Vocabulary

for TOEFL® iBT
®
®

N E W YO R K

Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

CONTENTS
Introduction v 1 12 31 45 61 74 81 99 117 174

1 2 3 4 5 6

About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Prefixes and Suffixes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots

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and a speaking vocabulary. If so. though. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. it’s a verb. you will eventually see how they fit together. One way you can do this is to find a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. Usually you can figure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. 2.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. Here’s how to start. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. a listening vocabulary. You can also use trial and error to find islands of meaning in a sentence. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. You’ve read words you have never heard. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. Is it the subject—the person. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. 3. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. The words something and whatever work well v . and heard words you’ve never read. 1. look at the words around it. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. With practice. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. Start small. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done.

Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. Always keep your end goal in mind. or family. Take them apart. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. Share them with your coworkers. You may find you prefer nonsense words instead. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. In general. this book will help you prepare. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. and spelling. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. write. Welcome them to your world. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. grammar. thesaurus. Once you establish a study plan for yourself. Vocabulary is a broad topic. It mostly takes curiosity. It may be first thing in the morning. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have finished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. and certification agencies. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. Determine how much time you have until the test day. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. during your commute to work. or exchange and scholarship programs. For the TOEFL iBT.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . or before you go to bed at night. licensing. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. Think about when would be the best time for you. friends. Sometimes. Whenever the time is right. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. If you study hard the first time.

I NTR O D U CTI O N

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Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difficulty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is filled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you find. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book finishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneficial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s definition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.

About TOEFL iBT

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he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.

WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST

Proficiency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.

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After completing a section of the test. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. Speaking.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . you will not be able to return to that section to finish or change your answers. The test is worth a total of 120 points. each test taker receives the same range of questions. The test is not computer-adaptive. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. The first test section is Reading. each followed by 12–14 questions. and Writing. followed by Listening. In other words.

You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. . A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. On the right will be a clock.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simplification • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. a passage will appear on the computer screen. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. indicating your remaining time.

you may not go back and review questions. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. After selecting Next. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . Like the toolbar for the Reading section. there are Back and Next buttons. a question will appear on the screen. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. When the listening passage is complete. physical sciences. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. In the Listening section. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. life sciences. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. Difficult words or phrases in the passage may be defined for you. and social science 2–3 conversations. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. the number of questions in the section. you are asked to click the OK button to confirm that you want to move to the next question. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. and your remaining time.

For four of the speaking tasks. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. Listening. Listening. . which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. For the integrated writing task. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. Listening. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. you will type your response to two tasks. For all of the speaking tasks. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen.

territories. or U. To schedule a test date elsewhere. To register by mail. and a list of writing topics. To register by phone. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. You should receive a registration confirmation. call 1-443-751-4862. or U. 24 hours a day. Canada.S. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . such as sample questions.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers fill up quickly.toefl. test center address. fill out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin.S. you will receive an instant e-mail confirmation. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. After completing the registration form. To schedule a test date in the United States. To schedule a test date in the United States. If you do not. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. www. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. reporting time. which you must bring to the test center on test day. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). test instructions. seven days a week. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. institution codes. You will be given a test date. and a registration number. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student offices at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative offices • from the TOEFL website. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. territories. and other information you will find useful. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. Canada. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend.

Scores more than two years old can’t be reported.M. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. NJ 08541–6152.O. by mail. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the final section scores as well as your total score. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. You can have official score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. you can get one examinee score report and up to four official score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. you will be . Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. or by fax. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. TOEFL test scores are kept on file for two years after the test date. Box 6152 Princeton. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Office P. you may view your scores online. call the RRC for your area or country. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. If you reschedule. the examinee score report will be sent to you and official score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. Requests must be made online. Fifteen days after you take the test.

The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. Canada. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. For testing elsewhere. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. After canceling your scores. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. and you will not receive a refund. you can cancel your score at the test center. or U. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. meaning each question has a correct answer(s).S. after taking the exam.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. Alternatively. For each test section. In the United States. you will receive a refund of $65. .to 30-point scale. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the first time around. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. territories. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. the points are converted to a 0. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. the total score will range from 0 to 120. If you do cancel your scores. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. However. So. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your first semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. contact your RRC.

you will receive a revised examinee score report. These revised scores will become your official scores. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new official score reports. If the rescoring confirms your original score. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. which is found on the TOEFL website. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States.S. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. If there is a change in your score. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. daytime phone number. you will be notified via mail. and U.O. . registration number. Box 6151 Princeton. date of birth. Canada. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter.

All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. at any time during the test. In most cases.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identification for TOEFL test takers. If you fail to provide proper registration and identification documents on the day of the test. If. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identification. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. If. • eat. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. Before the test session. To receive an official score report. Read the identification requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. You will also need your registration number. watch alarms. you will be required to write your signature and sign a confidentiality statement. you must answer at least one question in each section. raise your hand. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. or chew gum. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. for some reason. . Your identification will be checked before you are admitted. drink. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. smoke. beepers. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. raise your hand. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. pagers. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break.

Follow these guidelines.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. • exceed the time permitted for the break. • leave the test center during the test session and break. • attempt to tamper with the computer. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. books. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. highlighter pens. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. dictionaries. rulers. . and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. calculators. pamphlets. watch calculators. translators. • give or receive unauthorized help. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identification. notes.

you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). you have been determining meaning from context. . Simply put. Using a dictionary is. the best way to define a word. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. which gives you a very clear definition of the word. of course. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your first English words. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. For example. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. Once in a while.

only b can be the correct answer. irritability. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Specific Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. Candor means a. readiness to judge or criticize others. c. 4. 2. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. thus signifying that candor means frank. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. 3. Introduce them to members of your family. Now. When you are learning a new word. sincere speech. The first part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). frank. d. but sometimes. b. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. he can be a bit too honest. if you don’t use it. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. comfort with speaking in front of people. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. Based on the context of the sentence. . Even if you can’t figure out exactly what candor means. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. you will soon forget what it means. In this case.

The specific details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. laziness The correct answer is d. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. and by noon. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. while the second and third sentences confirm this with specific details. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and specific detail. and left the dishes in the sink. she slept until noon. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. Again. Saturday. luxurious b. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). so choice c is also incorrect. laziness. reading and watching television.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. hard labor c. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. Besides. essentially defining the word within the sentence. But on Sunday. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. deep sleep d. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . she was back to her old assiduous self. and paid her bills. The first sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. Thus you can determine what indolence means. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. done her grocery shopping. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and specific detail. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook.

For instance. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. spirited and mischievous. A quack.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. look at the dictionary definitions of the following words. not functioning or operating Some English words. Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. . hardworking. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary definition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. is the sound a duck makes. Assiduous means diligent. At a minimum. you might get a definition similar to that of two of its synonyms. while playful is neutral in tone. however. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. very busy on Sunday. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary definition. the connotation can be favorable or positive. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. unremitting. Then again. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. Therefore. For example. when you are looking for context clues. for example. Sometimes. or persevering. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. have more than one meaning. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualified person who pretends to be a doctor. cleaning and working around the house (specific detail). You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary.

and succinct. Succinct is more neutral. you should choose your words carefully. Laconic. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. terse. has the most positive connotation of these three words. In fact. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. In some cases. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. plentiful. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. the words bountiful. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. on the other hand. you can’t even figure out if it is something positive or negative. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. But you could figure out what inept means by .16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. when it comes to your own communications. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. and glut suggest abundance. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. ample. most words have their own unique connotation. one of these words suggests an overabundance. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. While some synonyms can be similar. For example. For instance. each word carries its own specific connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. However. Thus. Terse. ample. for example. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not figure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. though. although these words are effectively synonymous. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufficient context. they are rarely identical. While you can have a bountiful.

Often. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. however. one of the units will express a complete thought. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the definition of the word. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. There are some basic skills you need to acquire. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance floor. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. Meanwhile. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. Even if you have no idea what a word means. but like everything else worth doing. it’s hard at first and gets easier as you practice. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the definition. though. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. More often than not. though. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. you can figure out what these words mean. Sometimes you will find unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. it’s easy to decipher the message. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its prefix (in-) and word root (ept). Once you have the key to the code.

a. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. The first unit. For example. Your final step is to look at the answer choices to find the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. the one with the blank. The second unit. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-defined units. . consider this sample question: Select the word that best fills in the blank.” a word such as civic. ➥ After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. This question has a blank in each of its two units. Choice d.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. you have: After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. Now you’re ready to use the first unit to illuminate the second. or secular. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. secular. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. the unit without the blank. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. theological c. religious d. Now you know you need to fill in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. is the best answer choice. reverent b.

you could be fairly confident that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. would indicate that kind of temperament. Think of them as clues to a mystery. amble b. The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. perambulate. careful . sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. The second unit of the sentence. a. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. Think of a synonym for “not bold. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best fill in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. . . If actually were to be removed from the sentence. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. . or move about on one’s own. . adventurous . as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). . Think of something that. Actually is a clue word. daring . bold. careful . ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. comparison. uses a phrase of comparison. perambulate c. . as illustrated by. There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. rest d. . right? So the word that goes in the first blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. Now read the sentence using your word in the first blank. The best answer to this question is choice b. . As in the preceding example. . as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. and cause and effect. if not done before age two.” Put it in the first blank. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. daring. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. scuttle The first unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. reckless . .

First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. or opposition. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. Friendly. in other words. as well as. and yet. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at first glance. gregarious. although. You might choose the word social. Now you have as the first unit. despite. however. despite. and. The first unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. in fact. however. but. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. then fill in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. all meaning “not solitary. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. and and. This is the logical relationship of contrast. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. or on the contrary. as shown. when you see one of these words or phrases. but. or sociable are other options. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. First divide the sentence into two units. such as on the other hand. as the second unit.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. similarly. for example. and as illustrated by. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. and that is. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the first unit is in opposition to solitary. using the punctuation to guide you. Words that signal comparison include likewise. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely.

➥ Scientific knowledge is usually _______. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. The blank in the third unit. Foster slouched.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. as a result. Select the word that best fills in the blank. Again. English is a difficult language because it is so visually confusing. This sentence has three units. illogical c. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. needs to be filled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. In other words. therefore. Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. The correct answer will be posture. Words such as thus. or its synonym. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. decreasing d. and phrases such as due to. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. consequently. you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. When you know what the complete unit says. and because. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. a. therefore. You may also find it helpful to use a nonfiction or fiction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). This will help you match the word to its written form. The first two units tell you that before military school. irrelevant . you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. or very nearly so. cumulative b. two complete and one incomplete. Foster never stood up straight. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores.

because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. you will be daunted if you are timid. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. • You might vacillate if you are timid or diffident. applies to lots of stuff. have nearly the same meaning. for example. while disdain and revere are opposites. using key words and phrases. The incomplete unit. cumulative. ACTIVE READING As you might expect.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. Abate and ebb. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. • You might grovel if you are servile. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. of course. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. • You might disdain something that is banal. chances are you will understand the crucial words. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientific knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. you’ve made a good start. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. To prepare for these types of questions on the . vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. the one with the blank. which.

contrast. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. Often. and specific detail. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. and the less time you will spend looking up words. however. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. have a dictionary handy. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. This is a skill you can practice every day. Remember the four types: restatement. To help you eliminate answers. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. At a minimum. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. This may sound like a contradiction. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. surprisingly. it is a good idea to become an active reader. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. Look for specific details that provide clues to meaning. By reading actively. From the start. like the TOEFL iBT. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. positive/negative. . This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. For example. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. the more you will comprehend.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. By reading carefully. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. Read carefully. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively.

domain b. artificial d. She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. a. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. nominal b. receptive c. blasé . but secretly she was very excited. a.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to fill the blank. remainder c. candid d. demographic c. nocturnal 3. 1. a. revenue d. assessment 4. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. talkative b. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. dedicated b. a. practical d. incumbent 2. accomplished c.

My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. receptive c. irrelevancy 8. summit c. scented c. musty d.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. unnecessary d. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. a. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. accessible b. nadir 6. We were tired when we reached the _____________. outmoded . a. a. current b. dedicated c. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. association c. a. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. but now it is _____________. circumference b. he longed most of all for _____________. aged b. loneliness d. eloquent d. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. fulcrum d. a. ambiguous 9. decrepit 7. solitude b.

quest c. natural. to close down temporarily. complex. harmless. b. to be under close scrutiny. cadence 11.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. c. d. radical. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. Teem means a. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. 14. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. intricate. a. 13. Benign means a. surge b. Explicit means a. chronologically ordered. they were on a _____________ to find the perfect cup of tea. d. . Futile means a. to be full of. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. nearly overflowing. discovery d. b. ambiguous or implied. fruitful. 12. b. insane. c. c. d. of local origin. d. dangerous. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. c. useless. b. clearly and fully stated.

The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. b. to create. to soften. elegant. b. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. difficult to avoid. to deceive. Digress means a. descriptive. to escape or elude. d. 19. stray. difficult to compare. d. Elusive means a. to regress. c. difficult to capture. to change the tone. d. 18. to intensify. to refuse to answer directly. d. who was always one step of his creator. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. b. concise. c. Diffuse means a. c. to express concisely. 16. Evade means a. . to refuse. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. difficult to forget. cut 500 words from the 2. preferring a more terse writing style. d. 17. b. The editor. revert. to deviate. to answer indirectly.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. c.000-word article. c. Terse means a. factual. b. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics.

6. 4. and it would be something a person who works in a busy office would crave. behavior d. Incumbent means holding any post or position. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. d. to guess. b. to confirm. can be a desirable thing. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. where the hikers would have a good view. . He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. unlike loneliness. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. 1. Revenue is the income of a government. The summit means the highest point. d. 5. Solitude. 21. sustain b. foster c. Surmise means a. a. banter c. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. a. c. 8. 3. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. to believe. c. b. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. a. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 2. 7. bolster d. b. antics b. c. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. to surprise. a.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. d. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. activities 22.

Elusive means evasive. there is likely to be a great number of security officers in the hotel. to be present in large numbers. exact. d. 18. b. 10. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. 17. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. to avoid fulfilling. dramatically reducing its wordiness. a. d. 21. 14. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. d. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. disperse. deviate. having a beneficial effect. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. producing no result. d. d. difficult to capture. Banter is defined as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. b. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. hopeless. 12. c. or doing. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. eluding the grasp. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Choices c and d are incorrect because their definitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. 20. 16. b. answering. to soften or make less brilliant. using no unnecessary words. mild. a. . 15. 13. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. vain. 19. 11. To teem means to be full of. b.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. To diffuse means to spread throughout. who constantly escaped his grasp. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. To digress means to turn aside. The sentence tells you that Dr. gentle. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. a. straightforward. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. Benign means not harmful or malignant. Futile means useless. Terse means concise. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders.

The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. c. want to raise or bolster this morale.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. and d are all incorrect. b. Choice a. thus. The speaker would. If the friend has a “sinking morale. .

but the job may be easier than you think. Though prefixes and suffixes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. Learning prefixes and suffixes in another language may seem like a daunting task. This chapter reviews prefixes and suffixes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. you are already using the same prefixes and suffixes with simple words that you already know well. A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. PREFIXES Prefixes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. changes: 31 .3 Using Prefixes and Suffixes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. meaning before. the word prefix itself uses the prefix pre-. fix. There are dozens of prefixes and suffixes in the English language. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. For example. Thus the meaning of the root word.

knowing that the . U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. For example. Thus. is easily frightened. which uses the prefix in-. it is the only possible correct answer. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. speaks many languages.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fix: to place securely or firmly prefix: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used prefixes.means many. b. For example. meaning not—not suitable or competent. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. c. If you know that the prefix poly. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a prefix alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a prefix to determine whether a word is positive or negative. the base upon which prefixes and suffixes are added prefix: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning suffix: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. d. administers lie detector tests. Knowledge of prefixes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. is an expert in global issues. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. to eliminate incorrect answers. take the word polyglot. including inept.

d. these examples are not test-prep words. and trilogy (a series of three plays). If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. traditionally in three orders of priority). unity. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. mono-: one (unique. that is. quarter. decathlon. For each prefix. b. trinity. This will help you remember the meaning of each prefix—and show you just how well you already know them. trident. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. quar-: four (quadrant. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the prefixes are the numerical prefixes. to cast an evil spell. millennium. . bicameral. harmful. to speak ill of. c. millimeter) Following is a list of the prefixes. decimal. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. to charm. centipede. enchant. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. b. you can eliminate choices a and c. quart. triple) quad-. To malign is to say evil. evil. monotonous. Take a look at some words that contain numerical prefixes: bipartisan (two parties). bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. With a few exceptions. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. and often untrue things about someone. to speak badly about. you may be able to choose the correct answer. bilateral.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 prefix mal. rather. With your knowledge of prefixes.means bad. to arrange. or wrong can help you significantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. we have provided two examples of words that use that prefix. Among the most common number related prefixes are: un-. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary.

reversal.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. eject). an-: not. about. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). appear. circum-: around. come before) anti-. opposing. off abduct (to take by force). occur. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. without amoral (not moral). expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. atypical (not typical) ab-. in front of. comply). informal (not formal) inter-: between. ant-: opposite. antedate (to proceed in time. not dismiss (to send away from. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. intervene (to come. away from exit (go out). jointly cooperate (to work together. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). among. before anterior (placed before). a particular incident. together. or lie between two points of time or things) . abs-: from. com-. away. or an occurrence) co-. con-: with. apart. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. out of. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms).

bring under control). nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. to take the place of) sub-: under. abnormal. submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. over.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). evil. again rebuild (to build again after destruction). beneath. recent. multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonfiction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than fiction). polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). make known in advance) re-: back. malpractice (wrongdoing. excellent). opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). ill. replace (to put back in its former position. of unusually high quality. below subdue (to overcome. wrong. wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. predict (to forecast. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. exceeding superb (grand. superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . magnificent.

Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. . which means “ten.” Historically. and illegible. as in unhappy. there is only a distant hint of the prefix deci-.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English prefixes is located in Appendix B. make sure you review the list carefully and study any prefixes that are unfamiliar to you. which means “to completely destroy. in-. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. For example. The important point to remember is that in learning prefixes. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. After you have completed this chapter. For example. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. the prefixes un-. not a verb. Try watching the evening news. or rent a film in your native language and watch it with English subtitles.” in the word decimate. Other prefixes only remotely affect word meaning. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. . U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken. . As you use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . dis-. Some prefixes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. You may also realize that the suffix -ian calls for an adjective. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present definition. and il. displeasing. the more you will understand. The point of learning about prefixes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. Go to the movie theater to see a film in English. inconsiderate. For example.

which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). or a modifier. that dog) several (e. Suffixes tell you whether a word is a person. here. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech.g. Helen. They often change a word’s part of speech. ancient. imagine. tells what kind. an adversary. interrupt For example. clumsily.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Suffixes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. Elm Court. car. brush. or concept verb shows an action. place. other adverbs. adjectives. to provoke the hostility of .g. combating... how and to what extent white. how much adverb describes verbs. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Definition one who opposes or contends with another. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. tells where. which one. Part of Speech noun Function names a person. an action or state of being (a verb). or entire clauses. several dogs) slowly. jump. how many. exhilarating that (e. opponent opposing. never. very. adversarial to oppose actively. when. thing. soon Examples cloud. contend. look how the suffixes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the prefix. feel. or thing (a noun). oblong. ant-). can also identify or quantify. occurrence. place. valor go. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence.

depending upon its suffix. BUT NOT ALWAYS While prefixes and suffixes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. deserving of honor and respect. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. such as equality (state of being equal). the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. . Select the best answer to the question. not adjectives. just knowing suffixes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. Squeamish means easily sickened. respectively. but it can help you determine the function of the word. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. Similarly. if you know that the suffix -ity means state of being. zero in on its meaning. easily disgusted. disgusted. extremely shy. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. For example. For example. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. ➥ Squeamish means a. to scream or squeal. recurring illness. as you come across vocabulary words with common prefixes and suffixes. Thus. or shocked. Choices a and b are definitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. However. nauseated. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. to honor with a sense of awe. c. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. but look for other clues to meaning as well. but they are both verbs. and only choice d is correct. use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Definition to regard with deep respect or reverence.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. if you know that -ish is a common suffix for adjectives. d. b. Only choices c and d define adjectives. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being.

◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. produces. makes. process. . practice. state. etc. or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). For each suffix. state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. process. or process. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). fidelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. political. state or condition detection (the act of detecting). these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the suffixes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. -ence: action. politician (one who seeks or holds a political office) -ion: act or process. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). we have again provided two examples of words that use that suffix. pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. believes. failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). and economic equality of the sexes). and again. the transitional period between youth and maturity). materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs.

incredible (not credible. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. -ial. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. abjectly submissive. exhibiting folly. unable to be believed. damaged. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difficult vocabulary word for each prefix or suffix. useful). slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. -ian: related to. -ible: capable or worthy of. -ical: having the quality of. or resembling a child). you can quickly and accurately learn the most common prefixes and suffixes by remembering examples of words you already know. relating to. improbable) -al. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. Because the words are already so familiar to you. trustworthy). servile (pertaining to or befitting a slave. pertaining to. such as cooperate and dismiss. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. or characteristic of a humanitarian). or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. in the manner of a fool) . or destroyed. However. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. theatrical). frail).

they change or add to the meaning of the root word. form into beautify (to make beautiful). Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study prefixes and suffixes. to make inferior in quality or character). The more familiar the word is to you (e. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. annoyed) -ify. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. cooperate).. impair. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. Use as many . Remember that you use prefixes and suffixes every day. famous). By memorizing these essential word parts. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. -fy: to make. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. angry. done with or working with others for a common purpose). ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common prefixes and suffixes. all the time. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony).g. -ose: full of. to make impatient. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the prefix or suffix. nauseous (causing nausea. rather. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. Remember that prefixes and suffixes alone do not create meaning. having the quality of. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. You already know much of this material.

2. fighting against. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. cut into parts. and context if possible to confirm meaning. many sided. 1. c. two-faced. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns defining a kind of person (one who does). b. b. Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to eliminate incorrect answers. under the authority of. looking after. Circumspect means a. put forth in writing. and context. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. to examine thoroughly. relating to the circus. coming before. d. not every -ist word is only a noun. Allow for exceptions. d. The more you narrow down your choices. 3. Multifaceted means a. d. try to recall another word with a similar root. word roots (covered in the next chapter). looking around carefully. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. including prefixes and suffixes. b. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. uniform. Antecedent means a. . Does it match the part of speech of the definition according to the suffix? If you know the prefix or suffix but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. word roots. c. c. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Check prefixes. Plug in that meaning with the prefix or suffix and see if it makes sense.

exactly as expected. or degree. amount. c. c. c. or degree. b. general agreement by a group. d. amount. a nonbeliever. to be uncertain. d. to age gracefully. amount. disappointing. d. . b. 9. c. to make equal in status. or degree. to pressure. one who is equal in status. haughty. Dubious means a. b. an individual opinion. c. b. c. to warn in advance. the state of being equal in status. Agrarian means a. to doubt or question. with an air of superiority. Supercilious means a. 8. to cultivate. incapable of making a decision.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. d. to send a message. To presage means a. questionable. b. Consensus means a. exact tone. 5. relating to land or land ownership. d. the act of making someone or something equal in status. less than the norm. b. d. to issue a warning. amount. to be out of date. 6. or degree. Parity means a. one who doubts. a counting of individuals. 7. doubtful. speaking in a measured.

4. Consensus means general agreement or accord. c. circumstance. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. watchful. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). Nonchalant means a. The prefix non. to cause to become active or aware.means before. b.means around. The verb suffix -ize means to cause. the state of becoming active or aware. b. 11. The prefix circum. c. 5. 6. 1. The prefix multi. or event that came before. d. fraught with uncertainty. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. The prefix super. The prefix con. c. reversing a previous opinion or decision. Parity means having equality in status. or exceeding. d. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. value or degree. foretell. disdainful. 7. 9.means with. The prefix pre. not showing anxiety or excitement.means not. an opinion or position reached by a group. b. d. Dubious means doubtful. challenging. haughty.means above. done with the intent of harming another. 3. not showing anxiety or excitement. 10. b. to predict. to be active or aware. together. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. relating to. equivalence. d. wary. Galvanize means a. to bring about. d. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering prefixes and suffixes? Check your answers here. Circumspect means cautious. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. Antecedent means that which precedes. d. scornful. questionable. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. over. on all sides.means before. The noun suffix -ity means state of being. c. 11. 2. one who becomes active or aware.means many. The prefix ante. . 8. c. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of. wavering. The adjective suffix -ian means related to. a. a. amount.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. indifferent. complex. the thing.

manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. The more word roots you know. Needless to say. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. The study of word origins and development 45 . As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. the more roots you know. In fact. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. too. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning. the stronger your vocabulary will be. do many of the words in the English language. so. meaning hand. meaning name. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries.Word Roots 4 P refixes and suffixes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. For example. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures.

He will write the information on a graph.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. violet). My mother plants herbs in her garden. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. however. . indigo. or acronyms (words that are made up of the first letters of a group of words or phrases. For example. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. green. For now. yellow. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. Meaning “memory aid. blue. orange. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. All the eggs are in the pan. meaning. or spelling. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. tunes. Phil loves to help others. the acronym Roy G. the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. For example.

for example. a thing yielded. proper. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. meaning to go. yield. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. But most of the time. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an office or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. to yield. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to this root and how the different prefixes and suffixes change meaning. Now. especially after an interruption. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. therefore. etc. place. The Latin roots err and pug. process . move on. (often with reluctance).WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. rhythmic patterns. related to Thus. On occasion. rank. or tunes. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. a course of action or conduct. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. stop. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. respectively. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. roots are the base to which prefixes and suffixes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. useful: • Use rhymes. kind ous: suffix meaning having the quality of.

free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. meaning the act or state of. to move back. to move or go below the surface. incessant means continuing without interruption. to allay the anger of. to go forward blindly b. Thus. retreat d. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. Recede means c. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efficacy of a drug . pacify. Now add the noun suffix -sion. ced means to go. yield. ➥ Incessant means a. continuous. d. not direct. placate: to appease. to go together with others Remember your prefixes from Chapter 3. to stop or abandon before completion c. through. continuing without interruption. meaning to please. you can also answer the following question. going between. self-satisfied. c.means back. and the suffix -ant means being in a state or condition of. again.means not. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to the root word. plac. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. retreat. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. yielding readily under pressure. Re. performing or causing an action. cess means to go. withdraw. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. not stopping. stop. or among. to move or go back. try determining what the word recede means: a. The correct answer is b. b. stop. The prefix in. or yield. ceaseless. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. subliminal. Again.

Similarly. . meaning love: I am love. again. to record in chronological order. stop. If you are an auditory learner. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. on-going. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. yield.WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. For example. habitual. For example. I love ham. To remember that eu means good or well. you could try one of these sentences for the root am. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. For example. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. especially visual learners. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. because the colors of the traffic light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. you can picture the letters EU on a well. we can create even more words. chronic: continuing for a long time. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop. Many different words can be built from a single root. be simultaneous By changing the suffix of synchronize. If you are a visual learner. to occur at the same time. meaning time. For example. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. to remember the root pug. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. or a boxer with a pug nose. You could also picture a traffic light for the root ced/ceed/cess. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. use pictures to help you remember words. I love Amy.

to issue orders or commands).50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. etc. mea culpa (Latin. yield. especially the American Civil War). make known in advance) equ: equal. or ill natured). “my fault”) dic. acute (extremely sharp or severe. keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. dict. tell. predict (to foretell. cess: to go. taking note of the examples. profession. enamored (inflamed or inspired by love. dit: to say. chastise (to punish severely. affectionate). chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. which once again are mostly everyday words. even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). as with a beating. surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war. exceed (to extend beyond or outside of. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. equidistant (equally distant) . stop antecedent (that which precedes). bitter acid (something that is sharp.). use words dictate (to say or read aloud. Review the list carefully. to rebuke) ced. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. acr: sharp. ceed. After you have completed this lesson. sour. romantic.

effervescent (bubbling up. innate (possessed at birth. neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. volume or significance. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). hang over prominent (standing out. high spirited. loqu: word.WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). nat. distinguished) nas. ardent. maj. to lessen the force or purity of). log. vehement). allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. error (a mistake. luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. to make unfit or harmful to living things) mag. an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. burning. enlighten). to amplify). projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). pollute (to make impure or unclean. free from guilt. hateful) . translucent (almost transparent. animated) loc. inherent) nec. burn fervid (very hot. bubble. lofty. not dangerous or harmful). lut. inborn. as a carbonated liquid. noc. nox: harm. speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. obnoxious (offensive. eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. nic. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). conspicuous. lum. max: big magnify (to increase in size.

transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. taciturn (habitually untalkative. implied). withdraw) . or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. vigorous (energetic. distinct). bright.52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). call back. tending to express oneself often and freely. place). repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. science (knowledge. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). outspoken). active. strong) voc. verify (to confirm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. reverse. tranquil (free from disturbance. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. anxiety. revoke (to cancel. calm. reserved) ver: truth verdict (the findings of a jury in a trial. aware). forceful. still). prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. disposed to fight) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. brilliant. pound: to put. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. place deposit (to put or set down. decision or judgment). true to life. hostile. interchange) pug: to fight pug (a boxer). pos.

but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. Knowing this. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. Prefixes come before the word root. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. suffix. which means to trust or believe. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to find the synonym or antonym of a word. the root of credible is cred. Very often. you have to figure out what the word means without any help from context clues. Otherwise. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difficult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. For instance. Not only do you need to know the word in question. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. If you are lucky. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. and credit. For instance. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. In this case. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. prefix. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for prefixes and suffixes. or suffix—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. Let what you know about those words help you find the meaning of words that are less familiar. and suffixes are found at the end of a word. . circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. or prefix. the prefix can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. To identify most word parts—word root. unnecessary. sacred. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. A suffix like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. too.

principal. habitual. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. ongoing. or confidence. slant. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. courage. to give support. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. ruler architect (one who plans or devises. encourage (to inspire with hope. cryptography (secret writing.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. long-lasting or recurrent). having inherent power of action or motion). chronology (the arrangement of events in time. slope. cord. such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external influence or control. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). the sequence in which events occurred) cli. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. bend incline (to lean. andro: man. especially one made of biological materials). or cause to do so. especially one used as a burial place). one who creates plans for buildings). clin: to lean toward. epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . archy: chief. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). archi. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time.

dia: apart. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. having a uniform structure or composition throughout). a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. width). nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . especially one praising someone who has died). abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. character. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. obstinate). to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). deviate. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. digress (to turn aside. euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). or swerve. or function). thickness. a marked change of form. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle.WO R D R O OTS 55 di. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind.

a large orchestra) theo: god. religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). and suffixes. existence. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. agreement between two people) ped: education. for example. harmony. all the gods of a people or region) pas. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. You might. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. pat. prefixes. pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed field) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). remember to focus first on roots. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. suffering. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra.56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. respond to a visual clue in a word. path: feeling. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge.

The prefix im. For example. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and significantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. A rebel. Here again are some specific strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. suffixes. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. bitter. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s prefix with that same prefix on another word she knows. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. which means to boil. By memorizing common prefixes. bubble. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. for instance. burn.in impervious means not. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. For example. the root ac means sharp. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. and word roots. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. the meaning of the root bel is war. Similarly. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. . Here are some specific strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. fervent has the root ferv. fights in a war. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. for example.

often without realizing it. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. Remember that you use common word roots every day. Use the power of association. loud. d. tenuous. honest. is very clear and intelligible. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. c. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. equate). 2. frequently digresses. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. The more familiar the word is to you (e. predict. talkative. good natured. 1. b. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. to determine meaning. if possible. errs repeatedly in its logic. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. friendly. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. truthful. You already know much of this material. Remember that word roots work with prefixes and suffixes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. An amiable person is a. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word.g. By memorizing these word bases.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. b. c. . is loosely held together. highly educated. d. Look at all parts of the word and the context. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. A lucid argument a.. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. The more you narrow down your choices.

b. to worsen it. 8. very old. at rest. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. c. antiquated. harm that person. chaotic. c. value or worth. very isolated. truthfulness. d. expressed in a powerful and effective manner. charge that person with a crime. To indict someone is to a. b. b. weight. to analyze it. d.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. Something that is eloquent is a. likes to pick fights. but does not accept responsibility. is contented to a fault. inedible. b. To exacerbate a problem means a. . A quiescent place is a. to solve it. not fit for consumption. trite. b. hackneyed. 4. frequently makes mistakes. c. d. pick a fight with that person. dangerous. 5. d. is known to tell lies. d. self-satisfied. embellish the truth. b. 6. c. still. circumference. A complacent person a. tumultuous. harmful. c. d. to lessen it. 7. stop or block that person from doing something. dull. c.

d. The root loc/log/loqu means word. Quiescent means inactive. The root qui means quiet. 7.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. A person with equanimity a. Veracity means truth. 1. quiet. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. bitter. To exacerbate means to make worse. 5. intelligible. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. or bitterness of. The root equ means equal. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. and persuasive manner. harmful. speech. tell. tantalizing. 10. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. d. d. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. enjoys the company of others. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. violence. b. self-satisfied (pleased with oneself). especially under stress. b. is very stubborn. 9. 8. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. . b. easy to understand. The root ver means truth. c. A noxious odor is a. c. Lucid means very clear. even-temperedness. to increase the severity. at rest. fluent. The root am means love. 2. likeable. good natured. use words. unwholesome. a. The root luc/lum/lus means light. The root ac means sharp. d. pleasing. unscented. 10. d. has a violent temper. a. 6. even. patience and composure. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. Complacent means contented to a fault. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. The root plac means to please. truthfulness. c. death. b. 3. d. 4. refreshing. d. is even-tempered and composed.

One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. For example. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . They are called homonyms. he will learn something new about his craft.5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your finger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. summer. or winter to flavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry. fall. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring.

62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A specific type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. many of which you may already know. like TOEFL iBT. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. There are dozens of homophones. while others that you may still find confusing. great and grate. are homophones. . for example. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. this chapter will help you get them straight. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. for example. The term for these words. His conduct in school was terrible. Night and knight. and bear and bare. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. as are slay and sleigh. on one part of the word. or piece or peace. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. but have different spellings and meanings. Otherwise. For example. or stress. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. homophone. If so.

CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to influence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (financial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief definition of each word.

deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to find something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. suggest to assume. having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint. verb) compliment (noun.

sum of interest-earning money standard still.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue profits main person in charge. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he. or they substitute for him. her. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . she.

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Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the definition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the definition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the definition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its definition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct prefixes. But the prefixes are attached to the same root, and the prefixes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selfish motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.

C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S

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J

HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is filled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.

You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:

➥ ➥

ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness

The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the definition of each word.

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➥ ➥

ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings

Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the prefix. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a allude (˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform

ascent (a·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent censor ('sen·sor) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an official who reviews books, films, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing

to come or issue forth. the range. 1. a vast multitude . towering above or more prominent than others. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. to provoke. to cause to do so. a large group or crowd. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. 2. 2. a difference of opinion. distance. 1. forbidden by law. to differ in opinion. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. about to occur. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. to lessen the worth of. a downward slope or movement. 2. to belittle. 1. 1. an enemy. to think or speak of as being of little worth. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. 2. to diminish in price or value. 1. or degree to which something reaches or extends. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. with joy. to pretend. to distribute widely. n. fake.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. a hidden store or stock. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. 1. disagree. etc. character. 1. 2. gladly feign (fayn) v. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. 2. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. sufficient. v. to withhold approval or assent. artificial. to separate and scatter in different directions. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. 2. still in existence.. adversary. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. hereditary derivation. cache. 2. to call forth or draw out. reputation. to collect and lay up. meeting acceptable standards. distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj. standing above others in quality. to express disapproval of. the act of descending or moving downward. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. lofty. illegal. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. not extinct.

n. 1. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. courage. obliterate team (teem) v. a group organized to work together. the act of raising or increasing. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. to intrude in other people’s affairs. to be present in large numbers . to carry on. unable to mask feelings. order something to be done. 2. 1. 2. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. to erase. especially because of race. marked by inventive skill or creativity. n. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. continue. to prohibit. not cunning or deceitful. artless. frank. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill. to lift. to issue commands. to cause annoyance or irritation. skeptical. spirit peak (peek) v. to increase in size. 1. 3. or mistreat. remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. activity. a brief or furtive look. to bring a criminal action against. the pointed top of a mountain. beyond belief. to level to the ground. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. demolish completely. 1. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. to be full of. activity. 1. implausible. or strength. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. 1. n. to join together so as to form a team. put in an upright position 2. to oppress. or intensity. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. 2. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. 2. pique (peek) v. intensity. to vex or create resentment. fortitude. 1. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. dictate. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. religious or political beliefs. 1. summit. 2. 2. 2. quantity. n. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. the highest possible point of development.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. degree. sincere. unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. to reach its highest point or maximum development. or intensity peek (peek) v. 2. 1. harass. make higher.

you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. 1. For example. review. Pay attention to details. The more carefully you read each definition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. For example. If you are an auditory learner. especially of the hand. 1. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. . standard procedure. appraise has the word praise in it. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. you will remember which word has which meaning. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. the more likely you are to find a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. 2. to move up and down or back and forth. n. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. 2. rhymes will be more effective. review. And then review them again. penalty. if you are a visual learner.). especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. dispense with wave (wayv) v. Use flash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. for example. Use these words. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. For example. a surge. rush. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. Remember to make the most of your learning style. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. Meddle. etc. 3. 1. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. Review. Or teach them to someone else. and appraise means to evaluate. relinquish. undulate. 2.

2. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. 4. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. but she didn’t say anything directly. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 9. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. 7. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Once again. 3. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. 8. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. for example. 10. 6. 5. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. 1. Both prescribe and proscribe. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. . meaning to write. have the root scrib/script.

10. distribution. censor. 4. An ascent is an upward slope. impending. or degree to which something reaches or extends. .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. a movement upward.). Imminent means about to occur. To censor is to forbid the publication. 1. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. disbursed. 7. To disburse means to pay out. Extent means the range. imminent. ascent. 2. distance. etc. relinquish. 6. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. 9. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. advancement. 8. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. To proceed means to go forward or onward. 5. especially after an interruption. move on. waive. alluded. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. advance. proceed. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. prosecuted. ingenious. penalty. standard procedure. remarkably clever. extent. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 3. showing inventiveness and skill.

They’re called idioms. the second. . All of these expressions are idioms.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to define outside of the context in which they are used. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. that a man was talking on the phone. perched on top of telephones. that there were people able to interpret a political office seeker’s actions in a favorable light. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. and the third. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. In its simplest form. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. you know that the first means that someone was delayed at work. He was on the phone when I got to his house. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their office chairs. however. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the office until late last night. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. 74 Taken literally.

and slang. Through overuse. referring to the self. They are too well known to English speakers. their impact is lessened. Some of the words you’ll find in the world of academia. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the financial officer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. . for example. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these definitions. try and locate the definitions of the following words. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. or the world of education.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. An idiosyncrasy. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. which are frequently heard around campus. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. A related term is tenure track. colloquialisms.” “right as rain. or even ask a university representative. “Pretty as a picture. In college. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course.

where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. For instance.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. hot heels result from running hard. up to the job. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France. presumably. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group. give it a shot: try for the first time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. All languages have their own idioms. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difficult.” the British call a “block of flats.” Here are some idioms with their definitions. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva.

Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver find out: discover. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. . Reaganomics. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. all fouled up. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. from Reagan and economics.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion fly off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize.

indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. or a cliché. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. 1. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. If you burn out at something. _____ 5. 3. 4. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. The more you hear how they sound. a colloquialism. it happens rarely. 2. _____ .78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. Answer yes or no to the following sentences. and the easier it will be to remember them. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. textbooks. and other dayto-day communications. Once again. it means that you need the services of an electrician. If it happens once in a blue moon. the more familiar they will feel to you. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms.

If you give something a shot. 1. you hand over your undergarment. 8. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. 4. _____ 7. 6. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. you are willing to try. 7. 3. If you give the slip to someone. _____ 8. 2. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. 5.

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reserved d. artistic 3. shamelessly c. aloof d. adversely b. irrational c. look up the definitions for the words on your list. elitist b. expressive b.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. I have always liked your positive attitude. 1. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. a. she was very _____________. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. Then. however. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. choose the word that best fills in the blank. secretive c. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. if you come across words that you are unsure of. When you are finished. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. After you complete the test. a. make a list of these words. ingenious 2. favorably 81 . Directions: For questions 1 through 20. a. candidly d. (We suggest not timing yourself. Take your time when answering each question.

reminisced d. devised c. released c. a. encompassed b. delectable b. and I had no trouble finding it in time for work. priceless b. The directions to the new office were _____________. arduous c. it could cause serious health problems. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. If your drinking water is not _____________. embodied 6. meddlesome d. a. valid b. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. a.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. impure d. quenchable c. condoned . explicit d. conformed b. potable 7. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. a. decreased d. dispersed 8. commonplace c. docile 5. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. a.

a. conformity c. redundancy c. obscurely 12. vital 13. virtuously c. monotonous b. priority b. a. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. To get the promotion she wanted. torrid c. surmised c. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. a. a. deficit 10. resolved . conspicuously d. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. ample d. presumed d. supposed b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. concept 11. quandary d. prestige b. eminently b. a. perplexity d. Wanting to make a good impression. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show.

reunion 15. voraciously c. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. The fire alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer firefighters of the small community to come to action. agitated 16. a. duplicate . mishap b. ventilated c. dynamically b. significantly c.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. winding highway. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. generously d. careened d. beneficially 18. portrayal b. a. dissented b. reflex d. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. attraction c. symbolically d. approvingly b. a. a. council c. a. disguise d. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. audibly 17. After running an early 5K race.

23. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. to orbit. refreshingly honest. Sandra is truly an enigma. Understanding the world economic conditions. c. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. c. measurably d. bitingly sarcastic. original. a. very high. d. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. Caustic means a. cutting edge.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. enemy. relentlessly funny. rendezvous b. choose the best definition for the word in italics. stranger. b. a. b. 22. b. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. luxuriously c. d. in a new location. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people find his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. disperse 20. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. warily b. belonging to a group. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. 21. c. mystery. scatter c. d. filibuster d. Enigma means a. Exorbitant means a. newcomer. .

86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. one who denounces or openly condemns another. one-sided. to undermine. a transformation. 29. understated. under someone else’s authority or control. Didactic means a. organized according to rank. 27. to move away from. c. d. Subordinate means a. to transform. c. to surpass. To reconcile means a. b. without distinction. b. something ordinary or average. c. d. repeated frequently to aid memorization. to multiply. of or like a condemnation. tending to change frequently. b. c. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. intended to instruct. d. c. one who has changed. b. literal. . b. critical. to preach. the process of instructing. 25. moralize. c. hierarchical. to denounce or openly condemn. moralizing. a teacher or instructor. b. d. Unilateral means a. 26. Denunciation means a. d. Metamorphosis means a. 28. outdo. to reestablish a close relationship between. d.

worthy of consideration. Incisive means a. greatly varied. 31. biting in nature. c. To abrogate is to a. . d. to establish contact. Imperialism means a. b. Miscreant means a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. relating to the acquisition of territories. b. c. insight. villain. know intimately. d. 33. d. an empire built by acquiring other territories. lasting a very long time. c. one who acquires items from other empires. a very naïve person. c. c. Intermittent means a. quarrel. 35. a number between one and ten. Perennial means a. the process of encoding a message. rest quietly. someone who lacks creativity. occurring at intervals between two times or points. 34. b. d. b. badly handled. constant. d. fight. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. abolish. someone who is unconventional. revoke. penetrating. d. c. an evil person. 32. one who plants a garden. b. to act forcefully. b.

37. has existed for a long time. 38. there is a. d. d. b. d. peace. b. a wanderer. b. b. rambling speech. surrenders the rights of others. extremely talkative. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. b. a formal proclamation or command. given to wordy. d. An edict is a. A magnanimous person is a. exists only in the imagination. enables a guilty person to be set free. d. is bitter or resentful. call attention to. c. a place to rest. 39. highly noble. the act of seeing or shining. A vicarious action is one that a. mask the truth. 40. c. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. comply with another’s wishes. c. . b. war. a place to stop. is experienced through the life or action of another. To acquiesce is to a. c. give in to. If there is amity between two nations. generous. hobo. c. d. bitterness. equality.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. speak in a whisper. is extremely friendly. 41. c.

but believe me. talented. peace. is unpredictable. 49. in its proper place. 44. burdened. as with guilt. b. c. often has difficulty finding things. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. is properly ordered. nosy. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. d. is not discerning. meandering. steady pace. tends to like everyone. A pugnacious person is best described as a. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. To feel fervor is to feel a. light-hearted. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. d. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. b. tends to talk a great deal. 48. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. b. c. calmness. A loquacious person a. carefree. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to find out how much it is worth. intense. moves at a constant. d. b. ruthless. c. has good intentions. combative. appropriate. d. 45. fiery emotion. . he is very anxious to learn more about you. 43. 46. c. straying from the norm. 47. Something that is erratic a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42.

55. enhanced . Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. 53.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. 54. 57. 59. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). incomplete c. prefixes. a partial report a. identifiable b. I think he’s telling the truth. 60. or suffixes. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 51. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. visible d. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). 52. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. 58. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. 56. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. let’s eat here.

transgressed c. corroborate the statement a. alleged 62. slow b. original b. a substantial report a. slack c. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. average c. inconclusive b. pause d. challenge 63. excessive . punctual b. reverted b. negate c. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. 64. proven d. deny d. hasten c. tardy d. desist 66. weighty c. regressed d. confirm b. prompt payment a. moderate work flow a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. regular 65. manufactured goods a. final d. rain delay a.

mélange d. oeuvre 70. bourgeois c. milieu c. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. imbroglio 69. avant-garde d.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. 68. aficionado . insouciant d. mélange c. blasé b. “work like a dog. par excellence b. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. cliché b. façade 71. crisis c. gauche 72. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. an avid sports fan a. savoir faire d. rendezvous c. first b. final d.” “sleep like a baby. hiatus c. the complete works of Shakespeare a.” and other such overused sayings a. apropos b. initial impression a. zeitgeist d. choose the word whose definition best matches the description. gestalt b.

c. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. average. proactive a. c. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. subdue.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. eager. d. proficient. adamant. A synonym for adequate is a. toward d. attentive. obey. cheerful. mediocre. slight. A synonym for vast is a. flatter. 77. sufficient. c. 76. b. entertain. A synonym for comply is a. b. write 75. b. 78. d. see c. inscribe a. after b. confine b. steady. forward c. available. c. behind 74. perform d. 73. b. . d. immense. d.

c. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. diverse. 80. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. c. 19. inconsistent. a. Explicit means clearly defined. d. d. b. ANSWERS 1. Favorably means gracious. to lurch or swerve while in motion. 3. slovenly. A synonym for ecstatic is a. a. b. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. d. c. 7. kindly. Encompassed in this context means included. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 13. 5. An antonym for uniform is a. dissembling. resourcefulness. a. or obliging. 2. bizarre. 8. 16. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. 17. d. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. c. a. Resolved means having reached a firm decision about something. and cleverness in conception. attracting attention. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. b. ravenously. d. a. 6. Ingenious means marked by originality. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. 15. 18. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. thrilled. 11. 14. 10. d. Docile means easily led or managed. to plan to obtain or bring about.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. 4. a. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. d. Potable means fit for drinking. . 9. 12. positive. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. d. c. b. c. wild. a.

or function. 21. Choices b and c are both nouns. Unilateral means one-sided. out of.means between or among. and as a verb (notice the -ate suffix) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. evil. related to. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. happening again and again or year after year. Incisive means penetrating and clear. d. secondary. subdue. thus. 28. c. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. Didactic means intended to instruct. it would require the suffix -ist. The prefix inter. wrong. a marked change of form. 32. . The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. The prefix mis. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. acute. 29.means out. biting. an evil person. especially in public. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. suitable for. she remains a mystery. 33.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. below. periodic. meaning action or process. The prefix uni. The main context clue is that people find Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. character. away from. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action.means back. The noun suffix -tion means the act or state of. Only choice b defines a quality.means one. a. Metamorphosis means a transformation. 26. cutting. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. Perennial means lasting an indefinitely long time. 27. Choice a is the only adjective definition. sharp. again. 22. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. 30. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. beneath. 25. to bring back to harmony. The adjective suffix -ial means having the quality of. b. but no one knows anything about her. constantly recurring. Notice also the adjective suffix -al. (2) to make subservient. having the quality of. Miscreant means a villain. a. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. forever. The adjective suffix -ive means having the nature of. cunning. d. The prefix ex. The prefix sub. 31. alternate. 23. d. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. a baffling problem or riddle. not continuous. a. but for choice b to be correct. criminal. a. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difficult to understand. and watchful prudence.means under. b. 24. d. The prefix re.means bad. d. The noun suffix -sis means the process of. c. a.

44. uninterested. give in. Loquacious means very talkative. 37. tell. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. 41. to establish value or estimate the worth of. c. The root vi means life. To acquiesce means to comply. not genuine or real. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. having no care or interest in knowing. d. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. fake. a. To appraise means to evaluate. Uninterested means not interested. 46. 43. The root qui means quiet. 45. the suffix -ate means to make. down. b. . Magnanimous means very noble and generous. b. or inconsistent manner. 38. formally revoke. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The prefix ab. The root rog means to ask. garrulous. do away with. intense emotion. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. a. appraised. a. speech. understanding and forgiving of others. d.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. To abrogate means to abolish. use words. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. An edict is an official order or decree. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. bubble. d. To teem means to be full of. faux. The root loc/log/loqu means word. teeming.means off. away. ardor. 49. uneven. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. Fervor means zeal. inclined to fight. away from. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. The suffix -or means a condition or activity. The root am means love. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity means friendship. combative. The noun suffix -ism means state or doctrine of. opinion. d. The root ferv means to boil. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. acting or suffering for another. etc. 40. d. 39. cause to be. 36. The root err means to wander. Faux means artificial. bitter. The root pug means to fight. The noun suffix -ity means state of being. 35. The root ac/acr means sharp. The root mag/maj/max means big. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. having the quality of. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. 42. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 47. 48. to be present in large numbers. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. d. burn. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular.

This sentence uses the second meaning. and collide. Mettle means courage. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. 55. consent. 67. . The key part of the word substantial is substance. 57. raise. a hint or suggestion. To prescribe is to issue commands. 53. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. d. 63. incredible. (2) the total lifework of a writer. Context clues are important as well. A delay is a postponement in time. 62. condemn. 65. beyond belief. fortitude. 68. d. Some related words are cooperate. Incredible means implausible. 58. b. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a finished product. excessive means extreme. a vast multitude. 54. 56. 64. concurrence. innovative. to increase in size. which means with or together. especially in the arts or literature. c. To censure is to criticize strongly. A substantial report is extensive. Prompt means punctual.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. b. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. Assent means agreement. dictate. censured. intensity. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. mettle. c. To corroborate is confirm. Corroboration means that one statement fits with another. 61. to hasten is to hurry. A horde is a large group or crowd. make higher. artist. assent. Substance means something that has significance. (2) to provoke or arouse. composer. 69. a. given to prompt or remind someone of something. degree. 51. (2) meeting acceptable standards. To raise is to lift. The root of the word here is part. This sentence uses the second meaning. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. b. or strength. astonishing. 60. Partial means incomplete. spirit. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. adequate. 59. to vex. 52. To delay is to slow. tardy means late. final means last. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. prescribing. coworker. A cue is a signal. order something to be done. cutting-edge. Notice the prefix co-. d. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. Moderate means average. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. cue. A partial report is only part of the whole. 66. decent. sufficient. etc. c. quantity. Initial means first. such as a word or action. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. rebuke. An initial impression is one that comes first. piqued. horde.

especially a popular gathering place. An aficionado is a fan or devotee. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. Comply is synonymous with obey. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. d. b. 73. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. If someone is proactive. If something is adequate. d. . 76. d. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. immense. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. to meet at a rendezvous. 80. b. The word root scribe means to write. The prefix pro means for. a. d. b. 77. 71. b. 79. Enthusiastic means eager.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. to engrave on a surface. Vast means very great in size. 74. 72. it is sufficient. 75. (2) a place where people meet. d. to be diverse is to have variety. a. especially of a sport or pastime. 78.

belittled b. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. (We suggest not timing yourself. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. legitimate 2. a. a. Take your time when answering each question. pummeled c. When you are finished. make a list of these words. however. integrate d. The hail _____________ the cornfield until the entire crop was lost. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word. look up the definitions for the words on your list.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. facilitate 99 . Then. her claim to the estate was _____________. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. pacify c. 1. After you complete the test. Being a direct relative of the deceased. optional b. choose the word that best fills in the blank. if you come across words that you are unsure of. prominent d.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. confound b. a. vicious c. rebuked d. commended 3.

depreciate c. relinquish d. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. diverged c.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. a. punitive b. a. restorative d. prohibit 8. comprehensive d. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new office procedures. principled b. varied 5. exemplified d. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. seclusion d. assumption b. When you address the members of the committee. grandiose c. delude b. a. requisite 7. massive . determined c. Do not _____________ yourself. Her rapport with everyone in the office _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. prevailed b. a. treatise 6. confluence c.

a. abated b. a. constricted d. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. precursor c. repulsively b. tedium b. superficial c. perpetually d. a. preference d. The news was no longer secret. evoked 13. the thunderstorm _____________. acute b. momentum 11. ample . animated d. germinated c. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. consummate d. After an hour of heavy rain.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. and we were able to continue our golf game. After years of experience. voluntary 10. reputedly c. a. he soon began to talk more than anyone. reticent c. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. customary b. a. principally 12. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we first met him.

divided c. a. haphazardly 15. a. differentiated 17. terminally b. otherwise. diligently d. a. Smuggling 16. perpendicularly c. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. operate b. On each slick curve in the road. My cousin claimed to be _____________. submerge d. Irritating b.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. comical c. dreamlike b. a. hydroplane c. a meticulous young man. disconnected d. criminal d. a. Poaching c. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. they were exactly alike. separated b. Anthony. reconnoiter 18. clairvoyant . Provoking d. evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future.

to be surrounded on all sides. to be more successful than. d. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. choose the best definition for the word in italics. exciting. overused. to demonstrate. imitate. 20. 22. to injure seriously. bring under control. complex. to support wholeheartedly. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. d. Although the plot of the film is admittedly trite. b. to conquer.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. c. To thwart means a. . the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. To subjugate means a. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. d. or outdo. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. original. to be excessively competitive. Trite means a. to withhold. to prevent from accomplishing. b. d. To emulate means a. b. c. to create. d. To garner means a. b. to propose. Cy’s attempt to finally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. to support actively. 23. c. b. c. c. to regard as inferior. 21. to strive to equal. 19.

to be generous with one’s time or money. or deviates from the usual form. to do something without telling anyone. obedience. the management of domestic affairs. regularity. To coalesce means a. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. a surprising collaboration. d. d. generous ruler. discontent among a specific group within a larger population. b. 28. b. b. mine. c. c.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. consistency. Lamentable means a. easily managed or taught. 26. a kind. to do something regrettable. willing to obey. Benevolence means a. to do something ahead of deadline. regrettable. b. d. to go away secretly and hide. b. kind. to combine and form a whole. to create a secret hiding place. especially in shame. . 27. to dig up. d. c. 29. to withdraw silently. c. an unfortunate occurrence. Docile means a. kindness. giving charitably. one who domesticates animals. abnormal. join together. generosity. d. Anomaly means a. unfortunate. To abscond means a. something that is irregular. d. 25. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. c. b. to regret. c.

that which occurred previously. or apart from others. 32. chosen from within. 31. c. d. a roommate. teaching a lesson. kind. a strong aversion or dislike. 34. Disparate means a. unique. b. b. the act of separating from the source. having little or no impact. a beginner or novice. something that comes from multiple sources. b. 33. hostile. c. an examination of all aspects of an issue. someone who lives with another. eager to help. original. from the same origin. d. d. fundamentally different. a surprising error. incapable of being understood. eager to fight. 35. Inscrutable means a. to correct. from another country. Antipathy means a. c. c. loving. devoted. b. kept between or within members of a family. foreign. an editor. b. . Neophyte means a. d. d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. A belligerent person is a. b. not fathomable. exceeding expectations. Rectify means a. d. c. a correction. distinct. c.

shining. Something that is manifest is a.106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. capable. calm or quiet. a rebirth. often speaks without thinking. vocal. receives the maximum benefit. b. full of life. d. 41. d. burn or sting. a lie. 37. A person who is culpable is a. b. To equivocate is to a. d. b. A renaissance is a. full of knowledge. 38. even. equal. speak in a way that conceals the truth. c. b. excessive. blames others for his or her own faults. is eager to please. c. Someone who is omniscient a. c. newborn. obvious. put something in its proper place. 39. a mistake. . c. Something that is luminous is a. c. d. d. a punishment. everywhere. guilty. bright. b. 40. deadly. c. b. d. energetic.

but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. Something that is innocuous is a. dangerous or deadly. a forgery or fake. overwhelm. To juxtapose is to a. As soon as I get off the phone. very valuable. c. deeply in love. I tried everything. c. . Someone who is reticent is a. 48. b. bubbling over with enthusiasm. be born again. an autograph by a famous person. speak in a round-about manner. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. b. inoffensive. d. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). d. 43. 44. but the dollar is up. silent. c. genuine. 49. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. b. 46. flood.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. wandering from the main path or point. d. place side by side. judging equally. harmless. reserved. 45. clean. 47. fair. A veritable autograph is a. b. thoroughly washed. c. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. d. 50. irrelevant.

undeniable d.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. Although you all seem to agree. or suffixes. 52. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. not likely c. 60. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. 54. I think this is a bad decision. I must (decent/descent/dissent). Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to find out what he was getting. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. 53. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. an incoherent answer a. 56. challenging . 59. prefixes. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. but they finally caught up with him in Reno. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. 58. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. not understandable b. 55. 57.

eager c. harmonious d. capable employee a. unexpected c. protective material 62. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. gifted b. good excuses b. outrageous . experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. absurd c. 64. reasonable d. competitive c. exorbitant prices a. mistakenly b. covered with debris a. expensive b. purposely c. able 65. transparent material c. comical 66. unskilled b. compatible workers a. idle d. cautiously d. zealous pursuit a. envious b. carefully 63. inadvertently left a. scattered rubble d. apt d.

choose the word whose definition best matches the description. a temporary separation in a relationship a. liaison c. imbroglio c. oeuvre 71. gauche c. ad hoc b. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. belligerent attitude a.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. an artist’s first gallery showing a. wearing a disguise a. appeasing c. hiatus d. debut 69. cliché d. parvenu d. incognito b. 68. imbroglio c. blasé b. hostile b. aficionado b. façade 72. milieu d. ennui b. malaise 70. quid pro quo c. vis-à-vis . instinctive d. parvenu d.

leery. An antonym for wary is a. alert. careless. apart d. suitable d. old. 76. c. 78. c. b. adjacent. intermittent. with b. contiguous. an action 75. An antonym for novel is a. a property d. unsettled.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. wisdom a. uninterrupted. b. b. a relationship c. . dangerous. over c. cause. influence. A synonym for continuous is a. c. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. 77. c. sicken. b. time 74. A synonym for affect is a. d. d. d. a state of being b. congregation a. accomplish. worried. 73.

To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. c. conviviality. d. truth. d. b. 3. d. 18. civility. c. 7. 4. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. b. a. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal fish or game. b. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. b. b. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. c. 15. rudeness. 6. 80. reserved. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. 11. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. d. Pummeled means to pound or beat. b. 14. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. b. d. ANSWERS 1. 5. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. d. Reputedly means according to general belief. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. Delude means to mislead the mind. a meeting. c. 16. d. to deceive. An antonym for fallacy is a. Requisite means essential or necessary. b. A synonym for courtesy is a. or a gathering at one point. 10. blessing. 9. Confluence means a coming or flowing together. 2. 13. a. weakness. . Precursor means something that comes before. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. c. 17. 8. d. 12. fable. congruity. c. it is called hydroplaning.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79.

recent. b. promotes. correct. The prefix neo. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. away from. 30. overly familiar through overuse. To garner means to gather. c. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. one that is irregular or abnormal. or easily managed.means with. Inscrutable means baffling.means off. The verb suffix -ify means to make. 33. Docile means willing to obey. 25. being in a specified state or condition. The prefix co. 29. Notice also the verb suffix -ate. The prefix dis. down. 32. 24. 27. b. 31. a. To rectify means to make right. 23.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. d. fuse. To subjugate means to conquer. especially after wrongdoing.mean not. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. opposed to. varied. d. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. The prefix anti. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. without.means against. to join together. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. a. The noun suffix -ence means state of. The prefix sub. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. Trite means repeated too often. ready and willing to be taught. apart.means under or below. The prefix in. d.means new.means away from. apart. 21. The prefix a. meaning one that performs. bring under control. incapable of being understood. The prefix ab. a.means not. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. 22. d. dissimilar. inspiring grief or mourning. 20. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. c. unfathomable. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. unfortunate. or acquire. 34. 26. not. reversal. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. d. a new form of.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. . b. d. Notice also the adjective suffix -able. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. b. subdue. Lamentable means regrettable. especially by imitation. amass. The adjective suffix -ile means having the qualities of. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. or causes an action. a disposition to act charitably. 28. b. together. Neophyte means a beginner or novice.

a. 38. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. a. blameworthy. to belittle. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. 46. c. cause to be. innocuous means harmless. guilty. reserved. 36. 47. the root voc/vok means to call. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. not quite doing either). especially to compare or contrast. 48. full of light. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. . The suffix -able means capable or worthy of. as the other answers correspond with different roots. The prefix in. brilliant. thus. 44. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. elicit. b. To juxtapose means to place side by side. c. 45. having no adverse or ill effects.means not. The root tac/tic means to be silent. d. 43. The root ver means truth. the suffix -ate means to make. a. to lessen the worth of. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The root equ means equal. knowing all things. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. silent. 39. untalkative. The root culp means blame. emitting light. harass. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. a. 41. death. or sexual orientation. genuine. to provoke. 42. religious or political beliefs. To persecute is to oppress. The root bel means war. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. depreciated. 40. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. The ending -ent is an adjective suffix meaning in a state or condition. the root sci means to know. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. obvious. at hand. The root omni means all. b. Thus. d. The prefix re.means back or again. Omniscient means having infinite knowledge. This sentence uses the first meaning. persecuting. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. c. The root man means hand. true. Veritable means real. Thus. place. the suffix -ance means state of. 37. especially because of race. or mistreat. Luminous means shining. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. The root luc/lum/lus means light. showing an eagerness to fight. performing or causing a specified action.

64. You may have heard the word zeal before. Incoherent means not understandable. (2) to distribute widely. c. c. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. obliterate. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. The prefix in. dispersed. elude. disseminate. a. 59. 50. This sentence uses the first meaning. artless. to make aware of. dissent. 54. . queue. (2) to erase.means not. to give the false appearance of. emanating. disagree. unskilled means unable. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. eager. c. (2) to withhold approval or assent. choice b. a. The suffix -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. peek. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. (2) in information processing. c. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. 52. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. apprise. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. inform. demolish completely. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. 66. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. 51. This sentence uses the first meaning. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. To apprise means to give notice or information to. 53. (2) to be incomprehensible to. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. or cause to do so. 61. 55. The best clue in this word is the prefix ex-. very high. 60. To emanate is to come or issue forth. so idle is most nearly the opposite. This sentence uses the first meaning. frank sincere. Capable means able. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. 62. 56. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. To cohere means to connect. especially by cleverness. Zealous means eager. 65. which means not. ingenuous. unable to mask feelings. as from a source. which means out of or away from. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. This sentence uses the first meaning. daring. 63. a. escape the understanding of. 58. raze. interfere. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. meddling. This sentence uses the first meaning. feign. or skill. The key element in this word is the prefix in-. Inadvertently means by mistake. 57. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. To feign is to pretend.

d. Hiatus means a gap or opening. b. 71. especially one that is secretive or adulterous.means to be together with. d. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. 75. The antonym would be appeasing. d. 70. To be novel is to be new. careless is the opposite of watchful. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. a. The key element in this word is the root belli. 72. c. (2) an artificial or deceptive front. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. A debut is a first appearance in or presentation to the public. 77. 73. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. a. which means warlike. 74. a. 80. d. 76. b. a. the opposite is old. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. 79. d. 78. c. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. it is characterized by civility. The suffix -dom is a state of being. or lasting. The prefix con. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. . an interruption or break. 69. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. (2) a close relationship or link. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. To affect means to influence. true. 68. trickery. a. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. one who maintains such communication.

(Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the definition on the other. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the flash card and the definition of the word on the other. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with flash cards. 1. Repetition is key—use a word three times. Flash cards are easy to handle. When you learn a new word. definition. try the following strategy. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary. part of speech. you will find the word’s pronunciation. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. You and your friends can drill each other. they’re portable. and they’re friend-friendly. Or. review the word list. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT.) If the word list looks intimidating. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. and a sentence using the word. 117 . use it in conversation as soon as possible. Multiply that number by 10. After each vocabulary word. Learn a short list every day. 2.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. so you can study with a buddy.

Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. father. walk. fog heed. trolley. nowhere it. tragic. clear. fishing. dependable. breathe cup. hedge kitten. you can learn 300 new words. boat. sure for. dinner. pedal palm. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the definitions. by studying only ten new words each day! And. shaken. coy ooze. yarn. pop rain. live want. measure her. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. heaven. noodle. some of these words may already be familiar to you. cash tip. paper. live. score. breath this. cure. marry. yesterday zebra. cheer fan. super pour. treasure . farm bare. frank odd. please division. regular. blame. bed egg. sliver. house. remember. head. finger. come. draw stage. day bat. advisor oak. pull vail. aware. summon. treat. a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. puddle. tire. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. crib church. worry cook. listen.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. strengthen. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. trot salmon. sew aboard. how pan. unhappy whether. preacher day. edible icy. cherry shaken. track lost. hazy. coin. tree ear. turn. scare. scorn. shut delicious. quaint you. fair ball. rice share. carry. coarse oil. put. dear sun. toll more. horse out. rabbit. chart. sky jug. slim no. fox. mutter. pot three. middle stencil. trickle eat. fact ago. stuffy. relief go. father car.

subside. to abolish. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. 3. to regard with horror or repugnance. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. detest. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. When Joseph became a citizen. or degree. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. He received accolades from his superiors for finding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a flop. ˘ ˘ 2. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. 2. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj. limitless. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. redemption. formally revoke. extremely bad. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. 1. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. a formal declaration of forgiveness. renounce under oath. . suspension. intensity. 2. using or consuming sparingly. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientific theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. distortion. 1.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. the reviews were abysmal. to refrain from voting. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. abscond (ab·'skond) v. being temporarily suspended or set aside. deviation from what is normal. praise or approval. do away with. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. As the violent ˘ storm abated. extreme. 1. 2. I have decided to abstain on this issue. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. we began to survey the damage it caused. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. difficult to comprehend. profound. but he should still get out and vote. to repudiate. obscure. 1. 1. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. to give up or reject. to go away secretly and hide oneself. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. eating and drinking in moderation. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. 1. to lessen in strength. abjure (ab·'joor) v. 2. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. 2. I know Carlos abhors politics.

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accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition; ˘ ˘
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.

acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police officer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian traffic, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.

acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.

acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen ˘
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.

acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judg˘ ˘
ment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.

ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a specific, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.

adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. firm, ˘ ˘
inflexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.

addle ('ad·el) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The ˘
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.

ado (a·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book ˘
report.

adroit (a·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous, ˘
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers fixed in no time.

agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.

aficionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pas˘
time. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aficionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.

alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager. ˘
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.

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allay (a·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The ˘
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.

allude (a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate ˘
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacrifices.”

altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an alter˘ ˘
cation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.

amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleas˘ ˘
ing. Miguel was usually the first person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.

amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to fight about money anymore.

ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. having mixed or conflicting feelings about a ˘ ˘
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.

ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplo˘ ˘
mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.

amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. 1. having no definite form or distinct shape; shape˘ ˘
less. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.

amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. ˘
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.

anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.

anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control result˘
ing in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.

anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.

antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an ˘
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.

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antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance, ˘
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.

anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics, ˘ ˘
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.

antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aver˘
sion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.

antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast. ˘
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.

apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or ˘
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.

aperture ('ap·er·chur) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The ˘ ˘
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.

apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their flag in the snow.

apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.

apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘
victions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.

apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deification, an exalted or glorified ideal. Hanson ˘
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.

appease (a·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way ˘
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.

appraise (a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.

apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform. ˘
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and final exams would occur.

2. 1. not straight or level. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. The asperity that Marvin. to take for one’s own use. approval. fiery intensity of feeling. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. zeal. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my five-year-old son’s birthday party. original pattern or prototype. often without permission. crooked. a movement upward. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. askew (a·'skyoo) adj.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difficult for many students to understand. & adv. austere. difficult to traverse or surmount. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. ˘ 2. the grumpy accountant. occasion. fitting.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. condition. mysterious. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. harshness. practicing self-denial. secret. beyond comprehension. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. 1. to one side. appropriate to the situation. but they were definitely apropos. ascent (a·'sent) n. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. laborious. incidentally. a ¯ ¯ a or place. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. belonging to former or ancient times. at an appropriate or opportune time. appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj. ˘ irritability. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. suitable for a particular person. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. very difficult. requiring great effort. Patrick’s Day. roughness of manner. 2. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. 1. characteristic of the past. . to set aside for a special purpose. an original model from which others are copied. severity. advancement. apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. ill temper. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. by the way. adv. an upward slope. passionate enthusiasm.

but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. strength. 2. consent. to soothe. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst). agreement. majestic. inspiring admiration or reverence. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. enlarge. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. persevering. evalu˘ ate after an analysis. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj. venerable. protection or support. 2. assuage (a·'swayj) v. the committee must reach an assent. 1. v.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. diligent. to examine. value. 3. or intensity. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. put to a test. but they often achieved results. In order to pass the new law. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its officers and enlisted men alike. I know my dad seems austere. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. to weaken. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. unadorned. very plain. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n. to judge critically. ˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. 1. hardworking. to try. 2. to make thin or slender. a robot. attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. 1. assent (a·'sent) n. reduce in ˘ force. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. concurrence. to increase in size. patronage. augment (aw ·'ment) v. auspice ('aw·spis) n. favoring complete. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. 2. a self-operating or automatic machine. to make something less severe. a forecast or omen. august (aw·' ust) adj. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. but his interference only augmented the problem. unremitting. 2. Because she fol- . 1. severe or stern in attitude or appearance. or degree. austere (aw·'steer) adj. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. simple.

B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. woman. causing him to miss his secret meeting. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. belie (bi·'l¯) v. to distract the attention of. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. balk (bawk) v. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. 1. Whether it’s a ˘ man. distress. self˘ government. 2. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. cause of trouble. . There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. bane (bayn) n. quarrelsome. to give a false impression. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. 2. to show to be false. you can be certain to find at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. 1. intense dislike. divert. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. menacing. self-determination. destructive. Violet was able to beguile the spy. trite. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. obvious and uninteresting. belligerent. to amuse or charm. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. innovative. misery. cutting-edge. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. a strong. banal (ba·'nal) adj. sinister. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. car. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. 2. poison. or harm. or animal. personal or political independence. harmful. commonplace. 1. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. to obstinately refuse or oppose. cooked breakfast. to pass time in a pleasant manner. eager to make war.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. repugnance. 2. to deceive or cheat through cunning. Natasha made coffee. to contradict. misrepresent. but the film turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. 1. especially in the arts or literature. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style.

2. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. 3. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. stormy and rough. something that causes this condition. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. 2. 2. to support or prop up. nonchalant. not attempting to conceal in any way. very sophisticated. to buoy or hearten. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. 4. bevy ('bev·ee) n. bolster ('bohl·ster) v. a large group or assemblage. cheat. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. 2. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. 1. contemptuous or irreverent acts. 1. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. disrespect of something sacrosanct. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. 3. especially to evade paying one’s debts. noisy. ˘ ˘ 2. not harmful or malignant. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. 2. 1. something that impairs or destroys. 1. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. to deceive or defraud. to swindle. and carefree. bilk (bilk) v. gentle.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. blight (bl¯t) n. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. . having a beneficial or favorable nature or influence. 1. and lacking restraint or discipline. 1. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. blithe (bl¯th) adj. an unsightly object or area. kind. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. loud. such as air pollution. mild. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s confidence. light-hearted. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. unconcerned. the inclination to be kind and generous. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. hostile and aggressive. he always acted in a benign manner. a flock of animals or birds. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the field during the football game. you would be tortured and killed. completely obvious. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ fight. casual. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. utterances.

Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. 2. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. solid silver. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. discordant sound. With Antonio as their leader. she realized that it was. or materialistic. arrogant. to bring up. a show of pretended bravery. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. 2. ill-mannered person. loud. offensive. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. speaking pompously. light-hearted. blossom. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. hence also. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. introduce. a crude. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. 1. to begin to grow and flourish. . 2. in fact. for many of the original tales included graphic language. conservative. din. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. to tap or pierce. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. with inflated selfimportance. false courage. censor. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. as in to draw off liquid. conceited. rub to a shine. commonplace. The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. to begin to sprout. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. cheerful. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. a scheme or conspiracy. boor (boor) n. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. able to float. in order to begin a discussion of. In science class. clamor. 1. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. to polish. broach (brohch) v. 1. typical of the middle class. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. grow ˘ new buds. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. Although she won millions in the lottery. jarring. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. burnish ('bur·nish) v.

capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. to beg. cutting. films. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. to forbid the publication. or otherwise objectionable. especially through art. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. 1. The librarian served as a censor. censor ('sen·sor) n. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. to give in. 2. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. impulsive. to surrender under specific terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. . but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. 2. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. a distinct social class or system. to obtain by begging. caste (kast) n. distribution. While visiting India. or dissolve by chemical action. to chastise severely. to remove what is ˘ considered morally.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. to whee˘ dle. v. to lurch from side to side while in motion. openness. whimsical and unpredictable. sincere speech. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic fluid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. the comedian. cajole (ka·'johl) v. he welcomed my candor. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. the act of ridding or cleansing. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. politically. able to burn. etc. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. careen (ka·'reen) v. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. to inflict a severe punishment on. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. 1. bitingly sarcastic. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. acquiesce. frank. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or flattery. candor ('kan·dor) n. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. corrode. an official who reviews books. they castigated him. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing.

wary. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. 2. 2. 1.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. boorish. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. the arrangement of events in time. but he uses too many clichés. habitual. a trite or overused expression or idea. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. (in Greek mythology) a fire-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. 1. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. The firefighter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the fire. ill-mannered. cliché (klee·'shay) n. rude. make a historical record. rebuke. cautious. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. continuing for a long time. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. long-lasting or recurrent. on-going. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. . clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. kept or done in private. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. v. an exceptionally accurate clock. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. to criticize harshly. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. to criticize strongly. an extreme nationalist. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. a goat’s body. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. and a serpent’s tail. a vain or incongruous fancy. illusion. as with a beating. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. condemn. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. conducted in secrecy. to record in chronological order. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. v. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n. watchful. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. to punish severely. Tito has an engaging writing style. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. rebuke. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. her mother censured her behavior.

The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay. persuasive. self-satisfied. soothe. plentiful. to join together. mollifying. 1. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. surrender. (often ˘ with reluctance). ˘ ˘ 2. conclave ('kon·klav) n. competitive. quick to fight. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. a hard riddle. conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. appeasing. conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. etc. conspiracy. 1. quarrelsome. large in number or quantity. to yield. or comfort. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. enigma.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. contemporary. to grant as a right or privilege. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. general agreement or accord. 2. a private or secret meeting. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. to combine and form a whole. to acknowledge or admit as true. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. proper. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. controversial. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. . Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her fired. contented to a fault. convincing. fuse. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. a feeling of deep. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. compelling belief. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. With two contentious candidates on hand. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. uncon˘ ˘ cerned. it was sure to be a lively debate. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. concede (kon·'seed) v. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellfish on the island. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. abundant. causing contention. of the same time period. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj.

” remarked the police chief. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. cowardly. violent flood waters. the appearance of a person’s face. to make afraid or discouraged. As she walked down the aisle. cue (kyoo) n. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. When the timer buzzed. I only had time to give it a cursory review. gullible. mysterious. to make more certain. occult. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. 2. a signal. His austere manner daunted the small children. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. to intimidate. a sudden disaster or collapse. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. especially of a problem. 1. given to prompt or remind someone of something.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. such as a word or action. guilty. hasty and superficial. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. ˘ 2. I admitted that I was culpable. confirm. The first-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. crux (kruks) n. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. hidden. so she must be telling the truth. a queue. too willing to believe things. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. blameworthy. secret. a horn of plenty. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. the central or critical point or feature. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. All the tables. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. . craven ('kray·ven) adj. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. a hint or suggestion. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n. having a hidden or secret meaning. a total defeat or failure. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. abundance. 1. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. a line of waiting people or vehicles. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj. culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. D daunt (dawnt) v. ˘ ˘ graphs.

sketch. a first appearance in or presentation to the public. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. the de facto leader is the prime minister. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. depict. in reality or fact. actual. to express disapproval of. When questions concerning decorum arise. modest and shy. demur (di·'mur) v. disparage. to destroy a large portion of. to condescend. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. I always refer to Emily Post. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n. to belittle. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. delude (di·'lood) v. to portray. to make a first appearance in public. When it was to her advantage.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. propriety. describe. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. make someone believe something that is wrong. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. hesitate. v. to deceive. defame. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. Polly hated to demur. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. to blacken the reputation of. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. or pretending to be so. depreciate. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. to draw or outline. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. The king is only the nominal head of the country. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. Sharon could be very demure. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. deign (dayn) v. so those scenes were removed. . demure (di·'myoor) adj. & adv. appropriateness of behavior. to raise objections. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends.

Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. discern (di·'surn) v. to turn aside. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. disperse. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. jeering. make less brilliant. ˘ derived from another source. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. not concentrated. adj. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. to undeceive. to soften. extend. or swerve. haphazard. unoriginal. In order to promote freedom of expression. aimless. ˘ especially to gain time. 2. slow or late in doing something. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting graffiti on tombstones. to perceive clearly. wordy. to distinguish. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. to violate the sacredness of. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. to draw or take away from. shy and timid. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. . 2. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. scattered. digress (d¯·' res) v. intended to delay. desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. verbose. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. spread out. to profane. mocking. utterly lacking. penniless. deviate. to remove part of something. 1. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. extremely poor. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. Alan used to be so ˘ diffident. Unfortunately. After the economy declined. adj. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. 1. scornful.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. 2. to spread throughout. expressing ridicule. diffident ('dif·i·dent) adj. something that is derived or made by derivation. detract (di·'trakt) v. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. diminish. 1. lacking self-confidence. many families were left destitute. recognize as being distinct.

dogma ('daw ·ma) n. ruffle. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. 1. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. . to shake or ˘ quiver. 2. to upset the composure of. 2. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. dissuade (di·'swayd) v. whereas others find it too restrictive. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. a state of being despised. but they didn’t listen. 1. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. to be extravagant and wasteful. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. squander. inconsolable. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unflappable Miriam. be indecisive and uncertain. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. 1. During a crisis. especially the right to vote. disappointed. to hesitate. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. dejected. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. or nearly so. despise. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. not straightfor˘ ward or frank. dither ('dith·er) v. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. sad. insincere. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. 2. to disperse to the point of disappearing. 2. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. falsely pretending to be unaware. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. 1. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. 1. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. ˘ Some find the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. to separate and scatter completely. v. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. 1. 2. a system of principles or beliefs.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. calculating. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. 2. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. and only the very angriest protesters remained. a prescribed doctrine. belittle. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived.

E ebb (eb) n. ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. to flow back or recede. latent. as the tide. melodious. bubbling over with enthusiasm. brilliant performance or achievement.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. 2. someone who is easily deceived. lying asleep or as if asleep. 1. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. exuberant. or styles. the return of the tide to the sea. anomalous. 1. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. éclat (ay·'klah) n. ˘ 2. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. or trivial. at rest. 1. systems. dupe (doop) n. inactive but capable of becoming active. decline. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. droll (drohl) adj. commonplace. v. I am eager for a reconciliation. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. conspicuous success. inactive. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. trick. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. sludge. to deceive. This is a wonderful. . v. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). temporarily quiescent. sweet-sounding. great acclaim or applause. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. irregular. waste product. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. to fall back. 1. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. 2. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. very harsh. something worthless. 2. harmonious. gullible. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj.

president. vivacity. Enid was fired. etc. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. enthusiasm. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. lofty. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. The . elite (i·'leet) n. The customs ˘ officials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket.S. towering above or more prominent than others. vigor. characterized by or affirming the principle of ˘ equal political. describe or comprehend. character. evasive. fla˘ grant. eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. impudence. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. élan (ay·'lahn) n. instructing. overflowing. distinguished. eke (eek) v. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. to earn or accomplish laboriously. distinctive style or flair. Margaret’s efficacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. 1. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. acting effectively. a person or group regarded as superior. gushy. Within the student orchestra. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. and persuasive manner. difficult to capture. 2. social. efficacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. fluent. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. civil. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way.. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. The bank robber was not caught during his first crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. profuse. eluding the grasp. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. 1. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. ˘ standing above others in quality. reputation. insolence. brazen boldness. 2. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. improving. and economic rights for all persons.

The math problem was difficult to solve and proved to be an enigma. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. give rise to. especially by imitation. to fix or settle firmly and securely. a monstrous offense or evil act. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. 1. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. to try to equal or excel. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. to produce. prevalent in or characteristic of a specific area or group of people. native to a particular region. deprive of strength or vitality. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. atrocity. was actually imported from Japan. Joan became a true epicurean. ensconce (en·'skons) v. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. Kudzu. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. . endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. 2. 2. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n. before you know it. enervate ('en·er·vayt) v. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. a hairy. to weaken.. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. something that is puzzling or difficult to understand. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. a ˘ ˘ baffling problem or riddle. engender (en·'jen·der) v. conceal.g. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. excessive wickedness. 1. 1. it’s time to go back to school again. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. to place or hide securely. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. 2. bring into existence. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. transitory. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. lasting only a very short time. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. purple-flowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. he began his secret mission. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. larger territory. enclave ('en·klayv) n. based on observation or experience rather than theory.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting.

Epiphany. being an imitation or substitute.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. 2. or doing. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz truffles. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. During an earthquake. or inconsistent manner. having or showing great learning. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. 2. a perceptive revelation. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. patience and composure. 1. a representative example or a typical model. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. opinion. profoundly educated. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. exterminate. a brief summary or abstract. a manifestation of the divine. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. to avoid fulfilling. 2. answering. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. even˘ temperedness. 2. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. especially under stressful circumstances. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. 1. evade (i·'vayd) v. calmness of temperament. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. to root out and utterly destroy. attitude. ethos ('ee·thos) n. 3. a sudden. The scholarly work of nonfiction was obviously written by an erudite young man. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. artificial. ˘ scholarly. region. to annihilate. The ethos of their group included a commitment to pacifism. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. the spirit. When falling ˘ in love. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. epoch. moving or behaving in an irregular. . uneven. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. 1. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. etc. etc.

to try to partially excuse. crit˘ ical. delete. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. 1. a short-lived means to an end. After finishing probation. the face or front of a building. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. 1. fleeting. ˘ or bitterness of. an artificial or deceptive ˘ front. humorous and witty. urgent. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. When Anthony admitted to the crime. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. to show or demonstrate clearly. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. appropriate ˘ for a purpose. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. inordinate and excessive. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. to increase the severity. to eliminate completely. annihilate. 2. violence. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. ˘ ˘ sportive. adj. cleverly amusing. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. to clear from a charge of guilt. 2. stated clearly and fully. it served to exculpate Marcus. to wipe or rub out. to make evident. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. straightforward. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. demanding. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. jocular. evince (i·'vins) v. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. 2. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. suitable for a means to an end. requiring immediate action or attention. 1. requiring much effort or precision. he is really a deeply emotional person. F façade (fa·'sahd) n. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. exact. to free from blame. . The safety officer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the influence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. to make worse. transi˘ ˘ tory. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document.

Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. . feeble. ardor. to pretend. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. fertile. weak. fervor ('fur·vor) n. marked by good ˘ fortune. flippant ('flip·ant) adj. to shackle. The skin of cadavers becomes flaccid in a matter of hours. to give the false appearance of. incompetent and ineffective.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. patience. Flappers in the early twentieth century flouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. Y and Z will automatically follow. rosy. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. willingness to wait. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. to impede or restrict. florid ('flor·id) adj. mock. go against (as in a tradition or convention). 1. flaccid ('fla·sid) adj. apropos. disrespectful. weak. saucy. feeble-minded and silly. intense emotion. hanging loose or wrinkled. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. feign (fayn) v. not showing proper seriousness. elaborate. 2. suitably expressed. 2. zeal. ˘ Ursula’s flippant remarks in front of her fiancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. Mr. to disobey openly and scornfully. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. put in chains. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. flabby. (of complexion) ruddy. 1. The florid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. 2. deception. 2. fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. fecund ('fek·und) adj. 1. lacking purpose or vitality. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community. 1. something that misleads. ornate. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. 1. careless. tolerance. apt. complacently stupid. 2. flout (flowt) v. to reject. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. fetter ('fet·er) v. not firm.

Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. 1. . happening by accident or chance. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. shifty. huge. acquire. offensive due to excessiveness. 2. 2. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. hopeless. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. excessively bright or over-decorated. forswear (for·'swair) v. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. surreptitious. careful and economical. vain. contradict. preempt. sparing. thrifty. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. 1. costing little. to gather and store up. 1. to give up. suggesting a hidden motive. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. berate. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to find that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. however. to oppose. to deny under oath. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. garner (' ahr·ner) v. My mother would never let me attend the party. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. tastelessly showy. arguing with her was futile. Wei chose a small. to prevent by taking action first. 2. to amass. to explode or detonate. gigantic. In its true sense. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. producing no result. garish (' air·ish) adj. especially excess flattery ˘ or praise. frugal ('froo· al) adj. gaudy. renounce. characterized by stealth or secrecy. 1. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. or declare false. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. to deny.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. 2. ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. The diplomat was able to forestall a conflict by holding secret meetings with both parties. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. useless.

if you want your boss to treat you with respect. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. to sneer at. especially military confrontation. surround. 2. gird ( urd) v. treacherous cunning. a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. to make holy. missed connections.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. 2. unfortunate. or fearful manner. guile ( ¯l) n. . to encompass. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. lacking social graces or polish. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. unlucky. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. 1. 1. Alan used to be so diffident. gibe. shrewd. 1. 2. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. clumsy or awkward. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. without tact. talkative. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n. the act of gerrymandering. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. well bred. elegantly polite. coarse burst of laughter. refined. hum˘ ble. v. to prepare for action. 3. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. 4. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s specifications. The negotiations had failed. ˘ ˘ sociable. grovel (' ruv·el) v. crafty deceit. seeking and enjoying the company of others. consecrate. Panji. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. mock. and the soldiers girded for battle. a noisy. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. and a very late arrival. gauche ( ohsh) adj. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile.

hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n. often scolding or bombastic speech. to sharpen. v. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. especially of ˘ one government over others. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. Using words as weapons. predominant influence or leadership. protected from outside influences. 1. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. a forerunner or precursor. a tirade. . hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. distressing. common. 1. I honed my computer skills. an interruption or break. hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. having an airtight closure. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. despicable. to perfect. scornfully arrogant and condescending.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. a person. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. thing. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. disdainful. not of the nobility. lacking nobility in character or purpose. make more effective. overbearing pride or presumption. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. and many members of the organization resigned. 2. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. beliefs. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. 1. 1. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. a gap or opening. marked by shame or disgrace. a long. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the financial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. 2. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. 2. 2. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. By practicing creating spreadsheets. to declaim. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. creating great stress or torment. hone (hohn) v. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. or institutions. The turbulent flight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. dishonor˘ able. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall.

to ask incessantly. Great Britain embraced imperialism. 2. bossy.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. importune (im·por·'toon) v. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. penni˘ ˘ less. 1. to kill. a deadlock. having little or no money. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. In order for the plants to grow. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. I had to immolate the weeds. characterized by sudden. impulsive. poor. as a sacrifice. unduly hasty and without thought. domineering. impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. 1. In Shakespeare’s comedies. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. impasse ('im·pas) n. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. . to kill (oneself) by fire. 1. imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. 2. inex˘ ˘ orable. to destroy (one thing for another). make incessant requests. 1. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. overbearing. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. incapable of being penetrated. not able to ˘ be influenced or affected. a difficulty without a solution. stalemate. an invocation of evil. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. ˘ 3. to beg persistently and urgently. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. incapable of being placated or appeased. 2. a curse. 2. and a strike seemed imminent. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. but most are relatively easy to serve. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. a confused or difficult situation. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. marked by violent force. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding.

to indoctrinate. as they mature. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. immodest. burning readily. 2. incense ('in·sens) n. to attack as false or questionable. indisputable. a frog. instill. ˘ ˘ 2. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. to contradict or call into question. boldly showing a lack of respect. it is difficult to distinguish between a cow. or a human. . to make (someone) angry. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. in an initial or early stage of development. causing or capable of causing fire. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. (in·'sens) v. 2. impute (im·'pyoot) v. credit. or adv. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. skeptical. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. hoping to find some measure of privacy on her vacation. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. incipient. shamelessly forward. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. not yet fully formed. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. of or involving arson. 1. unwilling to believe. 1. with one’s identity concealed. insolent. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. to attribute to a cause or source. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. ascribe. just begun. undeveloped. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. 1. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. inflammatory. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. tending to incite or inflame. 3. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. undeniable. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. The star was traveling incognito. incomplete. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj.

bungling and clumsy. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. 1. 1. forbid. inappropriate. and he won three championships. not cunning or deceitful. 3. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. inept (in·'ept) adj. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. lazy. ˘ indifferent. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. certain. lacking sophistication or worldliness. 1. baffling. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. not easily exhausted or fatigued. 2. frank. defying imitation. a nonbeliever. 2. not suitable. unmatchable. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his finances will get him in trouble someday. for even though he didn’t know her well. 2. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. not able to be vanquished or overcome. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. tireless. sincere. 1. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modified foods. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. unfathomable. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. incompetent. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. haughty and contemptuous. 2. foolish. artless. lethargic. absurd. unable to mask feel˘ ings. insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. disrespectful. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. inclined to avoid labor. not easily discouraged or subdued. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. doctrine. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. slow to grow or heal. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. inevitable. blithely unconcerned or carefree. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. . the members considered him an infidel. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. nonchalant. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. a person with no religious beliefs. ˘ ˘ impertinent. to prohibit. brazen. or system of beliefs. infidel ('in·fi·del) n. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood.

feeling or showing uncertainty. irk (urk) v. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the office. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. complex. specialized or technical language of a specific trade or ˘ group. anger. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. I am an ˘ inveterate pacifist and am unlikely to change my mind. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. to influence or persuade through gentle coaxing or flat˘ tery. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. ire (¯r) n. accustomed to.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. J jargon ('jahr· on) n. adapted. irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. . undaunted. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. unwilling to compromise. firmly established. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. intricate. brave. nonsensical or meaningless talk. the smallest possible quantity. 2. stubborn. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. you might help her make up her mind. so if you talk to her. indecisive. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. I was filled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. vex. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel film. a very small amount. unmanageable. hesitant. hot tempered. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. easily aroused to anger. 1. meager. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. and he faced the mammoth without fear. deep rooted. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. irritate. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. to annoy. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. stubborn. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. inured (in·'yoord) adj. hence: (a) lacking in interest or significance. unruly. lacking substance. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. to entice. iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. wrath. intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. irritable. and it no longer bothered her. fearless. habitual. and training had to be cancelled temporarily.

lax (laks) adj. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and profits are up for the third quarter in a row. brief and to the point. latent ('lay·tent) adj. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. 1. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n. to become languid. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. lenient. . 1. slack. a close relationship or link. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. sprightly and lighthearted. feeble. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. 1. languish ('lan · wish) v. succinct. cheerful. to lose vigor or strength. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. 2. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. concise. one who maintains such communication. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. hands-off. 2. they’re just a bunch of libertines. They claim to be avant-garde. lacking in rigor or strictness.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. weak. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. merry. 1. 2. present or in existence but not active or evident. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. title for the Hindu god Krishna. terse. 'lee·a·zon) n. a massive. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. flaccid. 2. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. not taut or rigid. Juggernaut. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n. but in my opinion.

talkative. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. intelligible. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. 1. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour flight talked the entire time. to mutilate.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. 2. a feeling of illness or unease. improper professional conduct. easy to understand. to wound. 1. malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. producing much money. 2. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. disable. very small. disfigure. tiny. sane or rational. maim (maym) v. misconduct or wrongdoing. His malapropisms may make us laugh. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. cripple. comical misuse of words. very clear. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. Wella finally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. but they won’t win our vote. profitable. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. 1. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj. . often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so. malaise (ma·'layz) n. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. bungling. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. trivial or petty. 2. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic official. clumsy. or injure. After several tests. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. the act of plotting or devising. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. excessively dismal or mournful. inept. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from office. garrulous.

1. move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. ˘ ˘ changeable. mellifluous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. liable to change moods suddenly. to distribute. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. tawdry. showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. meander (mee·'an·der) v. to move on a winding or turning course. rebel. 3. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. nonconformist. mete (meet) v. make defective or imperfect. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. extremely careful and precise. to impair or damage. Her mel˘ lifluous voice floated in through the windows and made everyone smile. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. to wan˘ der about. apportion. 2. allot. 1. easily molded or pressed into shape. 1. sounding sweet and flowing. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. a mixture or assortment. lively. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. courageous. 2. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. trying to figure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. one who acts independently. 1. environment or setting. I meandered through the park for hours. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or influenced. 2. meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. gaudy. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. easily adapting to changing circumstances. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. high-spirited. mar (mahr) v. honeyed.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. 2. . Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. volatile. 1. a falsehood or lie. With its casinos and attractions. who don’t feel they can trust him. she’s quite a malleable person. 2.

soften. make less rigid. one who hates or distrusts humankind. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. great merriment. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. undecided. going to work each day can become mundane. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. criminal. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. having many ˘ aspects. minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. The joyous wedding celebration filled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. innumerable. joyous laughter. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. to lessen in intensity. to soften. evil person. moot (moot) adj. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. n. . to moderate the force or intensity of. alleviate. calm. 2. as with studied refinement. 2. vast amount. too numerous to be counted. 2. to walk or speak affectedly. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. commonplace. miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. greatly diversified. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. to make less intense or severe. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. Pay no mind to his criticism. diminish. but today he was finally captured. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. 3. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. debatable. 3. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. very varied. trivial or trifling matters. not spiritual. an immense number. very small details. dull. worldly. If you do not have passion for your job. to cut into very small pieces. 1. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. secular. 2. 1. sullen. ordinary. he’s a real misanthrope. to soothe the anger of. mirth (murth) n. 1. The crying child was quickly mollified by her mother. 1. Although this is a moot issue.. a villain. To the refugees from Somalia. an indefi˘ nitely large number. pl. gloomy. melancholy.

The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. adj. invalidate. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. source of harm or ruin. putrid. or different. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. 1. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. unpleasant and harmful. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. agent of retribution or vengeance. indifferent or cool. 2. admiration or worship of oneself. 2. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. to make null (without legal force). 1. bane. the core or center. the very bottom. coming into existence. not easily moved ˘ to pity. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. ˘ noxious. 1. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. especially in odor. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. a genre of literature. noisome ('noi·som) adj. he’s the most obdurate person I know. hardhearted. a connected series or group. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. but I could tell she was nervous. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. novel ('nov·el) n. foul. unwholesome. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. strikingly new. the lowest point. a means of connection. stubborn and inflexible. nexus ('nek·sus) n. I doubt he’ll change his mind. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. 3. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. offensive. nascent ('nas·ent) adj. 2. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. . The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. In Frankenstein. original. Marcus’s argument started off strong. emerging. 1. a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. 2. harmful. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things.

omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. projecting. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. concealed. bossy. 1. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. intrusive. 2. 1. incomprehensible. undesirably noticeable. fawning. com˘ poser. occult (o·'kult) adj. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. 3. Please don’t be so obtuse. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural. you know what I mean. having unlimited or universal power or force. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. blunt. a work of art. for she is also a classical pianist. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. 1. etc. Minsun survived the accident. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. artist. to make obscure or unclear. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. secret. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. to dim or darken. Zeus was the most powerful god. get rid of. 3. not sharp or ˘ pointed. Thankfully. . detestable. officious (o·'fish·us) adj. 1. noisily and stubbornly defiant. but it is clearly an oligarchy. hateful. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. beyond ordinary understanding. 2. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. but he was not omnipotent. Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. prominent. My officious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj. 2. 1. ˘ thrusting out. contemptible. Walter only obfuscated it further. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. the total lifework of a writer. meddlesome. to make unnecessary. Instead of clarifying the matter. 2. stupid and slow to understand. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. The embezzler was good at keeping his financial records occult from the authorities. to muddle or make difficult to understand. unruly. 2. forward. hidden.

. pretended. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. such as friendly fire. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. lack of color. immoderate. task. abundant. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. 1. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. pitiful. bringing shame or disgrace. possessing great wealth. contemptibly small in amount. appearing as such. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. 2. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. seeming. 2. presumptuously arrogant. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. 2. knowing all things. affluent. 1. wretched or contemptible. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. ˘ 2. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. burden. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. to reject. 1. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. ˘ ˘ abusive. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. Lee is very wealthy. 1. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. put a positive spin on. uninterrupted rhythm. excessive. to provide relief from pain. cast out from a group or from society. expressing contempt or reproach. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. alleviate. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. to make something less intense or severe. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. paleness. a figure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. pallor ('pal·or) n. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. The fever subsided. 2. mitigate. 1. scornful. but I believe they have already made their decision. 2. to waver. onus ('oh·nus) n. to gloss over.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. having infinite knowledge. duty or responsibility of doing something. luxu˘ ˘ rious. overbearing. 1. vacillate. as between two conflicting options or opinions. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. lacking in importance or worth. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. insignificant.

Ronnel was nice enough. being the best or truest of its kind.g. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke. of writing) very clear. able to be seen through with clarity. quin˘ tessential. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. (e. 1. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. . ˘ 2. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. Elected “Employee of the Month. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo. unremarkable. or involving money.” Winona is a paradigm of efficiency. a member of an organized body of fighters who attack or harass an enemy. Although the film received critical acclaim. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. a guerilla. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n. marked by a narrow. adj. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. commonplace. a small sin or fault. dull. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj. ˘ ˘ unimaginative. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. 2. relating to. ˘ 2. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. a walker. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades.. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. especially of rules or trivial matters. easy to understand. having the highest degree of excellence. a walker adj. 1. translucent. an upstart. something that serves as a model or example. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. set of assumptions. beyond comparison. trite. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the office. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. an outcast. pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. smallness of supply or quantity. a rejected and despised person. scarcity. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. of. a trivial offense. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. 1. of course. beliefs.

destitution. perfidious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. harmful. commanding. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. not thorough. very destructive. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. to stun or paralyze with fear. a strong liking or inclination (for something). pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. permeate. misleading. After ten years of penury. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. the deliberate willful giving of false. next to last. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. I was petrified when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. superficial. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. dis˘ ˘ loyal. or course of action. purpose. attractive. We were not satisfied with his perfunctory work. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. offensively self-assured. dictatorial. . to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. not allowing contradiction or refusal. astonishment. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. pervade (per·'vayd) v. Higgins would be their new teacher. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. extremely stubborn or persistent. putting an end to debate or action. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. treacherous. extreme poverty. pleasing in appearance or manner. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. ˘ ˘ 2. 1. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. After the terrible car accident. imperative. 2. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. The pertinacious journalist finally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. The perfidious knight betrayed his king. violating good faith. or dread. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. deeply thoughtful. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. holding ˘ firmly to a belief. 1. 3. deadly. dishonest. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath. it’s ˘ good to be financially secure again. to make hard or stiff like a stone. to spread everywhere.

the essential or central part. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. calm and peaceful. placid ('plas·id) adj. poignant ('poin·yant) adj. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. . piquant ('pee·kant) adj. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. 1.). a trite or banal statement. mournful. sharp or tart in taste. keenly ˘ distressing. pique (peek) v. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. especially one uttered as if it were new. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. 1. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. 2. argumentative. touching. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. 1. melancholy. (in biology) the soft. to offend. 2. 1. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. deeply moving. being of vital importance. ignorant person. experience. peevish. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. Her brief. 1. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. to plunder. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. arousing emotion. a smug. agreeably pungent. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n. etc. especially in time of war. crucial. an overabundance. They captured the poignant reunion on film. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. 2. 2. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj. idea. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. pith (pith) n. piercing or incisive. to wound (someone’s) pride. extreme excess. expressing sorrow. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. the heart or essence (of the matter. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with fire. but he’s really just a philistine. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. 2.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. free from disturbance or tumult. the wrong move now could ruin everything. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. controversial. to forcibly rob of goods. to arouse or provoke. but concise. pillage ('pil·ij) v.

The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. 2. 2. lavish or profuse. His prodigal actions led to his financial ruin. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. matter-of-fact. auspicious. those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. prodigal. precept ('pree·sept) n. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. affinity. showy. ancient. The propinquity of these two elements make them difficult to tell apart. 1. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. foolhardy. someone who takes on airs to impress others. . lacking moral restraint. favoring utility. Driving through the state park. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. 1. 1. practical. 1. clean. My first impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. but she is sorely mistaken. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. profligate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. extremely steep. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. 2. propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. dropping sharply. dissolute. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. in its original and unspoiled condition. especially with ˘ money. 2. original. The profligate man quickly depleted his fortune. free from contamination. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. presenting favorable circumstances. a phony. proximity. 1. ˘ rash. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. pompous. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. similarity in nature. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. 2. a rule establishing standards of conduct. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. unadulterated. 1. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. fraught with danger. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. given in great abundance. the working class. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. belonging to the earliest ages. putting on airs. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. 2. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure. to stray from or evade the truth. pure.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. to tell lies. nearness. hasty.

a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. prudent ('proo·dent) adj. After a few minutes. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. to banish or outlaw. extremely attentive to detail. 1. 1. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. to denounce or condemn. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. versatile. quarrelsome. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to fight. belief. suitable only for children. proxy ('prok·see) n. 1. one who is an authority on a subject. 2. variable. penetrating. Clarissa has always been very prudent. a learned person or scholar. frugal. ordinary. immature. contentious. or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. unimaginative. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. a first copy of a treaty or document. judicious. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. In ˘ Native American mythology. Because my parents were so provident. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. pundit ('pun·dit) n. ceremony. 2. I love the pungent taste of a good. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. . stinging. very meticulous ˘ and precise. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. dull. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. taking many forms. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. 2. changeable. a document authorizing this substitution.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. doctrine or cause. bel˘ ligerent. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. exercising good judgment. 1. 2. economi˘ cal. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. Jackson was fired for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. etiquette. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. strong curry. 2. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. to prohibit. wisely providing for future needs. having a strong. eager to fight. ˘ caustic. 1. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. sharp taste or smell. forbid. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. childish.

Q quaff (kwahf) v. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. complaining. but I love him. daily. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. 2. romantically idealistic. 2. pure. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. to be intended to seem. purport ('pur·pohrt) v.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. queue (kyoo) n. latent. 1. to free from impurities. flinch. peevish. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. . impractical. 1. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. to draw back in fear. discontented. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. inactive. to steal. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. cower. but who knows when it will erupt again. to swallow in large draughts. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. to make or become clean. the essence of a substance. propose or intend. at rest. 1. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. 1. dormant. After Leon writes a draft. extravagantly chivalrous and unselfish. pedestrian. quiet. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. to drink hurriedly or heartily. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. a thing given in return for something. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. to have the appearance of being. quail (kwayl) v. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. 2. commonplace. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. an equal exchange or substitution. purloin (pur·'loin) v. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. 2.

obscure. abstruse. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. 2. rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. not easily understood. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. and this causes tension at family gatherings. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. a person who favors political conservativism. disorderly. dissolute or debauched. regale (ri·' ayl) v. 1. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. a relapse or backslide. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. unpleasantly loud and harsh. . 2. 1. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s office for the third time in a week. long-lasting resentment. stubborn. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. 2. 2. to reprove or reprimand. censure. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. unruly. jaunty in appearance or manner. to criticize sharply. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. unmanageable. The raucous music kept us awake all night. 1. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. 1. voracious. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. unconventional and disreputable. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. smartly dressed or mannered. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. disobedient. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. debonair. boisterous. refusing to obey authority. plundering. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. a bitter feeling of ill will. ˘ disturbing the peace. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother.

The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. one without ˘ scruples. 1. especially a popular gathering place. objection. to meet at a rendezvous. 1. tranquility. to disown. The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. 1. famous. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inflicting at least as much harm in return. reject completely. .162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. peace of mind. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla fighters. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. 1. disavow. 2. a criminal. full. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n. especially of the death sentence. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. widely known and esteemed. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. ˘ 2. to scold or reprove. well stocked or abundantly supplied. postponement or cancellation of punishment. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. Mrs. 2. 2. resting or being at rest. a place where people meet. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. group. The house was replete with expensive antiques. 1. 2. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. 2. calmness. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. and a traitor in his written confession. 1. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. or opposition. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. the ability to make witty ˘ replies. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. v. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. to say or plead in protest. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. etc. witty reply. an immoral or unprincipled person. to bring or come together at a certain place. 2. gorged. one who rejects a cause. repose (ri·'pohz) n. deserving rebuke or censure. a deserter. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. 1. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. 1. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. a quick. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. 2.

˘ ˘ wise. bril˘ liant. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. hold in highest respect or estimation. 2. springing up or jutting out. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. perceptive. conspicuous. unprincipled person. a heading. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. a dishonest. a complicated. ˘ reserved. rogue (roh ) n. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself.” not “alternative medicine. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. rubric ('roo·brik) n. to stir up or agitate. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. dazzling. 2. Annette is very reticent. having or showing sound judgment. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. to repeal or cancel. highly noticeable. prominent. a pleasantly mischievous person. incoherent ˘ talk. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. 2. 3.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a flood zone. to anger or annoy. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. untalkative. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. 1. 1. having great splendor or beauty. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. confusing. 1. 2. echoing. to venerate. Yesterday. When you look at Judith’s work. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. resounding. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. sound advice. silent. . petty procedure. rambling. or note of explanation or direction. to regard with reverence or awe. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. 1. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. 2. 1. 3. revere (ri·'veer) v. a class or category. The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. title. to void or annul. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality.

. 1. composure. ˘ excessively self-righteous. especially in dangerous or difficult circumstances. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. minute amount. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. sanguine ('san · win) adj. brilliantly clever and animated. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I find myself in a confrontational situation. 2. shining brilliantly. optimistic. hypocritically pious or devout. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. 1. 2. To promote better health. ratify. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. 1. a trace or particle. sullen. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. contemptible.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. of the color of blood. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. to give official authorization or approval for. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. sanction ('san k·shon) n. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. graceful tact. sarcastic. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. sparkling. official authorization or approval. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. schism ('siz·em) n. confidently cheerful. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. producing a beneficial or wholesome effect. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. reme˘ dial. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. red. mean. mocking scornfully. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. 2. gloomy. dark. v. 1. to approve or permit. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. iota.

˘ unimaginative. winding. 2. 1. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. 2. slavish. the study of meaning in language. 1. but the matter is not open to interpretation. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. lazy and inefficient. serpentine. The climax comes when Yolanda. 1. abjectly submissive. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. 2. connotation. pithy. the researchers discovered a cure. 3. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. 2.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. or purpose. 2. 2. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. the meaning. solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. a mistake in the use of language. hard working. pertaining to or befitting a slave or forced labor. impropriety. initiative. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. 1. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. moderate. I was amused by his sophistry. of or like an ape or monkey. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. 2. symbols. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. 1. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. diligent. thoroughly saturated. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. slake (slayk) v. persevering. undulating. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his field. expressionless or dull. to approach with an offer for paid services. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. 1. sodden ('sod·en) adj. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. not a sententious reply. 1. full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. petition. allay. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. quench. 3. to ask for earnestly. or interpretation of words. or other forms. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. I was looking for your honest opinion. to reduce the intensity of. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. expressing oneself tersely. to satisfy. soaked. clever but faulty reasoning. . After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. lacking ambition. finds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. He claims it’s an issue of semantics.

1. sordid. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. seemingly plausible but false. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. 2. having noble or majestic qualities. morally repulsive. Of course I’m angry! You stultified me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. wretched. filthy and wretched. firmly loyal and constant. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. to prevent the accomplishment of something. 1. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. morally degraded. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. to hinder. 1. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. supreme. (also stanch) stopping the flow of something. cripple. 2. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. not genuine or authentic. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. 1. he is every bit as emotional as we are. counterfeit. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. 3. 1. 2. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. inspiring awe. squalid. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. to undermine. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won first place in the essay contest. lofty. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. specious ('spee·shus) adj. but underneath. indifferent. false. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. obstruct. 2. concise. firm and steadfast. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. or reverence. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. 2. unswerving. Michael was stoical. staunch (stawnch) v. adj. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. ˘ impassive. 2. firmly fixed or unchanging. shrill. unswerving. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. dirty. to overthrow. adora˘ tion. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. firm and constant in principle or loyalty. to ruin. resolute. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. ˘ terse. unpleasantly loud and harsh. discordant. destroy completely. below the threshold of consciousness. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. . 1. to impair or make ineffective. grating. thwart.

the state of being or eating until excessively full. In some countries. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. satiety. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. to guess. v. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. disdainful. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. or fraudulent means. reserved. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. miscellaneous. overindulge.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. to infer based upon insufficient evidence. conjec˘ ture. assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. habitually untalkative. svelte (svelt) adj. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. surly ('sur·lee) adj. scornful. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. 2. v. . a substitute. ˘ ˘ clandestine. done. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. a fawning parasite. slender and graceful. a person who tries to win the favor of influential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through flattery. made. After finding dirty footprints in her apartment. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. or obtained through stealthy. to feed or fill to excess. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. gruff. various. or disgust. a person who asks humbly for something. glut. one who takes the place of another. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. haughty. an excessive amount or overabundance. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. suave. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. bad-tempered. 2. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. 1. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. 1.

using no unnecessary words. a belief. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. When it comes to fighting for equality. not impartial. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. of or relating to a tangent. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at first. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. not relevant facts. group. timid ('tim·id) adj. 2. audacity. conviction. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. succinct. timid. she is the most tenacious person I know. only superficially relevant. The stray dog was timorous. to be full of. afraid. persistent. After our disagreement. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. (of memory) retentive. sticking firmly. holding firmly. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate floor. of no substantive ˘ connection. 1. stubbornly unyielding. brashness. . supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. The fisherman found a stream teeming with bass. fearful. 1. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. 3. unsubstantial. opinion. or courage. fearful. it’s all hearsay. 4. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. 1. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. concise. thwart (thwort) v. to be present in large numbers. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. or organization. tenet ('ten·it) n. able to be perceived by touch. lacking confidence. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. terse (turs) adj. adhesive. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. holding firmly to something. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. 2. flimsy. cohesive. This ˘ is no time for temerity. real or con˘ crete. shy. foolish disregard of danger.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. biased. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. 2. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outfit as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. flashy and tasteless. partisan. hesitant. having little substance or ˘ validity. palpable. gaudy or showy but without any real value.

to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. 1. The theme of the novel was trite. votes. etc. obedient. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. a court of justice. exhausting labor or effort. 3. 3. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. 1. a ˘ state of confusion. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. defiantly aggressive. tumult. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. Since Andre was known for his temper. a long.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. disorderly. or agitation. v. incisive. fierce. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. It was a trenchant argument. tout (towt) v. violent. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. 2. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World. vote. sharply defined. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. forceful. repeated too often. overly familiar through overuse. penetrating. easily managed or controlled. docile. worn out. a violent denunciation or condemnation. creating an uproar. to promote or praise highly and energetically. especially with the goal of getting a customer. angry. etc. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. ˘ brief. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. . effective. transitory. trite (tr¯t) adj. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. lasting only a very short time. to solicit (customers. turbulence. 2. many writers had written about death in a similar way. fleeting. hackneyed. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. to work laboriously.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. difficult or laborious work. 2. 2. 1. clear-cut. noisy. labor strenuously. Their relationship was transient but profound. 1. often highly critical speech. extremely per˘ ceptive. and fluctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. toil (toil) n. transient ('tran·zhent) adj.

˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. elegant. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. troublesome. suave. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. course of action. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. 1. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. stupid. to seize. reproach sharply. improper. to weaken or injure. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. 2. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. . fluctuate. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. etc. 2. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. highly refined in manners. inconvenient. 1. but he’s really quite pedestrian. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. waver. to wrongfully take over. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. to destroy in an underhanded way. offense. who was the rightful heir to the throne. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. perverse. to be indecisive. greasy. especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation. wickedness.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. admonish. or take possession of. condemn. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. to reprove. slippery. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. 1. the babysitter undermined their mother. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. senseless. empty. 1. to swing back and forth about an opinion.. fluctuate. 2. inane. extremely tactful and polite. purposeless. who had forbade them to eat sweets. by force and without right. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. a corrupt or depraved act. resentment. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. unseemly. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. 2. 2. adverse. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. to move or sway from side to side. 1. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. usurp (yoo·'surp) v.

I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. genuine. adv. 2. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. wordy. injurious or infectious. face to face. ˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. caustic. After a few minutes of pandemonium. 1. to annoy. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. 1.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. The film is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. berate. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. unprincipled. using more words than necessary. marked by great force. 2. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. indeed. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. to strive for superiority or victory. vignette (vin·'yet) n. easily bribed or corrupted. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. referring or directing attention to. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj. vigor. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. 1. acrimonious. The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. vie (v¯) v. . long-winded. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. bitterly hostile or hateful. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. character or position. to cause worry to. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. the appearance of being true or real. venal ('vee·nal) adj. irritate. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. 1. savagely hostile or bitter. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. the lights came back on. The two scientists were vying to be the first to find concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. real. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. 2. true. ˘ ˘ 2. Einstein was a veritable genius. a brief description or depiction. or energy. to compete with or contend. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. to cen˘ sure severely. extremely poisonous.

the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. likely to change suddenly or violently. unstable. language ˘ ˘ marked by great fluency. winnow ('win·oh) v. explosive. 1. 3. 1. rapid. to separate the good from the bad. or fear of foreigners. zenith ('zee·nith) n. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj. nimble speech. 1. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. the point in the sky directly above the observer. watchful. inconstant. guarded. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to five highly qualified candidates. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. a strong dislike. excessively greedy. ˘ 2. changeable. varying widely. fickle. the spirit of the times. the highest point. rapacious. 2. having a great ˘ appetite for something. . peak. talking a great deal and with great ease. 2. filled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. turning or rotating easily on an axis. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. devouring greedily. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the fifties. 2. X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. ˘ earnest. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. After being swindled by the street vendor. top. 1. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. cautious. distrust. fervent.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. eager.

WO R D LI ST

APPENDIX B

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots
PREFIXES

The following table lists the most common English language prefixes, their meanings, and examples of words with each prefix.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-

not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not

atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested

173

174
PREFIX MEANING

VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES

duoexim- ir-)

two out, out of, away from

duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superficial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral

in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one

P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS

175

SUFFIXES

The following table lists the most common English language suffixes, their meanings, and examples of words with each suffix.

NOUN ENDINGS
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y

(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a specified state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; office or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business

drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy

lacking. cursory. emanate quicken. fearless. or characterized by one who is or does. -fy -ize to make. futile. squeamish sensitive. listless adventurous. exacerbate. to bring about violate. tolerate. egregious sleepy. cooperative. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. agrarian important. -ial. of. pensive endless. form into to cause to be or become. lengthen. plagiarize. peaceful. -ical -an. having the qualities of. having the nature of without.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. having the qualities of. -ose. preeminent helpful. synchronize . relating to. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. ephemeral human. characteristic of performing (a specific action) or being (in a specified condition) full of. -ible -al. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. culpable. wistful fantastic. unable to act or be acted on (in a specified way) full of. chronic. -y capable or worthy of. electrify. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. bookish. glorious. peripheral. rectify colonize. related to. to come to be or have to make. American. tending or inclined to flammable. relating to characterized by. servile Swedish. archaic fragile. inscrutable educational. full of. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). incessant. -ian -ant. tending or liable to having the quality of. frighten beautify.

to walk both. amphitheater unanimous. acute. coincidence. headlong to take. cent. synchronize . capitulate capture. to yield. cess centr cern. ept arch. perennial anthropology. critique. apocalypse. concede. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. bon cad. To learn these roots. to happen by chance to sing head. bell ben. cardiac. spirit year man. their meanings. reincarnation. alter am amb amb. to judge. anniversary. alien amiable. enact. enchant. amity. ability chief. principal. to decide time acid. intercept. recant capital. crit chron sharp. mind. belittle rebel. near other. equanimity annual. ruler self to be. monarchy. to force. anarchy automatic.P R E F I X E S. around life. eccentric ascertain. carnage caste. al al. bonus accident. bemoan. archy auto be bel. incessant central. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. to get heart flesh cut to go. to have a certain quality war good to fall. toward. principal. soul. acrimonious agent. amph anim annui. andr apo apt. adept. human away skill. inept hierarchy. to lead to. autonomy. castigate exceed. capit. to drive. There are more than 150 roots here. misanthrope apology. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. more than one. cept card. another love to go. chant cap. fitness. emancipate encourage. agitate adjacent. ambush ambiguous. to stop center to separate. ag ad. discern chronic. cip. cid cant. cord. apotheosis adapt. chastise. cret. automaton befriend. alias. chronology. antebellum benefit. crim. to distinguish. and examples of words with those roots. adhere. bitter to do. chast ced. cascade chant. acr act. ceed. ennui anthro. enamor ambulatory. discord carnivore. benevolent. concentric. allure alternative. archi. cour carn cast. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. ambivalent. animosity. ali. S U F F I X E S. cipit cap. android. preamble. belligerent. cert.

euthanasia fable. clam cli. increment incredible. incredulous crypt. fervid. to tell. transfer. cumb culp dac. cursory democracy. cresc. fig. bureaucracy creation. to make to bring. induct. dyslexia epidemic. to use words worth opinion suffer. proclaim. flux to cut shut. equanimity. proliferate fervor. coalesce. clin cour. indoctrinate. equivocate err. epidemic. epigram. bend running. indubitable. cracy cre. cryptography succumb. reflect. feit. dox dol don. dict. flex flu. to bubble faith. preclude exclaim. finite. credit. paradox condolence. clu claim. clo. dia dic. to cry out to lean toward. dystopia. dubiety conduct. fait. close to shout. to carry. dichotomy predict. incumbent culprit. recline. dit dign dog. trust end to burn to bend to flow scissors. autocracy. flammable. pandemic dialogue. affable fiction. proclivity recur. durable. factory. culpable. orthodox. conducive endure. abnormal upon equal. dow dub duc. cret cred cryp cub. incubate. increase. fluctuation. fidelity. incursion. feign offer. a course to govern to grow to believe. flexible fluid. well speak to do. doc dem di. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. acquiesce euphoria. epigraph equation. even to wander becoming good. effervescent confide. diatribe. cur crat. docile democracy. clamor decline. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. through to say. incisive closet.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. dot. superfluous . enclose. to bear to boil. inflammatory deflect. dolorous donate. eulogy. indignant dogma. indict dignity. cryptic. endow dubious. exculpate doctor. error. fic. fy fer ferv fid fin flag. obdurate dysfunctional. endow. indolence. affinity flame. flam flect. famous. precise. infidel final. erratic adolescent. fam fac. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. dictionary.

other same over. noun. innocuous nominate. recognize. loquacious illustrate. homonym hyperactive. magnanimous manual. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. nic. nai nec. to join to swear to select. monit morph to pour birth. diffuse generous. adherent. homogenous ignore. S U F F I X E S. manifest minute. light. nown death change rule. noc. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. forbear fortune. nym. autonomy native. genetics. max man min min mis. gno grad. juxtapose jury. digress grateful. junct jur lect. idiosyncrasy. forestall.P R E F I X E S. alleviate dialogue. luv mag. magnitude. gratitude. noun. ideology eject. remit. luminous illusion. nym nat. to choose lift. heterodox homogeneous. perjury. nominal . death name immortal. nom. metamorphosis. manufacture. aggressive. eloquent. dejected. nox nom. abjure election. fortuitous fracture. lut. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. nown. race. gress grat her. excessive one’s own to throw. remonstrate amorphous. inherent heterosexual. elude. permutation economy. hyperextend. imminent. junction. loqu luc. fraction. eclectic elevator. anthropomorphic fra. deluge magnify. log. immutable. heterogeneous. infringe infusion. intermittent monitor. order to be born harm. fring to break fus gen gn. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. conjecture joint. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. homonym. nascent. creation. moratorium mutate. dilute. mit mon. noxious. frag. lum. lus lug. taxonomy. renaissance innocent. hyperbole idiom. minutiae prominent. ingratiate cohere. fortunate. admonish. diminish. maj. allude lavatory. to throw down to meet. lever. nas. leg lev loc. preeminent transmit. lucid. rise word. lus lud. frac. select. morbid. incognito progress.

to pay completely. obsequious omnipresent. pu ped ped. reprisal proliferate. paradox passionate. philanthropy. bibliophile telephone. little. query quiet. op omni pac. seditious . parity parallel. education foot to pay. desultory conscious. impede penalty. ris rog sacr. penance depend. impetuous philosophy. sil.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. apprehend. to weigh. to seek. circumscribe separate. conquest. permeate. pandemic. sacrament. deplete. scrip se to announce new toward. to jump to know to write apart announce. pat. quis qui rid. peripatetic compete. suffering. neophyte object. placebo. to place to carry to take. petition. reprobate repugnant. pauper. pensive perplex. segregate. everyone equal next to. impugn point. encyclopedia. obstruct. poor child. implicit expose. panacea par. pacifier panorama. sault. pun pend. expedite. pens per peri pet. sult sci scribe. insolent. plethora complex. compensate. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. sanction assault. nunc nov. pod pen. disparate. puncture. a lot to prove. derision interrogate. to seize much. pugnacious. nou ob. component. for. ridiculous. ply pon. to twist. over all peace all. pos. of. profuse. portable. omniscient scribble. path pau. disease few. denounce novice. to strive love sound to please to fill to fold. apathetic poverty. oc. omniscient pacify. paragon. surrogate. omnipotent. complacent complete. homophone. pung. poign que. peas pan par para pas. to get. to tangle. prise pro prob pug punc. importune surprise. pervade perimeter. pov. pound port prehend. punishment. cacophony placid. antipathy. secr sal. prescribe. pedantic pedestrian. abrogate sacred. probation. tranquil. to compensate to hang. to. juxtapose import. pronounce. sanct. acquiesce riddle. peripheral. po. impoverish pediatrician. to test to fight to point. against. science. completely. pit phil phone plac ple plex. punctilious inquisitive. beside feeling. novel. plic. comply. proselytize probe. appease. neo. wrong around to go. to bend to put.

taciturn detain. assiduous. sid sens. theology. ut ven. to pull. resolution. to be still. advocate. S U F F I X E S. sti sua tac. steadfast suave. sequ sed. vis voc. benevolence . tractable abuse. vicarious evident. spit sta. speculation. dissolution perspective. persuade. tin tend. to plot to feel. religion to drag. sustain. tent. survey. obsequious subside. tenacious extend. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. vent ver vers. tenu theo tract us. to draw to use to come. sentiment. visionary vocal. to plan. aversion. equivocate volunteer. sent sol spec. vok vol to follow to sit. spic. usurp convene.P R E F I X E S. to thin god. sequel. dissident sense. verisimilitude. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. sess. ten. utility. tic tain. tension. intervene verdict. tent. dissuade tacit. vert vi vid. versatile vivid. dissent dissolve. to see to stand. vigorous. tenuous atheist. obstinate. veritable revert. venture. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. reticent. detract. circumspect static. tens. apotheosis attract. to be aware to loosen. volition. to free to look.

N OTE S .

N OT E S .

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