preparation of Ogive.one factor design. Basic one way ANOVA. Lab outline: 1. standard deviation. Analysis of variance . The ANOVA Table. calculating and analyzing the two-way ANOVA. binomial distribution. skewness and Kurtosis and T-test. linear positive correlation. Calculation of variance and standard deviation from grouped and ungrouped data. standard score and co-efficient variation by hand and machine method. 2. .6. testing association (contingency table). Two-way ANOVA-Factorial designs: (two-way actorial analysis. ii. iii. geometric mean. 5. testing goodness of fit to a ratio. Determination of correlation by constructing different types of graphs such as scatter diagram. harmonic mean. Linear Regression and multiple regression models. confidence limits of means. Calculating different measure of central tendency such as arithmetic means. 4. 3. F-test: Introduction and application in analysis of variance. LSD test. Introduction to comparing many means: Unit organization.
Samuels. Harvey.M. 2000. 4. 2001.F. 2003. 2005. Rosner.W. 6. Absorption and translocation of water. McGraw-Hill International Education. Cliffnotes for statistics. 3.To provide comprehensive knowledge of functioning of organs. Jhon Wiley & Sons. Zar. 2.Kuzma J. Biostatistical Analysis. B. and Witmar. osmotic potential. 7.A. Plant Physiology Water relations (water potential. NY. 401 1. Title of the course: Credit hours: Prerequisites: BOT-402 4(3+1) Plant Physiology And Ecology Bot-301. and Gauvreau. Intuitive Bioostatistics. S. Pearson Addison Wesley. 26 . 2. Triola. M. Adams. Blackwell Scientific Publishers.. M. Fundamentals of Biostatistics. Oxford University Press. 2001. 1999. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. J. 2002. 5.to enable the students to assess the effects of various environmental factors on plant growth and development. D. and Bohnenblust. M. Basis Statistics for the Health Sciences.Recommended Books: 1. Onton. Cambridge University Press. Statistics for life sciences. J. M.L. and Voelkar. Quinn. and Triola.H.. Pearson Education. pressure potential. Priciples of Biostatistics. 2005. matric potential). K. M. P. G. organelles and biomolecules. Pacano. Specific objectives of course: Course outline: a) 1. Cambridge University Press. Stomatal regulation. Biostatistics for Biological and Health Sciences.H. 302. S.E. 8. 3rd Edition. 1995.
abscisic acid and ethylene in controlling growth. historical background. Essential mineral elements. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Quality of light.cytokinins. Introduction to plant tissue culture. Passive and active transport of nutrients. Photosynthesis: Introduction. 1. Dormancy: Definition and causes of seed and bud dormancy. 2. role and deficiency symptoms of macronutrients. Energy balance in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration. Physiological processes during seed germination. Respiratory quotients. gravitropism and their mechanisms. Plant Movements: Classification. Light and Temperature. chanism-Glycolysis. 7. Ecophysiological responses. 27 . Growth: Definition. Classification of plants based on photoperiodic response. Role of phytochromes. Products of photosynthesis. Oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthesis Mechanism: light reactions (electron transport and photophosphorylation) and dark reactions(Calvin cycle). Soil: Physical and Chemical properties of soil (soil formation. Tropic movementsphototropism. Differences between C3 and C4 plants. gibberellins. organism and organic matter etc) and their relationships to plants. Krebs cycle.2. 8. 5. Photoperiodism: Definition. Nastic movements. 4. 6. texture. pH. Respiration: Definition and respiratory substrates. methods of breaking seed dormancy. EC. role of auxins. Mineral nutrition: Soil as a source of minerals. and hormones and metabolites in photoperiodism. b) Ecology 3. Introduction. diurnal and seasonal variations. Factors affecting this process. 3. aims and applications of ecology.
iii. Ecological characteristics of plant community ii. Community Ecology i. effects and control of water logging and salinity with respect to Pakistan ii. Brief concept of pollution types and effects (air. Causes. 4. 6. Major vegetation types of the local area. Succession. 8. causes and effects (wind and water) iii.4. Soil erosion: types. Methods of sampling vegetation (Quadrat and line intercept) iii. Measurement of leaf water potential by the dye method. A brief description of seed dispersal. Determination of uptake of water by swelling seeds when placed in sodium chloride solution of different concentrations. Wind: Wind as an ecological factor and its importance. Food chain and Food web. 9. definition. density effects and reproductive strategy. Population Ecology: Introduction. seed bank. iv. 28 . Water: Field capacity and soil water holding capacity. 3. sediments and water pollution) iv. Plant Physiology Preparation of solutions of specific normality of acids/bases. ii. Biogeochemical cycles. Definition. sugars. salts. Lab Outline: a) 1. 2. Characteristics of xerophytes and hydrophytes. 5. types with emphasis on Nitrogen & Hydrological cycles. demography. molal and molar solutions and their standardization. 7. Applied Ecology i. Determination of the temperature at which beet root cells lose their permeability. Ecosystem Ecology i. types and components of ecosystem. Brief introduction to biodiversity and conservation with emphasis on Pakistan. Effect of precipitation on distribution of plants.
11. 5. 3. Field trips to ecologically diverse habitats. Extraction of chlorophyll from the leaves and separation of component pigments on a paper chromatogram. Extraction of amylase from germinating wheat seeds and study of its effect on starch breakdown. 10. J. iv. Measurements of wind velocity.B. Berlin. 4. Hopkins. John Wiley and Sons. 6. 8. 2006. W. and Zeiger. 4th. E. Determination of physical and Chemical characteristics of soil. UGC Press. Plant Physiology. b) Ecology 1. Starch Cellulose Lignin Proteins 7. Determination of the effects of environmental factors on the rate of transpiration of a leafy shoot by means of a porometer/by cobalt chloride paper method. Measurement of light and temperature. 29 . Ihsan Illahi 1995. 2nd Ed. 1999. Inc. 2005. Biochemical Processes in Plants. 1992. Study of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer.C. 2. Springer-Verlag. Witham and Devlin. Salisbury F. 2. 5. Ed.5. Plant Physiology. 3. 9. Calif. Sinauers Publ. and Ross C. Introduction to Plant Physiology. L. 6. 1986 Exercises in Plant Physiology.B. New York Schultz. Boston. Measurement of carbon dioxide evolution during respiration of germinating seeds by the titration method. Measurements of various population variables Measurement of vegetation by Quadrat and line intercept methods. Wadsworth Publishing Co. AWS Publishers. Co. Belmont CA. ii. Plant Ecology.B. iii. 4. Chemical tests for the following cell constituents: i. 12. Estimation of oxygen utilized by a respiring plant by Winkler's method. Recommended Books: 1. Taiz. Plant Physiology. Effect of light and temperature on seed germination. 5th Edition.
1989. 30 . Saunders. Krebs.V.L. 2003 Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysicology and Stress Physiology of Functions Groups – Springer Verlag. Barbour. J. Ricklefs. Cambridge University Press.Ecology and field biology. Addison Wesley Longman. W. J. R..E.S. 2000. W.. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Larcher. R. New York. Narosa Publishing House. 11.J. A. 18. L. R.H. 14. The Benjamin. Subrahmanyam. 1999. 2004.S. National Book Foundation..7. Journals / Periodicals: Plant Physiology. 1998. 19. M. 1985. 10.P. National Academy of Higher Education. Ricklefs. J. Islamabad. W. 1989. Inc.H. Basic Ecology. New York.S. Harper and Row Publishers. L..R. Cumming Publishing Co. Chapman. 8. Freeman and Co. 302. 401. 15. and Begon. R. Elements of Ecology. 402 Biodiversityand Conservation: Specific objectives of course: To familiarize the students with the diversity of nature. Harper. 2002. Smith. UK. Pakistan Manual of Plant Ecology. Ecology and Field Biology. R. Ecology. USA. Odum. 16.B. Importance of biodiversity for survival and proper functioning of ecosystems. Addison Wesley Longman. and Reiss.S. 12.E.E. 17. Smith. 1995. New Delhi. The Economy of Nature. Harper and Row Publishers. 1996. 13. Inc. Hussain F. California. W. G. Journal of Ecology Title of the Course: Bot-403 Credit Hours: Prerequisites: 4(3+1) Bot-301. H.D. New York. Townsend. Palo Alto. 2000. N. J. Ecology. UK. Pitts. Field and Laboratory Manual of Plan Ecology. Burke and W. C. M..L. Smith. and Sambamurthy. Ecology: Principles and Applications. M. S. Hussain. Blackwell Scientific Publications. L. UK. Freeman and Co. 2001. 1997. 20. C. E. Ecology. Essentials of Ecology. Islamabad. 9..
H. Definition of biodiversity as defined in the convention of biological diversity (CBD). Falk. 8. Beta.. & Burdon. New Jersy. 10. Published for the United Nations Environment Programme. 3. 11.A. Cambridge University Press.). CUP. S. IUCN Red List Categories. direct value of ecosystem (i.B. 5. A. taxic diversity. Utility of living resources). Introduction of species on each other for their survival. J. International treaties/agreements regarding Biodiversity and conservation.E. Cambridge.D. Extent of known and estimated biodiversity of earth.e. Systematic diversity . UK. & Holsinger. O. 31 . 1991. CBD. 5. and Jury. 3. IUCN categorised protected areas in Pakistan. D.Course outline: 1. Identification of wild plant species used by local communities in different ecosystems. Center for Plant Conservation. IUCN. 2006 Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. ecosystem degradation. As Approved by the IUCN Council. indirect value of ecosystem by virtue of their ecological functions. Sustainable and unsustainable use of ecosystem resources. desertification and deforestation. M. V. Cambridge University Press. Lab outline: 1 2 3 Inventory of plant biodiversity in various habitats. 2. Measuring biodiversity: Alpha. Ramsar. consequences of unsustainable use. Bush. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Field survey for baseline studies and Impact Assessment. K. Cambridge.H. 1997 Ecology of a changing Planet. 1994. and Gamma diversity. Oxford University Press. Biodiversity Hot spots of the world. extinct species. 6. Brown. UK.J. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. 6. 1995. (ed. 4. Prentice hall. CITES. Environmental Impact Assessment. 4. 1995. UK. Leadlay. Frankel. Oxford. 7. E. Heywood. Use of herbarium and Botanical Garden in biodiversity and conservation. Ecological services. IUCN. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. functional diversity. 2. Recommended Books: 1. 9.
2005 Beyond Conservation. 302. structure importance Bacteria and economic of Viruses and Course outline: a) 1. 2. Molecular biology of plant virus transmission. 2005 Global Action for Biodiversity. 6. 4. Earth Scan Publication Ltd. Methods in molecular virology.W. Virus biology and virus transmission. 8. Viruses General features of viruses. Earth Scan Publication Ltd. 9. P. 32 .protecting the Planet in the age of globalization. dissemination and replication of single and double – stranded DNA/RNA viruses. Plant viral taxonomy. W. viral architecture. 301. H. 3. Systematics and Biodiversity Biological Conservation. 501 Specific objectives of course: To understand the morphology. classification. T. 401. 2000 Vanishing Borders. 402. Resistance to viral infection. French. 5. 7. Taylor. Norton & Co Swanson.7. Symptomatology of virus-infected plants: (External and Internal symptoms). Journals /Periodicals 3rd Year 5 Semester th Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: BOT-502 3(2+1) Bacteriology and Virology Bot. Metabolism of virus-infected plants. 8.
The Haworth Press. D. Bacteria History. and Dijkstra J. 2004. Matthews. D. New Delhi. 2. John Wiley and Sons.G. biotechnology and genetic engineering. Preparation of slides for the study of various forms. Microbiology. . Arora. 2005 Microbiology . Fundamentals of Microbiology.P. Khan. John Willey Co.C. CBS Publishers and Distributors. A. Inc. 4. Inc. characteristics and classification.. Inc. Black. G. 2005. 33 . and Case C. spores. b) 1. Hull R.J. 4. Textbook of Microbiology. Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria Methods of sterilization of glassware and media etc. J. Bacteria. Plant Viruses as Molecular Pathogens. 1995. 7.a) 1. genetic recombination. capsule/slime layer. . 2. 5. Growth of bacteria. B. flagella and Gram-staining. Microscopic study of representative genera of Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria from fresh collections and prepared slides. and Klein. 6. 2. Plant Virology. 2004. fermentation. 3. 4. Recommended Books: 1. Academic Press. 3.R. Pearson Education. 5. J.Principles and Exploration. J. Preparation of nutrient medium and inoculation. 5.R. Tortora. 2004. locomotion and reproduction in bacteria Bacterial metabolism (respiration.L. L. Harley. 3.M. subculturing and identification of bacteria on morphological and biochemical basis (using available techniques). Ross F. Microbiology McGraw Hill Companies. Lab outline: a) Viruses of symptoms of some viral infected plant Observation specimens. photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation) Importance of bacteria with special reference to application in various modern sciences specially agriculture. Prescott.A. New York. actinomycetes and cyanobacteria) Morphology. Funke. Evolutionary tendencies in Monera (Bacteria.
501 Phycolog And Bryology Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific objectives of course: To understand the classification. Journal of General Virology. Brief study of the classes: Hepaticopsida. Charophyta. general account. Use of camera lucida/micrographs. Section cutting of thalloid algae iv. Anthoceros and Polytrichum. classification. 34 b) . 302.Journals/Periodicals: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. b) Bryology: Introduction and general account of bryophytes. Current Microbiology. Bryology Study of the following genera: Pellia. theories of origin and evolution. classification. morphology importance Bryophytes and economic of Algae and Course Outline: a) Phycology Introduction. Porella. Collection of fresh water and marine algae. Lab Outline: a) Phycology: i. Anthoceropsida and Bryopsida. ii. evolution. 301. Xanthophyta. Identification of benthic and planktonic algae iii.50 3(2+1) Bot. Journal of Virology Bot. Bacillariophyta. 401. Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. ecology and economic importance of the following divisions of algae:Chlorophyta. biochemistry. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 402. Preparation of temporary slides v.
J. 1985. 1966. 501 Specific Objectives of course: To introduce the students to Mycology and Diseases caused by Fungi. Basidiomycota (Agaricales. London. and I. Zygomycota (Mucrales) Oomycota (Peronosporales). R. W. Vashishta. McMillan and Co. 3. haploid.Recommended Books: 1. Ilahi. Marine Botany. 401. Chytridiomycota. Chand and Co. heterokaryotic and diploid states. Phycology.B. and M. Pezizales).J. F. Dawson. V.K. Mycology Introduction: General characters of fungi. Department of Botany. C. Phycology. Course Outline: a) 1. 2. Sea weed and their uses. H. Introduction to Bryology. B. and D. 2. Ascomycota (Erysiphales. 3. Engle Wood Cliffs Lee. Introduction to Algae: structure and reproduction. Thallus. Delhi. 1983. New York. Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-504 3(2+1) Mycology and Plant Pathology Bot. 302. 4. Hussain. Reinhart and Winstan. Macmillan Publishing Co. Ltd.E. 6. S. Fungal Systematics: Classification of fungi into phyla with suitable examples to illustrate somatic structures. Reproduction: Asexual and sexual reproduction and reproduction structures.Y. University of Peshawar. Polyporales. 2004. Cambridge University Press. 301. Ltd. cell structure and ultrastructure of fungi.. 5. Bryology. Halt. 1991. Bryophytes 8th ed. Botany for degree students. Chapman. London. life cycle and reproduction of Myxomycota. 1999. Pakistan Journal of Botany. Wynne 1985. A text book of Botany. R. Bold. U. 7. Uredinales. E. 402. life cycle. 35 . Schofield. Chapman. International Journal of Phycology and Phycochemsitry. Prentice Hall Inc.J. Ustilaginales) and Deuteromycetes.
A. 2. C. Plant Pathology. John Wiley & Sons. mildews. 3. G.. Wiley and Eastern Ltd. and Bhutta. Introductory Mycology.W.. Lab Outline: a) Mycology General characters and morphology of fungi. Ahmad. Khan. Symbiotic relationships of fungi with other organisms (lichens and mycorrhiza) and their significance. Symptoms. smuts. 5. Study of unicellular and mycelial forms with septate and aseptate hyphae. 2. Botany Department Arid Agriculture University. M. Study of some common examples of saprophytic.4. causes and development of plant diseases Loss assessment and disease control Epidemiology and disease forecast Important diseases of crop plants and fruit trees in Pakistan caused by fungi. Book Foundation. London. 4. 5. 2005.R. India. Mehrotra. Academic Press. shisham dieback etc.N. e. 36 . Recommended Books: 1. b) Pathology Identification of major plant pathogens under lab and field conditions. Rawalpindi.. Alexopoulos. 1990. New Delhi.G. Pakistan.. K.S. rusts.J.g. 2004. cultural studies of some important plant pathogenic fungi. parasitic and air-borne fungi belonging to different phyla. R. Textbook of Introductory Plant Pathology. Agrios. Importance of fungi in human affairs with special reference to Industry and Agriculture b) Pathology 1. and Aneja. Introduction and classification of plant diseases. 4. 5... A. and Usman. 1996. Demonstration of control measures through chemotherapeutants. C. Laboratory Manual in Mycology and Plant Pathology. 2005.. Distinguishing characters of different phyla: study of suitable examples. An Introduction to Mycology.R. application of Koch’s postulates for confirmation of pathogencity. I. Mims. damping off. 4th ed. R. 3. and Blackwell. Study of asexual and sexual reproductive structures in different groups of fungi.
Selaginella). First vascular plant Rhyniophyta e. Plant Pathology: Concepts and Laboratory Exercises. 302.. 7. Windham. 1996. N. Dryopteris and Azolla/Marsilea).. origin. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology. geological time scale and importance of paleobotany. USA. Lycopsida (Lycopodium.g. types of fossils. 301. Sphenopsida (Equisetum).N. 2004. 4th edn. features and a generalized life cycle. Annual Review of Plant Pathology Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-505 3(2+1) Diversity of Vascular Plants Bot.Y. R.. Pakistan Journal of Botany. CRC Press. Mycotoxin.. 37 . and Windham. Trigiano. Phytopathology. Australasian Journal of Plant pathology . Mycopath. b) Origin and Evolution of seed habit. M. affinities and comparative account of evolutionary trends of the following phyla: Psilopsida Psilotum).S. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey. Cooksonia General characters. E. 402. 501 Specific Objectives of course: To enable the students to understand and appreciate the biology and evolution of plant architecture Course Outline: a) Pteridophytes Introduction. Pteropsida (Ophioglossum. Moore-Landecker. history. LLC. Fundamentals of Fungi.6. Methods of fossilization.T. classification. 401. A.
d. E. Foster. Evert. Bennettitales. R. H.D. An introduction to the Gondwana flora of world.M. 5. An Introduction to Plant Biology. 2000. Jr. and life cycle of angiosperms e) 1. S. A. Jones and Bartlett Pub. Importance. 1992. Vol1&II. general characteristics. Freeman and Company Worth Publishers. classification and affinities of Cycadofillicales. Botany McGraw Hill Company. medicines. Ray. W. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Botany Saunders College Publishing. 38 . geology.H. Moore. C. Mauseth. 3. W.. Multimedia Enhanced. Ginkgoales. Lab Outline: 1. UK. Freeman and Co. Economic importance of gymnosperms. 2. 2. Origin and Evolution of Gymnosperms.E. M. 1998. Palynology: An introduction to Neopalynology and Paleopalynology. origin.c) Gymnosperms: Geological history. 6. Clarke and Vodopich. New York. Recommended Books: 1. USA.B.H.S. P.A. W. distribution. USA Raven. 7. 1999. DC. 2. D.S. and Eichhorn. T. Study trips to different parts of Pakistan for the collection and identification of important pteridophytes. Biology of Plants. P. 8. T. its applications in botany. and Fultz. and Taylor. Prentice Hall. morphology and classification of living and fossil pollen and spores. E. 4. J.E. morphology.D. Cycadales and Gnetales. R. Jones. 1998. honey and oil and gas exploration. Washington. 1983.A.c. and Gifford. T. criminology. anatomy. Distribution of gymnosperms in Pakistan. Cycadales of the World. To study the morphological and reproductive features of available genera. Basic information about the nomenclature. Columbia University Press.N. 1998. Taylor. 1998. gymnosperms and angiosperms. d) Angiosperms: Origin. archaeology. Beck. Steeves. Comparative Morphology of Vascular Plants. D.
Continuous and discontinuous variation. Kaland & K. monographs. Species aggregate. 39 2. Stewart. Various biosystematics categories such as ecophene. the earliest fossil records of angiosperms. Concept of Species : What is a species? Taxonomic species. and Rothwell.9.. Biological species. Palaeontographica. 1993. ecotype. P. University Press.. Mutation and hybridization Geographical isolation. Speciation: Mechanism of speciation. 3. classification. Methodology of conducting biosystematics studies. coenospecies and comparium. W. . N. Pakistan Journal of Botany. Text Book of Pollen Analysis. New Phytologist. Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology. Gradual and abrupt.E. 5. Faegri. Cambridge. Reproductive isolation. their probable ancestors. 4. G. Palaeobotanist Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-506 3(2+1) Plant Systematics Specific Objectives of course: To know floral composition/ system of classification focusing on identification. Introduction: Importance and relationship with other sciences.W. Jhon Wiley & Sons. ecospecies. 10. description nomenclature and flora writings. Systematics and Genecology / Biosystematics: Introduction and importance. N. Infra specific categories. Krzywinski 1989. Origin and radiation of angiosperm. Variation : Types of variation.Y. Micro and macro species. where and how did the angiosperms evolve. Phases of plant taxonomy. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants. when. K. Course Outline: 1. Clinal variation.
2. 10. phyletic relationships and economic importance of the following families of angiosperm: 1. 14. Taxonomic Evidence: Importance and types of taxonomic evidences: anatomical. 7. Brief history. 15. 12. conditions for rejecting names. 8. 19. Cronquist. molecular. 20. Engler and Prantl. 9. 7. 13. distribution. geographical and embryological. 3. Nomenclature : Important rules of botanical nomenclature including effective and valid publication. rank of main taxonomic categories. Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Arecaceae (Palmae) Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae (Compositae) Boraginaceae Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) Cannaceae Capparidaceae Caryophyllaceae Casuarinaceae Chenopodiaceae Convolvulaceae Cucurbitaceae Cyperaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Juncaceae Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Liliaceae Magnoliaceae Malvaceae Myrtaceae Orchidaceae Papaveraceae Poaceae (Gramineae) Ranunculaceae 40 . General characteristics. 4.6. Takhtajan. 22. Bessey. cytological. 21. 23. Bentham and Hooker. palynological. Different systems of classification with at least one example of each (Linnaeus. 8. 11. and Dahlgren. 9. 26. Brief introduction of Numerical taxonomy. typification. 17. 18. chemical. Classification: Why classification is necessary? Importance of predictive value. 5. 10. 6. 25. 24. 16. evolutionary trends. author citation. principles of priority and its limitations.
Karachi Univ. T. . A. Submission of properly mounted and fully identified hundred herbarium specimens at the time of examination Field trips shall be undertaken to study and collect plants from different ecological zones of Pakistan. & Hawksworth.C. M. Press.H. P. 8. Diversity and Evolution of Land Plants. 32. Karachi Ali. Greuter.. P.(eds. 5. 1987. Takhtajan. 1970-89.. Recommended Books: 1. London Ingrouille. July –August 1999. & Ali.. Edward Arnold. Edinburgh Jones. 6.Turland. V. S.) Davis. London Nasir. and Qaiser. 3. (Regnum Veg. Oliver & Boyd.138. S.W.. M. Filguerras. 2.27.R. 1992-2007 -todate. Karachi Univ. Konigstein. S. & Heywood. Flora of Pakistan. Karachi. Karachi Univ. J. 7. 30. (1986).. F. B. Press. Skog. Chapman & Hall.E. 9.. C. Karachi. Flora of Pakistan.H. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. P. 31. New York. Y. and Nasir. McNeill. Inc. Flora of Pakistan.. Burdet. Niclson. 1990-92.I. 1963.H. Rosaceae Salicaceae Scrophulariaceae Solanaceae Trochodendraceae Winteraceae Lab Outline: 1.I. 4.L. Louis Missouri. Ali. E.I.J. Oliver and Boyd.. Plant Systematics.. J. McGraw Hill. Trehane. Stace. 28. Press. D. Silva. 6. A.. Study of variation pattern in different taxa.E. 1992. and Luchsinger. (1992). 41 4. 2. 5. 3. H. Demoulin. Flowering Plant: Origin and Dispersal.) 2000. V. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis Code) adopted by the Sixteenth International botanical congress St. Technical description of plants of the local flora and their identification up to species level with the help of a regional/Flora of Pakistan Preparation of indented and bracketed types of keys Preparation of permanent slides of pollen grains by acetolysis method and study of different pollen characters.S. Barrie. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. M. N.. S. 29. D. Koeltz.
1978.R. Flowering Plants of the World. Pakistan Journal Botany.UK Levin. Naik.E. Soltis. 501 Anatomy of Vascular Plants Specific objectives of course: To provide the students understanding about anatomical features of vascular plants 42 . Elsevier Academic Press. M. A. USA. Oxford University Press. Stussy.C. The Origin. Oxford University Press. Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Journals / Periodicals: 6th Semester Title of the course: Credit hours: Prerequisites: Bot-507 3(2+1) Bot. Columbia University Press. R. Jeffrey C.W. M.H. Publishers. 1980. T. Chase. S. and M. E. J. 18. Bell. P. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company. T. Radford. Taxonomy of Angiosperms.V and N. 2007 Taxonomy of Angiosperms 3rd Ed. and C. New Delhi. 21. 19. 1998 Vascular Plant Systematic. Massey.S.A. Flora of Pakistan.10. Saliha and K. New Delhi.F. 1990.. 15. Sinauers associates. An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy. Leadlay. D. 1996 Plant Taxonomy. 401. and Stephen 2006.P Robson 1991 Introduction to the Principles of Plant Taxonomy. Phylogeny & evolution of angiosperms. New York. Pullaiah. Nasim Book Depot Hyderabad. 402.E. 11. T. Rajput. P. Khan.K. 2000. 2006. Sivarajan V. Soltis. M. Cambridge University Press. 12.N.K Endress.G.. Harper and Row. V. 13. 301. Plant Systematics. 17. Dickison. 302. W. Simpson. Plant Taxonomy. 16. 14. 2005. D. Expansion and Demise of Plant Species. Heywood V. Regency Publication. Inc. 20. 2005. Taxon.
Parenchyma. Abnormal secondary growth. 11. venation. hairs. structural characteristics. Enlargement of epidermal cells. different growth zones. 8. distribution. origin. different primary and secondary tissues from the living and preserved material in macerates and sections. Peel and ground sectioning and maceration of fossil material. 43 . cytoplasmic characteristics. seasonal activity and its role in the secondary growth of root and stem. Leaf: types. structure. Apical meristem: Delimitation. development. internal organization. Lab outline: 1. development of different tissues with special reference to mesophyll. Study of abnormal/unusual secondary growth. structure. 7. 10. 2. 2. 4. Collenchyma. bundlesheaths and bundle-sheath extensions. storied and non-storied cell types. Secretory tissues: Laticifers (classification. internal organization. development. Shoot and root apices. types of divisions: additive and multiplicative. 6. Study of organization of shoot and root meristem. 4. Anatomy of reproductive parts: Flower Seed Fruit Economic aspects of applied plant anatomy Anatomical adaptations Molecular markers in tree species used for wood identification. cytohistological characteristics. Phloem with special emphasis on different types of woods. Vascular cambium: Origin. Sclerenchyma. initials and their derivatives. 3. Comparative study of wood structure of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms with the help of prepared slides. Periderm. functional and evolutionary specialization of the following tissues: Epidermis and epidermal emergences. 3. evolution of the concept of apical organization. glands and other secondary structures. 5. Meristematic tissues: classification. The plant body and its development: fundamental parts of the plant body. Xylem.Course 0utline: 1. different tissue systems of primary and secondary body. functions) and Resin Canals. 9. Origin.
Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. E. and L. 5. 402. Cutler. 1950. Clerondon Press.J. 11. 2002. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. Pergamon Press. Oxford. 12. 7. 6.G. The American Association of feed Microscopists. lethal alleles. Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. 1960. Pakistan Journal of Botany Bot-508 3(2+1) Bot. D. Eames. 1960.R. Applied Plant Anatomy. IV. A. 2000. 44 . John Willey Sons. Metcalf. C. multiple alleles. Oxford. New York. 501 Genetics -I Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: To understand the nature and function of genetic material Course Outline: 1.Recommended Books: 1. U. Plant Anatomy. Clerondon Press. 1990.H. Juncales. Extensions of Mendelian Analysis : Variations on dominance. Eichhorn. 401. England Raymond. A. Metcalfe. 4. Anatomy of Seed Plants. D. 1990. 3. John Wiley. L. Academic Press. Oxford. An introduction to Plant Anatomy.R. 9. 1971. several genes affecting the same character. C. 2005. 302. London. Gramineae. Vaughan. Anon. J. Oxford. Integrative plant anatomy. 1969. Dickison.F. Longman Group Ltd. Cutler. 2.R. Clarendon Press.V. Meristematic cells and tissues of plant body. New Delhi. 301. Metcalfe. Manual of Microscopic Analysis of Feeding Stuffs.K. penetrance and expressivity. Esau’s Plant Anatomy. Fahn. 10. Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. and Chalk. The structure and Utilization of Oil Seeds. 1978. W. Chapman and Hall Ltd. Clerondon Press. 8. Tat Mac-Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited. Esau. Cyperaceae. C. K. Oxford.S.F. Mac Daniels.C. and E.
protein relationships. mutagens in genetic disorder. 6. 45 . Population Genetics: Gene frequencies. 5. translation. interference. Hardy-Weinberg law. Evolutionary significance of mutation. DNA and the gene. Recombination in Bacteria and their Viruses : Bacterial chromosome. linkage maps. The Structure of DNA : DNA: The genetic material. universitality of genetic information transfer. linkage of genes on the X chromosome. mutational sites. protein synthesis. mutation and cancer. Linkage I: Basic Eukaryotic Chromosome Mapping : The discovery of linkage. Linkage II: Special Eukaryotic Chromosome Mapping Techniques : Accurate calculation of large map distances. 9. cytoplasmic inheritance in fungi. conservation of gene frequencies. genetic observations explained by enzyme structure. three-point testcross. bacterial conjugation. 4. Developmental Genetics:Gene Regulation and Differentiation. extranuclear genes in chlamydomonas.2. complementation. the occurrence of mutations. 11. bacterial gene transfer. DNA replication in eukaryotes. mitotic segregation and recombination. eukaryotic RNA. mutation breeding. bacterial transformation. the genetic code. mutant types. mapping human chromosomes. cancer as a developmental genetic disease. mitochrondrial genes in yeast. equilibrium. 7. The Extranuclear Genome : Variegation in leaves of higher plants. 10. factors affecting gene equilibrium. analysis of single meioses. 8. The Nature of the Gene : How genes work. 3. Gene Mutation :Somatic versus germinal mutation. bacteriophage genetics. linkage mapping by recombination in humans. Crown gall disease in plants. gene. mapping of bacterial chromosomes. genetic fine structure.coli chromosome. linkage symbolism. transduction. recombination. DNA Function : Transcription. extragenomic plasmids in eukaryotes. bacterial recombination and mapping the E.
Fundamental Genetics. iv. i. M. New York. Fungal genetics Sacchromyces culture techniques and study. 5. ASM Press. ii. Genetics. Gardner.Lab Outline: 1. and Cummings. W. ii.S. John Willey and Sons. Gene frequencies and equilibrium. Transformation.B. Recombination in viruses. Studies on variation in maize ear size and colour variation Bacterial Genetics. Roth Well. Ringo J. Concepts of Genetics. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. A conceptual approach. ii. Freeman and Company. 2004. 2004. Cambridge University Press. ii. iii. L. Bacterial cultural techniques. 1997. Washington D. Kluwer Academic Publishers.C. Numerical problems a) Arrangement of genetic material: i. 3. b) 2. subtilis) ii. Plant Molecular Biology Manual. Recombination in Fungi.A. 6. Klug. Changes in gene frequencies. Recombination in bacteria. New York. coli. B. 2004. Gene mapping in diploid. 5. Blood group and Rh-factor Drosophila i. Conjugation. 4. Pierca. Oxford University Press Inc. Prentice Hall International Inc. N. Synder.J. Gelvin. second edition. Culture technique Salivary gland chromosome 4. v. 1997. Linkage and recombination. 8. S. 46 Recommended Books: 1.V. 3. and Champness. E. Principles of Genetics. W. . Understanding Genetics. Population Genetics: i.R. 2. 2005. 2000. W.. Gram staining (E. B. H. 6.
Electro chemical properties and reactions of amino acids. Proteins: Amino acids and their structure. mucilages. Hartl. sulpholipids. Cytologia. D-galactose. Structure and chemical properties of fatty acids. Genetics . Genome Bot-509 3(2+1) F. W. triglycerides.H. E. amino sugars. Lewontin.H. Genetics of Population. Protein folding and unfolding. Protein targeting. 2003. Primary.J. 2005. Suzuki. Sudbary. 2005. hemicellulose. Biological role. P.Analysis of Genes and Genomes.F: Wessler.R. derived acids and alcohols. deoxyribose. ASM Press. 8. Sudbury. trehalose. Hedrick. R. and Miller. cellobiose. Protein purification. 47 . starch.M. glycosides. J. Theoretical and Applied Genetics.L. Chromosoma. storage. xylose. Gelbart. Snyder. Biology/ Chemistry Plant Biochemistry-I Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: To elucidate the structure and role of primary metabolites in plants Course Outline: Carbohydrates: Occurrence and classification. USA. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. Classification of proteins.W. phospholipids.W. Protein sequencing. tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.7. Introduction to Genetic Analysis. cellulose. A general account of ribose.. regulatory and receptor proteins.C. 10 11 Griffiths A. D. Transport.T. maltose. glycolipids. Genetics. pectins and lignins. secondary.Sc. 2005. and Jones. waxes and sterols. fructosans. USA. xylulose. classification. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Jones and Bartlett Publisher. L and Champness W. Lipids: Occurrence. W. sucrose. Freeman and Company. D. Dmannose. D-glucose. J. S. pentosans.
2002. nucleotides. nucleosides. Nature of active site and mode of action. To determine the Rf value of monosaccharides on a paper Chromatogram. ribozymes. Enzyme specificity. DNA restriction enzymes.U. 3. To determine the Rf value of amino acids on a paper chromatogram.Nucleic Acids: General introduction. Analysis of various lipids by TLC methods. Purine and pyrimidine bases. I. 2. 7. Voet J. Enzyme kinetics. 10. A L.. To determine the PKa and isoelectric point of an amino acid. D. abzymes. To extract and estimate oil from plant material using soxhlet apparatus. Principles of Biochemistry. John Wiley and Sons. 1998. To estimate soluble proteins by Biuret or Lowry or Dye-binding method. New York. Types and functions of RNA. 6. Electrolytes. Allosteric enzymes and feedback mechanism. New York.G. Recommended Books: 1. 1998. classification with examples of typical groups.E. buffers. To estimate the catalytic property of enzyme catalase or peroxidase extracted from a plant source. Fundamentals of Biochemistry. Outlines of Biochemistry. 5. To determine the saponification number of fats. Lehninger. II and III. Structure and properties of DNA and RNA. Solutions. 11.W. and Stumpf P. 9. 12. To estimate the amount of total Nitrogen in plant material by Kjeldahl's method. Voet. Lab Outline: 1. Worth Publishers Inc. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Chemical bonds. 48 . non-electrolytes. Conn E E..K. To estimate the amount of reducing and non-reducing sugars in plant material titrimetrically/spectrophotometrically. Properties of DNA polymerase I. Enzymes: Nature and functions. 2. 3. 4. Isozymes. Extraction of Nucleic acids from plant material and their estimation by UV absorption or colour reactions. acids and bases. and Pratt. pH. Chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides and DNA sequencing. C. 8.
1997. Principles of Biochemistry..W. Shawn. 6. 2008. London. Smith. 2003. R L. Water in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Plant Biochemistry. 1999. 2008. M. Heldt.P. Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd. E.2003. Handler and Abraham. White. An introduction to agricultural biochemistry.. 7. 501 Plant Ecology I Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: To understand the role and interaction of plants with their environment Course Outline: 1. R. Academic Press. and F. L. T. and Scaife. R I. and Harborne. Introduction: history and recent developments in ecology Soil: Nature and properties of soil (Physical and Chemical). 402. Frey. Biochemistry.A.H. Biochemistry 6th Edition. Jones and Bartlet. WCB/McGraw-Hill. 5. 302. P. Biochemistry. USA. Campbell.K. New York.. R. and Mckee. Annual Review of Biochemistry. Chesworth.I. 2008.4. Biochemistry – An Introduction. 12. Critical Review in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Bot-510 3(2+1) Bot. Lehman. Lefkowits. Oxford. 1998. P. Boston. Lea.C. 13. International Student Edition.M. 301. Goodwin T. 401. R. Singapore. New York. Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Zubay G. C. 9.. and Mercer. 1997.. Dey. 1993. Hill. J. Chapman and Hall.B. Plant Biochemistry. Abdes.. MacMillan Publishing Co. 11. Biochemistry Journal. U. and Jencks W. London. J.. Strichbury T. R J. H-W. J. Pergamon Press.. Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. J. 8. Plant Biochemistry. Bowsher. Wiley and Sons. E. 2. McGraw Hill International Book Company.R. The ionic 49 . 10. and Leegood. New York. 2004. P.. (General Aspects).J. Mckee. 3rd Edition. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry.K.M.
environment and plant ionic relations, Nutrient cycling. Physiology and ecology of N, S, P and K nutrition. Heavy metals (brief description), Salt and drought stress and osmoregulation. Soil erosion 3. Light and temperature: Nature of light, Factors affecting the variation in light and temperature, Responses of plants to light and temperature, Adaptation to temperature extremes, Carbon dioxide: Stomatal responses, water loss and CO2assimilation rates of plants in contrasting environments. Ecophysiological effects of changing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Functional significance of different pathways of CO2 fixation. Productivity: response of photosynthesis to environmental factors, C and N balance Water: Water as an environmental factor, Role of water in the growth, adaptation and distribution of plants, Water status in soil., Water and stomatal regulation, Transpiration of leaves and canopies. Oxygen deficiency: Energy metabolism of plants under oxygen deficiency, Morpho-anatomical changes during oxygen deficiency, Post-anoxic stress Wind as an ecological factor. Fire as an ecological factor.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Determination of physico-chemical properties of soil and water. Measurements of light and temperature under different ecological conditions. Measurements of wind velocity. Measurement of CO2 and O2 concentration of air and water. Effect of light, temperature, moisture, salinity and soil type on germination and growth of plants. Measurement of ions, stomatal conductance, osmotic potential, water potential, xylem pressure potential, leaf area and rate of CO2 exchange in plants in relation to various environmental conditions.
1. Schultz, J. C. 2005. Plant Ecology, Springer-Verlag
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
Bazzaz, F.A. 2004. Plants in Changing Environments: Linking Physiological, Population, and Community Ecology, Cambridge University Press Chapin, F.S. et al. 2002. Principle of Terrestrial Plant Ecology, Springer-Verlag Lambers, H. et al. 2002. Plant Physiological Ecology, SpringerVerlag Larcher, W. 2003., Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Function Groups - Springer-Verlag Nobel, P.S 1999, Physico-chemical and Environmental Plant Physiology,.Academic Press. Lambers, H., T. L. Pons and F. Stuart. 2008. Plant Phyiological Ecology. Smith, R. L. 2004. Ecology and field Biology. Addision Wesley Longman, Inc., New York. Barbour, M.G., Burke, J.H and Pitts, W.D. 2004 Terrestrial Plant Ecology, The Benjamin, Cumming Publishing C. Palo Alto, California, USA. Smith R.L. 1998 Elements of Ecology. Harper & Row Publishing. Townsend. C.R. Begon. M and J.L Harper. 2002 Essentials of ecology. Blackwell Publishing. Gurevitch. J. Scheiner, S.M. and G.A Fox. 2006 The Ecology of Plants\. Sinaur Asssoicate Inc. Hussain. F. 1989 Field and Laboratory Manual of Plant Ecology, National Academy of Higher Education, Islamabad. Hussain. S.S. 1989 Pakistan Manual of Plant Ecology. National Book Foundation Islamabad. More. P.D. and Chapman S.B. 1986 Methods in Plant Ecology, Blackwell Scientific Publication Oxford.
Journals / Periodicals:
Pakistan Journal of Botany, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, Ecology, Journal of Arid Environment Plant Physiology-I
Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
F.Sc. Biology, Botany
Specific Objectives of course: To provide comprehensive
knowledge on some vital functions and mechanisms of plants
1. Photosynthesis: History of photosynthesis. Nature and units of light. Determination of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Ultrastructure of thylakoid vesicle. Various pigments and photosynthetic activity. Ultrastructure and composition of photosystem-I and II. Absorption and action spectra of different pigments. Mechanism of photosynthesis - light absorption, charge separation or oxidation of water (water oxidizing clock), electron and proton transport through thylakoid protein-pigment complexes. Photophosphorylation and its mechanism. CO2 reduction (dark reactions) - C3 pathway and Photorespiration, Regulation of C3 pathway, C4 pathway and its different forms, C3C4 intermediates, CAM pathway. Methods of measurement of photosynthesis. Respiration: Synthesis of hexose sugars from reserve carbohydrates. Mechanism of respiration- Glycolysis, Differences between cytosolic and chloroplastidic glycolysis, Oxidative decarboxylation, Krebs cycle, Regulation of glycolysis and Krebs cycle, Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Energetics of respiration. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate cycle. Cyanide resistant respiration. Translocation of Food: Pathway of translocation, source and sink interaction, materials translocated, mechanism of phloem transport, loading and unloading. Leaves and Atmosphere: Gaseous exchange, mechanism of stomatal regulation. Factors affecting stomatal regulation. Assimilation of Nitrogen, Sulphur and Phosphorus: The nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen fixation. Pathways of assimilation of nitrate and ammonium ions. Assimilation of sulphur and phosphorus.
1991. 4. and Zeiger. D. Academic Press. and Hay. Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd. W. UK. 3.. J. Lefebvre. Dennis. 8. 1992. To extract and separate anthocyanins and other phenolic pigments from plant material and study their light absorption properties.B. E. 13. Biochemical Processes in Plants. 12. UGC Press. and Bloom. UK. New York. Netherlands. D. To regulate stomatal opening by light of different colours and pH. Recommended Books: 1. To categorize C3 and C4 plants through their anatomical and physiological characters. Plant Physiology. 2004. Wadsworth Publishing Co. USA. 1997. California. M. U. Taiz. Fitter.Lab Outline: 1. 2001. Sinauer Associates.K. 2nd Edition. Belmont CA. To determine the volume of CO2 evolved during respiration by plant material.G. Singapore. Physiological Plant Ecology. and Scholes. Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology. 2006. 2.T. D. 10.J. 2004. 5th Edition. 2nd Ed. A. UK. 4th Edition. Kirkham. P. and Harborne. A. 9. Academic Press. Plant Physiology. Hopkins. 1997. 2004.H. 2. Volume 39. and Ross C. Calif. Plant Growth. Elsevier. 6.M.. UGC Press.D. Press. Nobel.. Turpin. Barker. 2000.B. Amsterdam. U. Plant Biochemistry. Ihsan Illahi. Plant Physiology. Separation of chloroplast pigments on column chromatogram and their quantification by spectrophotometer. 1995. Blackwell Science. Inc. British Ecological Society Symposium. R.B. To determine the amount of O2 used by respiring water plant by Winkler Method. Salisbury F.B.B. P.K. Heldt. Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. Academic Press. 5. J.C. John Wiley and Sons. 5. 1999. 7.K. Dey.. E. Sinnauers Publ. D. 3.D. Ihsan Illahi.S. 3rd Edition. L. 6. Environmental Physiology of Plants. 4. Plant Biochemistry. M. 2nd Edition. 1999. Introduction to Plant Physiology. Longman Group. Co. H-W. 11. Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations. Plant Metabolism.B. M. 53 . Epstein. and Layzell. Islamabad.M.
Barton, w. 2007. Recent Advances in Plant Physiology. Pakistan Journal of Botany, Plant Physiology, Physiologia Plantarum, Planta, Annual Review of Plant Biology, Journal of Plant Physiology
Journals / Periodicals:
Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Specific objectives of course: To enable the students to
know the theoretical aspects of planning research, handling, presentation of data, writing and submission of research papers and thesis
What is science, philosophy and theory, how to do science. Questions, hypothesis, their types, experimentation, validation, theories and laws. Research Methods (planning research, various methods, analyzing results, giving reports, etc.) research process including: formulating research questions; sampling (probability and nonprobability); measurement (surveys, scaling, qualitative, unobtrusive); research design (experimental and quasi-experimental); data analysis; and, writing the research paper, the major theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of research including: the idea of validity in research; reliability of measures; and ethics
1. 2. 3. Shank, G. D. 2002. Qualitative research : a personal skills approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J.Columbus, Ohio: Prentice Hall;Merrill/Prentice Hall. Brizuela, B. M. 2000. Acts of inquiry in qualitative research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review Shank, G. D. 2001, Qualitative Research: A Personal Skills Approach
Paul Leedy, 2004, Practical Research : Planning and Design (8th, Edition), Jeanne Ellis Ormrod
4th YEAR 7th Semester Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Bot-601 3(2+1) Bot. 508, 509, 511 Molecular biology
Specific Objectives of course: To disseminate the
knowledge of molecular basis of life
1. Nucleic Acids: DNA-circular and superhelical Renaturation, hybridization, sequencing of nucleic synthesis of DNA DNA. acids,
Proteins: Basic features of protein molecules. Folding of polypeptide chain, α-helical and β-secondary structures. Protein purification and sequencing. Transcription: Enzymatic synthesis of RNA, transcriptional signalsTranslation: The genetic code. The Wobbling, polycistronic and monocistronic RNA. Overlapping genes. Gene regulation in Eukaryotes: Differences in genetic organization and prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Regulation of transcription, initiation, regulation of RNA processing, regulation of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport, regulation of mRNA stability, regulation of translation, regulation of protein activity. Plant Omics: Transcriptomics; DNA libraries, their construction, screening and application. Microarray of gene technology and its application in functional genomics. Proteomics; structural and functional proteomics. Methods to study proteomics Metabolomics; methods to study metabolomics; importance and application of metabolomics. 55
Bioinformatics and computational biology. Levels, scope, potential and industrial application of bioinformatics and computational biology.
Following techniques will be used for the i\solation and analysis of different components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Extraction of RNA, DNA and proteins Electrophoreses: One and two dimensional Purification of proteins, RNA and DNA. Amplification using PCR. Northern, Western and Southern Blotting.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Cullis, C.A. 2004. Plant Genomics and Proteomics. Wiley-Liss, New York. Gibson, G. and S.V. Muse, 2002. A Premier of Genome Science, Sinauer Associates Inc. Massachusetts. Gilmartin, P.M. and C. Bowler. 2002. Molecular Plant Biology. Vol. 1 & 2. Oxford University Press, UK. Lodish, H. et al., 2004. Molecular Cell Biology. 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York. Malacinski, G. M. 2003. Essentials of Molecular Biology, 4th edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Massachusetts. Watson, J.D. et al. 2004. Molecular Biology of the Gene. Peason Education, Singapore. Ignacimuthu, S. 2005. Basic bioinformatics. Narosa Publishing House, India. Weaver, R.F. 2005. Molecular Biology. Mc|Graw Hill, St. Louis.
Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites:
Bot-602 Plant Biochemistry-II 3(2+1) Bot. 509
Specific Objectives of course: To explicit the fundamentals of
metabolic energy, Metabolism and Plant constituents.
3. Reverse transcription. 2002. triterpenes. 57 . 2. Biosynthesis of fats. morphine. Worth Publishers Inc. P. Alkaloids: Occurrence. To estimate terpenoids in plants. Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA. Recommended Books: 1. Separation of nucleic acids by gel electrophoresis. Lab Outline: 1. iii. nicotine. laws about energy changes. 1998. Bioenergetics: Energy. diterpenes. Conn E. 5. Vitamins: General properties and role in metabolism. Aflatoxins. Biosynthesis. Separation of soluble proteins by polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) electrophoresis. Replication of DNA. Breakdown of fats with special reference to betaoxidation and its energy balance. Outlines of Biochemistry. polyterpenes and their chemical constitution and biosynthesis. chemical nature with special reference to solanine. 2. To determine potential alkaloids in plants. Metabolism: i. their nature and role. Oxidation and reduction in living systems. sesquiterpenes.K. Albert L. Lehninger. Genetic code. and Stumpf. Components of protein synthesis. 4. E. 3. apple juice). Terpenoids: Classification: monoterpenes. protein synthesis: initiation. New York. physiological effects. 5. To estimate the amount of vitamin C in a plant organ (orange. John Wiley and Sons Inc. tetraterpenes. 4. elongation and termination. 2. theine and caffeine. ii.Course Outline: 1. degradation and regulation of sucrose and starch. Principles of Biochemistry.
U. J. T. 1999. 1997. Fundamentals of Biochemistry. and Leegood. Shawn... E. R. G.A. Mckee... 1993. and F. WCB / McGraw-Hill. C. White. Biochemistry.. R. Voet. MacMillan Publishing Co. Plant Biochemistry. R. Jones and Bartlet. D. Biochemistry. Biochemistry – An Introduction.K. Dey. Annual Review of Biochemistry. H-W. R. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry. H. Zubay. 4. Goodwin T.M. P. Plant Biochemistry. Chesworth. 5. John Wiley and Sons. and Scaife. Lea. R J. I. R. London. International Student Edition. Lefkowits. J. 8. USA. Biochemistry Journal. Hill. Campbell.I. Pergamon Press. P. 3rd Edition. Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1998.K. and Abraham. 1997. 1998. Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. Chapman and Hall. 2008. 13. 11. Frey P. and Mercer..G.C. (General Aspects). Heldt. 9. M. and Mckee.3. L. Biochemistry 6th Edition. New York. Oxford. 2008.. Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-603 3(2+1) Bot. E L. and Harborne.P.R.W. Singapore. Voet J. W. Smith. McGraw Hill International Book Company. Strichbury T. Boston.J. Wiley and Sons. New York. Academic Press. 7. 505 & 510 Plant Ecology -II 58 . 12. New York.H. 1992. Abides. 10. Principles of Biochemistry. and Jencks. New York. Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd. Critical Review in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 6.M.B. J. and Pratt. J.W.. London. 2003. Lehman. An introduction to agricultural biochemistry.
Boundaries of ecosystem? Compartmentalization and system concepts.L. plotless. M and J.C. Community soil-relationship. community.: Seed dispersal. Slide show of the vegetation of Pakistan. 2005. Harper 2002. Slide show of the major formations of the world. Field trip to study different communities located in different ecological regions of Pakistan.Specific Objectives of course: To provide comprehensive knowledge of population. ecosystem ecology and its relevance to mankind. Plant Ecology. Reproductive effort. C. Springer-Verlag . Demography 2. Local Vegetation. Energy flow in ecosystem. Seed dormancy. transect and Braun-Blanqut. Methods of sampling of plant communities.R. Demography and life history of local annual population. Begon. Life history pattern and resource allocation : Density dependent and density independent factors. Resource allocation. Vegetation of Pakistan. Recruitment. Population Ecology 1. Soil physical and chemical properties Recommended Books: 1. Correlate soil properties with vegetation type. Study of community attributes. Schultz J. 2. Major formation types of the world Ecosystem Ecology : Ecological concepts of ecosystem . Seed Bank. Seed dispersal pattern of local populations. Townsend C. Ecological succession. Essentials of Ecology. Blackwell Publishing. Dormancy. Evolution B. Seed size vs seed weight. Population genetics. Biogeochemical cycles: water carbon and nitrogen Case studies: any example Lab Outline: Determination of seed bank in various populations. Sampling of vegetation including Quadrat. Community Ecology : Historical development of community ecology. Population structure and plant demography. 59 . Community concepts and attributes. Course Outline: A.
9. 1998. B. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Moore P.. et al. Barbour M. Chapin. transport. Sinauer Associates. T. 5. Field and Laboratory Manual of Plant Ecology. F. Plant Phyiological Ecology.. 1989.The Ecology of Plants. Pakistan Manual of Plant Ecology. 2008. H. 2003 Physiological Plant Ecology. Springer-Verlag Gurevitch.. Elements of Ecology by Harper & Row Publishers. 10. S. G. Pons and F. Cytokinins. Islamabad Lambers. Methods in Plant Ecology.D. and Chapman S. National Academy of Higher Education. Stuart. receptors. Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Function Groups. L. R. Abscisic 60 . et al. Smith. mechanism of water uptake and role of essential nutrients in plant metabolism Course Outline: 1.Verlag. Springer. 1999. Ecology. signal trasduction and mode of action. 4. Blackwell Scientific Publication. 8. Journal of Applied Ecology Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Bot-604 3(2+1) Bot. et al. Plant Growth Regulators : Major natural hormones and their synthethic analogues. physiological effects of Auxins .3. Oxford. L. Hussain. 2002. 2002. Gibberellins. 7. Bioassay. F. structure. 402 & 511 Plant Physiology-II Specific Objectives of course: To give it comprehensive and advance knowledge of growth regulators. 1986. Hussain. Inc. W. Larcher. 11. Principle of Terrestrial Plant Ecology. 6. Journal of Ecology.S. The Benjamin-Cumming Publishing Co. biosynthesis.
Passive and active (primary and secondary) transports and their energetics. Circadien rhythms. Role of photoperiodism in flowering. Jasmonates. Brassinosteriods. Ion traffic into root. Fertilizers and their significance in Agriculture. Absorption of mineral nutrients .analysis of change in turgor. Physico-chemical properties of water. Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction : Genome size and organization. Vernalization and its effect on flowering. Plant Mineral Nutrition: Inorganic composition of plant and soil.-their structure and types).an overview. Signal transduction in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. pressure volume curve. mycorrhizae. Phytochromes: Discovery of phytochromes and cryptochromes. channels and electrogenic pumps . and Salicylic acid. water and osmotic potential with changes in cell volume. Methods for measurement of water . Physical and chemical properties of phytochromes. Water in the soil and its potentials. The nature of membrane carriers. Hydraulic conductivity. Absorption of water in plants (pathways and driving forces. Ethylene. photoperiodic induction.Pressure chamber. 2. Aquaporins. Water Relations: The soil -plant -atmosphere continuum . Essential and beneficial elements-their functions and deficiency symptoms in plants. cells and tissues and their role in biological processes. Modulus of elasticity coefficient. Structure of water. Floral organ identity genes and the ABC model. locus of photoperiodic reaction and dark periods in photoperiodism. Osmoregulation. Water in cell components. pressure probe. 4. Control of Flowering: Autonomous versus environmental regulation. 61 . Phytochromes and gene expression. Effect of soil pH on nutrient availability. Distribution of phytochromes among species. Polyamines. Biochemical signaling involved in flowering. osmotic and turgor potentials. Classification of plants according to photoperiodic reaction.roots. psychrometry. Hofler diagram . 3.acid. Floral meristem and floral organ development. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cell water relations terminology. 5. 6.
2nd Edition. Taiz. 3rd Edition.D. Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. M. 1991. 2004. 11. 2002. 1997. Belmont CA. Ihsan Illahi. W. Sinauer Associates. 12. Heldt. Measurement of stomatal index and conductance. 9. Plant Physiology. and Scholes.H. 6. Press. 2nd Edition. Academic Press. Harcourt Asia PTE Ltd. British Ecological Society Symposium. New York. Volume 39. Academic Press. and Zeiger. Qualitative determination of K content in Guard cells by Sodium cobalt nitrite method.K. 10. Sinnauers Publ.. Plant Biochemistry.G. 1992.K. Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology. 3. 4.B. 1999.B. and Harborne. D. H-W. Hopkins.B. John Wiley and Sons. 2. 2004. Fitter. Introduction to Plant Physiology. J.Lab Outline: 1. UK. UK.S. Singapore. 2001. Nobel. and Hay. Salisbury F. A. To investigate water potential of a plant tissue by dye method and water potential apparatus. E. California. Academic Press. 2nd Ed. U.M. and Ross C. E. and Layzell. Plant Biochemistry. 7. Wadsworth Publishing Co. 6. Biochemical Processes in Plants. Co. Plant Metabolism. Lefebvre. Longman Group. USA. UK. 5. 3rd Edition. P. M. L. 5. Inc.C. Plant Physiology.D. Dennis. 1997. Plant Growth. 1999.T. Recommended Books: 1.. 8. D. 5th Edition.B. and Bloom. Physiological Plant Ecology. P. Islamabad. J. UGC Press. Plant Physiology. To investigate the preferential absorption of ions by corn seedlings and potato slices. Dey. 2. R. D. A. Turpin. 4. 3. Environmental Physiology of Plants.B. Blackwell Science. U. Ihsan Illahi. Barker. 2000.J.M. 62 ..K. Epstein. 1995. To determine osmotic potential of massive tissue by freezing point depression method or by an osmometer. Determination of K uptake by excised roots. D. UGC Press. Calif..
Elsevier. Journal of Plant Physiology Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Bot-605 Credit Hours: Prerequisites: 3(2+1) Biodiversity & Conservation Bot.13. 15. How species become endangered? iv. Invasive species. ix. Social diversity i. In situ and ex situ conservation of plants viii. w. Criteria for determining different categories of protected areas xii. Sustainable use of biodiversity (plant wealth) x. Taiz. Habitat fragmentation. Co. Causes and depletion of biodiversity: Habitat loss. Inventory and monitoring of biodiversity vi. Recent Advances in Plant Physiology. Baseline study 63 .B. Theory of mass extinction v. L. Amsterdam. Climatic changes. 14. Physiologia Plantarum. Protected areas of Pakistan xi. Inc. 2. . Genetic diversity. Barton. 2006. threats conservation measures and Course Outline: 1. Calif. Annual Review of Plant Biology. M. and Zeiger. Introduction and importance of biodiversity :Species diversity.Seawater intrusion ii. The value of species iii. Over-exploitation. Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations. Importance of red data book vii. Implementation of laws (protection and conservation of various taxa. Planta. 505. Netherlands. Kirkham. 603 Specific objectives of course: To understand the importance of biodiversity. 2004. Ecological diversity. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 4th Edition. Plant Physiology. 2007. 510. present rate. Sinnauers Publ. Extinction of species. Plant Physiology. E.
Ethnobotany Principle Application. 1998. xvi. University. Lab Outline: 1 2 3 4 5 Causes of local species extinction. Primack. Enfield. Cotton. Virchow. Biodiversity Action Plan for Pakistan. Conservation Biology. A Textbook of biodiversity Science publishers Inc. expansion and demise of plant species. To carry on base line study of any designated category.xiii. Ecology of a Changing Planet. 5.B. (1990) Wild plant conservation. Levine. K. USA. (1996). 12. Heywood. Mass.M. C. The origin. IUCN. New York. Bush. 1998. xxi. B. John Wiley & Sons Chichester. 2001. De Klemm. Population explosion Biodiversity action plan for Pakistan Role of herbaria and botanical gardens in conservation. Oxford University Press.V. Krishmamurthy. Sinaur Association Pub. Mc Graw Hill. V. 2003. (2002). Cunnighum. (1998).H. WWF. R. Ministry of Environment. xv. C. D. Recommended Books: 1. 7. Berkeley. IUCN. M. USA. Berlin 64 . A. 1997. Global Biodiversity Assessment. 2000. World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earths Living Resources in the 21st. Dyke. Data collection. 1995. wild plant use and conservation.A. 10. Cambridge University Press and UNEP. M. Century. 2. 4. Earthspan Publications. xviii. D. xix.V. xiv. Field excursion. 11.B. xvii. Grombridge.B. UK. Essentials of conservation Biology. 9. NH. California Press. Impact assessment Management plan for protected area IUCN categories for threatened species Criteria for recognizing different categories of threatened species Gene bank management and operation Public awareness strategies. xx. Conservation of Genetic Resources. (2003). Prentice Hall. D. Gland. 3. 8. Applied ethnobotany: People. & Jenkins. F. 6. Springer-Verlag. Preparation of an inventory of the flora of a given region.
Plasmids. recombinant DNA methodology.H. Falk.D. Earth Scan Publication Ltd. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Center for Plant Conservation. Bacteriophages as tools. IUCN. 18. Restriction enzymes. Site directed Mutagenesis. Earth Scan Publication Ltd. 15. and Jury. & Holsinger. 2000 Vanishing Borders. UK. Application of Recombinant DNA: Applications of recombinant DNA technology using prokaryotes. 2005 Global Action for Biodiversity.H. Taylor. Oxford. DNA sequencing. 14. recombinant DNA and social responsibility.. E. T. & Burdon. Bot-606 3(2+1) Bot. UK. Leadlay. Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. 19. Systematics and Biodiversity Biological Conservation. S. recombinant DNA 65 2. CUP. French. PCR and Rt PCR.E. P. 1991. IUCN. Cambridge. O. Oxford University Press. A. 302 & 508 introduce students to recombination of genetic material at molecular levels with emphasis on introduction to biotechnology and genomics Genetics II Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: To Course Outline: 1.J. Norton & Co Swanson. W. 1995. As Approved by the IUCN Council.13. D. K. .protecting the Planet in the age of globalization. Brown.A. the formation of recombinant DNA. 2006 Taxonomy and Plant Conservation. Frankel. 2005 Beyond Conservation. 17. Recombinant DNA :Recombinant DNA Technology – Introduction. H. J.W. 16. Basic Techniques. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Cambridge University Press.
of DNA and protein on Gel Bacterial chromosome Plasmid DNA (minipreps) 66 . induced mutations. the holiday model. Religious and ethical concerns Lab Outline: Problems relating to the theory 1 Isolation and separation electrophoresis. site-specific recombination. Human Genome Project :Strategies achievement and future prospects. transgenic plants. 9. genetically modified organisms and apprehensions. biological repair mechanisms. 6. 3. screening for genetic diseases. Mechanisms of Genetic Change III: Transposable Genetic Elements: Insertion sequences. Mechanisms of Genetic Change II: Recombination: General homologous recombination. identifying disease genes. and application. 7. catabolite repression of the lac operon: positive control. spontaneous mutations.technology in eukaryotes: An overview. Mechanisms of Genetic Change I: Gene Mutation : The molecular basis of gene mutations. recombination and chromosomal rearrangements.an overview. 8. gene therapy. controlling elements in maize. transposons. ii. DNA typing. Plant Genome Projects: Arabidopsis. 5. 10. review of transposable elements in prokaryotes. achievement and future prospects. 4. transgenic animals. enzymatic mechanism of recombination. rearrangements mediated by transposable elements. Other plant genome projects Bioinformatics : Application of computational tests to the analysis of genome and their gene products Bioethics : Moral. transcription: gene regulation in eukaryotes . transgenic yeast. Control of Gene Expression: Discovery of the lac system: negative control. i. reversion analysis mutagens and carcinogens.
2003. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. and Old R. Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd. 8.iii. 3. Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. J. Hartt. Blackwell Publishing House. R. and Hunt. The Genome of Homo Sapiens.. Brown. Principles of Gene Manipulation. Lwein. S. Fundamental Bacterial Genetics.L.. 4. 11.B. New Delhi. 2. Pearson Education Int. N and Trempy J.2003. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Narosa Publishing House. Sudbury.A. 2 Plant DNA Protein DNA Amplification by PCR Recommended Books: 1. Plant Molecular Biology Manual. iv. ASM Press. E. L and Champness W. 2003.. J. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. T. Twyman. Trun. India. Genome Journals / Periodicals: 8th Semester Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Botany-607 Environmental Biology 3(2+1) Bot. M. 2000. 510 & 603 67 . Gene VIII.L. 2004.. B. 7.. L. Cytologia. 9. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.. India. 2005. E. T. Garland publishing Inc. 5. Ignacimuthu. 2005.2002 Genomes. Wilson.B. From Gene to Clones – Introduction to Gene Technology. D.W. Narosa Publishing House. an Introduction to Genetic Engineering (6th edition). Chromosoma. 10. Winnacker. Miglani. 2004.W. Beaycgamp T. Wadsworth Publishing Company.2004. Snyder. Primrose. 6. USA Gelvin. Genetics. Genetics. 13. and Walters L. Panima Publishing Corporation. Analysis of Gene and Genomes. Basic Bioinformatics. S. and Jones. 2004. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.. S. Advanced Genetics.. 12. 2003. Molecular Biology of the cell – the problems book. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
organic) on plants. Heavy metal pollution. Adverse effects of acid rains. major sources of soil pollution and its impact. sludge. 3. pressure Pollution: definition. eutrophication. Impact assessment: Industrial urban. v. 5. Course Outline: 1. prevention. 68 . and polluted waters. iii. desertification and conservation Ozone layer: i. Hospital waste. Greenhouse effect: causes. Treatments of sewage. waste disposal Forest: importance. Water pollution: Major sources of water pollution and its impact on vegetation. 2. control remediation. remediation. control remediation. 4. Principle of radiation protection. Noise pollution. classification and impact on habitats Air pollution: Sources and effect of various pollutants (inorganic. herbicide. Formation Mechanism of depletion Effects of ozone depletion i. impacts. Chlorofluorocarbons and its effects. Smog. prevention. Acid rain: 1. ii. Sediments pollution: fungicide. 7. Human population explosion: impact on environment. Prevention.Specific Objectives of course: To provide updated knowledge of environmental problems and sustainable environmental management. Radiation pollution (including nuclear): Measurement. 2. thermal pollution. civil developments. deforestation. pesticides. Tanneries. control. 6. Theory of acid rain. iv. classification and effects. ii. Photochemical smog. Environment: Introduction. scope. iii.
Academic Press. BOD/COD. Hall. and Grossa Jr.W. 2. Marsh. Visits to environmentally compromised sites and evolution of remediation methods. National conservation strategy: Brief review of major problems of Pakistan and their solutions. 2000. 2000. Examination of industrial and sludge for i. land use. E. M. 10. Wetlands and sanctuaries protection: The pressures. 7.8. J.A. McGraw Hill. Quantifying Sustainable Development. problems and solutions.D. and Nitrates. ii. sustainable management. 9. population. Terrestrial Global Productivity.M. and Perez. Press. iv. Norton and Company. waste water and Municipal sewage Total dissolved solids. Academic Press. E. 3. B. Recommended Books: 1. H.L. 2. UK Mooney. John Wiley and Sons. Environmental Science: A study of interrelationships. and earth systems. UK. Plants in changing environments: Linking physiological. H. 2000. Sustainable Environmental management. and Saugier. W. Range management: Types of rangelands. UK. and Smith.B. Examination of water samples forms different sites for the presence and diversity of organisms. Eugene. pH and EC.I. Blackwell Science. C.W. Newman. Cambridge Univ. UK. Prentice Hall. 11. French.A.A. Bush. potential threats. Lab Outline: 1. 6.. 4. 8.S. Chlorides. Applied Ecology. B. F. Effect of air pollutants on plants. carbonate. iii. Bazzaz. 3. M. 2004. 69 . USA. 1996 Environmental geography: Science. 2000. 4. Ecology of a changing planet. 2001. 1997. and community ecology.F. NY. Vanishing Borders: Protecting the Planet in the Age of Globalization. 5. C.
9. Environmental Biology. Bioremediation Botany 4(3+1) Botany Special Paper-II Journals/Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: Course Outline: To be adopted by the university as per expertise Lab Outline: Recommended Books: Journals / Periodicals: Title of the Course: Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of course: Bot-608 4(3+1) Special Paper-II 70 . Plant Phyiological Ecology. Environment. H. Lambers.. Pons and F. T. 2008. L. Stuart.
Course Outline: To be adopted by the university as per expertise Lab Outline: Recommended Books: Journals / Periodicals: RESEARCH Total credit hours: 4(0+4) 133 71 .
That the Internship and Research projects should be encouraged but it should not be mandatory at this juncture as we do not have a culture of Internships and Research activities in the disciplines of Botany in our country. (16 years schooling programme). • It was unanimously adapted with minor modifications made. 2. Accordingly.Phil Degree). 3. there were general feelings that we should accommodate for the phasing out of existing 2 year degree programme and phasing in the modern 4 years degree programme.GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS (BOTANY) After a comprehensive discussion by all the members of the committee constituted by HEC to adapt the curriculum (devised by HEC) following points were noted: • This document contained information which was general for all the disciplines. While restructuring the scheme of study semester wise for BS 4 years programme in Botany. That HEC should provide sufficient funds to the colleges and the universities to initiate such new degree programmes. courses were selected compatible to meet the current and future needs. Nevertheless emphasis was on the creation of a document that should be attractive and useful for the introduction of BS 4 years degree programme in Botany for public / private sector universities. 72 .Sc. Therefore following recommendations were made: 1. 4. Universities and colleges offering these courses should organize training and workshops before initiating degree programme. That HEC should write to Federal and Provincial Public Service Commissions for formal recognition of the BS 4 years degree programme and it must be considered equivalent to the existing M. That HEC should ensure that the institutions have at least eight teachers (at least 2 teachers having M.
Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase. Functional English a) Grammar 73 .ANNEXURE “A” COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English – I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.
Fourth Impression 1993. 1997. ISBN 0194313506 Writing Writing. Third edition. and speed reading. Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. intensive and extensive. style and pronunciation) 74 . Third Impression 1992.1. Third edition. d) ENGLISH – II (COMMUNICATION SKILLS) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Martinet. 1997. b) 1. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Speaking c) 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313492 Practical English Grammar by A. Thomson and A. minutes of meetings. 2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing.V. ISBN 0 19 453402 2. Reading/Comprehension Reading. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41.J. Exercises 1. Oxford University Press. Upper Intermediate. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. Oxford Supplementary Skills. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning.J. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis.
descriptive and argumentative writing). consistency) 75 . content. form. Advanced. Oxford Supplementary Skills. narrative. introduction to presentations.J. Fourth Impression 1993. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Oxford University Press 1986. b) c) ENGLISH – III (TECHNICAL WRITING AND PRESENTATION SKILLS) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. 2. discursive. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Practical English Grammar by A. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Exercises 2.Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: Communication Skills a) Grammar 1. Fourth Impression 1992. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). Third edition. clarity. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading. Reading 1. Martinet. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Writing. Writing 1. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.V. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. 2. language. Thomson and A. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Third Impression 1991.
Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building RECOMMENDED BOOKS Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Advanced by Ron White. argumentative and report writing). Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. Oxford Supplementary Skills. 76 . b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Third Impression 1992. descriptive. 2. Mandell. A Custom Publication. Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature. Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 3. ISBN 0 19 435407 3 (particularly suitable for discursive. Kathleen Shine Cain. Writing. Martin’s Press. College Writing Skills by John Langan. St. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education. Kirszner and Stephen R. 2004.
Society and social structure c. 1971-77 d. Contemporary Pakistan a. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Location and geo-physical features. People and Land i. ii. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. ideological background of Pakistan.ANNEXURE “B” Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges 77 . 1958-71 c. 1977-88 e. 2. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. government. Historical Perspective a. Course Outline 1. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. b. Study the process of governance. politics. Economic institutions and issues b. 1947-58 b. Indus Civilization Muslim advent iii. 1999 onward 3. Ethnicity d. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. contemporary Pakistan. national development. 1988-99 f.
National Movement in Pakistan. 8. Safdar. Amin. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. Zaidi. 1976. Islamabad. 1993. Ansar. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. Safdar. 2000. 5. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1972. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. 1967. Lahore: Idara-eSaqafat-e-Islamia. Lahore. Karachi: Oxford University Press.M. Muhammad Waseem. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Vol. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. S. 11. Akbar. 2. Ethno . 14. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. Ziring. 1998.e. Wayne. Political Parties in Pakistan. The Political System of Pakistan. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1987. Karachi: Oxford University Press. II & III. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Wilcox. 6. Politics in Pakistan. Pakistan Under Martial Law. 1993. nd. 4. Khalid Bin. I. Mehmood. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy.The Emergence of Banglades. Shahid Javed. Haq. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Party. Enigma of Political Development. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Burki. 3. 78 . K. 1980. Institute of Public Policy Research. Sayeed. 7. 1980. Washington: American Enterprise. Mehmood.. Tahir. Lahore: Vanguard. S. Noor ul. Rafique. History & Culture of Sindh. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Books Recommended 1. 12. Afzal. Lawrence. 10. Club Road.K. Zahid. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. State & Society in Pakistan. Aziz. 1994. 9. Karachi: Royal Book Company. 13. M.
6.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah 79 .14) Seats of Holy Prophet (S.20) Related to thinking.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No. DETAIL OF COURSES Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) Basic Concepts of Quran 2) History of Quran 3) Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.A. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.57.Tadabar (Verse No184.108.40.206.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.21.ANNEXURE “C” ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.A.56.
A.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S. in Islam 80 .W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Basic Concepts of Hadith History of Hadith Kinds of Hadith Uloom –ul-Hadith Sunnah & Hadith Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1) 2) 3) 4) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence Nature of Differences in Islamic Law Islam and Sectarianism Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islamic Culture & Civilization Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) 2) 3) 4) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics Islamic Concept of Riba Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt.Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.A.
IRI. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University.” Hussain Hamid Hassan.S. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. “Emergence of Islam” . ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Islamabad (2001) 81 . “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. Pakistan. Ahmad Hasan. International Islamic University. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. “Studies in Islamic Law. Bhatia.Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts Of Social System Of Islam 2) Elements Of Family 3) Ethical Values Of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H.
Beckenback EF. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. not majoring in mathematics. Boston Swokowski EW. PWS-Kent Company. Boston 82 . set operations. 1986. introduction to sets. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. Sharron S. types of functions. cube roots of unity. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Mathematics at secondary level 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. matrix inverse. 1987. Cramer’s rule. geometric progression. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. 1978. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. Houghton & Mifflin. complex numbers. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Wooton W. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. trigonometric identities. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. PWS-Kent Company.ANNEXURE “D” Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. determinants. types. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. harmonic progression. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. system of linear equations. functions. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition).
solution of equations involving absolute values. Addison-Wesley. 83 . continuous functions. intersection of two lines. Davis S. Calculus (3rd edition). Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. New York Stewart J. PWS-Kent Company. equation of a line. Ma. USA 3. distance between two points. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. Reading. not majoring in mathematics. 2005. with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. various forms of equation of a line. derivatives. rational and transcendental functions. integration by substitution. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. distance between a point and a line. Finney AR. continuity. differentiation of polynomial. integration by parts. inequalities. 2005. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Mathematics I (Algebra) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students.2. parallel and perpendicular lines. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. 1995. Recommended Books: Anton H. John Wiley. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. not majoring in mathematics. functions and their graphs. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Calculus (11th edition). angle between two lines. Boston Thomas GB. 1983. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. slope of a line. left-hand and right-hand limits. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) Mathematics II (Calculus) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Bevens I.
locus of a point in various conditions. Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. determinants. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). Cramer’s rule. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). 1969 Kaufmann JE.Circle: Equation of a circle. inverse of matrices. 1986. 1987. PWS-Kent Company. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. system of linear equations. types of functions. hyperbola. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. functions. Analytic Geometry. PWS-Kent Company. Introduction to sets. Algebra : : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. set operations. ellipse. Scott. Boston 4. types of matrices. Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Boston Swokowski EW. circles determined by various conditions. intersection of lines and circles. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline : Pre-requisites : Credit Hours : Minimum Contact Hours: Assessment : Effective : Aims : : To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. Objectives Contents 1. equations reducible to 84 . After completion of this course the student should be able to: • • • Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Freshman and Company. nature of roots of quadratic equations.
Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. 85 . circle and trigonometric functions. Statistics : quadratic equations. Recommended Books: 1. tally sheet method. E. relationship of statistics with social science.2. Mathematics For Chemistry Credit Hours: Prerequisites: 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Specific Objectives of Course:To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. discrete and continuous series. Walpole. trigonometric identities. J. Wilcox. 4.. skewness and kurtosis. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. W. Graphs: Graph of straight line. Boston. Prentice Hall. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. ungrouped and grouped data. quartiles. array. frequency polygon. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. Latest Edition. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. moments. R. deciles and percentiles. E. standard deviation. bar frequency diagram histogram. Measures of dispersion: Range. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. R. individual. Latest Edition. E. variance. geometric and harmonic progressions. 3. characteristics of statistics.. PWS-Kent Company. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’. Kaufmann. Latest Edition. Swokowski. 2. cumulative frequency curve. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. 5. types of frequency series.. ‘Introduction of Statistics’.. R.
MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Contents 1. Swokowski. Thomas.Jr. Rational Functions. infinite and improper integrals. Mathews. Jhon Willey & Sons. Second Edition 1992. 5. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. John Wiley & Sons. 8th edition. Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. Integration Integration from first principles. applications of integration. Trigonometric Functions. logarithmic integration. et al. Recommended Books: 1. integration by inspection. 11th Edition. 4. Frank A. 1983. McCallum. integral inequalities. the chain rule. Addison Wesley publishing company. Continuity. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Equation of a Line. the inverse of differentiation. logarithmic differentiation. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Least-Squares Line. Boston. Elliott Mendelson. 2005. Continuous Functions. 6. Leibnitz’ theorem. S.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. 3. integration by parts. Gleason. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. implicit differentiation. Anton. Rational and Transcendental Functions. Slope of a Line. 4th edition. sinusoidal function. John H. special points of a function. Hughes-Hallett. Prentice-Hall. reduction formulae. and Transcendental Functions. Calculus. H. Schaum’s Outline Series. Integration by Parts. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. theorems of differentiation. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. E. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. 2. Preliminary calculus. I. products. Inc. 2002. integration using partial fractions. plane polar coordinates. Calculus. • 86 . Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. Solution of equations involving absolute values. quotients. Bevens. Extreme Values of Functions. Davis. Inc. Inequalities. 3rd Edition. Calculus. 6. 2005. substitution method. 1999. W.
geometric series. modulus multiplication. identities of hyperbolic functions. the difference method. Series and limits • • Series Summation of series Arithmetic series. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • • • • The need for complex numbers Manipulation of complex numbers Additions and subtraction. finding the nth roots of unity.2. Partial differentiation • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials 87 . solving hyperbolic equations. inverses of hyperbolic functions. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. alternating series test Operations with series Power series Convergence of power series. complex conjugate. division Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form and argument. arithmetico-geometric series. solving polynomial equations Complex logarithms and complex powers Applications to differentiation and integration Hyperbolic functions Definitions. standard Maclaurin series Evaluation of limits • • • • • 4. approximation errors in Taylor series. transformation of series Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence. • • • 3. series involving natural numbers. calculus of hyperbolic functions. operations with power series Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms.
line to line. vector product. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices 88 . scalar triple product. vector triple product Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. point to plane. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. moments of inertia. the inner product. Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. Vector algebra • • • • • • • • • 7. masses. Pappus’ theorems. centers of mass and centroids. equation of a plane Using vectors to find distances Point to line. line to plane Reciprocal vectors Multiple integrals • 6.• • • • • • 5. • • • Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints Double integrals Triple integrals Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. mean values of functions Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals.
of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. of a general square matrix Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors degenerate eigen values Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions. divergence of a vector field. div and curl Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. symmetric and antisymmetric. spherical polar coordinates • 8. curl of a vector field Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. Vector calculus • • • • • • • • • 89 . combinations of grad. Hermitian. orthogonal. of a unitary matrix.• Diagonal. unitary normal Eigen vectors and eigen values of a normal matrix. differential of a vector Integration of vectors Space curves Vector functions of several arguments Surfaces Scalar and vector fields Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field.
basic principles of classification and Tabulation. Types of frequency curves. bias. probability and non-probability sampling. Exercises. Coefficient of variation. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics. Errors of measurement. The Mode. Standardized variables. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Graphs and their Construction. Unit 2. sample design and sampling frame. Quantiles. Empirical Relation between Mean. Different types of Averages. properties of Good Average. Median and mode. Discrete and continuous variables. sampling and non sampling errors. Exercises Unit 6. Sources. Constructing of a frequency distribution. Change of origin and scale. 90 . Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. Diagrams. Exercises. Significant digits. Observations. Exercises. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. The Mean Deviation. Historigram. Editing of Data. Rounding of a Number. Stem and Leaf Display. The semiInter-quartile Range. Difference of means and proportions. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Data. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Pie chart. Exercises. Bar charts.Annexure “E” INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Population. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. Exercises. Range. Collection of primary and secondary data. Unit 3. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. Probability and Probability Distributions. Histogram. Poisson and Normal Distribution. sampling with and without replacement. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Unit 5. definition of outliers and their detection. Box and Whisker Plot. Absolute and relative measures. Moments and Moments ratios. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 4. Presentation of Data Introduction.
null and alternative hypothesis. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. 3rd Ed. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. examples. Exercises Unit 10. 1982. Unit 11.Unit 7.. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Testing of Hypothesis. F. Test statistics. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. level of significance. Exercises Unit 9.. Exercises. Statistical problem. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. R. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Exercises. cause and effect relationships. its estimation and interpretation. Type-I and Type-II errors.Single Population Introduction. r and R2. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Muhammad. Correlation. Regression and Correlation Introduction. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. acceptance and rejection regions. 91 . Coefficient of linear correlation. Kitab Markaz. Examples Recommended Books 1 2 Walpole. Contingency Tables. “Introduction to Statistics”. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. simple linear regression. Unit 8. Macmillan Publishing Co. E. New York. Inc. 2005.
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