MIDRASH RABBAH
GENESIS
I

MIDRASH KABBAH
TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH WITH NOTES, GLOSSARY AND INDICES UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

RABBI DR. H. FREEDMAN, B.A., PH.D. AND MAURICE SIMON, M.A.

WITH
RABBI
DR.
I.

FOREWORD BY EPSTEIN, B.A., PH.D.,
A

D.LIT.

IN TEN VOLUMES

THE SONCINO PRESS LONDON

First Edition 1939 Second Impression 195* Third Impression 1961

PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS, LTD., HERTFORD

GENESIS
IN

TWO VOLUMES
I

TRANSLATED BY
RABBI DR. H. FREEDMAN,
B.A.,

PH.D.

.

CO NTENT S Foreword by Rabbi Dr. Epstein page ix xxv Introduction to Genesis Rabbah xxvii i Bereshith Noach Lech Lecha Vayera 2^33 313 406 . Editorial Preface /.

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Grounded in the Book and centred in God.A. EPSTEIN. Then began within Judah a centurieslong. I. and its acceptance the chief foundation upon which the Jewish State was to rear itself. and humanity must be found. PH. This only God and Supreme King had spoken to their ancestors at Sinai through the Law. the ideas of king and priest were yet elementary and vague. religion itself was to be an independent and positive source of inspiration. B. the creature of the State. we find leaders who proclaimed that God is and must remain the sole ruler of the tribes. Judah too fell a prey to Babylonia. The changes in the people's circumstances could not be neglected. and that through the government of the Lord who is One and Everlasting. Besides the written .FOREWORD by RABBI IN the DR. and continued to speak to them through priest and prophet.LIT. nor was it ever to derive its inspiration from political feeling. when when yet the twelve tribes were warring with each other.. the nation.. heroic struggle for the inviolability of the Book. it was not like the Roman religion. Conquering Empires rose and fell.D. D. Its laws and precepts and ordinances had to be interpreted both literally and spiritually. What He had said and commanded was gathered up in books. Israel was taken captive and disappeared from history as a separate entity. by which their individual and national life was to be guided. For the Jews. but was restored after Babylon fell to the Medes. the Torah. which became The Book. earliest periods of the history of Israel and Judah. But surrounding nations surged against them. the unity of the individual. Thus arose and developed the religion of Israel.

history of the Jewish people. Fired by the zeal make the reign of the Torah supreme in the newly re-created lives of the returned Exiles.E. vni.'* sense. distinctly . in the Torah of munity in Judea. Student ") l 2 of the Law of Moses which the Lord had given '. Strack. The written and unwritten must co-operate in the guidance of the Jewish people struggling against the inrolling civilisations of Greece and Rome. he took the lead in the reading. an unwritten Law handed down from generation to generation an unwritten Law which lawgiver and prophet strove to engrave in the heart of the people. In their endeavour to cause the people to understand the reading. would not have understood a reading which evidently was completely out of touch with the currents of thought of their time or in conflict with their collective aspirations traditions. he summoned a large gathering of the people and secured in their presence by means of a covenant signed by their leaders the accep- tance of the Torah as the constitution of the new com- inaugurated this memorable conwhich proved to be the turning-point in the vocation. 6. and caused them the Midrash The people orally at first. Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (English Ed. Ezra and~ his associates (the Thus began and Soferim) had to build bridges between the past and the 1 V. by a public reading of the " " Law. . the written the abiding fundamental factor. p. 8 Neh. He ' ' ' to God. L.C. H. from the divine communications to Moses. in this struggle on behalf of the Book It was in the year 444 B. 2 Ezra vu. . 201. while others who stood by 'gave the sense : And they read in the book. Himself a ready Sofer (lit. twelve years after his return from Babylonia.MIDRASH KABBAH Law there had been from the first. the unwritten being the dynamic factor of change. Bookman ". and they gave the understand the reading. 8.. onwards. THE BEGINNINGS OF THE MIDRASH A to decisive move was made by Ezra.).

pp. Midrash was in fact during the whole of the Soferic period (which came to an end about 270 B. The letters of the Holy Writ were not meant to kill They were intended as containers ever to be filled with the wine of good. 1 These 'aspects' were latent.. it represented the most important medium for the expression of Jewish thought and teaching. In this sense the Midrashform is older/ xi . Toledoth Ha-Halakah (History of the Halakah). they revealed again and the Torah which Moses received on Sinai. 150) may be quoted as apposite: 'The question. Midrash or Mishnah. There is a strong presumption that the biblical studies of the ancient Soferim and of the learned in the priesthood were primarily directed to the interpretation of the Scriptures. yQR. With the emergence of Mishnah about the second century.). v. is one of those simplified alternatives to which a simple answer cannot be given. In this connection the illuminating statement of Moore (Judaism.. 23-95. as generation after generation found expression for or other of these aspects. T. 503527.. life.C.) the Queen of Jewish spiritual life. I. Z. R. Lauterbach. p. L. and Tchernowitz. Talmud and Apocrypha. ITS EARLIEST some anew INFLUENCE The Midrash thus created and brought into shape by the Soferim for the purpose of expounding the Torah and later also other parts of the Hebrew Scriptures fulfilled a vital necessity. Has not after all 'Every word of the Scripture "seventy aspects'"? minV nns n^lti?. 33~3^3 Herford. There were as yet no reasons for the rift between Halachah and Haggadah . 37-61. 'm 2 ftivnK. 46 ff. pp.which is the older method of study. new vintage.E. For centuries after Ezra. and the spirit.. On the problem as to the priority of the Midrash-form of study over the Mishnah-form.S. pp. and vi. v.FOREWORD For these spiritual guides of Israel it was inconceivable that the sense of the Torah of God might be in conflict with the fundamental conditions of Jewish present. (N. I. Midrash was obliged to share in the realms of the Halachah its kingdom with its new rival 2 but despite its disputed rule Midrash did not cease to exercise sway over the heart and mind of the people. so far as they dealt with the laws and the more precise understanding and application of what the Scripture enjoined or forbade. pp. Ch.

The Oldest Midrash. MIDRASH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HALACHAH specimen of an early Halachic Midrashic exposition of the Torah emanating according to competent authorities^ 1 On the Midrashic character of Chronicles v Elmslie.. 291 ff. Midrashic creation in Haggadah Jewry. and knowledge. 2 Finkelstein. 48. In one of its of Israel. 22. are Midrashic Hebrew which We find in Chronicles passages in There is also a Midrash to the Book of Kings mentioned ia ii Chronicles xxiv. as one of the literary forms in which the Jewish creative genius in the realms in Haggadah expressed itself. Introduction to Chronicles. xii . functions as a collection of contributions to the history Midrashic elements were assimilated to the Scriptures. 1 many We may first elements thus suppose that we have in Chronicles the of Haggadic Midrash handed down in writing in their original form.C. 1938. Herford. L. Among the oldest Haggadic recited Midrashim is undoubtedly The Haggadah on Passover evening. Theological 8 V.. glosses. pp. and during the whole of the post-scriptural and pretalmudic period the teaching both of Halachah and Haggadah was conducted in Midrash-form. supplementing details the narratives in the Book of Kings. 27. After the completion of the Hebrew Scriptures. Talmud and Apocrypha. left its deep impress on the Bible itself. which according to one 2 authority was compiled between the second half of the third century and the first half of the second century B. The Harvard Review.MIDRASH KABBAH that developed. as we shall see. Cambridge Bible. L . R. p. thoughts.E. obtained a dominating position in the spiritual life of For a long period it was the vehicle for Jewish ideas. in the course of the Talmudic period and which eventually led Midrash to become an independent branch of Rabbinic literature. whilst reference to the Midrash of Iddo the Prophet is made in n Chronicles xni. A W. A. T. Midrash. feelings.

THe Midrash gives apparently the whole process of reasoning which led to such a modification. was restricted to wars among Jews themselves. priest anointed . and took the captives. the scope of which. and with their spoil clothed all that were naked among them. and shod them. as it is said. and thereby holds open the way for further development. . 15).FOREWORD from the Soferic school Sotah. rose up. There is no distinction in the original text of the Torah between 'enemy' and 'enemy'. for example. shall say unto them against your but not against your brethren. for vii. not Judah against enemies. Particularly the prohibition of conscription implied in Deut. owing to the fact Red Cross service * for the sick and wounded ' seems to have been created. however. 'The . and brought them to Jericho. xxvur. In the that a sort of exposition cited a distinction is made. Strictly speaking. 8: is there that is fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house.' Simeon nor Simeon against Benjamin. and gave them to eat and to drink. so that if you fall into their hand they shall have mercy upon you. then they returned to Samaria (n Chron. It . This new situation involved a modification of the law at least in certain of its regulations * in respect of such civil wars. unto their brethren. 3 : Mishnah expounds Deut. And the men which have been expressed by name battle . is preserved in the xx. be given up by other peoples too. 2. 1 What man xiii . then the Law would be generally modified and the introduction of a certain measure of 'conscript' service would be permissible. the word 'enemy' denotes any foe with whom one goes to battle. and arrayed them. Here we have one of the earliest typical examples of a Midrashic exposition of the Torah. any fundamental change in the methods of warfare being bound to react on the laws concerned. . Should 'frightfulness'. xx. should they also exercise mercy on their prisoners and wounded enemies. and anointed them. The interpretation seems to adapt the law of the Torah to a new situation which had not been provided for in the text. and carried all the feeble of them upon asses. the city of palm-trees.

The need for methodical regrouping could. As to the form. which would have been a kind of re-editing of Midrashic expositions. rivalry between the respective V. The final victory of the Mishnahform with its logical sequence. however. from the Sadduceans down to the Karaites. for introducing Mishnah as a rival of Midrash. While Midrash was tied to the texts of the respective Scriptures. their latter-day spiritual descendants* HALACHAH AND HAGGADAH We do not know when the words Halachah and Haggadah were first introduced. xiv . This method. the to able through the Mishnah-form to put on the order of the day such subjects as they desired. Mishnah and Gemara were meant to be a fortress able to offer resistance to any enemy possessing even the most dangerous weapons. The emergence of two distinct terms need not necessarily have 1 meant a rift or p. The Scriptural text could still have remained the basis of the 'expositions' in a Midrash whose contents needed only to be regrouped according to subjects. 50.MIDRASH KABBAH MIDRASH AND MISHNAH This Halachic Midrash exemplifies more clearly than any Haggadic Midrash could do the formal and material differences of Midrash and Mishnah. was not resorted to.. Herford. at will Tannaim were bore witness to the determination of the learned of Israel to build up an unalterable system of directives. There was now no question any longer of a bridge between past and present. the Mishnah teaches the Halachah without reference any Scriptural text. We may assume that there were other reasons apart from pedagogical. op cit. have been satisfied without abandoning the Midrashform and all its implications. 1 But we would probably not be that the time of their first mistaken if we suppose divorce coincides with the introduction of the Mishnah-form. Evidently the Mishnah represented a progress in the method of teaching. the Halachic Gemara.

and the discussion and application of its details. embodying adaptations which the process of time had rendered necessary. The characteristic Mishnaic form was the formulation of a decision which closed a debate. Haggadah. existed side by side in complete unity. These adaptations were adopted only after prolonged arguments between conflicting schools representing in many cases xv .FOREWORD disciplines these terms represented. Under these conditions Halachah. though often on a different plane. representing religious the rules of practical FREEDOM OF SPIRIT IN THE MIDRASH The sharp distinction which we find later significance of the two terms Halachah was a result of Talmudic development. between the and Haggadah The personal unity came to an end. and life. from the Law of Moses. exposition in the Soferic and The fact that Midrashic no pre-Talmudic period found Scriptures verse by verse of whether their character was Halachic or Haggadic proves that in all respects harmony and equality between Halachic and Haggadic exposition reigned. In many cases the Gemara reopens the debate. When the same person was building up a system regardless difficulty in following the which Halachah and Haggadah were the component harmony of the system was obviously safeguarded. in view of the fact that they all started from the same point. activity to who presumably restricted their Midrashic exposition of exclusively Haggadic character. But even if different persons happened to expound separately verses of Halachic and Haggadic if ever such a character. from Scriptural texts. they had to necessity arose of parts. and the form of teaching was the same. embodying the philosophy of the generation. while Mishnah supplemented by Gemara took more and more the form of categorical pronouncements on the religious law. The teachers were the same. the full co-ordinate their expositions. but only in order to close it again as categorically as the Mishnah did. There were teachers of the Haggadah (rabbanan di-Aggadeta).

Johanan is more explicit still in regard to the existence . a>. the Haggadic Midrash continued to express the ideas. hopes.. especially in the Midrashim. 14. Strack. and in respect of function they continued the prophetic tradition. PERIOD OF MIDRASHIC CREATIVE ACTIVITY The abandonment by the Halachah of the Midrash-form gave rise to the production of Haggadic writings which henceforth became synonymous with Midrashim. souls of their soul. op. Many of the thoughts in the Haggadic Midrash were due to poetic inspiration. The Haggadah. Haggadah enjoyed the greater latitude allowed by the seven rules which even 90-130 C. and as such unalterable. and collective thoughts of the people of Israel in successive generations. It.) thirty-two rules for Haggadic interpretation formulated by his contemporary R. and these were often ahead of their times. Simeon b. however. however. its old freedom and its full potentialities. But whereas the Halachah was restricted to when expanded by Rabbi Ishmael became no more than thirteen.. of Haggadic compilations has been 1 effected : when he declares. As ever before. was governed in its certain norms of exposition interpretation of the Bible by which served as a check against the riot of untrammelled imagination.E. though formally and chronologically they were the direct descendants of the Scriptures. More often the decision impatient progress on the behind the times. change being barred by definitive lagged Mishnaic law and precedent. retained. V. Jose ha-Gelili (the Galilean). the (c. 'A covenant whoever learns Haggadah from a xvi Ber. ioa. in so far as it did not serve only to justify an a posteriori Talmudic decision already fixed.MIDRASH RABBAH the forces of cautious conservatism on the one hand. p. Pazzi in the first half of the third century was known as an editor of Haggadah (Mesadder Aggadeta) 1 and R. aspirations. and other. too. . fears. children of their verses. In this sense they were prophetic.

and maxim. S. usually who lived in Palestine. p. The Karaite insurrection in the J. v. The masses of the people were drawn to the sermons which were full of such expositions and delivered on Sabbath and holy days. WeltgescMchte xvil des judischen Volkes. Tosefta. This happened mostly when Haggadic motives of one kind or another entered into the course of some Halachic discussion.e. The popularity of the exposition of the Holy Writ. m. with the help of legend. This was often the case. Talmudic period creative Haggadic (and therefore Midrashic) activity came to an end. . V. vol. story. parable. Hieronymus. and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds With the close of the are rich in Haggadic material. * Ber. flourishing period of Haggadic activity was in Palestine in the third and fourth centuries.. 381. The most Academies were on the decline and spiritual life in Palestine found its only refuge in the Synagogue in which the Torah was taught and sermons delivered. when the put these Haggadoth. i. The teacher and often took the same floor and a probably unpreacher intentional competition developed between them which often worked out to the disadvantage of the teacher. M. and therefore the Mishnah. was ever growing. In the post-Amoraic and Geonic period the Midrashic activity was restricted to the field of collecting and revising the transmitted Some of the Midrashic creations epoch found their way into the Midrashic 1 material. into writing. Dubnow. 'Let us go and listen to this or that preacher who 2 possesses a wonderful talent/ LATER MIDRASHIC COMPILATIONS of the Talmudic Talmud. saw.FOREWORD book will not easily forget it/ 1 The opinions recorded against the writing down of Haggadic creation are only further proofs of the fact that there were others who did i. Midrashim. reports as an eye witness (about 420) that Jews would call one to another.

It is well to remember this before criticising the Midrash for its This accounts for their apparent unintelligibility in places. to the historical facts Thus more material may be added embedded in the traditional lore in xviii . STYLE AND CHARACTERISTICS In all creation the Midrashic compilations either of contemporary or as the result of purely 'editorial' work. They merely record the central ideas from which flowed the whole process of thought of the preachers and round which they wove their orations and picturesque homilies. and history of a past age. may be made to throw new light on the life. This meaning might have consisted in political allusions. and at times to the point of obscurity. and as a spiritual factor owing to their Haggadistic contents became more and more separated from the Halachah which dwelt exclusively in the Talmud. in an unbroken line from the days of Ezra to the eleventh century. as we have seen. terse. religion. pithy. confusing mass of words. Midrashic creation and compilation extend. and contemporaries certainly possessed the key to many of the passages which to us appear a And these same Midrashim. The Midrashim compiled concurrently with or just after the were Midrashim process of the creation of the Talmud in every sense of the word. It should also be borne in mind that some Midrashic paragraphs owe their preservation to the very obscurity of their meaning. and Midrashirn were compiled down to the eleventh century. In the later part of this period the only kind of Midrash produced was the Haggadic. no attempt was made to reproduce in full dress the contents of the sermons of the great masters of the Haggadah.MIDRASH KABBAH neither to Halachic nor eighth century was favourable to Haggadic activity yet as a medium of literary expression the Midrash did not fall into disuse even after the Talmud : had long been completed. style being laconic. if 'decoded' by the research and investigation of savants. as is sometimes done.

1 Sifre to Deut. Not only has it ever served as an inexhaustible source of inspiration to teacher and preacher. the learned Jewish layman will turn to the Midrash for solace and comfort from the turmoil and strife of work-a-day life. and the assiduous student of the law finds in it a welcome and refreshing retreat from the rigorous discipline of the battlefield of the Halachah. for thereby shalt thou know the Holy One. but it has also enriched the literature and liturgy of the Jew and his very life. POPULARITY OF THE MIDRASH The purely Haggadic character of the Midrash has been the cause of its immense popularity a popularity which the passage of years has only served to confirm and strengthen. and cling to His ways/ 1 Its sweet and ' it : potent influences have. which age cannot wither nor custom stale. been all-pervasive. formal truths with organic truth. it never failed to yield the right message of moral sustenance and help. Charged with messages. learn Haggadah. aspirations with possibilities of attainment. as they betray difficulties in the endeavour to reconcile ideas with facts. Whether in joy or sorrow. which have already proved to be invaluable data for the knowledge of the history of Israel. And to the present day. simple forms are proofs of inner based upon the harmony of ideas and facts. xix . xi. storm or sunshine. sustain and strengthen the Jew athirst for the word of the Living God. Another criticism levelled against the Midrash is the simplicity exhibited in its construction and modes of In truth.FOREWORD the Midrash. 22. strength. Complicated forms are on the contrary signs of decline. expression. blessed be He. infinite in variety. As ever in the past the Midrash retains to-day for the religious Jew the significance attached to If thou wishest to know Him in the classical sentence at whose command the world came into existence. moreover. the Midrash has ever proved an unfailing spring with the power to refreshen and renew.

the Renan. Ephraem Syrus. op. temporary Jewish preachers in the service of the Jewish spirit. Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen ? 3 Midrash also played its part in leading the thought of the Middle Ages into new channels and preparing the way for what was of permanent value in the Renaissance.. p. 2 The considerable indebtedness of Mahommed to the able Midrash for the legendary and other material which he incorporated in the Koran has already been proved over a century ago by Abraham Geiger in his work. 350) already praises Midrashic preachers. V. the Church Fathers fully understood the importance of the Midrashic method employed with telling effect by con- they adopted either in own ends. the 'Deuterotai' (as distinguished from the Halachic teachers. Hieronymus especially drew extensively upon Midrashic sources.MIDRASH KABBAH ITS UNIVERSAL INFLUENCE Midrashic activity was not sway extended far and wide. v. and much of the religious. 2586. the ' Sophot') y as 'men armed with to penetrate into extraordinary reasoning powers the deepest meaning of the Holy Writ*. Guillaume D'Auvergne 1 2 3 (first half of the thirteenth century). M. or after reshaping them for Apart from the New Testament. E.. Dubnow. S. and resolved to resort to the same spiritual weapon in order to place the dogmatic system of the Church on a firm basis. and ethical thought and teaching alike of Christianity and Islam was fashioned influence of Jewish Its The restricted to Jews. Eusebius (d. 331. Augustine introduced Midrash in their apologetic works. cit. p. by the their ideas to which the Midrash gave birth and which toto. and thanks to his association with Palestinian Amoraim has been able to hand down to us a number of most darmg Midrashic expositions. which so abounds with Midrashic elements that it has been not 1 unjustly termed 'a masterpiece of the Haggadah'. Published first at Bonn 1833. Chrysostom the 'golden mouthed'.. moral. Histoire du Peuple d' Israel (1893). XX .

Guttmann. pp. J. JR. 177 fT. E. H. 19-20. V.. Universe marked traces of Midrashic influence. Pascal und das Alte Testament.FOREWORD of the new spirit in scholasticism. fundamental characteristic of Midrash that it keeps its gates 1 a make that claim. Neumann. is also a most valuable proof It is a of the progressive spirit of the Jewish people. xxi . and Milton's Rabbinical danced. last perhaps by an anonymous ever a work was created 1. It exhibits an unbroken row of pearls all of the same high quality. Fletcher.. its constructing his great epic Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained out of material supplied to sequel him from Midrashic sources. xvm. It never t closes a debate that would be V.J. whose influence on first representative in his shows De is expressed in the well-known tag: Si Lyra non Lutherus non saltasset? made much use of Midrashic lyrasset material in his Postillae Perpetuae? And during the postReformation period. R. 3 4 B Readings. then the spirit entitle the Jews to the Midrash. At the same time open. F.. 345 ff. 1 Nicholas de Lyra.. J. pp.500 years the collective spirit of a people. pp. in virtue of the amazing consistency of its creation. If ever the spirit of a people could claim to If which created the Midrash would possess the highest degree of consistency. and in the Midrash Rabbah we have before us a monumental collection of the written testimony to this activity. Seidmann. xxvi.. Milton's Semitic Studies.E. while Pascal in France was pressing Luther theological Midrashic ideas into the service of Jansenism in his 4 Milton in Puritan England was writings.y. Luther would not have V. such a work is the by Midrash. If Lyra had not played the lyre (the tune). V. the first of which was strung by the scribe early Soferim and the later. 5 ITS UNBROKEN CONTINUITY We have seen the evidence of the centuries-long Midrashic activity. the most learned Christian Hebraist of the fourteenth century.

The hammer which awakens the slumbering sparks in the rocks (Sanhedrin 346) was never used in nailing down the lid on the coffin of spiritual 1 freedom. It is neither was in the 1. to fill the written law where the necessity arose with the contents of tradition and aspiration. so that Israel's philosophical activity should be ready to agree to be muzzled. alas.500 years categorical nor exclusive. This urge to bring the formal truth into line with the organic truth. There which the Midrash was being built up no epoch during in the history of Israel a history. THE SONCINO TRANSLATION OF THE MIDRASH render more accessible this heritage from which humanity has drawn much that is best in its religion. The Temple was rebuilt. making every possible effort to present the work in a social life. The Editors and Translators alike have executed their work judiciously and conscientiously. a hierarchy of royal priests was installed. so rich in fateful which Midrashic debate would have been closed. out of which the Midrash came into being. To and ethics is the chief aim of this translation. and providing footnotes wherever necessary to remove surface xxn . was never tamed in the course of the next fifteen centuries of Midrashic history. And yet during this epoch when ' the nation was settling down. literary style whilst conforming as much as possible to the original in matter and sequence. which has been designed on a scale hitherto unattempted in any language. the urge for Quest (Dera$h)> for the search into the depth of truth was going on with a force which we do not expect to meet in times of political ' tranquillity. lucid. and the social order was stabilised.MIDRASH KABBAH inconsistent either with its form or spirit. simple. All this militated against changes in ideological changes. This people was spiritually on the move even at a time when politically an extreme conservative attitude was to be expected. The 'Quest has gone on and on unabated in its spirit of freedom.

LONDON. have contributed much in a form which makes the reading is to the general reader not only to the student but also cares for some of these things'. and aspirations have greatly changed. and is unacquainted with Jewish and Rabbinic thought. Publishers. The latter (the general reader) will have thrown open to him a vast treasure-house into which have been gathered the faith. The era over which the work of the Midrash extends seems registering and the methods of expressing thoughts. too. December 3<>> I93^ t xxm . and the unity of outlook underlying differences imagery as well as Western fact.FOREWORD difficulties. the hopes and aspirations of the people of Israel which enabled them to overcome persecutions and temptations greater than any that have confronted as well as agreement. far distant fears. Tebeth 8. EPSTEIN. I. Eastern other peoples. The by presenting the work pleasant and easy. the ideals. but this translation comes at a time when the achievements of that era can provide a great sustaining and stimulating force to this generation and the generations that are to come. JEWS' COLLEGE. The first will have a new guide to the original which will appeal The made 'who help him over many difficulties and enable him more easily to discover the greatness lying concealed in apparent littleness. 5%. hopes.

Midrashic creation in Haggadah obtained a dominating position in the spiritual life of glosses. which are Midrashic many We Jewry. The Oldest Midrash^ The Harvard Review.. 27. ideas. which according to one 2 authority was compiled between the second half of the third century and the first half of the second century oldest B.. In the course of the Talmudic period and which eventually led Midrash to become an independent branch of Rabbinic literature. functions as a collection of contributions to the history Midrashic elements were assimilated to the Scriptures.MIDRASH KABBAH that developed. 2 Finkelstein. Talmud and Apocrypha^ p. Cambridge Bible. L Theological Introduction to Chronicles. zz. it was the vehicle for Jewish and knowledge. whilst reference to the Midrash of Iddo the Prophet is made in n Chronicles xni. . and during the whole of the post-scriptural and prethe teaching both of Halachah and talmudic period in Midrash-form. Hebrew We find in Chronicles passages in There Is mentioned in also a Midrash to the Book of Kings n Chronicles xxiv. as one of the literary forms in which in the realms in Haggadah expressed Jewish creative genius the Bible itself. In one of itself. 8 V. After the completion the Hebrew Scriptures. supplementing 1 details the narratives in the Book of Kings. may thus suppose that we have in Chronicles the first elements of Haggadic Midrash handed down in of writing in their original form. left its deep impress on Haggadah was conducted its of Israel.C. Herford. MIDRASH AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HALACHAH specimen of an early Halachic Midrashic exposition 3 of the Torah emanating according to competent authorities 1 A On the Midrashic character of Chronicles v Elmslie. Among the Haggadic Midrashim is undoubtedly The Haggadah recited on Passover evening. 1938.E. 291 ff. A. feelings. 48. W. For a long period thoughts. as we shall see. L. pp. T. the Midrash. R.

And the men which have been expressed by name . any fundamental change in the methods of warfare being bound was restricted to to react on the laws concerned. then they returned to Samaria (n Chron. 15). and with their spoil clothed were naked among them. so that if you fall into their hand they shall have mercy upon you. owing to the fact ' ' that a sort of Red Cross service for the sick and wounded seems to have been created. and shod them. 3 'The shall say unto them : . It . of the earliest typical examples of a Midrashic exposition of the Torah. Here we have one XXVIII. for battle enemies. and thereby holds open the way for further development. the feeble of them upon asses. . expounds Deut. however.' 2. Particularly the prohibition of conscription implied in Deut. be given up by other peoples too. scope wars among Jews themselves. xx. preserved in the Mishnah priest anointed . as it is said. 8 : is there that is fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house. not Judah against Simeon nor Simeon against Benjamin. for example. vn. In the 1 1 . unto their brethren. then the Law would be generally modified and the introduction of a certain measure of 'conscript' service would be permissible. is against your but not against your brethren. There is no distinction in the original text of the Torah between 'enemy' and 'enemy Strictly speaking. all that and took the captives. This new situation involved a modification of the law at least in certain of its regulations * in respect of such civil wars. and carried all them to Jericho. should they also exercise mercy on their prisoners and wounded enemies. rose up. the of which. and anointed them. . 1 What man xm . exposition cited a distinction is made. The interpretation seems to adapt the law of the Torah to a new situation which had not been provided for in the text. xx. and arrayed them. Should 'frightfulness'. and brought the city of palm-trees. and gave them to eat and to drink. the word 'enemy denotes any foe with whom one goes to battle.FOREWORD from the Soferlc school Sotah. THe Midrash gives apparently the whole process of reasoning which led to such a modification.

from the Sadduceans down to the Karaites. which would have been a kind of re-editing of Midrashic expositions. Evidently the Mishnah represented a progress in the method of teaching. The emergence of two have 1 meant a rift or p. t XIV . the able through the Mishnah-form to put on the order of the day such subjects as they desired. however. have been satisfied without abandoning the Midrashform and all its implications. op cit. While Midrash was tied to the texts of the respective Scriptures. This method. The need for methodical regrouping could. As to the form. terms need not necessarily rivalry between the respective V. HALACHAH AND HAGGADAH We do not know when the words Halachah and Haggadah were first introduced. the Halachic Gemara. the Mishnah teaches the Halachah without reference to any Scriptural text. their latter-day spiritual descendants. Mishnah and Gemara were meant to be a fortress able to offer resistance to any enemy possessing even the most dangerous weapons. The Scriptural text could still have remained the basis of the 'expositions' in a Midrash whose contents needed only to be regrouped according to subjects. was not resorted to. Herford. 50. There was now no question any longer of a bridge between past and present. We may assume that there were other reasons apart from pedagogical. Tannaim were at will bore witness to the determination of the learned of Israel to build up an unalterable system of directives. 1 But we would probably not be that the time of their first divorce distinct mistaken if we suppose coincides with the introduction of the Mishnah-form.MIDRASH AND MISHNAH This Halachic Midrash exemplifies more clearly than any Haggadic Midrash could do the formal and material differences of Midrash and Mishnah. The final victory of the Mishnahform with its logical sequence. for introducing Mishnah as a rival of Midrash.

embodying adaptations which the process of time had rendered necessary. though often on a different plane. But even if different persons happened to expound separately verses of Halachic and Haggadic if ever such a character. The personal unity came to an end. and Haggadah. There were teachers of the Haggadah The (rabbanan di-Aggadeta). but only in order to close it again as categorically as the Mishnah did. When the same person was building up a system of which Halachah and Haggadah were the component parts. The teachers were the same. representing the religious rules of practical life. The characteristic Mishnaic form was the formulation of a decision which closed a debate. These adaptations were adopted only after prolonged arguments between conflicting schools representing in many cases xv b . from Scriptural texts. in view of the fact that they all started from the same point. and the discussion and application of its details. from the Law of Moses.FOREWORD disciplines these terms represented. In many cases the Gemara reopens the debate. they had necessity arose to co-ordinate their expositions. existed side by side in complete unity. and the form of teaching was the same. embodying the philosophy of the generation. while Mishnah supplemented by Gemara took more and more the form of categorical pronouncements on the religious law. Under these conditions Halachah. activity to who presumably restricted their Midrashic exposition of exclusively Haggadic character. FREEDOM OF SPIRIT IN THE MI0RASH sharp distinction which we find later between the significance of the two terms Halachah and Haggadah was a result of Talmudic development. exposition in the Soferic and The fact that Midrashic pre-Talmudic period found no difficulty in following the regardless Scriptures verse by verse of whether their character was Halachic or Haggadic proves that in all respects harmony and equality between Halachic and Haggadic exposition reigned. the full harmony of the system was obviously safeguarded.

Simeon century was known an editor of Haggadah (Mesadder Aggadeta) 1 and R. and in respect of function they continued the prophetic tradition. It. and collective seven rules which even (c. 14. op. was governed in its in so far as of exposition interpretation of the Bible by certain norms which served as a check against the riot of untrammelled imagination. Jose ha-Gelili (the Galilean). it did not serve only to justify an a posteriori decision already fixed. change being barred by definitive lagged Mishnaic law and precedent. however. In this sense they were prophetic. fears. Talmudic retained. Pazzi in the first half of the third as . *A covenant has been effected whoever learns Haggadah from a b. But whereas the Halachah was restricted to when expanded by Rabbi Ishmael became no more than thirteen. cit. however. Johanan is more explicit still in regard to the existence of Haggadic compilations when he declares. xvi . the Haggadic Midrash continued to express the ideas.MIDRASH KABBAH the forces of cautious conservatism on the one hand. 9 p. souls of their soul.) thoughts of the people of Israel in successive generations.. and these were often ahead of their times. The Haggadah. and often the decision impatient progress on the other. 90-130 C. PERIOD OF MIDRASHIC CREATIVE ACTIVITY The abandonment by the Halachah of the Midrash-form gave rise to the production of Haggadic writings which henceforth became synonymous with Midrashim. : 1 Ber. especially in the Midrashim. Strack. As ever before. More behind the times. the Haggadah enjoyed the greater latitude allowed by the thirty-two rules for Haggadic interpretation formulated by his contemporary R. Many of the thoughts in the Haggadic Midrash were due to poetic inspiration. too. aspirations. and as such unalterable.E. children of their verses. loa. its old freedom and its full potentialities. though formally and chronologically they were the direct descendants of the Scriptures. V. hopes.

with the help of legend. With the close of the Talmudic period creative Haggadic (and therefore Midrashic) activity came to an end. . In the post-Amoraic and Geonic period the Midrashic activity was restricted to the field of collecting and revising the transmitted Midrashic material. saw. and both the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds are rich in Haggadic material. was ever growing. Hieronymus. S. who lived in Palestine. Dubnow.' 1 The opinions recorded against the writing down of Haggadic creation are only further proofs of the fact that there were others who did will i. reports as an eye witness (about 420) that Jews would call one to another. parable. Weltgeschichte des judhchen Volkes. M. This happened epoch mostly when Haggadic motives of one kind or another Some the course of some Halachic discussion. This was often the case. into writing. v. The teacher and often took the same floor and a probably unpreacher intentional competition developed between them which often worked out to the disadvantage of the teacher. story. and therefore the Mishnah. Tosefta.. Let us go and listen 2 to this or that preacher who possesses a wonderful talent/ ' the sermons LATER MIDRASHIC COMPILATIONS of the Midrashic creations of the Talmudic found their way into the Talmud. The most Academies were on the decline and spiritual life in Palestine found its only refuge in the Synagogue in which the Torah was taught and sermons delivered. flourishing period of Haggadic activity was in Palestine in the third and fourth centuries. i. in. The popularity of the exposition of the Holy Writ. The Karaite insurrection in the entered into 1 a J. Midrashim.e. when the book put these Haggadoth. The masses of the people were drawn to which were full of such expositions and usually delivered on Sabbath and holy days. vol. V.FOREWORD not easily forget it. Ber. and maxim.

if decoded by the research and investigation of savants. pithy. style being laconic. and Midrashim were compiled down to the eleventh century. in an unbroken line from the days In the later part of this period the only eleventh century. religion. They merely record the central ideas from which flowed In all creation the whole process of thought of the preachers and round which they wove their orations and picturesque homilies. confusing mass of words. at should also be borne in mind that some Midrashic paragraphs owe their preservation to the very obscurity of their meaning. to the historical facts Thus more material may be added embedded in the traditional lore in XVlll . as is sometimes done. This accounts for their terse. Midrashic creation and compilation extend. This meaning might have consisted It in political allusions. and as a spiritual factor owing to their Haggadistic contents became more and more separated from the Halachah which dwelt exclusively in the Talmud. STYLE AND CHARACTERISTICS the Midrashic compilations either of contemporary or as the result of purely 'editorial* work. and It is well to times to the point of obscurity. remember this before criticising the Midrash for its apparent unintelligibility in places. and history of a past age. and contemporaries certainly possessed the key to many of the passages which to us appear a And these same Midrashim. kind of Midrash produced was the Haggadic. ' ' may be made to throw new light on the life. as we have of Ezra to the seen.MIDRASH KABBAH to neither to Halachic nor eighth century was favourable as a medium of literary expression Haggadic activity yet the Midrash did not fall into disuse even after the Talmud : had long been completed. The Midrashim compiled concurrently with or just after the Talmud were Midrashim process of the creation of the in every sense of the word. no was made to reproduce in full dress the contents attempt of the sermons of the great masters of the Haggadah.

learn ' it : Haggadah y for thereby shalt thou know the Holy One. And to the present day. sustain and strengthen the Jew athirst for inspiration to teacher and preacher. xi. Whether in joy or sorrow. aspirations with possibilities of attainment. xix . infinite in variety. moreover. POPULARITY OF THE MIDRASH The purely Haggadic character of the Midrash has been the cause of its immense popularity a popularity which the passage of years has only served to confirm and strengthen. as they betray difficulties in the endeavour to reconcile ideas with facts. which have already proved to be invaluable data for the knowledge of the history of Israel. Not only has it ever served as an inexhaustible source of it his very life. Complicated forms are on the contrary signs of decline. formal truths with organic truth. but the literature and liturgy of the Jew has also enriched and word of the Living God. the Midrash has ever proved an unfailing spring with the power to refreshen and renew. 1 Sifre to Deut. and cling to His ways/ 1 Its sweet and potent influences have. blessed be He. expression.FOREWORD the Midrash. it never failed to yield the right message of moral sustenance and help. storm or sunshine. the learned Jewish layman will turn to the Midrash for solace and comfort from the turmoil and strife of work-a-day life. As ever in the past the Midrash retains to-day for the religious Jew the significance attached to If thou wishest to know Him in the classical sentence at whose command the world came into existence. been all-pervasive. 22. strength. which age Charged cannot wither nor custom stale. and the assiduous student of the law finds in it a welcome and refreshing retreat from the rigorous discipline the of the battlefield of the Halachah. with messages. Another criticism levelled against the Midrash is the simplicity exhibited in its construction and modes of In truth. simple forms are proofs of inner based upon the harmony of iideas and facts.

2 The Midrash considerable indebtedness of Mahommed to the for the legendary and other material which he incorporated in the Koran has already been proved over a century ago by Abraham Geiger in his work. moral. as powers able from the 'men armed with especially drew extensively upon Midrashic sources. 321. the 1 2 Renan. aj86.. which so abounds with Midrashic elements that it has been not 1 unjustly termed 'a masterpiece of the Haggadah'. V. S. Eusebius (d. p. the to penetrate into extraordinary reasoning the deepest meaning of the Holy Writ Ephraem Syrus. and much of the religious. Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume aufgenommen ? a Midrash also played its part in leading the thought of the Middle Ages into new channels and preparing the way for what was of permanent value in the Renaissance.MIDRASH KABBAH ITS UNIVERSAL INFLUENCE Midrashic activity was not sway extended far and wide. by the ideas to which the Midrash gave birth and which they adopted either in toto. Hieronymus 1 . the Church Fathers fully understood the importance of the Midrashic method employed with telling effect by contemporary Jewish preachers in the service of the Jewish spirit. Dubnow. or after reshaping them for their own ends. Chrysostom the 'golden mouthed'. op. cit. Guillaume D'Auvergne (first half of the thirteenth century). and resolved to resort to the same spiritual weapon in order to place the dogmatic system of the Church on a firm basis. Published first at 8 Bonn 1833. the ' Deuterotai' ' (as distinguished Halachic teachers. v. Histoire du Peuple d' Israel (1893). Apart from the New Testament. and thanks to his association with Palestinian Amoraim has been able to hand down to us a number of most daring Midrashic expositions. XX . and ethical thought and teaching alike of Christianity and Islam was fashioned influence of Jewish Its The restricted to Jews. 350) already praises Midrashic preachers.. E.. p. Augustine introduced Midrash in their apologetic works. M. Sophoi').

It never closes a debate that would be V. 19-20. and Milton's Rabbinical Readings. danced....J.FOREWORD first representative in his of the new spirit in scholasticism. V. in virtue of the amazing consistency of its creation. fundamental characteristic of Midrash that it keeps its gates 1 3 make that claim.500 years later. If Lyra had not played the lyre (the tune). the first of by the scribe early Soferim and the which was strung perhaps by an anonymous 1. the most learned Christian Hebraist of the fourteenth century. pp. Neumann. Milton's Semitic Studies. its constructing his great epic Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained out of material supplied to sequel him from Midrashic sources. It exhibits an unbroken row of pearls last of the same high quality. pp. is also a most valuable proof It is a of the progressive spirit of the Jewish people. J. xxvi. E. xxi . V. whose influence on De is expressed in the well-known tag: Si Lyra non Lutherus non saltasset? made much use of Midrashic lyrasset material in his Postillae Perpetuae? And during the postReformation period. then the spirit which created the Midrash would entitle the Jews to the Midrash. R. xvm. F. If ever the spirit of a people could claim to possess the highest degree of consistency. shows Universo marked traces of Midrashic influence. Luther would not have J.. such a work is the by Midrash. Seidmann. pp. 245 ff. H. Fletcher. while Pascal in France was pressing Luther theological Midrashic ideas into the service of Jansenism in his 4 Milton in Puritan England was writings..E.J.. 3 V. At the same time open. 1 Nicholas de Lyra. and in the Midrash Rabbah we have before us a all monumental collection of the written testimony to this activity.E. 5 ITS UNBROKEN CONTINUITY We have seen the evidence of the centuries-long Midrashic activity. Guttmann. If ever a work was created the collective spirit of a people. 4 8 R. 177 ff. Pascal und das Alte Testament.

It is neither was in the 1. There built up no epoch during which the Midrash was being in the history of Israel a history. the urge for Quest (Derask). down the lid on the coffin of spiritual THE SONCINO TRANSLATION OF THE MIDRASH render more accessible this heritage from which humanity has drawn much that is best in its religion. All this militated against changes in And yet during this epoch when the nation was settling down. sequence. was never tamed in the course of the next fifteen centuries of Midrashic arose its 'Quest' has gone on and on unabated in of freedom. out of which the Midrash came into being. alas. making every possible effort to present the work in a social life. literary style whilst conforming as as possible to the original in matter and much xxu . to fill the written law where the necessity with the contents of tradition and aspiration. so rich in fateful which Midrashic debate would have been closed. a hierarchy of royal priests was installed. The Editors and Translators alike have executed their work judiciously and conscientiously. so that Israel's philosophical activity should be ready to agree to be muzzled. and the social order was stabilised. lucid. and providing footnotes wherever necessary to remove surface simple. This people was spiritually on the move even at a time when politically an extreme conservative attitude was to be expected. This urge to bring the formal truth into line with the organic truth. To and ethics is the chief aim of this translation. The Temple was rebuilt.500 years categorical nor exclusive. for the search into the depth of truth was going on with a force which we do not expect to meet in times of political ideological changes. The used in nailing freedom. ' ' tranquillity. which has been designed on a scale hitherto unattempted in any language. The hammer which awakens the spirit slumbering sparks in the rocks (Sanhedrin 34$) was never history.MIDRASH KABBAH inconsistent either with its form or spirit.

too. 1938. the ideals. XX 111 . first will have a new guide to the original which will him over many difficulties and enable him more concealed in apparent easily to discover the greatness lying and the unity of outlook underlying differences littleness. registering and aspirations have greatly fears. but this translation comes at a time a great sustaining achievements of that era can provide and stimulating force that are to to this generation and the generations I. as well as agreement.FOREWORD difficulties. come. hopes. 5%. JEWS' COLLEGE. The by presenting the Publishers. Eastern fact. and is The help unacquainted with Jewish and Rabbinic thought. when the changed. LONDON. The appeal made is not only to the student but also to the general reader 'who cares for some of these things*. the hopes and aspirations of the them to overcome persecupeople of Israel which enabled tions and temptations greater than any that have confronted other peoples. imagery as well as Western to The latter (the general reader) will have thrown open him a vast treasure-house into which have been gathered the faith. December 30. EPSTEIN. have contributed much work in a form which makes the reading pleasant and easy. Tebeth 8. The era over which the work of the Midrash extends seems far distant and the methods of expressing thoughts.

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owes its origin to the enterprise and idealism of Mr. the glosses of Luzzatto and Where these differ. of the labours of all these scholars. Jaffe. being meant for the general public. Each component work of the Midrash Rabbah is prefaced with an Introduction giving date and place of origin as far as these can be ascertained. They have been kept as brief as possible. The Talmudical dictionaries of Levy and Jastrow have of course been of great help. etc. and who same time literal enough to be of service to those require help in unravelling the original. the Governing first of the Soncino Press. J. Davidson. has been the aim of the Editors and Translators to produce a translation which shall on the one hand be of It absolutely faithful and accurate. and this is the first time that a complete rendering has been made of Director of the all them into any foreign language. and pointing out its distinguishing features its and characteristics. of which so many occur in the Midrash Rabbah. Full use has naturally been made of the standard commentaries on the Midrash the Matnoth Kehunah. and all elaborate discussion of scholastic points has been avoided. however. especially in the elucidation of the foreign mostly Greek words. the works of Einhorn and Strashun.EDITORIAL PREFACE THIS complete and unabridged English translation Midrash Rabbah. one of the monumental productions of Rabbinic literature. one opinion has usually been selected. In spite. and on the other hand as agreeable to read as the original itself. Notes have been added chiefly for the purpose of explainat the ing difficulties and allusions in the text. but alternative renderings are mentioned in the notes where they seem to offer points of special interest. and in spite of the fact that the Midrashic exposition of the Rabbis. had by its XXV . We hope that it will be found literary enough to satisfy the aesthetic taste. The magnitude of the be judged from the fact that the Midrash undertaking may Rabbah is a collection of ten separate works.

SIMON. to associate with them the name Soncino Press. M. there remain in the Midrash Rabbah a number of passages which for one reason or another have become involved in obscurity. In such cases the Editors have usually given the translation which appeared to them most probable. has transformed almost out of recognition. without entering into lengthy explanations. In conclusion we wish to express our warmest thanks to our colleagues who have co-operated so loyally with us. Rueff. of the has given most valuable and devoted help in checking references and assuring the accuracy of the work in many other ways. who BL FREEDMAN. and the meaning of which is more or less a matter of conjecture. A. and of Mr. XXV1 . This loan is word especially the case with passages containing some or words from a foreign language which a copyist. ignorant of that language. M.EDITORIAL PREFACE very nature to be easily intelligible.

and all edd. which contains very little Halachic matter. Sifre and Mekilta. Each chapter of the work is headed by the verse which is to be explained. The parashiyyoth are numbered in the printed edd. and thus the present work might be considered as supplementary to them. Bereshith derabbi Hosha'yah rabba. chapters) of Genesis Rabbah begin with proems. may Thus it is a combination of the running commentary with Most the homily complete in itself. to give the present work its Hebrew title. MSS. count 96 chapters up to the on Gen. in that it is a running commentary on Genesis. on the other books of the Pentateuch. and often even word by word. It is one of the oldest Midrashim. and Baraitha derabbi Oshaya. and open but not on the ' ' ' . 28 (beginning of Vayechi). whereas the others are homiletic Midrashim and do not comment on each verse separately. and the The total number varies from 97 to 101. as will be seen further on. XLVII. it was natural that they omitted Genesis. was also known under the names of Bereshith derabbi Osha'yah (Hosha'yah). The author of Halachoth Gedoloth ranged it not with the other Rabbah literature but with the Tannaitic Midrashim. Nevertheless it differs from the Tannaitic Midrashim which are fragmentary in character. such as always characterise the beginnings of homilies collected in the homiletic Midrashim. and prefaced by a number of comments on a different verse of the Bible. the last of which always leads back directly to the verse of Genesis under discussion. Its redaction dating not much later than the close of the Jerusalem Talmud. and be partly ascribed to the author of Genesis Rabbah. Nearly all exposition principle of division was based on the MSS. In form it differs from the other Rabbah Midrashim.INTRODUCTION BERESHITH Rabbah. of these introductory passages are anonymous. such as the Sifra. The ' closed parashiyyoth of the Biblical text xxvii itself. Bereshith Rabbah derabbi Oshaya ^Hoshayiah). These latter Tannaitic Midrashim being concerned mainly with Halachah. verse by verse. chiefly in that the parashiyyoth (sections.

at all in the best MSS. while in particular the story of Jacob and Esau. but rather to find in it teachings and messages needed by the problems which Thus the text was seen they encountered in their own days. but un- doubtedly much of the present work was added later and swelled its size. This tradition may mean that he was responsible for the work in its original form. The Rabbis were not concerned to elucidate the strictly meaning of the Biblical text according to the scientific canons of scholarship. as also in the edd. of contemporary thought. Ancient tradition ascribed the authorship of the work to R. It has been observed that the material on the first pericope. lavish scale than that on the other eleven pericopes indeed. its twenty-nine chapters constitute more than a quarter of the whole. This has led to the theory that may have formed part of a larger Haggadic work on Genesis which was either lost or remained incomplete. for example. for the sake of convendivided according to the pericopes are not marked ience. which was naturally of much smaller compass.. became a reflex of the the struggle between Judea and Rome. Esau symbolising military might of the Roman Empire and its ruthless conquest of the peoples. The material consists of homiletic and ethical interpreta- in one tions of the text. This larger work may have been called Bereshith Rabbah to distinguish it from the present smaller work preserved it xxvin . with all its drama and moving episodes. Hoshaya. was utilised as a means of combating heretical views on the dual nature of the Godhead. the pericopes of the one-year cycle nor in the editio princeps. The through the spectacles Creation story.. has been compiled 1 on a far more . whereby its year. and it is possible indeed that it was then given the name 'Bereshith Rabbah (the great Bereshith) to distinguish it from the original work. a Palestinian scholar belonging to the first generation of Amoraim who flourished in the third century of the current era. Though public reading may be completed the work is in the present translation.INTRODUCTION the Pentateuch into pericopes or weekly present division of the whole Pentateuch is divided so that portions. Bereshith.

. attention has been drawn to the fact. is The negatived by the fact that in the best MSS. and from Vayyishlach we find extensive passages bearing marks of the later Haggadah. within brackets. Genesis Rabbah is a Palestinian work. Hoshayah Kabbah. he is simply called R. Ecclesiastes. the designation 'Rabbah' which originally belonged to Genesis alone. Hoshayah. as it often does. is R. many passages are also found which are absent from the critical edition these have been added ('Scrolls/ viz. edd. Where this differs considerably from the edd. In the cur. was subsequently applied to the other Midrashic works on the books of the Pentateuch. either in the notes or in the text. But whatever its origin. but subsequently the name was applied not only to the first pericope but to the whole. XXIX . its editing took place some time after the redaction of the Jerusalem Talmud.. which in turn is based on the Codex Add. H.E. In Vayyigash the commentary is no longer verse by verse.INTRODUCTION in the other eleven pericopes. as in the present edition.. Hoshayah Rabbah. and thus ten distinct works were eventually included under the single title Midrash Rabbah. while much of Vayechi was probably drawn from the Tanhuma homilies. Ruth and Lamentations). and as has been stated above. Zunz holds that it was collected and edited in the sixth century C. as well as to the five Megilloih ' r Song of Songs. first scholar mentioned in this work in the edd.. and this has given rise to yet another theory that the name Bereshith Rabbah is a contraction of Bereshith derabbi Hoshayah Rabbah (the Bereshith of Rabbi Hoshayah the Great). however. But even then the text was still subject to accretions. FREEDMAN. Attention to such passages has been drawn in the notes. Esther. not R. 27169 of the British Museum. This theory. The present translation is based on Theodor's critical edition.

.

22). II. Ha'emunim (they that were clad i. the Torah. 'Amon' is a tutor. R. xi. The even then. 5). Art thou better than Alexandria the Great. 8)? which is rendered. covered) in scarlet (Lam. while some of them remained 'hidden' * E. i). verse. BEGINNING Lord made me 1 referring to the Torah. 'amon' means 1 and some say.* The speaker is the Torah (Wisdom) personified.e. public gaze. it was also covered up and hidden. their reasons are not known. iv. means hidden. 'amon' means hidden means great. As an omen I was by Him.e. 'brought up'. 3 that is situate among the rivers? Another interpretation: 'amon' is a workman (uman). vin. 'Amon' 'Amon' means covered. God created. This may mean that the laws of the Torah were unknown until the Revelation at Sinai. i. vin. 'Amon' means tutor. as in the verse.V. 7). Oshaya commenced [his exposition . etc. he concealed (omen) 2 means great. blessed be He/ In human practice. The Torah declares: 'I was the working tool of the Holy One. Midrash understands it to mean that Mordecai concealed her from the 3 Translation of the second half of the verse. as in the verse. sc.I GENESIS CHAPTER I BERESHITH i. as you read.). when a mortal king builds a palace. thus]: Then an d J was daily all delight (Prov. as in the IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED (i. The Torah was with God as with a tutor. while the Torah declares.[I. as in the verse. 'Amon' Art thou better than No-amon (Nah. The architect moreover does not build it out of his head. Thus the verse is translated By means of the 'beginning'. but employs plans and diagrams to know how to arrange the chambers and the wicket doors. 30). And Hadassah (Est. : . 'amon' covered. 12). by the Almighty (this is similar to E.V. Thus God consulted the Torah and created the world. (nursing-father) carrieth the sucking child (Num. referring to the preCreation era. he builds it not with his own skill but with the skill of an architect. 4 Here too the speaker is the Torah. ill. as a nursling (amon) . reared. The as the beginning of His way (Prov. as it were.

and silenced.) to think that he contemns My Glory! For R. . Jose b. the Midrash here is to refute that view. 26)..V. 'arrogantly') against the righteous (Ps. Huna quoted in Bar Kappara's name: Let the lying te'alamnah (Ps. 'Let them be lips be dumb made dumb. Or who made a man dumb illem (Ex. The passages that follow are sections 5 and 6 in cur. if one says. IJanina said: Whoever elevates himself at the cost of man's degradation has no share in the World to Come. * 1 Who Lit. they are regarded. For.. we were binding sheaves me'allemim allumim (Gen. Said Rab: Let him 4 have nought of Thine abundant goodness. 19): this means. In human practice.' as in the verse. and garbage. 8 Sc. abundant is Thy goodness".) in order to boast and say. 'I discourse on the Creation narrative! And contempt (ib.V. IV. The object of. however. is done at is written Oh how abundant is Thy goodness which Thou hast 3 up for them that fear Thee (ib. 5. dunghills.I. together with darkness. xxxvir. xxxi. as forms of matter which according to some who deny creatio ex nihilo was God's raw material in the creation of the world. Here. n). How much the the expense of] the glory of after it ? more then [when it God! And what '. 4 'nought in (in "Oh how 2) 5 E. who is the Life of all y worlds. 7). the mysteries of Creation. 'This palace is built on a site of sewers. while 'Let them be silenced' is its literal meaning. Gen. his fellow : R. 2 With pride (ib. viz. and garbage/ does he not discredit it? Thus. when an earthly monarch builds a palace on a site of sewers.' 'unformed and void'.) meaning. Which speak 'athak (E. 'Let them be bound. Huna said in Bar Kappara's name If the matter were not written. i. Let them be bound. [which speak] against [the will of] the Righteous One.' as you read. which were regarded as a subject of esoteric teaching fit for the very select few only. on matters which He has withheld (he'etik) from ! ' His creatures. irreverently disseminates esoteric teaching. and so is not of "them that fear Thee". it would be impossible to say it. made dumb. but are placed here in Th/s ed. loc. CREATED laid ! : GOD The Midrash here is In some disorder. whoever comes to say that this world was created out of tohu and bohu* and darkness. edd. behold. does he not indeed impair [God's glory] R. dunghills. cit. 5] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH R.

18). creation ' He revealeth 5 for it is written. as it is written. Judah b.). revealeth the 22). IN THE CREATED THE HEAVEN. loc. LET THERE BE LIGHT (i. not to be taught publicly (Y. XL. With a small h. as it is written.T. 2).) refers to the deeds of the righteous. Where AND THE is : that explained ? Elsewhere For He saith on the earth. Another interpretation : 'And He revealeth the deep things refers to the deeds of the wicked. which is likewise not explained. 2). 6). R. he. Woe unto them ' that seek deep to hide their counsel from the Lord (ib. Where is it explained? Who coverest Thyself with light as with (Ps. 15). Simon said: From the commence- ment of the world's etc. 5-6 HEAVEN AND EARTH. loc. Abba of Serungayya said: 'And the light dwelleth with him'* alludes to the royal Messiah. etc. Covert is understood to mean the Garden of Eden. is not explained. Light is sown for the their 3 righteous (Ps. 22) EARTH. : to the snow Fall thou AND GOD SAID: this. And the light dwelleth with Him (Dan. He knoweth what is in the darkness (Dan. 1 Elsewhere: a garment God first But * 3 A 4 8 created tohu and bohu. cit. works are in the darkness (Isa. Where then is it is not explained how.): this too refers to the And deeds of the wicked. And for a 2 refuge and for a covert (le-mistor). cit. Judah b. 3). *EJ. Ollt of what? Out EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (l. n). as it is written. as it is written. 1 6. R. xcvii. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. Elsewhere: That stretcheth explained? out the heavens as a curtain (Isa. But he knoweth not that the shades are there.). and the manner of too. but it BEGINNING GOD . He reveals to the prophets matters in connection with the Creation this is which were hidden and unknown heretofore. (Job xxxvii. He 11. Simon quoted: And secret things mesatratha (Dan.. 'And secret things' refers to the garden of Eden. . civ. etc. that in the depths of the nether world are her guests (Prov. ix. xxix. cit. The deep things' are the Gehenna. (Isa. of NOW ' THE deep and R. in view of his interpretation. place near Tiberias. 6). and out of these He created the world. iv. as it is written. the deep things ' . and Th.

I. II. blessed be He. IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED But the Lord God is the true 1 God(]tr. that came forth out of Caphtor. and dwelt in their stead (Deut. He wished. p. When He I 2. vol. point is The that panying verb is . Isaac truth . 2 8 Rashi and 'E. North of Jotapata in Galilee. 377 seq. Levi's name. cit. Graetz. THE is an assertion that created the world on the basis of justice and truth. He took BEGINNING ELOHIM CREATED. i) In the beginning the Gods created is not written here. And God spake all these words 2 (Ex. And no Thy judgperson can dispute 9 and maintain that two powers gave the Torah or two powers created the world. History of the Jews (Eng. This passage is directed against the Gnostics. destroyed them. * * Cf.: The opening statement of the Bible thus proclaims the truth that the Lord is God. This is the verse which introduces Revelation. n. and the IN opening verse of the Bible. 'The beginning of Thy word R. for it is He alone who created the world.] Thy creatures. Elohim (God) is His attribute as a God of justice. 1 He gave it to you and when . CXI. He though Elohim (God) is plural in form. Therefore 'And all Thy righteous ordinance endureth for ever (Ps. . 6).' is Thus. x. and there is none beside Him. but IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. etc. For in regard to every single decree which Thou dost promulgate concerning [corroborates the statement.J. For 'And the Gods spake is not written here. 7-2] 7. lo). n. Isaac: From the very commence(Ps. but. a. Joshua of Siknin 6 quoted in R. 4 wished. fie hath declared to His people the power of His works. xx. pp. 23) The world and the fullness thereof belong to God. 160). reveal to Israel what was created on the first day and on the second day. for surely The Caphtorim. trans. R. cxix. i. truth. v. Why did the Holy One. Mah. the accomalways in the singular. loc.). MIDRASH RABBAH and all is commenced with. in giving them the heritage of the nations (Ps. ment of the world's creation.). ? So that the nations of the world might not taunt Israel and say to them: 'Surely ye are a nation of robbers: think of that!* But Israel can retort: 'And do ye not hold yours as spoil. they affirm the righteousness of it ment and accept with faith. The beginning of Thy word Thy righteous ordinance endureth for ever Said R.

Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters Civ. i. . * I. 10). IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. as is shown 2 This was on the fifth day. and R. giving to His people the power of His works': it [I. I. that stretched forth the heavens alone. and on the same day He created the angels. the eye of a needle. (Ps. Tanhuma commenced with: For Thou art great. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) it to us/ Hence them the heritage of the nations. for it is written. not escape through them. Who achieved alone (tb. escapes. measured it in the middle but I am (Gen. and were created on the same day as all flying creatures. Who makest the spirits 1 angels (ib. 24) mi itti (who was with Me) is written who was associated with Me in the creation of the world ? : Ordinarily. 4). Michael stretched [the world] in the south and Gabriel in the north.. 2-3 from you and gave it is written. Luliani b. viz. Julianus b. Hanina said: They were created (Ps. doest wondrous things etc. yet though man is his breath does this? Thou God When were the angels created? R. that spread abroad the earth by Myself me-itti (ib.). Tabri 4 said in R. And (Isa. 6-8). by the latter verse. all agree that none were created on the first day. while the Holy One. R. Johanan said: They were created on the second day. Isaac's name: Whether we accept the view of R. 20). 3 Thus angels too fall within the category of beings that fly. as it is written.e. a mortal king is honoured in his realm and the great men of the realm are honoured with him. followed by. Irliyya said: If a gourd has a hole even as small as . Tanhum b. 3). XLIV. lest you should say. Wherefore ? Because they bear the burden [of state] with him. 2). 3 and it is written. which took place on the second day (Gen. fifth day. the Lord. all its air formed with many cavities and orifices. LXXXVI. R. blessed be He. 2 Thine on the And let fowl fly above the earth with twain he did fly R. etc. that maketh : all things. . 1 The former verse is interpreted as a poetic description of the dividing of the upper from the nether waters. vi. I^anina or that of R. Tiberius. Johanan. 'In He hath declared He declared the beginning to them. 3.

* ' I saw' is ' probably interpreted 1 I approve . Ze'ira said Repentance too. Six things the creation of the world. etc. 2). R. Ahabah b. but alone created His world. / saw your at her first season fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree 4 creation of] Israel was contemplated. 2).e. I still do not know which was first. prior to His works of old (Prov. Remember Thy congregation. which Thou hast gotten aforetime (Ps. GOD CREATED. as it is written. blessed be He. (ib. ix. Tanhuma quoted: 'For Thou art great and He doest wondrous Wherefore? 1 Because 'Thou God art alone': Thou alone didst create the world. Said R. IN THE BEGINNING created. generally speaking. Thou turnest man to contrition. for it is written. for it is written. [The is it is written. it is written. LXXIV. 2). while the creation of the others 2 The Torah and the Throne of Glory were contemplated. i.' IN THE BEGINNING 4. and sayest : Repent. the place of our sanctuary xvn. things. for it says. 17).e. as it is written. and 'works of old' means the Creation.I. (Ps. The name of Messiah was contemplated. 6 . ere His works of old.' which means. of His way. contemplation and decision are identical and 3 simultaneous with God. however. for it is written. on high from the beginning. 'Thy throne is established of old/ ' 1 * I. The Lord made me as the beginning of His way. R. io). is not so. 22). [The creation of] the Temple was contemplated. and : for from that very moment. ere that whereof it is written. 3 The Throne of Glory. wherein does His greatness lie? And. The creation of the Patriarchs was contemplated. LXXII. 3-4] MIDRASH KABBAH The Holy One. Hence. xcni. The Torah. Abba b. vm. CREATED. Kahana: The Torah preceded the Throne of The Lord made me as the beginning Glory. Thy throne established of old. R. His name existeth ere the sun (Ps. Before the mountains were brought forth. 12). He alone is glorified in His universe. The speaker is the Torah personified. 3). Thou throne GOD as (Jer. ye children of men (ib. I decided to create them. etc. whether the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. some of them were preceded was already actually created. xc. (Hos. of glory.

Jeremiah in the name of R. (Ex. Berekiah said: For the sake of Moses: And He saw the beginning [i. and pen for my son/ at which people remarked: 'He has no son: what does he want with ink and pen? Strange indeed! Subsequently they concluded: 'The king is an astrologer.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. * Bacher is inclined to read: R. Kohath. R.. reshith alludes to tithes. the Torah] founded the earth (Prov. and Moses. blessed be He. and first-fruits. R.xxvm. to Noah.' 10 from Noah to Abraham (Aboth v. for it is written.2. And he chose a first part.g. the Creation] 8 for Himself. Mattenah's name The world was created for the sake of three things: hallah.e. Levi. Huna. Joshua b. earth. again. Menahem and : R. reporting R. * I. 8. reshith alludes to first-fruits.Num. Joshua of Siknin in the name of R. IN THE BEGINNING (BE- RESHITH) for it is GOD CREATED. Isaac.' E. said: The intention to create Israel preceded everything else. Banayah said: ' R. Levi said in the name of R. first-fruits (reshith) The . I9). Of of thy corn (Deut. 2l). for there a portion of a ruler [sc. had not the Holy One. sition a can have that meaning) reshith God created heaven and earth.e. He would not have written therein. xvm. On one occasion the king was found going through the marketplace and giving orders: 'Take this ink. and had no son by her. Amram. Command the The world and the fullness thereof were created only for the sake of the Torah: The Lord for the sake of wisdom [i. Jacob. xv. This may be illustrated thus A king was : married to a certain lady. 20). and The 5 choicest (reshith) first-fruits of thy land. Levi. tithes. xxm. written. for it is written. Now reshith alludes to hallah.e. making S a E. and has actually foreseen that he is destined to beget a son Thus. etc. and then Isaac. in. 10 from Adam ' . XXXIII.V. Levi 6 1 A builder requires six things: water. Moses] was reserved (Deut. R. 4 : children of Israel!'2 R. God created the world for the sake of Moses who was to be born * Hence the verse is translated : For the sake of (the prepoin it. as it is said. Samuel b. 2). foreseen 1 ' ! that after twenty-six generations1 Israel would receive the Torah. 19). Huna said in R. the first (reshith) of your dough (Num. twenty-six in all. Viz. 4) finally. inkwell. 4-8 R.

that which is defective.. without form. wind he (ruah). Since at one time there were no depths. the depths: When e there were no depths. : . kedem me-az ('of old'). i. Kadme is plural in form. 4 He believed that God had created the world. XLV. . y) 5 darkness: I form the light. Gamaliel quoted: I make shalom (that which is whole. 'Woe to that man/ exclaimed. A certain philosopher asked R. or ever (mi-ka$me = mi-likadmjn in Aramaic) the earth was. but maintained (in the form of a question) that He had used primeval matter. ' 9. 3 him: 'Your God was inde. 5 By tohu and bohu the philosopher meant primeval matter. 13).. which was : . And a measuring reed in his measuring hand (Ezek. vni. Gamaliel. and create darkness (ib. 'The term "creation" is used by Scripture in connection with all of them. and the deep/ replied he.T. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH timber. canes. and 'E.' Tohu and bohu : I make peace and create evil (Isa. : 1 The word probably means bamboos or reeds which were only used in poor houses. the Torah) the first (kedem) of His works of old (me-'az). as it is written. and they were CXLVIII. by these viz. and mi-lekadmin ( or ever '). God must have created them. yet he surely requires a rod.) water Praise Him.). which counts as two. me-rosh (' from the beginning '). . And even if you say. 3 This is an allusion to Prov. XL. and iron. and createth the wind (Amos iv. i. but surely He found good materials which assisted Him?' 4 'What are they/ said he to him? Tohu. 24). eternal. 22 f The Lord made me (sc. darkness. consisting of matter only without form. 8 . stones. pp. 4) created (ib. vm. Thus that too was V. 2 creation of the world] ('the first'). A History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy. bohu.J. water. ye heavens of heavens. me-'olam ('from everlasting'). what contains both matter and form) and evil.I. XXIX f* Perhaps too this is an allusion to the view that matter is a source of created. Husik. saying to . and ye waters that are above the heavens (Ps. He is 1 wealthy and does not need canes.ed a great artist. Thus the Torah preceded [the six things. Thereupon R. .e. 2 The idea is that six expressions of precedence are employed in reference to the Torah (Y. lo. He thatformeth the mountains. I was brought forth (Prov. 6 evil. from the beginning (me-rosh). I was set tip from everlasting (me-'olam).e. 5) wind For. . wherefore ? For He commanded. 3).

* Beth ($) has the numerical value of two. said. Hag. this would refer to the backward projection of the beth. 9 upward and the other backward. 4 Another interpretation: why with a beth? Because it connotes blessing (berakah).GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. 7 Another interpretation Why not with an alef? In order not to provide a justification for heretics to plead. or to both space and time. 5 And why not with an alef? Q Because it connotes cursing. so when we ask * it. But they would have been able to plead that it could not endure in any 2 case. 7 Alef () is the first letter of arur ("mx). but you may not speculate on what was before that. thus beth a. blessed be He. seeing that it was created with the language of 8 cursing?' Hence the Holy One.v. 10 JO. Thus one may actually study or lecture (v. lib) on the Creation itself. This refers to the two taggin ('daggers') on the top of the beth. to explains that this may refer either to space or to time. 32) you may speculate from the day that days were created. 5 Beth is the first letter of the word berakah (fi^o). 3 I. whereby it differs from the kaf. Judah Pazzi lectured on the Creation story.) you may investigate. Aboth v. 2 Bar Kappara quoted: For ask now of the days past. 3 Why was it created with a beth? To teach you that there are two worlds. R. 9 5. I will create it with the language of blessing. Who 1 3 is the first letter: mwna. IN THE BEGINNING (BE-RESHITH) GOD CREATED. at the back. cursed. since the day that God created man upon the earth (Deut. 6 The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. to investigate what is before and what : but you b. read: and one below. in I^ag. na s. Levi's name: Why was the world created with a beth? 1 Just as the beth is closed at the sides but open in front. since the beginning of the Creation. i. And from one end of heaven unto the other (ib. one pointing : . 'How can the world endure. thus one points upwards and the other backwards. iv. : 9 . what is behind. and would that it may stand!' Another interpretation: why with a beth? Just as a beth has two projecting points. Tosaf. kqf 3. so you are not permitted is above and what is below. 8 Cf.e. Jonah said in R. The edd. where it is stated that the wicked destroy the world. 'Lo. R. which were before thee. may not investigate what was before this. in accordance with this interpretation of Bar Kappara.

pleading before Him Sovereign ' His name/ 1 R. 8). 'why is it written mem mem. 13^ bottom seq. R. 2). Leazar2 : of the Universe! I didst not create am the first of the letters. i. viz. in Sonc. when called alef? Because 6 denotes the sum of a thousand. stormy that the Sages did not attend the House of Assembly [i. R. itin&. Eleazar b. also S. p. Aha's name: For twenty-six generations 3 the alef complained before the Holy One. following the order of the Hebrew letters. 10 Lit.I. nun. ad Thus 1 . Abba: They are what the zofim day [i. Levi: 7 Manzapak is a Mosaic halachah from Sinai. 8 R.e.? IO .S. Abinah said in R. Edd. the backward projection points back to the alef. * More familiarly known as 'Eleazar but these Palestinian forms are retained in the translation. interprets He (God) agreed (i. adon (]m) is His name. R. contemplated) to give the Torah for a thousand (elef) generations.' etc. 3. and I^ag. But Yalkut reads: 'the Lord is One (inx) is His name. u. instead Hence the mnemonical form manzapak. Why are there two forms for mem.. Heb. blessed be He. : - 8 9 The double forms were then instituted. v Shab. 8 4 5 V. Jeremiah said in the name of R. n. yofim.e. i. the letters sb^ae. which is numerically one. r^x. 9 It once happened on a Seers] instituted. These have different forms when they come at the end of a word. yet ' ! Thou ' : world and its Thy world with me God answered The fullness were created for the sake of the Torah alone. said. ' He who is above created me.e. 7. 1040 and notes ad loc. nun nun. IJag.e. it points back to K. infra. ed. 9 Mah. children were there and they us study [the letters instituted by] the Seers. -OJK. 4. standing for JITK. lO-Il] ' MIDRASH KABBAH it created thee ? is intimates with ' its upward point. Simon said in the name of R. at Sinai. 6 viz. Some 'Come and let loc. XXVHI. IJanina. Hiyya b. v. Bar Hutah said: Why it To-morrow. xx. V. 'What : His name ? is it intimates to us with its back point The Lord b. The word which He commanded for a thousand (elef) generations (Ps. zade> 10 peh 9 and kaf? It teaches [that the Torah was transmitted] the Academy]. 7 This is a mnemonic: i. cv. Joshua b. p. n.' ' And if we ask further. I will am is it the I come to reveal My Torah commence with none but thee: / (anoki) 4 Lord your God" (Ex.e. 243. reads: 1*1 is His name. *J. connected with of kamanpaz.

etc. From Faithful to faithful from the Almighty. 2I). first half. who is designated righteous. said in the IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED. blessed be He. justifies the inclusion of his name.E. however. and from hand to hand. In human practice an earthly king is honoured in his 12. The Lord is righteous in all His ways (P s CXLV. xxxm. from Righteous to righteous. (From utterance to utterance from the utterance of the Holy One. apparently with reason. Moses] is faithful (E. B Or perhaps: or bestowed gifts upon them. which testifies to his achievements. as it is written. which mentions the ruler) is understood to refer a The bracketed passage is added from various MSS. v. and then his title. R. 8 They applied to them the verse. (Simeon b. Moses. From Righteous to righteous from God. Judah name of Aldlas 4 Him it is fitting to designate God. s. blessed be He. who is designated faithful. as it is written. 'Azzai quoted: great (n first And Thy Sam. 500:). to Moses who is designated righteous. 6) But the Holy One. in Israel. R. to the mouth of Moses. He [sc. Meg. 1 From mouth to mouth. Joshua. 36). to the utterance of Moses. and R. and who was said to be a relation by rnarriage to Hadrian. Soit A human may be. faithful King/' to Moses. Eliezer. xn. 7). In the corresponding passage in ].V. 11). "God. who is designated.v. (Prov. He executed the righteousness of the Lord (Deut. 17). "trusted") in all My house (Num. blessed be He. and-so of whatever title 1 being states his name thus: So-and-so the Prefect. J. and began his studies at an advanced age (v Ned. condescension [modesty] hath made me xxii. Eliezer and R. * The famous proselyte who translated the Bible into Greek. as it is written. Aquila. since he was a pupil of R. 11-12 from utterance to utterance. Even a child is known by his doings. I R. from mouth to mouth. verse (v.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. to the hand of Moses/ The scholars noted them. : realm even before he has built them public baths or 6 provided them with private baths. and they grew to be great sages . From hand to hand:) 2 from the hand of the Holy One. Radal.from the mouth of the Holy One. Akiba is omitted. XX. some say that they were R. Akiba. 6 Thus his name comes first and then his claim to greatness in the form of the title he bears. Joshua. from Faithful to faithful. to 3 The II .

God's name must be men* tioned only after the sacrifice.e. thought. however. Ned. will surely be blotted out from the world! THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH. as a meal-offering/ 'to the ' : Lord as a peace-offering but must declare [This be] a burntto the Lord/ 'a meal-offering to the Lord/ 'a offering peace-offering to the Lord'? Because it is stated: When 1 any man of you bringeth an offering unto the Lord (Lev. . Simeon b. is not so. : heavens written 3 For the actual reason v. 13. Mali. Now you can surely argue from this If when one is going to dedicate [a sacrifice] the Torah directs. since these were new creations. for He recorded His name only after creating the requirements of His universe I N T H E BEGINNING CREATED. This explains the use of the definite art. those created The^ aforetime. Only if it turns out as strong as he it can the upper planned portions be broader than the lower. 4 He had no need 12 . R. ' and then GOD. LXV. R. Huna said in the name of originally contemplated. loa. to modify His original designs. 'E. i. 2). Yohai taught: How do we know that one must not declare [I vow this] to the Lord as a burnt- offering/ 'to the Lord ' . I. 22) not new is 5 here. blessed be He.e. For.J. Let him cause the Divine Name to be related to nought but the sacrifice 2 then they who revile. The Holy One. heavens the six (Isa. viz. i. for otherwise. 17). ' ' . He built the heaven. it whereof is written. but 'the new'. art. Eliezer.: it intimates therefore that the new heavens are already but only potentially. blaspheme. and if he succeeds according 3 to his intentions. . Scripture should have written. the son of R. since days of Creation. viz. 'the'. and engage in idolatry.e.L 12-13] MIDRASH KABBAH : blessed be He. implies the specific new heavens. he must broaden it below and narrow it at the top. the heaven which he originally contemplated. Jose the Galilean: Even those 4 I create new have been created long ago. the earth which He : . For as the new remain before Me (ib. and the earth. as it is written. behold. he can widen it as the building rises. i. 'God created heaven and earth/ 5 def. R. LXVI. is not so. explains it differently. but if not. The Rabbis said: Mortal man builds an edifice. in God's created.

For it is no empty thing from you (Deut. 'this too. is to include the sun and EARTH is 15. 2 [who formulated the principle that] ak (save that) and rak (except) are limita3 tions. after building the nether portion he builds the upper. Of is followed by.' because whatever happened Nahum would say. what of the eth written here ? Said he to him If it stated. for it is written. herbage. 5 it is so on your account. 1 Ishmael asked R. [tell me]. and the Garden of Eden. * I. 'This too shall be for good' (v. R. I. xxxii. 8 text.e.) as in apposition 5 The o of EDO may be causative: if you find it empty. while Beth Hillel hold: The earth was first created. old Thou didst lay the foundations of the earth> viz. II. Ilai said: This supports Beth Hillel. or CE. The heaven is Throne. In the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven (Gen. IJanin said: From the very text which [apparently] supports Beth Shammai. and if it is empty. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [I. viz. 8 Which extend and add to the verse. in V.14. without the sign of the accusative they might be regarded as ' nominatives and additional subjectsof created'. THE moon. maintain: The heaven was first created. our with some variations. i). 26). No : ETH THE HEAVENS . And the earth was (Gen. * Eth is A name is ' through your own fault (Mah. On the view of Beth Hillel this is to be My compared to a king who builds a palace. town in Judea. en. it is to God'. R. 7 Beth Hillel refute them. R. Akiba: 'Since you have studied twentytwo years under Nahum of Gimzo. because you are unable to interpret ' ' : it [rightly]. 14-15 EXH THE HEAVENS AND ETH THE EARTH. the stars and planets to include trees. while eth and gam (also) are extensions. meaning which a the sign of the ace.). 13 . Hag. R. for it is written. 6 Beth Shammai WE-ETH THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH. "In the beginning God created heaven and earth/' we might have maintained that heaven and earth too are divine powers/ 4 Thereupon he cited to him. Ta'an. In the view of Beth Shammai this is parallel to the case of a king who first made his throne and then his footstool. 2). And the heavens are the work of Thy hands (Ps. 4). LXVI. 47). and the earth is My footstool (Isa. iza where this is repeated which heaven comes first.J. Judah b. 210). 7 Viz. By a play on words this frequently connected with gam zu.

In the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven. 14 . I N regards creation heaven THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED THE HEAVEN. Everywhere a father's honour is mentioned before the Aaron and Moses (Ex. Others. and also My My covenant with Abraham (Lev. R. These are that this teaches that they are 26): one place in Everywhere Joshua is one place it says. save Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite. R. and sometimes heaven over earth ? In fact it teaches that b. 15] It MIDRASH KABBAH : 1 had already existed [before heaven]. on a par. R. said As regards creation. they stand up together (Isa. 12): this teaches that they are on a par. xxxil. [as it is written]. mother's honour. for it is written. Everywhere Abraham is mentioned before Isaac. and the verse teaches that they are of equal importance precisely because neither took precedence of the other. yet in My it says. but in one place it says. The Sages. why the earth sometimes given precedence over the heaven. and his father (Lev. 3) : this teaches that both are on a par. Then will I covenant remember covenant with Jacob. Said R. XLVin. yet VI. and Isaac before Jacob. first. as it is written. regard this as a confirmation : if it is as my father states. it is right that they are not always mentioned in the same order. so called because by virtue of their teachings they were as spiritual fathers to all. however. whereas Tanhuma: I will state the in respect of completion earth took precedence. heaven its lid. XIX. with Isaac. is 3 they are equal to each other. heaven was reporting the Sages. earth that grounds [of this opinion]: as was first. 1 a Translating hayyethah as a pluperfect: had been. 13). as regards completion. mentioned before Caleb. and also this teaches that the three are on a par. yet in one place it says. 8 But has no bearing on precedence. Johanan. 42): Everywhere Moses is mentioned before Aaron. for a pot and surely both were created [simultaneously] like unto them [sc. When I call and earth]. R. was first.I. Eleazar Simeon observed: If my father's view is right. and Joshua the son of Nun (Num. Simeon observed: I am amazed that the fathers of the world 2 engage in controversy over this matter. xxvi. Ye shall fear every man his mother.

'Both of us were bought on the same bill of she does sale. it was waste and void earth] . Strange indeed!' R. 'yet not stir from the palace while against me he has decreed x The words to formulate a reason his mind not being able are connected with tohu and bohu and void of all understanding for the grounds of y his treatment. do not eat. 23). 2). NOW THE EARTH AND DARKNESS WAS UPON THE FACE OF THE DEEP. while the other he ordered his bread. n). and. Abbahu said: This may be compared to the case of a king who bought two slaves on the same bill of sale and at the same price. NOW R. while for the other he decreed banishment. R. Simon said: Compare this case to a king who bought two bondmaids. I. etc. One he commanded not to stir out from the palace. the public expense. whereas the terrestial beings. THE EARTH WAS TOHU E. R. R. Said R. The latter sat bewildered and astonished. man] were created at the same time: yet the celestial beings are fed by the radiance of the Shechinah. 'The celestial beings [sc. she produced thorns and so the prophet was one day destined to prophesy of her. saying. 1-2 (BERESHITH) WAS UNFORMED AND VOID. Berekiah quoted: Even a child II is CHAPTER known by it his doings. lo. Simon [gave the following illustrations]. AND THE SPIRIT OF GOD HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS (i. xx. if it is they do not toil. 'yet he is supported from the treasury whilst I have to gain my bread by my toil!' Thus the supported to toil at for : 1 earth sat bewildered and astonished. / beheld the earth. iv. (Jer. Judah b. The latter sat bewildered and astonished1 'Both of us were bought at the same price. One he ordered to be 2.V. R. exclaimed he. and whether be right (Prov. Berekiah: While she [the was as yet immature [in her infancy]. . 'UNFORMED*. whether his work be pure. and at the same price/ she exclaimed. Abbahu and R.[II. the angels] and the terrestial ones [sc. Judah b. both on the same bill of sale and at the same price.

3. xxix. 15). 2 Thus the earth foresaw that she was destined to meet her doom at the hand of man. blessed be He ' : same day were all the fountains of the great THE up (Gen. banishment. Simon Now interpreted the text as referring to the genera- THE EARTH WAS UNFORMED: to Adam. 6 9 Cf. in. 6 i. 354). 15. p. Said the How long shall the Universe One. R. saying. AND Holy go on as it in darkness 5 : Let the light come I'So. 3 (p. further. XLI. infra. Who He hath raised up one from the east. 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH amazing Thus the earth sat bewildered and astonished. Judah this refers b. the generations of the On the deep broken SPIRIT (RUAH) OF GOD HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS corresponds to And God made a wind (ruah) to pass over the earth (ib. Why? Because she knew that she was fated to receive punishment at his hand. who UPON THE Flood : FACE OF THE DEEP. vin. 1 6 . ! How * AND THE EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (BEWILDERED AND ASTONISHED). Therefore THE EARTH WAS TOHU AND BOHU (DESOLATE AND ANXIOUS). Cursed is the ground for thy sake (Gen.* AND to complete nothingness [on refers to Cain. Tanhuma said: This may be 1 compared to a royal infant sleeping in his cot while his nurse sat by anxious and troubled. xxrv. i). i. XLIII. 5) AND symbolises Jacob. tions. moral and religious darkness. Sc.II. Cf. : ANDGODSAID: Abraham. NOW THE EARTH WAS UNFORMED. R. infra Ch. * On his account. n. (Isa. 'The celestial and the terrestial beings were created at the same time: why do the former live [eternally]. whereas the latter are mortal?' Therefore. n). whom calleth in righteousness to GOD CALLED THE LIGHT DAY 1 His foot (i. 2)? 6 LET THERE BE LIGHT is this alludes to written. as it is written. VOID desired to turn the world back to formlessness and emptiness. R. V. 3 AND DARKNESS symbolises the generation of Enosh: And their works are in the dark (Isa. 17). which refers to this generation. * Chaos being the inevitable result of lawlessness. vn. who was reduced account of his sin]. etc.

6 I. Lakish applied the passage to the Powers. stirs over the waters. it was tohu E. so one cannot plumb [the depths of iniquity of] this wicked State. hovers '. 2 and. 2). caused by God. infra. blessed be He.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [II.e. ONE DAY [teaches] that the Holy One. . iv. Tobu and bohu are applied to Babylonia and Media (Persia) respectively in the sense that they caused chaos and destruction. ' ' ' breeze. in. vi. thus the verse means that at all times a ' . EARTH WAS TOHU (E.e. * The reference is to Antiochus who endeavoured to annihilate Judaism * and implant Hellenism in its stead write on the horn of an ox probably B Pesilf. 1 is Simeon b. Pour out thy heart like water (Lam. Pedath A covenant was made with water 6 that even in the hot season a breeze stirs over it. that? the 4.V. i4). it is the one day over which Satan. i. 2 Jeremiah refers to the desolation wrought by the conquering might of Babylonia. and also stresses the present tense of merahefeth) lit. xi. which darkened AND DARK- the eyes of with its decrees. In the merit of what will [this spirit] eventually come ? [For the sake of that which] HOVERED OVER THE FACE OF THE WATERS. Jacob.V. NESS symbolises Greece.: to the wicked implies a public disavowal of Judaism. 8. 23) R. V. Rome. 7 He translates ruah literally. R. /o.e. 'VOID') symbolises Media: They hastened 3 (wa-yabhillu) to bring Haman (Est. R. wind.e. II. AND THE SPIRIT OF GOD HOVERED: spirit of shall rest this alludes to the Messiah. cf. 17 c . and wa-yabhillu is linked up with 'bohu'. Mah. and they brought desolation to him. Or possibly wa-yabhillu is read: wayabo bohu lo. as you read. 7 : 1 I. it is the eternal nature of water* State of Edom i. [foreign] 'UNFORMED') symbolises Babylonia: / beheld the earth. ordering Israel. Haggai said in the name of R. 'Write on the horn of an ox that ye have no portion in the God of Israel/ 4 UPON THE FACE just as the great OF THE DEEP this wicked State 5 : deep cannot be plumbed. . AND BOHU Israel (E. 3-4 AND THE DARKNESS HE CALLED NIGHT. has no power. Esau AND THERE WAS EVENING Esau AND THERE WAS MORNING. 8 This happened in Media. as it is written. And the spirit of the Lord upon him (Isa. in the merit of repentance which is likened to water. gave him one [unique] day: and which Day of Atonement. 19). 'waste' (Jer. NOWTHE . symbolising the wickedness of Esau.

wrapped him once and a second time. I still might not know in which of these He delights. Hiyya the Elder. as R. Abbahu. Joshua's rejoinder shows. 'What means this. foresaw the deeds of the righteous and the deeds of the wicked. Rabbi/ are the feet/ he urged. Ben Zoma!' exclaimed he: 'whence when R. blew. who thinks that or mystical question on the Creation. R. R. The commentaries which are * by Theodor. But from what is written. 'I call earth to witness that I will not stir hence until 'From nowhere. 1 AND The passage all is difficult. like a bird flying and flapping with its wings.AND GOD SAID: to the actions of the righteous. but HOVERED. in Abbahu and R. In either case his reply seems to have been a refusal to answer. It once happened that Simeon in Zoma was standing Joshua passed and speculation. NOW alludes to the deeds of the wicked THE EARTH WAS FORMLESS AND VOID . rejected offer several explanations. the former or the latter. IJiyya Rabbah 4 were engaged discussion. this was an esoteric Or possibly '*) is an abbreviation for a^ii (feet) Theodor.II. this passage is introduced by 'R. LET THERE BE LIGHT. its wings barely touching [the nest over which it hovers]/ Thereupon R. Abbahu said: From the very beginning 5. Hiyya b. 'For it not written here. and designated Rabbah (the Great or Elder) to distinguish him from the Amora of the same name* 18 . 8 Passed away he has immersed himself too deeply in supra-mundane thought the Creation and is no longer for this world. 'I was the Creation [and have come to the conclucontemplating waters there sion] that between the upper and the nether me whence but two or three fingerbreadths/ he answered. of the world's creation the Holy One. must be meant here. an Amora. a Tanna. In Pesifc. 'The son of Zoma has gone/ 3 But a few days elapsed and the son of Zoma was in his is is ANDTHESPIRITOF GOD [eternal] home. without his answering greeted him. R. xxi. however. Abba. At the third time he answered him in confusion. 4~"5] MIDRASH RABBAH b. are the feet?' 1 heaven and you inform 2 replied he. blessed be He. in which case it refers to R. Joshua turned to his disciples and remarked to them. 4 Since he is coupled with R. Hiyya Rabbah taught (tarn*)'. Thus.

destroyed. and IN THE BEGINNING GOD CREATED [symbolises the Temple] built.V. i. I. etc. lo. THAT IT WAS GOOD 4). 'UNFORMED') alludes to [the rebuilt. . blessed be He. That I may plant the heavens. as you read. 23). 'waste' (Jer. risen for thy light is come. / beheld the earth. rebuilt and firmly it AND GOD is established in the Messianic era. will come the foundations are laid when God will say Thou art'. shine. I6). was tohu E. and not the deeds of the wicked. LI. and say unto 1 Zion: Thou art people (Isa. (l. Mah. EARTH WAS TOHU (E. LX. and. and the glory of the Lord i). and lay the foundations of the earth. Btiyya Kabbah said From : He the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. Arise.e. 5 GOD SAW THE follows that LIGHT. ' upon 1 thee.e. foresaw the Temple built. My Now THE Temple] destroyed. R. (Isa. iv.. it desires the deeds of the righteous. as you read.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [II.V. etc. which to pass with the rebuilding of Zion and the Temple. as you read.

how good it is (Prov. (Ps. 'In the answer of his mouth. wrapped Himself therein as in 20 . who wished to build a palace. R. ' ' : : : b. Samuel b. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. 130). Simeon b. . III (BERESHITH) (i. xv.III. how good THAT 4. Berekiah man hath joy in R. Nahrnan: 'As I have heard that you are a master of haggadah. to know to lay the foundations first. Yohai commenced: and a word in season. Simeon me whence the light was created?' He replied: *The Holy One. 3) 3. XV. and R. Nehemiah disagree. but the site was a dark What did he do? He lit lamps and lanterns. AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT. Judan b. The opening of Thy words giveth light and preached The opening of Thy mouth was light to us A N D GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. 23) 'A Man hath joy alludes to the Holy One. R. tell AND GOD b. Nehemiah said: this being similar to the The world was created king who built a palace and then adorned it with lights. etc. Samuel b. R. IT WAS GOOD. blessed be He. A the answer of his mouth. 6): not by labour or toil but only by GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. R. R. Judah came. Isaac opened with: The opening of Thy words giveth light. 1- CHAPTER i. Judah and R. Isaac. SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT. it giveth understanding unto the simple (Ps. IJanin in the name of R. R. R. Judah Simon: By the word of the Lord were the heavens made. Simon interpret. R. But R. and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth a word.' viz. AND 2. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT 3). this being comparable to a king one. R. cxix. Jehozadak asked R. where first. blessed be He The Lord is a Man of war (Ex. commenced in the name of R. ! ' : . XXXHI. Phinehas and R. Thus far did R. Judah maintains: The light was created first. it is': 'And a word thus it is written. in like manner was the light created R. thus. AND GOD in season.

Certainly not. said: 'Light* is written five times [in this corresponding to the Books of His Torah. which with numerous laws. has. Now GOD paragraph]. Berekiah remarked: Had not R. too. and His voice was like the sound of many waters . 4-5 and irradiated with the lustre of His majesty the whole world from one end to the other/ Now he had answered him in a whisper. blessed be He. Now His glory is nought else but the Temple. and so explicitly in edd. Thou place of our sanctuary (Jer. 3 the first words of Exodus. XLIII. viz. as it is said. engaged in the creation of His world AND THERE WAS LIGHT. with numerous laws. to Numbers. similarly Lit. what did they say [on the matter]? R. 3 in which it is told how the Israelites went forth from Egypt. There is a verse which states it explicitly: Who coverest * Thyself with light as with a garment (Ps.K. to Leviticus.. Berekiah said in R. said it! : 2 the glory of the God of Israel came from the east . yet you it in a whisper!' 'Just as I heard it in a whisper. whereupon he observed. ' objected. ' ' 5. This passage. light. and the earth did shine with His glory (Ezek.' he rejoined. a AND GOD CALLED identical 5 ! THE LIGHT DAY: now 1 surely light and day are Thu: publicly. which also contains much repetition of the previous Books (M. civ.GENESIS (BERESHITH) a robe [III. to Exodus. Isaac taught it. 2 21 . as we would have regarded it as esoteric lore. 1 could we have say Before this. But. AND GOD DIVIDED to THE LIGHT. Isaac's name The light was created from the place of the Temple. AND GOD CALLED THE LIGHT which is filled ' [DAY].). xvn. behold. 'now these are the names' 4 the names of the Books which follow. Simon SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHT corresponds to which is recorded that the Holy One. 2). which divides between those who departed from Egypt and those who entered the [holy] land. they [his hearers] 4 Is not Leviticus filled with numerous laws ? repetition. And. out of darkness into Genesis. R. Why have two similar allusions ? 5 Hence it is fitting that this verse should correspond to Deuteronomy. as you read: Thou throne of glory. so have I told it to you in a whisper. R. in . on high from the beginning. Deuteronomy. 2). AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT. 12). is filled etc.

7 This first light which He created.e.V. 6 R. Nehemiah said It refers to the seven days of mourning for Methuselah. '. 'divided') is thus connected with the ceremony of habdalah. identical with Paneas.. 26). infra. by by day. and R. originally called 'Strato's Tower'. seeing that the luminaries were created on the fourth day 2 It is like a man who says. and light the light of the moon shall be as the light the light of the sun shall be sevenfold. It which was created in the six it 1 days of Creation cannot illumine nor eclipse the light of the sun.. and Sanh. the son of R.III. as the there of the seven days (Isa. 7. bore that name (i) Caesarea by the Sea. AND GOD SAW THE LIGHT. io8&. Our Rabbis said: He set it a king 1 who had apart for the righteous for the future. 2 xxxn. and some 75 miles from Jerusalem. blessed be He.e. Moreover of the sun. of 4 8 V. 6] : MIDRASH KABBAH was taught The light 6. not seven. 5 Abbahu. I am pro3 viding so much for the seven days of my [wedding] feast/ R. which rendered the first light superfluous. Several cities : which 6 it was the A ceremony. not that shed by the sun. 3 Though he does not intend it to suffice for the whole period. Then where is it? It stored up for the righteous in the Messianic future. enjoy R. and (iii) Csesarea in Cappadocia. and we learn that it can be done only when the that one light is seen. Seven! surely ' ! were but three. the light which came into existence at God's command. when the Holy One. in which the distinction between these and non-holy days is mentioned. Ze'ira. Simon 7 said: He [God] set it apart for Himself. xxx. (ii) Caesarea Philippi. 54#). as says. The light of the seven days is the special light created by God's fiat 'Let there be light' But this served for three days only. Part of the ceremony consists of pronouncing a blessing over light (v. 22 . just like a goodly portion [served to him at table]. though it did not serve for so long. of Sabbaths and festivals. called habdalah (division). Judah b. Wayyabdel (E. R. : lavished light 4 upon them. because would it was is it created only to illumine by day. enjoyed. Ze'ira states must actually benefit from the light before he may pronounce the blessing. since the sun was created on the fourth day. I. because night. i. is performed at the termination capital. Similarly we speak of the light of the seven days.AND HE PRONOUNCED A DIVISION. lectured in Caesarea : Whence do we know that you must not recite a blessing over a lamp unless you can its light? From this: ANDHESAW. Pes.

DAY 5). went on creating AND THERE WAS EVENING. Judah b.e. is NESS CALLED 7. Simeon 'And he divided' (wayyabdel) conImagine a king who had two chiefs of the guards. and the THE DARKdarkness God called Night. [for service at] saying to it. * vince/ by] AND THE DARKNESS CALLED HE ' Thus GOD CALLED THELIGHT [for service DAY. having created them. summoning the second he addressed him. XLV. And God called the light Day. 'The day shall be thy province'. i. blessed be He.GENESIS (BERESHITH) but set It [III. R. : (Job. 12) dayspring really to know it its strange 'twere indeed! And caused the 'twere amazing! hast thou place (ib. I make peace R. 'I must have command by day/ Thereupon the king summoned the first and said to him. the day shall be your province'. 'So-and-so. but only with good. The Holy One. when it should function. R. So-and-so. saying to it. each claiming. one in command by day and the other in command at night. aside for his son. hast thou appointed a place for day. R. 2 R. Y. but AND etc. 6-7 two men b. Abbahu said: This proves that the Holy One. Lakish. Johanan and R. Simon said: 'Let there be evening* 1 can hardly be treated as a causative. R. time to funcTanhuma said: I can cite the grounds [for : this statement] I form the light. does not His name with evil. between them. peace (Isa. blessed be He.e.T. and create darkness. night shall be your pro- expound it: notes a literal division. Thus it is not written here. as here.) made tion in]!' 1 R. who used to quarrel with one another. not written here. known which is its place [i. 'Night shall be thy province/ R. HE NIGHT. but AND THERE WAS EVENING: hence we know that a time-order existed before this. 7). He makes (i. * By rendering: And evening (already) was ere now. said to Job NIGHT. thinks it is understood as yaadeta. Yada'ta (%taZ) it probable that 23 . blessed Johanan Hast thou commanded the morning? be He. observed: That is what the Holy One. xxxviii. AND GOD CALLED THE Eleazar said: link LIGHT. Berekiah said: Thus did of world renown.

IJanina said: The angels were created on the fifth day. He DAY: righteous. Tabri The deduction is from behold (hinneh). 'And the creation the earth was desolate' alludes to the deeds of the wicked: 'And God said: Let there be light. Jannai said : From the very beginning of the world's Holy One. and. blessed be He. I. blessed be He. Judan said: The day in which the Holy One. to the deeds of the WAS MORNING. the Holy One. 'And the darkness called night.' to the deeds of the righteous 'And God made a division between the light and the darkness between the deeds of the righteous and those of the wicked. Johanan but not with R. 9. 13. the Day of Atonement. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters. earth. and it is written. And with twain he did fly (Isa. For R. makest the spirits Thine angels (Ps. foresaw the deeds of the righteous and the deeds of the wicked. Others translate the day when a new heaven. I. supra. Abbahu's reason And God saw it was very good everything that He had made. 'And God called the light day' alludes 'And God saw . infra. 20). R. : : : 8. cf. 1 (Gen. Tanhum was on the day on which unique things were 3 heaven. IJanina. to those of the AND THERE WAS wicked. and it is written. as it is said.III. supra. 3f). R. civ.e. the light. blessed be He. 4 as it is written. : 24 . vi. 2). 3. and light. was good. Phinehas said This is R. gave them one day. Luliani b.' to those of the righteous . that ' it : to the deeds of the righteous. 'This one pleases Me. and light were created. but those did not please Me. was One in His universe. R. This agrees with R. x. cf. i. And let fowl fly above the earth (Gen. xi. and which is that? It is the Day of Judgment. earth. 31) this pleases Me. which implies that now saw was very good 2 only what He in His eyes. AND THERE ONE created. viz. 5. Who said: It EVENING. * Hence it was not on the first day only that God was unique and alone in the universe. those did not please Me/ R. n.' to those of the wicked . 8 Of each of these there is only one . behold. Cf. 2 R. Johanan said: The angels were created on the second day. 7-8] MIDRASH KABBAH worlds and destroying them until He created this one and declared. R.

Michael stretched [the world] in the south of the firmament and Gabriel in the north. and thereby His original design to be at one with man is fulfilled. it in the middle but / am the Lord that maketh all things . here symbolised by the erection of the When ' Temple. 9 This was the first day that the priesthood functioned in the sacrificial services. blessed be He.said in R. as it says. XL.e. : two. 4 though on that day I created My world. blessed be He. For what will you if it is a matter of time reckoning. the third day\ etc. Ammi said: From the beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. but surely not. R. 8 On that day they began bringing their dedication gifts. za). z creation narrative should either state. GENESIS (BERESHITH) Isaac's name: Whether we accept [III. 4 This is deduced from the def. ' did He restore the designation 'first day which is lacking from the Creation narrative (M. 8 the priesthood. 3. that stretched forth the heavens alone . the first of the world's creation.. I. three. meaning. ' Instead of which it states one day '. 8-9 the view of R. first in respect of kings. lest you should say. Thus the world is not really created until man does God's will. I. or the first day. third! 3 2 second. 2). who was associated with Me in the creation of the world P 1 measured . two days. repay them ? At the erection of the Tabernacle. 12). 7 the princes. 5 It was pre-eminent in ten respects. Hence 'yom ehad' (one day) really means: the day when He designed to be at one with man. that spread abroad the earth by Myself me-itti (ib. His handiwork. for God said. blessed be He. 24) mi itti (who was with Me?) is written. XLIV. etc. the'. the' second day. or first. one. longed to enter into partnership with the mortals. and continues with the second day '. while the Holy One. art. The world thus requires the harmonious co-operation of God and man.H. 9 and the 'It is as 5 day took ten crowns : 1 V.' That 6 it was the first of the creation. And he that presented his offering the first day (Num. Hanina or of R. Johanan. for previously the firstborn had performed these duties. Samuel b. vn. three days. : 9. 7 Kings date their reigns from the first day of Nisan (v. it should say either one. supra. R. all agree that none were created on the first day. third.). one day. second. 25 . and its harmony and unity are broken * The when man 3 sins. When did the Holy One.K. it was the first day of the week. etc. and on that day the Tabernacle was erected (Ex.

as it is said. 22-27) was pronounced for the first time. where there are several variations. and the descending of fire 1 4 fire. 876. 8)) it was first in 2 respect of blessing. 24). The priestly blessing (v. Shechinah. . xxv. sacrificial service. that 1 (as it says. 9] MIDRASH KABBAH . And let them make Me a sanctuary^ I may dwell among them (Ex. And 5 there came forth from before the Lord (Lev. ix.III. vi. 4 Fire descended on that day from heaven for the first time. 3 Before the erection of the Tabernacle private sacrifices could be offered at any high place. Num. the prohibition of 3 high places. 2 The Shechinah dwelt there for the first time. and the public sacrificial services were then inaugurated. killing at the north [side of the Altar]. Shab. 6 V.

1 2 E.V. Simon said: The fire came forth from above and burnished the face of the firmament. civ. 13). 'R. Rab said: [God's] handiwork [the heavens] was in fluid form. but was itself explained thereby. and on the second day it congealed.[IV. Jacob b. xv. Samuel b. here connected with ra&'a. IJanina taught me well/ R. timber. Ex. LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT IN THE MIDST OF THE WATERS. IJanina said: The fire came forth from (Ex. Abina in R. and the nether heavens and the uppermost heavens were formed. Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters. 1-2 CHAPTER IV (BERESHITH) i. AND GOD etc. Abba b. ordered. Wayyerake'u. etc. rjanina. Berekiah and R. fire] the heavens are smoothed E. Judah b. Nahman: When the Holy One. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT. 6). an earthly monarch builds a palace and roofs it over with stones. roofed over His world with nought but water. Phinehas and R.V. R. When R. blessed be He. R. as it is said. Bun said it in the name of R. Who roofs In human Thine upper chambers with water (Ps. Simon said: Let a lining be made for the firmament. he would say. Kahana's name said: The creation story was used [by the prophet] to throw light upon Revelation. * ' . while R. thus LET THERE BE A FIRMAMENT means 'Let the firmament be made strong*. 3). Johanan came to the verse. but the Holy One. R. the middle layer of water solidified. xxxix. as 3 they did beat the gold into thin plates R. 2 THERE BE A FIRMAMENT. And R. R. R. Jacob b. FIRMAMENT It IS Written. 3). By His breath [sc. and earth. 1 affairs.' a V. ' 2J . 22. Who roofs Thine upper chambers with water SAID: LET thus. Our Rabbis said the following in the name of R. blessed be He. 2. Judan b. you read. above and dried up the face of the firmament. R. 'serene' (Job xxvi. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE A IN THE MIDST OF THE WATERS (l.

which r ' ' 28 . LET THERE BE A THE MIDST OF THE WATERS. meaning. fire burneth through 1 Thus As when : which intimates that they divided [between the upper and the nether waters]. Similarly. 'Bring me a water-clock/ 6 he added. at the creation of the world. so is there a void between the firmament and the upper waters. whose primary purpose is to teach us about Revelation by likening it to the Creation. R. lies directly 3 upon the firmament itself. it was even as when fire burned through and divided the upper from the nether waters. 'And between the waters which are above the firmament. tells us something new about the Creation itself. . It would appear to mean a clepsydra. Since. LXIV. and so this verse. And God made . and their fruits are the rain.IV. But it is not actually stated elsewhere that fire did act thus at the Creation. as it IN is written. Aha said: 4 It is like [the flame of] a lamp. Meir: 'Is it possible that the water is suspended by [God's] word?' 'Yes/ he upper answered. 'As when fire kindleth brushwood'. it is stated. 4 5 Which seems to be suspended in the air. etc. 2 The meaning . 5 Samaritan asked R. the dripping being the rain we enjoy. is this The O rend the heavens. : that Thou wouldst previous verse states. When he 4. which is not the same as upon (*al) . 8 He stresses the word above ' (me-'al'). Now when did the fire divide between the upper and the nether: surely at the Revelation! So 2 it was. The bottom was perforated with such small holes that if the upper aperture was completely closed the water would not flow out from the bottom* Levi : a syringe or squirt. Tanhuma it said.V. a contrivance for measuring time by the flow of water. R. however. and He divided which are upon the firmament. said in R. it follows that the upper 3 waters are suspended by the word [of God]. The meaning of the word is doubtful. If the firmament. the fire at Revelation divided the terrestial beings (men) from the upper (celestial spheres). and interprets the verses as meaning that when God rent the heavens to give the Torah.. between the waters I would say that the water said: I will state the proof. 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH into parts (Isa. too. . i). R. Phinehas void between the earth and the firmament. midway be- FIRMAMENT tween them. is followed by 'As when fire burneth into parts' The Midrash applies the former verse to Revelation. 1 A E. The upper waters drip through the heat of the firmament. Oshaya's name: As there is a 3.

how much the more is this true of the fountain : ' : ' ' : ! : 1 2 Thus remaining suspended in spite of the Mah. Said he to him 'Now all that perspiration. He who he. he placed a gold plate upon it.GENESIS (BERESHITH) brought [IV. the water stood still. which means. and 'EJ. Said Is it possible that The river of God is full of he to him water (Ps. but the water did not stand still. "Do / not fill heaven 'If you. Then the Lord answered Job out of the sa'arah E. and weigh yourself before you enter and after you have gone in/ replied he. as it is written. 4 it. 10) since the six days of Creation and has not been diminished at all it is incredible 3 Go in and bathe. blessed be He Hence the upper waters are suspended by [God's] word/ Said he to him: 'Is it possible that He of whom it is written. 1 'But you have put your ringer there/ he objected. But as soon as he placed his finger [upon the aperture]. Susay said At times the world and its fullness cannot contain His glory. did it not ooze from you?' 'Yes/ answered he. 8 Whence then comes the rain ? 29 . from between the hairs (sa'aroth) of his head. xxm. ! ' a small 2 mirror/ large. 'diminishing the reference being to a convex and a concave mirror respectively. Ania b. how much more so the finger of the Holy One. 'See your flesh and blood/ said how much more existence! Thus are but 'can change yourself at will. When he brought it he said to him. though I am but flesh and blood.V. . LXV. small. 'If my finger stays the water. 'Bring saw it. 'Look at your reflection/ and he saw it. translate 'magnifying' and holes beneath 1 it. xxxvin. He went and weighed himself. 24) spoke to Moses from between the two staves of the Ark ? 'Bring me a large mirror/ said he. so He at whose word the world came into when He so wishes. but the water did not stand still. Do / not fill heaven and earth? (Jer. and his weight had not diminished at all. then a silver plate. though you are but a mere mortal. and earth? '\ while when He wishes. i). yet at times He speaks to man from between the hairs of his head. He speaks to Moses from between the staves of the Ark/ R. reflection in it/ me He brought it. 'whirlwind' (Job. 'Then if your fountain [of perspiration] did not in any way diminish.

peleg (the river). [Thus it is written. hence the (half). *The Rabbis held that the rain descended from heaven. meaning palga The firmament is like a lake. [where yigra' is used] in the sense of And an abatement shall be made (we-nigra') from thy it.* [for it is written. before they have dropped a distance of two or three fingerbreadths they intermingle. 10. it exudes heavy drops of water. which descend R. XL. xm. yet these [raindrops] have been travelling so many years without intermingling. 3 R. 14) the use of hug' in both verses teaches that they are alike. 4~5] of the is MIDRASH KABBAH river of Holy One. 30 . ! into the salt water yet do not combine with 2 valuation (Lev. 4 5 1 2 A dry and liquid measure. R. infra. R. and it has not diminished at all/ R. R. blessed be He. The second verse obviously means a calculated deduction. xxvn. Simon said: The reason is that He causes them to descend in measure. i8). The son of Pazzi said: The upper waters exceed the lower ones by about thirty xestes. took half in the firmament all and half 1 the primeval water and poured into the ocean. and through the heat of the lake the vault exudes moisture . It is He that sitteth above the circle (hug) of the earth (Isa. R.] AND LET IT DIVIDE THE WATERS FROM THE In the verse just quoted. IJanina's ' : name: [It is but as] thick as a metal plate. And He walketh in the circuit (hug) of the heaven (Job xxn. Johanan said: The Holy One. Jonah observed: Do not wonder thereat. The thing is indeed miraculous For when a man is sifting wheat or stubble in a sieve. 4 The thickness of the firmament equals that of the earth: compare. Nehemiah said: It is about two fingers in thickness. V. is word 5. for lo! the Jordan passes through the lake of Tiberias yet does not mingle with it. and above the lake a vault.] For He draweth away (yigra') the drops of water (Job xxxvi. equalling nearly a pint. and yet no drop has ever touched another.IV. blessed be He! Hence "The God full of water'' since the six days of Creation. 22) with. Aha said in R. which is a distance of many years' journey above the earth. Judah b. 27). Joshua b. and he understands the first in a similar sense : He calculatingly draweth away t etc.

[as it is written. Johanan explained. [as it is DIVIDE THE WATERS. Samuel Nahman said: Because the making of the waters was not finished 6 consequently 'for it was good' is written twice in connection with the third day. and all the host 3 of them by the breath of His mouth (Ps. Jose: 'Why is "for it was good" not written in connection with the second day?' 'Even so. Hebrew letters and let there ' ' 31 . it everything that a 2 He had made. AND GOD MADE THE FIRMAMENT (i. replied he. 5-6 2 WATERS (LA-MAYIM): said: lamed 1 is thirty. 5 R. day. once in respect of the making of the waters and a second time on account of the work done on that day. [Roman] lady asked R. xxx. 7). lianina said: Because in it day schism was created. but not a day before yester* Whereas 'for it was good' is applicable only to a completed work. Jose b.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [IV. and. 'For a hearth is ordered of old'. The thirty (measures of) water. Tabyomi IT written. [as it is written. 6. 33).* which signifies a day to which there was a yesterday but not a before yesterday.e.] said: If because of AND LET a division made for the greater stability and orderliness of the world. He interprets the verse thus: be a difference between the upper and nether waters of s Whereas 'made' implies work. 6). Our Rabbis They are half and half [i. R. R. 'for it was good' is not written in connection with that day. : A 1 them all [in this description]. for it is said. IJalafta: Because on it the Gehenna was created. xxxin.V. This is one of the verses over which the son of Zoma raised a commotion: He made how remarkable! surely it [came into existence] at [God's] word. behold. equal]. 'it [the text] subsequently included ! b. 6 There was a yesterday to the second day.] By the word of the Lord were the heavens made. 1 have numerical values. difficulty remains unanswered (Theodor). 4 Tofteh being the Gehenna.] For Tofteh is ordered from yesterday (Isa. Why is 'that it was good' not written in connection with the second day? R. and it was also thus taught in the name of R. And God saw was very good* ln n^n ?. then how much the more should this apply to a division which leads to its confusion R. E.

R. while the one would (Gen. Tanhum b. Gen. Nahman. : Then he explained it a second time only have one sixth in the same way as R. blessed be He. Levi said in the name of R. 2 In Sot. And when she saw that he was good (Ex. to i. viz. Hence 'for it was good' is written twice in connection with the third day. V. xxni. n. the generation of the Flood.) as meaning that his name was ' Tob' (good). R. 32 . Said she to him: 'Supposing six men came and you gave a maneh to all but one. V. 1-9. i. infra. Declaring the end from the beginning (Isa. through his sin at the waters of Meribah * (Num. 'Since the generation of Enosh. for they [the heavens] weigh Hence the subsequent inclusion still leaves the second day worse off than the others. once on account of the making of the waters and a second time on account of the work done on that day. and then you you gave a second maneh to all of them [jointly] would not each now have a maneh and a sixth. the waters. XLVI. and from them the heaven was made. Samuel b. Kahana said name: The Holy One. Joshua b.t>. 12 f). 8). the generation of the separation of races 4 were punished 5 through them [the waters].e. R. Meir explained the verse. Abba b. who had a very stern Levi: This legion. nection therewith. 7. Rab said: [Shamayim is a compound and mayim (water). AND GOD CALLED THE FIRMAMENT HEAVEN SHAMAYIM (i.IV. 2 g. let it not bear my name/ Thus the Holy One. because the making of the water was not finished. 8 Sc. 'for it ' 1 ! was good' 2 and that he was destined to be punished through them3 therefore 'for it was good' is not written in con. 120 R. xi. xx. Ilanilai: It is written. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH 31). said. let "for written in connection therewith/ it was good" not be 7. blessed be He. and 'Since this legion is so stern. took fire and water and beat them up together. of] esh (fire) in Rab's SHAMAYIM 1 is written. and said. 10): from the very beginning of the world's creation God foresaw [the existence of] Moses who was called. Simon said in the is similar to the king name of R.

The : . 8). whereupon. it quivers. their solidifying was the work of the second day. 6) but if not. n). xcvn. civ. [It is so called] because men wonder SHAMAYIM: at it.e. be laden with water. saying: 'Of what (shelmdK) is it composed ? Of fire ? Of water ? "Tis a mystery R. 3): this shows that it is of water. 27). 1 I. so red. : sammim (chemicals): just as others red. Phinehas said in R. The pillars of heaven quiver (Job xxvi. 'And there was evening and there was morning. Similarly. The heavens shall reveal his iniquity (Job xx. R. 7 heavens declare his righteousness (Ps. 1 That agrees with Rab's dictum: [God's] handiwork was liquid and on the second day it congealed. then the solidifying substance was infused into them. means are like] blue. but as soon as a drop of rennet falls into it. [IV. Isaac said: [SHAMAYIM means] sa-mayim. * it : [SHAMAYIM some chemicals others white. some black and is heaven sometimes it is blue. Levi's name: It [Scripture] comes and explains (mishtommemim) ' ! Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters' (Ps.e. sometimes sometimes black and sometimes white. i. a second day' (Gen.up (shamim) GENESIS (BERESHITH) the deeds of men if one is worthy. I. it immediately curdles and stands still. 33 . Compare this to milk in a bowl: before a drop of rennet falls into it.

*If these. written. Similarly.. and translated: waters then fled to their appointed place. I. I. It is written. etc. rise early and pay their respects with gestures. Abba b. as it is . Civ. R..CHAPTER V (BERESHITH) i. PLACE. And a line 2 (kaw) shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem (Zech. instead of covering the ' Yifckawu* is thus derived from $aw a measuring let the waters be confined to a definite measure 3 or quantity. From the voices of many waters and what did they proclaim ? The Lord on high is mighty (ib. Berekiah explained it At Thy rebuke they fled (Ps. with their fingers and with their handkerchiefs. with their fingers and with their kerchiefs. how much more would they do so if they possessed all their faculties!' Thereupon the king tenanted it with men gifted with speech. } The 34 . etc. [so perform] what I will one day do by means of them. 3 Said the king. Said the Holy One. Kahana explained it in R. who are dumb. how much more [will I be praised] when man is (Ps. AND LET THE DRY LAND APPEAR (Gen. R. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS . which in the name of R. Or. 1 LET THE WATERS BE GATHERED TOGETHER (YIKKAWU) UNTO ONE PLACE. blessed be He: 'If these which have neither mouth nor speech praise Me. spears. asserting. Abba b. 7). explains. BE GATHERED TOGETHER. the praise of the Almighty ascended from nought but the water.). who arose and seized the palace. 'This is not the king's palace: it is our palace!' 'Then let the as to palace return to its original state/ the king ordered. line. Yoma: Let there be a measure set for the water. XCIH. Levi's name thus: Let the waters be gathered together for My purpose. Compare this to a king who built a palace and tenanted it with dumb people who used to rise early and pay their respects to the king with gestures. as you read. 4) 1 2 whole world. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS UNDER THE HEAVEN BE GATHERED TOGETHER UNTO ONE 9). at the very beginning of the world's creation. i6).

the generation of the Flood arose and rebelled against Him . and they dry up. as it were. 2 vii. also He sendeth them out. 3). infra. Abba b. 'But whither shall we go/ asked they? 'Let the floods take up (dokyam)/ 4 replied He. to . R. Joshua b. blessed be He. what does he do to them? He unties them. IJananiah said: 5 the receptacle (diksa) of the sea. Eliezer said: The sea absorbed them. as you read. 'their roaring' them. derekyam (to the way of the sea). Levi said: [' Dokyam '] means. 'Let us Holy One. yet you actually say. tread down all the 3 primeval waters and remove them into the Ocean. R. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights arose ' : (Gen. and He deflated 4 E. Kahana interpreted it: To such and such a place (dok\ to such and such a corner. 35 . I2). 6 I. permits their air to escape. it also says. 7. R. Even so did the Holy One. Berekiah observed: The whole world was one mass of water. 1-3 created!' But the generation of Enosh arose and rebelled 1 against Him . the generation of the Separation [of tongues] and rebelled against Him. blessed be He'.e. R. be gathered together at the Creation. Judan and R. and they overturn the earth (Job xii. Levi said: it is The fiat go and obey the thus written.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [V. Hast thou entered into the of the sea (Job xxxvin. lifted The floods have up their voice. R. When the king needs their place. 8). Behold\ He [consumeth] the waters. R. and removes them into a corner. as it written. Thereupon the Holy One. into the To springs 1 & It was for this purpose that the waters were V. xxm. (Ps.V. 2. said Let these be removed and the former arise and come [in their place]/ Hence it is written. 8 The waters having been hitherto inflated. of the waters said to each other. etc. And He treadeth upon the waves is of the sea 3. to the place specially prepared to receive the waters. 16)? Which means. blessed be He. R. xcin. INTO ONE PLACE This may be compared to ten inflated wine! skins lying in a chamber. 15). (ib. IX. Huna explained: To this sea (ha-dak yama).

And the sea returned (le-ethano) E. Johanan said: The Holy One. . xxix. 2 R. 3). n). I commanded and the moon to stand still before Joshua. xxxn. E. /. they descended into valleys unto the place which Thou hast founded for them (Ps. in accordance with its agreement (li-tenao). s. ye and I will speak (Deut. thus it is written. Eleazar said: a stipulation.V. He bindeth the streams from weeping (Job xxvni. I to commanded before the sea to divide. Jast. iitea^. as it is written. R. 4.e. 12). Berekiah said: The upper waters parted from the nether waters with weeping. Tanhuma adduced it from the following: He hath made the earth at the voice of His giving a multitude of by His power . blessed be He. the son of voice of the 'Azzai and the son of voice of the Zoma. xiv. I Moses. as you read.V. I commanded the fire etc. Joshua b. and the heavens be silent heavens. Now 'voice' refers A voice is heard in (ib. Levi said: Some interpreters. . Ramah. Not with the sea alone did God make XLV. we are broken: (dakkim): receive us. bitter weeping xxxi. lamentation and 5. civ. 27): i.v. x. waters in the heavens (Jer. as The it is written. He assigned their courses. 3~5] MIDRASH RABBAH sea. i. commanded the ravens to feed Elijah 1 * . 'to its strength' (Ex. but with everything which was created in the six days of creation. the waters (Ps. The R. R. . 8): which place hast Thou founded for them? The Ocean. They ascended the mountains.g. 12 f). R. R. Jeremiah b. even My hands.V. made a stipulation with the sea that it should divide before Israel. Lord became a guide 1 Lord is over interpret: to the waters. until they came to the Ocean [Mediterranean]. R. e. i). as it is written. the sun as it says. and all their host have I commanded (Isa. We Our Rabbis interpreted it: receive us. as it is written. Nehemiah said: The waters waters absorbed by the are crushed ascended mountains and descended into the depths. have stretched out the heavens. Give ear. 15).e. to nought but weeping. V. 'that they trickle not'.

10). com- manded the lions not to harm Daniel the heavens to open before Ezekiei.' Wherefore then [is it written]. 6. 14): all that He has done is in order That men should fear y before Him its (ib. ill. Take same 1 as a handful. one fistful equalling two handfuls. 7) ? In order that All the inhabitants of the world may stand in awe of Him (ib. yet all Israel stood In truth.). and ix. Now R. yet ONE PLACE! In truth. And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock (Num. blessed be He. hofen is normally A 37 . 8. xxxm. of Moses contain eight handfuls 2 For a fistful is not the IX. IJana. Similarly. xx. and Azariah. Could then one fistful furnace (Ex. we learn that the little held the much. and layeth up the deeps in storehouses (Ps. from this we learn that the little held the Similarly. 7. from this you say. s. so that the inhabitants might see it and fear him.v. And God hath so made it (Eccl. Hanina said: It was but the UNTO size of the there ! opening of a small sieve. That calleth for the waters of the sea and poureth them out 1 upon the face of the earthy twice? Once was in the generation of Enosh. a Hofen is the hollow of the hand formed by bending the fingers so as to'touch the wrist. a man empties a full vessel into an empty one. whereupon the king sent a strong legion against and marched them round it. why Gathereth He the waters of the sea together as a heap. and a second time in the generation of the Separation [of races]. Compare this to a country that rebelled king. jon and funp). Thus He reversed His previous decree that the waters should be confined to one place. . 'Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place. to you handfuls of the soot of the said R. R. the fish to vomit forth Jonah. 6.GENESIS (BERESHITH) to [V. yet In Amos v. 8). saying. issued a decree. 5-7 I do no hurt to Hananiah. In human practice. fcomez is the bending of the three middle fingers over the hollow of the hand (Jast. does he ever empty a full vessel into a full vessel? Now the world was full of water everywhere. 8): ! much. Eleazar said: From the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. Even so. Mishael.

R. Johanan went up to inquire after the wellbeing of R. Cf. 8. xxvir. vm. we learn observed: The length of the Similarly R. enlarge [thy space]. Moses alone. 10).e. they stood pressed together. (Josh. our Rabbis said: He squeezed them between is the two staves of the Ark. LIV. (Ex. Huna said: He made them stand between the staves of the Ark. R. (i. and receive thy hosts/ as it is said. and he found him sitting and lecturing on this (t The throne verse: 'At that time they shall call Jerusalem the Lord". etc. 'he made them lean' perhaps it means that he made them stand * so that one had to press against his neighbour (Th. Hanina. so that none should hear his neighbour's be thus. 2). xvu. and all the nations shall be gathered unto it. ' R. will order it: 'Lengthen [thy boundaries]. of %omez)> 8 kemagim in in each hand. Berekiah in R. viz. it shall time they shall call Jerusalem The Throne of the Lord\ and all the nations shall be gathered unto it (Jer.)? so that one written. 38 . 5. At that prayer. = all. in. Jose b. Jonah said: Each had four cubits. a cubit on each side. And in Jerusalem. 'God Almighty' (Gen. AND GOD CALLED THE DRY LAND ERETZ EARTH 10). 18). Enlarge the place of thy tent (Isa. And let Moses throw of Moses actually contained eight handfuls! From that the little held the much. too. xr. Aha's name. It was I who said and Moses and Aaron both took a hofen and then Moses took it in one handful . Iama said: He crowded them between the staves of the*Ark. Nathan commented in R. 5* two fyemaisim (pi. The Holy One. 3 R. Halafta court shall be a hundred cubits.' of Said he to him Can : it then hold [them all] ! It is amazing ! blessed be He. R. 9). this. and R. too.).V. R. Said Joshua to them: Hereby ye shall know that the living God among you (ib. from this we learn that the Israel stood there! is little held the much. 2 1 v.V. Aboth V. etc. Ex. 17). * Lit. Similarly. however. And Joshua said unto the children of Israel: Come hither. yet all 2 In fact. Isaac's name I am El Shaddai E. 7~8] it MIDRASH KABBAH fistful it (ib. i). 8. Why ERETZ? Because she conformed (razethah) : to His will (razori). R. And in the future. yet 4 when they prostrated themselves they had ample room. Lev. in. I. Samuel b.

conjectures that . insects. R. Three entered for judgment. Isaac of Magdala 7 there would be benefit too. 'who (said) enough. did not do thus. s. Nathan's name: (i.v. 8 The Rabbis held that all seas are connected and therefore one. R. Aspamia 8 * 7 refers to Apamea in the north of Palestine. HERB YIELDING SEED. is from because the taste of a fish caught at Acco is disthat of one caught at Sidon and Aspamia. Then let it produce [pests as 5 6 In that large as] a camel? Said R. J. : 1 2 Interpreting Shaddai(y) as sha-day. For day to the earth. Or possibly they are thinking here simply of the 'Great Sea* (the Mediterranean) 4 Acco and Sidon are on the Phoenician coast. Cursed is the ground (Gen. which means that it would produce accursed things for him [Adam]. 74^: the sea of Aspamia. and fleas. thinking to do the will (i. v.' 'World' will now connote heaven and earth.B. in. it A town near Tiberias. 8-9 world2 'day*. said thus: LET THE EARTH PUT FORTH GRASS. B. Yet surely there is but one sea? Why then is it stated AND THE GATHERING TOGETHER OF THE WATERS CALLED HE SEAS? 3 The reason similar 9. Judah b. however. yet four came out guilty. Shalom said: Because she disobeyed [God's] command. as it is written. ' ' 1 ' AND THE GATHERING TOGETHER OF THE WATERS CALLED HE SEAS (ib. Adam and Eve and the serpent entered for judgment. so should the tree be THE edible.GENESIS (BERESHITH) to the earth. HERB YIELDING SEED AFTER ITS KIND. The bracketed addition gives Theodor's explanation of this passage. n). She. blessed be He. 4 AND GOD etc. Though could be killed and put to use. 'day' (enough). Phinehas said She exceeded His command. 39 . For the Holy One. SAID: It LETTHEEARTH PUT FORTH was taught in R. Now why was [the earth] punished? R. AND TREE BEARING FRUIT 12) : the fruit could be eaten but not the tree.E. AND FRUIT-TREE BEARING FRUIT: just as the fruit is eaten. and to the had I not said day to the heaven and ' [V. whereas the earth was punished with them. but : GRASS AND EARTH BROUGHT FORTH GRASS. cf. a pest. Th. they would have continued to extend even until now.). such as gnats. 17).

captains. Said He to them. Judah's view. 13). 9] of MIDRASH KABBAH Creator: her thus AND TREE BEARING FRUIT Now implies that even non-fruit-bearing trees yielded fruit. the trees began to tremble. shalishim Thus means men of 8 Iron cannot harm the strength. But on R. Captains (shalishim) and councillors. 1 as you read. tree unless the tree first furnishes a handle for the . why was she cursed? It is in fact as one might say: 'Cursed be the breast that suckled such a one as this/ AND THERE WAS EVENING AND THERE WAS MORNING. Phinehas's view.V. strong and lofty trees.e. 'Why do you tremble? Let none of your wood enter one of you shall be harmed/ 3 1 2 it. no difficulty arises on R. 23). i. the day in which strong ones were created. all of them riding 2 upon horses (Ezek. XXIH. A THIRD DAY SHELISHI (ib. But when iron was created.e. and not I. transf.

The Jewish year is lunar. Johanan commented: The orb of the sun alone was created to give light. XXXHI. 6za. AND GOD SAID: LET THERE BE LIGHTS (i. it is called the fifteenth of the month. 6 and yet the peoples of the world treat them . foresaw that the peoples of the world would treat them as divinities. then so far there were only thirteen sunsets? 4 Hence it follows that we count not from the moon but from sunset. Azariah said in R. blessed be He. R. 'For seasons': in order to sanctify new 1 R. 3 Justa is an abbreviation of Justus or Justinus. R.): from the sun one knows its coming [sc. (Num. an associate. the evening of Friday. of the month]. 3) but if you count by the moon. on the fifteenth day of the first month. civ. a fortnight after. for we count the beginning of the month 3 only from sunset. If so. we see that the month was calculated from the first sunset tithes * . while the actual New Moon occurred after midday on the preceding Wednesday it is further assumed that when this happens the moon is not visible until the second evening following. 14). 41 . 2 The townlet of Temarta in Judea. Habra (K"Dn) may either be part of the name or mean a haber. why was the moon created? Because the Holy One. then by the Thursday on which they left. moon 5 The reference is possibly to the eclipse of the sun and the (commentaries). after the New Moon. Johanan's : ' : sun alone was created to give light yet if so. why was the moon created? moons and its years thereby. Hanina's name The orb of the said in R. Justa Habra said in R.e.[VI. IIul. Shila of Kefar Temarta 2 name: Yet even so. one of a body who were particularly scrupulous in their observance of the laws of 1 and purity. 19). opposed to each other. R. etc. The sun knoweth coming (ib. Since. there would only have been thirteen sunsets. Berekiah/s name: And they journeyed from Rameses in the first month. however. Hence if we counted time solely from when the New Moon is visible. This is based on the tradition that the Nisan (the first month of the Jewish year) in which the Exodus took place fell on a Thursday. i CHAPTER VI (BERESHITH) i. Said the Lord: 'If they are two. and the actual fixing of the months and the years depends on the moon. i. though a month is intercalated in leap years in order to harmonise the lunar with the solar years. Johanan began thus: Who appointest the moon for seasons (Ps.

' utter song to Thee by day. 29). It is the night under Thy control. R. Phinehas in R. 2 years. loc* cit. xxxi. Simon's actually . as it 42 . as it says. AND FOR DAYS: to the beginnings AND YEARS means the sanctification of the months. R. and when Thou performest miracles for us by night.e. . Thou didst perform miracles for us by day. and we uttered song perform to Thee by night Ye shall have a song as in the night when a feast is hallowed (Isa. Ex. Simon's name: Both were created in order to give light. MIDRASH KABBAH how much more would they do so if there were but one!' R. 16)! The reason is because it into its neighbour's territory. 1 6): to. 16). 8 R. Thine also the night (Ps. Thine is the day Thine also is the miracles for us by night. the proclamation of the New Year by the proper authorities. is sometimes seen by day upon the domain of the sun. where the Sabbath is called a sign. When Thou performest and when Thou miracles for us by day. and Thou 3. LXXIV. ' ' .VI. to Thee the night so is gives praise. 8 The moon were. thus Then sang Deborah and Barak Abinoam on that day (Judg.). said : After slur [on them GREAT. 1-3] as divinities. Tanhum and calling name a . wherefore? because song to : the son of : Thou hast established luminary and sun (Ps. (i. i). 2. I. To Thee it is becoming to utter song by day and by night. xxx. Just as the day is under Thy control. we utter song to Thee by night. performest we night: When Thou performest miracles for us by day. too. and thus encroaches. Thou didst miracles for us by night. AND LET THEM BE FOR LIGHTS. Berekiah said in R. AND LET THEM BE FOR SIGNS: this refers to the Sabbaths1 AND FOR SEASONS: to the three pilgrimage of the festivals. hast made THE TWO GREAT LIGHTS. . Thine is the day. and we uttered Thee by day. Thee the day gives praise. v. 17. AND GOD MADE THE TWO GREAT LIGHTS written. He casts one by writing] THE GREAT LIGHT AND (i. Phinehas said : penetrated THE SMALL LIGHT 1 2 Cf. etc.

the city council and the people shall go out with him. but has nought in the World to Come. IJul. which is large just as the sun rules by day but not by night. ii. Jacob counts by the moon. so has Jacob a portion in this world and in the World to Come. xxvin. Jose b. and His glory . the light of the smaller one becomes noticeable. 5. behold. Therefore I need a sin-offering. as it is written. xxvin. R.e. 16). but upon thee the Lord will arise. Nahman: That is a happy augury. which is small. think how much more one is deserving of this who enters without permission R. two governors. even so. I decree whenever he goes out. And one he-goat for a sin-offering for the Lord (Num. cf. passim. For. And one hegoat for a sin-offering* whereas in respect of New Moon it is written. R. Nahrnan made another observation. distinguished. 6o&. Rome. said: 'It was I who caused it to enter its neighbour's domain. the city 1 * Num. as long as the light of Esau prevails. 3 I. but when the light of Esau sets. shall be seen upon thee (Isa. Nahman said As long as the light of the greater luminary functions. one ruling in the city and king who had the other in a province. Said R. LX. thus: R. shine. AND THE STARS that has humbled himself to rule in the city only. blessed be He. xxix. Said the king: 'Since the former 4. so does Esau enjoy this world. which ! : is small just as the moon rules by day and by night. Levi said in the name of R. 43 . the moon] which entered with permission was thus disparaged by Holy Writ. Esau 3 counts [time] by the sun. and the small by the small. 22.' 2 Then if that [sc. which is large. Lai: It is but natural that the great should count by the great. . the light of the smaller one is not noticeable. Arise. that of Jacob shall be : : . 3-4 In respect of all other sacrifices it is written. Esau counts by the sun. the light of Jacob cannot be distinguished. Aha said: Imagine a (i. but when the light of the greater one sets. 15): The Holy One. and whenever he enters. darkness shall cover the earth. and Jacob by the moon. and gross darkness the peoples. i f).GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VI.

the luminaries. xxir. Joshua b. What did he earn thereby? He attained the birthright. And I (Ezek. 'SET') 18). Aha said: Why was he called Joktan? Because he humbled himself. Said birth records that he Do we ! not know from.VI. R. The luminaries? . [is he rewarded]. as My vengeance upon Edom. 26-9). Simon: Peace. HEAVEN AND GOD will give you rains (Lev. and laid it upon Ephraim's head.. the stars shall come forth with her. 17). how much the more so. 6). Rain? Then I R. who each produced a family Joktan was Peleg's younger brother. cv. 14). etc* Our Rabbis say: Compassion too: He gave say. And Israel stretched out his right hand. 25). And his brother's name was Joktan lit. too. 36). Judah b. XLVIII. . What comes did he earn thereby P 1 families. Then contents himself with a humble position. x. 'he shall be small' (Gen. Nehemiah said Salvation too Thou hast also given me the shield of Thy salvation (n Sam.V. and when she goes in [disappears]. the Torah. it says. vengeance too. R. gave unto Moses GAVE (E. viz. Tanhuma said Eretz Israel too And He gave them the lands etc. the stars shall go in with her/ Similarly we read. R. T^unia: (ib. 2 He was Now if this is privileged to beget thirteen so with the younger. 4). given and rain. . And I will give peace (ib. blessed be He. Marion said: 8 8 *to attain a privilege through merit'. THEM. Similarly. who was the younger R. xxv. as it says. 'Azariah said in the name of R. XXVI. : : : : of the nations (Ps. Jonathan said: Three things were (i. 44). thirteen children. will give Some them 1 also to be pitied (Ps. R. the was the younger But younger (za'ir) means that he reduced (meza'ir) himself. as a gift to the world. AND GOD SET THEM IN THE FIRMAMENT OF THE R. Isaac b. say humbled itself to rule by night. . 46)* R. 4~SJ MIDRASH KABBAH : council and the people shall enter with him/ Thus did 'Since the moon the Holy One. 3 then when a great man is content with a humble position. Zakah denotes He had (ib. if a great man the how much more 5. Whence do we know it of the Torah? And He the two tables of testimony (Ex. cvi. R. 14). xxxi. I decree that when she forth.

6 * Or The Rabbis perhaps. as it AND GOD SET THEM IN THE RAKl'A OF THE HEAVEN. Essa. v. R. 3)? But he paid no heed to the words of either. from about the middle of October end of December. but my prayers are submerged by those of the whole congregation. east of the lake of Tiberias. believed that there were seven heavens. bind your foot. set? In the second heaven (raki'a). 7 From . do not travel after Tabernacles. IJiyya of Kefar Hagin was in Asia Minor 4 and wished to make a sea journey. 8 An institution consisting of 80 or 120 men (the sources vary) said to have been founded by Ezra. Abbahu's name This verse is explicit. 6) thus where are all their hosts set? In the second 'raki'a'. 'Pray for me/ he asked his brother. Joshua b. [thus fulfilling the verse] And moreover he have no burial' (Eccl. with all their host (Neh. when the seas show their 'might'.GENESIS (BERESHITH) The [VI. vi. the heaven of heavens. 7 This is the meaning attached to The heaven of heavens. to the travel. even Thou alone. the earth to the 'raki'a' v. Hiyya b. R. ix. Said a [Roman] matron to him: 'I am astonished that one should set out at this time of the year/ His father appeared to him in a dream [and admonished him] My son [would you die] without burial. 'Why should we pray for you/ replied he: 'where you bind up your palm branch.e. Tanhum b. ' : ! 6. Cohen. and that [fate] did befall him. as rain naturally increases the dangers of sea The Feast of Lights. heaven itself meaning the first one. That one is able to travel at all then by sea is a gift of God. 16) from Pentecost until the Festival [sc. the name of the second being ra&'a (firmament). 3 I can pray for your safety. XLIII. and the men of the Great Assembly 6 further explained. do not rely upon my prayers/ R. the brother of R. 5-6 crossing of the Great Sea too: Thus saith the Lord. 126. R. 2 If you enter the synagogue and hear [the congregation] praying for 3 rain. 2 I. Tabernacles]. Thou hast made the heaven. being stormswept. And a path in the 1 mighty waters from the Festival until Hanukkah. : which 1 is above the heaven. 22b i. 45 . Shab. who giveth a way in the sea (Isa. as the sea is dangerous then. Abba. Where are the spheres of the sun 5 and the moon says. : Phinehas said in R.e. Thou art the Lord. was setting out on a sea voyage. tlag.

' The globe of the nothing hid from His sun has a sheath.V. Pes. What is the proof? Ye conceive chaff.: and burn the wicked with it. 9). u). Bun quoted: The heavens declare His said: : 6 L. no creature could righteousness (Ps. R. What is the proof? For. iv. and the 1 from the a five hundred years' journey.). thickness of the a five hundred years' journey. 'from the heat thereof. a day cometh. blessed be He. the sun].. cf. Whose fire is in Zion. the day [i. 946. Simeon (Mai. 7. R. ye shall bring forth stubble. and the soul when . for it is written. Cur. 1 3 8 2 The sun being directly overhead. xxxm. supra. 7). 2 . Lakish ablaze in. a furnace (ib. 5. iv. What is the proof? And the day that cometh shall set them b. Our behold. Jannai and R. for it is said. and 'rate' a' is to the next 'raft' a' is a five hundred years' first 'ra&'a' how high it is! Again. the sun (Mah. 19). I.e. tempers its strength world. There will be neither xxxi. 46 . edd. But in the future lest it go forth and burn up the 5 the Lord will bare it from its sheath and burn it up.VI. on account of the burning heat of the day. What is the proof? In them hath He set a tent [protective covering] for the sun (ib. 5) and a lake 4 the Holy of water stands before it. summer] On the first day in the water.e. Joshua b.. Levi said: The voice of three things travels from one end of the world to the othei yet no creature hears it. R. it burneth as Rabbis maintain There will be a Gehenna. have endured.). R. E. the rain. 6-7] is MIDRASH KABBAH there is no creature has a shadow. xix.e. 5. 6): in the future the heavens will the righteousness [kindness] which the Lord did declare for His world in not setting them in the first 'raki'a'. There is no other Gehenna [in the future] save a day which will burn up the wicked. your breath is a fire that shall devour you (ib. and when it goes forth. 4 Cf. R. but a fire shall come forth from the a day bodies of the wicked themselves and burn them up. the world of the wicked. viz. for had He set them in the first 'raki'a'.J. it was taught: journey: see then of the cycle of Tammuz [i. and his furnace in Jerusalem (Isa. And sun (Ps. Ila'i said: nor a Gehenna. One. Sc. 'E. supra . Judah b. R.

La'i: You may think that it glides in heaven. 8 The cry of the departing soul is so strong that it overthrows strong 6 trees. Phinehas]. when something [ludicrous] happened and they began to laugh. the brother of R. XLII.V. R. Judah b. Samuel. conceived as solid. R. By 'that man' he meant himself. Ililpa said: If that is [written] in respect of (i. 9.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VI. 2 Whence do we know it of the rain? Said R. it breaks down 5 oaks.). and the opinion of the Rabbis that it is behind the vault and below appears correct in respect of winter. R. He [R. Levi: It is written. when the whole world is cold and the wells are tepid. it has surely already been stated. How do the orbs of the sun and the moon set? R. Judah b. Whence do we know it of the day? Said R. La'i and the Rabbis disagree. 7 8 glide in the heaven. R. It must force its way through heaven. AND TO RULE OVER THE DAY AND THE NIGHT ' 18). R. 1 z it does so. Said [R. R. when the whole world is hot while the wells are cold. Yoma 206. Without a sphere (Th. 9. 8). Judah b. La'i that it is behind the vault and above it is preferable in respect of summer. Judah said: Behind the vault 6 and above it. 3 Now his colleagues were sitting with him [R. this being a common form of speech. and no person can fathom it. And whence do we know it of the soul ? From the story of R. R. Yohai said: We do not know whether they fly through the air. 7 8 With an effort (Th. The vault "or arch of heaven. In Upper Galilee. Ex. Simeon b. Cf. Samuel] was a poor man and died in Sepphoris. Jonathan said: The view of R. llama. Phinehas] to them: 'How unhappy is the soul of that man's brother! 4 it breaks down cedars. but it is not so. The Rabbis maintained: Behind the vault and below it. Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of Thy cataracts (Ps. Phinehas b. being rather like a saw which saws through wood. It is an exceedingly difficult matter. yet you sit here and do not know!' 8. 7-9 1 it departs [from the body]. or travel in their usual manner. R. The the luminaries. and makes a sound as * 4 47 .).

to enforce obedience. Irjilpa referred What Is not this written in the book of Jashar? 1 is this allusion to the book of Jashar? it to this: AND DAY AND THE NIGHT. z$a. Joshua. R. (Josh. 3 When the to Holy One.e. Thereupon he took it and showed it to the orb of the sun which he apostrophised thus : Even ' 1 There are two views as to what is meant by the term: R. with them he shall gore the peoples all of them. and stay the sun and the moon. and therefore the verse is interpreted as alluding to Joshua. 48 . 'Be strong. it to the latter portion of the younger brother [Ephraim] shall be greater than he [Manasseh]. TO RULE OVER THE Hanin in the name of R. . blessed be He. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth' (Josh. Now is that actually possible? Hence this must refer to Joshua who would spring from him and stay the sun and the moon. 'A. R. I. while R. translation). taught by AND TO RULE OVER THE DAY AND THE NIGHT? who have power over what was It refers to the righteous. Yohai said: The Book of Deuteronomy was an ensign for Joshua. Hanin (in the first version) hold that it is the Book of Genesis. Howbeit Deuteronomy] : His firstling bullock. And the sun stood still. 8). Samuel referred it to the end of the Isaac referred his Book.' etc. 13). XLVIII.e. which rule from one end of the world to the other. viz. and his seed shall become the fulness of nations (Gen. 8 The descendants of one man He used it as a commander uses his ensign. created to give light by day and what was created to give light by night. majesty his horns are the horns of the wild ox. and the moon stayed . be of good courage. . * v. He found him sitting with the Book of Deuteronomy in his hand. JHanin (in the second version) holds that it means Deuteronomy. Hilpa and R. Samuel b. serves) the fulness of nations the whole world. as it is written.Z. 17). could not possibly become the fulness of nations (lit. even the ends of the earth [i. Is that actually possible? Hence it refers Joshua who would spring from him [Joseph]. Joshua. Torah his . is and (Deut. Said He to him. who stayed the sun which 'rules' (i. JJanin in the name of R. 2 R. Simeon b. x. which rule from one end of the world to the other. R. XXXHI. 9] MIDRASH KABBAH Then what is greater luminary to rule by day. revealed Himself to him. 19).VI.

9) Straightway. 1 xxxvn. Moreover. you ratified this purchase by bowing down to Joseph. xiv. the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down to me (Gen. so do thou stand still before me Straightway. 49 . it: course 'young' in comparison with the sun). translation. Isaac said: [He exclaimed to it]. "And the sun stood still. explains it by reference to Cannot a young man command his aged And did not Abraham acquire you (Abraham was of difficult. as it says. 19). And the sun stood still.' etc. wert thou not indeed the chattel of my ancestor. Be silent ! Y. his descendant. Blessed be Abraham of God most High. 'Thou evil servant.M. etc.GENESIS (BERESHITH) as I ' [VI. and making who refer to Abraham) heaven and earth (Gen. 9 have not stood still from [studying] this. did not my ancestor see thee thus in a dream: And. R. ' ' ! ' I 1 This passage ' is ' extremely said to Tanhuma: Joshua slave. behold. who possesses (lit.

2O). will they suffice them? or if all etc. Come ' and be flagellated. I. as it is said. 4 & For this ruling. When ' ! R. AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS SWARM. 1 Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya gave a ruling in 2 Tyre that fish must be ritually slaughtered. 8). 22). 'Lie down [to be lashed] and I will prove it to you/ Said he to him: 'It is written. Before they are fit for food. a ' When R. will they suffice 4 them? (Num. near Tiberias (Jast. 2.' exclaimed 'for thine exposition is good. they declared their pedigrees their families by their fathers' houses' (Num.' 'Lay on me. 'And how is this Scriptural ? And 1 3 a Prob. . i. AND LET FOWL must be ritually 'You have not ruled well/ said he to him. 'And whence can you prove this to me?' he asked. Nimrin. so must fish be ritually killed.VII./ replied he: 'just as a bird killed. Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya. If flocks and herds be slain for them. LET THE WATERS SWARM WITH SWARMS OF LIVING CREATURES. There is none like unto Thee among the gods.).' 'Shall written. xi. Haggai heard thereof he ordered. "shall be slain" is not written here but "be gathered together". O Lord. Born from a Jew. Tyre : It is permitted ' to circumcise the infant son of a Gentile Sabbath. be punished 'Because it he who states a Scriptural ruling exclaimed he. Haggai heard this woman 5 on the he said to him. the fish of the sea be gathered together for them. flagellated/ ' 'Because it is written. draws figures in water. etc. 1-2] CHAPTER VII (BERESHITH) AND GOD SAID: LET THE WATERS SWARM WITH SWARMS OF LIVING CREATURES (l. It IS written. but practice a mortal king draws the Holy One. blessed be He. 3 'Come and be man How 'What!' exclaimed he. In human a figure on dry land. and there are no works like Thine (Ps.' FLY.' Jacob of Kefar Nibburaya ruled in he. 18). 'when a Scriptural ruling he is to be flagellated!' gives do you know that this is Scriptural ? inquired he. after is . LXXXVI. LET THE WATERS SWARM.

to 2-4 him. singular. 7 which have no mates. but it has no desire. strike me]. 686. the leopard. 8 9 Perhaps he translates are torn out he lacks the organs of generation. who is circumcised on the Sabbath if it is the eighth day from birth. be He. Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives. as the days of the sun. 4 6 6 7 The Prophets and Or (Rashi) i. fathers. and was therefore like any other Jewish child.e.e. is Huna said in the name of R. q. Haggai). referring to Behemoth and Leviathan. 8 Thus the children of a mixed marriages follow their mothers. . this law is affirmed to be Pentateuchal. he answered. AND GOD CREATED THE GREAT SEA-MONSTERS TANINIM (i. for In a mortal king builds a palace and tenants ordinary practice the upper and the lower stories. 3). vn. or perhaps the striped hyaena. placed denizens in the space between. 2 'And will you actually punish me on the strength of tradi' tion 3 ! Torah' he protested.v. : R. R. The sinews of his thighs are knit together (Job XL. as interpreted in Kid. not their the Hagiographa are thus termed. Coloured (animal) . ' ' . Mattenah The Zabua 9 contains three hundred 1 Thus he argued that the child follows his father. as it is said. 4 let it be done according well taught/ to the Said he: it is 'Hammer away thy hammering 3. There may be a reference here to Deut. but can he tenant the space between? Surely not! But the Holy One. [i.). 1 'You have not ruled well/ said he 'And whence can you prove this to me?' 'Lie down and I will prove it to you/ he retorted. quoted 5 And he.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VII. for it is said. For he will turn away thy son from fallotting Me. formed from a white drop it and sixty-five different colours. ' AND LET FOWL FLY ABOVE THE EARTH. Resh Lakish said: Behemoth has a mate.) Kahana asked R. Phinehas said in R. ($. I. blessed AND LET FOWL FLY ABOVE THE EARTH. : pave thy paving. Bran. Simeon b. lie down (spoken by R. and such as are born of them' (Ezra x. Jeremiah said: (R. Idi's name: Taninam* is written. Legendary sea-animals reserved for the righteous in the Messianic : future. R. i. 'It is written.e. 21). 4.e. 17). 4.

and beast of the earth are enumerated four in all. too. (i.)? Each must breed with its fish. and creeping thing. 4 Though it is impossible to make fish copulate. AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE THAT CREEPETH AND EVERY WINGED FOWL: This is the peacock. cattle. i. ties them with a reed rope and pulls them. too. 4"~5] if MIDRASH KABBAH one crosses different sea species?' 1 'In 2 their case. creeping thing. etc. Infra. not of Lev. but in speaking of bodies only three! 9 Rabbi said: This [extra soul] refers to the demons whose soul the Holy One. R. 10 This gives 1 2 3 Mammals are meant. 19 (q. 'after their kind'] to the prohibition of driving: he brings two fish. 25). AFTER THEIR KIND is written/ he answered. . all I.e. and the beast of the earth: thus living creature (hayyah). two different kinds of fish together. but when He came to create their bodies the sanctity of the Sabbath commenced and He could not create them. one white and the other black. pull. Does that come under the prohibition own kind only: hence he has transgressed. 8 Sc. . or drive them. and the cattle (' bodies ') states . Judah: I can apply it [sc. .VII. 5 to be explained? Said R.) Kahana. 5 According to Resh Lakish. 10 Hence they remained souls (spirits) without bodies. . Leazar said: LIVING CREATURE means the soul of Adam. being a multicoloured i. referring to the actual animals And God made the beast of the earth . blessed be He. says : bird. Hence 'after their kind' cannot bear this meaning at all. : . 24). R. and everything that creepeth only three being enumerated. Kil. 9 24. Hoshaya the Elder said: This means the serpent. tlama b. R.v. 7 Which. 52 .25. 7 5. Let the earth bring forth the soul (sic) of a living creature after its kind. fowl. owing to their inaccessibility. created. Showed him deficient in knowledge. however. AND GOD SAID: LET THE EARTH BRING FORTH THE LIVING CREATURE. With this the son of Lakish spread his net over 3 refuted him: 'Yet in the (R. AFTER THEIR KIND is written/ 4 With this Kahana spread is it his net over the son of Lakish. cattle. R. 8 AND GOD MADE THE BEAST OF THE EARTH (i. 2. xix. . Whereas 1. Hoshaya said: In speaking of souls it enumerates four. contains the hues of every winged 8 birds. vm. vm. Lakish: 'What case of fish. for we learned: Now how You may not plough with. Kahana. 8 .

but when He came to create their bodies the holiness of the Sabbath commenced and He did not create them. 'who ordained and the world'.GENESIS (BERESHITH) you a lesson in behaviour [VII. . 5 from Scripture. etc.. viz. 'Throw it away/ for He at whose behest the world came into existence1 was engaged in the creation of the world and had [already] created their souls. that if a man is holding in his hand a costly article or a precious stone on the eve of the Sabbath about sunset.. a phrase which is now liturgical. 1 Lit. we say to him.

joined together. Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance (Ps. hence ahor.VIII. Tanhuma in the name of R. for it is said. n. xxvi. Said R. He created him an herma2 phrodite [bi-sexual]. Male and female created He them and called their name Adam (Gen. 20). cxxxix. 5 Now %edem can mean east. AND GOD man * SAID: LET us MAKE MAN. Leazar said: When the Holy One. i] CHAPTER VIII (BERESHITH) i. R. R. 2). (i. as in Gen. created Adam. v. 'hemmed me in. etc. cxxxix. male and female. filling Simon in R. he will have to render a full account laid Thy hand upon rue [of his misdeeds]. Berekiah in the name of R. 8 Thus Adam himself was originally male and female. Nehemiah and R. he enjoys both worlds. Jeremiah blessed be He. 3 R. a figure: 'Thou hast made me into a figure/ 2 Normally androgynos means one whose genitals are male and female but here it means two bodies. To this it is objected: But it is written. R. R. 16). . means west.' Here xartani is derived from surah. etc. Nahman said When the Lord created Adam He created him double-faced. Since the day that God created upon the earth. then He split him and made him of : this side and one back on the other side. (Gen. 4 This certainly implies that woman was a separate creation. R. etc. thus it is written. And for two backs.v. . Judah b. Johanan commenced [his discourse]: Thou hast formed me1 behind and before. for it Thou hast formed me for a later [world] and an earlier says.V. one back on > the second side (zela') of the tabernacle. as you read. Samuel b. (Ps. [world]/ But if not. from Because he stretched] 'Thou hast formed [that 6 me behind (ahor) and it before (kedem)/ From north to south? Because man 1 says. Joshua b. as it is said. 5). etc. Johanan: is worthy enough. Banayah and R. 24 q. Leazar said : He created him as a lifeless mass extending from one end of the world to the other. 54 . and from the one end of heaven unto E. (tb. east to west? How do we know it is said.). And If a b. m. Leazar's name said: He created him the whole world. R. 26). 21) ? 4 [Mi-zalothaw means] one of his sides replied he. (Ex. which is obviously the opposite. And He took one of his ribs.

Simeon b. beasts. And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him (Isa.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. Samuel b. : Lord from the earth. Lakish maintained: He was the latest in the work of : the last day and the earliest in the work of the first day. w. and only after Kings of the earth and all peoples R. Th. the passage continuing until. of old time. 1-2 the other (Deut. His body was the latest. as in Ber. the spirit of God hovered (ib. Tanhum said: His praise [of God]. Another explanation is that kappeka (E. too. The proof lies in the first verse alone. the from made Praise ye the Lord as it is written. Hanina commenced: Knowest thou this 4). iv. And how do we know that he filled the empty spaces of the world P 1 From the verse. 2. and fowl. 2) refers as you read. 24) refers to the soul of Adam. Leazar interpreted it: He was the latest (ahor) in the work of the last day. Withdraw Thy hand from me (Job xin.hich was made on the sixth day. 2 R. That is R. Leazar's view. after that of cattle. 'And laid Thy hand upon me' (as you read. as it is followed by. for he said Let the earth bring forth a soul of a living creature (Gen. so does his creation (Ps. comes only at last. Lakish. and fowls. First we have 'And God said: Let the waters swarm'. and after them all. From the ground to the sky. xi. I. CXLVIII. the arch of heaven. which is in heaven. R. for he said : And to the soul of Adam. come after that of cattle. I. And God made the beast of the earth. Simeon b. Nahman said: Last in creation and first in punishment. day. the first who was destroyed in the Flood (before the beasts)..V. but he received his soul before anything else 55 . as its relevance is doubtful and it is absent in some versions. upon him. R. 5 Either. That is consistent with the view of R. 2i)). Simlai said Just as his praise comes beasts. the heavens. LETUSMAKEMAN. 4 R. 5 R. 4 The verse refers to the sixth day. since 1 a man was placed upon earth (Job xx. 2). Praise ye the all that. R. 32). brackets this quotation. 6i<2. etc. Adam being pictured as lying upon the ground while God lays His hand. and this was the earliest work of that etc. Thy hand'} * is 8 now derived from kippah. This is followed by. i-n). and the earliest 3 (kedem) in the work of the last day. Hallelujah. the first to receive an injunction whose violation was punished. Or. He hath a decree which shall not be transgressed. R. Hama b.

4). 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH Said R. of what is hidden from thee ask not. create among you to-day ? The sixth asked ' ' fifth. but of whom was the first day supplier to ask ? Surely of the citizens who were engaged in the public affairs of the country! Thus the works of each day asked one another. R. Joshua b. the fourth of the third. Levi said: He took counsel with the works of heaven and earth. ' ' this 9 . Then I [sc. who used to ask each other. Efama b. as a nursling. as it is said. the second of the first. Leazar said in Bar Sira's name: About what is too great for thee inquire not. Of what was the first to ask? Surely of the Torah. the Torah] was by Him. what is too hard for thee investigate not. 1 8 whom This question arises because of the phrase LET The Hebrew implies knowledge and consent. : 3. now the day of the Lord is a thousand years. US MAKE . J^anina: This may be compared to a country which received its supplies from ass-drivers. which of the preceded the creation of the world by two thousand years. Which creatures did the Holy One. blessed be He. Nahman said: He took counsel with the works of each day. study what was permitted thee thou hast no business with hidden things. With did He take counsel? 1 R. vm. xc. Samuel b.VIII. 56 . the fifth of the fourth. about what is too wonderful for thee know not. AND GOD SAID: LET us MAKE MAN. the fourth of the third. etc. That is the meaning of Knowest thou of old time? The Torah knows what was before the creation of the world. the third of the second. as it is written. 30) . and the second of the first. For a thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past (Ps. 'What was the market price to-day ? Thus those who supplied on the sixth day would ' ask of those who supplied on the fifth day. like a king who had two advisers without whose knowledge 2 he did nothing whatsoever. the third of the second. but you have no business to inquire about aught save 'Since man was placed upon earth R. R. like a king who had an associate without whose knowledge he did nothing. and I was His delight day after day (Prov. the fifth of the fourth.

6).' is 4. Ammi said: He took counsel with His own heart. 'Righteous men shall spring from him/ He answered. wicked men will spring from him.' which means that the XET MAKE MAN/ Lord made known (hodia') the to the ministering angels. came R. blessed be He. Jassi said: This may be compared to a king who did some business through an agent and whom suffered loss: with he to be indignant? Surely with the agent! Similarly. but when he saw it it did not please him: with whom is he to be indignant? surely with the architect! Similarly. "And it grieved Him at His heart. It may be compared to a king who had a palace built by an architect. R. vi. 'But the way of the righteous way of the wicked shall perish': He destroyed [hid] it from them. but the way of the wicked tobed E. R. Jlanina did not say thus. 'shall perish" (Ps. He revealed to them that the righteous would arise from him. as it is written. 6): what does 'toled* mean? He destroyed it (ibbedah) from before His sight and associated the quality of mercy with Himself and created him. if I do not create him. I. but He did not reveal to them that the wicked would spring from him. for had He revealed to them that the wicked would spring from him. * He deliberately disregarded it. 57 . Said He: 'If I create him. as it is written. This is often hypostatised. For the Lord regardeth the way of the righteous. He saw righteous and wicked arising from him. 3-4 R. 'For the Lordknoweth (yodea') the way of the righteous. but [he said that] when He to create Adam He took counsel with the ministering us 'What angels. the quality of Justice would not have permitted 1 him to be created. And it grieved Him at His heart (Gen. saying to them.V. came to create Adam. shall his character be?' asked they.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. Berekiah said: When the Holy One. how are the righteous to spring from him?' What then did the Lord 1 do ? He removed the way of the wicked out of His sight and associated the quality of mercy2 with Himself and created him.

And God 'very') is identical with saw everything that He it was good me'od (Gen. MIDRASH KABBAH said: R. blessed be He. On ox na aseh (we this interpretation ne'esah (is made) is arranged: read instead will make). and only then did He create him. Let truth up from the earth (ib. Adam3 as it is written. 31). -IKD.V. Huna the Elder of Sepphoris. ! earth!' Hence it is written. 'Let him not be created/ Thus it is written. 1 . righteousness and peace have The Midrash interprets met in the sense of fought. and behold Adam : 6. 5~6] 5. X require- 2 arms against each other. because he will perform Peace said. Aibu's name: He created him with due deliberation: He first created his food ments. was good. and derives nashaku (kissed) from neshefc. some of them saying. blessed be He. Truth is the seal of God.VIII. 'Let him be created/ whilst others urged. spring All our Rabbis say the following in the name of R. Simon When the Holy One. R. Truth said. i. 12). created him. and. Hilkiah say it in the arise Truth from the name of R. 'Let him not be created. 58 . Love and Truth fought together. because he LXXXV. R. n) will dispense acts of love'. because he is compounded of falsehood' Righteousness said. behold. Said the ministering angels to the Lord: 'Sovereign of the Universe! What is man. 'Let him be created.V. though differently E. Said He to them: 'What can ye avail? Man has already been made! 14 had made. righteous deeds because he is full of strife/ What did the Lord do? He took Truth and cast it to the ground. blessed be He. that Thou art mindful of him. while R. Righteousness and Peace combated each other (Ps. 'Mercy and truth are met together. IJanina.e. Me'od (E. 'Let him not be created. arms. said While the ministering angels were arguing with each other and disputing with each other. 1 Love said. ministering angels formed themselves into groups and parties. rendering: have taken kissed each other: * D-IK. 3 In the Hebrew the letters are the same. Said the ministering angels before the Holy One. Phinehas and R. the : . 'Let him be created. and the son of man. 'Sovereign of the Universe Why dost Thou despise Thy seal ? 2 Let to came create Adam. Simon: . the Holy One. Huna said in R. I.

how glorious is Thy name in all the earth (ib. These were the makers': they are so termed on account of the verse. 9) created ? A tower full of good things and no guests what pleasure has its owner in having filled it?' Said they to Him: Sovereign of the Universe O Lord. These were the makers [E. as it is written. Nahman said in R. blessed be He. he said: 'Sovereign of the Universe! Why dost Thou furnish an excuse to heretics?' 1 'Write. etc. 10). 59 . he may say. that dwelt : among plantations and hedges . the Holy One. R. (Gen. ' ! 7. R. 8. Joshua of Siknin said in R. 8). supreme King ( . Do what pleaseth Thee!' . 'And hedges' corresponds to I have placed the sand for the bound of the sea (Jer. vni. ' ' : sat the souls of the righteous with whom He took counsel before creating the world. etc. Samuel b. Then the Lord ' formed [made] man. This trouble. and those. Jonathan's name: engaged in writing the Torah. there they dwelt with the king in his work (i Chron. why were they created why were The fowl of the air and the fish of the sea (ib. Levi's name He took counsel with the souls of the righteous. "Learn For maintaining a plurality of gods. " Why should I ask permission from 1 my inferior!" Then they will answer him. 'Sheep and oxen.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII. our Lord. 7) And those that dwelt among plantations corresponds to And the Lord God planted a garden eastward (ib. he had to write the work of each day. 6-8 that Thou thinkest of him? (Ps. 8).. 'potters']. 'whoever wishes err/ 'Moses/ said the Lord to him.V. v. AND GOD SAID: LET us MAKE MAN.' replied He. ' . When he came to the verse. for what has it been created?' 'If so/ said He to them. 5). n. 23). all of them (ib. 'this man do I not cause men both great and small to spring from him? Now if a great man comes to to err When Moses was may that I have created is less obtain permission [for a proposed action] from one that than he. iv. 22) There they dwelt with the king in his work with the of kings.

. 2 Then is written here. Said he.' R. They asked him again: 'What is meant by. as explained in the 2 text. Similarly in the whole 3 He interprets the verse: man has already been made (cf. we do with it?' Some answered: '[Use it in 1 building] public baths . Since the day gods created (baru) ' bara (ib. Who can hinder him? 9. who created all that is above and below. after our likeness (ib.VIII. others answered: 'private baths/ then 'I will make a statue of it. Hila1 said: There is no taking counsel here. bare'u being plural. so that the plural form of Elohim is merely the plural of majesty. Not. supra. of 1 them without the Divine Spirit/ 3 So Theodor. 60 .' replied "And gods created (wa-yibre'u) man" is written "And God created wa-yibra" (Gen. and his seed shall henceforth be in our image. 26) neither man without woman nor woman without man. 5 passage. but bara is singular. Simlai: 'How many deities created the world?' 'I and you must inquire of the first day/ replied he. as it is written. Elohim is plural inform. and neither : .' answered he. you find the refutation at its side. but it be compared to a king who was strolling at the door may of his palace 'What shall when he saw a clod lying about. The heretics asked R. but how will you answer us?' Said he to them: 'In the past Adam was created from dust and Eve was created from Adam but henceforth it shall be In our image. I. etc. Simlai said: Wherever you find a point [apparently] supporting the heretics. In the they beginning Elohim [plural] created?' 'In the beginning baru Elohim is not written here. . 32). but MAKE MAN?' 'Read what ' follows.). 27). He took counsel with yet when He came to create man the ministering angels/" R. iv. For ask now of the first days (Deut.' declared the king. When ' Them you have they went out his disciples said to him dismissed with a mere makeshift. here. 'but Bara Elohim the heaven and the earth. man' AND GOD SAID: LET us he: 'not.). but God created asked him a second time: 'Why is it written. ad fin. Thus he answered that the verb is in the singular. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH from thy Creator.

and dies. for how little is he to be accounted (Isa. to avoid the implication that God is male and female. . Cease ye from man. Leazar said: He created him with four attributes of the higher beings [i. when the Lord created Adam. thus it is written. [The four attributes of] the higher are he stands upright. R. What does this resemble? king and a governor who sat in a chariot. A was. Nehemiah said in the name of R. in whose nostrils is a breath. procreates. and the Rabbis in the name of R. Similarly. like an animal. 5 He is mentioned only here and infra xiv. without turning his head. He created in him four creations from above and four from below/ 4 He can direct his gaze at an object sideways. 4 He has four attributes of the lower : . beasts].e. do? He caused sleep to 11. R. R. Joshua b. supra i). THEM for MALE AND FEMALE (NEKEBAH) CREATED HE (i. excretes. 3 which an animal cannot do 1 King Ptolemy said to have 2 t ' . b.e. like an animal. . blessed fall upon him. 'Domine! (Sovereign)!' but they did not know which it What did the king do? He pushed the governor out of the chariot. beings: he eats and drinks. the angels mistook [for a divine being]. the ministering angels mistook him [for a divine being] and wished to exclaim 'Holy' before him. Aha's name: The celestial II Philadelphia. Yet does not a dumb animal see! But this one [man] can see from the side. like an animal. 8 Lit. like the ministering angels and he sees. he understands. 10-11 created said When the Holy One. blessed be He. and so all knew that he was [but mortal] man. did the Holy One. Isaac. Tifdai 5 said in R. is probably meant here. This change is to explain the plural 'them' (v. or (since he was created in God's image). angels] and four attributes of the lower 3 beings [i. 27). n. like the ministering angels. like the ministering angels. like the ministering angels beings he speaks.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 10. and so they knew who was the king. R. and his subjects wished to say to the king. This 1 : is created King Ptolemy He them/ 2 one of the things which they altered 'Male with his apertures (nekubaw) Hanina R. 61 . [VIII. like an animal. . 22)! him What be He. Hoshaya : Adam. at whose command the Septuagint is been produced.

] 'yerdu' (let them descend). create him : 12. I. 11-12] MIDRASH RABBAH beings were created in the image and likeness [of God] and do not procreate. [God says. and the fifth is the eve of the b. is sixth. Leazar said in the name of R. Keth. 28). Jacob of Kefar Hanan said: Of him who is in our image and likeness [I say] uredu (and have dominion) but of him ' ' OF THE SEA . blessed be He: 'Behold. Aha's name: The Holy One. let others (the beasts) rule over him. he will die and not live [in a future life]. [I say] 'yerdu' (let descend). 5 Why is that? Because a blessing is written in connection with these days. [so that he will partake] of the [character of the] celestial the beings.] 3 merit. 3 pre-eminence only as long as he cultivates his Godvoluntarily abandons them he is even lower 5 6 than the brute creation. Therefore I will create him of 2 if he sins he will the upper and of the lower elements he will live. 6 R. 2a. 26. entitled to like qualities. while if he does not sin. Said the Holy One. Jose We-kibshuhah [plural: and do ye subdue it] 1 Zimra: actually 2 Like God Himself. ITP instead of vr\\ . 1 while the terrestial creatures [dumb animals] procreate but were not created in [His] image and likeness. while if he does not [God says. while he will procreate. [after the nature] of terrestial beings/ R. Tifdai said in R. (i. We learned else- where A virgin is married on the fourth day of the week. But surely a blessing is written only in connection with the fifth and the sixth days? Said Bar Kappara: The fourth day is the eve of the fifth. and a widow on the fifth day. blessed be He. Hence the marriages of the fourth and the fifth are consummated on the fifth and the sixth respectively. Hanina said: If he merits it. Or.' die. ITTI is the word in v. and of the terrestial elements.e. 'uredu* (have dominion). R. AND HAVE DOMINION (REDU) OVER THE FISH R. 4 Man is when he 62 .VIII. : AND GOD BLESSED THEM 28). His body of the earth and his soul of heaven. who them is not in our image and likeness 4 (i. I will create him [man] in [My] image and likeness. celestial if I said: 'If I create him of the elements he will live [for ever] and not die.

i When Abraham was indisposed through circumcision. We blesses bridegrooms.e. etc. written. xxv. 3 In normal usage a cup of wine over which a benediction is pronounced * V. Berokah said: Concerning both man and woman ' it says. infra. xxxv. but not woman. Judah b. z Hence both are subject to that command. it is written. He God built sick. 8>. as it is adorns brides. xvm. Isaac said in R. when he came from Paddan-aram. that she go not out into the market place. as stated by R. Samuel . Johanan b. etc. Johanan b. R. 6) 7 R. went out. AND GOD BLESSED THEM. R. took a cup of blessing 3 and blessed them. as it is written. i). 8 How did blessing of mourners. blessed be He. And and it came to it is understood that Jacob was in mourning for her appeared to him. on certain occasions. (Gen. . xxxiv. 6 5 V. as again. Simlai said: find that the Holy One. for every woman who goes out into the market place will eventually come it is to grief. : pass after the death of Abraham. R. as it is written. 8 This immediately follows the death of Deborah. Berokah. 7 The proof that He recites the blessing for mourners is missing here. 22) 5 He visits the . as it is written. adorns brides. . xvin.g. And Dinah R. the Since the order to subdue the earth is to man alone. as it is written. 12-13 : written we-kibshah [singular: and do thou subdue it] man is commanded concerning procreation. Whence do we know . blessed be He. e. it? From Dinah. Keth. 8). etc. And He (ib. etc. when God 63 . 1 R. written. Simon said: Michael and Gabriel were Adam's 'best men'. And the Lord the rib into a woman (ib. . at a marriage. but is found in TiKttn mua he comforts mourners. R. and He 1 bless him? With the him (Gen. Rebekah's nurse (v. THEM. g). 6 He buries the dead. n.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [VIII.) is likewise to man alone. 13. buries the dead. AND GOD BLESSED . and recites the blessing for mourners. i) buried him in the valley. 2 We-kibshah' (and subdue her) is written: the man must master his wife. recited the blessing for mourners) Isaac his son (Gen. Hanina's name: The law is . . And the Lord appeared unto him. 4 He blesses bridegrooms. that God blessed (i. visits the sick. Nahman said: He also visits And God appeared unto Jacob blessed mourners. : b. i). as xxxiv. etc. the command of first half of the verse (Be fruitful. (Deut. Abbahu said: The Holy One.

search out a matter' By me . from (Y. AND GOD SAW EVERY THING THAT HE HAD IT MADE. 64 now!) WAS VERY . it is the The glory of kings is to search out a matter of the words of the Torah. Hanina: From the beginning in the name of R. 'It is the glory name of R. AND. Tanhuma: beautiful in The world was created when it was due.IX. i-v] CHAPTER IX (BERESHITH) i. It is for this reason that Scripture writes at this point. but from this point onward. 8 Rendering: AND GOD SAW ALL THAT HE HAD MADE He had made i. those did not please Me. of the Book [of Genesis] up to this point. kings reign hence. all the worlds B UT BEHOLD. so that he destroyed them. but of ' God to conceal a thing'. n). as it is said. VIII. AND GOD SAW EVERY IT (ib. Phinehas said: please Me. Hanina commenced: the glory of of God to conceal a thing. and then He said: 'These 2 R. hath made every thing time (Eccl. Levi in the It WAS VERY GOOD (l.). HI. BEHOLD. heaven and earth]. xxv. Beautiful in its time. Abbahu said: Hence R. R. is the glory Said R.e. Hama b. BEHOLD. eta 3 we learn that the . i. R. which are likened to glory ' : kings. 15). Said R. of R. blessed be He. Levi kings is to search out a matter (Prov. went on worlds and destroying them until He created creating these [sc. man IT WAS VERY GOOD z He probably deduces this from the phrase.e. : Tanhuma commenced He its Holy One. only what had now been made ('behold' has that significance: see GOOD. 2). and the world was not fit to be created earlier. 'to THING THAT HE HAD MADE. to indicate here one may 'search out a matter'. which intimates that He made other worlds when the time was not yet ripe.T. 1 2. WAS VERY GOOD. 31). and these were not beautiful. AND. Hama b. Abbahu's statement is The proof SAW EVERY THING WHICH HE HAD MADE. BEHOLD. : AND GOD 1 The meaning of the passage is that everything until the creation of man must be left in mystic obscurity and one must study the Torah only from the creation of that AND.

IJanina said: Compare this to a king ' who built a palace. BEHOLD. Solomon my son. 'mayest thou find favour in my eyes at all times just as thou hast found favour in my eyes at this moment Similarly. this world and the next. R. O Lord. Jonathan explained it as follows. : before even my tongue gives expression to speech.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 3. R. cxxxix. xxvm. and serve Him with a whole heart and with a willing mind. BEHOLD. Thou hast made the heaven and the earth (Jer. and understandeth all the imaginations (yezer) of the thoughts (i Chron. MADE. 3 : Resh Lakish said in Leazar's name: Ah Lord God! behold. it is already revealed to Thee. know thou God of thy father . He saw it and it pleased him. [IX. IJanina and R. but y Thou knowest it altogether (Ps. R. 3-4 AND GODSAWEVERY THING THAT HE HAD R. Ijtama b. Lord. cast but one look at this world and at the future world [together]. R. are all interlinked and have one purpose (Y. O palace. Haggai quoted : in R. he can only take in the upper stories with one look and the lower stories with another. Johanan said: When a mortal king builds a palace. it altogether. Judan said in R. Simeon b. being interpreted as an extending particle. IT WAS VERY GOOD implies this world. but the Holy One.). and AND BEHOLD 2 The Holy One. EVER HE AND 3 . for the Lord searcheth all hearts. R. Lakish each commented thereon. blessed ' ! 1 HAD MADE Y THING THAT Interpreting. casts but a single look at the upper and the lower 1 R. Isaac's name: Before even a creature is created. AND.' ' Thou. R. xxxn. R. IT WAS VERY GOOD. Isaac's the name: And thou. Johanan Simeon b. O palace. 9) even before a thought is born (nozerah) in a man's heart. R. R. Lakish said: portions simultaneously. implies the next world blessed be He.T. already knowest 4.' exclaimed he. 17) since that moment [when Thou didst create the world] there is nothing too hard for Thee (ib.). Judah said on his own behalf: For there is not a word in my tongue. the Holy One. 4): lo. The idea underlying these two teachings is that heaven and earth. his thought is already revealed to Thee. llama b. blessed be He. AND GOD SAW 2 in a single look.

O My world! mayest thou find favour in My eyes at all times before Me at this moment. 64. R. or This may mean that this 2 was inserted either that the MS. read nia instead as a marginal comment. JJama b. IT WAS VERY (ME'OD) GOOD: and behold. R. BEHOLD. (Sonc. panelled.). O world. it is a potent force for repentance. and painted. Berekiah's name Thou wast the cherub ' ! : : far-covering kerub 1 ({b. the son of R. decreed against him. 3 R. Thus it is written. 13): was then Hiram in Eden ? Surely not But He said thus to him It is thou who causedst him who was in Eden [sc. blessed be He. Jrlanina said Adam deserved to be spared the experience of death. Thou wast in Eden the garden of God (Ezek. Hiyya. 66 . foresaw that Nebuchadnezzar and Hiram would declare themselves gods therefore was death : : .Z. Why then was the penalty of death decreed against him? Because the Holy One. my daughter he cried ' ' ! to her. 1 R. IT WAS VERY GOOD: and.IX. behold. blessed be He. Simeon b. BEHOLD. death was good. xxvm. 'A. O ' favour before favour before My Me at all Me at this My ! times just as thou hast found moment/ 5. apostrophised His world: 'O My world. Eleazar as he sat and lectured say in R. death (maweth) was good. Nahman said I was seated on my grandfather's shoulder going up from my own town to Kefar liana via Beth2 Shean. 9 Because Scythopolis. My daughter. Fie saw it and it pleased him. Meir's name: AND. R. 7. quoted in R. at all 'may this bridal chamber find favour before me times just as it has found favour before me at this moment/ Even so said the Holy One. R. IJanina and R. Berekiah's daughter. Samuel b. In the copy of R. which he plastered. Jonathan said the following. v. n. ed.' just as thou hast found favour R. Jonathan said: Imagine a king who gave his daughter in marriage and arranged a bridal chamber and a home for her. in Galilee. Adam] to die/ R. to world mayest thou find His world. p. 14): it was thou who didst cause that youth of -ma. 4~S] MIDRASH KABBAH be He. and I heard R. Hama b. Meir's Torah [Pentateuch] was found written: AND.

17). Lakish discussed this. Simeon b. when they die they enjoy rest. behold. that is the meaning of And there the weary are at rest (ib. yet did accept the experience of death: Therefore and to . 17) . xvn. as it is written. blessed be He. Said R. 5-6 He Adam) to die. 18). To reward the righteous. since the righteous had not deserved death yet accepted it on their account. R. [IX. And destroy them with double destruction (Jer. 7) death. Why was death decreed against the righteous? Because as long as the but righteous live they must fight against their evil desires. therefore. as it is written.: in our fight against evil. which means. sleep was good. and. R. 6. 8 Y. n. R. in their land they shall possess double (Isa. good deeds/ and as a result their performance of such would be with ulterior motives. IT WAS VERY GOOD means. but when they die they cease to anger from raging (Job in. Johanan said: Why was death decreed against the wicked ? Because as long as the wicked live they anger the Lord.T. there the wicked cease from enraging the Holy One. 1 R. Simeon b. Johanan and R. Is there any sleep which is very good! Did we not learn thus: Wine and sleep when enjoyed by the wicked are beneficial to them and beneficial to the world! 2 But [R. saying : is lest ' the wicked perform Surely the righteous live only because they treasure up religious acts and good deeds so shall we too lay up a store of religious acts and . BEHOLD.GENESIS (BERESHITH) (robeh so. There the wicked cease : We Lakish said: [Death was decreed] in order to reward the righteous in double measure and to punish the wicked in double measure.K. sc. sufficient reward. Eleazar said : AND. 67 . LXI. Jonathan to him: If should have decreed death for the wicked but not ! for the righteous But the reason a fraudulent repentance.: we have laboured to attain a When asleep they do no harm. 1 M. punish the wicked. who had not deserved to experience laboured sufficiently. Simeon b.) [they say] have : Him. Ye have wearied the Lord with your words (Mai.

1 7. 4). VERY GOOD. AND . however. Nahman IT said in R. no man would build a house. may be compared to a king who had an orchard. ' to the life of the future world ? Surely IT it is suffering. R. and thus said Solomon Again. 1 2 Such sleep is very good. Say now. One may triumph over his human failings by turn3 ing even them to noble purposes. to the dispensation of suffering. that 8. it is a man's rivalry with said: his neighbour (Eccl. I : considered all labour and all excelling in work. into which he brought workers* He built a treasure house by its entrance and said: 'Whoever will labour conscientiously in the work of the orchard may enter the treasure house. Gehenna very good ? How remarkIT able! This. It is the Evil 68 . 23). 2 R. take a wife and beget children . Huna BEHOLD. Desire which in the first place inspires this rivalry which leads to great efforts. IV. BEHOLD. behold there is Gehenna. Is then the AND BEHOLD. Suffering chastens and purifies. WAS VERY GOOD WAS VERY GOOD. but he who will not show himself worthy in the work of the orchard may not enter the treasure house/ Thus for him who treasures up religious acts and good deeds. Samuel's name: IT WAS VERY GOOD ! refers to the Good Desire BEHOLD. 9. go forth and see which road leads man . V. however. IT WAS VERY GOOD refers to the dispensation of happiness. instruction '] are the way of life (Prov. vi. behold there is Paradise. Ze'ira said: BEHOLD. WAS VERY GOOD. BEHOLD. Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary But for the Evil Desire. IT Can then suffering actually be very good ? It is in fact so AND WAS because through its instrumentality men attain to the life of the future world 3 and so said Solomon: And reproofs of chastisement [E. to Gehenna. while for him who does not lay up religious acts and good deeds. refers to Paradise.IX. 6-9] MIDRASH KABBAH arises Simeon meant this:] a man sometimes sleeps a little and and toils much in the study of the Torah. to the Evil Desire.

Is then the angel of death very good ? Imagine a king who made a feast. Mah. He was anxious how to make the punishment fit the wrongs committed so that the victims. Huna said in R. Sot. Israel's sins would have condemned them to 42).e. therefore Scripture said. R. would be led to repentance. Others: He caused the Temple to be destroyed two years before its time (translating: He hastened to bring the punishment). the teacher known in the Babylonian Talmud as R. behold. AND. IT WAS VERY GOOD. ad loc. let him be decapitated with a sword/ Similarly. Sanh. 38*2. there is a fitting God took good care that the Temple should be destroyed and the Jews be deported to Babylon in summer and not in winter. [IX. Isaac said: alludes to the angel of IT WAS VERY GOOD. foresaw that man will receive measure for : WAS VERY GOOD. V. R. Simeon b. Simeon b. Abba's name: All measures have ceased. there is the angel of up precepts and good deeds. %b a very similar phrase is explained as referring to the four modes of execution. IT WAS VERY GOOD alludes to the dispensation of good. v. dispensation. 4 I. In Sot. for had He waited longer. R. Lam. Simon said in R. R. on i. Joseph (not R. 3 I. 2 yet the rule of measure for measure 3 has not ceased. there is the angel of 11.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 10. IT WAS life. Jose's name 4 From the very beginning of the world's creation the Holy One. measure. and good deeds.e. and set a dish filled with all good things before them: 'Whoever will eat and bless the king/ said he. 10-11 VERY GOOD R. blessed be He. for lo ! BEHOLD. R. but he who would eat and not bless the king. Jose the Tanna). punishment befitting the crime. recognising this. AND BEHOLD. invited the guests. BEHOLD. 'let him eat and enjoy it. IT meaning. complete destruction. Samuel b. while for him who does not lo ! lay up precepts death. to the angel of death. AND BEHOLD. 69 . Abba said: BEHOLD. Is then the dispensation of punishment very good? It means that He considered well how to 1 bring it. him who lays life . for they would never have survived the rigours and hardships of that long journey in winter. 14 ( : 2 The phrase is somewhat obscure. to the dispensation of punishment.

M.. vm. supra. AND THERE WAS EVENING.] /. Theodor instead of Adam he reads Edom. to the earthly kingdom. the second day. of the world's creation. art. have made the earth. (Isa. [It earns that title] because it exacts justice even /. XLV. 6 I. 6 V.e..). art.K. a synonym in Talmudic and Midrashic literature for Rome. first. IJanina's while R. etc. 6 I.. He . third. 58.e. for the letters of both are identical. Phinehas and R. and [hence it is written. Hilkiah said it in R. AND GOD SAW EVERY THING THAT HE HAD MADE. * Presumably HA-SHISHI is connected here with tashash. heh (n) of iwtm (in the case of other days we have a second. Lakish said: i.) as intimating that the Sabbath must be commenced before actual nightfall. BEHOLD. Judan said: This intimates the extra hour which we add from the profane to the sacred. third day. 3 and in it the work of creating the world was finished. 1 Simon's name: Me'od is identical with adam (man). IT WAS VERY (ME'OD) GOOD. 12-14] 12. created man (adam) upon it. to weaken. IT . THE SIXTH DAY HA-SHISHI (l. etc. alludes to the kingdom of heaven AND IT WAS VERY GOOD. R. being also the reading in the Vilna ed. without this def. and behold. second. day. Thus it is written.. n. this 8 interprets the additional def. thus adding to the sacred period.. R. AND THERE WAS MORNING. AND. BEHOLD. HA-SHISHI: R. Simeon b.T.e.IX. All MIDRASH KABBAH our Rabbis said the following in R. 13. 1 Is then the earthly kingdom very good? How strange! for men. p. Simon said: There came a weakening (metash) of the Creation: hitherto world time was counted. 31). 3. WAS VERY GOOD BEHOLD. i2). 2 14. : 5. name.. adam (man) was good. third day of the week (Y. to which 'the earthly kingdom' alludes. 5 but hence41 forth 1 2 we count it by a different reckoning.

. as long as formlessness and void were in the world. . R. one of fire and the other of snow. i). 3 Deriving wayyekullu from keli 71 . to measure. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE WAYYEKULLU : FINISHED to every / have seen an end purpose (tiklah). Isa. but when the plug was removed and the water emptied. g). except one thing which has no measure and what is it ? The Torah. Eliezer said: be compared to a bath full of water. 2 On this interpretation 'finished' and 'end' mean in point of time. blessed be He. XL. How did the Holy One. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE commenced: Take away the FINISHED. i. [of which it is written. cxix. 96) everything has a measure. FINISHED. they [heaven and earth] became finished articles the silver.] The measure thereof is longer than the earth. tjama b. the work of heaven could be seen. create His world? Said R. for every thing I have seen a measure. the basrelief could be seen. (Prov. 12: And comprehended (we-kol) the dust of the earth in a measure. heaven and earth have a measure. 1 (Job xi. were measured off. 2 2. and worked them 1 Possibly wayyekullu and tiklah are both derived here from kul. R. X (BERESHITH) (n. as it is : ' said. Even so. Johanan: The Lord took two balls. xxv.[X. but as soon as formlessness and void were eradicated from the world. etc. And there cometh forth a vessel (keli) for the refiner (ib. The verses will then be translated: and the heavens . cf. Another interpretation: '/ have seen an end to every purpose refers to the work of the heaven. 4). the work of heaven and earth could not be seen. but Thy commandment is exceeding broad (Ps. as long as it was full of water the work of the bas-relief could not be seen.e. etc. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE MADE INTO COMPLETED UTENSILS. 3 This may were two beautiful bas-reliefs. i-3 CHAPTER I. in which 3. R. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE etc.). IJanina dross from (kelim): hence.

3 Thereupon he led him into a small chamber and said to him: 'Stretch out your hand to east. there is a planet which completes its circuit in twelve months. to the limits assigned to it. the moon. and from these the world was created. Jupiter. This of course universe. which marked its upper and lower boundaries. yet another completes its circuit in thirty days. Holy One. whereupon he reduced the race meetings .J. Saturn. This may be compared to a king who 4. R. and the charioteers. 1 Hadrian may his bones rot! 2 asked R. and south. Jast. Hanina. Joshua b. and his name is generally followed by this imprecation. tlama agrees with R. 3~4] MIDRASH KABBAH into each other. 'Is that actually possible!' exclaimed he. Hoshaya said: R. R. with the massacre of countless Jews. 5 The capital of Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator. but adds another two. which was its centre. : word WAYYEKULLU entered a province. Johanan holds that the world was created by spreading outthis ball. the sun 7 another com- pletes circuit in twelve years. r^anina holds that it spread inwards. which pleased him. Even so was the work [of Creation] before the Lord/ he added. Efes preached in Antioch 5 The connotes nought but blows and destruction (kelayah). 6 Subsequently they angered him. 3 Could God really place balls at such widely separated points 4 He can encompass the four corners of the earth just as easily as you can touch these walls. 2 The tragedy of the revolt against Hadrian which ended in defeat at Bethar in 135 ex. for the four corners [of the universe]. west. viz. from four balls which were set on its outer limits. 6 These were very popular in ancient Roman times.g. situated on the Orontes (Jast. north. viz.X.).: ward from ! 7 mail stations. number of is based on the ancient geo-centric conception of the 72 . e. viz. thereupon he entertained them with many races and charioteers. create the answered him in accordance with R. Similarly. blessed be He. still its another completes 1 its circuit in thirty years. led to a deep hatred of him. 4 Ilanina : ' How did the world?' He R. R. llama. translates: he increased for them the speed of the mail-bearers and the 'E. Hama said: Six: four for the four corners and one for above and one for below. and its inhabitants praised him. IJanina said: [He took] four [balls]. while R. R. R.

Phinehas said in the name of R.. I. 1 R. supra. which complete their circuit in 480 years. and planets the earth was completed with trees. i. e. The word means here 'a period of service'. 14). such as a soldier's. the heaven on the first day.e. year cycle). 8 The passage is rather difficult. translates: the works were created in a general shape. while their owner may retain only sufficient for his own wants. i. and commentators differ in their explanations. consequently the laws of the Sabbatical year apply only to those which ripen in the second year of the septennate (seven2 When they were first created. for it is said. Joshua b. renders: The heaven was crowned : . stitutes ' ' Sheb. aries were finally determined. etc. a wreath or crown.g. blessed be He. 26). 7 Until the sixth day. when their boundwithout a clear. they 5 He ' Mah. 2 But on that day 3 the fruits were produced in one day. Levi said: The heaven was completed with the sun. The fruits of the Sabbatical year (v. R. will heal : that injury. 4-5 except Mercury. 2-8) are subject to special laws. xxx. By the fruits of the Sabbatical year are meant those which take shape (termed nto:n hanatah} in the seventh year. 5. period ' is set for disciples is when they shall attain the rank of teachers. He will heal the wound of the world. and the garden of Eden. dry land on the third. and there a fixed time zeba' probably beyond which a man's trials cease. Lev. 4 Thus the fruits were smitten for the future.K. 73 . Simon said in the name of R. And He will heal the stroke of their wound (Isa. Now these figs take three years to ripen from the time of hanatah . and Mars. Thus heaven and earth were created for a definitely fixed time a definite translates wayyekullu' literally.e. R. heaven and earth] were completed and went . Kama of Sepphoris We learned: White figs have their Sabbatical year in the second year. thus deriving 'wayyekullu' from kelil.cut formation. Levi: The works [of 6 creation. etc.g. no matter when they actually ripen. The translation adopted is that of Theodor and Y. because they produce in three years.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [X. herbs. 4 And in the Messianic future the Holy One. 6 Each on its own day.. 7 said: 1 AND ALL THE HOST There are three (ZEBA) OF THEM. and must declare the rest free to all. xxv. M.T. were finished (cf. to require such a long time. e. The greater length of time taken by some planets is similarly regarded as a punishment (destruction) for Adam's sin. (adorned) with the sun. on expanding. moon. Eleazar : fixed periods 8 a fixed period for These periods are discussed at length by Theodor ad loc. who sub480 days for 480 years. one must not trade in them. He too translates 'wayyekullu' literally. Venus. Joshua b. that is the meaning of wayyekullu* * ' ' ' . i. v. 5 R.

vn. 629. until my substitute 2 arises. 'service'. snakes. and a fixed for heaven and earth. many bears. lions. A fixed period as it is written.. (Sonc. man's desires are in respect of earthly matters.). too. period for suffering. n. everything in creation serves a purpose * On mazsal cf. 10. n6a. must render an account in the next world for his actions in this. So man. a host [of hostile 5 powers] is against him. a fixed period for disciples. 7 Cf. I. period for disciples. there is a host for him.e. . there is a host against him. 6 He translates zaba in the last verse quoted host a host for a man may either mean for his benefit or one fighting against him. p. 6 Who at the end of the day must render an account of his work. it is here (Mah. 8. Sanh.e.B. xxxvm. which he translates 'their desires'. 5~6] MIDRASH KABBAH heaven and earth. until one's own disciple can take his place. 'Grow. AND THE HEAVEN AND THE EARTH WERE FINISHED. 7 R. if not. I. 7. Many hosts has the Holy One. till my relief should come (Job xiv.e. 74 . ed. This. the days of a hireling' !* to exact 6.e.] Is there not a fixed period (zoba) to man upon earth the whole desire of man is to be upon the (ib. with them the physician heals the wound and the apothecary compounds his preparations. 3 though what pleasure has he. the host is for him if he falls from it and dies. And there is a fixed period for suffering. a host [of divine powers] is for him. Others: all 4 ' ' applied even to plant life. is a comment on zeba'am. If he erects a building and his work is successful. blessed be He. said: If a man merits it. there is a host against him if he eats his bread and it benefits him. as it is written. Simon said There is not a single herb but has a constellation in heaven which strikes it and says. Eccl.)? 4 Nahman. moreover. B. i. 14). [as it is written. too.). appointed against . and scorpions. the son of Samuel b. full of labour and trials. i)? Yet earth [i. alive]. v.' 8 : 1 2 3 E. seeing that His days are like the days of a hireling ($. which means. All the days of 1 my appointed time (zeba'i) would I wait. Nahman. 4. 'His days are like fiery serpents. AND ALL THEIR FIXED PERIODS.X. A fixed His penalties. man The son of Sira said: God caused drugs to spring forth from the earth.V. if it lodges in his throat and chokes him.

a gnat. Hiyya and R. 410. it carried it back to its place.GENESIS (BERESHITH) as it is [X. Can you approach the snake with your ' ' ' He appears to derive mishtaro from shoter. Then a snake came up. R. the court officer who inflicts the corporal punishment ordered by the court. Phinehas related in R. such as fleas. Hanan's name: It once happened that a man was about to reap the harvest of a field when he saw a certain grass which he plucked and plaited into a wreath for his head. a scorpion. even they too are included in the creation of the world. story in Ned. gives shape and substance to the fruit in winter. Aha it related this story: river bank of a carrying its man was standing by the a frog bearing a scorpion and across the river. or loose the bands of Orion (ib. 2 as it is written. Tanhuni b. Have you of a truth really killed it ? Can you remove that herb from your head ? he continued. as soon as it had carried out when he saw A 3 4 commission. and the Holy One. Our Rabbis said: Even those things which you may regard as completely superfluous to the creation of the world. 'Yes/ replied he. or a frog. Hanina b. 6-7 the ordinances of the heavens? Canst thou establish the dominion thereof (mishtaro) in the written. when Orion draws it out. even through a snake. and flies. Simon said Pleiades binds the fruit and Orion draws it out between knot and knot. 32)? R. gnats. thus: canst thou place the one which strikes it. A man then came along and stood and looked at the snake wondering. who killed that snake? 'I killed it/ said the man. 31)? R. but it is still in a shrivelled-up form until summer. Which was to kill someone. He then saw the grass wreath on his head. Papa and R. 7. and said to him. i. Simon said: ['Mazaroth' connotes] the constellation which ripens (memazzer) the fruits. R. giving it the necessary fulness. R. When he had removed it he said to him. Canst : thou lead forth the constellations (mazaroth) in their season (ib. 1 75 . 2 Pleiades binds. etc. Knowest thou earth (Job xxxvin. carries out His purpose through everything. 33)? 1 Canst thou bind the chains of the Pleiades. but he struck and killed it. blessed be He. 4 3 Cf.e.

he dragged down the veil. (n. saying to me: 'Here father my recited the Sabbath prayer on the eve of the Sabbath/ R. town. At that he applied to himself the verse. R. 'This [snake] is out a mission/ observed he. Ammi. Eleazar was strolling on the cliffs of the sea of Cassarea. 4). tlanina said R. R. R. 2 In Lev.: driven from one place. Eleazar was sitting to ease himself in a privy. supra. Immediately a snake emerged and struck and killed him. 8. stumbled over it. 6. Then they went and searched him and found that he was bearing evil decrees against the Jews of Csesarea. Cf Lev. 4 but it rolled out.X. When the wicked Titus entered the Holy of Holies. R. he hid it. and R. 2 slithering to and fro from side to side. it went to another. R. 'So-and-so has been bitten by a snake and died/ R. 2). Eleazar]. : etc. R. And when he died they split open his brain and found that it was like a bird weighing two pounds. loc. Immediately going to carry a report spread in the town. but the wreath had saved him. This has a purpose/ remarked he [R. Therefore will I give a man for thee (Isa. fell and died. Jeremiah. Ishmael b. 5 AND ON THE SEVENTH DAY GoD FINISHED. R. On his return a mosquito entered his nose and began piercing his skull. 3 when he saw a thigh-bone. Johanan raised a difficulty : 1 The snake had been commissioned to kill him. 'This is intended to perform His [God's] commission. and again it rolled out. . Then a runner passed by. and so on. Now that he removed it the strength of its poison probably ft had bitten him before it was killed had its effect and killed him. 4. * So that none might fall over it. R. in. 5 According to other sources the mosquito had grown to that size. Jannai was sitting and lecturing at the gate of his when he saw a snake coming on in great haste. when a Roman came and drove him away and sat down. 7-8] staff?' MIDRASH RABBAH 'Yes/ replied he. ' XLIII. cit. xxn. 1 his limbs fell to pieces. he hid it again. Isaac b. he remarked. Jose introduced me to a certain innkeeper. As soon as he approached it. 76 . 3 V. blasphemed and reviled [God].

said to his interpreter. who does not know his minutes. Yohai said Mortal man. 3 But if you do wish to raise a difficulty. His times. for by the time they finished it would be night. v. 'Announce to the conthat they should recite the week-day prayer while gregation it is still when he day/ 9. According on the eve (of the Sabbath) to 3 Though they had left it while it was yet day. p. to a slightly different reading: came is How Neub. 4 'Announce to the congregation : that they should recite the week-day prayer while it is still 5 day/ Furthermore. Ishmael Sepphoris. raising 7 it by day and bringing it down after nightfall/ R. Assi: This too need have presented no difficulty to them. 204..GENESIS (BERESHITH) What for ' [X. the Sabbath. fjanina said R. 8-9 on the my eve of the Sabbath n Yet they need have had no difficulty.?' 6 Said he to him: It is like a man striking the hammer on the anvil. so that in that very moment the Sabbath commenced. when he said to Abdan his interpreter. 77 . R. can enter it by a hair's breadth. his [exact] times or his hours. must add from the profane to the sacred but the Holy One. 6 For surely God finished His work on the sixth. and His hours. Jose introduced me to a certain innkeeper and said: 'Here my father recited the post-Sabbath prayer on the Sabbath/ Said R. had meant the same thing. : 1 2 that possible? in Upper Galilee. ! Here father recited the Sabbath prayer ! came from Arab 2 to Sepphoris and reported: R. Ishmael b. 5 Sc. Ba was sitting and lecturing. Jose: 'Have you heard from your father the actual meaning of AND ON THE SEVENTH DAY GOD FINISHED. Genibah and the Rabbis discussed this. Similarly. R. who then spoke them aloud to the people. tlanina b. For R. Dosa has already commenced the ass-drivers some Sabbath [by reciting the Sabbath prayers] in his town. Rabbi asked R. Genibah said This may be compared to a king who made ' : . R. Near Sepphoris 4 In lengthy popular discourses the lecturer whispered his statements to an interpreter. Hiyyab. not on the seventh day. Simeon b. 7 In the second between his raising it and his bringing it down night has commenced. R. who knows His moments. for Rabbi was sitting and lecturing. Geogr. raise it on the following. blessed be He. Ishmael b. etc. God finished His work right at the end of the sixth day.

so 8 God completed His work. Jose b. 'woe to the world for the judgments it must render!' 4 ' : His WORK! Did not R. 'and he rested').V. 6 On the Sabbath.. Nehorai As long as the hands of their Master were working on them they went on [so stated] in : WORK! But expanding but when the hands of their Master rested. R.] FROM ALL His order to punish the wicked who destroy the world which was created with labour. This is probably a copyist's error (Radal and Theodor). blessed be He. and note ad loc. Aboth v. [AND HE RESTED it is . . R. 5 Cf. Read: certain 4 The text is corrupt. 1 ring: The Rabbis it said: Imagine a king who made a what did world lack ? The finished signet. translation) implies that this resting itself was in order to make (i. 'And since then Gehenna has been burning for the wicked/ exclaimed he. is an attempt to reconstruct it.e. 1 Thus by means of the Sabbath itself He actually finished it on the seventh day. . 'he created a resting. rest was afforded to them.' 78 . Simon: Neither with labour nor with toil did the Holy One. painted.X. Judah b.: he interprets wa-yi$hboth (E. and thus He gave rest to His world on the seventh day (Ex. 7 .T. and quiet. a bridal adorned to enter now what it. create) something. ed. and bride did the bridal chamber lack ? Similarly. and planations of the 'seventh'. Because that in it He rested from all His work which God created to make (lit. Without the higher longings inspired by the sanctity of a day consecrated by God mankind is 2 He could not be expected to understand these exincomplete. Berekiah say thus in the name of R. in Sonc. on the edd. which he plastered. Levi said in the name of R. 9] MIDRASH RABBAH chamber. 5 And what was created therein? 6 Tranquillity. blessed be He. Similarly. [making it read:] 'And He on the sixth day 2 and rested on the seventh/ 3 King Ptolemy asked the elders in Rome In how many days did the Holy One. . And this is one of the texts they lack? A changed for king Ptolemy. yet you say. what did the Sabbath. xx. n). and to give a goodly reward to the righteous who uphold the world which was created with toil. what did the world still lack? The A Sabbath. based philosopher. for the verse. i. A 7 Y. create the world?' 'In six days/ they replied. and the translation adopted. peace. after He rested. ease. create the world.

1 That he does only before the troops march. 1 whilst when he distributes largesse he does not order a halt . but the Holy One. he does not distribute largesse. 9 a mortal king takes his army into quarters. . are to go into battle or start a 2 Not only did He afford of a sacred day. [X. AND HE on gift BLESSED.] 2 AND HE RESTED largesse. blessed be He. man a day of rest. . but also made him the 79 . . ordered a halt and distributed : Abba said When [as it is written.GENESIS (BERESHITH) R.

XL 1-2] CHAPTER XI (BERESHITH) i. as The (n. Instead of tucking up as on the week-days. and when I came at the termination of the Sabbath I found it still burning and not at all diminished. I once lit a lamp for the Sabbath night. R. IJiyya said in R. with [the distinction of] robing. R. AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY maketh it blessing of the Lord. (11 And Sam. AND GOD BLESSED. A 4 absent on the Sabbath. 2. If he cannot afford a complete change. which did not descend on the Sabbath at all. he must have something different is Num. AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY. R. R. but on the eve of the Sabbath two 'omers. This shows that one must let his cloak hang down. [his garments]. 32. Ishmael said: He blessed it with it with manna. to 6 mingle with his week-day it attire. He blessed it with manna. for every day of the week there descended one 'omer [per person]. 5 R. Huna said: A man must change [his garments on the Sabbath]. 3 R. x. xv. Liezer said: He blessed it in the matter of a lamp. special cloak should be worn on the Sabbath. 3). Ze'ira were walking hang together [on the Sabbath]. He blessed it with the light of a man's face the light of : 1 2 3 Which V. R. IJasde said: He must let [his cloak] down. for his son grief addeth nothing thereto (ib. 3). rich (Prov. it refers to the Sabbath. The king grieveth etc. Isaac said: He blessed it with manna and hallowed it manna and hallowed through the man who it gathered 2 [sticks]. when he works in the fields. whereupon R. And He hallowed it through manna. as you read. and this happened in my case. Jeremiah's cloak being tucked up. The sanctity of the Sabbath was thereby emphasised. Johanan's name: A man must mingle He blessed 4 Abin b. AND HALLOWED IT. xix. 80 . R. Nathan said: He blessed it with manna and hallowed it with a blessing. Jeremiah and R.} : 1 this refers to mourning. 22) this : is written. Ze'ira pulled it down.

I3). xxxvir. but He showed honour to the Sabbath. Others He deprived Adam's countenance e At night this primeval light is meant. 5 By hiding the primeval light. XLIX.V. twelve during the night of the Sabbath. cxxxix.V. the primeval light. 8 I. Adam was terrified. 6 whereupon all began praising. Levi said in the name of the son of Nezirah: That light functioned thirty-six hours.). lee. Under the whole heaven they sing praises to Him (ib. the Holy One. 15). 'But man abideth not in honour'. to function. AND GOD BLESSED THE SEVENTH DAY: wherewith did He bless it? With light. hidden. of its lustre. R. When the sun sank at the termination of the Sabbath. Simeon the luminaries were spoilt1 on the eve of the Sabbath. wished to hide the light. 'envelop'] me (Ps. wherefore? Because His light [reaches] unto the ends s of the earth (ib. 20). [thinking. Jose. E. 2 who maintained: Adam's glory Judah said: Though did not abide the night with him. and sendest him away (Job xiv. as it is written. who was created on Under cover of 8l darkness. blessed be He.e.GENESIS (BERESHITH) a man's face during the [XL it is 2 week is not the same as on the b. 3) . Assi. I. 4 E. and twelve on the Sabbath [day].e. He shall to attack me! 10 Through Adam's sin it was decreed that the primeval light should be z More correctly: R. As soon as the sun set on the night of the Sabbath. for Adam. but at the termination of the Sabbath He deprived him of his and expelled him from the Garden of Eden. The Rabbis splendour as it is 5 maintain: His glory abode with him. G . to sing. This agrees with the Rabbis but not with R. yet they were not smitten until the termination of the Sabbath. R. * On this 10 8 night.e. in.: cursed. before the Sabbath.V. which was smitten immediately he sinned. the light continued written.] Surely indeed the darkness shall bruise [E. 1 now come was written. etc! the sixth day. He blessed it in respect of the luminaries. 7 darkness began to set in. Var. 7 This derives yishrehu from shir. 'He sendeth it forth : under. hence it is written. 3 What is the proof? 4 But Adam passeth not the night in glory (Ps. u): shall he of whom it bruise thy head (Gen. Thou changest his countenance. When the sun set on the night of the Sabbath. Friday]. Sabbath. 9 twelve on the eve of the Sabbath [i.

now people kill since a blessing birds and eat them. hence it is written. 82 . when hot dishes were set before him. Levi said in the name of R. Bez.XL 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH What flints did the Lord do for him? He made him find two which he struck against each other. called Rabbi (teacher) par excellence. 1 This agrees with Samuel. and catch fish and eat them. without one's wealth being thereby diminished cf. . [On another occasion] he made a meal for him during the week. the night was light about me the night was light in my Eden (be'edni). Pes. n. 4 5 I. and so it suffers no loss at all. [E. 540.e. Abbahu in R. On the identity of Antoninus v. Our Teacher 7 made a meal for Antoninus 8 on the Sabbath. for Samuel said Why do we recite a blessing over a lamp [fire] at the termination of the Sabbath? Because 2 it was then created for the first time. Leazar said in R. Jose's name: [The expenditure. The blessing enables them to enjoy the additional fare provided. V. Then what can you say of the seventh day? 4 R. * Sc. Cold dishes were set 4. and the translation is a conjecture. Johanan's name said: At the name. loc. we recite a 3 blessing over it.] on the fifth day birds and fish were created. (Sonc. of R. Hanina: [It is written] on account of the [additional] 5 R.g. Kama b. R. R. p. i6a. Huna in Rab's and R. He blessed it before him. 7. light came forth and he uttered a blessing over it. artificial light. too. But ba'adeni (Ps.)> i. Levi said in the name for additional expenditure. Hanina: A blessing is written in connection with every day in which there is a decrease. Jose b. he ate them and found them delicious. Said he to him: 'Those others 1 I enjoyed more/ 'These lack a certain conis The meaning of the original 3 not clear. yet is written in connection with it. R. no fire was lit 6 7 8 nothing was created.e. R. Sanh. cit. : 3. 610.). ed. termination of the Day of Atonement. the stock does not in any way decrease. He blessed it by providing R. Judah the Nasi. 536. was given] on account of people with delicate blessing 6 digestions. because the fire rested the whole day. with tasty dishes. Incurred. When on that day.

he dismissed him. 'we have one day when all our sins of the year are forgiven. He had him summoned and said to him. I set it aside for the Sabbath/ 3 R. 3 honoured the v. the fulness thereof'(Ps. Why? So that the owner should not grow conceited. xxiv. i). Each overbid the other until it reached twelve dinars. 'So-and-so. 'A Jewish tailor can eat a fish at twelve dinars!' Sir/ replied he. . e a A town of loc. 119*2. 'My son. the Jew/ he answered. Shab. Ishmael b. At dinner the governor demanded of the servant. Syria. 'and whenever I saw a well-favoured animal. Abba said: I was once invited by a man in Laodicea 2 they brought before us a table borne on sixteen staves. 656. 'do you indeed possess the Sabbath?' 1 R. tliyya b. . at which price the tailor bought it. Jose asked Rabbi On account of what virtue do the Babylonians live ? In virtue [a life of : of the Torah [which they study].' When he produced proof of his words. dt. And Because they honour the Sabbaths and festivals. Lord's. Akiba: 'Why does this day [the Sabbath] differ from other days?' 'Why does one man differ from other men?' he retorted. and we honour it greatly. 1 4 Shab. 4 [sc. whence did you merit all this wealth?' 'I was a butcher/ replied he. Said I to him. eve of the great fast certain tailor the Day of went to buy a fish. sir/ he replied. who . Cf. The wicked Tinneus Rufus asked R. iiga. wealth] in Eretz Israel? the people of the Diaspora? And and on it was of everything created in the first six days a child sat in the middle and recited. A Roman governor of Judea V. 4-5 replied. 'Does then the royal pantry lack anything?' he exclaimed. In virtue of the tithes. 'Why have you not served fish?' 'I will tell you the truth.. y of a certain Joseph. story in Shab. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) diment/ he [XI. Sabbath. R. and it fell : ' 5 5. Sanh. The earth is the and . 'They lack the Sabbath/ he retorted. 'A certain Jew did thus to me did you really want me to bring you a single fish for twelve dinars!' 'Who was it?' inquired he. Tanhuma said: It once happened in Rome on the Atonement] that a out that he and the governor's servant began bargaining for it.

is 3 Lit. and when He moves the winds and rain it is to Him like carrying in private ground. but on After the Sabbath he up. you are you quote as proof a distant river I have never seen. as it were. 8 Lit. 33 it . honours the Sabbath. is 6 A so precious. 4 This refers to a kind of necromancer (ba'al-ob) who brought up the dead by means of the membrum virile. 1 2 That The strong force of its current carries along stones and rubble. and Neub. but on the Sabbath we rest/ Then he went back to R. which is permitted even on the Sabbath. p. then He should not stir up winds or cause the rain to fall on that day/ Woe to that man 5 he exclaimed it is like one who carries : f ' ' ! ' .' and I answered you. 'Why does Rufus differ from other men/ 'Because the emperor desired to honour him/ said he. It Geogr. 'Then this day. 7 I. blessed be He. which it to me?' 2 carries stones the whole week but allows them to rest on 3 the Sabbath/ 'You are evading the question/ he exclaimed. rendering . too. a mythical river. have you become a Jew after death Why did you ascend during the whole week but not on the Sabbath ? He who does not keep the Sabbath among you of his own free will must keep it here in spite of himself/ 'But what toil have you there?' he demanded.e. 'The whole week we undergo judgment. 'why does the Sabbath differ from all other days. the Holy One wished to honour/ 'How can you prove 1 'Let the river Sambatyon prove it. [objects] four cubits/ 6. genital prove it/ he replied. v. let fainting come upon that man' 8 The whole universe is God's private domain. 84 . 'for every day he [the dead] comes up but not on the Sabbath/ 4 He went and made a test with his own father: every day he the Sabbath he did not come came up. this is philosopher asked R. to a distant place drawing me away ' ' . ' Theodor ad loc. 'Then let him who brings up [the dead by] his male 'What did inquired he.XL 5-6] I MIDRASH RABBAH ask you and what did you answer me?' 'You asked me/ he replied. ' Father/ said he. Hoshaya: 'If circumcision why was it not given to Adam?' 7 'If so/ indeed the seventh day. ' ' Akiba and said to him If it is as you say that the Holy One. why was he not born circumcised ? t unnavigable. brought him up [again] ! ' .

LXXIX. 4 Your arguments are mere sophistries. Jose's name: Abraham. 6 V. [as it is written]. By circumcision. LXIV. the Day of Atonement can be postponed. Nahman said: Because it cannot be postponed a festival can be postponed.: it is not stated specifically that he kept the Sabbath. Hence 2 of less value and I cut it. ' [XL 6-8 why do you ' ' shave the corners of your head and leave your beard?' 'Because it grew with me in folly.V. too. Johanan said in R. infra. infra. you should blind your eye and cut 'To such an argument have we come your hands observed he. Yohai taught: The Sabbath pleaded to the Holy One. blessed be He All have a partner. 6 inherited the world without measure.' 1 was the answer. e. xin. wheat needs 4 grinding. And he rested [E. is mentioned. 7 but the Sabbath cannot be postponed. (ib.. In childhood and youth. and man too needs to be finished off/ off ' ! 2 ! ' . 5 Mah. xxxni.g. as it is written. If so. you have from birth. He they stood before the mountain said to them. and to the east. but only in general terms that he kept God's law. of whom the keeping of the 7. The first day of the week has the second. it : ' : no partner!' 'The Community of Israel is your partner/ God 1 answered. thus if New Moon is declared a day later these too fall later. 3 'I cannot send you away empty-handed/ said he [the real reason is this :] whatever was created in the first six days requires further preparation. but the Sabbath has no partner. v. xxvni. Arise. 17). before it is 8 85 . viz. 14). 5 inherited the world in [limited] measure. And thou shalt spread abroad to the west. the fifth has the sixth. 4. Sabbath is before the city Now why did He bless it? R. mustard needs sweetening. the third has the fourth. R. R. who not reported to have kept the Sabbath. Samuel b. which means that he entered at twilight and set boundaries before sunset. vetches need sweetening. etc. Berekiah said: Because has no mate. 18). of Sinai. R. walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it (Gen. Remember what I said to the ' And when I reached the years of discretion. Simeon b. But Jacob. 7 These are dependent on the day which the Court declares to be New Moon. while I have 8. 'encamped'} (ib.GENESIS (BERESHITH) he replied. These. 6 ad fin.

which Thou hast wrought for them that take refuge in Thee.] Remember the Sabbath day. and the constellations.V. translation. the firmament. and the angels. the moon. He created beforehand on the sixth. on the fifth. but MAKE: whatever the Holy One. 20) 1 2 * ! 8 Lit. Which God in creating had made* Remes. 3). 8). which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee. . And how do we know that the punishment of the wicked is called work ? Because it is said. creeping said : and demons. created three objects on each day: on the first. xxxi. on the second. L. and light. in the sight of the sons of men (Ps. Banayah things. and hath brought forth the weapons of His indignation. Eve. He rested from the work of [creating] His world. blessed be He. ' IT HE RESTED FROM ALL 9. but not you read: R. 2 R. herbs. cattle. The Lord hath opened His armoury. 3 10. Which God created and made CREATED TO not written here. 25). Hence he made six things instead of three on the sixth day. earth. R. on the third. E.XL 8-IOJ MIDRASH KABBAH Community of Israel to is it Sabbath. beasts. Hama b. for it is a work that the Lord God hath to do (Jer. Rendering: God created what He was to make (on the seventh day). that the [hence. on the sixth. and . Hanina: The Holy One. Eve. BECAUSE THAT IN HlS WORK WHICH GOD CREATED TO MAKE (ll. Phinehas said In the sixth : He created six things: is Adam. Levi said in the name of R. trees. which in his view includes animals and wild beasts. heaven. and the latter their essential character. blessed be He. Phinehas said in R. Oh how abundant is Thy goodness. moving creatures. He shows the former their essential character. xx. birds.* R. . the sun. and the Garden of Eden on the fourth. . and the Leviathan. Oshaya's name: Although from the work of the wicked and the work of the righteous. R. Adam. And how do we know that the bestowing of reward upon the righteous is called work? Because it is said. holy (Ex. WHICH GOD BECAUSE THAT IN IT HE RESTED FROM ALL HlS WORK WHICH GOD CREATED TO MAKE. for He works with the former and with the latter. Gehenna. fish. keep your partner. 86 . was to have made on the seventh.

S. Lo. Solomon) endeavoured to find a method to understand the wisdom of the Torah. R. no creature can understand it. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN AND OF THE EARTH WHEN THEY WERE CREATED (il. Nahman gave another illustration. first half of the verse just quoted. then all began to enter through his clearing. then cut down more and penetrated further thus he entered through the clearing and went out .e. 12)? i. i CHAPTER XII (BERESHITH) i. 14)? R.T. Nahrnan said This may be compared to a thicket of reeds which no man could enter. Then all commenced to enter and go out 1 2 8 Which Mah. doors. blessed be He. It is not written. i. the supreme King of kings. Cf. Huna: If you cannot comprehend the thoughts. viz. essential ! ' I comprehend the can comprehend the essential character of the universe.e. 'For what is the man that cometh after the king' (EccL ir. i. blessed be He! R. 8. 4). and what blemish of aught is heard of Him! But the thunder of His mighty deeds who can understand (Job xxvi.: they understand comment on the as a hint to introspection and repentance. R.S. these are but parts of His ways. the 3 Holy One. can you essence of the world If a man tells you. Imagine a large palace with many . these are but parts of His ways.: implies that this is a some may understand.[XII. I (sc. Huna said: Whatever things you see are but parts of the ways of the Holy One. and what blemish of aught is heard of Him' : what defect is heard of Him? 'But the thunder of His mighty deeds who can understand ? R.' say to him. for whoever entered therein lost his way. none understands. What did a certain wise man do ? He took a ball of cord and tied it near the door. but 'who can understand? l The intelligent know His hints and His 2 Said R. 87 . as it says. ' 3 ' nature of thunder. : What did a certain clever man do? He cut down [some reeds] and entered. it Y. Huna said: When thunder goes forth in its full force. Lo. after the King of the Universe. And I turned myself to behold wisdom i. so that whoever entered therein lost his way.

Judah b. are comely and praiseworthy. the Holy One. if the walls were higher it would be beautiful. 4 This is deduced from the phrase THESE ARE. 2). I~2] MIDRASH RABBAH by means of the clue. their Creator praises them. Simeon b. work.] These are the statutes 1 Human achievements may fall short of perfection. xxxn. etc. if the ceiling were loftier it would be beautiful/ But will any man come and say. who may find fault with it them? But they written. R. supra. 88 . blessed be He. the nose] over his entrance [mouth]. 2. and established thee (Deut. blessed be He. Levi b. R. Other MSS. 'That which He hath already made him/ but That which they have already made him : if it were possible to say so. and that constitutes his beauty and his pride. R. the supreme King of kings. Judan said: [It means that things hath God created the world] for the sake of the Torah [which is My referred to as 'these' in the verse. the Holy One. God pointing to them like a 5 with pride. but not the work of 2 s God.-R. Haytha3 said: If a mortal king builds a palace and sets its waterspout at its entrance. HEAVEN. For all these things hath My hand made (Isa. in. blessed be He. and His court took a vote on every limb of thine and set thee up in proper trim: thus it is written. People entered it and criticised: 'If the columns were taller it would be beautiful. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN.: when 4 who may disparage them. R. Hul. Cf. Oh that I had three eyes 1 or three feet!' Surely not. create His world. ' ' * when their Creator lauds them. 9.^ama . It is not stated. cf. Merion said: It is written. LXVI.XII. 6). whereas God's fiat was sufficient. Isaac b. yet you actually say. z R. 566 on this verse. worker who draws attention to the fine quality of his This implies physical labour.Nahman. He hath made thee. hence is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE etc. . Yet the supreme King of kings. Simon: Not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. it is unbecoming. Berekiah objected in the name of R. Yohai said: This may be compared to a mortal king who built a palace. created man and set his spout [sc. 2. 'For all these hand made'! 5 R. x.

where A R E is written. If a passage commences with 'and these are'. earlier etc. saith the Lord (Isa.): THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. 4 Said R. Now these are the names of the sons of Israel (Ex. 2 Other sources quote All these are the twelve tribes of Israel (Gen. it THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. but not what went before. etc.e. with their generations. or. 1 . loc. What does 3 disqualify? Formlessness and void. l). According to the Rabbis. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) and ordinances and laws b. Ex. . 3. a third day morning. which means: i. R. 3. heaven and earth were first created. He renders: And for the sake of all these things (sc. the heaven and the earth were created and earth (M. of 28). R. it disqualifies the preceding. This is intimated in the present verse. 2. Judah countered: they brought Yet surely it is written. 2-4 Nehemiah 2 said: written.K. Ex. Joshua For the sake of the tribes. simultaneously implying that the . reducing them to formlessness and void. one day . THESE it 4. Judah said And the heaven and the earth were finished : in their own time. i). and then the hosts of heaven 5 I. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN. . and these seem preferable. XLIX. and all their host in their : own time. in addition to what went before. instead the verse from Ezekiel. xxvi.. [as it is are the names of the tribes (Ezek. 3 Y. God created other worlds before the present one. I. these things came to be. Nehemiah discussed this passage. they are [now] as when they on the very day they were created were [first] created.). xxx. worlds could not be called 'these*. R. 1 PL of Torah.. R. the Torah) hath My hand made. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF THE HEAVEN AND OF THE EARTH BE-HIBBARAM (WHEN THEY WERE CREATED). cf. it indicates that these too are worthy. Abbahu said : Wherever these ' are ' (eleh) is written. And there was evening and there was a a second day . . XLVIII.e.. etc* R. . 4 I. . but destroyed them. at. forth their generations. Here. 46). 'and these are* (we-eUK) adds to the preceding. Nehemiah to him But it is written. * [XII.] XLVIII. since they reverted to their original chaos. V. toroth (Lev. R. Now these And so all hence.: If a passage commences with 'these are it implies that only the things that follow are worthy to be so counted. 5 R. disqualifies [rejects] the preceding.e.T. Judah and R.

But in Sot.. firmament [heaven] was created on the second day. the second. which were what the world lacked. tions: birds. The earth was created on the first day. fourth. 90 .. viz. waited three days. according to Beth Hillel. and constellations. herbs. and third. Similarly the hosts ('generations'} were created together with heaven and earth. waited three days. and fourth. The essential creation of the earth On each of these days a generation of heaven or earth was created. R. etc. 17). R. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven (Gen. the first. but IN THE DAY THAT THE teaches that LORD GOD MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN two things constitute the fundamental elements of creation. 3 of Siknin said For in six days the Lord earth. but only completed each on the day 1 3 assigned to it.. elements of the creation they each waited three days and then produced three things. Berekiah observed in conappears in its own time. second. : n): these three things constitute the fundamental . the third. Nehemiah made heaven and xx. 2 In a crop of figs all take shape about the same time. fish. : 1 a fifth day .. (Gen. 12). maintained: It is not so. then it waited three days. and the first. and produced three generaviz. viz. i. the digger of wells. the sea. was already stored within I. viz. and its work was completed on the fourth. Near Sepphoris. as maintained by the School of Shammai. moon. Heaven was created on the first day. as it is said. and third. And what was the completion of its work ? The luminaries. Nehemiah They were like those who gather figs. second.. and brought forth three generations: the sun. The seas were created on the third day. 4-Sl fourth day MIDRASH KABBAH . firmation of this view of R. but they do not all ripen at the same time.XII. implies something which it. The generations: trees. 'Azariah. and brought forth three and the Garden of Eden. third. Nehemiah: And the earth brought forth... whereas heaven and earth were themselves created on the first day. 5. a sixth day? Said R. and all that in them is (Ex. however.. when each 2 R. the Leviathan. and fifth.186 we find: Netiunia. tarried three days. and they waited three days and their work was completed on the fourth day.

'Thou changest his countenance. as it is written. viz. Judah said: Though the luminaries were cursed on the eve of the Sabbath. i. and created man upon it (Isa. And the earth brought 1 forth (ib. and the light of the luminaries being much greater than 8 He originally filled the whole world now. His height? For it says. The Rabbis maintain: He passed the a night. as explained in the text. and the luminaries. 12). (ib. have made the earth. XLV. XLIX. who maintained: Adam did not retain his glory for What is the proof? But Adampasseth not the night in glory (Ps. also. 18). even I. as it is written. Lacking a waw. 12). 1 and sendest him away' (Job xiv. and unto dust shalt thou return (Gen. supra. GENERATIONS (TOLEDOTH) . and work was completed on the sixth day. 8). the third.Alltoledoth found * in Scripture are defective. viz. his lustre. 13). Abun's And why are they defective? R. they were not smitten until the termination of the Sabbath. 19). night in his glory. As soon Both quotations relate to the third day. 4 sponds to the this of his lustre? Thou changest his and sendest him away (Job xiv. fourth. his immortality [lit. * These were reduced. and now he was small enough to hide among the trees (v. 20). ill. g). as it is said. viz. /. the fruit of the earth. Simeon b. 20). Luminaries? R. waited three days. the fruit of trees. 'life']. 2 1 9* .. immortality ? For dust thou art. vni. said in R. Judan name The six [which they lack] 3 corre: six things which were taken away from Adam. his height. the earth and trees having originally produced fruit in one day. And let the dry land appear (ib.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XII. The fruit of the earth and the fruit of the tree ? Cursed is the ground for thy sake. This agrees with the Rabbis but not with R. and fifth. And what was the completion of its work ? Man. i). These are the toledoth (generations) of Perez (Ruth iv. Aibu said: His height was cut down and reduced to one hundred cubits. His countenance. 5 R. and the present instance. It its 6. 2 except two.e. Whence do we know Assi. 17). nn^n instead of rrnViru 3 The waw as a numeral is six. etc. 5-6 was on the third day. but at the termination of the Sabbath He deprived him of his splendour and expelled him from the Garden of Eden.. And the man and his wife hid themselves (ib.

3). etc. for Samuel said: Why do we find two recite a blessing over a lamp [fire] at the termination of the Sabbath? Because it was then created for the first time. but He showed honour to the Sabbath. supra.\ i. and they will not again return to their perfection until the son of Perez [viz. toledoth is spelled with a waw. yet when Adam sinned they were spoiled. 3): wherewith did He as the When the sun set on the night of the continued to function. 8 The six things whose restoration is symbolised by the inclusion of the waw. twelve during the night of the Sabbath. cit. Nahman: Though these things were created in their ful2 ness. n. He to attack ! shall bruise thy head(Gtn. whereupon all Sabbath. 'envelop'] me (Ps. cxxxix. Adam was terrified. Abbahu in R. R. R. n): shall he of whom it bless it ? with light. blessed be He. Levi said in the name of the son of Nezirah That light functioned thirty-six hours. These are they 3 his lustre. wished to hide the light. because the fire rested the whole 1 R. light came forth and he uttered a blessing over it. hence it is written. (Gen. darkness began to set in. and R. [thinking.] Surely indeed the darkness shall bruise [E. that is spelled here fully. Samuel b. Under the whole heaven they wherefore? Because sing praises to Him (Job xxxvir. intimates that they were created with their full power. : was written. are the toledoth (generations) of Perez'. Friday].XII. in. 15) now come for me What flints did the Lord do him ? He made him which he struck against each other. When the sun sank at the termination of the Sabbath. written. twelve on the eve of the Sabbath [i. : this whole passage v. Berekiah said in the name of R. And God blessed the seventh day. as it is written. the light began praising. the night was light in my Eden (be-'edni). too.V. Huna in Rab's name. But the night was light about me loc. : we recite a blessing over it.). Johanan's name said At the termination of the Day of Atonement. day. His light [reaches] unto the ends of the earth (ib. Messiah] comes These [for in the verse] ' .e. his fully. the Holy One. This agrees with Samuel. 2 1 For notes on The fact TOLEDOTH 92 . with a waw. hence it is ba'adeni (Ps. xi. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH sun set on the night of the Sabbath.e. and twelve on the Sabbath [day]. 2.

7. R. v. His immortality? For as the days of a tree shall be the days of My people (Isa. Whence do we know it? From the word komemiuth : komah implies one hundred cubits. R. and the luminaries. hundreds. the sycamore. etc. Abbahu's reason in R. Abbahu refers to the verse. rather less than a cubit.T. vui. : i. The luminaries ? be as the light of the sun. R. which gives nine hundred cubits.S. (Zech. Berekiah stated R. 6-7 and the fruit It of trees. which is the * The vine shall give her fruit average size of a new-born babe. 3 Whence do we know it of the fruit of the earth and the fruit of the tree ? For as the seed of peace. while miuth implies [another] two hundred cubits. ill. as it is said. as the light of the seven days (Isa. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her (Prov. looa. His height? xxvi. Simeon said Three hundred. 26). with an erect bearing. As no tree is specified. and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold.e. viz. Hence man will be immortal like the Torah itself. R. the light of the moon shall i2). in the same measure and speed as when it was first created. B. he assumes it to mean the longest-lived one. explains R. the vine shall give her fruit. 3 The passage is difficult. his height. 31). while an infant comes out from his mother's womb a cubit and a half [in : : komemiuth (Lev. All have offspring. Hiyya taught: That means.P. 2 R. 'A cubit and a half is based on a different 1 : ' reading. V. Dosa's name: A sycamore tree continues growing in the earth six hundred years. Abbahu said: Nine hundred cubits. l And I will make you go upright LXV. Eleazar b.' Rain M. Yohai said: Tree' refers to no jght but the Torah. Whence do we know his lustre ? But they that love him shall be as the sun of when hegoethforthin his might (Judg. Simeon said Two hundred. z Miuth is read as me'oth. a half per annum. xxx. 1 8). Judan said It indicates a height of one hundred cubits. the verse teaching that the height of men shall be as much as if they were to grow uniformly for six hundred years at one and a half cubits per annum. fearing no creature. and holds that the point of similarity is not only the length of life. 22). Simeon b. etc. the fruit of the earth [XII. 7sa. but also the manner of growth. 93 .GENESIS (BERESHITH) immortality. 13). 'For as the days of a tree. Sanh. R. : ' ' length]: go and calculate. implies. Heaven and earth have offspring: 'These are the offspring of the heaven and of the earth. a cubit and.B. ' Y. the text having 'a lopped-off cubit'. adds R. R. 4 Moreover.

9. n). Simeon b. see are the offspring of heaven and God created the heaven His creations were of there be a firmament. Karhah said: in lettering with beabraham 3 1 is identical i. And so Resh Lakish cited: Dominion and fear are with Him. WHEN THEY WERE CREATED BEHIBBARAM. this will outnumber the terrestial by one creation. 1 : 'Azariah said in the name of Rabbi: This was said in reference to the One above. The offsprings of heaven are the luminaries . R. BEHIBBARAM : R. i. z And everything that followed was derived from these. is created. and there will be no peace in the universe while if he is of the terrestial world it will be likewise. both words contain the same letters. 6) on the third.) ? R. on the And God said: Let . but what has no offspring neither dies nor decays. Drops of water lying in the dew which look like pearls. amaKii.XII. ! the celestial and the terrestial worlds. (ib. But lo I will create him as partaking of both . 2). It was taught: Whatever has offspring dies. which is of the upper world. On the : . 7). 94 . and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (ib. for the sake of peace/ Hence it is written. Said He ' : If I create him belonging to the celestial world. 14) the fifth. 'for Abraham'. creates but is not created.e. which imply that dew is in the category of things that beget (Y. The deduction in respect of dew is from the words father and begotten. 3 Lit.T. 8. fourth. He came to create man. y sixth day. 28)? Dew has offspring: Who hath begotten the drops of dew (ib. though in different order: a*r&rO. Joshua b. of the terrestial: Let the waters swarm etc. He maketh peace in His high places (Job xxv. they were of the terrestial: And God said: Let the earth put forth grass (ib. those of the earth are plant life and human life. 20). Now all that you earth. In the beginning and the earth? On the second day. 7~9l MID RASH KABBAH has offspring: Hath the rain a father (Job xxxvm. decays. of the celestial Let there be light (ib. (Gen. but cannot create. those of dew are the fruit of the earth. as it is said. for the sake of Abraham. Lakish said That refers to the pearls of dew. the celestial world: etc. In Heb. Then the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. II.).

the Holy One. of course. compiler of the Mishnah.}. the wild beast hears it and flees. Judah the Nasi. Abbahu with the said in R. Judah II.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XII. xxxni. : ! 10. 7). not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. Judan said: It is not the high mountains are the wild goats/ but. how much the more for the sake of Abraham afraid of wild beasts . blessed be He. 1 All letters demand an effort to . z R. blessed be He. even Thou alone . and the work was finished. lest it devour it. Jewish thought knows nothing of recalcitrant matter fighting against God and refusing to be shaped 4 into a world. 95 . civ. would not be the famous R. etc.) the coney takes shelter under the crag from the flying bird. be-Jah is His name (Ps. ix. R. 6). Then if the Holy One. but his grandson. Judah the Nasi 4 asked R. 'Azariah Joshua b. Extol Him that rideth upon the skies. Thou art the Lord God. 9-10 whom He was quoted on this statement of R. Now the hind is weak and one day to raise up. The high mountains are for the wild goats (Ps. and what was all this toil for? Because. 5 Theodor. 6). Karhah the didst choose Abram. This. LXVIII. A mere word. pronounce them. Samuel b. tell me the meaning of. blessed be He. (ib. R. R. verse: Thou art the Lord. and The heavens were already made (ib. create His world. WHEN THEY WERE CREATED BEHIBBARAM. 5) ? There is not Said he to him a single place which has not someone appointed to rule over it 5 thus a commissioner in a province is appointed ' ' : : 1 2 3 Reading ajoarD as two words: Being a mere aspirate. 'all letters take hold of the tongue'. but By the word of the Lord (Ps. There is not a place which has not an officer appointed : over its highways. Johanan's name: He created them letter heh. The rocks are a refuge for the conies (ib. Thou hast made heaven (continuing the whole passage) (Neh. created His world thus for the sake of unclean things. written 'On when therefore she wishes to drink. who etc. whereas the heh demands no similarly. 18): thus for whose sake were the high mountains created ? For the sake of the wild goats. effort2 R. Jast. throws her into a state of panic and she beats with her horns [on the rocks]. Lit. Nahman: 'As I have heard that you are a master of haggadah.

it 'BE-HIBBARAM means.XII. I asked R. And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down And the idols (ib.e. vm. viz. 8). Creator) of worlds. Abbahu said in R. Eleazar. 10] to its governorship MIDRASH KABBAH . 6 1 2 Reading bijah instead of be-J(Y)ah. is appointed appointed to the governorship of His world ? The Holy One. create His world. and he did not explain a magistrate in a province Similarly. R. 5 The universe went on expanding until rebuked by God (v. so that he stood still in bewilderment. Berekiah said in the name of R. Simon: Not with labour or wearying toil did the Holy One. as it is written. n. I. 17). its . 4 That the way is open for a return to God. shall utterly pass away (ib. Translating: for the Lord. BE-HIBBARAM: with a he created He them. Trust ye in the Lord for ever. R. xxvi. Johanan's with a h& created He name. for the Lord be-Jah is an everlasting Rock (Isa. This rebuke was wordless and consisted of a single sound. 96 . blessed be He "Be-Jah is His name" means biyah (governorship) is His name/ 1 'Alas for those who are gone and will not return!' 2 he exclaimed. supra. and the heavens were already made'. to its governorship. by means of rp (yod h) is the Rock (i. It was like a king who rebuked his servant. like the letter he. l Judah b. this world and the future world. 18). The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke (Job xxvi. was is them/ he.e. n). so are the wicked: their erectness shall be bent and their faces blackened [with shame] in the Messianic future. the dead. : follows that this world created an indication that all the dead upper hook is an indication that are destined to ascend thence the opening at the side they 4 The next world was created with is a hint to penitents. but from what R. even so. a yod: as the yod has a bent [curved] back. But the verse. who is : ' it thus. 4) means: 3 By these two letters did the Lord create His world/ Now we do not know whether this world was created with a he or the next world with a yod.. viz. What will he [the wicked] say? that is by means of a and open underneath Now the he closed on all sides descend into she'ol. blessed be He. BE-HIBBARAM. but By the word of the Lord.

6). CXLVIII. HI. 10) just as the rain's creation is from the earth. . . Praise ye Him. : : : unto one place . Huna said in R. so everything that is in heaven and on earth was created from nought but heaven. R. . assumes that some emendation of the both here and in Eccl. i. LV. but the Holy One. Judan proved it from the following: All go . He proves it from the following For He saith to the snow : Be thou on the earth. Joshua maintained: All that is in heaven and on (ib. . He proves this from the following Praise ye the Lord [ye that were created] hosts from the heavens . . . R. R. . Johanan said: When a mortal king builds a palace. Simeon b. as it is written. supra. so all that is in heaven and on earth was created from the earth alone. y). . R. first he brings the beams. 2 12. Johanan and Resh Lakish discussed this. Joshua differed. . all His angels moon sun etc. Just as the snow is created out of heaven. though its existence is on the earth. as it is said. i) Praise the Lord [ye that were created] from the earth. etc. 11-12 All that is in heaven and R. though it falls from heaven. Eliezer [XII. 20). blessed be He. earth (Eccl. . Eliezer said: was created out of heaven. Nahman said: Even the sun's orb. created the upper stories and the lower stories in a single act. all are of the dust. and ix. . (Ps. blessed be He. in. . . 3 R. . 20. I. . 7 f). . and then erects the masts. .e. For as the rain cometh down and the snow from heaven (Isa. ye sea-monsters mountains hills beasts cattle fire and hail R. . . . and all that : is on earth was created out of the earth. R. after this he procures the anchors. Who commandeth the sun (heres).GENESIS (BERESHITH) 11. 3. created them [heaven and earth] and their 1 4 not clear and Th. . . R. . . after having built the lower stories he builds the upper ones. . Lakish said: When a human being builds a ship. born out of the earth! proof is The text is necessary : 97 H . D*in (sun) being identified with ann. and it riseth not (Job ix. 15. Joseph's name Whatever is in heaven and on earth was created from the earth alone. . (Job xxxvn. The proof follows from a play on words. a potsherd which is made from clay thus even the sun was 8 Cf. R. . then the ropes. But the Holy One. earth was created from nought but heaven. 1 R.

Isaac said: up a tent.T. R.in which the lower stories serve as a support to the upper ones. mariners). Canst thou with Him spread out the sky (Job xxxvn. all whose parts co-operate in the one purpose of making it go. and both were created to carry out the design of the Divine Architect. 'Azariah observed in regard to this statement of R. while fulfilment [came] by day. Johanan. holds that heaven plays the major role in God's scheme. Isaac and R. therefore it is stated. R. 2 13. 5). 3 in the course of time it is bound to acquire rust. He thus compares the universe to a building . * How strange that these two verses follow each other: what is the connection between them ? 2 : ' ' 1 6 Thus this proves the statement of Resh Lakish. Simeon b. Thus saith God the Lord. as it is written. and yet they remain as WHEN THEY WERE CREATED. Which is strong as a molten mirror (tb.XII. however. 5 14. earth being subsidiary to it. R. Simeon The people. (Isa. Simeon b. but in truth here they are 'Strong as a molten mirror' : they [the heavens] look like a [glittering] breastplate. 98 . 12-14] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH crew. He that we-notehem created the heavens and stretched them forth this is written we-nawtehem (and their XLII. who carry on the world. Therefore he compares it to a ship. Lakish R. a week ends and another commences. month ends and another commences. 18)? And should you say that they are slack. IN THE DAY THAT THE LORD GOD MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN. Resh Lakish holds that heaven and earth are equal units in the universe. a year ends and another commences. after a while it is bound to slacken slightly. R. Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel : differ. 8 Lit. Lakish: It is written. Y.). Beth Shammai maintain The intention [to create was conceived] at night. These are the offspring of the heaven!'* But a day ends and a a day commences. 'Because that in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made. but here in truth. casts a lump of material whether of metal (as is obviously meant here) or glass. whereas Beth Hillel say: Both intention and fulfilment were by day. Resh Lakish said: When a mere When a mortal sets mortal makes a casting.

1 I will confer an never be deprived/ didst establish the earth upon its desire. 99 . Rome under the Emperors. 3 Said the Since this legion was the first to proclaim me king. B This is to explain why earth is mentioned here before heaven. immediately after the intention.' What then did the king do ? He mixed hot and cold water and poured it into them. vui.. they will burst.. 8. 4 Cf. they will contract [and snap]. Said the king: 'If I pour hot water into them. said the Holy One. empty . blessed be He: 'If I create the world on the basis of mercy alone. THE LORD GOD [MADE EARTH AND HEAVEN]. glasses. supra. Even so. 1 ! . differ over the creation of heaven and earth In truth. Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel. if cold. THE to EARTH AND HEAVEN. * expression. civ. king I will give it a preferment which shall never be taken from it/ Even so said the Holy One. and may then stand Hence the LORD Goo. : ! [XII. while the fulfilment was at the standstill of the sun. the time in the morning and the evening when the sun appears to stand still or be silent dawn and sunset. the world cannot exist. s). 2 16. 9. This may be compared to a king who had some 15. My 4 will moved for ever and ever 5 Jast. 2 The Rabbis hold tho. This frequently happened in judgment. and so they remained [unbroken]. first This may be compared to proclaim the king. Who foundations. blessed be He Because the a legion which was the : ' : earth was the first to fulfil honour upon her of which she Hence it is written. Hence I will create it it on the ' ! basis of judgment and of mercy.GENESIS (BERESHITH) b. its sins will be great on the basis of judgment alone. while Elohim describes Him as a God of : 3 Before the other legions.t Adonai (the Tetragrammaton) refers to God under His Attribute of Mercy. 14-16 Yohai observed I am astonished How could the fathers of the world. that it should not be (Ps. intention [was conceived] both by day and by night.

all the trees. all the 5 A man trees were created for man's companionship. etc. 4 He reconciles the verses thus The earth was endowed with plant-life on the third day. 2 As appears from the rest of this verse and the following one. as in the story quoted. it etc. 12..K. etc. No as SIAH (TREE) OF THE FIELD. Irlanina The verse below refers to the Garden of i. I~2] CHAPTER XIII (BERESHITH) 'SHRUB'] OF THE FIELD WAS (n. 6ob. were. which implies that plant life had already appeared on the third day).V. : Eden. in accordance with I. Cf. YET IN THE EARTH OF THE FIELD. 6 Others: then a spirit came the spirits that dwell in trees. i). such as was Palestine Jewry. the conversation of mankind concerns the earth: 'Has the earth produced. 2 whereas this refers to the inhabited world. M. conversed (masihim) with each other. until rain descended (in answer to Adam's prayer) and made first The day (this being states that : them grow. 9) P 1 Said R. All the trees. interprets: though the trees are primarily for man's benefit. 4 2.e. Hul. hence the Midrash connects it with the verb siah to speak. (the Midrash treats the verb as pluperfect. (ib. This reading is more in accordance with the story that follows. but the trees and herbs only reached the surface of the ground. and 'E. as it were. while the second God had already made to grow. conversed with mankind.J. in the fruits of his vineyard and spent the once gathered 6 7 night in it. 7 Man. And the Lord God had made to grow out of the ground. then the wind blew and caused him hurt. they no longer afforded protection. 3 As distinct from the Garden of Eden. or has the earth not produced?' 8 And all mankind's prayers concern the earth: 'Lord! All 1 verse implies that there was no plant-life yet on the sixth regarded as a continuation of Ch.The passage is based on the use of siah for tree instead of the more usual 'ez. Here you say. fliyya taught: In both places nothing grew until rain descended upon them. etc. The sighing of the wind in the trees is poetically conceived as their speech. converse. 5 Others were created for man's hurt i. IOO . 5). hence when this man had gathered the grapes. leaving the vines bare. No TREE yet further on you read. No TREE [E.XIII. This passage was possible only in a community essentially agricultural.. he must take steps to protect himself from them. 3 R. yet they some8 times harm him.: the fruit on the trees protects man from the wind that : blows through them.

(Jer. as you read: Deep calleth unto deep at the sound of Thy 5. x. viz. similarly it is mentioned here. Levi b. for reckoned as equivalent to the whole of creation. What is Who doeth great things and unsearchable (Job v. Others translate and explain differently. za. 8). 4 R. 5 Now 'sound' signifies nought but it is . : rain. etc. 13). XLII. en. Thus these constitute 'great things and unsearchable'. man. 12). R. v. The full Name [of God] is employed in connection with a full world. 4. And poureth out his petition (siho) before the Lord (Ps. cataracts (Ps. and rain. after the world has been completed . which term is 5 Thus the two are equated. cf. it is similarly 2 employed in connection with the fall of rain. cf. R. 6 Thou hast been favourable means with rain. because rainfall is as important as the whole of creation. being also the object of sacrifices (Th. may the Temple be rebuilt Temple ' ' ' : ! will the Temple be rebuilt?' 1 3. Lord God/ appears the first time in II. 2-5 may the earth yield [fruit]'.GENESIS (BERESHITH) ' ! [XIII. DK. Simon said as it is : Here siah is connected with prayer. infra. are for the successful and When Lord. 3 to teach that without earth there would be no rain and without rain earth could not endure. Simeon b. R. R. : man could not exist. ' 2 God's full name. may the earth be All the prayers of Israel. IOI . 76). tns. 6 R. 7. Thou hast land (Ps. on the basis of Ta'an. however. Ta'an. which is dependent on it.. Isaac said: It [rain] is even as are sacrifices. or 'Lord. LXXXV. Yohai said: Three things are equal in importance. also applied to the creation. tliyyatha said: And these three each consist of three letters. Hoshaya said Wonderful is the might of rain. 3 4 In Hebrew: atw. earth. FOR THE LORD GOD HAD NOT CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH. while without either 4. written. i). the proof? wherewith ? By Giving rain upon the earth and sending 9) waters upon the fields (ib* io). been favour able unto 1 Thy evidence of propitiation. xxn. At the sound of His giving a multitude of waters in the heavens (ib. Rain is withheld until God this has allowed Himself to be propitiated for Israel's sins and forgiven them. while field is made to refer to the Temple. z). Aha proved it from the following He that hath made the earth by His power. Lord.

XIII.

5~"6]

MIDRASH KABBAH
:

1 Thou hast turned It will gather in the dispersed exiles the captivity of Jacob (ib.). R. Johanan said: It dissipates

[God's] wrath: Thou hast withdrawn all Thy wrath (ib. 4). 2 R. Tanhum b. IJanilai said It makes atonement for sins, for
:

it is

said,

Thou hast forgiven

the iniquity of

Thy people

3

(ib. 3).

said It is as important as resurson of R. Hiyya, said: The Sages too Abba, inserted it [the prayer for rain] in the blessing of the resurrection of the dead, 4 for 'hand* and 'opening' are used in connection with both. Hand in connection with the one [resurrection] The hand of the Lord was upon me 5 (Ezek. xxxvn, i) and 'hand' in connection with the other
6.

R. Hiyya b.

Abba

:

rection. R.

'

*

:

;

[rain]: Thou openest Thy hand, and satisfiest every living thing with favour (Ps. CXLV, 16). 'Opening' in connection with the one [rain] The Lord will open unto thee His good
:

treasure the heaven to give the rain of thy land (Deut. xxvm, 12); 'opening* in connection with the other [re-

surrection]: Behold, I will open your graves (Ezek. ib. 12). R. Judan said in R. Eleazar's name: 'Song' is mentioned
in connection with both. 'Song' in connection with the one: Let those who dwell in the rock sing (Isa. XLII, n) 6 ' Thou hast song in connection with the other [rain]
; '
:

remembered the earth and watered her
y

.

.

.

The valleys
p

also

are covered over with corn; they shout for joy yea, they sing (Ps. LXV, 10, 14). R. Hiyya b. Ba said: It is greater than resurrection, for whereas resurrection is for man alone,
,

this is for

man and

whereas
1

this is for Israel

beast; again, resurrection and the nations. 7

is

for Israel,

2

Probably

'E.J.: it is as beneficial as the gathering of the exiles. this is similar in meaning to R. Isaac's teaching.
'

3

All these follow Thou hast been favourable', as indicating the influence or value of rain.
'

and are therefore regarded

4 The second blessing of the Eighteen benedictions ', known as the 'Amidah, which form the principal part of the daily service. 5 This commences the narrative which relates the resurrection of the 6 Those who dwell in the rock are the buried dead: they dry bones. are to sing when they are resurrected. 7 Y.T. These symbolise the righteous and the wicked respectively, in accordance with the actual $ext in Ta'an. 7<z, for the righteous of the
:

Gentiles, too, will share in resurrection.

IO2

GENESIS (BERESHITH)

[XIII. 6-9

him: and we have festivals; we do not 1 rejoice when you do, and you do not rejoice when we do. When then do we both rejoice together?' 'When the rain descends/ What is the proof? The meadows are clothed with flocks (ib.)\ what follows? Shout unto God, all the earth
certain Gentile asked R. Joshua, observing to
festivals

A

'You have

(Ps. LXVI, i): not priests, Levites, or Israelites is written here but, 'All the earth.' R. Joshua b. Levi said When rain falls [i.e. in spring], cattle long to rut. What is the proof? The rams clothe the flocks, etc., i.e. the males go up on the ewes, this being
:

a

more
7.

refined expression.

AND THERE WAS NOT
(n, 5):
i.e.

A

MAN TO TILL
is

THE GROUND

there

no

man

to

(LA'ABOD) make men

serve (le'abbed) the Holy One, blessed be He, as Elijah 3 did. 2 What, there is no man to inspire service to the Lord ?

Man was
he
is

toils in

the Torah;

created for nought but toil if he is deserving, if not, he labours in the soil. Happy
:

the
8.

man whose

toil is in

the Torah

4
!

THE LORD GOD CAUSED IT TO RAIN UPON THE EARTH, though THERE WAS NOT A MAN: a covenant
has been made with the earth, as it says, To cause it to rain on a land where no man is, on the wilderness, wherein is no

man

(Job xxxvni, 26).

5

9. etc. (n, 6).
1 2

BUT THERE WENT UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH,
All the
rivers

run into the

sea,

yet the sea

is

not

Since our festivals do not coincide, verse implies that rain falls for the sake of man. Hence when there is a drought, we must assume that the reason is because no man inspires service to God; this follows from reading le'abbed (to cause to serve) instead of la'abod, to serve (E.V. 'till'}. 3 Surely that is not the meaning of the verse * The verse is rendered thus : And when there is no man to make (men) serve (God), then they serve the ground (Th.). 6 Theodor: Scripture writes, For the Lord God had not caused it to rain and there was not a man, etc., yet continues (v. 6) but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. Thus even before man's creation there was rain, because a covenant, etc., i.e. rain, is a part of the scheme of Nature as created by God and is independent

The

1

:'

of

man.

103

XIII. 9]
full (EccL
I,

MIDRASH KABBAH
7).

travelling on the great

R. Eliezer and R, Joshua were once 1 sea, when their ship entered a non-

2 flowing stretch of water. Said R. Eliezer to R. Joshua: 'We have come here simply for a test/ 3 Thereupon they filled a barrel of water from there. When they arrived in Rome, Hadrian asked them, 'What is the nature of the water of the Ocean [i.e. the Mediterranean] ? 'It is water
'

poured absorbed
(ib.) [is

that absorbs other water/ replied they. 'Show [i.e. prove] it to me/ he demanded. [They filled] a flaskful of that and more [ordinary] water therein, and the former
it.

4

In the opinion of R. Eliezer, thither they return
;

meaning of the verse] in the opinion 5 of R. Joshua, it is, 'thither they return to go on' (/&.). the earth drink? 6 R. Judah, R. Nehemiah, and How did the Rabbis gave different answers. R. Judah said: Like
the essential
:

7 the Nile which repeatedly waters [the land of Egypt]. R. Nehemiah said Like a flood, like the Kebaria that grows and inundates. 8 The Rabbis said: Like an overflowing river 9 (tuway); there is a river in Babylonia named Tuway.

Even

so did the earth drink

:

at first,

THERE WENT

UP A MIST FROM THE EARTH, AND WATERED THE
1
2

I.e.

the Mediterranean.

water was quite stationary, and the vessel could not make its normal progress. It is the work of Providence that we have come to this place, so that we can carry out a test with this water, to prove that it possesses peculiar properties which corroborate the Scriptural assertion. * For that reason it never becomes full, though all the rivers flow into it. 8 This is difficult. 'Rashi' R. Eliezer, who suggested this test, knew the property of this water, though he had never been there before. The reason was that he interpreted the phrase thither they return as meaning that all waters discharge into the Ocean and remain there; hence the Ocean does not overflow only because it absorbs what it receives. R. Joshua, however, did not suggest this trial because he interpreted the verse, thither they return in order to go on,' i.e. they enter at one point and flow out at another, eventually continuing their course in other rivers; hence he was not bound to R. Eliezer' s assumption. A different text in cur. edd. gives rise to an entirely different explanation by commentaries. 6 M.K. : before the advent of rain. 7 By its annual overflow. Similarly, the mist went up and watered the 8 The river !ebaria has not been identified. ground. 9 Theodor thinks that the text is corrupt and suggests that it should be emended: R. Nehemiah said: Like the Kebaria; the Rabbis say: Like an overflowing river.
Lit. translation; i.e. the
3
: '

104

WHOLE

GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIII. 9-11 FACE OF THE GROUND; but the Holy One,

blessed be He, reconsidered the matter and decided that it should drink from above only. R. IJanan of Sepphoris said in the name of R. Samuel b. Nahman: On account of

four things did the Holy One, blessed be He, subsequently decide that the earth should drink only from above first, because of lawless men1 secondly, in order to wash away obnoxious vapours thirdly, that the highlands might drink equally with the lowlands and fourthly, that all might lift their eyes heavenwards; thus it is written, That the lowly
: ;

;

;

may

lift

[their eyes]

heavenwards (Job

v,

n).

2

10. And whence does the earth drink? R. EHezer and R. Joshua disagree. R. Eliezer said From the waters of the
:

Ocean, for
:

it is

written,

BUT THERE WENT UP
etc.

A MIST
I

FROM THE EARTH AND WATERED,

Said R. Joshua

to him But surely the waters of the Ocean are salty They are sweetened in the clouds, replied he, for it is written, Which the skies distil (ib. xxxvi, 28) where are they dis:

tilled [Le.

sweetened]? In the skies [clouds]. R. Joshua
drinks] from the upper waters, for it is drinketh water as the rain of heaven cometh

said:

[The earth

written,

And

down (Deut. xi, n); the clouds, however, mount up to heaven and receive them [the waters] as from the mouth of a bottle, for it is written, They gather up (yazokku) water into its cloud (ib.)? They distil it as from a sieve, not one drop
touches another, for
the thick clouds (n called shehakim?
it is written, Distilling waters from Sam. XXH, i2). 4 Why are they [the clouds] Resh Lakish said: Because they break

up (shohakim) the [mass of] water [into rain drops]. Said R. Abba b. Kahana They do this like the entrails of an animal. 6
:

R. Johanan and Resh Lakish discussed this. R. Johanan said: Clouds come from above, as it is written,
1

n.

Who would steal other people's water if it were gathered on the ground.
'

2

3

E.V. So that He setteth up on high those that are low' E.V. Which distil rain from his vapour.' Here, however, yazo kttu is connected with zifca, a water gourd, and the verse is translated; they * E.V. Gathering of waters, thick clouds.' gather water like a gourd. * Which break the food in the process of digestion. up
c
'

105

XIII. 11-12]

MIDRASH KABBAH

Andy behold, with the clouds of heaven (Dan. vn, 13). Resh Lavish maintained: Clouds come from below, for it says, Who causeth the vapours [clouds] to ascend from the ends of the earth (Ps. cxxxv, 7). In the view of R. Johanan it is
like a

man who

presented his neighbour with a cask of
'

wine together with the vessel. 1 In the view of Resh Lakish it is like a man who asked his neighbour, Lend me a se'ah of wheat/ to which he replied, 'Bring your basket and come and measure it out/ Similarly, the Holy One, blessed be He, says to the earth: 'Bring your clouds and
receive rain/
12. It [the cloud] has five

names:
it

'ab, ed,

'anan, nasi,

haziz.
skies

'Ab (thick): because
it is

thickens

[i.e.
r

darkens]
abe) of the

the face of the sky, as

said,

The

thick clouds

(

(n

UP

A

Sam. xxn, 12). Ed: BUT THERE WENT CLOUD (ED) FROM THE EARTH: [it is so
because
it

called]

because

And
Nasi:
7)
:

it

'Anan: makes men meek ('anawim) towards each other. 3 is written, With the clouds of ('anane) heaven.'
it

discomfits

the

2

speculators.

(

41

causeth the clouds (nesi'im) to ascend (Ps. cxxxv, so called] because it makes men princes (nesi'im) towards each other. 5 Haziz : And a way for the cloud
[it is
'

Who

storm') of thunders (Job xxvm, 26): so (haziz E.V. called because it achieves [awe-inspiring] sights 6 in the
1

Similarly,

2

Ed

(IK) is

xxxn, 35 : increasing the crops, frustrates the speculators
prices.
3

supplies both the clouds from above and their rain. identified with ed (-PK), calamity, destruction, in Deut. For the day of their destruction (edam) is at hand. Rain, by

God

who wish

to force

up

The realisation that all are dependent on it naturally tends to reduce their arrogance. Or as Mah.: One man may have a successful barley crop, another a successful wheat harvest, so that each needs the other,
4

relevance of this verse is not apparent; perhaps he translates: (sc. the angels) of the heaven. Possibly, however, it is misplaced, and should be quoted at the beginning 'anan, as it is written, 'With the clouds of ('anane) heaven.' The edd. omit it altogether. 5 Either in the sense of independent of each other, because produce is very cheap when the rain has caused an abundant harvest; or arrogant, when one man's crops are successful while the other man's are a failure, and so he must become a suppliant of the other.

The

With the meek ones

;

6

IJesyonoth

fr.

ftizzayon.
1 06

GENESIS (BERESHITH)
1

[XIII. 12-13

sky and causes the Holy Spirit to rest upon men, as you read, The vision (hazon) of Isaiah (Isa. I, i). R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: It [the earth] has four names: erez, tebel, adamah, arka. The name erez corresponds to the vernal equinox which forces up (me-'alzah) the crops 2 tebel, to the summer solstice which lends savour to (me-tdbbeleth) the crops; adamah, to the autumn, when the ground consists of clods of earth (adamaKf\ arka corresponds to the winter 4 which causes the crops to
;

wither (moreketh).
13.

How much
?

rain

for fructification 5

must descend As much as would

that
fill

it

may

suffice

a vessel of three

handbreadths. 6 This is R. Meir's opinion. R. Judah said: In hard [soil], one handbreadth; in average [soil], two; in humid [soil], three. 7 R. Simeon b. Eleazar said: Not one handbreadth [of rain] descends from above without the earth bringing up two handbreadths [of moisture] to meet it. What is the proof? Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of 8 Thy cataracts (Ps. XLII, 8). R. Levi said: The upper waters are male while the lower are female, 9 and they say one to the other Receive us you have been created by the Holy One, blessed be He, whilst we are His messengers/ Immediately they receive them; thus it is written, Let the
'
:

;

sky pour down righteousness ;
like a
1
2

let the

earth open (Isa. XLV, 8)

female

who

receives the male; That they

may

bring
.

The clouds causing the sky to assume various colours (v. supra, iv, 7) 3 The summer heat breaks up This connects ere$ with alez, to force. the ground and then the autumn rain kneads it into moist clods. * Lit. the solstice of Tebeth. Tebeth is the tenth month, generally falling from about the middle of December to the middle of January. 6 J. Ber. ix states that one must recite a blessing for rain when it descends in sufficient measure for fructification (reb'iati). 8 Var. lee.: As would fill the ploughing implement of three handbreadths. The plough dug three handbreadths into the soil, and this
means that the rain too must penetrate this distance. 7 There must be enough rain to penetrate three handbreadths into humid (lit. sated with moisture) soil, two into average soil, and one
'
'

into hard
8

soil.

calleth unto deep implies two parts from below as against the one part implied in at the voice of Thy cataracts t which refers to the rain from

Deep

above.

*

V. supra, n, 4;

v, 4.

107

XIII. 13-153

MIDRASH RABBAH

that they are fruitful forth (we-yifru) salvation (ib.)m and multiply1 ; And let her cause righteousness to (parim) I the Lord have created it (tb.) : this spring up together; refers to the fall of rain. '/ the Lord have created it' : I have created it for the benefit and stability of the world.

14.

R. Berekiah said:
earth,

When

there ascended contrition

from the

then

straightway

IT
2

WATERED THE
is

WHOLE FACE OFTHEGROUND.

That

consistent

with R. Berekiah's view, for R. Berekiah said:

My doctrine
:

as rain (Deut. xxxii, 2) means: (likhi) shall drop (ya'arof) let men break their stubbornness, and the rain shall
3 immediately descend. R. Menahma said in Rabin's name In the Diaspora they are called 'the broken-necked people", for they break their necks [i.e. repent] and straightway

rain descends.

15.

How much rain must fall for one to recite a blessing? 4

R. Jose said in Rab Judah's name, and R. Jonah and Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: At the beginning, as much as will fructify [the earth]; at the end, even just a little. 5 R. IJiyya said in R. Johanan's name: At the beginning, sufficient to fructify; at the end, enough to wash the surface of the roof tiles. R. Jannai b. Ishmael said in the name of Resh Lakish: At the beginning, sufficient to
1
2

derived from parah, to be fruitful. too, connects ed, cloud, with ed, destruction, and he translates thus: Let there ascend from the earth the breaking of one's evil desires (or, the breaking of one's stubbornness against repentance),
Yifru
is

R. Berekiah,

it shall water, etc. derives ya-'arof from 'araf, to break the neck (cf . Deut. xxr, 7 : we-'arpu, and they shall break the heifer's neck) while 'neck' is a synonym for stubbornness in sin, cf Ex. xxxn, 9, referring to the making of the golden calf; It is a stiffnecked (keshe 'oref) people. Thus he translates: doctrine (or, teaching) shall break down their stubbornness, When 4 V. p. 107, n. 5. there shall be rain.

and then
*

He

;

.

My

Theodor: 'At the beginning' and 'at the end mean when the rain commences, and when it has already fallen respectively. Mah.: In the latter case the rain is more necessary, and so a blessing must be said even for a small quantity. 'E.J.: Because at the end the earth is already sated (therefore even a small rainfall is effective). 'Rashi': 'At the end" means
at the

5

1

second

rainfall (reb'iah); v.

Ta'an. 6b.
1

08

GENESIS (BERESHITH)
fructify; at the end,

[XIII. 15-16
1

enough bung [stopper]. But no matter how much rain descends the bung is not dissolved! 2 But it must look as though it were dissolved. How must one say the blessing? 3 Even as we learned: For rain and for good tidings one recites the blessing, 4 '[Blessed is He] who is good and doeth good/ R. Berekiah in the name of R. Levi derived this from the following:
cold water to a faint soul, so is good news from a far country (Prov. xxv, 25): just as for good news [one says], 'Blessed is He who is good and doeth good/ so for cold
rain] one recites the blessing, 'Blessed is He 5 good and doeth good/ Rab Judah said: Thus did father Ezekiel give praise: 'Thy Name be blessed, my exalted, and magnified, for every single drop which Thou 6 bringest down to us and keepest apart one from the other/ R. Judan b. R. Simeon said: [He can keep them apart]
[i.e.

to dissolve the

As

water

who

is

because

causes them to fall in measure, [as it is written], draweth away (yigra') the drops of water (Job xxxvi, 27) [' yigra' being used] in the sense of And an abatement shall be made (we-nigra') from thy valuation

He

For

He

'

(Lev. xxyn, i8). R. Jose b. Jacob went
[in

7

up

to visit R.

8 Judan of Magdala

sickness],

when he heard

his voice blessing

[God]:

9 Thy name countless times for every single drop which Thou causest to descend for us, wherewith Thou requitest good to the unworthy/ Said he

'We must

give thanks to

to

him: 'Thus did R. Simon recite the blessing/ R. Ze'ira said: Elsewhere we learnt: When cheapness rules in the world or a river [overflows and] supplies a country [with water], one recites: 'Blessed is He who is

good and doeth good/
l6.

AND WATERED THE WHOLE
R. Eleazar said in the
*

GROUND].
1

[FACE OF THE name of R. Jose b.

8

2 It is much too strong and firm. Ber. 540; infra, LVII, 2. 5 R. Berekiah quotes the verse to explain why good tidings and rain are generally coupled in the sources. 8 7 6 Near Tiberias. V. supra, rv, 5. V. B.B. i6a. 9 Lit. 'a thousand thousand and ten thousand ten thousand/

The clay bung of a cask. What is the formula?

109

XIII. 16-17]

MIDRASH KABBAH

Zimra: Everything is blessed [by rain]: Commerce is blessed and merchants 1 profit. 2 R. Johanan b. Levi said: The feeble too are relieved. R. Hiyya b. Abba said: The
sick too are relieved, for their limbs become more supple. member of [a sick visiting] society, used to visit the sick. When rain fell R. Hiyya b. Ba would ask him:

Abimi, a
'

to which he would answer Rabbi said: Even a precious stone 'They feels [the rain]. 3 The Rabbis said: Fish too feel it. R. Phinehas related: It once happened at Acco that a fish was caught and judged to weigh three hundred litras, yet when they weighed it it was only two hundred. An old fisherman who was present said to them, 'That is
?
:

How are they [the sick] faring
feel relieved/

'

because rain has not fallen/ After rain fell they caught a fish and estimated it at two hundred litras, yet on weighing it they found it to be three hundred litras!
17.

FACE OF THE GROUND.
The

R. Bleazar b.

Simeon

earth drinks only as far as its upper layer. 4 If so, what are the roots of the sycamore tree and the roots of the carob tree to do? 5 [Moreover], R.IJanina b. Ikah and
said:

R. Berekiah in the

name

of R. Judah said:
;

The

roots of

wheat

fifty cubits into the earth the soft roots of the fig-tree break through the rock? Said R. Levi: Once in thirty days the deep ascends and waters it. What is

strike

down

the proof? I the Lord do guard

it,

I water

it

at certain

moments

R. a face for the ground. 7
1

(Isa. xxvn, 3). Joshua b. Levi said

:

When the rain

descends

it

makes

2

M.K. and 'Rashi'. Theodor prefers a different reading, the feeble-footed, those suffering with gout (podagra). Or, according to Th.: are relieved.
Its lustre increases.

8
*

This follows from the phrase FACE OF THE GROUND. B They go deeper than the crust. 6 Viz. once in thirty days. E.V. 'every moment'. 7 By covering it with plant life, whereas formerly it was bare. This too is deduced from FACE.

IIO

[XIV. 1-2

i.

XIV (BERESHITH) THEN THE LORD GOD FORMED MAN,
CHAPTER
The king by
justice established the land, but
'

etc.

(n,

7).

gifts

(terumoth) overthroweth it (Prov. xxix, 4). refers to the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, blessed

a man of The king'

be He;

By justice establisheth the land' means that He created the world on the basis of justice, as it is written, In the beginning Elohim (E.V. 'God') created (Gen. I, i) 1 ;
'But the man of gifts overthroweth it' refers to Adam, who 2 hallah, the completion of the world, while hallah is designated terumah, as it is written, the first of your Of dough ye shall set apart hallah (E.V. 'a cake') for a gift terumah (Num. xv, 20). R. Jose b. Kezarta3 said: Like a woman who mixes her dough with water and separates hallah from the very centre, even so, at first, There went up a mist from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground, and then THE LORD GOD FORMED MAN OF

'

was the

THE DUST OF THE GROUND.
2.

WAYYIYZER (REFORMED).
Adam

formations, viz. that of

This connotes two and that of Eve. 4 [Another

interpretation] : There is a viable birth at nine [months] and a viable birth at seven [months]. R. Huna said: When

the foetus
if

and it is born at eight months, it cannot live. When it is formed so as to be born at nine but yet it is born at seven months, it cannot live, and all the more so if it is born at eight months. 6 R. Abbahu was asked: 'How do we know that when the foetus is fully developed at seven months it is
Elohim being His name as a God of justice; v. supra, xn, 15, Shab. II explains: When a woman has poured water on the flour she separates hallah. Similarly, when God poured water on to the dust of the ground He separated hallah, which was man; v. also infra, xvn, 8.
1

so formed as to be born at seven months, 5 born either at seven or at nine months, it is viable ;
is

2

J.

The underlying idea is that man is the most sacred part of creation. Possibly: R. Jose the son of a laundress. 4 This section gives various explanations why Scripture writes w*) with two yods, instead of nic" ! with one yody as it is written in v. 19, 5 I.e. it is decreed at its formation that it in reference to animals. should require nine months for its full development.
3
1

*

So Th., M.K.,

'Rashi,'

and Mah. Y.T. and Y.M. translate

differently.

Ill

XIV. 2-43
viable?
1

MIDRASH KABBAH
[language] I will prove
it

'From your own

to you,

1 replied he: 'Live, seven; go, eight/

There were two formations, [one of the nature] of the celestial beings, [the other] partaking of earthly creatures. R. Joshua said in the name of R. lijananiah, and the Rabbis in the name of R. Eleazar: He created him with four attributes of the higher beings
3.
[i.e.

WAYYIYZER:

the angels]

and four of the lower creatures

[i.e.

beasts]. [His attributes of the lower creatures are]: he eats and drinks, like animals; procreates, like animals; excretes, like animals ; and dies, like animals. [His celestial

ministering sees, like the understands, ministering angels. But does not a dumb animal see? This one [man] can see from the side. R. Tifdai said in R. Aha's name: The celestial beings were created in the
upright,

attributes are]: he stands

like the

angels;

and

speaks,

and

image and likeness [of God] and do not procreate, while the terrestial creatures procreate but were not created in [His] image and likeness. Said the Holy One, blessed be

He: Behold,

*

I will create

him [man]

in

[My] image and

likeness; [thus he

will partake] of the [character of the] celestial beings, while he will procreate [as is the nature] of the terrestial beings/ R. Tifdai [also] said in R. Aha's
'

name The Lord reasoned
:

:

If I create

him

of the celestial

elements he will live
create

him

[for ever] and of the terrestial elements,

live [in a future life].

Therefore
;

I

not die; while if I he will die and not will create him of the
will die,

upper and the lower elements if he sins he he dies he will live [in the future life]/ 2
4.
evil.
3

and

if

WAYYIYZER:
For
if

two formations, the good and the an animal possessed two [such] formations, it

??Ta, the Greek letter Zeta, whose numerical value is seven, is let it live! while Tfra (the letter 17), whose phonetically like 77- w, numerical value is eight, sounds like trco, let it go (i.e. die). * For the whole passage v. supra, vm, n.
!

1

Here, however, the context shows that

This generally means the good and the evil side of man's nature. it means: discernment of what is good and what is evil in a physical and material sense.

8

112

not the past. Hanina (Irlinena) b. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. so in the future will he begin with the skin and flesh and end with the sinews and bones. 3 5. and wilt curdle me'. 'formed' . For thus says Job Wilt Thou not pour me out as milk and curdle me like cheese? Thou wilt : me with skin and fleshy and knit me together with bones sinews (Job x. 'And with bones and sinews Thou but 'Thou wilt knit me together milk before rennet is put into it 1 . It is not written here. Midrash here points out that the future tense is used. one in this world and one in the future world.' a bowl full of me not written. A man who The School of Hillel said: Just as he is formed in this world. the sinews and bones last. The School of Shammai commence with sinews and bones and and '. Jonathan: dead of Ezekiel. but in the future he will The School of Shammai and disagree. whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him. for if that were not so. ' me'. In this world skin and flesh are formed first. .). ' . hast knit .V. so will he be formed in the next world. Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh. In this world the skin and flesh come first. for thus it says in connection with the dead of Ezekiel : And I beheld an d.' but Thou wilt clothe clothe and ' . there were sinews upon them.V.* but Thou wilt pour pour rne out me out . etc. 5 * Lit. Idi: He bound up* the spirit of man within him (Zech. 4 the School of Hillel maintain: His formation in the next world will not be like that of this world. 4-5 would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill 1 it. it is Imagine 1 2 8 together. . E. Sc. yozer . lo. and flesh came up. 10 f.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV. Said R. Yet he does not die of fright is E. but the At the resurrection. and skin covered them above (Ezek. 8). translation. has the past. the spirit or soul within him which sustains life. the sinews and bones last. 'Thou didst and didst curdle me. xu. 5 He does not say. cannot learn xxxvii. to tie up. : under similar circumstances. finish with the skin flesh. i). WAYYIYZER: two formations. for what did they resemble ? enters a bath what he takes off first he puts on : We from the last. . derived here from zarar.

. Wilt Thou not Thou hast granted ' (ib. 4 Thus giving them greater strength than if they were laid flat. Ex. Simon young man) he was created as a fulness. art: For the latter to learn is from her.XIV. xiv. Johanan said: Adam and Eve were created as at the age of twenty. with all his vigour and strength. 9. : said [Read this] 'ofer (a young man in his Eve too was created fully developed. infra. 3 V. Huna said: 'ApAR (DUST) is masculine. interprets the def. He viz. iv. woman 'AFAR (OF THE DUST). Levi said: It is : written. pour me out as milk me life and favour 6.. greatest R. it right. Hence I will create Adam so that if he b. while adamah (ground) is feminine: a potter takes male dust [coarse 1 R. . 4 where does he place them? Surely in the middle of the chamber. R. a Abba Abraham may come and set things Kahana said: In general practice. supra. 3 but the Holy One. the outstanding man. 5-7] is MIDRASH KABBAH loose [liquid]. superfluous. Abraham. Eleazar b. reasoned: 'He may sin and there will be none to set first. xxvni. but . and why is he called the greatest man ? Because he was worthy of being created before Adam. 12). skin and flesh ' . the Lord God formed man of the ground. 6 R. 8. right/ R. 'Created 6> AFAR (DUST) Then in his fulness* means. 114 . R. a youth. the milk the milk curdles and sets. strong man.. Levi said You bring man joints a pair of : house of a corrupt one. Lev. i. Judah b. xn. why did the Lord create Abraham in the middle of generations? In order that he might bear the generations before and after him. R. Even so. when rennet Thus Job said : is put into it. R. R. By a play on words it is therefore connected with 'ofer CiBiy). so that they may support the beams in front and behind. when beams [so that they meet] at a slope. R. supra. 5 but you do not bring a corrupt woman into the house of a virtuous one. . on Ch. R. 15) 'man' means Abraham. . 4. Eccl. sins. i et passim. as Scripture could have stated. m. a virtuous into the 7. blessed be He.* [THEN THE LORD GOD FORMED] THE MAN: 2 for the sake of Abraham.e. xiv. e Cf. R. Simeon said: : 2 THE MAN. xv. The man among the Anakim (Josh. 9. u. cf.

Isaac said It is not written. OF THE. as he 6 Thus from the very verse he quoted he could have proceeds to show. Halafta went up to visit him. those which have not yet been baked. 'that you have come to trouble me more! 2 Can broken potsherds be joined together ? For is it not thus written. 'Have I not enough trouble/ he exclaimed. whereas the other [man] when broken cannot be repaired!' 4 [The glass vessel can be repaired] because it is made by 'An earthen . the dead) cannot be In respect of an repaired. Berekiah and R. glass] when broken can be repaired.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV.e. the possibility of resurrection. Huna 2 earthen vessel he argued that it naturally could not be repaired when broken. n. 'Why are you laughing?' trust in the God of heaven that you will see his [the i We dead son's] face in the future world/ he replied. ' blowing/ said the other. as you read. 7-8 earth] and female earth [soft clay] in order that his vessels 1 may be sound. R. Holy One. proved "5 . 1 verse. interprets the combination of 'AFAR and adamah in this 3 Or: has he not. while a glass vessel is made from fire and finished with fire the one [sc. R. because the first step and the last in its manufacture are through mutually opposed elements. He [the heretic]. 'If what is made with the breath of a mere mortal can be repaired. R. 'Let your ears hear what your mouth speaks!' he retorted. An altar of earth (adamah) thou shalt make unto me (Ex. Jose b. Thou shall dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel is vessel' (Ps. 5 8. so that they can be reformed [when broken]. R. how much the more what blessed be is ! made with ' the breath of the : He R. 4 Would you really maintain that broken man (i. but man is rather like a glass vessel. inquired.' dash them in pieces like earthen vessels. Thou shalt ' vessels. GROUND (ADAMAH). 9)? He answered: made from water** and finished off with heat. I^elbo in the name of Samuel the Elder said: He was 6 created from the place of his atonement. while others say that a heretic lodged with him. 'Like a potter's which means. xx. etc. Some say that he [the father] was a heretic. 6 The future site of the Temple. A son of one of the notables of Sepphoris happened to die.' but. Clay and rnortar. seeing him sitting and laughing. when you admit that a glass vessel can be.

'His character is good. This mass reaching from earth to heaven and then infused a soul into him. 2i)? Neshamah is the breath. and may he create The Holy One. Nefesh E. as people say. and ye shall live (Ezek.possessive suffix. ruah. Who 6 Th. MIDRASH KABBAH blessed be He. 'mine only one') from the power of the dog. i 2 .V. And I will Because in this . v. the passage probably means ruah is that which ascends in the case of man and descends in the case of beast. him from the * ! endure AND HE BREATHED INTO teaches that HIS NOSTRILS. E. With respect to ruah. supra. eyes. xxxvn. put My spirit into you. Who knoweth the ruah descends 4 (E. 8-9] 21). Just as the wind (ruah) which travels about ('E. Th.V. 10 E. Cf. 6 Hayyah (lit.V. Deut. as it says. whereas this is immortal in the 8 Yehidah (unique) 9 because all the limbs are body. l set as a lifeless He him up world [he was endowed with life] by breathing [therefore he is mortal] but in the time to come he shall receive it as a gift. 8 37. is the blood: For the blood : : : 1 Cf . I will place of his atonement. It has five names3 hayyah. is the nefesh xii. 'life' (Deut. 9.g. as it is written. 5 : 4 people say. 'spirit') of man whether it goeth upwards. xxii. 'living') 7 because all the limbs are mortal. neshamah. 17. 23).). hands. 'a living soul'\ hayyah possibly being treated as a substantive. 'E. *EJ. xxxv. Others: Because all the limbs are lifeless in themselves and this endows them with life.V.V. yehidah. or possibly some of these are conceived of as different things.T. 21 Deliver my soul from the sword.: nefesh and ruah are thus applied to both man and beast. also Ps. THE BREATH : 2 i4). Th. His breathing is good.J. The function of every limb is matched (or complemented) by that of another. ii. Ruah: this is so called because it ascends and thus it is written.J.: neshamah denotes the character (disposiknovueth. nefesh. and the ruah of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth 5 (Eccl. as 7 : : 116 . The five names may denote the different characteristics of the soul as the Rabbis understood it. yerjtidathi (== yehidah -\. vm. Therefore he will be immortal. duplicated. OF (NISHMATH) LIFE. said: 'Behold. ad loc.ayyah (E. tion). etc. 8 In Ps. ill. and Y. ears. R.' In the present verse: And man became nefesh h.. feet. whereas the function of this is unique and wholly distinct from the rest. 10 whereas this is unique in the body. not an adjective H as in E.XIV.

4 I. R. which means. Judah 1 This teaches 9 This is not connected with the preceding. To judge him. which he 8 9 does at each breath. Levi said in R. unto Him to God. Jianina's name: It repeatedly ascends. 'beast.V.. E. 'the breath of life'). 'And if He gather his is man man]. interpreted it: 'If God set His heart upon any spirit (ruho) is already in his soul (nishmatho) unto Nehemiah Nehemiah man/ 2 his His hand 3 him' [sc. R. What is the reason? Let every neshamah (breath)* praise the Lord (Ps. (E. preceding note. then all men warms the body so that it should not waste and die. Johanan in R. his spirit (ruho) is already in His hand. R. // spirit) gather unto Himself ruho (his all flesh shall perish together. *EJ. The Rabbis interpret: 'If God set His heart upon him. Joshua b. and nishmatho (his and man shall return unto the dust (Job xxxiv. Others: It returns to him (at each breath). but a separate comment on mshmath hayyim (E. For every breath which a man takes 7 he must give praise to the Holy One. and the Rabbis discussed this. to show that life is dependent 2 on the neshamah (Y. Joshua b. gather into his body. CL. A NEFBSH HAYYAH Rabbi said": 'LIVING SOUL').V.. 9-10 1 He set His heart upon man.T. if He concentrated man's soul in one part of his body instead of permitting 5 it to pervade all his limbs. Meir's name 5 (soul) fills the body. . which means. said: The neshamah it sleeps 6). then all men had already perished. if He written. but repeatedly ascends and re-enters man as he sleeps. it is GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIV. They translate. lit. R. R. 10. R. 14 f). 'And if He . upon any man. had already perished 4 but when sleeping the soul (neshamah) soul (nishmatho) unto Himself above.e. 3 From the evening: When man goes to sleep he delivers his spirit (ruafy) to God. the word # A y Y A H . but that when man sleeps the soul (neshamah) warms man that he should not grow cold and die. AND MAN BECAME b. Bisni. 6 R. blessed be He. 7 Or possibly: every time that man recaptures his ncshaniah. 6 Not once only.).Thus soul). 'Let everything that hath breath'. for every breath [let one praise Him]. and when man ascends and draws life for him from above. v. Sc.' 'animal/ 117 .e. and R.' i.V. Aha.

Huna said He made him like a slave set free for himself.e. 1 who if he does not toil does not eat. 5 text is How do we know that the statement of the one applicable to that of the other and vice versa ? Because 'life' (hayyim) is written in both texts. Gen. interprets the verse thus And man hayyah meaning became obliged to keep his nefesh. the colleague of the Rabbis. 6 Hence the neshamah (soul) is both nefesh and ruafy.XIV. against whom I am not able to stand (Lam. I. : Var. I. 14) when my hands are at my own disposal 3 I am not able to stand: they toil day and night. xvii. Huna interpreted The Lord hath delivered me into their hands (bi-yede).2. so that he is now responsible for himself. 2. 3 4 living. but subsequently removed it from him for the sake of his dignity. . Reading bi-yaddai. proving that they are analogous. Samuel. 5 Gen. alive. like an animal. 6 1 Presumably: set free. 7: He breathed into his nostrils nishmath hayyim (the neshamah soulof life) and man became nefesh hayyah (a living soul) . yet do not : : He attain a sufficiency. i. thus nefesh is parallel to and the equivalent of neshamah. soul. All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit (nishmath : ruah) of life. said Here the neshamah (soul) is identified with nefesh^ whereas in another text the neshamah is equated : with rua h. Hanina. for R. (as 2 interpreted by commentaries) : as a being eternally enslaved to himself He man is a slave to his wants. R. 2 That is R.e. the son-in-law of R. R. Huna's opinion. ii. when I must bear my own responsibilities. lee. that 10] MIDRASH KABBAH provided him with a tail.

I will plant in the wilderness the cedar. R. 'its mother's He holds that 'And God planted' instead of 'And God created' implies were already in existence and growing elsewhere. 25). the cedars of Lebanon* the same connotation as in the verse. Johanan said: The world was not worthy to enjoy the use of cedars. 2. Jonathan's name: There are twenty-four kinds of cedar. Lev. 8).e. AND THE LORD GOD PLANTED A GARDEN EASTWARD. supra. and then the Holy One. 8 * Cedar is used here generically for trees. The trees of the Lord have their fill. : ' : R. as it is written. for which that they reason they are called the trees of the Lord. . 8 the best are seven. The trees of the Lord 'Lebanon' bears have their fill. Why then were cedars created ? For the sake of the Temple. That goodly hill7 country. cf. Samuel b. and Lebanon (Deut. Ilanma said: At first they were like locusts* horns small and puny]. they have their fill in planting. R. as it is written. The School of Jannai said Why is the full Name 1 mentioned in connection with : planting? Because from the very beginning of its creation it required careful selection before a tree develops this : out of its seed2 one must determine 4 its extent. which He hath planted (Ps. in. 3 Thus it is written. The trees of the Lord have their fill. bent all His thought to determine where to plant this garden. Said R.' etc. the acacia-tree^ 1 3 womb' the seed out of which the tree grows. The verse quoted from the Psalms is also referred by him to the trees of the garden of Eden. Nahman said in R. Hanina They have their fill in life.[XV. blessed be He. the cedars of Lebanon. as it were. 7 He interprets Lebanon* as a synonym for the Temple.e. uprooted and replanted them in the garden of Eden 5 [i. I. IN EDEN (n. and therefore God's full name is used here to imply that He too. they have their 6 fill in water. Lit. R. hence it is ' written. Hence it requires all man's forethought. xm. 2 5 V. to allow for the spreading of its branches and roots. 16). i CHAPTER XV (BERESHITH) i. 6 * 1 119 . I. 3. whatever was planted from them would be like themselves. 4 This has no connection with the preceding statement. civ. Great care must be taken before a tree is planted to determine the best soil and position for it. and God replanted them in the garden of Eden.

for it is written. LI. I will set in the desert the cypress. armontn. io)? 4 On R. to Eden is larger than the written. But R. whereas R. but that 1 z is not so rather . (cypress) tidhar is the adara-tree*. 3). Jose has but one verse ? Said R.V. So that all the trees 3 of Eden. (E. hence the garden was only one-sixtieth of Eden. garden. XLI. it 13). almugin. Jose. Judah relates 'that* to Eden. Jose's eyes and he found a verse supporting his view. xxxi. E.V. blessed be He. referring to the trees. 1 berosh is the beratha 19). for says. 120 . it is like a spring in the garden which waters the whole garden. and the oil-tree. and her desert ('arabah) 7 garden of the Lord (Isa. A GARDEN IN EDEN. the plane-tree. THEN THE LORD GOD PLANTED But surely it is A a GARDEN river water the garden (Gen. Those enumerated in the second half of the verse. 'that were'. went out of Eden And wilderness like the (midbar) like Eden. think that it Nahmani You may R. R. and it is also said. bobs of seed. means before (kodem) the creation of the world. Thou wast in the of God (ib. Jose's view. Jose said: etc. : a species of cedar. illumined R. envied it (Ezek. Eden of the garden 9) . Rabbi said: They are but three : . xxvin. which contradicts R. 3. R. 6 But R. 6 Thus from the smaller area of Eden there flowed enough water to 7 Midbar is larger than 'arabah. Judah's view. He translates: And a stream of water drained off from Eden sufficient to water the garden which was in it. Judah said: The Garden larger than Eden. the latter is one-sixtieth of the former. probably Spanish juniper. Judah has two verses [to support his contention]. and almugin are aloe-trees. and 1-3] MIDRASH KABBAH the myrtle. say: Because it is these they added armonin are plane-trees. MIKKEDEM said: 'EASTWARD'). te'ashur is the box-tree.XV. is is it called te'ashur? The Rabbis the most valuable (me'ushar) of all. Why trees 2. water the whole garden. Alonim are oak. II. while on R. To another three: alonim. Jast. 5 Beth kor is a field requiring a kor of seed tarfrab. 4 Implying that the garden was outside Eden. And He hath made her : IN EDEN. Irlanan of Sepphoris The Holy One. and the larch together (Isa. that is in the garden of God. the drippings from a beth kor will water a tarkab^ . Samuel b. one requiring three 3 . viz.

Rashi on Isa. 6 Thus there implies for all time. Hence hand in the midst of the earth (Ps. the man of My counsel from afar country (Isa. v. LXXIV. Zachariah said: Providing he stayed in this state of creation [i. AND THERE HE SET (WAYYASEM) THE MAN. read. Judah said: He exalted him. Hence man was created to be permanently in the Garden of Eden. supra. Judah and R. Yet God is my King. Thou understandest my thought afar off (Ps. etc. When . R. 'My downsitting' means in the garden of Eden. their Creator lauds who may disparage them when their Creator them. n. was created on the third. supra. 2 as it is written. comely and praiseworthy hence it is written. that He prepared my reward for me before ever I arose to labour. who may find fault with them ? But they are ' .e. n). 3). Nehemiah said: He persuaded him [to enter and eat thereof]. Cf. And there they are unto this day R. Merion said: It is written. Abraham]. [XV. praises them. Jeremiah each commented. 4). 12). XLVI. 15). vm. g). These are the generations of heaven. 4 From the east is referred to Abraham (cf. who is likened to a bird of prey in point of swiftness. cxxxix. For the sake of Abraham. 2). xrv. R. R. [WAYYASEM having the same meaning] as in the verse. n. blessed be He. it was a gracious act on the part of the Holy One. supra. without sin]. These are 1 The fruits of the garden are man's reward for his toil. Isaac b. 1 4. 'My uprising' Thou understandest my thought afar rny expulsion thence 3 off' : for whose sake didst Thou determine to create me ? For the sake of him who came from afar [viz. XVH. Calling a bird of prey from the east. 3 f. 4 5. AND THERE HE PUT THE MAN WHOM HE HAD as FORMED. THE MAN. as it is written. ad loc. (n Chron. 3-5 before Adam. Levi b. working salvation before- created on the sixth day. (Gen. Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising. like a king who prepared a banquet and then invited guests. 121 . 6. you 5 v. for Adam was whereas the garden of Eden it is written. created even before him.GENESIS (BERESHITH) it is. and they were 2 8 V. R. Thou shalt in any wise set him (tasim) king over thee (Deut. ' .

'* 6. while the Rabbis say that mozi must be said. R. Judah b. WHOM HE . 5 as it is written. i. said: . : 7.' R. i It pride. Isaac asked R. R. There shall be an handful of bread ' is : : : . R. Samuel b. LXXII. AND GOOD FOR FOOD. not mere wheat which must be made into bread. 1 when they were OF THE GROUND MADE THE LORD TO GROW EVERY TREE THAT IS PLEASANT TO THE SIGHT. 1 V. which refers to the future. 5~?] MIDRASH RABBAH and of the earth the generation of the heaven created.] 'bringest forth (mo%i).K translates Not only the main Radal 4 Without the def. Jacob b. branches. OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD Adam and was wheat. R. 'That man has never eaten bread of wheat. Shab. : loaves of that width. THE TREE OF LIFE ALSO IN THE MIDST OF THE GARDEN (ll. the phrase . 9). [The benediction for who bringest forth (haBlessed art Thou . as God brought forth bread itself before Adam's sin. Judah b.e over the whole world . supra.] bread from the earth/ because He brought it forth mozi) in the past. 306. 122 . Meir ' ' ' ' are in conflict. corn (pisath bar) in the land (Ps. Ila'i said: The tree of life covered a five hundred years' journey. 8 3 I . Ila'i Not only its 3 boughs but even its trunk was a five hundred years' journey. Judan said in the name of R. is . 6 Rashi on Shab.e. R. for it is then that God will cause bread to grow. and all the primeval waters branched out in streams under it. . M . R. Aha said: R. AND THE TREE (ib.'* because He will bring it forth in the future. cf. 6 quoted here to show that in man. Ze'ira: 'Is But surely it possible that it was wheat ? 'Yes/ replied he. 306: this implies corn as wide as a handbreadth. i6). too. Nehemiah -. but even the side (minor) branches. God took HAD FORMED being understood as though God pointed with pride at man. His handiwork. for when a person lacks knowledge people say.). art. 6 They differ on the bringing forth of bread itself. xn. . Nehemiah and the Rabbis AND EVIL Eve What was said: It the tree whereof ate? R.XV. T R E E is written ? he argued. It AND OUT GOD was taught: It was a tree which spread over all 2 living things. It grew lofty like the cedars of the Lebanon/ replied he. R. The Rabbis maintain [The benediction is . Nehemiah holds that ha-mozi refers to the past.

Samuel maintains: Lefeth while the other maintains: In the meaning. He learns the obscure from the explicit.).) 3 Seeing that the Rabbis. Jeremiah recited the blessing [for bread] before R. for it says. [are we to say] ha-min ha-arez ('that is from the earth')? 5 R. sorrow] into the world. One path. R. go forth and see.GENESIS (BERESHITH) Lefeth b. 4 If so. and [the meaning of] a statement from its context. R. 'Who bringeth forth bread (lehem) that is (ha-min) '. Zera: 'Who bringest forth (ha-mozt) bread from the it will be earth/ whereupon he praised him. it was not food for man before he sinned. He expelled him and cast him out of the garden of Eden and he appealed to all the trees but they : with a slave . R. Yet we do not recite and the same should apply here. 'ez. 1 Something which goes with bread. R. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food (Gen. and R. since one ends and the next begins with a mem (). ha-'olam and mozi will sound like one word. xxxn. Consider: what tree is it whose wood 6 can be eaten just like its fruit? and you find none but the ethrog. Here we have an Haggadic dispute as to what the name connotes. Judah b.e. 1 : [XV. Nehemiah? surely not! 3 But the reason was so as not to run the letters together. and if ha is not interposed. etc. was good for food. as it is written.e. 123 . it differ as to its lo means. 2 Not bread. Efanina b. 6 Heb. for otherwise lehem and min will be similarly run together. Isaac Ammi. . as bread fully seasoned grew out of the ground then. the same word as 'tree' in the verse quoted. in. R. and the king on learning of it expelled from court. but they would not receive him but she who had sinned with him opened her door and received him. vegetables (Jast. * Ha-mo%i is immediately preceded by ha-'olam (the universe). Ila'i said It was grapes. they have clusters of bitterness (Deut. He went from door to door of the slaves. i. thus This may be compared to a royal prince who sinned him girl. Do we then rule as R. differ from him.. So when Adam ate of that tree. (Jast. which is understood therefore as meaning that the tree itself. 7 two was scholars. Abba of Acco said It was the : ethrog (citron). Their : grapes are grapes of gall. who are in a majority. The difficulty remains it thus. future path lo 2 . the wood. Jose said: They were figs. 5 I. unanswered.e. 6). 32): those clusters brought bitterness [i.

who deceived his Master as it is written. the figtree opened its doors and received him. Judah b. 'drive me away'. Let not the foot of presumption come unto me (Ps. 5 because it lamentation and weeping into the world. Levi said: Heaven forfend [that we should conjecture what the tree was] The Holy One. 'Through this animal So-and-so was stoned/ Then if the Holy One. blessed be He. and for the death of a close relation one goes into full mourning for seven days. 6 different species. how did said in R. 7] MIDRASH KABBAH ' would not receive him. did not and will not reveal to man what that tree was. For see what is written And if a woman approach unto any beast. 8 Similarly. Berekiah Behold. R. and the beast (Lev.e. which means. Joshua b. R.' 2 A tree is shaken when A species of white fig. Abin said: It was the berath sheva'* so called because it brought seven (shiv'a) 4 days of mourning into the world. in. lamentation. as it is written. the foot that presumed against its Creator.) : i. Levi's ! : the animal sin ? But [it is killed] lest when it stands in the market place people should say. 'Azariah and R. xxxvi. What did they say : ' ! to him? Said R. God did not reveal the nature of the tree that it might not be said. a daughter of seven '. 16). brought R. something is taken from. Now if man has sinned. to shake. it. etc. (Gen. Of that fig-tree? R. how much more his own honour! 1 Deriving tenideni from nadned. And let not the hand of the wicked shake1 me (ib. Joshua of Siknin name: It was the berath alt.V. And what species was they sewed fig-leaves together. 3 lit. xx. and lie down thereto. 2 But because he had eaten of its fruit. E. blessed be He. Simon in the name of R. was anxious to safeguard the honour of his [Adam's] 6 descendants. 4 Death was decreed on its account. ' 1 A 124 . 7). let it not take a leaf from me.XV. 'Through this tree Adam brought death into the world. thou shalt kill the woman. a deceiver who deceived his Creator. 12). all is connected here with eli.

2O) : the strength with which the Holy One. Isaac's comment on the word tob (good) it is good for a man c .[XVI. Abbahu said: The Holy One. Not. which bears the same connotation as in the verse. 4 IS GOOD (ll. endowed Adam was intended 'for ever*. Thou changest his countenance* him away (ib. as it is written. xv.).V. and fortunate is he who possesses it on a journey 5 R. xii. 25). Isaac: Fortunate : : Temple. 125 . This is R. Simeon b. conferred a great boon upon the world. for a man changes one gold piece and can utilise it for many purposes. 3 4 6 PiSHON. blessed be He. 12). Simon quoted: With Him and might (ib. But he goeth : because he ignored God's wishes and followed the counsel of the serpent. as is stated infra. etc. 1-2 CHAPTER XVI (BERESHITH) i. it II): so called because makes flax (pishtori) grow. . R. he who possesses it at home. AND THE GOLD OF THAT L A*N D is GOOD. Why then was gold created? For the sake of the Said R. Thou prevailest for ever against him by transposing its letters. 6 1 E . blessed be He. and is sendest counsel 2. its WHERE THERE is GOLD: gold in AND THE GOLD OF THAT LAND is literal sense. R. XLVI. for all time. it. he opened up the four riverheads with one thrust of the spade. AND A RIVER WENT OUT OF EDEN. to possess 8 Understood as a synonym for the Temple. and these are the four river-heads: AND A RIVER WENT OUT OF EDEN. 10). and flows with tranquillity (be-shufi)? THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH. THE NAME OF THE FIRST WAS PlSHON it (ll. Havilah was not yet in existence. can be connected with Shufi. THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH! But. 13): when he [Adam] was at harmony with his Creator. a I . R. yet you say. That goodly hill-country : Lebanon (Deut. in. Simon commenced: Thou makest him 1 strong for ever (Job xiv. He declareth the end from the beginning (Isa. symbolically employed here for the Torah. cf.e. supra. i. Lakish said The world did not deserve to have the use of gold. reduced his strength.

Igud and R. R. 2 3 This derives from rea'. THESAMEIS ITTHATCOMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH! But. 4 R. and the text is probably corrupt. THE FOURTH the mightiest of all rivers. Its 2 concerneth it (Job xxxvi. which is Hiddekel Tigris (Dan.). yet you say. said: is : The Euphrates As I was by the side of the great river. BEDOLAH (E. why then is it 6 designated great elsewhere? Because it flows on its way and encompasses Eretz Israel. THAT is IT WHICH GOETH TOWARD THE EAST OF ASSHUR! AND Rab But.XVI. 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH is THERE STONE. i. r. of which it is written. so precious stone. that hath God so nigh unto them But it is written. parallel passage] telleth is the former a 33) J ust as tne l a tter is a precious stone. Th.V. 7. Cush was not yet 3. 'noise'. 'TIGRIS' (n. So Th. Joshua of Siknin in the name of R.e. Levi said The Ubal is the most mighty of all rivers. and as the Tigris appeared larger than Ubal. Lit. AND THE NAME in existence.K. 5 But at the creation of -the world this [river Euphrates] is not designated great. is 'BDELLIUM') AND ONYX . Asshur was not yet in existence. on the identity of Ubal v. yet you say. 14): so called because it is a roaring stream (had be-kolo)^ THAT is IT WHICH GOETH TOWARD THE EAST OF ASSHUR.V. 1 The sap of some re'o tree (Th. 'He declareth the end from the beginning. 'He declareth the end from the beginning. For what great nation is there. 'sharp in sound'. companion. Josh.' AND THE NAME DEKEL OF THE THIRD RIVER IS HlD- E. 4 The word ptoyta'nK may also imply that it is the mother and source of all 6 rivers. OF THE SECOND RIVER IS THE SAME IS IT THAT COMPASSETH GlHON. he calls it the large one. Hanina b.V. 18. 13). 4. xv. 4)? That is because Daniel had two dreams. ad loc. fellow [i. a friend. Aibu said: You might meant 1 used by perfume-makers : think that the bedolah therefore it says. and M. one by Ubal and the other by the Tigris. 6 In Gen. THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH (n. Deut. 126 . Others translate differently. E.' RIVER IS THE EUPHRATES. x. The passage contains a number of difficulties.

Which is east of the Tigris. Judan and R. For the general identification of these names v. Perath is so called because it goes on branching off into channels (mafrid) until it ends under the spade. in Sonc. 8 V. 8 Chebar. iv. iv. Huna disputed. Judan said: Perath 5 Perath denotes (the Euphrates) is identical with Chebar : that it grows (parati) and increases until it has to be traversed in ships. &id. 6 Th. Levi's name [The rivers] said to the Euphrates: 'Why is thy sound not audible?' 10 My deeds make me known/ it replied11 when a man plants a plant by me it matures in thirty days. Perath denotes that its waters grow 6 (parin) and increase . 716 and notes ad loc. and M. ed. Rashi in Bek. 127 . ICid. 4 On the upper reaches of the Euphrates northward.: its waters cause fertility. 4 R. the home of a great nation. R. The present views of Rab and 6 V. it is full-grown in three days/ Said [the rivers] to the Tigris: 'Why is thy sound audible?' 'May 1 Or (with a somewhat different text) associate with the governor and people will bow down to you. I. 7 Th. the Euphrates is called great because it compasses Eretz Israel. 7 It is called Chebar because its waters come to an end. In the say. comes : to an end because of the channels dug with the spade along its its 8 course to divert it waters. 3 (Deut. R. Samuel respectively are transposed there. Joshua of Siknin said in R. fruit or produce which grows on the land this river irrigates.' 3 he replied. R. 'By the ford of the river Bani. and so people river has already (kebar) ceased' (commentaries). because its fruit 9 is large and cannot fall through a kebara (sieve). Huna maintained: The Euphrates and the Chebar are separate rivers.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI.: I. the crops growing in abundance. Bani is probably identical with Vanay. 'Rashi': a single spadeful of earth suffices to close up. 7)? Hence the popular saying: 'The king's servant is a king.e. i. Ezek. 9 'The The and orchards whither they are diverted. vegetable by me. fields 10 It is a quietly flowing river. Similarly. they are considered as part of the Jewish Diaspora (golak) in Babylonia.K. n I need not shout my merits. cleave to heat and it will warm you/ 1 Rab said to his son IJiyya: 'The Lybians are in Bretz Israel/ 2 'Where do they dwell?' inquired he. which had a higher status than the Diaspora elsewhere. 2 Th. 53 b: its waters increase even when there is : no rain. But Samuel maintained: As far as the river [Euphrates] flows is Eretz Israel. when he sows a : * ' . And what point is that? It is Tirbaknah.

8). Said 'Why is your sound not they reply. real solid virtue to *HAVILAH * This is quoted from Ps. xix. so called with reference to the verse. also on account of who was smaller than a pushka (hand- THAT is IT WHICH COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF HAVILAH: [this alludes to Nebuchadnezzar] who came up and surrounded the whole of Eretz Israel. What is the proof? AND A RIVER WENT OUT FROM EDEN TO WATER THE GARDEN: This alludes to the four kingdoms. the midget dwarf. Text as emended by Th. Tanhuma in the name 4. than much fine gold'. xni.XVI. 128 . and as in Lev. Joshua b. will make the peoples of the world drink a cup of bitterness from the place whence this [river] issues. And their horsemen spread (pashu) themselves (Hab. as it is moved and the heart of his people. whereof [sc. their voice is not audible and because non-fruit-bearing trees are light in fruit. R. THAT LAND is GOOD: this teaches that there is no AND 1 his credit 2 8 These sayings allegorically teach that if a man has he need not advertise his greatness. their voice is audible. And his heart was as the trees of the forest 1 a). . i. R. testify for ' ' : 'We do seen/ answered he. according to Jewish legend. 3 I. which are more to be desired than 5 THE GOLD OF gold. Nebuchadnezzar. Menahma (others state. written. is thus connected with hohili. Huna said This is not the true reason but because the food trees are heavy with fruit. THE NAME corresponding to the four heads [into which it was divided]. are moved with the wind (Isa. of R. yea. for I shall yet praise Him (Ps. 4 WHERE THERE is GOLD: by ' this is meant the words of the Torah. Levi) said 2 : The Holy One. blessed be He. breadth). OF THE FIRST is PiSHON: this is Babylon. 6). Hope thou (hohili) in God. XLII. Eretz Israel] it is written. vn. 3-4] MIDRASH RABBAH I my voice be heard that may be they to the fruit-bearing trees: audible?' ' not need it/ us/ Said they to the non-fruit-bearing trees: Why is your sound audible ? Would that we could make our voice heard so that we might be seen/ they answered. R. 5. R. Viz. 'as our fruits .

14). 'to the east of. 4. E. Talmud. FOURTH RIVER IS PERATH (EUPHRATES): that IS AND Edom. Heb. which was sharp (had) and swift (kal) in its evil decrees. n. but Haman stirred up Supra.V.: in temples and in buildings. Rome] : viz. Nineveh is derived here from na'ek. R. [so called] in allusion to the verse. with allusion to the verse. and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life (Gen. R. 8 7 Th. 129 K .T. THE NAME OF THE THIRD RIVER IS IJlDDEKEL: this AND alludes to Greece. Upon thy belly (gehoneka) shall thou go. before.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI. 5 and in language.. Media itself 2 passions. in the of camp-vigils. NAME OF THE SECOND RIVER Media. for she ordered Israel: Write upon the horn of an ox that ye have no portion in the Israel. 'Ethiopia' (Est. Jose b. Judah said: All kingdoms [which] are designated by the name of Nineveh are so called because B they adorn themselves (mith-na 'oth) at the expense of Israel. Huna arrangement R. kidmath. and Haggadah. to VIZ. R.: i. PERATH its evil 3 4 5 was not so very wicked. in. THERE is BDELLIUM AND THE ONYX STONE: Mishnah. R. 7 fruitful 1 harassed denoting that it upset (hefirati) and His world PERATH denoting that it was (parath) and increased through the blessing of that . whence miih-naoth. GlHON*. Who reigned from India even unto Gush E.e. Th. Jast. Halafta said: All the kingdoms designated by the name of Mizrayim (Egypt) are so called THE because they persecute (meziroth) Israel. To which Asshur is understood as an allusion (Y.). in navigation. i. Jose b. Edom is generally a synonym for Rome. and no wisdom like the wisdom of Eretz Israel. beautiful. Aha's after the All kingdoms [which] are designated of Asshur [are so called] because they enrich themselves (mith-' ashroth) at the expense of Israel.V. i). Huna this wicked State said in R. 4 Torah (learning) like the Torah of Eretz Israel. 2 God of THAT is IT WHICH GOETH BEFORE* ASSHUR: said: In three things Greece was in advance of 4 [sc. : name name R. SAME is IT Haman THE THAT COMPASSETH THE WHOLE LAND OF CUSH. inflamed [with hate] like a 1 serpent. whose eyes Tosefta. IS AND THE this alludes Scripture. here connected with kodem.

v. Isaac] . R. him repose. it is account of its ultimate destiny. Judan holds that Adam actually enjoyed these benefits. i).: both connect wayyanihehu (E. in. Judah said He exalted him. Berekiah maintains that they were potential only. Berekiah said: [He put 5 garden of Eden. supra > XV. PERATH it also denoting that I [God] will ultimately consign called] P E R A T as it is written.XVI.V. Esau was regarded as the progenitor of Rome. LXIII. shall serve (ta-'abdun) God upon this mountain (Ex. 'he put him') with hanahah (repose). 4 : AND PUT HIM INTO THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 1 2 xxviii. [finally.K. M. Take with you words. 3). Gen. This refers to Edom (Rome). ULE-SHAMERAH (TO TILL IT AND TO allusion to sacrifices: thus it is written. the passage commencing Who is this 3 The passage deals with the future that cometh from Edom (ib. 12) . and. H on to oblivion (hafer). Judan said: He did actually give him repose. . protect and delight him with all the trees of the garden of Eden. while R. n). Ye shall observe (tishmeru) to offer unto Me (Num.? : exalting of Israel. as to whether God's punishment was deferred until after the Sabbath or not. 5 * Cf. Judan and R. 130 . ULE- SHAMERAH (AND TO KEEP Sabbath day LE~'ABEDAH KEEP IT) is an Ye Keep (shamor) the Another interpretation: (Deut. And the peoples shall take them. R. 12). Judah and R. 4~5] old MIDRASH RABBAH 1 man [sc. WAYYANIHEHU (AND HE PUT HIM) He gave him the precept of the Sabbath. R. Nehemiah said He persuaded him [to enter]. And rested (wayyanah) on the seventh day xx. R. as you read. 15). protect and delight him with there] in order to give him all trees of the means as you (Ex. 3 R. xxvn. AND THE LORD GOD TOOK THE MAN : (n. R. R. and return unto the Lord (Hos. as you read. V.V. Nehemiah differed in their interpretations. and Eden with 'adden (to delight). 9). the / have trodden 2 winepress (purah) alone . but he never enjoyed them because of his sin. read. 'in the garden ') with haggen (to protect). 2. xiv. 39 f.: the controversy is the same as that recorded supra^ xi. Mah. 4. . (Isa. 3). that Six days shalt thou labour ta-'abod IT): (ib. a). Berekiah each interpreted this differently. 2). LE~' ABED AH (TO TILL IT): as you read. 5. xiv. be-gan (E. and bring them to their place (Isa.

6 6. 8 For* the whole passage cf. s&z. Jacob of Kefar IJanan said When does : [an animal] become it is food. Whoso alludes to sheddeth man's blood (Gen. death for Eve. and bestiality. of] a and when is it fit to be eaten? [the When ritually slaughtered. 2 Which in its Hebrew usage includes adultery. OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN THOU MAYEST FREELY EAT. revile i. Thou shalt LORD not GOD MAN: incest. 5 Sanh. as you read. 16). 56^ passim.e. Levi said He gave him six precepts 1 AND HE COMMANDED (WAYYEZAW) alludes to idolatry. . however. (Jer. pederasty. And he that Uasphemeth the name of the Lord (Lev. 17): [this intimated] s death for Adam. * He probably interprets the verse thus: akol tokel. . Thus He intimated forbidden character 4 limb torn from a living animal. OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN EAT: here THOU SHALT FREELY 3 against theft. nor to a male. and death for his descendants. but not to his neighbour's wife. Generally seven are enumerated as being binding upon man 5 This is deduced from thou mayest eat it v. God THE this alludes to SAYING 2 as you read in. this is omitted here. He commanded him The Rabbis thus: to AND THE LORD GOD COMMANDED. He am I? God. ed.e. 566 and notes ad loc. etc. as you read. : Saying : If a man put away his wife. R. the judges (Ex. 6). FOR IN THE DAY THAT THOU EATEST THEREOF THOU SHALT SURELY DIE (MOTH TAMOTH) (li. xvm. And cleave unto his wife (Gen. which implies. nor to an animal. 24). xxiv. v. idols (Hos. AND THE LORD GOD COMMANDED THE MAN. the seventh being an Since Adam. i). I3T . 1 before Revelation. BUT OF THE TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVI. alludes to the [authority of] judges. as you read: Because he i : willingly walked after zaw i. bloodshed. Sanh. 16). R. ix. [and I command] that God and not cursed/ How do we know interpreted the whole passage said I him: 'What be treated as a [that Adam was forbidden] incest? [From the passage]. as you read. in Sonc. THE alludes to blasphemy. n). which as usual is understood as an extension. infra. xxiv. 5. 27). when it is food (okeT) Infra. THOU SHALT NOT EAT OF IT. Sanh. xxn. SAYING: OF EVERY TREE OF THE GARDEN THOU MAYEST FREELY EAT (n. injunction against eating flesh torn from a living animal. II. was not permitted animal flesh at all. the doubling of the verb.

14). Simon said in the name of v. hovered over the face of the waters. Jacob b. R. to cause a blessing to rest on thee for the sake of thy house viz. . without joy. XLIV. . God AND THE LORD GOD SAID: IT is NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE. 132 . n). And God n). AND THE LORD GOD SAID: IT is NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD BE ALONE (n. and God said. Kirshai said: A separate command was devoted to the wind. 6) By ten . ALONE. 4 'Without a blessing': To cause a blessing to rest on thy house (Ezek. 3) And God said : Let there be a firmament And God said : Let the waters be gathered together (ib. And God said: Let us make man (ib. xvi. : * These are interpreted as though they read In the beginning God said. 24). 'Let there be heaven and earth'.K. And God said : Let the earth put forth grass (ib. without help. and without atonement. 3 It was taught: He who has no without good. R. R. 8). wife dwells ' ' : IT IS NOT GOOD THAT THE MAN SHOULD DWELL 'Without help': / will make him a help meet for 'Without joy': And thou shalt rejoice.XVII. 5 'Without atonement': And he shall make atonement for and him. 20) And God said : Let the earth bring forth (ib. that its creation required a separate order! Thus he agrees with the first Tanna. spirit'. 1-2] CHAPTER XVII (BERESHITH) i. 'spirit '. M. 4 Household is And thou shalt rejoice only when there is a 'household 5 understood to refer to a wife. We learnt: commands was the world created. Jose excluded.V. . 'And the spirit of (ib. 'Let there be ruah' ' : 3 (E. IT is NOT GOOD. And the they: 2 And God said : Let there spirit (ruah) of God hovered (ib. 26).V.' and included. explains see the greatness of the wind. And God said: Let there be lights (ib. 1 and these are In the beginning God created (Gen.' E. but apparently rendered here 'wind'). i. Menahem b. thou and thy household (Deut. and the verse ' Probably translated . for his house (Lev. : is interpreted: to rejoice with thee. himself. i). 2) be light (ib. "Ruah. without blessing. xiv. wife. 3o). Without good 2. said : Let the waters swarm (ib. 9) . R. 26). .

2-3 R. Now once that he and R. R. And you. IJiyya b. Joshua of Siknin said in the name of R. 5 and and were eating he observed. Sir. Levi: Without peace too. Enjoy life with the wife : whom thou lowest (Eccl. and found in it ' * ' some chickens. Jose the Galilean had a bad wife. she is like the wife of Hananiah b. yet we have found chickens?' 'A miracle has happened/ replied he. *33 . she to daughter. For in the image of God made He man (ib. 62a. the latter 'Sir. rx. translation of 'ke-negdo'. 6). for she does not act * as benefits and it your honour/ 'Her dowry is too great for me. Joshua b. Gomdi said He is also incomplete. His disciples said him : Master. Some say: He even impairs the Divine likeness: thus it is written. 3. Yeb. He went and uncovered it. And He blessed them. Eleazar b. for it is : said. ' Now R. v.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVII. asked her. she was his sister's is . As they entered. Jose the Galilean. and multiply 2 (ib. be ye R. against him. is impaired when man refuses to fulfil these functions. 4 cannot afford to divorce her/ was his reply. \ WILLMAKEHIMAHELP 3 : HIM (KE-NEGDO) if (<EZER) AGAINST is if he is fortunate. did she not say it was hash. Eleazar b. fruitful. xxv. infra. she a help. which is followed by. when he looked at a pot standing on the pot-range and sitting asked him. R. 9). will you kindly permit that we go to your home together?' 'Yes/ replied he. R. Is there anything in the pot ? There's a hash in it/ she answered. 7). as it were. not. The dowry had to be returned on divorce. 6). and when they finished. man (Gen. 14. Joshua b. For the passage v. 3 4 Lit. Nehemiah said: If a man is fortunate. ix. When they finished he said to him: "Master.e. God's majesty. and used to put him to shame. tjakinai if not. 'Azariah were happened I and studying. Levi Without life too. for it is said: And peace be to thy house (i Sam. 1 2 Thus only both together are they 'man'. 'Azariah as they sat together knew what he had heard. a). she is like the wife of R. xxxiv. and catted their name Adam 1 i. divorce this woman. she cast down her gaze [in anger] and was making her way out. for it is written. 5 He understood the state of affairs.

'and cannot bring myself to face him. She then married the town watchman. As a punishment for her sins she [the first wife] became married to the town watchman. But since that man [her husband] was well acquainted with the town. Jose.XVII. 'will apportion her dowry among ourselves. who said to him. Looking out. whereupon he took and settled them in a room in his own house 3 and supported them for the rest of their lives. and made him marry another and better wife. and their cries brought a crowd and the whole town was shocked at them. Later he became afflicted [with blindness] and she used to lead him by his hand through the streets of the town. her. 'her dowry is too great for me and I cannot divorce her/ 'We [your pupils]/ 1 said the other. 1 Each 2 He became will give something toward it.' On one occasion they came begging in the vicinity of R.' 'I cannot fully. Jose the Galilean she would stop. 7). pay So they gave it to him and he divorced her. R. as I have heard that he is charitably disposed?' 'I am his divorced wife/ she confessed. begging in every district. he said to her. Jose the Galilean was married to his sister's daughter. who treated him shameSaid his disciples to him. round the whole town. Jose the Galilean saw how they were being jeered at in the streets. for she does not treat you with proper respect. 3] MIDRASH KABBAH this abandon woman. And they did so for him. When he perceived this one day and a second day. After some time he was visited with 2 affliction. 3 blind. Another version of this story: R. but on coming to where R. Jose the Galilean. and she went about leading him. But when she came to the street of R. Jose the Galilean. in accordance with the verse. Their cries brought down R. 134 . when I he began to maltreat her. And that thou hide not own flesh (Isa. 'Why do you not lead me to the house of R. he began beating thyselffrom thine her. Jose the Galilean lived she used to turn back. Or possibly: in a house of his. they so you can divorce 5 apportioned her dowry and had her divorced from him. her dowry/ he answered.' 'Sir/ he replied. LVIII. 'Divorce her. 'We will pay it/ they said.

AND OUT OF THE GROUND THE LORD GOD FORMED (WAYYIZER) EVERY BEAST OF THE FIELD (n. beasts. That is My Adam called Me. Jose the Galilean took and settled them somewhere and supported them verse. He took counsel blessed with the ministering angels.' he replied. Zakkai was asked: Since it is already written. / am the Lord. On hearing this R. Of of the field course. OF THE replied]: GROUND THE earlier verse The whereas this treats of gathering them When thou shah mass (tazur) against a city a long time. what is LORD GOD FORMED? refers to creation. Said He man' ' ' ' . in accordance with the 'And that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh/ 4. 8). saying to them. 'What is the name of this?' 'An ox. I9). fitting for 'And what is that I be from the ground My name?' 'It is is fitting Adonai (Lord). 26). 1 as you together. Then He paraded them before Adam. as the verse continues. Then he paraded them again before him Thee to be called : 1 In order to name them. Johanan b. etc.' 'And of this?' 'A camel/ 'And of this?' 'An ass/ 'And of this?' 'A horse/ Thus it is written. Let the earth bring forth the living creature (i. 2O). Aha said: When the Holy One. 'His wisdom will exceed yours/ He answered. it taught by AND OUT [He read. inquired. after his creation.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVII. 'And what is thy name?' 'It called Adam. *35 . XLII. 2 Thus he renders : And the Lord God assembled all the beasts 8 (which were created) from the ground. AND THE MAN GAVE NAMES TO ALL CATTLE. (ll. R. xx. at his own expense. be He. since Thou art Lord over all Thy creatures/ was the answer. 24). 'What should be of this ? and the name of this ? but they did not know did not know. because I was created (adamah). What did the Lord do? He brought the animals. R. came to create Adam. which means. that is My name name by which (Isa. 19). and birds before them and asked them. Hiyya said Thus it is written. 3 they and asked him. 'Let us make 'What will be the nature of this man?' they (i. to him. R. in making war against it to take 2 (Deut. 3-4 'Why do you beat her?' 'She deprives me of the profit of this street every day/ was the reply.

an incomplete form of prophecy is the dream. 9 f). because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them (i Sam. the torpor of prophecy. forthwith THE LORD GOD CAUSED A DEEP SLEEP TO FALL UPON THE MAN. . 2 The torpor of sleep * ' : A torpor 12). Levi's is : name: The beginning of a man's downfall sleep being asleep. in. and be stupid! came to pass. the incomplete form of the next world is the Sabbath.) The Rabbis said Also the torpor of folly. as a play 4 a is One causes man to fall. Samuel b. neither did any awake. : . and the torpor of unconsciousness. Joshua of Siknin said in R. blessed be He. BUT FOR ADAM NOT FOUND A HELP MEET FOR HIM! 1 partner. for they were all asleep. 6. he does not engage in study and does no work.XVII.* R. 2l). 4~6] in pairs. yet I : THERE WAS And why did He not create her for him at the beginning ? Because the Holy One. foresaw that he would bring charges against her. CAUSED A DEEP SLEEP 5. AND HE TOOK ONE Nahmani : OF HIS RIBS (ZAL'OTHAW). [male MIDRASH KABBAH and female]. . xv. as it is written. R. 'The it (tardemah): the torpor of sleep. From 136 . . 'Every one has a have none thus. Said he. 6. nor knew it. when the sun sleep fell upon Abram (Gen. xxix. that. therefore He did not create her until he expressly demanded her. 12. IJanina for. DEEP SLEEP TO of prophecy': And was going down. verse. For the Lord hath Stupefy yourselves. His point on the $ela' . But as soon as he did so. Or. R. AND HE SLEPT (ll. a trance or catalepsy. xxvi. poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep (Isa. Isaac said: There are three incomplete phenomena: the incomplete experience of death is sleep. through sleep 3 Cf supra. a deep 'The torpor of unconit. 1 said: He took one of his sides. Abin added another two the incomplete form of the heavenly light3 is the orb of the sun the incomplete form of the heavenly wisdom is the Torah. R. 1 Rab said: There are three kinds of torpor THEN THE LORD GOD CAUSED FALL UPON THE MAN. sciousness': And no man saw : . THEN THE LORD GOD TO FALL UPON THE MAN. Hinena] b.

translation. but as soon as she [Eve] was created. 7 He interprets 'tahtennah' as tahath na'ah. the body. is that At first He in secret ? she pursued. seemly nether organs. 9 so that he should not suffer pain when he sits. the second side (zela') of the tabernacle. IJanina b. II They both translate: and He closed up the flesh. Jannai the Younger and R. 11 : : created] [Roman] lady asked R. Ila and R. stealing the rib. Adda. son of R. R. 10 R. 8 One says: He provided him with a lock and a saddle cloth pressed over it. Jose: 'Why [was woman 12 by a theft?' 'Imagine/ replied he. The translation from the side like an animal. the flesh of the buttocks. aaio. Hanina. Ammi disagreed. 6-7 on read.e. follows Th. If correct. for it is not written. A ]. and relate it either to the actual institution of burial or to the shrouds in which God decreed that man should be buried.e. and referring to the places of the two ribs. as it were. 6 But this is the first time that the samech is used in reference to man. like an animal. Satan is a synonym for the evil passions. said From the beginning of the Book until here no samech* is written. and you depositing 7. supra. Jannai b. who suspects it to be corrupt.GENESIS (BERESHITH) you [XVII. While : (Gen. Jannai differed thereon. the north side (Ex. * 8 Here spelt with a samech : po.e. One said: He instituted burial for him. 6 AND HE CLOSED UP THE PLACE WITH FLESH INSTEAD THEREOF (TAHTENNAH). which close it in. vin. 2O). but 'And He closed with flesh in their places. to be plural.** R. i. n. : And for [And He closed with flesh} in its place. Isaac said He provided him with a fitting outlet (naweh) for his : nether functions. 1 But Samuel maintained He took one rib from between two ribs. while the other said: He made shrouds for him. Satan 4 was created with her. 'a man an ounce of silver with you in secret. it perhaps refers to R. 12 God. * ' z Lit. 7 Rabin [said] Jannai and R. that his modesty might not be outraged. The other said He provided him with cushions. That is it which compasseth sobeb 5 answer him: the text refers there to rivers.. though usually Hebrew letter. These are figurative terms for the lock of the buttocks (anus) and bones l I. He arranged that man should excrete through his nether part. A return * him ' theft I ! Yet why a litra [==12 ounces] of silver openly. 5 Heb. xxvi. should one quote. in the ground under him. R. and not 8 The text is doubtful. 137 . Ishmael. i. assuming the suffix in tafitennah V. u). i.

4 Thus man readily accepts an apology. (Cf. while a woman comes 'Why the rib]/ he replied. xxin. 'and earth never putrefies. Said they. spreads immediately/ 'And why is 3 but not a woman?' 'Man was created from the earth/ he answered. while the woman looks towards the place of her creation [viz. 16: Thou shalt not deliver * tasgir. the earth]. R. 7-8] created her for . but not a man?' 'I will give you an illustration/ replied he. 8 This story presupposes and proves another rendering of the verse. blessed be He/ wherearose and divorced each other. and they did not produce children. 'And He delivered'. while the latter went and married a wicked man. * 1 Th. 'And why must a woman use perfume. had Adam seen Eve in the process of creation he would have found her repulsive. pious woman. Deut.XVII. It had been arranged that I should be married to my mother's brother. Th. MIDRASH KABBAH him and he saw her full of discharge and 1 blood thereupon He removed her from him and created her a second time/ 'I can corroborate your words/ she observed. while a man does not need perfume?' 'Man was created from earth/ he answered. For example if you leave : immediately goes putrid/ 'And why has a woman a penetrating [shrill] voice. it meat three days unsalted. but Eve was created from a bone. but when you put a bone into it.T. and Y. Thus. Joshua was asked: forth with her face turned upwards?' 'The man looks towards the place of his creation [viz. but because I was brought up with him in the same home I became plain in his eyes and he went 2 and married another woman. but Eve was created from a bone. of the same root as wayyisgor in the present verse) mankind (lit. the sound [of sizzling] a man easily appeased. 4 it immediately absorbs it . and she made him wicked. flesh ') into her power. 'and when you pour a drop of water on it. The former went upon they and married a wicked woman. : He destroyed this creation. 'We are of no use to the 8. who is not as beautiful as I. 'If you fill a pot with meat it does not make any sound. 138 . and made 3 him righteous.' that a pious man was married to a It once ' happened Holy One. This proves that all depends on the woman. viz. [at birth] with his face does a man come forth downward.

6 therefore was the precept of the Sabbath 7 lights given to her/ 1 woman can give With the assurance that the same will be returned. after him. therefore was the precept of menstruation 4 given to her/ 'And why was the precept of "dough" given to her?' 'Because she corrupted Adam. xv. who was the 5 dough (hallah) of the world. whereas the woman does not make demands upon the man?' 'This may be compared to a man who loses lost article something/ replied he. yet her punishment is not to be accursed. but on the contrary. zoa. Sanh. but the man deposit sperm within a woman while a woman does not deposit sperm within a man?' [He replied]: 'It is like a man who has an article in his hand and seeks a trustworthy person with whom he may deposit it/ 1 'Why does a man go out bareheaded while a woman goes out with her head covered ? She is like one who has done wrong and is ashamed of people. Num. to sanctify the bread one eats and spread the cheer of the Sabbath as symbolised by light. and in a local. 8 if you soak many days in water does not become 'And why does the man make demands upon the woman. The 5 bakes the bread. made him mortal. 19 ff. 32 f). since she has one husband only.GENESIS (BERESHITH) which even saturated/ [XVII. 7 The attitude of Judaism towards woman is shown in these replies. 139 . For he is borne to the grave . V. they therefore walk in front of the corpse. [as it ' ' ' ' is draw written]. but not a man. * V. that assurance. xiv. i. supra. 3 2 Innumerable before him is understood to refer to women.e. 'And why was the precept of menstruation to her?' 'Because she shed the blood of Adam [by given causing death]. 1 A separation is naturally done by the woman who 6 I. In accordance with Scripture. sense. . therefore was the precept of dough given to her/ 'And why was the precept of the Sabbath lights given to her? 'Because she extinguished the soul of Adam. 'he seeks what he does not seek him/ 'And why does a lost. hers is the privilege to emphasise the inviolate character of woman. since he may have many wives. and all men before him' 3 (Job xxi. she is charged with having brought death into the world through her disobedience. as there were innumerable . not temporal. therefore she goes out with her head covered/ 'Why do they [the women] walk in front of the 2 Because they brought death into corpse [at a funeral] ? the world.

8 She has reached maturity. in the day that thou wast created they were prepared (Ezek. For we learned elsewhere The vows of an eleven-year-old maiden are subject to examination 2 those of a twelve-year-old maiden are valid. R. the cornelian. and the emerald. She is examined as to whether she understands their import. and is assumed to understand their import. 3 and we examine her in the whole of the twelfth year. Simeon wayyiben with binah. and the smaragd. R. 456. 7 The twenty-four are those enumerated in Isa. * Thus a woman's understanding develops sooner than a man's. 4 R. those of a thirteen-year-old youth are valid. and we examine him in the whole of the thirteenth year. the onyx. b. the carbuncle. Yohai said: He [God] adorned her like a bride and brought her to Him. Samuel b. and it was also taught in the name of R. the topaz. R. Thus he translates: and the Lord God made the rib into a woman adorned. 1 13). (u. whereas a man goes out into the streets and learns understanding from R. and if she does. Thou wast in Eden the garden of God. Aibu others state the following in Bannayah's name. Eleazar said in the name of R. the beryl.XVIII. and the jasper. people. Hanina said: What think you. 5 R. and ! her to him Thus it is gold.Jose Zimra: She was endowed with more understanding 1 (Unah) than a man. The Rabbis and : R. i] CHAPTER XVIII (BERESHITH) i. rendering and the Lord God the rib into an understanding (intelligent) woman. 18-24 q-v. the sapphire. 8 As though she were an uncared-for foundling. in. Jeremiah said in the name of R. 22). for there are places where coiffure is called building. because a woman generally stays at home. the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee. Isaac: Some reverse it. a twelve-year-old youth are subject to examination. her vows are valid. The vows of . AND THE LORD GOD BUILT (WAYYIBEN) THE : RIB. xxvm. 1 6 'Coiffure stands here for adornment in general. that He brought her to him from under a carob tree or a sycamore tree! 6 Surely He first decked her out with twenty-four pieces of finery 7 and then brought written. This connects ' ' made 140 . etc. Simeon b. 2 Nid. llama b* R. every precious stone was thy covering.

Simeon b. 141 . from [Adam's] head. B. IJanina said: There were thirteen. i. R. IJanina said He made the walls of gold and the covering of precious stones and pearls. Lit. viz. Lit. lest she be 7 nor from the foot.b. Lakish holds that 'every precious'. Joshua is of Siknin said in R. Aha's name : He even made him hooks of gold. Lakish maintained There were eleven .' etc. and 'covering' as three s Since it is the last enumerated. 'Every precious all Now was thy covering' stone was thy covering. while R. for even when he stands naked. He must certainly have adorned her as a bride. 'a looker' i. while the other says ten.e. and precious stone are included [in the total]. R. lest she be a gadabout. 4 R. lest she be swelled-headed 5 . that part is covered. Kama b.B. indicating ten canopies.' And as He created each limb . Lakish both hold: Where : we find a general term and a detailed enumeration. 4 Mah. Simon. R. in one says that there were ten agrees with the says nine argues: the 'gold' mentioned : The view Rabbis. R. Since God set canopies. R. lest she be a gossip. 2. 750. light-fingered but from the modest part of man. Levi's name: WAYYIBEN 'I will written. etc. 'stone'. The Rabbis say There were ten canopies1 : . touches things' thievish. Eleazar b. R. well (hithbonnen) from not create her signifying that He considered what part to create her. Karsana said in R. Hama b. that there were nine. nor from the hand. 'one who ogling men. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIII. is a detailed enumeration: hence all are included [in the total]. different canopies. indicates one more. lest she be an eavesdropper. 1 One so up many 5 * 7 Others read: light-headed. Levi and R. nor from the heart. Simeon b.e. nor from the eye. 1-2 Lakish differ. v. nor from the mouth. Hanina and R. while ( The cornelian. Aha b. Hanina regards 'precious'. the topaz.' * R. Simeon b. 2 Ten stones are enumerated. lest she be prone to jealousy. nor from the ear. frivolous. you regard the general term as additional to the detailed enumeration. R. Said He: of every precious stone enumerated in this verse. lest she be a coquette 6 .. while R.: this does not refer to the canopies but to a special seat. while he who this verse 3 certainly does not allude to a canopy. Kama b.. 'Every is a general term. R.

so that she more chambers in her than man. 23). as you read. of the head. i). Th. yet she is swelled-headed. yet she is light-fingered: And Rachel she stole the teraphim (ib. nor from the heart. to trouble.XVIII.. connecting it with pa'amon. SAID: NOW : THIS TIME SHE IS BONE OF MY BONE. God was ' * MY 142 . yet went out. in could receive child. it is she who troubled me 1 (me-fa amtani) all night. edd. 34) me. xxvin. xxx. All these remarks 1 showed his amazement. nor from the foot. and (ii) trouble. yet she is an eavesdropper Now Sarah listened in the tent door (Gen. He created her for him and he saw her full of discharge and blood. yet she is prone to jealousy: Rachel envied her sister (ib. 'Be a modest woman. xxxi. top.). nor from They walk with stretched-forth : My the eye.: THIS TIME SHE is BONE OF as a it is she who was created the first time. Abin is observed: whom the king best man! 3 THIS is (ZoTH HAR. I none He reproof (Prov. The translation follows BONE. 3 This is she of the previous occasion . Ilisda said: 1 He built AND HE BROUGHT HER UNTO THE MAN. best man for Adam's bride. Happy the citizen for R. gadabout: 3. thereupon He removed her from him and recreated her a second time. i) nor from the hand. 25). to bring charges and accusations. disquiet. this is she who is destined to strike the bell and to speak [in strife] against 4 golden bell pa'amon (Ex. 5 to the womb. 6 Pa' am is given a twofold significance: (i) a bell. fashioning her broad below and narrow at the R. as it is written. 16). (ib. 10). PA'AM). connecting it with the verb pa' am. But ye have set at nought did not create her from i. cur. 8 And no longer a mass of discharge and blood. 19). yet she is a coquette: And wanton eyes (*&. (meaning) Th. xxxiv. in. A . Judah b.. AND THE MAN etc. etc.' Yet In spite of all all My counsel. Rabbi said: At first (n. regards this * 'To strike the bell* is used metaphorically: separate statement. and would this. however. necks (Isa. The translation and interpretation follow Th. xvni. And Dinah is a . 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH ordered her. nor from the ear. The reference is * Here. Hence he said 4.

But the Sages maintain : He must And divorce his maternal sister. 5 say. This is regarded as evidence of the great antiquity of the language. AND FLESH OF MY FLESH. raised an objection against him: Surely it is written. so was the world created with the Holy Tongue 3 Have you ever heard one learn that the : . 4 Gini (yvvij) and antropi (an assumed form for &vd patiros) are woman and man respectively in Greek ittha and gabra are the same in Aramaic. BECAUSE SHE WAS TAKEN OUT OF MAN (iSH). not his sister at all. divorce her. ishah is grammatically the fern. R. They moreover she is my sister. THEREFORE SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER (n. 7 was his reply. : gmij ginia. yet this [sc. and he was [previously] married to his paternal sister or to his maternal sister. Simon's name said Just as it was given in the Holy Tongue. 143 . WOMAN (iSHAH). 8 V. 24). Hanan said: This Adam was sleeping. a dream that intimacy takes place] does exhaust a man? Because from the very 1 beginning of her creation she was but [formed] in a dream. R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIIL 4-5 Resh Lakish was asked: Why do not all other dreams exhaust a man. the daughter of my father (Gen. such as are seen in ish and ishah. From this you Torah was given in the Holy Tongue. Sanh. 5812 and notes ad loc. It is pointed out that these words lack the corresponding feminine or masculine forms. but may keep his 6 paternal sister. replied he. . SHE SHALL BE CALLED. ittha. BONE OF MY BONES. ed. Phinehas and R. antropi. gabra^ gdbretha?* But ish and ishah [are used] why ? because one form corresponds to the other. AND FLESH OF MY FLESH. in Sonc. It was taught: If a man be- came a [Jewish] proselyte. because Gentiles do not recognise paternity. of him it said. 12) ? He [Abraham] answered them in accordance with their own ideas. But in truth she was 1 2 Whilst Sc. Meir's opinion. Helkiah in R. fi his niece. of ish> and Adam's remark is unintelligible unless he spoke in Hebrew. 2 R. Heb. 3 I. Tanhuma said : When is a man takes one of his relations to wife. itha. 7 Since the Egyptians permitted a paternal sister. 5. in R. antropia. Hebrew was the first language to be used.e. BONE OF MY BONES. he must. xx.

Simeon. also frequently for Abraham and his descendants before the Giving of the Law.XVIII. etc. vi. his wife if she is related to his father . Abbahu objected: surely it is sister written. Abbahu's objection. divorce. 6 In ancient times marriage consisted of two stages: (i) erusin (betrothal). 5 R. first intend to acquire her through 3). If so. the first is not culpable while the second is. Behold. Meir's reason is as stated by R. cohabitation? 7 Hence this proves that cohabitation in the shalt die 6 . and the betrothed woman could not be free without a divorce . and but cohabitation was forbidden until nesu'in. on account of the verse. 'Betrothed' ' betrothal are used in this sense in the text and not in accordance with ' their 6 modem connotation.' i. This proves that punishment is due merely because she had already cohabited with another. etc. not an aunt. Johanan's name: culpable for [adultery with] married HIS WIFE. Ila: But THEREFORE SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER the means. xx. but not women. 4 AND SHALL CLEAVE UNTO Abbahu [adultery said in R.e. And Amram took him Jochebed his father's 2 the son of R. 7 Surely not. . But did the 1 He renders: ' Therefore shall a man leave. Lit. 2 If R. THEREFORE is : of [the interdicts] of the children it was explained to us: Noah! 3 Said R. thou for she has been possessed by a man (Gen. woman who is related to himself through his father and the woman who is related to himself through his mother. Hanan. of Noah* or 'Noachides* is the technical designation for non-Jews. Jonah said street Samuel's name was standing in the and two men had intercourse with her. 4 I. such as Jochebed was to Amram. translation. Abin. 20) ? R. 53 MIDRASH KABBAH SHALL A MAN LEAVE HIS FATHER AND HIS MOTHER. . only a paternal or maternal sister is forbidden. R. who is primarily related to his father or mother. surely a father's sister is forbidden ? c 3 The children This continues and emphasises R. which means she who is related to his father and she who 1 related to his mother. said to wife (Ex. Erusin effected marriage. 144 . The Noachides R.e. are for in with] : betrothed If a harlot women. and (ii) nesu'in (marriage or home-taking). and not because she was married. the Israelites before Revelation did not even observe view was proved to us by the verse.

Papa 5 Throughout the Book of Malachi says.e.K. with weeping. where only the husband can divorce his wife but not the reverse. xxiv.e. heathen] wives.e. Her former husband. Ilanan in R. The Lord of hosts is used. so that [their husbands] had gone and married strange [i. 4). R. seeing that they cause their own wives thus to weep? Or this may refer to the second half of the verse: Insomuch that He regardeth not the offering any more (ib. 5 He reverts to the question. Hiyya taught: If a Gentile divorced his wife and she went and married another. i. said: 'Who will accept 7 weeping and sighing from them? Having robbed her. i. Johanan's name explained this as meaning either that they have no law of divorce at all. Etanina b. thou castest oppressed her. the God of Israel putting away [i.e. divorce? 7 Perhaps : who will pay heed to their ("the husbands') tears. ye actually 6 repeat [the sin committed] at Shittim! Ye cover the altar of the Lord with tears. 13). Johanan said: His wife can divorce him and she gives him a double dowry. In Jewish law intercourse acquires only when it is done with that 2 The husband can never divorce his wife. when they are responsible for their own wives' tears ? H5 L . he found that] the women's faces had been blackened by the sun. 13): Who would accept offerings 1 from them. and deprived her of her beauty. 4 'Rashi' and M. 1 And how do we [XVIII. 4 R. may not take her Said R. Thus Malachi says. It is as though one might say. Judah b. and then they both went and became converted [to Judaism]. I do not apply to him the verse. divorce]. 2 or that both can divorce each other. blessed be He.). while these would go round the altar weeping. 1 6). of R. 3 I. (Mai. 5 is not in that know they have no divorce? R. purpose. 3 R. And this ye do a second time (ib. and with sighing (ib. For I hate saith the Lord. as it [in reference to Ilanan said: When Nehemiah came up from the land of Exile [to Eretz Israel. R. How do we know that a Gentile has no e V. xxv. whereas here divorce] we have The God of Israel.GENESIS (BERESHITH) case of the Noachides acquires. Num. they have no divorce as it is practised by Jews. who : sent her away. Others: a divorce document. n. His name has no bearing on divorce save in the case of Israel alone. Aha in the name again to be his wife (Deut. Simon and R. when they petition Me. The Holy One. though that accordance with [Jewish] law.

pederasty.e. viz. The whole of the preceding passage. 146 . the verse]. V. v. 25). which not unto his neighbour's wife. Issi said : Every prohibition which is written in reference to the children of 3 Noah is nor a negative command. Israel. AND THEY WERE BOTH NAKED. but WIFE]. nor to a beast. 5-6] her away!' incest. by death (in theory only). lo ba'u shesh sha'oth (six hours had not come). only natural intercourse is permitted him. Adam. Three there were who did not remain in their tranquillity Adam. and thus includes adultery. 2 present Now how [From. AND THEY WERE NOT ASHAMED (LO YITHBOSHASHU). In the case of Adam this means that from the time of his intercourse with Eve until his expulsion less than six hours elapsed. Hananiah said If a Noachide cohabits unnaturally with his wife. 5 Sisera: Why is his chariot so long (boshesh) in coming (Judg. which is really irrelevant. 58^ and b* 1 V. but is punishable 8 About unnatural intercourse. R. v. Mah. his prohibition ranks as neither. 2 Scriptural laws relating to Israelites are technically divided into these two categories .XVIII. while to-day six hours have arrived (ba'u shesh sha'oth) yet he is not come 6 delayed ! 'Incest* connotes here all forms of forbidden intercourse. Sanh. Samuel.. which means. Obviously it cannot have the same meaning in the case of Israel and Sisera. 38^. while that of the latter involves flagellation. the violation of the former is not punishable at all (by Scriptural law). 4 I. AND HE SHALL CLEAVE UNTO HIS WIFE. Abbahu. like MIDRASH RABBAH that they are forbidden it And how do we know an Israelite ? Because says. and bestiality. the six hours had come. R. AND WERE NOT ASHAMED YITHBOSHASHU (n. Israel: And the people saw that Moses boshesh (Ex. but not to a male. R. 57^. Leazar in the name of R. Ex. 4 6. i). AND HE SHALL CLEAVE UNTO HIS WIFE. xxxii. 28) ? Every day he is wont to return at three hours or at four hours of the day. he is liable to death. 1 R. [UNTO HIS : implies. XLI. for it is written. R. i. and R. Leazar said: six hours. leads up to this piece of exegesis. AND THEY SHALL BE ONE FLESH: [that means that he shall cleave] to the place [technically] neither a positive do you arrive [at the law]? where both form one flesh. In the case of a Noachide. and Sisera. 7.e. Sanh. however. but that at the sixth hour on the day of their downfall they were 6 5 no longer enjoying their usual tranquillity.

And the Lord God made for Adam and 1 wife garments of skin (Gen. . he [the serpent] conceived a 3 passion for her. Karhah: It teaches you2 through what sin that wicked his creature inveigled them. garments' is reserved for the ending. the interpolation about the serpent. 1 3 to encompass Adam's death through sin. in. R. 147 . because he saw them engaged in their natural functions. 4 Hence he sought And ' . 2 Viz. etc. Joshua b. NOW THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE. The questioner holds that God made these garments before Adam sinned. Therefore And the Lord God made .GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XVIII. Now Surely Scripture should have stated. viz. so as to conclude on the brighter note of God's care. 6 AND THEY WERE NOT ASHAMED. Jacob of Kefar Hanan said It is thus : written in order not to conclude with the passage on the 4 serpent. the curse he brought. But in that case it should immediately have followed this verse. and as a natural covering for their nakedness. 2I) [immediately after the former verse]? Said R.

ALL. Flagellation for violating a negative precept (v. 'Bring me bread and beets': the former eats and suffers afterwards. because he increases his knowledge he adds to his wisdom he : sorrow. near Sepphoris. *3&* 2 1 3 148 . or caught a fever*? 2 And where is suffering prevalent? With human beings. he was More than all (Gen. ague]. *the most 7 subtle' of all animals. but as they for the [coarse] linen garments which come from Arbel. the greater one is the greater is his punishment. 146. Animals. but in the case of a scholar this is unnecessary. Johanan said fine linen : It is like the : 4 if garments which come from Beth Shean are even slightly blackened they are ruined. while the latter eats and does not suffer. is NOW For in THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE. Ishmael taught: 7 According to the camel so is. It was taught in R. Very little. 'Bring me roast meat. are generally free from these ills. and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow (EccL Increases his and i. and the same applies to the serpent. though lacking intelligence.XIX. Similarly. NOW THE SERPENT WAS MORE SUBTLE THAN ANY Eccl. its load. XIX (BERESHITH) CtC. Thus through increasing his knowledge he increases his sorrow.e. 5 what is their value altogether? 6 R. 1 Solomon said Because I to myself I multiplied anger against myself. It often happens that two people enter a tavern.' while the other orders. in. Sot. 18): Because man increases anger against himself. 4 5 In Galilee. Meir's name: According : to the greatness of the serpent so was his downfall because he cursed was MORE SUBTLE THAN 14). ' have multiplied wisdom and because I increased my knowledge I increased my sorrows. i] CHAPTER I. p. and good wine. Sanh. Sb. 3 R. much wisdom much anger. Rabbi said: A scholar : does not require a warning. Did you This ass went out and caught the ever hear anybody say sun [i. as he is assumed to know that the act is forbidden. i. Scythopolis in Galilee. Thus human ills weigh heavily upon the one but not upon the other. 18. R. 2) is imposed only if the offender was previously warned. i). being punished where another would be exempt. (ill. one orders. white bread. n. and a flaw does not matter.

and Haman. The congregation of Korah: Moreover (af) thou hast not brought us unto a land^ etc. And serpent: in AND HE SAID UNTO THE WOMAN: YEA (AF). 16). Koriah said: He had engaged in his natural functions [sc. and he had feet. xx.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX. intercourse] and then fallen asleep. (Num. 596. Hanina b. GOD HATH SAID: YE * 2 And none would have V. 12). ii. moreover. R. Cf. infra. the congregation of Korah. AND HE SAID UNTO THE WOMAN: YEA (AF). BUT OF THE FRUIT OF THE TREE WHICH IS IN THE MIDST OF THE GARDEN. i. dared to attack it. owing to its great strength. Jeremiah b.e. etc. Eleazar said: He was an unbeliever. punished through God's wrath. The Rabbis said: He [God] took him and led him telling him : Here is a place fit for here is a place fit for sowing [cereals]/ planting [trees]. Sansan said: Four commenced ' [their sin] with ' af (yea) and were destroyed these are they: The serpent. xx. Eleazar said: He was like a camel. Ber. Simeon b. * Here is a play on words. The chief baker: I also (af) saw my dream (Gen. 2 R. Hoshaya the Elder said: He stood out distinguished [erect] like a reed. they commenced their sin with the word af. He deprived the world of much good. Esther the queen did let 3. Now where was Adam during this conversation? Abba Jrjalfon b. all around the world. (Est. HATH GOD SAID: YE SHALL NOT EAT OF ANY TREE OF THE GARDEN? R. too. Af also means wrath: they were 5 V. 1 Cf. it ' Thus is written. Sanh. xvi. etc. AND THE WOMAN SAID UNTO THE SERPENT: OF THE FRUIT OF THE TREES OF THE GARDEN WE MAY EAT (ill. HATH GOD SAID. 30. through^ and where no man (adam) dwelt Adam had not dwelt there. for had this not happened. v. Haman: Yea (af). ' ' * 149 . i. no man come in. 1 R. 1-3 BEAST OF THE FIELD. Af means yea. Through a land that no man passed (Jer.* The baker. infra. 3 2. 6) 5 : i. and he would have gone and returned. the chief through af'. one could have sent his merchandise through him. 14). 2). XL.

Add not not say thus. 9.' : R. (ib. the Holy One. added a fence to it by 2 must not even touch it (A R N). For the gods know 4 but. sing. V. 3~4] MIDRASH KABBAH IT. 3 (yod'eini). zga. supra. z. not to . Judah b. for every person hates his fellow R. xxx. he took and thrust her [the serpent] against it. Thus. R. unto His words. For God knows (yodea'). 'knowing is in the plural (yode'e. Of this tree did He eat and then create the world. so that you may not create craftsmen/ other worlds. 17). blessed be He. telling her that she than one God. lest He reprove thee. whereas she did NEITHER SHALL YE TOUCH 3). Cf. saying. For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shall surely die (Gen. Thus: heaven was created on the first day and the firmament on the second 5 does it not bear its weight? The firmament was created on the second and herbs on the third: do they not interrupt its waters ? 6 Herbs were created : 3 in order to emphasise the prohitition. The herbs interrupt the flow of rain from the firmament. hence He orders you. but. knowing good and ' evil. IJiyya taught: That means that you must not make the fence more than the principal thing. Joshua of Siknin said in R. Hence the plural form of knowing refers back to ye 5 God.XIX. vi. and thou be found a liar (Prov. GOD HATH SAID: YE SHALL NOT EAT OF IT. 6). said: I was asked this question in answered It is not written. The end of the verse reads : Then ye shall be as God. vm. R. 1 lest it fall and destroy the plants. but For God doth know that in the day IT. II. Others read 'does it (the firmament) not supply them with water' thus being subservient thereto. ' NEITHER SHALL YE TOUCH ye eat 4. 8 4 * ' shall be. 150 . 'Have you then died?' he said to her. iv. etc. when he saw her thus lying. Thus it is written. had said. 2 R. Tanhuma I ' Antioch. so will you not die when you eat it. yodea'} t which implies more 1 Adam. 'just as you were not stricken through touching it. 5). supra. ye shall not eat thereof. thereof. Simon said: He argued: 'Whatever was created after its companion dominates it. (in. Sanh. Levi's name: He [the * serpent] began speaking slander of his Creator. 6. SHALL NOT EAT OF LEST YE DIE IT. Cf.

song of wisdom) of Ethan the Ezrahite (Ps. AND THAT IT WAS A DELIGHT TO THE EYES: hence that it was beautiful to the eyes. and it added wisdom. 1 the luminaries on the fourth and the birds on the fifth/ R. 18). 4-5 on the third day and the luminaries on the fourth. supra. Then I . Maskil (a i). The Rabbis said: 1 2 And through the Name of a bird. (ib. LXXXIX. AND DID EAT. in. 7. XLV. it matures and ripens. * 6 7 dominates the sun. may be eaten. as you read. Simlai said: She came upon him with her answers all 'What think you: that I will die and another Eve will be created for you? There is nothing new under the sun (Eccl. 9). Thus it heat of the sun plant cf. were. R. Jose b. 4 you said: The ziz* is : 5. L. it was beautiful to the eyes. life n. . cf . Eleazar said in the name of R. Or do you think that I will ready. Aibu said: She squeezed grapes and gave him. as Jast. make haste and eat before He creates other worlds which will rule over you/ Hence it is written. AND THAT THE TREE WAS TO BE DESIRED TO MAKE ONE WISE (LE-HASKIL): hence that it added wisdom.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX. 6) she saw [how plausible were] the words of the serpent.e. I. except a certain bird named hoi (phoenix). Judah b. it 3 I. beasts. etc. ' a clean bird. 3 obscures the orb of the sun. saying to him: die while 6 you remain alone ? He created it not a waste. as it is written. to care for). and birds to eat of it. And the woman saw that it was good. XV. she gave also unto her husband . none I. THAT THE TREE WAS GOOD FOR FOOD. Ps. SHE TOOK OF THE FRUIT THEREOF. R. All obeyed her and ate thereof. supra. He formed She began weeping and crying over him. it to be inhabited' (Isa. : : etc. 5 R. R. And 5 Cf. and the three were said in the same verse: AND THE WOMAN SAW THAT THE TREE WAS GOOD FOR FOOD: hence we learn that it was good to eat. Simon and when it flies it Now were created after everything in order to rule over everything. in public places (with In the passage. 14. ALSO is an extension 7 she gave the cattle. Zimra Three things were said of the tree it was good to eat.

at the end of which a fire issues from its nest and burns it up. Jannai and R. Whereupon he [their owner] arose and seized him. Zakkai. 2 * They were naked of obedience. yet as my days The School of Simeon differ: The School shall multiply much as an egg is left.XIX. Kahana said: HAGOROTH Not hagorah : [plural] is written now HAGOROTH and linen implies shirts [or. saying to him. and it grows new limbs and lives again. whereupon EYES OF THEM BOTH WERE OPENED Were they then blind ? R. Yohai said. Even of the one precept which they had possessed they had stripped themselves. I shall die with and I the holE. I. AND THE AND THEY KNEW THAT THEY WERE NAKED. is left. Berekiah in the name of R. 6. M.e.worker's shop and just when a basket full of goblets and cut-glass ware was in front of him he swung his staff round and broke them.K. cf. and R. R. Jannai maintained: It lives a thousand years. because of your sin you must henceforth toil. That is the leaf which brought the occasion (to'anah) for death : into the world. (jHAGO(a girdle) Abba b. Simeon b. at the end of which its body is consumed and its wings drop off. Judan b. etc. 'I know that I cannot obtain redress from you. Isaac said : 3 ! Thou hast acted sinfully then take thread and sew AND THEY MADE THEMSELVES GIRDLES ROTH). 7). 'phoenix' (Job xxix. Akiba explained it by comparing them to a villager who was passing a glass. Judan in the name of R. of R. R. but R. 152 . supra. Johanan b. robes. Judan b. R. Simeon said: It lives a thousand years. Thus the immediate consequence of their sin was that they had to begin sewing. R. R.: which brought grief into the world. (in. 1 AND THEY SEWED THE LEAVES OF THE FIG (TE'ENAH) TOGETHER. but come and I will show you how much valuable stuff you have destroyed/ Thus He showed them how many generations they had destroyed. 2 R. xv ad fin. 1 embroidered girdles]. yet as much as an egg it grows new limbs and lives again. 18).V. said as : 5""6] MIDRASH KABBAH my nest.

when Adam sinned it departed to the first rdkia [firmament] when Cain sinned. ix. to the seventh.V. 153 . it ascended to the second rakia* when the generation of Enosh sinned. Abba b. it ascended to the third when the generation of the Flood sinned. while Moses brought The it right down below. R. the latter to the kith-pa'el. 7). Amram from the second to the first. Levi. 1 . 5 By reading wayyashkinu (and they caused the Shechinah to dwell) 2 3 instead of wayyishkenu. Levi from the fourth to the third. xxxvii. Halapay said: We know know that we know travelled 2 [from here] that a voice may travel. Kahana said Not mehallek but mith-hallek? 4 is written here. shall inherit the land and dwell (wayyishkenu) righteous therein for ever (Ps. 4 The former belongs to the pi' el conjugation of the verb . Kohath from the third to the second. 6-7 so for woman 7. are made girdles. 5 : ! I HAGOROTH He For is plural. and they brought it down again to earth. to the fourth. AND THEY HEARD THE VOICE OF THE LORD GOD TRAVELLING IN THE GARDEN TOWARD THE COOL OF THE DAY (in. 23). The sphere. Abraham [brought it down] from the seventh to the sixth. . R. to the fifth. Kohath. But as against these there arose seven righteous men Abraham. Jacob from the fifth to the fourth. [XIX. with the Sodomites. which means that it [repeatedly] leaped and real home of the Shechinah was in the nether ascended. : R. . Isaac said: It is written. with the generation of the separation [of tongues]. Amram. with the Egyptians in the days of Abraham. and Moses. : Isaac. 'walking'.GENESIS (BERESHITH) cloaks and just as these are made for man. and hair nets. Isaac from the sixth to the fifth. Jacob. but we do not yet can apply to fire. and they dwell. 29) then what are the wicked are they to range in the air What it means is that to do the wicked did not permit the Shechinah to dwell on earth. 1 . not to God. applies 'travelling* to the 'voice . He understands the longer form as a frequentative. to the sixth. 1 'travelling . E. hats. and it is understood to 1 mean various kinds of garments. and whence do 'travelling that? From a verse elsewhere: And the fire 1 down upon the earth (Ex.

relates this to the trees: the trees caused their voice to 2 : He 6 7 E. Lo the deceiver who deceived his Creator!' 2 R. xv. reading meth holek (he goes as Supra. 5 He is doomed to die. which Now know whether ! is a thousand years. Rab said : He him [i. east and west denote severity and mildness respectively. explained. blessed be He. and ten LE-RUAH HA-YOM. YOM side : in the east side [of the universe] implies in the side (ruah) which rises with the day sun]. just as the further the sun declines the cooler 1 it grows. V. According to these interpretations the verse is rendered thus And they heard the voice (of the angels declaring). Levi and R. 4 When God has declared that disobedience would be followed by death. tlanina b.e. R. *God is going to those in the garden* to punish them. 10). LE-RUAH HA-YOM In Zabdi's view he was lenient toward him. 'O God. 4.XIX. The Lord God is certainly going to those in the garden' [to punish them]. xc. be heard. R. he* man 'is dead and gone". " For thus spoke I to him: For in the day that thou eatest ' ye do not thereof thou shall surely die" (Gen. xc. 7 In Rab's view. R. etc. Papa said: For wayyishme'u read wayyashmi'u they heard the voice of the ministering angels saying. does man still walk about!'). He was severe toward him. 7. just as the more the sun ascends the hotter it becomes. Levi said: [The were exclaiming]. Berekiah said: For wayyishme'u (and they heard) read wayyashmi'u (and they caused to hear) 1 they heard the voice of the trees saying. The days of our years are (Ps. 'He of the garden is ministering angels dead [and gone]/ 3 R. (either: 'O God. As 6 'in the cool of the day*. dead) instead of mith-hallek. Isaac ' : ' interpretation. that means one day of Mine or one day of yours. 6 and he will live nine hundred thirty years and leave seventy for his children/ as threescore years and it is written.e. But behold I will grant him one day of Mine. Levi said: He judged him in the west : LE-RUAH HA- [God] judged implies in the side which sinks with the day. le-rewah ha-yom (after differed in their the day's respite) : behold. II. Isaac said: [They exclaimed]: 'Does he still go about!' 4 Said the Holy One. or. Zabdi b. 8] MIDRASH KABBAH : 8.V. to them: ['He will 5 die] LE-RUAH HA-YOM/ i. 17). or. Ps. I will give him the day's respite. J 54 .

2 'how : 6. took the man. 1 AMONGST THE TREES ('EZ) OF THE GARDEN. Is it and notes ad dismissal implies for a certain purpose. xn. and now by the will of the serpent yesterday by [thou didst extend] from one end of the world to the other. period. 4 Mah. 2 expulsion is more final. GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XIX. vi. 8 Cf. and does not imply a purpose or limit. xn. and I punished him by expulsion: So he drove out the man of Eden (Gen. Jose b. and hence. n. 23). : said His stature shrank to a hundred cubits. n. AND THE LORD GOD CALLED UNTO THE MAN. R. supra. how! used in apostrophe). whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat (ib. . AMONGST THE TREES man (Adam). 9): 'How (ek) hast will. 15).. They are like a man into the (Adam)' means like Adam: just as I led Adam garden of Eden and commanded him. e 9. 6. I bewailed him with ekah (how) is ! And said unto him ayyekah : ekah they transgressed 1 written 5 ) : so also did I bring his descendants into Eretz Israel and command them. 24) : . and put him into the gar den commanded him: And the Lord God commanded the man (ib. 7). ' of R. AND SAID: WHERE ART THOU AYEKKAH? (in. and I punished them loc. ill. 155 . Abbahu said in the name whereas It is written. i. and I : . whereas * V. Levi said: This was a sign for his descendants. : (ib. for a limited here. n)? and I punished him by dismissal Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden (ib. until man should expiate his sin by hard work . as it is written. Lit. thou fallen! 2 Yesterday [thou wast ruled] . R. whereupon I punished him by dismissal and expulsion. supra. with thee!' vocalising n^K (ayyekah) as nyx (ekah. vm. that they would be placed within wooden ( ez) coffins. 4 and bewailed him with ekah (how) ! (I led him And the Lord God into the garden of Eden.. 8-9 AND THE MAN AND HIS WIFE HID THEMSELVES AMONGST THE TREES OF THE GARDEN. 17) and he transgressed My commandment Hast thou eaten of the tree. V. Hanina: But they are like a they have transgressed the covenant (Hos. My now [thou canst hide] OF THE GARDEN!' 3 R. Aibll . and My commandment. R. and he transgressed My commandment.

1 I. Proem v. 2 ' went How HAST THOU EATEN OF THE THEE. . command the II. viz. xv. Levi said: woman borrowing and ' ' does husband treat you ? He treats me with every kindyour ness/ she replied. and I bewailed them with ekah! I brought them into Eretz Israel. WHEREOF COMMANDED AND 11. SHE GAVEMEOF THE TREE. by expulsion: / will drive them out of My house (Hos. Var. flask the only to find it a Balaam. (in. and Hezekiah. 'Have you touched that cask?' he demanded. also. . AND THE MAN SAID: THE WOMAN WHOM THOU GAVEST TO BE WITH ME. a woman asking for leaven. the wicked I DID EAT Adam :ANDTHEMANSAID. 20). Four there are Holy One. ix. i). AND HE Imagine a SAID: HE SAID: WHO I HEARD THY VOICE TOLD THEE. I vinegar. upon whose etc. 'save that he does not permit me to approach this cask which is full of serpents and scorpions/ 'It contains all his finery/ said the other. Cain. who asked her. 7). And I brought you into a land of fruitful fields (Jer. as it is written. g-ll] MIDRASH KABBAH by sending them away and expelling them. Yea. R. 2) they transgressed law (Dan. ix. n f)? . i). (in. I commanded them: And thou shalt children of Israel (Ex. knocked. . 156 . : Cain : And the iv. AND in R. xxiv. 3 chamber-pot.? TREE. 12). etc. etc. My punished them by sending them away: Send them away my sight.. blessed be He. to the wife of a snake-charmer Similarly. thy brother (Gen. and they began biting her. Command the children command : of Israel (Lev. . 1 Lord said unto Cain : Where is Abel 9) ? the wicked Balaam And God came 2 Lam. 15). 10. xxvii. Poor women would go borrowing or begging vinegar. into which they dipped their bread (Radal). 8 A metaphor: God tested them by questions and found them wanting. 4. When her husband came he heard her crying out [with pain]. and let them go forth (Jer. and I bewailed them with ekah : Ekah (how) doth the city I out of sit solitary (Lam.XIX. 'he wishes to marry another woman and give it to her/ What did she do? She inserted her hand into it. Adam. n). all Israel have transgressed Thy . lee.

(n Kings xx. 4 for he said to her: Thou speakest as one of the vile women (nebaloth) GAVEST TO BE WITH ME. 8 Different vocalisation of the same word changes its tense. 7 R. thus : (tva-okel). Papa said: This may be compared to a bird in the hand of a hunter. i6tf. but with his heart he sinned. 3 R. 9)? Hezekiah: Then came Isaiah the prophet unto king Hezekiah.GENESIS (BERESHITH) unto Balaam. I am WHOM THOU for I am not so with myself (Job not like him [Adam] he said. IJanina b. R. who had obeyed his wife and sinned. is ' God. xxn. Abba b. it is alive and if you Is this dead or alive ? . R. xx. not written 'shall I receive'. 9). it is And dead/ was the reply. I 2 Its life and death are in your hands. Kahana said: Job's wife was Dinah. 14) l But Ezekiel was found superior to all of them: Son of man. could not stand before Him. Simeon b. Said R. and die (Job II. Abba said Not we-okalti (and I did eat) but wa-okel 8 R. though God's handiwork. cit. Job said: THE WOMAN etc. : Then would I speak. 5 While of Dinah it is written Because he had wr ought a vile deed (nebelah) : in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter 6 (Gen. and Abba: It : shall 5 What? shall we receive good at the hand of we not receive evil (Job loc. !?5X] (zoe~oka!) t and I will eat. 2 Thus: 'Can these bones I answered: O Lord God. live? 12. but speaketh (ib. 3). the idea seems : to be that Job's wife too was righteous. and not fear ix. Abba: With his lips he did not sin. 35). can these bones live? and I answered: O Lord God. ' ' ' . receive shall ! : 1 V. and said unto him: What said these men? etc. To which Job replied that he was not like Adam. 7). Lakish is written: I did eat and I will eat. c : s gavest') to be with of God. Thou knowest. Thou knowest (Ezek. 'bsio 157 . Translating : for 6.. 11-12 these and said: What men are with thee (Num. io). standing her counsel.' it is Thus written. [XIX. When Job said that he would speak without fear Adam. Th. who said The woman whom Thou me. who met a man and asked him: If you wish. Num. xxxvn. whereas he had refused to obey her when she urged. and I did eat. Him. but 'shall we we be upright in prosperity but not upright in times of evil 6 For all this did not Job sin with his lips. Blaspheme God. 4 Jacob's daughter.B. I did hearkened to his wife. wish. his friends pointed out that even am not like (Adam.)l Said R. notwith7 B.: thus he not hearken to my wife. xxxiv.

xxxii. And he looked that it should bring forth grapes. he made me liable to Not only did it but punishment. LXXXIX.e. He incriminated me. SAID: I THE SERPENT BEGUILED incited me. let not Hezekiah beguile it not produce the fine grapes of virtue and obedience. make him liable for repayment.XIX. also Num. 2 I. V. 'he beguiled me/ 1 as (yashi) you read. lend (tasheh) thy neighbour (Deut. he me/ as you ME (HISHI'ANI). as it is written. AND DID EAT. xin. v. and it brought 1 forth wild grapes (Isa. io) 2 . xxiv. said: until 12] MIDRASH RABBAH Adam was not banished from the garden of Eden he reviled [God] and blasphemed. *he incriminated me/ as you read. actually brought forth the wild grapes of blasphemy. AND THE WOMAN read. R. here. When thou dost 23). 37. 2). Now therefore you (u Chron. 15). 'He incited The enemy shall not incite (yashi) him (Ps. he beguiled me. 158 .

'Why did ye mulct My children ? and they will answer Him: 'Some of them were much addicted to slander/ Then the Lord will take both and hurl them into Gehenna. 8. CXL. not walk upright. in. xix. Upon thy belly shall thou go 2 The violent and wicked man shall be hunted' : not 'With a thrust* slanderer' ' . xvi. A jroward man soweth strife. etc. 4 1 The reason is that the Holy * I. 28). 3 He caused the Shechinah to depart. 4) . Another interpretation: 'A said : ' shall be hunted with thrust alludes to the serpent. viz. AND THE LORD GOD etc. (in. R. cf. i. . will 159 . blessed be He.e. is With thrust upon thrust Adam was cursed. A slanderer shall not be established in the earth. 4. as it is written. With Adam He [first] discussed the matter. 'Shall not . 'And a [he is so called] because he whispered words whisperer against the Creator. * But cursed him forthwith. supra. Levi In the millennium the Holy One. AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT: BECAUSE THOU HAST DONE THIS. 12). SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. 1-2 CHAPTER XX (BERESHITH) i. Separateth familiar friends : he separated the Prince of ' : ' ' the world. xix. Eve was cursed. Cf. . the violent and wicked man upon thrust (Ps. who spake perversely of the Creator. and the serpent was cursed. A froward man' refers to ' the serpent.[XX. supra. Ye shall not surely die (Gen. CURSED ART THOU FROM AMONG ALL CATTLE. etc. 2. who uttered slander 1 against his Creator . xix. but ' ' : written. supra. 14). etc. and a whisperer separateth familiar friends (Prov. 'Shall not be established in the earth. earth' means that the serpent Cf. but with the serpent He entered into no discussion. with Eve He [first] discussed the matter. AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. as hitherto. saying to them. 3 and because he separated the Prince of the world he was cursed: AND THE LORD GOD SAID UNTO THE SERPENT.' as it is written. will take the nations of the world and hurl them down into Gehenna.

' Ma And unto Adam (man) He said : Because thou hast hearken^ ND TH unto the voice of thy wife. And unto I will greatly multiply thy pain etc. Hoshaya's name: From the beginning of tl Book [of Genesis] up to this point the Divine Name occu seventy-one times: this intimates that he [the serpen was judged by a full court. that Adam might die and you could possess her. . R. Sanh. But in subjecting to disgrace we commen< SAID UNT THE with the smallest: AND THE SERPENT: B ECAUSE LORD GOD THOU HAST DONE Unto the woman . x. and finally was cursed. Of the serpent ? SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. when subjecting to degrad tion. [The Almighty said to the serpent do was on account of this womai was not all thy labour for her sake ? 3 R. 1 R. viz.. When conferrir honour we commence with the greatest: And Moses sa unto Aaron. the serpent. . save three who copulate fa< because the Shechinah spake with them. 6). Simc said in R. 2 All copulate face to back. When conferring etc. Judah b. THII CURSED ART THOU . xiv. 8 1 So 1 60 . Ber. blessed be He. Hiyya taught: honour. the Lord spoke unto : the fish (Jonah II. n). Hoshaya said 8 Cf. R. ^ commence with the greatest. 6ia. Ta'an 156. cf. M 1 : AND LORD GOD 3. 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH j One.: this teaches th y He sait Adam I Ada [first] the serpent was cursed. 29*2. 5. Sanh.XX. 12. . Of the fist LORD A GOD And 4. 4 'All that thou didst ' R. xvm. supra. his so (Lev. Whence do we know it of mar to face. we commence with the smallest. etc. SAID UNTO THE SERPENT. and the fish. 4 Sanhedrin the great Court consisted of 71 member infra. said: Because thou hast hearkened. Num. . v. then Eve. 2a. said: 'This serpent is ready wi answers: if I discuss it with him. and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar. he will answer "Thou badest them and I bade them: why did they igno " Therefore lie pr< Thy bidding and follow mine? T H nounced his sentence summarily hence.

a swine at sixty days.v. a deer and a fox at six months. not domescreatures. at fifty days. . a marten at seventy days. since beasts are free. R. A certain philosopher wished to know after what period of time a serpent bears. AND THAN ALL BEASTS how long it takes a serpent to bear. Eleazar said: Have you ever seen a man first beat neighbour with a staff and then whip him again with a lash ? 2 Thus. In this respect the serpent was more cursed than all living 6 In the ancient east dogs were semi-wild. 'Why is your face wan?* 'I was asked a question/ replied he. a serpent at seven 5 years.E. ticated.' 'And what is it?' 'After how long does a serpent bear?' 'After seven years/ he told him. small clean cattle at five months. 1 R. R.] CURSED ART THOU FROM AMONG ALL CATTLE. 'and I could not answer it. R. .). When he saw them copulating he took them and placed them in a barrel and fed them until they bore. Levi's name He : R. : scales [on the serpent] are leprosy. 2 is lighter. Sa. a i cat at fifty-two days. ape. When the Sages visited Rome he . [when God declared. a dog at fifty days. Joshua of Siknin said cursed him with leprosy for those etc.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. Behemah ('cattle ) generally refers to domestic animals hayyah (' beasts ') to wild animals. and the long-tailed ape 4 at three years. which is a wild beast. asked him. Bek. MORE CURSED ART THOU THAN ALL CATTLE. beasts of the chase. Surely not! 1 3 For cattle stand lower than beasts. Gamaliel turned pale [with shame] and could not answer him. 'How do you know that?' he 6 inquired? 'Because the dog.J. while cattle are under man's dominion (Th. hedgehog. 4 CURSED ART THOU. art. meeting him and seeing his face wan. : * 5 Var* lee. surely he is all the more cursed FROM AMONG ALL THE BEASTS OF his THE FIELD! 3 It was taught Large clean cattle bear at nine months. ill. Dog. while it is written. large unclean cattle at twelve months. bear. leopard. in R. Joshua. 13. bears asked them OF THE FIELD: 1 hence just Which as the cattle are seven times Ex.. and an adder at seventy years. and all other reptiles at six months a lion. elephant.

infra. where it says that the serpent originally went upright like a man. XLVI. 1 AND The : unclean large cattle bearing at 12 months. blessed be He. viz. to beat his head against the wall [in grief]. rather does it [the serpent] burrow down until it reaches a rock or virginsoil. ministering angels descended and cut off his hands and feet. said to him. idiom for doing something with absolute ease. and elsewhere the reading is Egypt. Thus the serpent comes to throw light upon the downfall of Babylonia and is itself illumined thereby. Gamaliel] went and told it to him [the philosopher]. 3 and his cries resounded from one end of the world to the other. Huna discussed this. or enter into a hole and escape ? EARTH [E.* R. R Hilpi said: It does not mean every kind of earth. 1 so Is the serpent seven times more accursed than the cattle/ At eventide he [R. One [God said to the serpent]: 'Through thee My . UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. all cattle. Codex M.V. crying All that for which I toiled seven years. who began ' out. He interprets the verse cattle thus are 2 more cursed art thou than more cursed than beasts. When the Holy One. how could he flee to the wall and escape. reads: and the other said: creatures go with (yearning) bowels over their dead. .XX. Bek. For had not the Almighty decreed. but since the repercussions of the latter were worldwide. to the same extent that An s Cf. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. The cry thereof shall go like the serpent's (Jer. taught: creatures 6 5 go bent with grief (gehonim) over their dead so thou too. UPON THY BELLY (GEHONEKA) SHALT THOU GO/ R. 4~53 MIDRASH RABBAH more accursed than the beast. not Babylonia (v. Eleazar said: Even God's curse contains a blessing. Through thee My therefore thou too. B Since but for the serpent there would have been no death. it follows in turn that the serpent's cry too filled the world. Judan and R. this man has come and offered to me on the end of a cane ' ! 2 5. The verse quoted refers to Egypt. and then it draws out fibres of earth and eats them. 20). 8i. 'DUST'] SHALT THOU EAT. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU 162 GO. e There is a* lacuna in the text. UPON THY BELLY SHALT THOU GO. * The serpent's cry is employed as a simile to indicate the bitterness of Babylonia's downfall . 22).

LXV. what they desired was not given Uzziah.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. UNTO is a lacuna in the text. said to him [the serpent]: 'I made thee that thou shouldest be king over all cattle and beasts. but thou wouldst not. the serpent. Judah b. Sot. And they that serve the city. and what he possessed was taken from him. THOU GO. Cf infra. 5 R. b. 5 Because she denied that she had laughed. i . Korah. . 5-6 R. And we find the same in the case of Cain. Eleazar b. but thou wouldst not CURSED ART THOU. Balaam. Hiyya the Elder said four things The Holy One. Issi and R. Hoshaya in the name of R.2i& reads: But it is written. Adonijah. but THY BELLY SHALT thou wouldst not. blessed be He. Johanan in the name of R. woman Sarah]. therefore. and what they possessed was taken from them. SHALT THOU EAT. cause. Simon said : The Holy One.e. refers to the Messianic age . Jacob of Kefar IJanin: (He spoke that) through an intermediary. R. gb. . XLVIII. V. AN ENMITY BETWEEN THEE AND THE AND I WILL PUT WOMAN/ Thus what he desired was not given him. etc. never spoke directly with a woman save with that righteous and that too was due to a particular Kahana said in R. I have it. Sot. (ill. the Gibeonites. R. made thee that thou shouldest go upright like man. blessed be He. which 3 means. Simon and R.. all the tribes of Israel shall make them serve. Absalom. xcv. it. as it is written. There J.? WOMAN HE SAID: I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY. R. : 6. Biryi's name: And what a roundabout way He went in order to speak with [viz. THE etc. This upon 4 freed of their disabilities. out of all the tribes of Israel. hence. 1 6). Doeg. the Gibeonite: earth shall be the serpent's food (Isa. Abba 1 * I. 163 Said R. R. thus even then this curse shall lie * Who served hitherto viz. and Haman 4 to them. hence. I made thee that thou shouldst eat the food of man. And 25) 2 . UNTO THE WOMAN HE SAID: I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY THY PAIN AND THY TRAVAIL. 19). thou didst desire to kill the man : MORE UPON AND EARTH [Adam] and take his wife: therefore. shall till it (Ezek. Gehazi. Levi said: In the Messianic age all will be healed1 save the serpent and the Gibeonite. etc.

who was explaining a subject to him. value * 164 . it is viable. Levi said in the name of R. 1 I WILL GREATLY MULTIPLY (HARBEH ARBEH) THY PAIN AND THY TRAVAIL. But it is written. 'Why can you not grasp it?' he asked.e. but is actually born at seven months. 'sometimes it foals after a shorter period. R. and it is born either at seven months or at nine months. but he could not grasp it. (ib. but thou didst laugh (Gen. and all the more so if it is born at eight months. Abbahu was asked: How do we know that when the foetus is fully developed at seven months it is viable ? From your own language I will prove it to you/ replied he: 3 'Live. But it is written. if born at the eighth month. et passim. seven. Go. 1 Infra. Eleazar said in the name of R. R. Joshua b. 4 IJiyya b. Zirnra: That was through the medium of Shem [the son of Noah]. Hanina: That was through an angel. her! 6] MIDRASH KABBAH It is As written. which is at nine months plus the days of conception. it cannot live. Berekiah and R. 23)? R. R. sometimes after one. XLV. 10. Adda was sitting before Rab. And He said: Nay. of rain is 212 (n 1 5.XX. And she [Hagar] called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her. 'Because my ass is about to foal. And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib. 2=2. at Huna said : When the foetus is so formed seven months. 2 R. xvi. etc. supra. eight/ R. Abba b. it cannot live. R. a foetus that has developed for two hundred and twelve days as to is viable. 15). xvm. When it is formed so as to be born at nine. xiv. Idi's name: That was through an angel. *The numerical n 4 A woman =5 212). 200. Zutra said in Samuel's name Every : [foetus] that y has [developed to the numerical value of] harbeh I will multiply: i. V. Biba in Samuel's name said: A woman can give birth only at two hundred and seventy' be born two hundred and seventy-two. can conceive any time within three days of intercourse. 2. Nehemiah answered in R. 13)? R. Hama b. Jose b. xxv. and I am afraid that it may catch cold and die/ 'Why does it worry you now?' he rejoined. or two hundred and seventy-three days.

iv. while if after a longer period. it gives birth not earlier than a lunar year [after conception]. n): : 1 But here it was well before even a lunar year. to the refers to the pain of conception . 'Er. CHILDREN. But it is written. The desire of rain is for nought but the earth Thou hast remembered the earth. THY PAIN TRAVAIL. LXV. Or canst thou mark the ' months that they fulfil* (Job xxxix. blessed be He. and them [sc. and it may bear before the usual twelve months.a longer period. 'But/ he rejoined.S. 'when Antoninus' herd were lying. and Rabbi's herd was made to copulate with them. Eleazar b. to the discomfort of pregnancy. 7). if)? 2 'That refers to the case of small cattle 3 I am speaking of the case of large cattle/ he answered.vn. R. to the sufferings of miscarriages. is for none but Israel: And His desire (teshukatho) is toward me (S. the rains] that desire her (Ps. AND THY DESIRE SHALL BE TO THY HUSBAND.. The but Cain and his associates: Sin coucheth at the door. even the months are not invariable. Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth? . R.V. to the agony of childbirth. 165 . : There are four desires the desire of a desire of the woman 6 is for for none none but her husband: AND THY DESIRE SHALL Tempter is BE TO THY HUSBAND. and unto thee is its desire (Gen. it gives birth not later than a solar year [after conception]/ 1 Said he to him. suffering involved in the upbringing of children. some of them calved at the right time while others calved later?' 'There it was a case of clean [cattle]/ he answered. SHALT THOU BRING FORTH. 6-7 but even when it foals after a shorter period. 1 THY IN PAIN.e. 4 3 Their period is irregular. why then worry beforehand ? 2 I. Their period cannot be known. io). Sin personified. 'and watered her'. 1006. animal. 4 'while here [we are discussing] an unclean . GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX.. s 7. Simeon said: It is easier for a man to grow myriads of olives in Galilee than to rear one child in Eretz Israel. 7 And the desire of the Holy One. 7 B 5 E.

Or do you This is on inpWJ"). R. 7 When he came produced a golden candelabrum with an earthen lamp standing AND THY 8. injureth. THY DESIRE SHALL Another interpretation of AND BE TO THY HUSBAND: When a woman sits on the weak we still birthstool. For he taketh a man's life to pledge (jb. I. 3 she must bring a fluttering sacrifice [i. VI. the life that is destined to spring from her. wavered in her faith. 4). It is related that a certain woman of the house of to the Sages he Tabrinus 6 was married to a mean beggar. 8 wealthy family of noble birth. while hobel (taketh to pledge) is perhaps translated . 'What do you think? That I will die and another Eve will be created for you? There is nothing new under the sun (Eccl. abnegation from her marital functions. 3 I. yet We In though weak [i. all BECAUSE THOU HAST HEARKENED UNTO THE VOICE OF THY WIFE (HI. upon it.e. Simon in the name of R. Yohai said: Because she fluttered in her heart. 6). xn. saying to him. reading it as two words twi (weak) and S. R.e.\ i. 7~8] are MIDRASH KABBAH (tashim). yet ruled over her. 316. the Lord is One (Deut. 6 This refers to a woman debtor .e. Simeon b. AND HE SHALL RULE OVER You might all good under THEE. He. the Holy One. when we recite. Berekiah and R. Galilean said: 8).e. one may not seize a pledge from a woman. No man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge (Deut. Simlai said: She came upon him with her ready. DESIRE SHALL BE TO THY HUSBAND. thou wilt return to the desire for thy husband/ R. : 'I will henceforth never fulfil my marital duties/ He. n. she declares. blessed be ' Thou wilt return to thy desire. in fulfilment of the verse. 7 Text as emended (Th.XX. answers R. or ('Rashi') made a half-hearted vow of * Nid. or two young pigeons (Lev.S. though lower in birth than his wife.). 1 66 6 A . Jose the think that his dominion holds conditions: therefore it is stated. 1 and declare the unity of the Lord's Name twice daily. a play 2 : 1 mpn (hope). says to her whereupon the Holy One. a bird]: She shall take 4 two turtle-doves. vn. deficient hope (mekawim) for the salvation of good deeds]. Hear. blessed be He. 8 SAID: AND UNTO ADAM HE 17). 9). 5 xxiv. O 2 Israel: The Lord our God.

5 9. thee to forbid to the cattle. I T . supra v. In respect of birth In pain (be-'ezeb) shalt thou bring forth it is written. Abba of Acco that it was an ethrog 2 OF WHICH manded I COMMANDED THEE TO it (citron). children.IZZ AB ON) SHALT THOUEAT OF IT. implies intensification. Eleazar and R. beasts CURSED it is THE GROUND FOR THY SAKE. so does the earning of a livelihood require the same and just as the latter must . (to the animals too that it is forbidden). voice raised in weeping. Samuel b. 8-9 think that I will die while you remain idle ? He created it not a waste. R. xv. and fleas. 7. and the longer form 1 Her 3 E. 167 . 18). so does redemption occur every day. SAY3 : I com. 9. Nahman R. ' Eleazar said: Redemption is likened to the earning of a livelihood. 6 R. Issi said IN TOIL (BE-'IZZABON) SHALT THOU EAT OF The difficulties of earning a livelihood are : ' twice as great as those of childbirth.). The Rabbis said: She began weeping aloud (be-kolah) over him. 5. Supra. XLV. but thou even gavest them and they ate thereof. 'To the words of thy wife/ but To THE VOICE OF THY WIFE. and the reverse: just as redemption [requires the working of] wonders [by God]. Then let it produce [pests as large as] a camel for you ? Said R. be earned every day. Isaac of Magdala In that there would be benefit too. He formed it to be inhabited' (Isa. 8 'Ezeb and 'izgabon both belong to the same root. 7 R. 4 v. 7 God daily frustrates and redeems us from the evil machinations of our enemies (M. AND UNTO ADAM HE SAID: BECAUSE THOU HAST HEARKENED UNTO THE VOICE (BE-KOL) OF THY WIFE: it is not written. Samuel b. Nahman said: It is even greater than a V. for he could sell them and enjoy the proceeds. such as gnats. Rendering: I commanded thee to say 6 V. it is written. : midges.* AND HAST EATEN OF THE TREE: this supports the hence view of R.V. next note. supra. and birds 4 yet not only didst thou not forbid them. 'saying'.' whereas in respect of a livelihood it is written.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. so that will produce accursed things for you.K. xix. IN GREAT PAIN (BE .

EAT THE HERB [GRASS] OF : :. These translations are based on the expression The dividing of the Red Sea was A HALL IT BRING FORTH TO THEE. 13). Nehemiah [differ in their Dmments]. 25). for Israel only.den and tasted in them all the delights of the world.R. blessed Redemption comes through an angel. R. hereas sustenance comes through the Holy One. Who giveth food to all flesh (ib. . CXLV. When Adam heard this. 3 Some reverse it Koz : is cardoon. species of edible thistles (Jast. Joshua b. now that thou hast not merited. overlapping each other like les or shingles. SHALT EAT HE HERB [GRASS] OF THE FIELD. 16. i. ow that thou hast not merited it. 2 : He. ftermath] is face broke out into a perspiration [of anguish] and he tfien a man ' ^claimed. while artichokes. cxxvi. What shall I be tied to the feeding-trough like beast!' Said the Holy One. XLVIII. to him. and satis fiest every living thing with favour > s. for redemption comes through an angel. Judah and R. 'Since ! Gen. Levi said: [Sustenance requires] tore effort than the dividing of the Red Sea. hile DARDAR is cardoon. HE FIELD. 4 DARDAR called AND THOU SHALT r R. Artichokes grow in an imbricated form. THORNS (KOZ) ALSO AND THISTLES (DARDAR) SALL IT BRING FORTH TO THEE. [as Jacob The angel who hath redeemed me from all evil1 dd] hereas sustenance comes through the Lord: Thou openest 'hy hand. KOZ IS artichokes. R. THOU repeatedly plucks his field and eats it [the while it is still herbage. so ecause it consists of rows (darim) above rows.). Nehemiah said Hadst thou merited thou wouldst have taken herbs from the Garden of . R. blessed be He. len THORNS ALSO AND THISTLES SHALL IT BRING ORTH TO THEE.e. Isaac said: This as said with reference to the present-day generations.X 9~~ IO1 MIDRASH KABBAH sdemption. for it is ritten. and. . . which 168 implies edible growths. 1 6).. 2 10. whereas sustenance 3 ust be provided for all flesh. To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder (ib. Judah commented: Hadst thou merited it would have brought forth of all the trees of the Garden f Eden for thy benefit.

R. as it perspiring. nyi* being read as rww. What matter* die (ib. 10). that he has an appetite for food. Pes. he [the sick person] shall not 14).V. R. R. R. Isaac's name: (ib. 1 3 4 5 a play on words. sneezing. but she played the eavesdropper like the 1 Translating: I.V. THOU SHALT EAT BREAD' (ib.e. and prolong his days (Job in. Lin. E. yet shalt thou return at the resurrection. Then he would have had less trouble in finding his food. I3) 4 . AND UNTO DUST SHALT THOU 8 go. semen]. life HIS WIFE'S She was given NAME to EVE HAWWAH. a dream: Wherefore make me dream [E. but SHALT THOU RETURN. speedily eliminated. This ' Then had I been at rest. sleep. of Cassarea said: Also the natural is the proof? When the waste LI. down shall speedily be loosed' . 7 Which thou must give back to the earth. 16). Simeon b. sweat: IN THE SWEAT OF THY FACE SHALT THOU EAT BREAD3 sleep: I had slept: then it were well with me .V. etc. is written.* Providing that His bread shall not fail TILL THOU RETURN UNTO THE GROUND. 10-11 sweated. viz. semen: He shall see seed [i. 'He that is bent 6 I. 169 . 'in') the sweat of thy face. is Our Rabbis motion of the bowels. Said He to him: 'Is not the handful of dust whence thou wast created as unlawful 7 spoil in thy possession?' FOR DUST THOU ART.e. him an adviser. : Sneezing. AND UNTO DUSTSHALT THOU RETURN.). and semen. n8a. Yohai said: Here Scripture hints at resurrection. Haggai said in R.V.thy face has 1 ig). 2). II. His sneezings flash forth light (Job XLI. 8 Which he interprets : thou shalt go to the dust. AND THE MAN CALLED i. Issi said: It had been better for with the first curse. it is 2 On account of (E. him to remain IN THE SWEAT OF THY FACE SHALT THOU EAT BREAD. FOR DUST THOU ART.e. a sign of returning health. 'recover (ib. Abbahu said: This is one of the five things which are a favourable omen for an invalid. FOR OUT OF IT WAST THOU TAKEN. is E. for it does not say. for (in. 10).e. 2 GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. Thou me'] and make me live (Isa. xxxvin. a dream.

v. (sc. which is connected here with both hawweh ddath. 7 while the opinion that they are harmful is based on the fact that they understand man's evil inclinations. Keth. 3 BECAUSE SHE WAS THE MOTHER (EM) OF ALL associated with ('im) LIVING. Aha interpreted it The serpent was thy [Eve's] serpent [i. If on the other hand he becomes poor and must sell the slaves she brought as her dowry. As the serpent had eavesdropped when God commanded Adam to refrain from the forbidden tree. so did she in turn listen to the serpent when he incited her to disobedience and persuaded Adam accordingly. 6 Afflictions is understood to mean demons. Now if her husband becomes wealthy and buys them himself. vii. xxiv. i8b. the mother of all life. If he commit iniquity. *Er. as it is written. edd. xxu. 14). Infra. 3 a V. i. Simeon b. 8 Hence they know his weakness and vulnerability to harm. thus she rises with him. I will chasten him with the rod of men. is R. state (an opinion). 5 For R. 4 R. and hiwya.e. to show forth. poverty being so regarded. Eleazar said: That means that she all living. a serpent. (The reason for the view that house spirits are benevolent is because they dwell with him [man]. Cf. 7 And benefit from him : therefore they return good for good. & Even of demons. the children of the first man. Simon said: THE MOTHER OF ALL LIVING means. 8 field are He who maintains that the spirits of the benevolent does so because they do not grow up This is a play on 'kawzoah'. as she does not descend with him. 2 [Another interpretation]: He showed her how many generations she had destroyed. and thou art Adam's serpent. if he husband] becomes poor. she is free from them. Simon said: Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore. preceding note. wealth. R.XX. 48*2. which 6 means. but if she brings some servants with her as a dowry. It was taught: If [her becomes wealthy. 6ia. she rises with him. sc. she is likewise free. Il] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH : serpent. 4 A wife must perform certain duties. an opinion). but she counselled him as the serpent (bade her). Infra. and with the afflictions of the children of man Adam (ii Sam. Cur. : 1 170 . Thus she is associated with him in living. but not in death. while the female demons were inflamed by Adam and they bore. she can still refuse to work.e. and is in apposition to the children of man. seducer]. she does not descend with him. 2. Our evil inclinations lay us open to attack and hurt.

. u 171 . not expensive garments. Samuel b. before the priests were chosen for it. instead of Til? skin. (HI. and these were used [later] by first-born children. 4<2. AND CLOTHED THEM. Eleazar said They were of goats' skin. the wool that comes off it. transposes 'benevolent* and 'harmful'. R. Jose b. 1 AND THE LORD GOD MADE FOR ADAM AND GARMENTS OF SKIN ' : ('OR). Less than you can afford on : . Hanina said: It was a garment made of skin with its wool. * 2 V. xix. R. Pes. Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat (Gen.) 12. . 3 GARMENTS OF SKIN meaning those that are nearest to the skin. i. 21).e. TIK light. Meir's Torah it was found written. while as for the view that they are harmful. 13 Num. which certainly improves the sense. I. n. LXIII. v. but more than you can afford on a dwelling. 8. the reason is because they do not comprehend his evil inclinations. 8 More than you can on a dwelling for lo dwelt in the whole world. . rv. only simple. supra. 4 When they used to perform the sacrificial service. R. 16). Spend according to your means on food. GARMENTS OF SKIN meaning those which are produced from the : : : skin. R. 6 I. Garments of light (or) 2 this refers to Adam's garments. R. Nahman said [They were made from] the wool of camels and the wool of hares. 7 Cf. clothing: afford AND THE LORD GOD MADE : ! . Isaac the Elder said They were as smooth as a finger-nail and as beautiful as a jewel. Joshua said Of hares' skin. R. 84*. Levi said: The Torah teaches you here a rule of worldly wisdom spend according to your means on food less than you can afford on clothing. R. 5 R. GARMENTS OF SKIN. which were like a torch [shedding radiance].#ul. 7 they were but two.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XX. 11-12 with him.e. Resh Lakish said: It was of Circassian 4 wool. Johanan said: They were like the fine linen garments HIS WIFE THEM ' : which come from Bethshean. AND CLOTHED In R. broad at the bottom and narrow at the top. * Viz. infra. as it is written. yet they 1 MJC.

Holy 'because all proclaim before Him. It is written. Isaac's name trampled underfoot (ib. The 9 Lord our God. 13). 172 . 5 Man.: shall he remain desolate in the grave for ever on account of his The translation is somewhat sin and never experience resurrection? conjectural. 18). 14) was made to the one who 2 cried (v. Then I heard a holy one speaking. 'And another who spoke holy one said unto that certain one (lapalmoni) the : ' ' : R. fyodesh Treating sanctuary as a metaphor for Adam. vra. (Dan. 4). vi. this statement (in v. which refers to Adam. whose partition was within that of the ministering angels. 14). 2 Akilas translated it: He spoke to him who was within. etc. which must be retained here. Translating lapalmoni as Kpnimi. 6 Lit. Huna said: It means. Until evening morning two thousand and three hundred*. Lord is one (Dent.)l Shall he and his descendants be the angel of death! 6 And he said unto me. blessed be He. The picture is that of a series of partitions or barriers before God.e. THE MAN is BECOME AS ONE OF us (in.}: shall his transgression make him desolate in the grave? 4 To give both the sanctuary and the host to be cerning the continual burnt-offering long shall be the vision con(Dan. as it is written. R. then shall the sanctuary be victorious (ib.XXL i] CHAPTER XXI (BERESHITH) i. Adam. 3 He was privileged to come more closely within the precincts of God than were even the angels. the nearer was he permitted to approach Him.): shall trampled down by observed Surely when : it is when it is morning it is evening it is not morning and not evening? But the meaning is 1 Rashi explains: i. explains differently. loc. in. 4 *EJ. or translating directly: the holy one. AND THE LORD GOD SAID: BEHOLD. 3 1 How the decree which was decreed against Adam continue for ever? Surely not! And the transgression that causeth desolation (ib. cit. Haggai in R. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee (Gen. and the more privileged one was. and 'host' his descendants. to So-and-so [a certain person]. viz. Jonathan b. 22). 'Holy!* 'Speaking': pronouncing severe decrees against His creatures. 'Azariah and R. translation. viz. 'One refers to the Holy One. and another holy one said unto that certain one who spoke. 13).

xxiv. beauty of Adam. loc. I Then will shall the sanctuary be declared right eous y declare him clear 2 of that decree then. it should simply say slothful and one void of understanding. lo. Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the : garden of Eden (Gen. loc. 7 Lit. R. 19). as a person who having paid the penalty of his sin now starts with a clean sheet. translating it as an imperative. to * : in. who was void of understanding in hearkening to the serpent. having sent him forth He BEHOLD. to 6). he was immortal. .GENESIS (BERESHITH) this : [XXI. it was all grown over with thistles (Prov. it was all grown over with thistles (ib* 31) i. if one buys a field is designated person (ish) or man.e. who was slothful to repent . 30). 1 2 and his [E. righteous 173 .e. the morning of the nations of the world turns and the evening of Israel to morning. etc. 'excellency'] mount up head reach unto the clouds (Job xx. 4 I. (Gen.to Adam. longer: I. translation. THE MAN WAS AS ONE OF 3. us. 31). while. 1-3 when ' to evening. And. 7 his stature Though the heavens. THE AS LORD GOD SAITH: BEHOLD.e. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee* (Gen. 1 at that f time. 5 Tanhuma completes it : . not rrn. I went by the field of the slothful man (ish).V. Huna said: is or a vineyard and dubbed lazy. to Eve. . the former are degraded and the latter elevated. 3 2. man and person being understood. but is so no Adam there must refer to her. what Where do we to the find that Eve is called Adam? According dwell in the house (Isa. 'And by the vineyard of the person 5 (Adam) void of understanding' refers to Eve.) In the sweat of thy face. 18). 3 Immortal. XLIV. but is now mortal. home. saying. and by the vineyard of the person (Adam) void of understanding (Prov. cit.e. as it is written. HI. HI. LET THE MAN BECOME ONE OF us. refers to Adam. 23) began to bewail him. . : i. they spread 6 Since it is woman who normally stays at punishment in the world. 13). yet benefit has one [from the title of 4 'man']? '/ went by the field of the slothful man. cit. . as though it read n. Huna said: Behold. xxiv.) And : the stone wall thereof was broken down (Prov.' however. R. * ' when Lit.ir[. And lo. The face thereof was covered with nettles (Prov.

And Thou didst lay Thy hand upon me (Ps. 7 You go too far (it is incorrect). saying. where is man (Adam). 3~Sl MIDRASH RABBAH until [his stature] reaches the clouds. Said R. Thou changest his countenance and sendest him away us. BEHOLD. and from one end of heaven unto the other (Deut. R. 4 Yet he shall perish for ever like his own rolling E. How do we know that he filled the hollow spaces of the world also? 3 From the verse. etc. R. x. 1 R. he was banished from the garden of Eden. i. IV. Simon in R.). 7): because he rolled away [i. disobeyed] an easy command. blessed be He.) : Having sent him away.V. amends: b. cxxxix. Th. WHERE5 is THE MAN WAS AS ONE OF US? : the 4. They that have seen him shall say: Where is he? (*&.e.V. Supra. XVI. THE MAN began WAS A s ONE OF 5. Judah b. Having sent him forth. * Translating jrr (E. Akiba to him Let that suffice 7 How then do you interpret MIMMENNU? : 1 This is probably an explanation of uw. do we know [that he extended] from east to west? Because it is said. Nehemiah.e. loc. V. endowed Adam was intended to be 'for ever'. said: How He WHO began to bewail him. 'dung' (Job xx. all the space from earth to heaven. tlanina 2 and R. for all time. Pappyas. 174 . 20) strength with which the Holy One. vur. and intimates that it is to s be translated stature. He bewailing him. 6 (&.e. 5). but does so no longer. How do we know. 6 He enjoyed our strength. THE MAN HAS BECOME. Joshua b.XXI. Since the day that God created man upon the earth.): i. for notes. a*. from before north to south? Because it says. R. supra. 'behold') as the Aramaic \n where.e. THE MAN HAS BECOME LIKE ONE OF us (MIMMENNU) means like one of the Pappyas lectured: thee. Thou makest him strong for ever (Job xiv. Eleazar's name He created him extending over the whole world. 8 * I. Thou hast formed me behind (ahor) and kedem (Ps. BEHOLD. i. 32). saying BEHOLD. But he goeth: since he ignored God's wishes and went after the counsel of the serpent. ministering angels.

in his honour. The relevance of 'like a snail* is not clear. God. blessed be He. v. the man was as one. as 8 caused to spring up for him. Judah b. not ist pi. AND NOW R.M. the prophets (ib. the verse. viz. translating: the man One who is among us. wholehearted in his obedience to God. so here. : 4 The Midrash Seder 'Olam. was 8 like the and thereby has himself chosen the path of death.GENESIS (BERESHITH) It [XXI. I. is also applied to Jonah (Th. Hanina's name Like Elijah just as he did not experience the taste of death. (' of us '). were. R. 2. Berekiah said in R. 1 O our God. : of his own free will. Simon interpreted: Like the Unique One of the universe. 6 To carry the tidings of Nineveh's overthrow. Hear. vi. so [Adam] too was not meant to experience death. and he chose the other path. And EKsha . the Lord Holy One. R. 2 as it is written. 10 : 4 . HAND. ix. sc. 10). S. 5) just as the latter fled [from God's com5 6 mand]. as a parenthetic remark since the verse in Ezek. Berekiah in R. in . i.e. it was To know good and evil. IJanan's name is that as long as there was [only] Adam he was one. Israel. The gourd which God V. * Godlike and immortal. Resh Lakish said: [He has become] like Jonah. etc. i. V. i). translating: Behold. 3. R. the Lord is one (Deut. But as one was felling a beam. Similarly. Just as 'one' refers there to Gabriel. Our Rabbis said: Like Gabriel And one man in the midst of them clothed in linen (Ezek. xr. 4).). 9 The view of R. [of (n Kings vi. . in. 9. but when his rib was taken from him. 2): like a snail whose garment is part of : its 3 body. was smitten in a single night (ib. ch. the man has become as one who knows good and evil of himself. life R. so the former fled just as that one's glory did not stay the night with him. but now (that he has Eve) he has been enabled To know good and evil. He it too disobeyed God's command. refers to Gabriel. supra. ix. too. But for his sin. 5-6 means that the before him.e. called one of the sons of xviii. i * . 10 the immediate effect of Eve's creation was that Adam should sin. (* of himself). : : 6. whom is written].S. was an integral part of himself. . Th. though appearing as linen. set two ways and death. He translates: Behold. death. 1 ' Abba ' Kahana said: This teaches that the treats That which God did not wish him to choose. Akiba mimmennu as 3rd sing. evidently assumes that this was Jonah. LEST (PEN) HE PUT FORTH HIS b. Jonah 6 7 I. 8 R. It is perhaps best to regard it with Y. 7 so this one's glory too did not stay a night with him. how then could an angel be dressed in linen ? To which the answer is given that his dress.

HE WILL the LIVE FOR EVER. when I awake. man) has expiated his sin and thus completely righteous. Nehemiah differ. XVH. Israel. Judah and R. shall behold Thy face when Adam (i. He Cf. 4 R. R.' etc. inf. etc. 1 PEN (LEST) can only mean 'not'. infra. Thus God invited Adam to repent. 27). is 176 . R. Judah said: He was sent forth from the garden of Eden in this world and in the next. Nehemiah He was lenient toward him.XXI. Ahawah and R. Hamnuna disputed on this. iz) the Holy One. provided him with an opportunity of repentance. 9. the other with R. x. I shall be satisfied on the awakening (the used in the Hebiew. AND NOW: And this repentance. I will not. AND EAT ALSO OF THE TREE OF LIFE? while if he does Therefore THE LORD eat. but said. Joshua b. Adda b. I shall be he who was created in Thy likeness satisfied. can only refer to what doth the Lord God Lord thy God. Huna [David [viz. R. but to fear the FORTH HIS HAND. said: R. while in that of R. the man has [now] become as one of us. 6~y] MIDRASH KABBAH Holy One. Nehemiah maintained: He was sent forth from the garden of Eden in this world. him forth. which may bear this meaning) of him who 4 was created in Thy likeness. 7. as you : read. with Thy likeness (Ps.' etc. I shall be satisfied. Nehemiah: As for me. Having began lamenting him: 'Behold. He Man. Free from sin. I is The verse is thus rearranged. and is interpreted: As for me (said David). said: SHALL HE PUT require of thee. Now the following supports R. 3 And the Lord God saith: Behold. blessed be He. Nehemiah. 15). and then I shall regard him Concerning that time [it is written].e. now. I shall behold Thy face in righteousness. one agreeing with R. THEREFORE THE LORD GOD SENT HIM FORTH FROM THE GARDEN OF EDEN (in. 2 Then (Deut. R. Judah' s view He laid a severe punishment upon him. said]: When Adam] awakes. Judah. and in righteousface. blessed be He. GOD SENT HIM FORTH FROM sent THE GARDEN OF EDEN. xxxvm. ness I shall behold 1 Thy as free of that decree. but not in the next. Levi said: 1 2 3 When He Adam created him. In R.

So HE DROVE OUT (WAYYEGARESH) THE MAN. the same word connotes expulsion and divorce. 8 R. since he did not die immediately. Huna observed: When Bar Kappara heard this. as they generally married into their own rank. 2 His expulsion was an act of justice. * Lev. XXV. in.: O man. The Rabbis probably meant to convey that even here we find a hint that that catastrophe was the result of sin. Lakish said: Like the daughter of an Israelite [i. 1 likewise banished him in : accordance with His Attributes of Justice and Mercy2 thus it is written.pi is read twi. Simeon b. [Read] wayyagres. O Adam.e. and : 1 These two together were to be the foundations of God's rule over mankind. In Heb. uncircumcised '] unto you. Padiah lectured: O that one might uncover the dust from thine eyes. 23) R. He hath also broken (wayyagres) my teeth with gravel stones (Lam. Simeon b. Lulianus b. thou couldst not remain loyal to thy charge even for a single hour! 3 Judah b.* etc. A priest might not remarry his divorced wife. xix. wife is meant. 8 By a play on words en. i6). a 6 non-priest] who has been divorced and is able to return.GENESIS (BERESHITH) created [XXL 7-8 him by His Attributes and when He banished him. Tibri [Tiberius] said in R. Lakish. SO HE DROVE OUT THE MAN : (ill. Isaac's name He banished him to the open outskirts (migrash) of the Garden of Eden. as it is written. who couldst not remain loyal to thy charge even for a single hour. Johanan's view He was severe towards him in the view of R. O Judah the son of my sister! ' ! 8. 'Behold. 2. 3 An 6 ' ' ' I 77 N . He was lenient toward him. yet thy children wait for 'orlah three years. . 6 By daughter '. . He of Justice and Mercy. it shall not be eaten (Lev. R. even in the next world. 7 He can never return to the garden of Eden. impression of commiseration for his frailty. [in connection with which it is written]. Three years shall it be as forbidden [lit. he exclaimed: Thou hast taught 4 well. 24). the man. 7 In R. R. which intimates that He showed him the destruction of the Temple. Johanan said Like the daughter of a priest who has been divorced 5 and cannot return [to her husband] R. and so made to veil an allusion to the destruction of the Temple. yet it was tempered with mercy.

of hereb. harboth.e. iv. in the east (Deut. To Adam So He drove out the man. sword. (Josh. R. 41). etc. SWORD: [the angels are so called] in accordance with the the God were AND verse. 5 Ex. i. i seqq. WHICH TURNS EVERY WAY: [turn about] as : they [the angels] change sometimes they appear as men. Said Adam: 'Who will deliver my children from this flaming fire?' R. 20). the Gehenna having been created on the second day. 6). to exist Translating: before the Garden of Eden (was created). xxv. 9. iv. I will also command the clouds. x. 1 AT THE EAST (MI-KEDEM). In 178 . con.XXI. as it is written. This is the living creature that I saw under as it is written. 3 AND SWORD Gehenna. sometimes sometimes before (kodem) the Garden of Eden the Gehenna was created. THAT TURNS EVERY WAY: because it [Gehenna] revolves about man and burns him up from head to foot. Make thee and circumcise again. Our appears that the whole passage there (Isa. of Israel by the river Chebar . 2 and He caused the cherubim. v. 16). and dwelt in the land of east of Eden (Gen. civ. the angels. Adam. so designated] in accordance with. and I knew that they THE FLAMING cherubim (Ezek. 19). 4). To a homicide: Nod. Thus the whole passage is referred to angels. Huna said in R.) is applied to ' this interpretation wayyegaresh' is connected with migrash. and the Garden of THE FLAMING Eden not till the third. 2). : women. And the day that cometh shall set them aflame (Mai. Another interpretation MI-KEDEM: as angels. Abba's name: [refers to SWORD 1 knives* of flint. that they rain no rain upon it (Isa.e. as it is written. : Rab said: In every : case the east affords an asylum. pi. To Cain And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH appointed watchmen to watch over It. His ministers are as flaming fire (Ps. v. in. rising teaches that the Another interpretation : MI-KEDEM 2 angels were created before (kodem} the Garden of Eden. sometimes as spirits. and caused him to dwell [sic] at the east of the Garden of Eden. v. 4 Heb. It refers to circumcision. z. on the Then Moses separated three cities beyond the Jordan towards the suni.

T. 6). i. 1 l).GENESIS (BERESHITH) Rabbis said : [XXI. IV. hence.). When Adam saw that his descendants were fated to be consigned to Gehenna. Lit. 3 he applied himself to producing descendants. 10. The would 8 s is that the merit of circumcision and the study of the Torah deliver his descendants from Gehenna (Y. idea 179 . supra. is 1 written. And a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. translation. 9 as it SWORD refers to the Torah. he engaged less in2 procreation. Possibly it means here: he refrained (entirely). But when he saw that after twenty-six generations Israel would accept the Torah. CXLIX. V. And Adam knew Eve his wife (Gen.

xxm. it: [Show Thy mercies] wherewith Nehemiah interpreted Thou didst treat Adam. Thy compassions and Thy mercies. 1-2] CHAPTER XXII (BERESHITH) I. on that very day day: they cohabited. Joshua b. R. He translates: I have now a man (sc. v. viu. Thus preceding verses (Adam's expulsion from the Garden of Eden) and the * The . Sanh. AND THE MAN KNEW. he had been robbed of [Another interpretation]: He knew how his tranquillity he knew what his . man knew. Eleazar Three wonders were performed on that on that very day they were created. ii. xxv. through having given birth to Cain. 3 R. n. his tempter] had done to him. a child binds husband to wife. XX. def art. Abba's name said No creature ever copulated before Adam it is not written-. Huna and R. Adam} in my possession. 'Azariah said: CAIN. 38^. and on that very day they produced offentered the spring. (Gen. Abel and his two twin sisters. 2. 13. how could he have applied to himself begetting posterity etc. AND THE MAN KNEW EVE O HIS WIFE (iV. R.e. KNEW following ones (sexual gratification). Isaac said: When a woman sees that she has children she is exclaims. and seven left it: Cain and his twin sister. For in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die Remember. him one day of 17). but THE MAN 2 KNEW intimates that he made known sexual : : AND . Karhah said: Only two bed. AND THE MAN KNEW. for R. xxiv. Aha serpent [i. * I. Supra. etc. 5 AND SHE SAID: I HAVE GOTTEN A MAN. they have been from of old (Ps. 2. observed: The serpent was thy serpent. implies that he was so far unique in this respect. Jacob in R. R. 586. 'Behold. Eve.XXII. 4 AND SHE CONCEIVED AND BORE b. Num. 1 80 . * 4 Infra. is referred to both the Viz. she aroused sexual desire. R. and thou wast Adam's serpent. 1 my husband now in my possession/ 6 3 Cf. l) : Lord. R. Joshua b. 1 [descendants]? Hence. etc.e. 6. functions to all. Thine. 6). supra. and hadst Thou not given which is a thousand years. for thus saidst Thou to him.

CAIN WAS A TILLER OF THE GROUND. tell me what is the purpose of the eth written here?* 'If it said.V. for birth. and Eve from Adam. Noah the husbandman (Gen. Joshua said: 1 I. supra. R. Every ok and rak is a limitation. and no good was found in them: Cain. 47). to : is required/ There- him For it is no empty thing from you and if it is empty. Eliezer (iv. 1 it "I have gotten a man the Lord/" he replied. Supra. i. Joshua disagree. Joshua b. Uzziah: For he loved husbandry (n Chron. but only one with Cain. 3). Rather. 20). 9. it is so on your account. 5 Abel having been conceived simultaneously with Cain. vm. would have been difficult [to interpret] 2 hence ETH . * i. Karhah said : They ascended the bed two and descended implies an additional seven. AND BROTHER ABEL (iv. without man. said: The world was created in Tishri. R. Ishmael asked R. Eliezer and R. The term * served * is generally employed because disciples gave personal service to their teachers. 6 Cain became a murderer.* shall 26): neither man AGAIN (WA-TOSEF) SHE BORE HIS 3. ix. studied under. The additional birth therefore is that two twin sisters were born with Abel. [and he taught]. nor both of them without the Shechinah. Adam was created from the ground. Akiba Since you have served1 Nahum of Gimzo ' : for twenty-two years. and Uzziah a leper. 2-4 WITH THE HELP OF (ETH) THE LORD. while every eth and gam is an extension. xxvi. Noah.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. after our likeness without woman nor woman (Gen. Three had a passion for agriculture. 5 AND AT THE END OF DAYS IT CAME TO PASS R. Noah a drunkard. This supports what R. this]: In the past. AND ABEL WAS but not an additional pregnancy. ETH THE LORD henceforth it [teaches be. 6 4. [WITH THE HELP OF] THE LORD upon he quoted (Deut. but In our image. AND SHE AGAIN BORE WAS A KEEPER OF SHEEP. BUT CAIN A TILLER OF THE GROUND. 181 . 2). It 8 8 Cf. R. xxxii. 3 because you do not know how to interpret it. This agrees with the E.e. might imply that she had begotten the Lord. and Uzziah. 14. io).

T. states a somewhat similar reason. 8 'The Noah' is v. And he sent the R. Th. the best]. the fat of which was burnt on the altar while the flesh was eaten. R. But not 9 But not the whole. and Hanukkah and Pentecost fall about these dates respectively. THAT CAIN BROUGHT THE GROUND: of the inferior crops. 1 * The 3 The ATTHE AT 5 The former were 8 esteemed a special delicacy. implying of did R. rlanina said: They brought peace-offerings 8 b. peace-offerings. Jose (iv.. 4. Jose b. then 50 is only stated approximately. R. xxxiv. after which the seasons begin to change. 4 he being like a bad tenant who eats the with the late figs. He who says in Tishri holds that Abel lived from the Festival1 until rjtanukkah. Eliezer applies it to autumn. OF THE FRUIT OF 5. 2.XXII. THEREOF. R. In either than case. rlanina : But it is AND THE FAT How Tabernacles. the beginning of Nisan or Tishri being actually meant. Eleazar said: The children of Noah brought even 7 R. I i6a. Eleasar and R. And certainly burnt-offerings. Lev. If on the other hand these are exact. END OF DAYS passage is difficult. the fat ones [i.: because before the Revelation people were unworthy of enjoying any part of an animal consecrated to God. and that Abel was murdered on the very day of the sacrifice. JJanina answer him? It means. and similarly Pentecost and Hanukkah. . 182 . which commences on the isth of Tishri. hence a peace-offering. THE END OF DAYS will mean about R. 4 This is deduced from the fact that it does not say. 6 . HE ALSO BROUGHT OF THE FIRSTLINGS OF HIS FLOCK AND OF THE FAT THEREOF R. Jose b. R. Infra . feast of lights. a general term for all mankind before Revelation. 9 that of which the fat is offered. all agree that Abel was not in the world more 3 fifty days.e. Eleazar sought to refute R. But 'Passover* and 'Tabernacles* are employed here loosely. ix. xxvin. R. 4~5] MIDRASH RABBAH In Nisan. OF written. fjanina differ. children of 7 xxiv. Joshua to spring. so that mid-winter (about zist December) or midsummer (about 2ist June). Jose b. Zeb. R. Both assume that means at the end of one of the seasons of the year. 6 R. Jer. burnt-offerings. . commencing on the 2$th of Kislew. a date about a fortnight before being meant otherwise the period is above 60 days. Isa. 4). Jose b. R. 5 first ripe figs but honours the king AND ABEL. Y. 2 He who says in Nisan holds that Abel lived from Passover until Pentecost. R. Eleazar sought to refute R. 9 . of the first of the fruit.. JIanina: But it is written.

16) this alludes to the burnt4 offering. 5 young men of the children of Israel. . since a burnt-offering is stated separately. : does 'Awake' apply? To something which was and now awakes. R. . HEanina observed: Revelation holds that they might offer burnt. it had been practised long before. and be practised again. Jannai and R. 'sacrifices' In the passage. Jose b. actually there is nothing to indicate when Jethro came. 4 i (Let him kiss me with the kisses of his Lev. R. ii . IJiyya the Elder said: Jethro offering : They do not he who says that Jethro came before Revelation holds that the children of Noah might offer peaceofferings. must Now refer to peace-offerings. * I. offered peace-offerings. Jose b. The fact that the incident is narrated before Revelation does not matter. while he who says that Jethro came after really differ : came after Revelation. 182. But R. and sacrificed peace-offerings (shelamim) of oxen unto the Lord (Ex. 6 The peace-offering could be slain at any side of the altar. 2. R. Jethro . iv. Hiyya the Elder differ in this. Now the following supports R. took a burnt-offering and sacrifices. R. it must have been after Revelation. S.e.S. R. xxiv. . Huna said R. 2 R. n. Hanina: Awake. 5 And come. and sacrificed the oxen whole. R. To what does 'come' apply? To a new To what 1 who 9 2 He translates: This was before Revelation (v. Ilanina explain this? It means that they were whole (shelemim) in their hide. Jannai holds that the children of Noah might offer peace-offerings. is now to 183 . but R.) alludes asleep to peace-offerings. . ceased for a time. Jose b. took a burnt- and sacrifices (ib. Jannai said: Jethro came before Revelation. therefore this incident may have happened even before Revelation. R. 12)? How does R. i. thou south (ib. 6). Hanina explain this? He agrees with the view that Jethro came after Revelation. when he accepted the Law and thus ceased to belong to the 'children of Noah'. s)? 1 How does R. And Jethro. Elanina: But it is written. Eleazar objected to R. which were killed [even] at the south 6 [side of the altar]. p. Jose b. Moses' father-in-law. xvm. R. O north wind (S. who offered burntofferings. as it is a principle of Rabbinic exegesis that the Bible is not necessarily in chronological order. mouth}.S.offerings 3 [only]. .GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. which was killed at the north [side of the altar]. Hence when we find Jethro sacrificing peace-offerings. without having been flayed or cut up. R. Hiyya the Elder holds that they could only offer burnt-offerings. i.

4. u). which practice. vi. viz. supports R. Ezek. 5). 6 ) a NOT WELL. en. WILT THOU NOT blessing. gression? whose sin is pardoned (Ps. 4 Lit. *He was satisfied (propitiated) therewith.V. i) 12 but is he who is [master] over his transgressions. S. 'Wayyifiar* is derived from harah.V. loc* * E. 3 Which would connote. 'Which they offered/ in the future. (ib. to bear with. R.' 10 Here too se'eth is read both ways.XXII. xxxn. 12 Who can master his evil propensities. 1 u E. and the verse is translated: And Cain was burnt up. * 10 . Ps. viz. 5. 3 but Which they will offer written. 5 RECEIVE6 (iv. 7 Se'eth is read with the preceding and the following clauses. 'It is that which goeth up'. that the practice of sacrificing cit. to burn. a measure the sin overflows the is forgiven . before Revelation. Jose is the law of the burnt-offering: that is the burnt-offering 2 the Noachides used to offer. after Revelation. but when read with the clause that follows it it is derived from se'ah. RECEIVE tation: THOU DOEST WELL. Joshua of Siknin said in R. (Lev. R. Whose transgression measure. 184 .6] 1 MIDRASH KABBAH R. xxiv. too. Levi's name: The b. 'the sin of that man. * Lit. And this is the it is not of peace-offerings (ib. R. thy sin 9 overflows the brim. v. happy his transgressions are not [master] over him. peace-offerings was introduced. forgive. But when law of the it treats of peace-offerings. He accepted it. 7 Another interpreWELL.S. He did not accept it. a). Thus it was only now. 'Shall it not be lifted up*. BUT UNTO CAIN AND HIS OFFERING HE HAD NOT RESPECT (iv.) sacrifice 6. AND CAIN WAS VERY WROTH (WAYYIHAR) AND HIS COUNTENANCE FELL: [His face] became like a AND THE LORD SAID UNTO CAIN: WHY ART THOU WROTH? AND WHY IS THY COUNTENANCE FALLEN? IF firebrand. Berekiah quoted name Happy is he who is uplifted over transin R. blackened. vn. AND IF THOU DOEST (ib.) IF THOU DOEST 10 but if not.e * E. cf. i.V. AND THE LORD HAD RESPECT UNTO ABEL AND 4 TO HIS OFFERING. Ilanina: This following verse. Simeon's 1 this means.' 5 Blackened. : : a curse. I will forgive thee 8 . 8 This interprets se'eth in the sense of nasa. in the past.

to dress for the guest [E. Marion said: There are dogs in Rome know how to deceive men. but eventually it becomes like a ship's rope. Isaac said: At first it is like a [passing] visitor. This is a comment on SIN (i.] is it written here : at grows strong. 6 SIN COUCHETH (ROBEZ) AT THE DOOR. LXXXIX. But when Abraham arose and saw how really feeble he was. R. and finally like the master of the house. One [a dog] goes and sits down when before a baker's shop and pretends to be asleep. the Tempter destroyed many generations the generation of Enosh. 1 8). Akiba said At first it is like a spider's web. like a woman. the generation of the Flood. R. 3 b. 24). his And he spared to : own ' flock and of own herd. the master of the house.V. 4) [this represents the a ' : sin is weak. Judan said: It is like a decrepit brigand who the crossroads and ordered every passer-by to surrender his possessions.) he is now the master.V. Not ROBEZ : [masc. : R. scattered loaves] he succeeds in snatching a loaf and making off. that Tanhum b. Similarly. And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before 1 him (Ps. until a shrewd person passed by R. like man. he began to crush him.e. And there came a traveller unto the rich man (n Sam. and the generation of the separation [of races]. Thus it is written. and the shopkeeper dozes off he dislodges a loaf near the 2 and while the onlookers are collecting [the ground. then like a guest [who stays longer]. xn. Woe to them that draw iniquity with trifling cords [E. as it is written.] but first [XXII. cords of vanity']. but simply man 2 Thus scattering the whole pile.* He is no longer spoken of as a traveller or guest. but then Tempter] take of his as a traveller who passes on. 8 Thus sin pretends to sleep until it catches its victim ofT his guard. wayfaring man '] that was come unto him (ib. . and sin as it were with a cart rope (Isa. And he dressed it for the man 1 that was come to him (tb. Abba sat at and saw that he was feeble. v. * * * Thus SIN COUCHETH COUCHETH AT THE BOO R 185 his strength being only simulated. pretends to sleep). whereupon he began to crush him. as it is written.) now he is a guest.GENESIS (BERESHITH) robezeih [fern.

The shalt combat imagination. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH R. '. now it is derived from yazar> to form. 7). but 'tizzor' (thou shalt create). to gladden. and when he sees a person rolling his eyes. 5 E. R. with the words of the Torah. cast If your Tempter comes to incite you to him down with the words of the Torah. iv.XXII. ' 1 Where is is designated man's written. AND UNTO THEE is ITS BUT THOU MAYEST RULE OVER IT. supra. Simon said it : And if you do so. 3 4 ' : 1 86 . it will eventually rule over him in his old What is the proof? He that indulgeth [E.V. ai). p. 3). smoothing his hair [in self- lifting his heel [in pride].V. gladdened (samuk). 12). R. when near to thee> thou tizzor (Isa. Ammi said: The Tempter does not walk at the side 1 [of the street] but in the broad highway.' 9 Perhaps this means even your evil inclinations may be turned to good purpose. And should you argue that he is not in your 5 power. n. sin] hath hope of him (Prov. [as the verse continues]. he exclaims. [evil] 4 ". since he can master him if he wishes. Abin said: If one indulges his evil bent in his youth. and I have already written for you in the Torah. 8 Intimating that he effects peace in this world and in the next.V. 52^. Rashi ad loc. 3 And if you do so. R. satisfaction]. Because it trusteth in thee. 8 2 the people crowd. 7 He appears to connect samuk (TIBD) with simmah (rnstf). xxvi. to fight against. for shalom (peace) is written here not once but is gladden 'The evil imagination If your Tempter comes to incite you to levity. But thou 1 E. Thou Greatest (tizzor) peace (ib. xxix. 'This man belongs to me!' What is the proof? Seest thou and a man wise in his own eyes ? The fool [sc.) not tinzor (thou shalt keep) is written. create. xxvi. The mind stayed on Thee Thou keepest (in perfect peace} In the first passage tizzor is derived from zarar. I attribute merit to you as though you had created two worlds. as it is : written. 6 for it says. Sxik. 2.). as it mayest rule over it (Gen. 2 age. explains that the Tempter servant. "delicately bringeth up'] his servant in youth shall have him become a master at the last (ib. I attribute merit to you as though you had created peace. Hanina said levity. DESIRE. then Surely it is safe in thee (/6.' 7 twice. cf. 68.

3 Said R. ROSE i2). 4 and each claimed her. 7. CAIN UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER ABEL. 'Do not do good to an evil man. x 187 . Johanan said: Abel was stronger than Cain. Levi's name: Both took land and both took movables. Judah b. father for [if you kill me]?* At this he was filled with pity him. 88a.e.. CAIN ROSE UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER ABEL.. the other retorted: 'Fly [off the ground]/ Out of this quarrel. UP AGAINST HIS BROTHER R. AND CAIN ROSE etc. thinks it unlikely that the reference is to the Eve mentioned there. 2. 'The Temple must be built in my area/ while the other claimed. was yet another. 2 Out of this argument. 7-8 AND CAIN SPOKE UNTO ABEL HIS BROTHER. About what did they quarrel? 'Come/ said they. the Temple] shall be plowed as afield [i. then evil will not befall you/ The Midrash assumes that SPOKE means that they had a legal 2 Cf. The one claimed: 'I will have her. Aibu The Eve had returned to dust. etc. Their quarrel was about the first first etc. The land you stand ' is mine/ while the latter retorted. Zion in. xvin. Rabbi : Eve. 4. AND IT CAME TO PASS.' One took the land and the other the movables. 5 He [Cain] said to him. 'What you are wearing mine/ One said: 'Strip'. Th. 'We two only are in the world: what will you go and tell our ABEL.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. but thinks that in the Midrashic view there 5 4 V. supra. : Then about what was ? Said R. Huna An additional twin was born with Abel. 8). while the other maintained: 'I must have her. They had already quarrelled supra. (iv. however. 1 etc. Joshua of Siknin said in R. because she was born with me/ their quarrel 8. straightway he rose against him and slew him. WHEN THEY WERE IN THE on is ' FIELD: now FIELD as you (Micah said : read. Pes. Out of that incident was born the proverb. It must be built in mine/ For thus it is written. because I am the firstborn'. 'let us divide the world. but about what did they quarrel? One said. argument. refers to nought but the Temple. R. 3 V. for the expression ROSE UP can only imply that he [Cain] lay beneath him. and Abel had thrown Cain down. The former said.

and found a man slain and another standing over him. and slung it behind him. 9).) refers shall enter into their own hearts (ib. demanding. and there he killed him: by the throat and its organs. and gathered mulberries and ate them. Isaac's name : : said: Cain had closely observed where his father slew the bullock [which he sacrificed. Simeon said: He killed him with a staff: And a young man for my bruising (Gen. 'Azariah and R. The owner of the garden pursued him. Jonathan in R. seized a goat. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH With what did he kill him? R. Sanh. (iv. The owner of the pasture pursued him. 37^. Again. 'I will ask you [that question] instead of your asking me/ rejoined the other. 32). as it is written]. iv. demanding. Joshua said in R. as it is written. 'What are you holding?' 'Nothing/ was the reply. 'You have answered nothing/ he retorted. Their sword fugitive 15). The Rabbis said He killed him with a stone For I have slain a man for wounding me (ib. Seeing that the gullet and the windpipe. be in the earth (Gen. it is you who are standing over him. 1 9. it is as if a man entered a pasture ground. xxxvu. 12). 14) the poor and needy (ib. Levi's name: It their is written. 188 . etc. cf. The this wicked have drawn out refers to Cain . R. R. [God rebuked Cain]: 1 2 THE I. 23) implies a weapon which inflicts a bruise. LXIX. 'Who killed him? 1 he demanded. But surely your hands are stained [with the juice] ' ' ! Similarly.XXII. THE VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIETH UNTO ME FROM THE GROUND. sword down A and a wanderer shalt thou AND THE LORD SAID UNTO CAIN: WHERE is ABEL. Similarly. iv. 'What have you in your hand?* 'Nothing/ 'But it is bleating at your back!' exclaimed he. [God said to Cain].e. To cast to Abel. 2 Again. This may be compared to a prefect who was walking in the middle of the road. (Ps. it is like the case of a man who entered a garden. And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock (Ps.) indicates a weapon which inflicts wounds.

and one overcame the other and killed him. 'For the bloods of (deme) the sons of Johoiada' (n Chron. his blood and the blood of his descendants. AND NOW CURSED ART THOU b. The Rabbis said: It is not written. But he did not so desire. which intimates that the blood was not in one place. 3 I. R. his blood and the blood of his descendants. namely. Simeon 1 Gamaliel said: In three places Scripture was similes each illustrate something different. 5. II). but Thy brother's bloods' (deme plural): i. Huna observed It is not written. R. (iV.e. 6 5 FROM ' 189 . 2 R. S king!' 4 It [the blood] could not ascend above. 'Let my cause be pleaded before the Even so. Cf. R. Yohai said: It is difficult to say this thing. have separated them. Huna. . had not yet ascended thither nor could it go below.e. 10.' but. . the cry of blood. 3 Think of two athletes wrestling before the king. where this is Hence. 'Surely I have seen yesterday the bloods (deme) of Naboth. 26). hence the blood lay 6 spattered on the trees and the stones. his blood and the blood of his descendants. xxiv. and the mouth cannot utter it plainly. 'His own servants conspired against him for the blood (dam) of the sons of Jehoiada. R. but all his potential descendants cry out before Me. THE VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIES OUT AGAINST M. 9-10 VOICE OF THY BROTHER'S BLOOD CRIETH UNTO ME R. Surely I have seen yesterday the blood (dam) of Naboth. the third. 2 Not only he. THE GROUND. and the blood (dam) of his sons. 25). Simeon b. illustrates Mah. Cain's bloody state. deduced from bloods '. had the king wished.' but. and the Rabbis each commented. 'Thy brother's blood* (dam singular). he [the victim] crying out [before he died]. because no man had yet been buried there.: these three Reading 'alay (!??) for elay (^K) 'From the ground'. Judan said: It is not written.FROM THE GROUND. because the soul . he could ' : ' . the second. the verse condemns God Himself! 4 I blame him for not sparing me. Sanh. Judan. iv. and the bloods (deme) of his sons (n Kings ix. which means. 1 ' GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. The first the futility of Cain's countering God's question with another.

yet Thou AND CAIN my canst not bear father's. shall not yield unto thee. though had he not sinned toil 5 would have been unnecessary. 12). 6 With monotony hast Thou fashioned the world 7 how so? BEHOLD. lO-Il] MIDRASH KABBAH . 3 WHEN THOU TILLEST THE GROUND. SAID UNTO THE LORD: MY SIN 'PUNISHMENT'] is TOO GREAT TO BEAR (iv. 35). Similarly you read Thou shalt carry much seed out into the field. Without adding: by creating a mouth for the earth. R. hast driven out.V. Judah strength]. Thou bearest the heavenly and the earthly. ought to yield twenty measures and what ought to yield ten will yield five. THOU HAST DRIVEN OUT. 38). . to wit. and Thou drivest out) me to-day ('me* follows 'driven out* in the nature of the still The 4 Man will Hebrew). 4 unto thee thy strength. R. That means that a person will sow a se'ah and gather Nehemiah: If so. Jose b. maintained: Neither to thee nor to another. IQO . strength it it shall yield ii. and shalt gather little in (Deut. vow not being stated here. The verse is rendered : Behold. 7 Text as emended . etc. Thou hast driven out (my father. which is made to refer to Adam. IT SHALL . xi. ioi. how much greater then is my sin [Another interpretation] My My ! 1 2 3 Without stating the manner or incidence of the curse. Cf. murder . R. this is a grave crime. vm. [E. R. xvi. transgression! : 5 BEHOLD. Eleazar said: To thee it shall not yield [her it shall yield it. Interpreting the verse as a question and a protest. Deut. WHEN THOU TILLEST THE GROUND. i. Her will yield ten. R. Said R. IT SHALL NOT HENCEFORTH YIELD UNTO THEE HER STRENGTH. NOT HENCEFORTH YIELD UNTO THEE HER STRENGTH (iv. Th. 6 This interprets the past tense. 3o) 2 For I have opened my mouth unto the Lord (Judg. how will he live? the field that Rather. unduly sparing of its words: AND NOW CURSED ART THOU1 But if the Lord make a new thing (Num.XXII. however. xxvni. THOU HAST DRIVEN : sin is greater than my father violated a light precept and was expelled from the Garden of Eden. Sanh. v. enjoy the fruit of his toil. Yesterday Thou DROVEST OUT my father AND NOW THOU DRIVEST ME OUT. 14). but to another fjanina : said : in a se'ah.

inflicting the same upon my father and myself.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXII. Aibu said : It means that he threw the words behind Surely not. of the saving power of repentance. as you read. All who slay shall be slain. 'not so. as it is written. VH. CAIN WENT OUT. 6. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO HIM: THEREFORE (LAKEN) WHOSOEVER SLAYETH CAIN. beasts. EccL R. but had none from whom to learn [the enormity of his crime]. animals. according to R. Cain slew. R. etc. iv. Judah said He caused the orb of the sun to shine on his account. 2 to him. which Cain displayed. 4 He reads 'laken* as lo ken. but henceforth. 1 AND 191 . etc. 'I Said the Holy One. of the fear that haunts a murderer. v. And He blotted out every living substance. Whence did he go 13. Simeon b. 3. 4 AND THE LORD SET A SIGN FOR CAIN. blessed be He. Judah said: The cattle. out ? 8 R. He caused leprosy to break out on him. vi. if they will not believe thee. so that he others) needed a dog to protect him . Hanin said: He made him an example to penitents. Nehemiah interpreted: Cain's not be as the judgment of other murderers. 15). etc. 6 R. say to thee (lak ani). Reading 'laken' t lak am. Thou hast but one. 8 For one cannot go out from the presence of God.' this being God's answer to the 5 The reference is to leprosy. : Rab said: He gave him a dog. 8). neither hearken to the voice of the : : ! 5 first sign. 'To thee I (say)/ He thus assured him that he need have no fear of the animals. 3 R. R. who is everywhere. Judah explains that Cain's fear was due to the animals. 3 R. unvarying form of punishment. not to Cain. Infra. Said R. And it shall come to pass. 7 23). 5. Rab said: He made him an example to murderers. * Translating: And the Lord made Cain (direct object) a sign (to according to Rab. Levi said in the name of R. tjanan. R. Abba Jose said He made a horn grow out of him. so that God did not put him to 7 death immediately. (Gen. seeing that 3 there were no men on earth. Nehemiah to him For that wretch He would cause the orb of the sun to shine Rather. etc. WHOSOEVER SLAYETH judgment CAIN/ shall etc. xxxn. Lakish: He suspended his judgment until the Flood came and swept him away. (iv. (Ex. and birds assembled to demand justice for Abel. 11-13 ME OUT THIS DAY is it possible that FROM THY FACE I SHALL BE HID? 1 12.

Thereupon Adam began beating his face.XXII. 13] MIDRASH KABBAH him and went out. crying. a to 8 be E.V. Hanina b. xcn. i). as though murder was a light matter. rejected God's reproof. and I did not know! Forthwith he arose 1 and exclaimed. 2 like one who deceives his Creator. Berekiah said in R. 'So great is the power of repentance. swine shows his cloven hoof as though pretending hypocrite. Isaac said: He went forth rejoicing. he will be glad in his heart (Ex.e. as you read. A 'to give thanks 1 . a song for the Sabbath day : It is a good thing to make confession unto the Lord (Ps. 192 . Bleazar's name: He went forth like one who shows the cloven hoof. 3 1 He 2 I. clean. He goeth forth to meet thee. 'How did your case go?' 'I repented and am reconciled/ replied he. when Adam met him and asked him. and he seeth thee. A Psalm. iv. 1 R. R. like one who would deceive the Almighty. 14).

io8a. chastening. and they will call their lands after their own names. 3. to-morrow . 'Their Iwelling-places to all generations . Phinehas interpreted it Kirbam is their houses for ever.[XXIII. AND UNTO ENOCH WAS BORN IRAD. them away in their houses. 2 8 is his translation of the verse. Antioch after Antiochus? R. MEHUJAEL: I shall wipe them METHUSHAEL: I shall (mohan) from the world wear them out (matishan) from the world: what have I to do with Lamech and his descendants? 6 AND LAMECH TOOK UNTO HIM TWO 1 WIVES. Joshua b. etc.' i. 4 Moreover. These cities shall remain an everlasting memorial Reading Lamech as mah U what have I to do? t to their shame. XLIX. 1-2 CHAPTER XXIII (BERESHITH) 1. The flood will sweep refers this to the generation of the Flood. world [by the flood] . xi. 4 They will remain in their grave-houses for all time. Judan explained it: What do wicked think? That within their houses [they shall live] and their dwelling-places [shall exist] to all generations. AND METHUSHAEL BEGOT LAMECH (iv. 5 2.e. R. etc. AND MEHUJAEL BEGOT METHUSHAEL. be resurrected] nor be judged. i.e. (iv. This verse and its interpretation are a comment on the end of the verse with which the section commences. Sanh. .heir houses become their sepulchres (kibranif. 193 o . is. IRAD: I shall drive Levi said: All these names signify them Jordan) out of the . AND CAIN KNEW HIS WIFE. It is vritten. Tiberias after the name Tiberius. xxvi. 5 * v. they will neither live I. R. AND CALLED THE STAME OF THE CITY AFTER THE NAME OF HIS SON written. etc. 'They have called their lands after their own names': thus it is ' ' : AND HE BUILDED A CITY.e. Their i. inward thought (kirbam) that their houses 1 hall continue for ever. AND IRAD BEGOT MEHUJAEL. Judati and Phinehas discussed this. 17).e. infra. Alexandria after Alexander. R. ENOCH.he c or ever* . and not rise for That He judgment. which will thus become their graves. (Ps. la). 6. 18).

Formerly they used to provoke the blessed be He. R. The former would stay like a widow throughout her life. 'Azariah said in R.e. Lam.. sang (man'emeth) to the timbrel in honour of idolatry. and why was she called Naamah? Because her deeds were pleasing (ne'imim). who was Lamech.. connected here with ha-mabneh.e. 3). as it is written. 20). 22). Kahana said: Naamah was Noah's wife. provoked Him openly. that angereth. Proem xxn. 8 God in their tents. whereas he was THE FORGER OF EVERY CUTTING INSTRUMENT. The Rabbis said: Naamah was a woman of a different stamp. 19). The image of jealousy. 3 AND THE SISTER OF TUBAL-CAIN WAS NAAMAH.V. etc. AND ADAH BORE JABAL. but subsequently they Holy One. for sexual purposes only. in secret. 1 * I. 21). Judah's name: The men of the generation of the Flood used to act thus: each took two wives. Levi's (tibbel) name: This man perfected yet lacked the weapons for Cain's sin: Cain slew. Joshua said in R. THE FATHER 3. The proof of this is that the best of them. secretly. HE WAS THE FATHER OF ALL SUCH AS HANDLE THE HARP AND THE PIPE (iv. HE WAS OF SUCH AS DWELL IN TENTS AND HAVE CATTLE (iv. AND ZILLAH. (tibbel) i. 2 U-MIKNEH AND HIS BROTHER'S NAME WAS JUBAL.XXIII. and then she sat before him like a harlot. This interprets Tubal-Cain: he perfected Cain's work. Abba b. zi): i. He devoureth the barren that beareth not. 'cattle') Is Ha-mi%neh (E. R. of such as provoke Cf. as it is written. 194 . vni. Adah. for the name denotes that she R. organ players and flautists. and doeth not good to the widow (Job xxiv. 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH (iv. slaying. which provoketh to jealousy hamakneh (Ezek. while the latter was given to drink a potion of roots. etc. thus : . and Zillah. R. [so called] because he kept her away (ya ade} from himself.e. THE FORGER OF EVERY CUTTING INSTRUMENT OF BRASS AND IRON. SHE ALSO BORE TUBAL-CAIN. so that she should not bear. took two wives. (iv. one for procreation and the other for sexual gratification. to in his ( sit shadow 1 (zillo).

Said they to him are we to bear children for a curse?' He will come : answered. [AND ADAM KNEW HIS WIFE FURTHERMORE. R. 'FOR HAVE NG that I SLAIN A MAN FOR MY to wouND account ! I wounds should come me on his AND . who intentionally 2 To their objection that a Flood was imminent he murdered Abel. 4-5 etc. 7 * This interprets od (E. AND LAMECH SAID UNTO HIS WIVES. who did not slay. which was parenthetically 5 Your duty is to procreate.e. * Have you kept reason apart from Eve a hundred and thirty years for any 6 that you might not beget children by her!' On hearing but this. ' 23 ff). but now he experienced desired her whether he saw her or not. (iv. Aha's name: This is a hint to seafarers to Desire According to this he had not slain anyone. to exact His bond of debt? R. he [Adam] resumed his duty of begetting children. fallacious] for if so. let us go to Adam [and consult him]. 3 if a child. 1 1 1 relate that ' ' Supra. Jose b. 5. why a child. 7 Formerly he had no desire when he did not see her. Judan said in R.) Said he [Lamech] to them [his wives] 'Come. And iv. blessed be He. 8 Why does Lamech designate the same person both a man and a child ? 4 This is a continuation of the discussion. R. surely judgment 2 will wait seventy-seven generations!' (Rabbi said: This is a reasoning of darkness [i. yet judgment generations for me. he accidentally killed Cain. Jacob b. again ') in the sense of more. Johanan: If a man. Adam knew his wife again (Gen. replied that it would certainly be postponed for many generations. Hanina said: He summoned them to To-morrow a flood their marital duties. R. Abba b.V. A YOUNG MAN CHILD FOR MY come upon me! 1 Cain was suspended for him for seven slew. however.GENESIS (BERESHITH) 4. physician. He said to them: 'Do you do your duty.] was added to his desire. I 9S . while the Holy 5 One. will do His/ 'Physician. whence is the Holy One. . that bruises should : : BRUISING heal thine own limp ' ! retorted the other. interrupted. and he argued that his punishment would be deferred for a greater time than that of Cain.' So they went to him. whatever God may do. Other legends. and forthwith. blessed be He. why a man ? He was a man in deeds and a child 4 in years. 25). XX. Idi asked R. * [XXIII.

i). probably in a metaphorical sense. is meant. implying that the following generations were spiritually inferior. since Cain eventually died on his (active. you read. Isaac: They were themselves to demons.XXIIL 5-6] their 1 MIDRASH KABBAH homes [i. Cain was slain. FOR HE SLEW CAIN. 'but from then onward Centaurs created/ 6 Four things changed in the days of Enosh The mountains became [barren] rocks. the narrative is interrupted and recommences afresh with. 5 Instead of continuing the genealogical record. Seth. Said R. 3 the king Messiah. etc. men's faces became ape-like.e. for he slew Cain -indirectly. SON. infra> LI. Enosh. AND SHE CALLED HIS NAME SETH: FOR GOD HATH APPOINTED ME ANOTHER SEED. Similarly. the dead began to feel [the 7 worms]. too. 8 I. * Reading U"nn as passive : for Cain was slain . AND AND TO SETH. Tins is the book of the generations 1 When of 6 man (Gen. A TO HIM ALSO THERE WAS BORN HE CALLED HIS NAME ENOSH (iV. and they became vulnerable to demons. It was as if two trees were standing near each other. which fell upon the other and uprooted it too. 8. Half man half beast 196 . 6. and a wind uprooted one of them. 7 Their dead bodies putrefied (which had not been the case before) and so became the prey of worms.e. remember their wives] and repair thither immediately. as vocalised) account. 26). not from a Jewish stock. though an actual change of appearance. and then become silent?' 'Hitherto they were created in the likeness and image [of were God]. INSTEAD OF ABEL. treats it as a surname.' he replied. Tanhuma at] said in the name 2 of Samuel Kozith : [She hinted viz. Abba Cohen Bardela was asked: '[Why does Scripture 5 enumerate] Adam. or. and it is so translated here. v. responsible for becoming vulnerable (hulltri) they argued]: What is the difference whether one [for : 2 The meaning of the word is they return from the voyage. Messiah being descended from Ruth the Moabitess. INSTEAD OF ABEL. v. FOR CAIN SLEW HIM. *Ar. that seed which would arise from another source. R. doubtful. Through 4 the sin against Abel.

Hence it is not an additional instance. and they will be scattered. They became degraded in their worship. An 6) ? objection was raised: but 4 what they have xi.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXIIL 6-7 prostrates himself before an image or prostrates himself 1 before man? Hence. And it came to pass. Infra t xxvi.V. : ' claiming. profane matter. selves [Divine] names 7 waters of the sea in in idolatry and gave yourtherefore I too will summon the above? Huhal being derived from hullm. Menahem to him: Is this not explicitly stated in a verse. it is written. 6). 'began') when he was a mighty one in the earth (ib. Then man became degraded to call 2 upon the name of the Lord. 8 ix. [God] smote Nimrod's head. and translates : And this against which they dream. E. * Hence four should have been stated. R. i). and poureth them out upon the face of the earth (Amos v. thus rebelling against His sovereignty. adoring men and idols instead of the Lord. 197 . the possibility of being scattered. He translates Then they rebelled by calling themselves by the name of the Lord (M. 'began') in multiplying on the to call face of the earth (Gen. a dream. He [Nimrod\ rebelled (hehel. Levi said: This maybe compared to a woman who said to her husband. 'began') to do (ib. Simon said In three places this term is used in the sense of rebellion [against God] Then they rebelled (huhal) : : 3 upon the name of the Lord . ' 8 They called their idols Lord *. 4. E. 'Why only in a dream? here it is in actual replied ' He It is ! fact. 7. 'began'. like one who pours downward from . Aha said: Ye engaged . R. Abbahu lectured: The Ocean [sc.' Said he to her. E.V. then they rebelled against calling upon the name of the Lord. and as such. or. He calleth for the waters of the sea. when man rebelled (hehel.). : Names indicating that you yourselves are gods.V. My name and destroy those evil men from the world.' 6 R.K. 8). will 1 become an 7 actuality. Infra. The verse is apparently translated: then they rebelled by calling (their idols) by the name of the Lord. 'I saw you in a dream divorcing me. viz. 6 Translating the last sentence. vi. the victims 2 of demons. This man (v. Eleazar b. which obviously means. x.V. E. xxrv. * He derives hahilam from halom. 6. exhe who has incited them to rebel 5 R. Nimrod) has incited them to revolt. the Mediterranean] is higher than the whole world. And this is rebelled (hahilam. Said R. and Mah.

Eleazar said: At the first. Africa. lee. as far as Acco and Jaffa. 2 V. shalt thou come means as far as n): Thus far ('ad poh) Acco And here shall thy : ' proud waves be stayed (u-foh yashith) intimates 3 Jaffa (Yaffah). two times that the sea came up and inundated the world. R. lying in the S. (Job xxxvin. and R. etc. is sometimes applied to Africa in general .XXIIL 'He 7] MIDRASH KABBAH of the sea' is calleth for the waters written twice. Aha in R. 1 How far did it come up on the first occasion and how far on the second ? R.E. 3 Var. R. : ' but no further. v. supra. R. 2 R. This name 198 . 6. rjanina's name said On the first. while on the second it came up as far as the coasts of Barbary. Eleazar in R. Huna and corresponding to the : R. on the second. * The 'heel of Italy'. Abbahu. of that country. Judan. Eleazar b. as far as the coasts of Barbary. R. as it is written. Jose. sometimes to Azaria (Barbary) in N. And said: Thus far ('ad poh) shalt thou come. IJanma's name said On the first it came up as far as Acco and Jaffa. as far as as far as at the second. as far as the coasts of Barbary . Calabria 4 1 .

and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field (ib. Shall the potter be esteemed as the clay (ib.). LXXXIX. canals. XXIV (BERESHITH) THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM to hide written. the plant to its planter! That the thing made should say of him that made it : He made 1 not. ' . THIS is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. He created him extending over the whole world. Woe unto them that seek deep from the Lord. viz. etc. Tanhuma in R. R. Simon in R. Levi said: This may be compared to a master builder (v. 16). and in book they were all written (Ps. supra. Deut. 18). hence (ib. i. R. Banayah's name. And from (ib. R. 3 Num.). Is it not yet a very little while. Said he to them. And how do we know that he filled the hollow spaces of the world ? 2. If you repent. cxxxix. it the book of the is written. 16)? You liken the created object to its creator.e. loc. 1 the verse. R. works are in the darkness etc. i): It is their counsel who built a country with [secret] chambers. be the multitude of men. And hast laid Thy hand upon me (Ps. vm. '. the one end of heaven unto the other (Deut. R. Thou hast formed me behind and before From north to south? Because it is said. And the fruitful field shall be esteemed 2 i. 199 . 4 V. . R. 32).e. iv. and R.). ' . From 4 aY. (Isa. me into a royal palace . Nehemiah and R. How do we know that he extended from east to west? Because it is said. O your perversity! caves. . 'It is I who built all these chambers and caves to what purpose then is your hiding? Woe unto them that seek deep!' And their Similarly. blessed be He. (ib. created Adam.[XXIV. 5). and the inhabitants of the country hid from him in those chambers and caves. Joshua Thy b. Eleazar's name said: When the Holy One. 15). as a forest And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of a book generations of Adam . i-2 CHAPTER I. So great shall i. etc. Berekiah 2 i . xxix. 3. Judah b. 3 Thine eyes did see mine unformed substance. as forests of men. 17) i. and Subsequently he became a tax-collector. R. (ib.

to the lay other . the book of the living. LVII. Thine eyes did see my shapeless mass. 29) : . Simon said: While Adam lay a shapeless stretching from one end of the world mass before existence. For the windfaileth before Me (ib. the final **' being regarded as poetical. as it is written. : : no harm What is the proof? 'For the [My] windfaileth (ya'atof) before Me. from the book of the generations below [in this world] And not 3.XXIV. it refers to a righteous person. R. will not contend for ever (Isa.): R. as you read. For I Adam.' R. R. 12).): ' from the book of the ' generations above [in the next world]. (Ps. R. Bar Kappara taught: Wherever the word lived occurs. Arpachshad lived (ib. 2 Bar Kappara commenced: Let them be blotted out of this means. XL. xi.: 'Of the book of the living means of the book of the generations of Adam. 1 In the sense of Adam's potential descendants. ' . Another interpretation of 'Let them be blotted out of the book of the living. Shelah lived (Gen. thy potential descendants] which thine eyes did see have already been written in the book of Adam': viz. 386. Him at whose decree the world came into He showed him every generation and its Sages. be written with the righteous (ib. When my soul grew to creatures. 3 Lev. Huna said When the wind goes out into the world. e. the Holy One. THIS is THE BOOK OF ' THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. with 16) Neither will I be always wroth (ib. blessed be He.. every generation and its judges. and leaders. * Sanh. Ex. a. 14). Golmi is now translated not my unformed substance. and he 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH name said He : ' in R.' etc. while the speaker is God. 2OO . etc. interpreters. LXIX.g. xxvi. 7. Said He to him: 'Thine eyes did see unformed substance1 the unformed substance [viz. Eleazar's created him a shapeless mass. as it is written.' What is the meaning of 'ya'atof' ? He weakens it.) with his descendants. THIS is THE : BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. scribes. obstructs its passage by mountains and breaks its force on hills and commands it Take heed to do 4. Judah b. but simply unformed substance '.

i.GENESIS (BERESHITH) weak (behith'atef. behold. He said twice in His own mind and then once to Moses. He established it. and smote the four corners of the house (Job I. * 'A. blessed be He. these are they: one in the days of Jonah. 4-5 (Jonah n. and the within me. He established it. R. .e. Aha said: [He said ' 3 ' 1 But for God. and searched it out (Job xxvni. 4 is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS 5. there came a great wind from across the wilderness.wide. for says. called the Book of Adam. yea. for it says. denotes once. I. 4). wind (i behold. 3 And the souls are those referred to in the book of Rabbis The Adam. n). and then 'And unto man He said' (ib. 2 The is ship. 28). Yeb. 8). 27). another in the days of Job. Hence of . for it says. LVII. assumes from these proems that an actual work. is referred to. so that the ship was likely to be broken (ib. B. And. 8 where rudh cf. I remembered the Lord said: Through three winds the third in the days of Elijah. 4.e. Judan said: [The wind in the days] of Jonah was directed against that ship only. But the Lord hurled a great wind into the sea . Huna world would have been rendered desolate. 'ataf) [XXIV. and a great and strong rent the mountains. v. n. Then did He see it. The Rabbis said: Every single statement which the Holy One. 1 6). ed. THIS OF ADAM. it And. Kings R. II. yea. Th. the Lord passed by. 5<a. fr. and declare it. 620. 4. made to Moses. spirit Me p. and searched it out' denotes once [again].Z.M. which refers to Moses. What is the proof? And the souls which I have made (Isa.X The verse is now translated For the spirit (i. supra. What is the proof? Then did He see it. 2OI . R. 1 because they went forth with unmeasured force. Messiah. likewise referred to Messiah) shall be detained before until the souls which I made have been created. 493. and declare it. (Sonc. others state this Tanhum said: in the name of the royal Messiah will not come until all the souls which [God] contemplated creating have been created. for the sake of the souls which I have made. R. 2 That of Job was directed against his house only. : but not other ships. viz. these [three] only that of Elijah was world. and broke in pieces the rocks xix. 19).

from GENERATIONS. not Adam. to THIS (ZEH) is whom will I give them? To his sons: THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF the numerical value of zeh.* once. Which descended from Jacob. MIDRASH KABBAH ' Then did He see it denotes four times [to Himself] And declare it.XXIV. blessed be He. but not to Adam himself. What is the proof? THIS (ZEH) is THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. 4 5 the descendants of Adam.e. 2 written. 6. 'And unto man He said. 'And He to him]. and searched it out. and he did not remain loyal to them. 3 R. i. 1 3 ADAM.' once. V. and am I not to give him [the My privilege of begetting the twelve tribes]!' Subsequently He said: 'I gave him two sons. and one arose and slew the other. shall be given to his generations. said He is the creation of My hands. 2O2 . Whence does ' this follow? THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF ADAM. is The deduction Reading it lo adam. And He said la-adam But to whom will I give it? To his descendants: hence. Which is twelve. xvi. viz. the zayin being and the he being five. supra.e. He said: 'I gave him six commandments. The Holy One. 2 : This book the Torah) belongs to the generations. but not to him. generations (i. Judah said It was fitting that the Torah should have : ' ' : been given through Adam. reading i. 12. He interprets: Zeh. making twelve in all. 'He established it. * 12. implying the numerical value of zeh.e. two forty-eight positive precepts and three sixty-five negative precepts?' Hence it is I will not give it to Adam. how then shall I : !' hundred and thirteen precepts. R.' once. how then am I to give him twelve?' Hence. and am I not to give it to him Subsequently. said: 'He is the creation of hands. and after that. said la-adam': not Adam: I will not give [them But i. 5 The Holy One. (sc. Yea. THIS IS THE BOOK OF THE GENERATIONS OF give six him hundred and hundred and ADAM. it] ' 5] . blessed be He. should have been the Interpreting: Zeh. 6 seven. the descendants) of Adam.' by which Moses is meant. once. Jacob of Kefar IJanan said: It was fitting that the twelve tribes 4 should have sprung from Adam. 1 however.e.

Seth. What then were they? Divinities! [The answer is as] Abba Cohen Bardela was asked: 6. and then become silent? To which he answered: Hitherto they were created in the likeness and image [of God]. Another interpretation These are descendants. a V. He who maintains they that the spirits of the field are benevolent does so because they do not grow up with him while as for the view that they are harmful. 14). as it is written. while the female demons were inflamed by Adam and they bore. 6 THE BOOK OF THE DESCENDANTS OF [Why does Scripture enumerate] Adam. for R.) These are the descendants of Adam. V. but the earlier ones were not [human] descendants. (The reason for the view that house spirits are ape-like. 203 . n. and with the afflictions of the children of man Adam (11 Sam. [for they argued]: What is the difference whether one worships an image or worships man? Hence. the reason is because they do not combenevolent is the opinion that they are harmful . supra. while the earlier ones 1 were not descendants. Then man became degraded to call 2 upon the name of the Lord (Gen. Isaac They were themselves responsible for becoming vulnerable to demons. prehend his evil inclinations. because they dwell with him [man]. What then were they? Demons. which means. Levi said All these : 3 1 2 Viz. Said R. Joshua b. vii. Why ? Because they were destroyed by the flood. For R. THIS IS ADAM. but the earlier ones were not descendants of Adam.were descendants. while is based on the fact that understand man's evil inclinations. Four things changed in the days of Enosh: The mountains became [barren] rocks. xx. iv. Cain and Abel and Cain's descendants. became and they became vulnerable (hullin) to demons. supra. These GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXIV. : : -. If he commit iniquity I will chasten him with the rod of men. the children of the first [primeval] man. and Enosh. the dead began to feel [the men's faces worms]. 26). Simon said: Throughout the entire one hundred and thirty years during which Adam held aloof from Eve the male demons were made ardent by her and she bore. 6. xxm. but from then onwards Centaurs were created.

Eleazar's name and R. Tanhuma to shame. names 6-7] MIDRASH RABBAH Irad : I shall drive them Jordan) signify chastening. universal fatherhood of God. What is the proof? And they 2 i. This Leazar's teaching: Three miracles were supports were created. For from R. 12. * In the Sifra. R. know whom you put God made He him* V.. Hence thyself (Lev. xxiii. next note. 5 This refers back to Ben 'Azzai. xxii. that But thou shalt love . Th. R. xix. 'from men').. V. 2. Whereas this verse stresses the God's likeness. GOD CREATED MAN. E. Since I have said: If you do neighbour be put to shame. from the first Adam. 'And the craftsmen skilled above men' (me-adam. Ben 'Azzai said: THIS is THE BOOK OF THE is a great principle of the DESCENDANTS OF ADAM : Torah. Rab said: Adam (Isa.. performed on that day: on that very day they 4 and they produced offspring. the order is reversed. Akiba's verse it might be said that when a man is put to shame he may retaliate. being stated first. origin. is and then Ben 'Azzai maintains that THIS is THE BOOK. and an sanctity of man even then. Menahamah in Rab's name said: Adam taught them all forms of craftsare craftsmen from manship. the Pentateuch] 7. which implies the brotherhood and unity of man. Akiba. XLIV. viz. Mehujael: I shall wipe them (mohan) from the world. R. Adam even taught the way of ruling parchment for the Scroll THIS is THE BOOK and its ruling.V. v. for he was created in Both these principles flow from the insult to man is an insult to God. 204 . : IN THE DAY THAT R. Akiba's view a great principle. not to R. lit. Here it is interpreted to denote source. the mem of me-adam being understood as a particle of comparison. 3 [sc. ad loc. Akiba said But thou shalt love thy neighbour as 5 is even a greater principle. let my been put you must not say.e. [for] In the likeness of so. is even a greater principle. 2. Tanhuma in R. since he is not bidden to love his neighbour more than himself. etc. 3 learned to write Translating: This is the Book which his descendants from Adam. supra. x Lamech and his descendants ? R. regulations..XXIV. they cohabited. out of the world. 2 1 THIS is THE BOOK * implies that it was drawn up according to Supra. A Scroll of the Torah must be ruled before it is written . 18) to shame. Methushael: I shall wear them out what have I to do with (matishan) from the world. Iedoshim iv. n).

i. 'If you stress the word "taking". Abbahu: 'We do not find that Enoch died?' 'How so?' inquired he. Jose 'We do not find death stated of Enoch? Said he to her: 'If it said. xxiv. Johanan said: The to the interpretation [given to nor does the interpretation correspond to the name. Kama b. Aibu also said: He judged [i. he was not. Behold.* said. said [AND HE WAS NOT means] that he 'then "taking" is employed here. etc. means that he was no more in the world. AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD. but not death. Abbahu (third century CJL) the break between Judaism it would apply here to Christians Christianity was complete. and therefore 1 * or heretics in general. blessed be He. I would agree : 1 FOR GOD TOOK HIM. said: 'While he is righteous I will remove him/ 1 R. AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD. There it definitely refers to death. Hence * just as there an assumption is meant. R. it it says. condemned] him on New Year. i. (Ezek. AND HE WAS NOT. Aibu said: Enoch was a hypocrite. as a wicked acting sometimes as a righteous. (YENAHAMENU fr. R. 3 Term generally used for Judeo-Christians. [having died.e. name does not correspond it]. 2. them well. AND HE WAS NOT. and also in connection with Elijah/ said they. 24). sometimes man. and no more. with you.] FOR GOD TOOK HIM/ AND HE CALLED HIS NAME NOAH. SAYING: US THIS SAME SHALL COMFORT NAHEM) IN OUR WORK. 2 when he judges the whole world. Since. i6).e. : GOD TOOK HIM (v. FOR Hoshaya was not inscribed in the roll of the righteous but in the roll of the wicked. A matron asked R. i-2 XXV (BERESHITH) R. while in Ezekiel it is the desire of thine eyes. so here too. '"Taking" 4 is employed here.' he answered. * ii Kings II. he died. 205 . I take away from thee 5 R. Tanhuma observed: He answered etc. Translating: While Enoch walked with God The first of Tfshri. R. CHAPTER i. Therefore the Holy One.[XXV. though by the time of and R. Some sectarians3 asked R. however.

'This or. like those who have died an unnatural death through drowning. that : lie. for 'resting' is mentioned here. 5 He calleth (Amos v. 3 The name Noah connotes that.XXV. He made them rebel against him: the cow did not obey the ploughman. R. viz. And the Lord smelled the sweet ' Text as emended. . is understood to refer to such.e. 12) just as the ease stated there ease of the ox. the waters used to ascend and inundate them Resh Lakish * ' ' . The 2] MIDRASH KABBAH same shall give us rest (yanihenu}. 'And he called his . * The general idea is that even in their graves the dead were not at rest. But when he sinned. 7. but does Noah correThis same ye-nahamenu saying: 1 spond to ye-nahamenu P The truth is that when the Holy (5ne. they submitted: ease is mentioned here. . even those who had died 7 8 naturally were like the slain. all things the cow obeyed the ploughman. once in the morning and once in the evening. 206 . as 1 it is 2 He was so named on account of his written. Cf. ' 7 Shokebe. xxm. Like the slain that lie in the grave (Ps. created Adam. edd. they had rest. He gave him dominion ' text should either have stated. corresponding to the two times [daily] that the waters came up and inundated them in their graves. and Inanimate.' The fact is that before ye-nahamenu [shall Noah arose. so the ease mentioned here 4 implies the ease of the ox.' name Nahman. and also else- where. 4 5 I. also cur. 8 Th. [the dead] in their graves. . nature. it was easy to direct the ox in his work. 6). viz. (Isa. the furrow 2 obeyed the ploughman. i. for the waters of the sea For it is twice stated. blessed be He.e. : said: The name does not correspond to its nor does the interpretation correspond to interpretation the name. ix. LXXXVIII. Leazar said: sacrifice.e. . may be at ease (Ex. . was readily responsive. they rest in their beds is just as there the rest of the grave so here too the rest of the grave is meant. But when Noah arose. 8. He : enter eth into peace. supra. That thine ox and thine over : ass means the xxm. 6). LVII. 3 and ease is mentioned elsewhere. 6 as it is written. and thus continue to be tossed about by the waves. The same Nahman the same yanihenu [shall give us rest] or comfort us]. 2) meant. I. But when Noah arose. nor did the furrow obey the ploughman. Scripture should have written either. animate Surely not.

twelve months [of the Flood]. R. once in the days of there was a famine in the land (ib. once in the days of Elisha And there was a great famine in Samaria (11 Kings VI. Johanan said The planets did not function the entire Said R.K. Jose b. but of hearing the words of the Lord (Amos vm. once in the days of Lamech: WHICH COMETH FROM THE GROUND WHICH THE LORD HATH CURSED. once in the days when the judges judged: And it came to pass in the days when the judges judged. 17). Famine visited the is in the days of Adam : Cursed the ground for thy sake (Gen. Jonathan to him: mark was imperceptible. xxvi. nor a thirst for water. Remaining stationary. And the ark rested wattanah (ib. i. amount of illumination. once in the days of Elijah: As the Lord. he translates* the Heb. 4). lo yishbothu. XLV. the God of Israel. cf. 5 R. before whom I stand. 'roll Hence the ten must be assumed not to and combines the last two: and one which upon*) the world in the future. beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham once in the days of Jacob For these two years (ib. but their R. Ruth R. Joshua cease 3. Hanina said: On account of the resting of the ark. Once 29). as it is written. 25). 3 : cease (ib. i). *od : usual . 22) implies that hence it deduced: 'They shall not follows that they had ceased. n). they have never & yet ceased. . . i). once in the days of Isaac: And there was famine in the 10) land. R. 207 . ai). M. R. and once in the Messianic future: Not a famine of bread. 2-3 1 (nihoah) savour (Gen. Jeremiah in the name of R. . Huna and R. 8 This actually gives eleven. : : : Abraham And 1 8 Noah is thus connected with nihoah. liveth. Isaac said Its occurrence ought properly to have been not in the days of David but in the : . that there was a famine in the land (Ruth I. ' : R.K. xii. in. Liezer said: They shall not 4 they never ceased. 2 They did function. 6). vm. The sun and moon did not provide the * M. there shall not be dew nor rain these years (i Kings xvii. 4. emends will visit (lit. WHICH COMETH FROM THE GROUND WHICH (v. THE LORD HATH CURSED world ten times. i) hath the famine been in the land (ib. one famine which travels about in the world. Samuel and R.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXV. include the last.

Hiyya: It is like the case of a glassis punished! worker holding a basket full of goblets and cut glass. (Y. 5 There was food. 7). JJelbo's name: faint (Isa. denoting barren of thought or merit. it should merely say. but v. i. vrn. Th. of 'a shoot of an olive rich in understanding or merit. 29). lacking 2 If Saul deserved punish merit. To test its weight. Jast.).B. even at altogether a se'ah per sela\ one must not go abroad. 3] MIDRASH RABBAH Saul was a shoot of a sycamoredays of Saul. Simeon observed: That 1 An idiom. Berekiah applied to them the verse. but if it is obtainable. * 8 7 This indicating famine. On this interpretation this statement is cited as proof. Aha's name: Lamech and one in the days of Abraham. Berekiah 4 There were two famines in the days of Abraham. But in From Palestine. 6 Text as emended 208 . who could withstand it. Huna There was one in the days of said in R. 5 Until an ass's head was sold for fourscore As for the famine pieces of silver. The famine of time was one of scarcity. R. For that reason all these came not in the days of lowly [weak] men but [famines] in the days of mighty men. following arms in?. for if the contrast is merely with that in the time of Isaac. not easily broken. would have been broken by a famine. Shila sins and Johanah brought it in the days of David. whence it follows that there was also a second in his days. 'beside the famine/ etc. or something that is tree* (infra). opp. 8) a famine in consequence of (war) trouble. which means easily broken. 4. sela'. was it to be postponed for David 4 This was either a tradition or is deduced from the passage. R.).T. the present case it was even twice as dear. Beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham. postponed it and tree. blessed be He. B. reading 'SB instead of n'n). but not enough to satisfy (Rashi. The famine in the days of Elisha was one of panic..* is only when it is unobtainable.XXV. translates (on Ab. v. Huna said in R. He giveth power to the said in R. but because 1 the Holy One. and then hung up his basket. suspended himself thereby. etc. XL. Elijah's during the days of the judges. The ordinary price was four se'ahs per sela' (Peah. ment. who when he wished to hang the basket up brought a nail. (n Kings vi. * 1 : (T. R. 25).* and it was taught : advanced to one man must not emigrate abroad 8 unless two se'ahs cost a R. Ruth R. 3 drove it [into the wall]. Thus Saul. 9ifl. Dosa's ( name: From the it A wheat per sela ] price of two se'ahs [of 7 se'ah [per sela']. 2 Said R. R. one year yielding and one year not yielding.

20). And whose leaf doth not wither : to Ham.[XXVI.. 14). It is written. blessed be He. xvi. i-2 CHAPTER XXVI (BERESHITH) i. AND JAPHETH. etc. [the verse is to be interpreted thus:] 'In the counsel of the wicked' refers to the generation of Enosh Nor stood in the way of sinners. * to eat a limb torn from a living animal. contemporaries. Judah and R. saved] in the ark. the Flood. Nehemiah differ on this. HAM.' R. etc. xcn. 1 ' They shall flourish in the courts Noah lived through these. (Gen. 8 6. order more clean animals [to be saved] than unclean ones ? Surely because He desires that offerings should be made to Him of the former. whom be He. Nor sat in the seat of the scornful. to that of the Flood . xxxrv. I. viz.e. 3) the Lord planted him [i. (Ps. He was given an additional precept. And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water (ib. 2. But his delight was in the law of the Lord (ib. AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. Nehemiah said: During the generation of Enosh he was but a child. AND NOAH WAS FIVE HUNDRED YEARS OLD. arguing. 4 Forthwith. Why did the Holy One. Infra. they shall flourish in the courts of our God (Ps. 'Planted in the house the Holy One. Judah said: It means i): "Happy the man' viz. R. R. blessed of the Lord' alludes to Noah. Judah's view. And in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper. planted in the ark. viu. HAM. refers to ' Noah: That hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked. 32). Happy is is the man that hath not walked. 9. to that of the Separation [of tongues]. AND JAPHETH(V. and the Separation [of tongues]. He took of every clean beast. yet did not imitate the evil ways of his * Hence Scripture cannot refer to this. 3 But in His law doth he meditate : he inferred one thing from another. 1 R. : : thus it is written. 2) alludes to the seven precepts which he was commanded. 209 P . the injunction not Supra. of Enosh. That bringeth forth its fruit in its season : this alludes to Shem. AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. Planted in the house of the Lord. to Japheth . 2 According to through three generations.

Joshua b. I do not desire them to perish in the flood while if they will be righteous. XLIX. And the Lord God will wipe away tears from this? off all R. etc. death shall be their shepherd (Ps. 7 But it is written. infra. Eliezer the son of R. Hanina: how then does R. All his contemporaries begot (v. 5. 1 They shall be full of sap and richness (ib. Nehemiah fountain and said in the name of R. said: 'If they [Noah's sons] are to be 2 wicked.XXVI. LXV. xxv. From off all faces of Israel.). 32. How does For the youngest shall die a hundred years old (ib. nether -wor Id . 5 R. 6 A general term for non. which supports R. They shall still bring forth fruit in old age (ib. 15). cf. however. 6 It was a tradition that before the Revelation the Heavenly Court did not punish for sins committed before that age. Yet surely it is written. IJanina said among none for it is In the Messianic age there will be death save the children of Noah. R. 7 V. 32). to punishment. Joshua Thus: whereas in this world Pharaoh [was explain it? begot children when 500 years old. 2IO . : written. xxxvn. as it is written. n. AND NOAH WAS HUNDRED YEARS OLD. AND NOAH BEGOT SHEM. 15) alludes to Noah. . there would have been too many by the time of the Flood for one ark. Ilamna how then does R. which supports R. R. v. 2] It MIDRASH KABBAH is of the God. which indeed redeems from death it is not meant literally. while he begot at five hundred years! The reason. Jose the Galilean: Even Japheth.. Judan observed: at a hundred or two hundred years. 4 Though he always comes last. Mah. AND FIVE JAPHETH. Gen.: 'death' is thus used to indicate punishment. blessed be He. Joshua explain it? That means that he will then be liable to punishment.Israelites.' as written. Like sheep they are appointed for the . IJanina explain faces (Isa. am I to put him to the trouble of 3 building many arks?' Therefore the Lord stopped his he begot at five hundred years. HAM. is that the Holy One. 20). 3 Had he begotten children at the normal age. who was the eldest. 8). 6 R. 1 2 Who For their father's sake. 4 was not at the time of the Flood a hundred years old so as to be liable . AND NOAH BEGOT. etc. 7. Levi said: Neither among Israel nor among the other nations.

6 written first] his name. that there be no habitation 4 But they will be resurrected and their bodies continue to for it. set His name particularly upon him . 2-4 .e. the Temple]. WHEN MAN (ib. AND JAPHETH. also. RJH. Cf. in his 2 and Sisera as it is written. SHEM.. 7 = 40. suspended [punishment] for the generations from the Flood until the Separation according to the numerical value of built in his territory. iya. death ending it. * 5 V.. 'For the nether-world to wear away. this vi. Gen. Pharaoh and [the nether-world] will be destroyed. / have surely built Thee a house of habitation (i Kings vm. 3 E. xi. where it is said that the Separation jjr~ 300. however. viz.V. So that their punishment will be eternal (continual). Cf. He time1 in the will appoint the angel of death their [sc. which took place two 2 1 years after the Flood.V. R. occurred 338 years after Arpachshad's birth. because he was born circumcised. 696 for another explanation.' exist. [other reasons for his priority are that] Abraham was to arise from him. blessed be He. 3. as it is written. AND IT CAME TO PASS WHEN MAN REBELLED : E. Simon said: In three places term is used in the sense of rebellion [against God] Then they rebelled (huhal) to call upon the name of the Lord AND IT CAME TO PASS. HAM. i). and because the Temple would be The son of Huta said: [Shem is because the Holy One. IV.' i. 26).GENESIS (BERESHITH) punished] Messianic era in his time fXXVI. yet their bodies will not be destroyed. Their punishment was but temporal. the Holy One. 4 And why such severity? 'On account of His habitation. 5 13). so as to receive punishment. Surely Japheth was the eldest ? [Shem. .) 3 : this teaches that Sheol Sisera's] officer. 4. three hundred and 7 forty years. And the upright shall have dominion over them in the morning. an . is written] first because he was [more] righteous [than the others]. he was minister in the High Priesthood. 'BEGAN' (Gen. Sanh. and their form shall be for the wearing away of the nether-world on account of His habitation (zb. because they stretched out their hands against His habitation [sc. blessed be He.

. WHEN MAN BEGAN TO . x. He replied [God] smote Nimrod's head. . Hiyya . AND IT CAME TO PASS. 212 . 'Father. 6) ? written. MULTIPLY . is When R. Thus a daughter is eventually lost This shows that the preference for sons was not based in on a lower opinion of women. barley. 8). WHEN MAN BEGAN met him he said to him: 'The be He. 8a. 4] MIDRASH KABBAH REBELLED. yet wheat is more needed than THEM/ 3 ' . Suk. 'Father/ she exclaimed. It is n he who has incited them to rebel against Me FACE OF THE EARTH. 'Did the Babylonian congratulate 'and he said thus to me/ 'Neveryou?" Yes. When she gave birth to a son she again begged him. When a man gives his daughter in marriage and incurs expense he says to her. * That 3 5 Thus daughters are But live a sign of increase. has begun to bless you/ 'What Holy One. 'Because it is written. to her family. are theless/ he [Rabbi] observed. 'blessed the proof?* 2 inquired he. supra. . He [Nimrod] rebelled when he was a mighty one it is was raised in the earth (ib. The wife of R. exclaiming. "May you never return 1 hither/ 5 * R. 'both wine and vinegar. 'Living at 1 V. and because they as it is One. . AND DAUGHTERS WERE BORN TO MULTIPLY UNTO THEM. wine Is more needed than vinegar both wheat needed. written. AND DAUGHTERS WERE BORN UNTO he replied. xi. BJB. This TO MULTIPLY ON THE ' : ! the trees and teaches that they spilled their semen upon were steeped in lust the Holy stones. a daughter is a sign of a blessing. 7. any way happily with your husband. An objection r^But And this is what they have rebelled to do (ib. When he [R. Rabbi gave birth to a daughter. Simeon] went to his 4 father he asked him. Hiyya the Elder AND IT CAME TO PASS. Ker. Simeon b. xxiii. 'Father/ she requested. v. for notes. yet and barley are needed. Gamaliel gave his daughter in marriage. 'pray for me/ 'May you never return hither/ said he to her.XXVI. i6b. give me your blessing/ 'May "woe" never leave your mouth/ replied he. 4 R. blessed be He. gave them many women. 'on both occasions of my rejoicing you have cursed me!* 'Both were blessings/ he replied. 20*2 . he answered.

you that your son lives. 2). it is not real demoralisation. Yohai said: If demoralisation does not 2 proceed from the leaders. of religion themselves transgress ? 5 long life was required for making the necessary observations. p. R. order that Huna said in R. will not return here. A 213 . The idea is the same : what hope is there when the leaders and guardians 4 As though they were divine. 6 THEY WERE FAIR (JOBOTH). For they were fair. Hertz. Simeon b. R. 7 Singular (r^irs) instead of toboth (HDIB). GOD (BENE ELOHIM) SAW etc. [furthermore]. The Rabbis said: It was in order that they might receive their own punishment and THAT that of the generations that followed them. by what can one swear or to what can one sacrifice ? 3 Now why name: It and Resh Lakish was are they called the sons of God? R. 4 R. R. Hence it is written.GENESIS (BERESHITH) peace In your as [XXVI. v. Yohai cursed all who called them the sons of God. "woe THAT THE SONS OF THE DAUGHTERS OF MEN. 9 Whomsoever they chose: that means males and beasts. Ed. though it is read as plural. Yohai called them the sons of nobles. 8 They took women married to others. "woe" my son has not eaten/' "woe that he has not drunk/* "woe that he has not gone to school/*' 5. Judan said: : 7 Actually tobath is written when a bride was made beautiful for her husband. 4-5 home. Pentateuch and Haftorahs (Sonc.). plural. 1 R. Joseph's name The generation of the Flood were not blotted out from the world until they . R. The idea is that one woman was taken by many men. Huna said in R. 'Azariah said in R. the chief [of these nobles] entered and 8 enjoyed her first. Simeon b. 6 Through their long life of ease they were now fully liable for all the punishment their sins merited. : 1 2 3 Lit. and as long will not leave your mouth. translation. 18. 8 An allusion to the ins primae noctis. (vi. which refers to virgins And they took them wives. Levi's name: When the priests steal their gods. Hanina said: Because they lived a long time in without trouble or suffering. refers to married women. R. Simeon b. Jose's men might understand 5 [astronomical] cycles and calculations. Since the leaders are in a position to stop it.

etc. conjectures that R. R. And the everything save immorality. 'forever'). Huna interpreted in R. 5~"&] MIDRASH KABBAH composed nuptial songs 1 in honour of pederasty and R. Jannai and Resh Lakish said There is no other Gehenna [in the the wicked. v. translating: I will not dower man (sc. which slays both good and bad. 3 . E. Ishmael interpreted this: I will not put My spirit in I give : the righteous their reward. [the angels] ABIDE (YADON) IN R. Ishmael derives yadon from vtadan. Simon in R. (Gen. a Ije. is is Levi said in Bar Padiah's name: The whole of Joshua that night Lot prayed for mercy for the Sodomites. a dowry. for it says. Bring them out unto us. vi. I will not restore up. Sanh. that we may Sodomites] demanded. 12)? in their defence. R. Judah b. My 214 . They would have heeded him. R. your breath is a fire that shall devour you (ib. 'Azariah and R. they will not arise at the resurrection. 6. What which Lord said: I will blot out man the proof? followed by. 5) for Hitherto you may said. is long-suffering for THE SONS OF MEN SAW. Aha's name: When I restore the spirit to its sheath (nadari). blessed be He. ic&z. 'Hast thou here any besides (#. epidemic visits the world R. R. Judah b. but as soon as they [the b. but you are no more perhave pleaded mitted to do so/ 6.. ye shall bring forth stubble. Whose fire is in Zion y and his furnace in Jerusalem (Isa. but fire shall come from the body of the wicked himself and burn him is the proof? Ye conceive chaff. 9). 3 xxxni. 3). Joshua's name said: The Holy One.V. n). AND THE LORD SAID: MY SPIRIT SHALL NOT MAN FOREVER LE-'OLAM (vi. Th. the wicked) with spirit U-olam (in the world 3 to come. What is future] save a day which will burn up them when the proof? shall set them ablaze maintain: There will be a (Mai HI. 2 R. intercourse they [the angels] know them (ib. Simlai said: Wherever you find lust. What Or perhaps i. Ilai said: There And the day that cometh The Rabbis will forth be aeither a day nor a Gehenna.XXVI. x. 19).e. R. an bestiality. Supra 9 vi. 1 : until they wrote marriage deeds for males and beasts they fully legalised such practices. xxxi. xix. Gehenna. The whole passage refers to the generation of the Flood. 7).

seizes). R. ix. 6 R. Nathan said: Even a dog or a wolf is answerable.e. Jast. 19). behold. 2 Th.e. Th. vm. R. 6 But an animal is not answerable when man. 3 Sc. I will bend them 5 (meshaggeman) through suffering. Joseph's name / will not again curse . to 5 4 judge. Gorion said: Even a staff or a thong is answerThou able. the field is man an account. therefore. : again smite (Gen.* R. translates differently. viz. but they refused behold. 'for that also'. 2 My Bathyra interpreted it: Never (le-olam) again will I judge (dan) man with this judgment.e. For the yoke of his burden hast broken as in the day of Midian (Isa. E. * E. a Flood. 3). Huna b. let this I will not again curse refers to the ( 3 : children of generations. 10. IJiyya b. the casing of the spirit. for injury done to man. because in this world it [My spirit] spreads only through one of [the main] limbs. Jast. Is the tree of the field man?* 215 .V. 9 I. . 4 21): [the repetition implies]. judgment. i. R. just as man must render trees render an account. suffice.. Huna commented in R. Here too yadon is derived from dan. I intended that My spirit should judge them. rule and guide] them. Abba interpreted: I will not fill them with My spirit when I fill all other men with My spirit. Aha said: Even barren trees 8 will have to render an account. for R. it injures man. is non fruit-bearing. save he too 7 when 8 who inflicts the injury The yoke itself was punished. xx. I '/ will not again smite..: flashes in (i. so must 1 (Deut. He translates : My spirit will not judge. Deriving yadon from nadan. And I will put spirit within you (Ezek. as it were. . even before the Flood God stated that it would never be repeated. 27).V. 6 1 their spirit to their sheath. Infra. the body.e. but they refused. as it is written. I will not Judan b. punish. xxxiv. Thus in his view. On all views this is a play on the word beshagam.' to future intended that My spirit should judge [i. as it is written. 3 R. I will bend them [break their power] through each other.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI. The Rabbis said Noah. . a sheath. None becomes answerable done to] man save another man like himself. therefore. in the sense of guide. Eleazar said. The Rabbis proved it from the following: For the tree of for [injury . xxxvi. but in the future it will spread throughout the body. He derives yadon from dm.

5 . My 216 . Eleazar said: Wherever there there is 4 My 5 (tasim) before them (Ex. Similarly man needs suffering to place him on a firm foundation. etc. Spirit'. "The Lord 7 R. Mah. etc. Joshua b. 4 If a man's sins are unpunished in this world.andMah. R. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH R. v. 'judged'] before 6 Rabbi interpreted: And the Attribute of Mercy.: the long life they have hitherto enjoyed has blinded them to their mortality . bend them through R. Infra. xxxi. Now for ever without any regarding (mesim) 'mesim* can only refer to judgment. Nehemiah interpreted: Their spirit does 1 not reason with itself that they are but flesh and blood . judgment [above]. 7 Instead of translating 'And the Lord said. Hitherto the former had prevailed . the people's) spirit of rebellion. unexpressed. (Job IV. 1 And so This is * .yadon. reads : I will grant them but few years.K. suffering. Akiba cited: Wherefore doth the wicked condemn spirit/ they should not sin. following R. His justice. then judge man]. am I too not to perform Is not their tent-cord judgment above! Thus it is written. i). as you read. R. and is the most preferable. Aibu interpreted: What was the cause that and then I will they rebelled against Me? Was suffering? it bend them through 3 What keeps not because I did not a door in is no judgment [below] R. them? They die. the subject of 'said* being the people. Bibi. he treats *the Lord* as the subject of yadon (judge). My will not judge my generation of the Flood said. and so renders: And the people said. they perish it (ib. R. xxi. because they did not execute justice on earth. and that without wisdom plucked up within of the Torah. Jose the Galilean interpreted: No more shall My Attribute of Justice be suppressed [lit. 2 therefore I will reduce their years. * M. through lacking the wisdom Betwixt morning and evening they are shattered. interpreted. Leazar: If they have not judged.. the reading in several MSS. 5..XXVI. Suffering brings out the best in man. now the latter would come into its own. R. Ammi. Th/s ed. Meir said: If they did spirit [will not perform judgment below. 21): Le. they will be punished in & the nest.: Jw& (My spirit) connotes His mercy . Thus interpreting : They die. The Lord wiH not judge my (sc. Now these are the ordinances [judgments] which thou shalt set position? Its hinges. the son of R. 20). hence I will shorten it. Deut. as I have determined for them in this world. because I have been wroth with them this involves the change * of one letter only.

foresaw that Moses was destined to descend from him. Thou wilt not require? (Ps. The Rabbis adduced it from the following: And his days shall be a hundred and twenty years. 5 Anakim : The Rabbis explained it as signifying that they were loaded with chains ('anakim) upon chains. 345 -fn(s)=345. that all who saw them melted . 'MIGHTY MEN') THAT WERE OF OLD (vi. 20 f. They were called by seven . 13) meaning that there is no judgment or judge. u. 2 THE 7. Jose b. 'force/ 'rule') the globe of * the sun. names: Nephilim. Jast. Re/aim. [in truth] there is judgment and there is a Judge. Johanan's name The marrow of each one's thigh bone was eighteen cubits long. 6 As ornaments. 10 f. for the sake of him who is to live 120 years (Moses). beshagam and Moshe (Moses) both 1 having the same numerical value. 4). Anakim. Deut. were themselves driven from the world in ruin. Emim. 6-7 God. xxvm. THE NEPHILIM WERE IN THE EARTH SAME WERE THE GlBBORIM (E. and say in his heart. 217 . and Awim? Emim signifies that their dread (emah) fell upon all Refaim. Abba said in R. but is a comment on their might. Th. Jast. 4 Gibborim denotes mighty. Zamzumim. Cf. Aha said: Their (nirpeh) like wax. also conjectures that R. : a (40) +v (300) (sc. Gibborim. Jose connects zamzumim with zamam. Hanina b. blessed be He. : R. man Noah) only for the sake of Moses (beshagam). but because the Holy One. holds that this does not actually explain the meaning of the word zamzumim. . s Th. as you 1 &** * (2) +& (3o) +* (3) + (40) JTJD Viz. 6 R. and caused the world to be ruined. 9. (reading ffOTB) : they increased the chains ('ana&m) around the necks ('ana&m) they subjugated many people. great. 7 Th.: they seized (fr. Ilanina said: They were the greatest of all masters of the arts of war. and it implies that owing to their superior military power they could always carry out their schemes. anak 'to press'. R. He renders: My spirit will abide in : - . infra.V. R. 3 V. Papa said: Even Noah who was left of them was left not because he merited it. . intend. 4 Zamzumim: R.e. I. Gibborim : necks reached ('onkim) the globe of the sun 7 and they demanded: 'Send us down rain/ Awim denotes that they cast the world into ruins. x. 23. to devise.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI.

it R. themselves fell world. 218 . I make a ruin ('awwah 'awwah 'awwah) mil Leazar b. 85*2. xxxvin. Levi said: All these names signify chastening: Irad: I shall drive them ('ordari) out of the world. Mehujael: I shall wipe them (mohan) out of the world. It 7] MIDRASH RABBAH a ruin. see a A woman THE MEN They are bell OF RENOWN (HASHEM). WHEN THE SONS OF GOD CAME IN UNTO THE DAUGHTERS OF MEN. for in (naflu) Galilee a serpent is called 'awwiah. The verse ii . Levi explained in the name of R. read. Joshua b. Supra. that they were as expert in the knowledge of signifies ruin. R. Rabbi comwould not learn from the earlier ones. were driven in desolation from the world. 4. Nefilim denotes that they hurled world down. Aha quoted: men the children of churls. would go out into the market and conceive a passion for him. : Johanan interpreted THE SAME WERE THE MIGHTY MEN THAT WERE OF OLD. Berekiah said: place. xvi. 2. Samuel b. R. 8). 4 for R. xxiu. R. and caused the world to be made desolate. Yoma ica. yea. the generation of the Flood from that of Enosh. R. Shab. Simeon said: (Ezek. 32). the Flood. xxi. whereupon she would go. 2 3 4 Infra. but does not necessarily imply renown. In the preceding chapter. young man. and the generation of the Separation from that of mented: The later generations AND ALSO AFTER THAT. R. cohabit. i.XXVI. Methushael: I shall have wear them out (matishan) from the world: What I to do with Lamech and his descendants? 5 R. children of ignoble shem (Job xxx. Deut.e. 1 Judah b. 2 AND ALSO AFTER THAT. and filled the world with abortions (hippilu) the from the through (nefilim) their immorality. it A different kinds of earth as a serpent. Nahman: It means the men whose names are specified above. i. R. and give birth to a young man like him. 24. THE MEN OF NAME: and 1 Num. 5 of Job is understood to refer to this generation of the Flood. OF RENOWN! 3 But yet you say that they were means that they laid the world MEN desolate (heshimu).

it refers to the descent of rain.g. xxxvn. Job xxxvi.. 8 caused the Flood. Hanan said: Had Elihu 4 come for no other purpose but to describe to us the action of the rain5 it would have sufficed him. 1 They were princes of the congregation.. verses in Job describing the deeds of the wicked were held to refer to the generation of the Flood. v. Prov. R. For R. The reference is to Korah and his rebellion. 3 The meaning seems to be. 3 seq. 3 R. Eliphaz the Temanite.g. 7 R. xxxvu. 2 For Rabbi said: Had Job come for no other purpose but to enumerate for us the deeds of the generation of the Flood. Job xxxvi. 7 who enumerates their deeds? THE MEN ENUMERATED BY NAME.. xvi. 3. says. 9 men R. and Zophar the Naamathite.. i. 23. generation of the Flood: whilst elsewhere elect of the assembly. e. z). Aha said: Dissension It it is an evil as the says here. XV. the Elder said Hoshaya : It refers to nought as great else but Revelation. Johanan' s rendering of the phrase. the men of renown (Num. 33. 6 Every time orah (light) is stated in connection with Elihu. 4. is 2 This Many 5 6 7 E. that alone justifies the whole work.g. Since the Torah is called light. Bildad the Shuhite. xxxn. it would have sufficed him. 1 viz.. 4 Mentioned several times in Job. e. How God seq. MEN OF RENOWN. n. Johanan said: fall. 27 30. xxxv.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVI. . as stated in the text.

is written. loc.): R. etc. that which is created to its Creator. These were permitted to enjoy the results of God's work. blessed be He. as it broken up (Prov. R. who compare as it is written. Simon Not with labour or toil did the Holy One. Judan said: Great Is the power of the 21). 26) ' .): they vexed the Holy One. R. this is He it not the R. AND THAT EVERY IMAGINATION OF THE THOUGHTS OF HIS HEART WAS ONLY EVIL ALL DAY (VI. in. : the likeness of the throne clearly than this one: And upon was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above 3 With wisdom. 'And with by wisdom founded the earth (Prov. For all his : '. i-2] CHAPTER XXVII (BERESHITH) AND THE LORD SAW THAT THE WICKEDNESS OF THE MAN WAS GREAT IN THE EARTH. create the world. evil (ib. The heavens have 4 been made (ib. and straightway. 19). with their they grieved evil deeds. (Eccl. Simon2 said We have other verses which display this more written. 5).). yet referred to as a man's voice. likewise refers to God. 21.XX VII. blessed be He. Yet to a man that hath not laboured therein e : THAT THE WICKEDNESS OF THE MAN WAS GREAT. (Dan. 5 Man God. u. And his occupation vexation (ib. I6). cit.): thus shall he leave days are pains etc. * in this verse certainly refers to * V. vin. Hence in Eccl. 21): that refers to 5 the generation of the Flood.) from sin. R. By His knowknowledge" (Eccl. I. Judan generally mentioned. supra. cit. R. And I heard the voice of a man between the 1 banks of the Ulai. The Lord (Ezek. loc. xxxni. Berekiah said in the name of R. Yea. xn. 10.).' as it is written. prophets.: is 8 speaking. n. 23) it means that the Holy One. it for his portion (Eccl. (ib. blessed be He. but 'By the word of the Lord" (Ps. For there II. It Is i. even in the night his heart taketh no rest (ib. is a man whose labour is with wisdom. etc. 2. 220 . 20). 1 God was Th. with their evil deeds. Judan b. Judah b. This also is vanity and a great AND THE LORD SAW it is written. ill. as is clear from the second half of the verse. 6). And with ledge the depths were skill' (Eccl.

. R. the cry of great (Gen. being the cause of God's regret. Berekiah said in R. Hanina interpreted: It waxed ever greater. and so as not to forget it they sprayed perfume there. AND THE LORD SAW THAT THE WICKEDNESS MAN WAS GREAT. * The thieves took the hint. Thus they made preparations by day and carried out their designs at night. a Then why say Riseth with the light? 3 I. Here follows in the original. Sanh. 14). R. they do? They brought balsam. this 221 . and some MSS.e. gezerah shawah. 6). . 5 THE Or simply.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVII. AND IT REPENTED (WAYYINNAHEM) THE LORD THAT HE HAD MADE MAN ON THE EARTH (VI. smeared it over a stone. 4 and would come at night and dig through it. But it is written. Nehemiah interpreted it: to the Sodomites: Verily. omit it entirely. i6)? Why so? Because they make a sign for themselves 'shut themselves up'} in the daytime (ib. 5 for had I created him out of heavenly elements. WAS ONLY On the very night after R. 20). xvm. 3 4. From the rising until the setting of the sun there was no hope [of good] in them. In reference is Sodom and Gomorrah ' ' a longer passage. The analogy teaches that the punishment stated in the one case was also inflicted in the other. as it is written. What did the citizens of Sepphoris do there ? which is obviously only a fragment of 1 Heb. In the dark they dig through houses 2 (ib. V. on earth. affording an analogy. The murderer riseth with the light (Job xxiv. Both stress. they marked in the daytime the spot most favourable for breaking in. ioga for a different version. . below. he would not have rebelled against Me/ R. R. 1 EVIL ALL DAY. Johanan's name: We 3. IJanina taught this in Sepphoris. three hundred house-breakings took place.). What did [E. 2-4 And how do we know that by day too [they did not cease from evil]? WAS ONLY EVIL ALL DAY.V. OF know that the generation of the Flood was punished by water and the Sodomites by fire: whence do we know to apply what is stated here to the case below [sc. Judah said: [God declared:] 'It was a regrettable error on My part to have created him out of earthly elements. and the reverse? Because 'great' is mentioned in both places. the Sodomites]. ON EARTH.

'Even so was it with the Holy One. the desire to evil which the heart harbours. Joshua b. he would have incited the celestial had creatures to revolt. 'Yet did you not die?' 'Gladness at the time of gladness. while elsewhere it says.: possibly R. Cf. mortal and subject to burial. for it is said here. Aibu interpreted: evil urge (yezer ha-ra') error on part to have created an within him. against whom is he to complain ? displeases Surely against the architect! Similarly. blessed be He. vin. blessed be He/ was his rejoinder. 4 IT GRIEVED HIM AT His HEART?' 'Has a son ever been born to you?' inquired he. Joshua b. i.XXVIL I 4] MIDRASH KABBAH comforted (menuham) that I created ^hlm below. Berekiah My said : If a he sees it. R. for him above. for had I not created an evil urge within him.e. The king grieveth for his son' (u Sam. mourned for His world before bringing the IT GRIEVED HIM. made Mm 3 * s Sanh. *The commentaries (with a slightly different reading) explain: that 1 so as to remain in the earth. 'But it is written. Karhah: 'Do you maintain that the Holy One. Levi inter2 that I made him from the earth. 'Yes/ was the answer. and eventually mourning at the time of mourning/ replied he. R. IT GRIEVED HIM AT HIS HEART. Levl said: Seven days the Holy One. 7- 222 . xix. Why then was He originally pleased with the creation ? Seven days is the period of deep mourning for a near relation. Flood. R. Infra XXXII. preted : I am comforted AND IT GRIEVED HIM AT His HEART.e. just as he has incited the terrestrial am I created It was a regrettable beings to revolt. 5 AND 3). blessed be He. it and when king has a palace built by an architect him. 1 Th. Since God was His own Architect. Aibu translates the end of the verse thus: and it grieved Him for his (man's) heart. 3. io8<2. 'for R. i. 1 he would not have rebelled against Me. AND 'And what did you do?' 'I rejoiced and made all others know that he would rejoice/ he answered. A certain Gentile asked 3 R. supra. foresees not the future?' 'Yes/ replied he.

mean? He answered: After 2 the Holy One. 7). Var. to be ready for punishment. and finally.. who are dumb. blessed be He. as you read. 'Overturneth them in ike mght\ a By restraining the planets from functioning. so that they are crushed Hanina taketh knowledge of their works. i-2 CHAPTER XXVIII (BERESHITH) i. Said the king: 'If these. 2: R. that it shall come upon them unawares. xxv. who arose and seized the palace. AND THE LORD SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN WHOM I HAVE CREATED (vi. Similarly. Yema: It is written. who used to rise early and pay their respects to the king with gestures. them for punishment. etc. rise early and pay their with gestures. R. It is as if a king built a palace and tenanted it with dumb people. Abba b. how much more zealous would they respects be if they possessed all their faculties Thereupon the king tenanted it with men gifted with speech. asserting. The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great. cf. Johanan said: The planets for twelve months. Berekiah said in the name of R. and He turneth (Job xxxiv. It repented the Lord. then. And a line (kaw) shall be stretched forth over Jerusalem (Zech. R. AND THE LORD WILL BLOT OUT MAN. Abba b. : and has prepared 8 I. There- fore He 1 [day] to night. etc. supra. asked R. i. He then punishes them. It is written. at first. 16). 9) that means.e. R. Let the waters be gathered together (yikkawu) unto one place (Gen. has turned day into night 3 and put them at their ease. Levi's name thus : Let the waters be gathered together for My purpose. I.V. 'This palace is ours/ 'Then let * ! 1 E. so that it is perpetually did not function dark.[XXVIII. 25). Let there be a measure : set for the water. 223 . Kahana explained it in R. AND THE LORD SAID: I SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN. Jonathan What does Therefore He taketh ' : knowledge of their works'. with their fingers and with their handkerchiefs. lee. [so as to perform what I will one day do with them]. 2.

n. 4). R. 1 'What do they think? That I need armies [to combat them] ? 2 Did I not create the world with a word? I will utter a word and destroy them I' R. xxx. 'Bring me one and I will prove it to you/ he replied. at the beginning ascended from nought but the water. 1 V. 72. R. R. Then let the water come and dissolve the earth. From what part will the Holy One. Jehozadak: Even the nut of the spinal column. xxxr. 5 ' : From the He. said: the former come [in their place]/ Hence it is written. from which the Holy One. 6 5 At the resurrection. xxvn. Judah b. Joshua b. Levi said in R. Thereupon the tongues} arose and rebelled against 'Let these be removed and Holy One. R. which have much more will I be praised when I create man But the and rebelled against Him. but the congregation would not accept it. i. yet it was not burnt he put it in water. R. i. Johanan said in the name of R. the praise of the Almighty Similarly. AND THE LORD R. 2 224 . 6 Hadrian may his bones rot! 7 asked R. Simeon b. In Ms grave. Berekiah said: Surely I created them from the earth. v. blessed be Jianania future. He threw it into the fire. the generation of Enosh arose of the Flood and that of the Separation [of generation Him. will cause man to blossom forth in the 3. Lev. but it did not dissolve. supra. * * 7 Cf. cause man to blossom forth in the future ? ' nut of the spinal column. From sea waters. as it is written. was dissolved. Judah said: lectured thus. Johanan's name: Even the nether 3 stone of a millstone was dissolved. p. supra. 'Blot out* and 'dissolve* are the same word in Hebrew.XXVIIL 2-3] MIDRASH RABBAH the palace return to Its original state/ the king ordered. blessed be He: 'If high is mighty (#. 2. Simon Even the dust of Adam 4 was dissolved. he ground it ' ' ' . blessed be He.) Said neither mouth nor speech. (Ps. ' I of many SAID: I WILL BLOT OUT MAN. how these. xcui. the mighty breakers of the the voices and what did they proclaim? The Lord on the Holy One. How do you know that?' he asked. what dissolves earth? Water. Infra. he replied. 10. V. blessed be He. 8 . do thus.

the son of R. All flesh had corrupted their way. Best quality (alfa) wine. I can impose an interdict (me-maheJi) upon My creatures. actions.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. ft Eccl. ' 7 Connecting ASHER (E. 5 Similarly. Lev. R. 4 He is keeping all for himself. As stated infra. Eleazar said This may be compared to a king who possessed mixed stores. R. remained uncreated. 8 I.V. * Men. 1 'to '] a thousand generations man. yet It remained intact. yet only One man [sc. Huna said in the name of R. 6. but it was not crushed. xn. 'The king is miserly/ 4 What did the king do? He opened up for them the best.e. THE BEST (ASHER) THAT I HAVE CREATED. happy. to be strong. and they interdict filled the country with stench. since there is much that is not They may not criticise He derives 'emheh' from maha. What is the proof? The word which he commanded after [E. yet even so. Noah) out of the best (generations) have I found. He translates: one man only (sc. so that they had to sweep it out and cast it into the fire. But even the best was poor. 1 4. to forbid. Eliezer. I WILL BLOT OUT (EMHEH) MAN WHOM I HAVE CREATED. vn. Hence i . Jose the Galilean: Nine hundred and seventy-four. Noah] among a thousand (elef) have I found (Eccl. Alfa (alpha) is the first letter of Hebrew and Greek alphabets. R. the generations until the Flood. but My creatures cannot impose an : 2 upon Me. V. for the other generations which I had intended to create would have been worse. twenty-six in all. whence by transference. to be the best. 3 Stores of commodities. and therefore denotes best quality. IX. saying. 7 [God] contemplated creating a thousand generations. hence translating: I will blot out man (though he is of) the best that I have created. good and bad mixed together. 5 The worst would have been even more offensive and unbearable. whom *) with ashar. it will remain as the nucleus of the resurrected xvin. revealed to them. 5. 3 and his subjects criticised him. 3-4 between millstones. he placed It on an anvil and smote it with a hammer. [elef being used in the same sense] as when we learned. 28). 225 Q . these were the best of them. WILL OUT MAN. and how many of them were blotted out? 8 R. 6 and they have acted thus therefore I BLOT . the anvil was cleft and the hammer split. were the best of the My thousand generations which God had contemplated creating.

cv. Hag. 6). 1 Interpreting: after a 226 . i). behold. 26). R. generations Eccl. verify^ their sin is exceeding of Judah and 20). With reference to : Sodom grievous is it is written. whereas of the tribes The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah most exceeding great (Ezek. (Gen. 9)*. 13^. while of the former a remnant was left. from Abraham to Moses. i. FROM THE FACE OF THE EARTH. Nahman: Nine hundred and eighty. But the reason is the latter. They were exiled to Assyria after the overthrow of their kingdom. ' ' Kahana said The ten tribes did what was not done even reference to the by the generation of the Flood. righteous men and women R. says. never stretched forth their hands to : The Torah was to have been commanded. to how do we know (Micah n. Berekiah said: The tribes of Judah and Benjamin did what was not done even in Sodom. It was left only for the sake of the destined to arise from righteous men and women that were is them that devise iniquity and work evil upon their beds them. 10. thousand generations. 3. hence the other 974 were 2 Which was enjoined upon Abraham. at night. after only twenty blotted out. they execute of the Flood] not a remnant was left. And every imagination generation evil all day (Gen. 22) 4 that were to arise from them. yet of the latter not a remnant was left. it is written.XXVIII. Woe 3 : 5. Levi said in the of R. for the sake of the daughters (Ezek. 4. i. it was revealed after 26 generations (from Adam to Noah. 8).e. Cf. 15. both sons and meaning. from Noah to Abraham. however. Samuel b. there shall be left a remnant therein that shall be brought forth. ix. SJS. of the thoughts of his heart was only whereas with reference to the ten tribes it is written. name The word which he commanded after What is the proof? 2 a thousand generations refers to circumcision. while of generation these a remnant was left. And. i. IV. R. xvm. as it is written.). With of the Flood. Abba b. * 4 Me'od (exceeding) being repeated. 6. 10. R. vi. R. Benjamin it And. 4~5] (Ps. Yet of those [the light. xrv. Actually. revealed. a Comprising the Kingdom of Northern Israel. implying. 5). When the that they did so by day too ? Because morning it (ib. That was overthrown as in a moment (Lam. MIDRASH KABBAH 1 which refers to the Torah. And it is stated. total.

GescMchte.10 R. Hands therein accepted no which R. and so it was as though they had sodden their own children. 8 the Cherethites' : [Others] interpret it in a laudatory sense. Surely not. That maketh (koreth) 6. rv. from which he derives le-baroth. which means that for they deserved to be annihilated (kareth). 7 6 V. since nothing was left for them and they had to die of hunger. in. 8 Th. S. (korethe) a covenant with Me by sacrifice. as you read. R. II. 10 ( 13). 9 10 The fat animals and birds which they ate led them into evil.: proselyte. this is called habra'ah (the meal of comfort). etc. R.\ l : it is written. the nation of the Cherethites (Zeph. 5 good deeds. v. V. Huna said What was perpetrated by the coastal cities 4 was not perpetrated even by the generation of the Flood. AND BEAST. receives from their hands. whereat the king became angry with his son and slew him. as it is written. 2 But the former stretched forth their hands to good deeds. softens this by explaining: they gave their last morsel. conjectures that the reference is to Ps. R. 5 : Those that have made 3. duties (ib. they even cooked their own children for the purpose! *EJ. Antioch. R. v. men (proselytes) who arose from the Gentiles.V.S. blessed be He. 5-6 as it is written. on in. 123. 10. Lam.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. Tanhuma interpreted: Hand did not join hand. 7 'The nation of the covenant. Gaza. Schurer. Having nothing else. 4. AND FOWL OF THE AIR. L. Ashkelon. 104^. To give assistance. BOTH MAN. The first meal eaten by a mourner after the funeral must not own but must be provided by his neighbours. Said the king: 'Did any lead my son into evil ways save this man: my son has 9 perished and this man lives!' Therefore [God destroyed] AND BEAST. Yet for whose sake do they stand? For the sake of one nation6 and one God-fearing person whom the Holy One. I. AND CREEPING THING. Sanh. be his se'tidath The rich never helped the poor. Phinehas said A king BOTH MAN E. The hands of women full of compassion have sodden their own children and provided the mourner's meal? R. Judan said: This may be illustrated by the case of a king who entrusted led his son to a teacher who him into evil ways. 10 (13) . 5 * Yet the former are still in existence. 3 Ib. Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea-coast. 227 . lee. 5). ( : 1 * No hands fell upon her. Lam. on the pious Var.

And with the wicked (ib. Huna and R. the text being in the singular. 10). R. their silver. and their gold have they made them idols. painting. s Lit. First the Holy One. 2 ' R.] which caused the wicked to stumble.XXVIII. Thy silver is i. lest they should say. 1. that *X sc. 20). 6-8] MIDRASH RABBAH chamber gave his son in marriage and prepared a nuptial and decorating it. etc. / will consume man and the beast. Of their silver gold. 228 . 8. as it is written. (Zeph. blessed be He. VIII. and then return. Subfor him. hence it is written. there was abundant prosperity. and then return/ whereupon it would go. I. 3 as a man says out the name of So-and-so who led my son into evil : ' paths/* R. [The verse continues]. R. V. for one would catch a bird and say to it. 'That they may be cut off/ And I will blot but That it may be cut off ($. : 1 1 Since the animals were created for the sake of man. Judah's name: All acted corruptly in the generation of the Flood the dog [copulated] with the wolf. 'He needs our wealth. : e. which led to evil. destroyed their wealth. . Sanh. Jeremiah in the name of R. Samuel b. exclaiming: 'My son has perished: shall these remain!' Therefore 1 [God destroyed] BOTH MAN AND BEAST.' And their abundance the fire hath consumed (ib.g. 3). Go. translation. Isaac said: It is not written. : went forth with them from Egypt become dross (Isa.}i It was they [the stumblingblocks animals. loSa. plastering. etc.. and rent the curtains. tore down the partitions. Eleazar quoted: Surely their substance is cut off (Job xxn. 22) multiplied unto her silver and which they used for Baal (Hos. fatten thyself.} they saw their chains of gold melted in the fire. may be cut off. (ib. son and slew him. etc. 4). * Similarly. since that led them into sin. fatten itself. Akiba said: All [the prophets] complained of the gold and silver which 7.). the fowl with the peacock . sequently the king was angry with his he entered the nuptial chamber and broke whereupon the [supporting] rods. n.e. 'Azariah said in R.

BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN : ME NOAH ! THE EYES OF THE LORD. etc. 229 . neither have they any more a portion in the world [to come] on account of every5 thing that was done [by them] under the sun (ib. As well their love i. 3 that they have no portion in the World beings. 6. stated in Sanh. will boil up in Gehenna every single drop which He poured out on them. Julian [Lulianus] b. Eccl. Kahana observed FOR IT REPENTETH THAT I HAVE MADE THEM AND not 6 Even Noah.). x. Sanh. blessed be He. What time they wax be 17). (darnel or rye-grass). etc. 4.e. which means. 10. they vanish (Job VI. and provoked they His jealousy. Johanan: The Holy One. for the pseudo. 8 1 For all flesh had corrupted their way. IX. R. Is long ago perished. 6) (*&. n. surely however. supra.wheat we now find came from the age of the deluge. (Gen. Isaac's name: Even the earth acted lewdly. wheat was sown and it 2 produced pseudo. vi. Cf. but because he found grace: hence. Johanan said: We learnt 3 The judgment of the generation of the Flood lasted twelve months having received their punishment. are they to enjoy a portion in the World to Come?* Said R. it is written. produce it and pour it : : down upon them.GENESIS (BERESHITH) [XXVIII. 'Ed. R. blessed be He. R. Cf. they will destroyed absolutely by scalding water. I2). Abba b. Hence the Flood destroyed 3 Jast. ix. 6 7 By disregarding the punctuation it appears that even Noah was included. 7. R. they loved idolatry. R. 4 to 5 But it is come. Infra. 7 1 Not only human 2 io8a.wheat. was left not because he deserved it. io8a. Tiberius said in R. Sanh. As their hatred (Eccl. Thus hot. xxxm. Lev. all.): hated the Holy One. FOR IT REPENTETH ME. xxvij 6. vn.

He delivereth him innocent (I naki). on i nabd.3 ] CHAPTER i. ix. But Noah was left only because he found grace. to receive the Torah. Israel. delivered? an ounce merit]. 7 God did not find grace in him. BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES He OF THE LORD? found. xrvm ad fin. 8). and David. i. Simon said: The Holy One. ix. 230 . 8). Simon interpreted: One.: He found these three Lit.' etc. It is man went out to his vineyard and seeing a single bunch pronounced a blessing over it. saying. Referring it to God i. hence. to introduce the worship of the true God. as a special act of * 4 He refers the verse to Noah. why was he (unkiaf [of This agrees Through the cleanness of Thy hands*? For it repent eth Me with what R. thou shalt be delivered through R. 10). Hanina1 said: Noah possessed less than (Job xxn. XXIX (BERESHITH) IN THE EYES OF THE that is BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE LORD (vi. t BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD. R.' Even so. 21). I have found David servant (Ps. Supra grace. Hanina of Anatoth said. LXV. "finds' when the moment was opportune: Abraham. found three treasures 6 And Thou foundest his [Abraham's] 3. Mah. 'Thus saith the Lord: 5 A$ when wine is found in the cluster.e. BUT NOAH FOUND Only l GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD. replied he. blessed be He. 30). 6 with whom He was pleased.XXIX. 4 2. for a a certain pious [ripe] blessing is in related that (Isa. : R. because he was not actually righteous save by contrast with his contemporaries. Kahana said: that I have made them and Noah. Var. Abba b. I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness (Hos. 8). as though it read unkia : He delivereth him that a hath an ounce of merit. 'This single bunch merits a blessing. is Simon quoted: Thus it saith the : wine found in the cluster\ one saith Destroy Lord: As. 7 R. lee. R. when it not. If so. : heart faithful before Thee (Neh. blessed be He. LXXXIX. the cleanness of thy hands yea. His colleagues objected: Surely My it is written. to wield 1 2 Tfiis is a play t sovereignty over Israel. but the Holy did not find.

for the sake of the 1 generation of the wilderness. while in another passage we read. Abbahu said: We find that the Holy One. Lakish. i5). xxxix. R. Simon has just spoken about 'finding*. intimacy. R. To what extent? Until he was knit to him in love. 2 'Favour' and 'grace* are the same in Hebrew (hen). To what extent? So much that he conferred dominion upon him. How 5 he knew which animal was to be fed at two hours of the day and which beast was to be fed at three hours of the night. Similarly.GENESIS (BERESHITH) The people that were [XXIX. Johanan said: Imagine a man walking on a road. and the Rabbis do explain. Similarly. Similarly. 1 231 . Johanan's name. R. io8&. Hunia and R. xu. 4.: this is mentioned in passing. 3-5 left of the sword have found grace in the wilderness (Jer. when he saw a man whom he attached to himself so strongly that he gave him his daughter in marriage. R. 3 The Rabbis said: It may be compared to one who was walking on a road. xxxi. 'grace is said here. while elsewhere it says. Phinehas. Simeon b. shows mercy to the descendants for the sake of their Th. R. Lakish said: Imagine a man walking on a road. when he saw someone whom he attached to himself. R. Ilanan and R. Sanh. Thus Noah found as much favour in God's sight as Joseph in his master's. because R. 2): that means. when he saw someone whom he attached to himself. blessed be He. 3). And Joseph found favour [grace] in his 2 sight (Gen. 4 Which will unite them as though in wedlock with the Almighty. 4 far [did God's favour to Noah extend] ? Until io). Simeon b. 'grace' is said here. Each successive comparison connotes a higher degree of favour and 6 V. while elsewhere it is said. Berekiah in R. 5. R. 3 The result being that Ahasuerus made her queen so that she enjoyed honour and power. n. 'grace' is said here. Hoshaia do not explain [what grace Noah found]. And I will pour upon the house of David and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem the spirit of grace (Zech. And Esther obtained favour 3 in the sight of all them that looked upon her (Est.

These are the Lit. . earlier ones. as 2 generations of Noah. 2 Interpreting: But Noah found grace because of these generations that followed him 232 .XXIX. 1 1 Because BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE. which was it is written. . for the sake of his offspring. 1 to the forbears for the sake of their descendants it says. 'later ones . mercy 5] MIDRASH KABBAH But how do we know that the Lord shows ? forbears.

CHAPTER i-3 XXX NOACH (vi. * as a means of cursing. 4 But Noah's only intention was to be fruitful and multiply in the world: : hence. Here that 'these* is written. 'and these* (we-eleh) written. xn. 44*2. adds to the preceding. The wicked are overthrown^ and are not (ib. He who punished 2. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH the whirlwind passeth. But the tent of the upright shall flourish (ib. But the house of the this refers to Noah: righteous shall stand (ib. ' i.e. B. 28. x.e. [as people curse]. 5 Cf. 3 And why all this? Because. Their portion is cursed in the earth the generation (ib. as it lasting foundation* ' is an everwritten. the wicked is ' 9).1 is swift (kal) upon the face of the waters (Job xxiv. a voice: there is a voice. I. i. THESE: it Abbahu said: Wherever 'these' (eleh) cancels the preceding.e. a decree. Noah alone was blessed with generations which continued after him and formed the origins of the new world.[XXX.M. they shall remain in the earth only Dan.). When no more. but the When righteous is an everlasting foundation (Prov. decree was pronounced against them that they should perish by water2 . 233 . cf. He turneth not by the way of the vineyards (ib. iv. the whirlwind passeth y the wicked is no more this refers to the generation of the Flood. Sanh. But the righteous this refers to Noah. They indulged in sexual enjoyment without 1 the intention to procreate. 7) : this refers to the generation of the Flood . 25). is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF No AH: NOAH WAS A RIGHTEOUS MAN. 3. is THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH. * Cf. The house of the wicked shall be overthrown (ib. it I. S R.) THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NOAH. 2 Kal is connected with kol.} this refers to Noah: THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF NoAH. io8a.) their intention was not to plant vineyards. He 1 8): A of the Flood [punish them]. n): this refers to the generation of the Flood . xiv.

religious actions. as in v.? It teaches. 6. Terah begot Abram. Interpreting: The offspring of Noah were his righteousness and good & deeds. I. The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life. supra. Abba b. 3-6] MIDRASH RABBAH What does it cancels the preceding. And he that [its is wise taketh souls: for and good he fed and provided for the Ark. Judan said in R. [a comfort] THESE ARE THE OFFSPRINGS OF NOAH: NOAH. xxxvm. Abba's in [Abraham] shaltgo to thy fathers [God] informed him that his in the World to Come Thou shalt be father had a portion buried in a good old age (ib. When he was about to Huna said in R. Whoever has to : his world and in the name thus repeated has a portion in this World to Come* They raised an objection him But it is written. : 5. 3i)? leave it. shall the righteous 5 be requited in the earth (ib. R. 4 9 234 . * so that its offspring are not to be counted. 27) : has he a world? Even this portion in this world and in the future does not contradict me. Behold. a comfort to celestial beings and to mortals. After all inhabitants] the whole twelve months in this praise. a comfort to his fathers and a comfort to his children. Infra. xi. for R. : He . 30) : what is the fruit of the righteous? Life. Kahana said: 4. to comfort. xii . XI. 2 tliou name: But xv. 'These are the offspring of Noah: Shem/ etc. of the Flood. 1 cancel ? The generation THESE ARE THE OFFSPRING OF NOAH: NOAH [WAS A RIGHTEOUS MAN]. 3 in this world and in the World to Come. the generation of the Flood perished completely. 15) peace (ib. 3. is wise taketh souls (Prov. that he was a comfort to himself and a comfort to the world.XXX.) He informed him that Ishmael would repent. THESE ARE THE OFFSPRING OF NOAH: NOAH. Connecting noah with nahem. 4 written. 29. it is Thus and he that deeds. The Midrash understands this as a question. however. he replied. etc. Liezer's 1 Cf. etc.e. was he requited? Surely R. 12. Now these are the generations of Terah. Surely Scripture should have written. (Gen.

7.V. Noah was thus punished for his sins (v. 4 Probably referring to Babylon. 7 generation of the A maimed person may not engage in sacrificial service. supra: God did not find grace in Noah). Genesis Rabbah being a Palestinian work. intimates that they despised him and called him. 6-7 name: When Noah was leaving the Ark a lion set on Mm and maimed him. how much more then are the really wicked to be punished! 3 V. Infer from this: How much more the wicked and the sinner (&. 'arouse/ 'stir up/ 6 Translating : to the metal-hearted who are at ease. Wherever 'a man occurs. vn. thought of him that A contemptible is brand (lappid buz) in the at ease. GENERATIONS] A MAN For a whole one hundred and twenty years 3 asked. 1 1 : . 5).GENESIS (NOACH) [XXX. Thus their disaster came from below and above. 3. 1 A 2 235 . stir him up! >5 'Buz' (contempt) people say. which refers to the 2 generation of the Flood. Gen. Were all the fountains of the great deep broken up f and the windows of heaven were opened. it will come only upon your father's house!' Thus it is written.). 7 Cf. so that he was not fit to sacrifice. 'brand') means. Abba interpreted: The Holy One. 'Contemptible old man!' In the thought o/(Ie-'ashtoth) him that is at ease: this teaches that they were as hard as metal 6 ('ashtoth). Noah/ 'Arouse him. it indicates a righteous man who warned [his generation]. said: 'One herald arose for me in the For elsewhere 4 Flood. to stir up. . 1 and his son Shem sacrificed in his stead. VI. . On being 'Why are you doing this?' he replied: 'The Lord universe has informed me that He will bring a Flood in the world/ Said they [his contemporaries] to him: 'If a Flood does come. 5 Aramaic lepod. which according to the Rabbis meant that God gave izo years' warning before bringing the Flood. blessed be He. of the Noah planted cedars and cut them down. In spite of his comparative righteousness. viz. This is quoted to show that lappid (E. Gen. a thing ready for them whose foot slippeth (Job xn. R. ' [NOAH WAS IN HIS [RIGHTEOUS AND WHOLE-HEARTED]. thing ready for them whose foot slippeth: disasters were ready for them: a disaster from above two and a disaster from below.

Levi said Everyone of whom it is said that he was (hayah) saw a new world. 2) predestined to exile Job was (Job i. [Similarly]. Thus Noah lived 350 years after the Flood. Abraham was one> and he inherited the land (Ezek. Joseph yesterday. ix. including the 99th year. etc. in. XXXIH. Again. 4. that was his end *. WAS. * Since there was a change in his life. 5): destined for redemption. for R. man whom the Scripture designates Whole-hearted' completed 1 his years according to the measure of the Septennate. 3. Johanan said: Every man of whom it is said he was (hayah) remained unchanged from beginning to end. 236 . iv. ! : ! : 1 I. The serpent was (ib. His feet they hurt with fetters (Ps. and now he plunges him into that : ! ' * : : : . which is 77 years more. n. 'is become*. NOAH WAS: destined Moses was (Ex. and lived to the age of 175. Noah: yesterday [it was a case of] The waters wear the stones (Job xiv. Supra. his contemporaries. * Lit. 22) means: destined to die. i): destined to be a for a miracle 6 redeemer . i): destined to punishment. cv. vi. Behold. the man was (Gen. R. he replied R. 6) he was fleeing from Pharaoh. Nzanbers and Numeral. translation of hayah. And Joseph was the governor over the land Thus he saw a new world. (Gen. *that was his beginning.V. 2 An objection was raised But it is written. R. Then how is 'was' to be understood in his case?3 He was destined to lead the whole world to 5 4 repentance. while now. 19). Johanan and R. Thus in that respect he remained unchanged. Johanan's name Even the nether millstone was dissolved 8 by the water whereas now you read. Said R. Moses yesterday (Gen. 3. 8. 5 Lit. 6 7 Or possibly: destined to be a sign to 8 Ex. Similarly. XLII. 18) Thus he saw a new world. 8] MIDRASH RABBAH Bar Hutah said: Every * WHOLE-HEARTED.Mordecaiwa$(Est. n. : . Samuel b.E. art. 24): was he then unchanged from beginning to end That too does not refute me. Abraham was told to be whole-hearted when he was commanded to circumcise himself at the age of 99. David lived 70 years. Levi said in R. Cain was (ib.XXX. E. Hanina both said Abraham was forty-eight years old when he recognised his Creator. R. 7 R. Nahman: And they are five. jf. Est. And the sons of Noah that went forth. 1 8). in. 4 From birth. he lived a multiple of seven years after this epithet was applied to him. ' J : : . i) destined to suffering. xxvm. On the significance of 7 v.e.

ib. R. XLII. 13). Nehemiah differed. 'Is there any better here?' he retorted. another and found it Only in his generations was he a [by comparison] . and now he executes his executioner! Thus he saw a new world. He poureth out my gall upon the ground (Job xvi. had he flourished in the 'It is vinegar. Shab. R. (Job xxxi. vi. Berekiah and R. Job: yesterday. etc. 17) ? did not the fatherless eat thereof! But did Mordecai actually feed and sustain? 1 Said R. Noah fed and sustained [the inmates of the Ark] twelve months. Mordecai yester(ib. he would not have been called righteous: in the street of the totally blind. 7. IN HIS GENERATIONS said: If he Nehemiah was 5 righteous even in his generation. and the infant is called a scholar. cf. Eleazar s name said Milk came to him and he suckled her. 10) day he was ready for the gallows. Judah said: R. 8-9 the sea! Thus he saw a new world. Joseph fed and sustained: And Joseph sustained. turning/ people said to him. Similarly. Judan: On one occasion he went round to all the wet nurses but could not find one for Esther. XLVII. the third.. he found turning sour. 1 how much more so [had 2 4 Surely there is no record of that I * Makshirin vi. And take thou unto ! : thee of all food that is eaten (Gen. righteous man generation of Moses or Samuel. And the Lord gave Job twice as much as he had before Thus he saw a new world. however. the one-eyed man is called clear-sighted. 536. Job fed and sustained: Or have I eaten my morsel myself alone. Abbahu in R. While now. Moses fed and sustained [the Israelites] the whole forty years in the wilderness. R. Judah and R. (ib. 21). The Rabbis said: Every man of whom it is said that he 'was* (hay ah) fed and sustained others. and he never sought a wet-nurse. Always. IN HIS GENERATIONS. It is as if a man who had a wine vault opened one barrel and found it vinegar . 2 When R. * In spite of his corrupt environment. Abbahu taught this publicly.GENESIS (NOACH) [XXX. the congregation laughed. 4 : : : 9. as it says. R. Est. he was a righteous man. Eleazar said The milk of a male is clean. 237 . 12). etc. whereupon he himself suckled f her. Said he to them Yet is it not a Mishnah ? 3 R. Simeon b.

come and walk with rather to be compared to that of a king who was sinking in dark alleys. spreading His knowledge. Johanan's name and Resh Lakish gave two illustrations of this. and when the king looked out and saw him sinking [in the about in dark mud].XXX. i). written. 'Instead of plunging But Abraham's case is me/ alleys. Abraham and Isaac walked before God and in His protection. 238 . as it were. Nehemiah said: He might be compared to a king's friend who was plunging about in dark alleys. which nevertheless gave forth a fragrant odour. and when his friend saw him he shone a Said he to him. to Abraham. 2 Similarly. R. [He said. 5 : On the view of Resh Lakish : 1 Sanfa. And The God whom my view We need His proximity. XLVIII. he said to him. whose [moral] strength before Me (Gen. 'place We must 5 protection. WITH GOD.] Walk thou whose strength was feeble [it says]. z As an escort. NOAH WALKED WITH This may be compared to a king who had two sons. To the 'Walk before me. Judah said: 10. make known his coming. xvn. one child he said.' Even so did the Holy One. of lighting me through the window. blessed be J ' 3 NOAH WALKED ' Instead of showing a light for Me He. Johanan's Similarly. Abraham and Isaac walked before 4 Lit. of Noah. 2 Resh Lakish said: It was as if a prince walked 3 T along w hile the elders preceded him. On R. etc. be near to God. R. come and show one ' light : before Me in Eretz Israel/ it is he blessed Joseph. how much * more then if it were outside the graveyard ! GOD. (Gen. R. 15). grown up and the other a child. 4 He needs us to glorify Him. 'Walk mth me/ but to the adult. to '. was great. and said: fathers Abraham and Isaac did before walk. Similarly. God. Johanan said: It was as if a shepherd stood and watched his flocks. R. so as to enjoy His By propagating the knowledge of His greatness. Berekiah in R. Instead light for him through the window. He might be compared to lived] in the age of a tightly closed phial of perfume lying in a graveyard. Similarly. he g-io] MIBRASH KABBAH Moses. come and show a before me. say to Abraham from Mesopotamia and its environs.

neither from them nor Why so? Because 'Neither is their dazzling magnificence. tl there nohah [E. 8 The idea of this ending here and the following passages is probably that notwithstanding all the other wrongs they perpetrated. xxvm. who was left. Yet if it has.[XXXI. 13). possibly too the latter 239 . nought comethfrom them. "Nought cometh from them. FOR THE EARTH IS is COME BEFORE FILLED WITH VIOLENCE THROUGH THEM. that Abba b. Translating: Not even Noah among them was worthy. supra. save that he found 5 grace as it is written. i-2 XXXI (NOACH) i. z ruah. 8. 11). 7 f. the Flood actually carne on account of robbery. nor from their tumult (hamonani)/ 'Nor * from their turmoil (hemehem) from their wealth1 nor from ' : i. CHAPTER It is written.). lit. etc. nor from their tumult (hamonam).e.V. as it says.e. 2 nor among did the Holy One. Sanh. Hamon Nahath sometimes used in that sense. 9. Reading nohah actual reading. But even Noah. 7 Actually between the rows of olives. But Noah found grace (*6. vn. n): 7 up small oil-presses . so as to press them immediately. FOR THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH VIOLENCE THROUGH THEM (vi. v. v. it is as 'A rod of wickedness' to punish the wicked. * 'pleasing' or 'calming of the spirit". 3 was their 5 Heb. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH: THE END OF ALL FLESH ME. (nohah) among them (Ezek. 3 'Neither is there nohah among them': There was them'. was not worthy. blessed be He. they were blotted out from the world. No none to say to them: 'Let there be lamenting!' 4 Again: 'Neither was there nohah among them' [is to be explained] as R. vi.). Kahana commented: For it repenteth Me / have made them and Noah (Gen. They tread cf. nehi> i. cf. eminency"} creature ever enjoyed satisfaction. Violence is risen up as a rod of wickedness. penitence. receive satisfaction from them. Violence is risen up' heaven forfend! It has not risen up.6 2. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH: THE END OF ALL FLESH IS COME BEFORE ME. They made oil that 1 means is that they set within their rows. Eccl. (Job xxiv. (m) as noah (rn) . io8a. nor from their turmoil (hemeheni) neither is there eminency . And because they were steeped in robbery.

1 Th. They cry for help ' by reason of the arm of the mighty to the oppressors : the latter contended with the former. etc. gezel (robbery). AND ' GOD NOAH. THE END (KEZ) OF ALL FLESH (BASAR) COME BEFORE ME: The time has come for them .XXXL 2-5] MI0RASH KABBAH and suffer thirst (ib. ' What hamas* (violence) and what is gezel (robbery)? Said R. AND GOD SAID UNTO NOAH. 4. even when they tread their wine-presses. R. Hanina: Hamas (violence) refers to what is worth a perutah. : AND GOD NOAH. the term of their indictments has come. is to be cut down (hikkazez) the time has come for them to be treated as unripe grapes (boser)*. they were blotted SAID TO out from the world hence. until the decree of their judgment was sealed. etc. And because they were steeped in robbery they were blotted SAID UNTO out from the world: hence. they cry for help by reason of the arm of the mighty (Job xxxv. 5. By reason of the multitude of (merob) oppressions they cry out. By a play on words. they were blotted out from the world: hence. multitude of) is connected with rib * strife. and the former with the 1 latter. 10). 240 . and they abhor him that speaketh uprightly (Amos v. fcz (rp) and basar are connected with fufekazez (facpn) and baser (isni) respectively. and suffer thirst ? Because a curse rested upon the toil of the wicked. to what is of less value than a is ' * and menbah^ conjectures that merob (E. And because they were steeped in robbery. Aibu said: ' * Why do They tread their wine-presses. they suffer thirst. He [Noah] reproved them: 'Ye good-for-nothings! Ye forsake Him whose voice breaks cedars and worship a dry log!' And because they were steeped in robbery. 9): 'By reason of the multitude of oppressions ' they cry out refers to the oppressed . 3.): their wine-presses.V. Why all this? BECAUSE THE EARTH IS FILLED WITH VIOLENCE (HAMAS) THROUGH THEM. etc. They hate him that reproveth in the gate.

6. Is not their tent-cord plucked up within i. the hamas [E. add: and she'er must refer to incest. Lev. Idolatry. cf. WILL DESTROY THEM WITH THE R. in the verse implies that they rejected Him whose glory fills the earth. and that without wisdom (Job iv. perutah 2 being the smallest coin. robbery. 'Hamas' connotes as gi R. Another interpretation : FOR THE EARTH etc. xxvi. BEHOLD. 5 V. Whereupon the Holy One. so that he had no redress at law. 8 I Murder: For meaning 7. R. Now these are the ordinances [judgments] which thou shalt set (tasim) before them (Ex. 'any that is near of kin to him'. Now 'meszm' can only refer to judgment.V. they perish for ever without any regarding (mesim) it (zb. 'violence'] against the because they have shed innocent blood (Joel ofjudah 19). and the text too demands it. 20). die. The commentaries reverse these definitions. v. supra. is it is AM 7 written. of which the whole chapter treats.V. lit. done to hamas) and 35). 3 improperly. and murder. 5 is FILLED WITH HAMAS (VIOLENCE). vin. in the latter case there was no redress. In addition. This is not altogether clear. 241 R . 1 Huna and name A. 3 Here * 6 a way that you will not relish. 'his flesh')- 8 Viz.e. 570. to my flesh me (hamasi upon Babylon (Jer. Others. so will I too deal with you improperly/ 2 Hence it is them? They 21): without the wisdom of the Torah. 3 as you read. It is explained in the 2ia np> thus: I. children LV. incest.e. FOR THE EARTH The violence (she'eri) be FILLED WITH fr. Betwixt morning and evening they are shattered. hamas (violence) bears its literal also. 17. And this is what the people of the age of the Flood used to do When a man brought out a basket full of lupines one would come and seize less than a perutah' s worth and then everyone would come and seize less than a perutah s worth. read: In that they Jill the earth with hamas (violence) Ezek. 5-7 perutah.GENESIS (NOACH) 1 : [XXXI. LI. because they evaded its provisions. which refers to idolatry. 6. The term in Hebrew includes adultery. : besaro. 7 MSS. in the sense of civil law I. hence they engaged in idolatry. xxi. also Sanh. xvm. Levi said: idolatry. A s 6 Incest : . however. said: 'Ye have acted [for sale]. i).e. 6 None of you shall approach to she'er besaro (E. blessed be He. 4 written. Jeremiah in R. Kahana's EARTH.

2) is likewise clear in meaning. But the meaning of Make thee a fiery serpent clear. The earth too being regarded as man's 3 What was to be made. etc. I Will them/ 2 Thus: MAKE THEE AN ARK OF GOPHER WOOD. and whenever he did wrong. ginia. gint. in 3 three places it is explained. 7 R. R. R. 7~9] MIDRASH RABBAH DESTROY THEM WITH THE EARTH: destroy them and the earth with said: Even the three handbreadths of the earth's surface 1 which the plough turns was washed away. 7 For only Hebrew do these words Viz. (vi. since this nehash nehosheth that the Torah word corresponds to the other. The material in is left in doubt. was punished. ittha. Moses. nahash (serpent). 2) means flint knives. 4 R. In four places this phrase "Make thee' is employed. a serpent of brass (ib. Similarly.V. I WILL behold. I. Make thee two trumpets of silver (Num. 4. Hence I will make it of nehosheth 6) applies to (brass). Phinehas and R. Isaac said: Thus translating the verse literally. is of cedar meant. antropia. Nathan said: That means with beams of cedar. x. 'ROOMS'] SHALT THOU MAKE THE ARK: i. said. Judan said in R. viz. v. Cf. etc. Make thee knives offlint (Josh. WITH KINNIM [E.e. Hezekiah in R. blessed be He. or as if a royal prince had a nurse. gabretha? But [we do say] ish and ishai why? because one form corresponds to the other. 5 R. 8) is not THEE AN ARK. xxvili. supra. who reasoned thus: If I make it of or of silver (kesef). correspond. supra. * 242 . itha. 14). It is as if a royal his tutor prince had a tutor. so was the world created with Hebrew: have you ever heard one say. and whenever he did wrong. 8 9. the Holy One. as * it A kind were. and increase in learning (Prov. * V. gabra.XXXI. while in one it is not explained. these words do not corregold (zahaV) 6 spond to the other. 'BEHOLD. * 5 1 nurse. Issi said: 8. MAKE The wise man may hear. his nurse was punished. cells and chambers. xxi. Simon's name said: Just as the Torah was given in Hebrew. antropi. xvin. 6. Assi's name: (ib. 9): this proves was given in Hebrew.

which has an unpleasant odour. pitch on the outside to make it watertight.K. so shall thy ark cleanse thee. slime on the inside but not pitch. but not on the inside.GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXI. Solomon. And she it with slime and with pitch (Ex. and with pitch on the outside only. 3). even Noah was not worthy hence he needed cleansing. Huna said: said: Because On THE LENGTH CUBITS. the Torah teaches you practical knowledge. connecting kinrdm with "k.T. XLI. 4 [is written THIS is where]. was threescore cubits. 15. 3 10. 4 Sc.en. She daubed it with slime on account of the water.e. v. God thereby intimating that one day another edifice of a different nature would be measured. that if . 2 AND THOU SHALT PITCH IT WITHIN AND WITHOUT WITH PITCH. 5 The quotation is incorrect. and the breadth twenty cubits (n Chron. On the present reading the idea is somewhat similar: with slime on the inside as an additional means of making it watertight. 8 Tebah and tiU^on corresponding. .: because with it they fitted (the timber. 4 seq. 'And* is regarded as an extension.). 9-10 1 Just as a ken (pair of birds) cleanses a leper. The ancient (first) measure is taken to refer to Noah's measuring 2 of the ark. ancient city of Egypt. etc. . II. i2<z. 9 . 3 Sot. Lev. 7 The Rabbis account of Noah's tebah (ark). xxvin. R. Bar Huta quoted: J will meditate V. [would have sufficed] [God intimated] : Another destined to measure with thy cubit. Judan said: AND THIS : (vi. as it is written. reverse it: with slime on account of the smell and with pitch on account of the water i. they used this measure for building. viz. in. precepts 15 1 . edd. Yet elsewhere it says. This is a play on words. and Y. v. M. the Temple. 3)? There.e. AND THIS is HOW THOU SHALT MAKE IT 15). which may be the source of the error.): in Thy I will delight myself in Thy statutes (Ps. since the water [of the Nile] was gentle. The * length of the building after the ancient [lit.). first '] measure was twenty cubits. . 8 OF THE ARK THREE HUNDRED f. on account of the smell. XIV. cubit. Cur. supra. I. and should read : The length by cubits . 6 Thebaic 7 An . comes from Thebes. 5 And why it is it [the cubit] called tibikon?* R. R. 21. Ex. cxix. supposed to be the royal cubit of the Egyptians (Jast. i. Ezek. etc. And with pitch on account daubed ' ' ' * of the odour.

when they were dim we knew that We shone brightly that it A CUBIT SHALT THOU FINISH IT UPWARD. it troops in the caves of Tiberias. R. 4 I. Abba b. R. compartments running along each side and leaving two cubits at the [outer] sides. a gangway one cubit in breadth ran right round the outer side of the ark. R. These were the proportions of Noah's ark. thus accounting for two cubits. a 10-11] MIDRASH RABBAH its is to stand upright in harbour. Levi said: A 2 precious stone. s Cf. but he had a polished gem which : it knew R. and when it shone he Huna said Once we were taking refuge from [Roman] we knew had lamps with us: was day. R. Hanan and (vi. Judah holds that there were four rows of thirty compartments on each of the first and second stories. V. But R. Kahana and R. Phinehas said in R. ARK and R. Nehemiah disagree. Kahana said: It means a skylight. Nehemiah maintains that there were six rows of fifty compartments on each of the three 2 1 stories. and there were two cubits at the 4 R. Levi's name: During the whole twelve months that Noah was in the Ark he did not require the light of the sun by day or the light of the moon by he hung up when night. Judah and R. Figures in Mah. Levi did explain it.e. owing to its greater narrowness. R. R. 1086.XXXI. 5 On the view of R. R. each being six and three corridors of four cubits breadth. contained nine hundred compartments. 16). each compartment being ten cubits square^ and two corridors AND TO' each four cubits wide. Hoshaia could not explain [the meaning of z o H A R] R. Nehemiah said: [outer] sides [of the compartments]. was dim he knew that that it was night. Abba b. but only three rows on the third. Hunia R. Phinehas. ii. breadth a sixth [of its length] and its man builds a ship which he must make 1 height a tenth. Judah said: It contained three hundred and thirty compartments. Judah there It cubits square. and when they was night. A LIGHT (ZOHAR) SHALT THOU MAKE TO THE . R. the compartments ran along each side [of the corridor]. Sanh. 244 . Which provided light from itself. 3 : it was day.

Nehemiah said: It was like a vaulted carriage. 7 12. R. 17): I agree with the angels art mindful of him (Ps. io8b. 386.: R.GENESIS (NOACH) is [XXXI. Others reverse it: The bottom storey for the unclean animals. shall shrivel up. and this is the meaning of the verse. that Thou vin. 7 8 This follows by reading nfcjm. SECOND. it shall make itself.: and sink down into the depths like a stone. that when you make its a chamber ten cubits square. Nehemiah's view there is a its cubit below so was its cubit above: difficulty? AND TO A CUBIT SHALT THOU FINISH IT UPWARD. Judah holds that the same cubit that was used in measuring the bottom of the ark was used in measuring the top (cubits varied). 4 difficulty 2 . . AND 8 I. supra. 6. who urged. 5)? BEHOLD.e. Th. and by the (same) cubit thou shalt finish it above. z How * M.K. first and as soon as they descended on the earth they became a flood. Isaac said: The Torah teaches you practical knowledge. waters. 8 Cf. 5 To get the garbage (excrements) to the bottom. AND THIRD STORIES SHALT THOU MAKE IT: the bottom storey for garbage. It tapered.V. 11-12 but on R. M. you should set door at the side. the thirty cubits height being exclusive of this roof. WlTH LOWER. 1 THE EARTH] YIGWA' 'SHALL PERISH']: i. What I man. BEHOLD is (vi. the second for himself and family and the clean animals. no 1 As was AND THE DOOR OF THE ARK SHALT THOU SET IN THE SIDE THEREOF.3 R. and they were topped by an inward sloping roof. 10 3 hence the top storey contained only three rows. could the top storey contain as many rows as the bottom ones ? This passage is very obscure. Sanh. vm. They were DO BRING THE FLOOD OF WATERS. and the top for the garbage. viz. Sanh. and the third for the unclean [ones]. the three stories were of equal breadth.: 10 a destroying and devastating deluge. the second for himself and family and the clean animals.e. and he built it sloping inwards so that it tapered to a cubit. How then did he manage? 5 He arranged a kind of trapdoor through which he shovelled it sideways. It helped [to build] itself. 4 I. 9 [EVERYTHING THAT is IN [E. 6 SHALT THOU MAKE IT. this question being based on the first view.K.

forth from the ark. 10).e. When he went out.V. Go 4 etc. are lonely in want and famine (Job R. (vi. The lion roareth. hence it is written. And unto Joseph were born two sons (Gen. xxxiv. whereupon tremble water]. Thou needest a covenant: the giants set their feet on the [opening of the] deep and closed it up. 3 R. io8&. as it is written. infra. The giants [E. THOU. 3): when want and famine visit the world. AND THY SONS apart. R. VIII. * 5 assistance. Ark. AND THY SONS. thou and thy wife.XXXL BUT THEE. 50): when? Before the year of famine came 1 5 (ib. and R. it. couldst convenant yet but for 2 thou have entered the Ark? Thus it is written. Abin quoted They xxx. 5). in the etc. menstruous].). i6). jHiyya b. then each attempted to enter his feet became entangled [in the the etc. 1 8). : R. 'shades'] waters and the inhabitants thereof shokenehem beneath the : (Job xxvi. Abba explained: Thou which stood thee in stead. [Read] Shekenehem (their neighbours) a lion would come to the Ark and his teeth would loosen. cohabitation was interdicted to him. 1 My BUT I WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT WITH THEE: when When thou art brought into the [will that be proved]? Ark. R. of which the lion is quoted as an You would have been prevented from entering. 12] I MIDRASH RABBAH WILL ESTABLISH MY COVENANT WITH Thou needest a covenant for the sake of the produce. 2 The wild beasts. regard your wife as though she were lonely [i. example. having made covenant here does not refer to the rainbow. THOU. Cf. AND THOU SHALT COME INTO THE ARK. XLI. iv. (Gen. that It should not decay or rot. Muna said: It is written. 3 On all views the God's or. as it is written. 246 . Judah b. and the fierce lion howleth and the teeth of the young lions are broken (ib. He permitted it to him. as it is written. would not have been able to keep out the great giants * ' and wild animals. Isaac said: As soon as Noah entered the Ark. but to without which Noah could never have made the Ark. AND THY WIFE. IJanan name of R. Sanh. R. Simon Samuel b. wast indeed the builder. AND THY SONS' WIVES apart. 7. He and his wife being mentioned together.

19). do not accept him/ Noah] . without flesh. 4 as it is written. 10)? In the days of R. or will he harrow the valleys after thee (Job xxxix.e. with hence it is written. Lake of Tiberias. fig-shoots for fig trees. side of the (Jast. vn. AND OF EVERY LIVING THING. In the view of R. cf. A fast was proclaimed and R. 1 R. and glass for the figs. AND Noah . In the view of R. OF ALL FLESH: i. 2 fabulous animal of Wild ox. whereupon its mother bellowed from the desert and it [the whelp] went down [to the desert] at her voice. OF ALL FLESH. [God in- structed male pursuing a female. Kahana He took in pressed figs with him.13. Hoshaya said: Even spirits entered the ark etc. R. and olive-shoots for olive trees. GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXI. nawn i). (vi. and for them implies something that is for thee and for them. A shrubby plant. LIVING THING must to those that have A enormous height. 5 was taught in R. Abba It b. THEY SHALL * BE MALE AND FEMALE. and 1 This follows by contrast: since OF ALL FLESH refer is mentioned life separately. Abba b. accept him a female pursuing a male. 3 4 5 8 Being too high. hazubah* for the deer. supra. Levi said: Vine-shoots for vine plantings. Judah said: his did. R. Nehemiah said: Neither he nor his whelps whelps. The re* em* did not enter the Ark. 13-14 OF EVERY LIVING THING. Levi And it shall be for thee. Canst thou bind the wild-ox with his hand in the furrow. Abba b. Which These lies are eaten on the opposite by all. Kahana: And it shall be for thee. of those for whom souls [spirits] were created but not bodies. Kahana said He took in branches pressed for the elephants. and he ploughed furrows [in the water] as great as from Tiberias to Susitha. : If thou seest a 14. Hiyya prayed. but Noah tied him to the Ark. ostriches.v. 5. prob. AND TAKE THOU UNTO THEE is OF ALL FOOD said: THAT EATEN. Hiyya b. s. Abba a [re* em's] whelp invaded Eretz Israel and did not leave a single tree which it did not uproot. 3 but R. R. Nehemiah's : name: The greater part of his provisions consisted of R. dstus 247 .

22). THUS DID NOAH. Infra. Thou art the principal and secondary importance And gather it to thee : it a they are of man does 1 not gather [store] anything unless he needs [for later]. 2 He understands gather (r>DK) to mean store. ACCORDING TO ALL THAT GOD COMMANDED HIM.XXXI. for them Implies. it means for 248 . Rashash. hence future use. ThlS text refers to the construction of the Ark. z Noah made the Ark as God commanded him. viz. 1 SO DID HE (VI. 14] MIDRASH RABBAH . 3. for replanting. xxxvi.

that Noah too was unworthy. R.V. so that his blood was permitted and his wife was permitted. Nahman: He annulled his [David's] citizen rights and declared him an outlaw and as one dead. etc. Deriving dovere (E. 1 their lead. 21). 7) : Thou destroyest them that speak falsehood. 1 The man of blood and : deceit (ib. [when he counselled Absalom].3 yet what is the difference between me and them? Only that Thou showedst love to me and saidst violence (Gen. written. xxvin. xn. etc. Cf the statement supra. (VII. 'But as for me' [Noah]: as they have acted so have I acted. i). The one [Ahitophei] permitted incest and bloodshed. Them ' said: that speak falsehood* them and their speech. this refers to Doeg and Ahitophei . Nahman b. The Lord also hath put away thy sin : thou shalt not die (n Sam.[XXXII. It is written. v. The Lord other abhorreth (Ps. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO NOAH: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. 14). 8) as they have acted so have I acted 2 yet what is the difference between me and them? Only that Thou hast shown me love and saidst to me. 13).* as it is as it is written. and permitted incest and bloodshed. For the earth is filled with blood. 3 * The man of * 'The Lord abhorreth : they [the of the Flood] will neither be resurrected nor generation judged. (Job xxrv. 13). Go in unto thy father's concubines (n Sam. loc* cit. xvi. vi. But as for me (ib. Samuel b. CHAPTER i XXXII (NOACH) i. s . . 9. 'speak') from davar> to lead : those who follow 2 In taking Bathsheba.): the the one permitted incest and bloodshed. the light. The murderer riseth with 'And deceit. Phinehas Them and their company. The other [Doeg] permitted incest: [Where do we find this] ? Said R. [Another interpretation]: It refers to the generation of the Flood: 'Thou destroyest them that speak falsehood': them and their speech. CtC.): this means . Uriah's wife. (Ps. to me: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. that they will neither : be resurrected nor judged.

LORD 3. a. the Lord tests none but the righteous hence. Hiyya 2 He is righteous and loves those who are loved R. 2.g. Sage. R. 1 The Holy One. Jonathan said: A potter does not test defective vessels. 250 . 'For the Lord is FOR UNTO NOAH: COME THOU THEE HAVE I SEEN RIGHTEOUS BEFORE ME.XXXII. R. Eleazar said: When a man possesses two cows. but if it is of inferior quality. 9 His face applies to Noah. etc. Judah's said: name and R. He loveth righteousness. blessed be He. but the wicked but only the righteous 3 The Lord trieth the thus. Hoshaya his. as it says. SEEN. Hoshaya. Similarly. Lit. xi. Infra. Similarly. Menahem in R. 3 The upright shall behold righteous. 4 applies to Noah: hence. as it is written. *R. one strong and the other feeble.T. Eleazar's name loves his fellow-craftsman. xxxiv. He the upright shall behold His face (Ps. FOR THEE HAVE I SEEN RIGHTEOUS. does not test the The Lord trieth the righteous. FOR THEE HAVE I 4 z. Some suggest: E.craftsmen. e. however. upon which does he put the yoke? Surely upon the strong one. who are in that respect His fellow. R. etc. S. the more he beats : ' it the more it improves and the more it glistens . wicked and him that loveth violence His soul hateth (Ps. because he cannot give them a single blow without breaking them. etc. R. Hiyya'. 5). R. The Lord trieth 3 * : the righteous.S. the Lord does not test the wicked but only the righteous. tjanina said: When a flax worker righteous. liiyya loves his colleagues and R. 2-3] the MIDRASH RABBAH Lord is For righteous . etc. Tanhuma in R. loveth righteousness. . AND THE . R. 'The Lord trieth the righteous. SAID . etc. Irliyya (those) of R.g. righteous. 16. R. R.: the verse is quoted to show that God actually loves to see the righteous: hence. Similarly the Holy One. 7). blessed be He. Jose b. xi. AND THE LORD FOR THEE HAVE 1 I SEEN RIGHTEOUS.R. n. he cannot give it one knock without its splitting. * Y." righteous* Another interpretation: ' The Lord trieth the SAID UNTO NOAH: COME THOU AND ALL THY HOUSE INTO THE ARK. loves his compeer. also loves No man A His fellow-craftsman 2 : hence. knows that his flax is of good quality.

V..T. 7). ad loc.* The (ib. A 9). R. OF THE FOWL ALSO OF THE AIR. 4). 2 give thanks unto the Lord. for it is said. 2. but all of them only in his absence. OF EVERY CLEAN BEAST THOU SHALT TAKE TO AND OF THE BEASTS THAT ARE NOT THEE . I How came into being. when we are actually addressing Him.THAT ARE NOT CLEAN. Jacob in R. . Pes. The rock-badger. Jose the Galilean said: We find that we utter but a portion of the praise of Him at whose word the world SEEN RIGHTEOUS. Leazar's name. Say unto God: tremendous is Thy work! (Ps. Judan in R. v. 3). 3*2. The camel.e. hare. Berekiah in R. because he parteth not the hoof/ but. and it says. blessed be He. 5 one of them would 1 lack a That was 'Er. i).GENESIS (NOACH) Eleazar b. 4. beasts/ but : . The swine. it 'And of the unclean R. 3 comes to commences : Even when Judan said enumerate the signs of unclean first with the signs of cleanness * [which they possess] it is not written. 2 Whether . R. 1 whereas in his man righteous and whole-hearted (Gen. If you say that * it means seven of each kind. R. and is clovenfooted. but cheweth not the cud (ib. 5) . Eliezer b. i . because he parteth the hoof. and R. because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof . 6) E. . 3). 3 In Heb.). R. LXVI. employed a circumlocution of three words in order to avoid uttering an unclean [indelicate] expression: It is etc. not written.). cxvni. and the readings vary. R. We find that a FOR THEE HAVE absence it says. xi. Johanan's name. 5 While 'male and female' might mean that the seven must include male and female three of one and four of the other (Y. For thus it says in reference to Noah. and Th. (vn. because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof (ib. Joshua's name said: We find that the Holy One. too four words are thus employed instead of one. xxvr. 'Azariah said: [XXXIL 3-4 portion of a man's merits may be declared in his presence. Because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof (Lev. CLEAN. i$b. [Scripture] animals.. Th. for He is good (ib. as in the first verse quoted) only or on all occasions is not quite clear. SEVEN EACH SEVEN AND SEVEN' (vn. in speaking to him. 4 Lev. vi. this means in God's presence (i.

Johanan said: . R. BECAUSE OF THE WATERS OF THE FLOOD 1 (VII. count the number of years from the world's creation. 28). E. AND NOAH 5). of the Flood is not (vn. . who arose against his brother. He was not punished at the time. . lasted a year in all. . but would now be punished. Berekiah said: 3 (kayomaya) upon it. RAIN AND EVERY LIVING SUBSTANCE (YEKUM) THAT therefore I I HAVE MADE WILL I BLOT OUT. beasts. present DID ACCORDING UNTO ALL. 12.e. [said mate. He kept his judgment in suspense. 23). whatever said: exists R. R. They corrupted 2 R. . 7). 'Every living substance *. (vn. WILL CAUSE IT TO FORTY DAYS AND FORTY NIGHTS. etc. and birds. Abin 4 The one who arose against him [his brother]. TO RAIN . 8 For he was 600 years old when the Flood commenced.' which b. 8 AND NOAH WENT IN. 29). and he lived 350 years after the yet his total is given at 950 (5. (vn. Yohai said: They have transgressed the Torah 1 therefore I WILL CAUSE IT was given after forty days.J. Cain. 9 Sc. * E. And He blotted out every one that had arisen (Gen. The features of a human embryo take is that sin is s of the expression dignity. deriving yelntm from kamy to arise. R. The idea an essential degradation of the human This translation of yekwn corresponds to E.V. Cain. FORTY DAYS AND FORTY NIGHTS. ix. xxu. the features which take shape "after forty days. When we 252 . hence that I need them' God]. the Flood Flood (Gen. cf. supra. AND NOAH WAS six : HUNDRED YEARS OLD. 'not 4~~&3 it MIDRASH RABBAH means seven males and seven females. counted in the number [of Nehemiah to him: It is counted in the chronological reckoning. 7 Said R. verse refers to the taking in of the animals.XXXII. * Viz. 6).V. Levi said in the name of Resh Lakish: He [God] kept him [Cain] in suspense5 until the Flood carne and swept him away: hence it is written. 7 shape after forty days. . FOR YET SEVEN DAYS. 6. etc. etc. vii. 'but TO KEEP Simeon SEED ALIVE UPON THE FACE OF ALL THE EARTH. * Of Moses* stay in the mountain.: i. Judah said The year Noah's years]. . AND HIS SONS. 4). The etc. R. not 951. That means. 5. .

the natural order is for the rain to descend (first) and the deep to ascend (afterwards). blessed be He. R. but 8. : : is written. (first) "All the fountains of the deep were broken up' * deep ascended and after that The windows of heaven were opened * Cf. 'Let him who R. vi. R. 8).* 5 Sanh. ON THE SAME DAY WERE ALL THE FOUNTAINS OF THE GREAT DEEP BROKEN UP. * 4 Cf supra. The period of deep mourning for a near s relation is seven days. 6). xix. but had we known we would not have permitted him to enter/ Hence he entered IN THE SELFSAME DAY [with the challenge]. 9.: the rain which descends causes the deep to ascend) . Th. Johanan said: 6 objects speak out!' 1 Cf. Another interpretation : AND R. 2 3). (VII. Supra. 10). Had Noah entered the Ark at night his whole generation would have said. here. as it 2 . 5 IN THE SELFSAME DAY ENTERED NOAH (VII. 13). the rain descended. 6-8 7. Sanh. gave them a respite during the seven days* mourning for the righteous Methusaleh. punished them by water. IT CAME TO PASS AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS This teaches that the Holy One. xxvi. XLVII. prefers here the reading of cur. infra. xxvn. And it grieved Him (Gen. The king grieveth for his son CAME TO PASS AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS: (n Sam. blessed be He. Levi said: Seven days the Holy One. Joshua b. AND (vn. the proof being the text. 1 so that they might repent. 4. Through passion and lust. io8&. 'We did not know what he was doing.R. : GENESIS (NOACH) He lacked faith had not : [XXXII. IT yet they did not. ' . Levi said: They abused their fountains. blessed be He. Deep calleth unto deep at the voice of Thy cataracts (*EJ. whereas in the present i. m. 3 which is like water. while elsewhere we read. Johanan said his ankles the water reached he would not have entered the Ark. 6. 4 they poured out their semen upon trees and stones. II). 4 therefore the Lord reversed the natural order: the natural order is for rain to descend and the deep to come up. Deep calleth unto deep (Ps* XLII. the instance. etc. edd. Durmaskith said: They sinned through the eyeball.e. therefore the Holy One. Jose b. supra. mourned for His world before bringing the Flood. io8a.

XXXII.

MIDRASH RABBAH THEY, AND EVERY BEAST AFTER ITS KIND,
8-9]

etc,

(vu, 14).

They were the principals and

ail

others

were

secondary.
R. Eieazar said: R. 2 : This excludes Jose interpreted this to his colleagues or maimed as unfit for the those which were moulting 3 sacrifices of the Noachides.

EVERY BIRD OF EVERY WING. 1

AND THEY THAT WENT
FEMALE OF ALL FLESH
I

IN,
1 6).

WENT

IN

(vn,

Said he to

MALE AND Him: 'Am
it is

a hunter!' 4 'Does that matter to you/ He retorted; not written, 'And they that were brought,' but,
:

AND

R. of their own accord. out of the book of the Lord, and Johanan quoted Seek ye read (Isa. xxxiv, 16): if they came of their own accord in order to be shut up twelve months in the Ark, how much the more they come] to gorge on the flesh of tyrants

THEY THAT WENT IN

!

[will

Hence it is written, And thou, son of man, thus saith the Lord God: Speak unto the birds of every sort, and to every
beast of the field: Assemble yourselves, and come; gather feast that I do prepare for you, yourselves on every side to a great feast, upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may even

My

eat flesh

and

and drink blood. The flesh of the mighty shall ye eat, the blood of the princes of the earth shall ye drink, etc.
5
f.)-

(Ezek. xxxix, 17

AND THE LORD SHUT HIM

IN. R. Levi said; This

may be compared to a king who decreed a general execution in a country, but took his friend, immured him in prison, and set his seal upon him. 6 Even so,

AND THE

LORD SHUT HIM
9.

IN.
^

AND THE WATERS INCREASED, AND BORE UP
etc. (vii,
:

THE ARK,
in harbour.

name Noah's

17). R. Phinehas said in R. Levi's ark thus sank in the water like a ship standing

1

Lit. translation. E.V.

'

a

Hence:

OF EVERY WING
As
Zeb. n6a.
*

Of every sort

1

2
.

Or

possibly, to the scholars.

i.e.

were
to

not

maimed

or

lacking

in feathers.
sacrifices.
*

stated supra (xxvi, i),

some of these were required for

*How am
that

I

know

their sex?

Zeb., loc dt.

So

he might be spared.

254

GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXII. 9-10 AND THE WATERS PREVAILED AND THE ARK WENT UPON THE FACE OF THE WATERS (vil, l8). R. Phinehas said in R. Levi's name: The ark thus floated
.

.

.

upon the water
as

as

1 upon two planks [covering a

distance]

from Tiberias

to Susitha. 2

10. AND THE WATERS PREVAILED THE HIGH MOUNTAINS WERE COVERED
.

,

.

AND ALL
19).

(VII,

R.

Jonathan was going up to worship in Jerusalem, when he 3 passed the Palatinus and was seen by a Samaritan, who asked him, 'Whither are you going?' 'To worship in Jerusalem/ replied he. 'Would it not be better to pray at this holy mountain than at that dunghill?* he jeered, 'Wherein is it blessed?' inquired he. 'Because it was not submerged by the Flood/ Now R. Jonathan momentarily forgot the teaching [on the subject], but his ass-driver said to him, 'Rabbi, with your permission I will answer him/ 'Do/ said he. 'If it is of the high mountains/ he answered,
'then
it is

written,

AND ALL THE HIGH MOUNTAINS
While

WERE COVERED.
it/

if it is of the low ones, Scripture R. Jonathan immediately descended from his ignored ass and made him [the driver] ride three miles and applied three verses to him: (i) There shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle (Deut. vil, 14)

even among your cattle drivers 4 (ii) Rakkathek [E.V. 'thy temples'] is like a pomegranate split open (S.S. iv, 3): even the emptiest (rekanim) among you are as full of answers as a pomegranate [is of seeds] and thus it is
i.e.
;
;

written,

(iii)

No

weapon that

is

formed against thee
5

shall

prosper ;

and every tongue that

shall rise against thee in

judgment thou shalt condemn
1
2

(Isa. LIV, iy).

I.e. it

made very slow

progress.

V. supra, xxxi,

13, p. 247,

n 4

i.e. it

covered but a short distance.

Mah. and E. J. reverse the interpretation. This and the preceding statement mean that at first, before the waters had risen to a considerable height, the ark remained as though grounded; but when they 'prevailed' * Lit. 'the Palatine Hill' a name it was lifted up and floated (E.J.). given by the Samaritans to Mount Gerizim, which they held sacred.
,

*

Barren in a metaphorical sense

of learning.

*

Cf. infra, LXXXI,

3.

255

XXXII.

Il]

MIDRASH RABBAH

ii. FIFTEEN CUBITS UPWARD DID THE WATERS PREVAIL (vn, 20). R. Judah said: Fifteen cubits over the

over the plains. 1 R. Nehexniah said Fifteen cubits over the mountains, but over the plains,

mountains and
:

fifteen cubits

any height.

2
.

ALL IN AND ALL THE FLESH PERISHED WHOSE NOSTRILS WAS THE BREATH OF (NISHMATH) THE SPIRIT OF (RUAH) LIFE, etc. (VII, 21 f.). R.
.

.

Samuel the son-in-law of R. Hanina the colleague of the Rabbis said: Here the neshamah is made identical with ruah whereas in an earlier passage the neshamah is identified with nefesh. How do we know that we should
y

apply the teaching of each passage to the other? Because 'life' is written in both places, proving that they are
analogous.
3

IN THE DRY LAND, DIED. This But some maintain that they too were included among those who were to be gathered into [the 4 ark], but they fled to the Ocean [the Mediterranean].
excludes
fish.
.
.

WHATSOEVER WAS

AND HE BLOTTED OUT EVERY LIVING SUBSTANCE AND NOAH ONLY (AK) WAS LEFT (vn, 23): AK
.
:

is

a diminishing particle of the cold. 5

he too coughed blood on account

1

water thus reaching different levels a miracle. water had one level, consequently one cannot gauge was above the plains Yoma 76*2.
t

The The

how

high

it

s

*
5

V. supra, xiv, ad fin. Sanh. IO&T. I.e. even he was not left sound;

cf.

supra, xxx, 6.

256

[XXXIII.
CHAPTER XXXIII
i.

i

(NOACH)
etc.

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, AND EVERY
(VIII,
i).
is

LIVING THING, AND ALL THE CATTLE,
righteousness ments are like the great deep;

Thy

like the

mountains of God; Thy judg-

man and beast Thou preserves^ R. Ishmael Interpreted: To the righteous who accepted the Torah which was revealed on the mountains of God Thou shewest righteousness [i.e.
Lord
(Ps. xxxvi,
7).

unto the mountains of God; but as for the did not accept the Torah which was revealed wicked, on the mountains of God, Thou dealest strictly with them, even to the great deep. R. Akiba said: He deals strictly
love] reaching

who

with both, even to the great deep. He deals strictly with the righteous, calling them to account for the few wrongs which
they commit in this world, in order to lavish bliss upon and give them a goodly reward in the world to come He grants ease to the wicked and rewards them for the few good deeds which they have performed in this world in order to punish them in the future world. 1 R. Levi said: It [Scripture] gives a simile for the
;

righteous in their dwelling, and for the wicked in their dwelling. The righteous in their dwelling: I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall
their fold be (Ezek. xxxiv, 14). The wicked in their dwelling In the day when he went down to the netherworld I caused the deep to mourn and cover itselffor him (ib. xxxi, 15). R. Judah said: Hobalti (I brought) is written2 : a lid for a vat is made not of gold or silver but of earthenware, which Is the selfsame material. Thus the wicked are darkness, Gehenna is darkness, and the deep is darkness hence I brought the wicked to Gehenna and covered them with the deep: let darkness cover darkness. R. Jonathan in R. Josiah's name transposed the verse: Thy righteousness [i.e. mercy] is above Thy judgments, just as the mountains of God are above the great deep : as
:

:

1

Lev. R. xxvn

i.

*

I .a.

heebalti (I caused to

mourn) with a
s

different punctuation reads hobalti.

257

XXXIII.

l]

MIDRASH RABBAH

1 the mountains are endless, so are the righteous endless ; and as the mountains press back the deep so that it should not ascend and inundate the world, so do the righteous lest it go forth and bum up the press back punishment, world; and as the mountains are sown and yield fruit, so do the deeds of the righteous yield fruit; and as the is unfathomable, so is the punishment of the wicked

deep unfathomable [i.e. immeasurable]. And as the deep cannot be sown to yield fruit, so the deeds of the wicked do not would destroy produce fruit, for if they produced fruit they
the world. When R. Joshua b. Levi visited Rome he saw there covered with tapestry, in winter so that they should
pillars

not contract, and in summer that they should not split. As he was walking in the street, he espied a poor man wrapped in a mat others say, in half an ass's pack-saddle. To those pillars he applied the verse, Thy righteousness is
'

where Thou givest, Thou givest mighty mountains to the poor man he applied the verse, in abundance while
'

like the
9

;

are like the great deep" where Thou 2 smitest with force. smitest, Alexander of IVlacedon visited King Kazia beyond the

Thy judgments

Thou

dark mountains. 3 He came forth, offering him golden bread on a golden tray. *Do I then need your gold?' he demanded. 'Had you then nothing to eat in your own * country that you have come here ? he retorted. I came
*

only because I wished to see how you dispense justice/ with a reply. As he sat with him a man came against his neighbour. 'This man/ he stated, complaint sold me a dunghill and I found a treasure in it/ The buyer argued, 'I bought a dunghill only/ while the vendor maintained, *I sold the dunghill and all it contained/ Said he [the king] to one: 'Have you a son? 'Yes/ replied he. 'And have you a daughter?' he asked the other, 'Yes/ was the answer. 'Then marry them and let the treasure

was the
*

'

1

I.e. their
'

2

8

A

reward is endless; v. Lev. R. loc cit. * Thou cuttest down. Rashi legendary king, so called because he was thought to live at the end of the world, Apparently the African interior is meant.
:

belong to
astonished,

both.'

GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXIII. 1-2 He noticed him [Alexander] sitting
'

and asked him, Have I then not judged well ? 'Yes/ he replied. 'Had this happened among you, how would you have judged ? I would have slain both and kept the treasure for myself/ 'Does rain descend in your country?' he asked. 'Yes/ 'Does the sun shine?' 'Yes/ Have you small cattle [sheep and goats] ? 'Yes/ he replied. 71 he exclaimed, it is not for your sake but for By heaven the sake of the cattle, as it is written, Man and beast Thou preservest, O Lord: Man for the sake of beast Thou preservest, O Lord/ R. Judah b. R. Simon referred the verse to Noah. The Holy One, blessed be He, said The righteousness [mercy] which I showed to Noah in the ark I showed him nowhere save on the mighty mountains as it is written, And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the 2 month, upon the mountains of Ararat (Gen. vin, S). Thy judgments are like the great deep : the chastisement which I brought on his generation, I brought from nowhere else than the great deep, as it is written, on the same day were
'

*

'

'

'

'

'

!

'

:

'

:

*

'

all the

And when
as it
is

fountains of the great deep broken up (ib. VII, n). I remembered him, not him alone did I remember, but him and all that were with him in the Ark,
written,

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, AND
etc.

EVERY LIVING THING,

2. There was a little city (Eccl. ix, 14): this alludes to the world; And few men within it (ib.) y to the generation of the Flood; And there came a great king against it, and to the Holy One, blessed be He; And built besieged it (ib.)

great

bulwarks
there
'

against
in it

it

Now
1

was found

ambushes and a man poor and wise {ib.
(ib.)

snares. 3
15), viz.

Lit.

curse the

man

*

!

2

apparently that God's mercy was manifest when the ark rested on these mountains. Yalkut reads : Thy righteousness to Noah was like the mighty mountains (in extent) ... as for the judgment which Thou didst mete out to his contemporaries, Thou didst deal severely with them even to the great deep. 3 From which He could, as it were, attack the city. Jast. translates Craft and Guile allegorical names of towers.

The meaning

is

259

XXXIII.
written,
1

2-3]

MIDRASH RABBAH
his

Noah; And he by

wisdom delivered the

city (#.), as it is

And

he took of every clean beast, etc. (Gen.

vm,

Yet no man remembered that same poor man (Eccl. 20). 'Since none loc. at.): said the Holy One, blessed be He: him': hence, of you remember him, J will remember

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH,
3.

etc.

2

and His tender mercies are over all His works (Ps. CXLV, 9). R. Joshua b. Levi translated: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all, because they are His works. R. Samuel b. Nahman interpreted: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all, for it is His nature to be com-

The Lord

is

good

to all,

3

passionate.

R. Joshua interpreted in R. Levi's
to
all,

Lord

Should a year of and men show compassion famine commence to-morrow to each other, then the Holy One, blessed be He, will also be filled with compassion for them. 4 In the days of R. Tanhuma Israel had need of a fast, so they went to him and requested: 'Master, proclaim a fast/ He proclaimed a fast, for one day, then a second day, and then a third, yet no rain fell. Thereupon he ascended sons! [the pulpit] and preached to them, saying: 'My with compassion for each other, and then the Be filled Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with compassion for you/ Now while they were distributing relief to the poor they saw a man give money to his divorced wife, whereupon they went to him [R. Tanhuma] and exclaimed, 'Why do we sit here while such misdeeds are perpetrated 'What then have you seen?* he inquired. 'We saw So-andso give his divorced wife money.' He summoned them and
'

inspires good R. Abba said: [spirit of] compassion.

is

and

He

name: The mankind with His

!

asked him, 'Why did you give money to your divorced wife?* *I saw her in great distress/ replied he, 'and was
1 He saved the world by sacrificing to God (cf. supra, xxvi, i). Tanhuma, however, reads: Come tkou and all thy house into the ark (Gen. VII, i), 2 EccL R. DC, 14, 15, i. which seems preferable. * Interpreting His works as the manner in which He rules. 4 On account of drought.

260

GENESIS (NOACH)
filled

[XXXIII.

3

with compassion for her/ Upon this R. Tanhuma turned his face upward and exclaimed: 'Sovereign of the Universe! This man, upon whom this woman has no claim for sustenance, yet saw her in distress and was rilled with pity for her. Seeing then that of Thee it is written, The Lord is full of compassion and gracious (Ps. cm, 8), while we are Thy children, the children of Thy beloved ones, the
children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, how much the more shouldst Thou be rilled with compassion for us!'

Immediately the rain descended and the world enjoyed
relief.
1

sitting and studying the Torah in front of the Babylonian Synagogue in Sepphoris, when a calf passed before him on its way to the slaughter and began to cry out, as though pleading, 'Save me!' Said he

Our Teacher 2 was

do for you? for this you were fashioned/ [As punishment for his heartlessness] our Teacher suffered toothache for thirteen years. During these thirteen years no woman miscarried in Eretz Israel, and none
to
it,

'What can

I

a

suffered pain in childbirth. 3 After this period a creeping thing ran past his daughter. She was about to kill it, when

he said to her, 'My daughter, let it be, for it is written, His tender mercies are over all his works /* Our Teacher was very modest, and he used to say, *I am prepared to do whatever any person tells me, except what

And

the Family of Bathyra did for my ancestor [Hillel], for they 5 relinquished their high office and promoted him. And if R. Huna, the Resh Galutha, were to come up here [Palestine], I would rise before him, for he is descended from Judah, whereas I am from Benjamin; he is descended on the male side, while I am descended [from Judah] on the female side/ 6 Said R. Hiyya the Elder to him, 'Behold, he has comer At this Rabbi's face turned pale. 'His
1

8

* Lev. R. xxxiv, 14. Viz. R, Judah ha-Nasi. Because the sufferings of the righteous protect their generation.

*
5

Cf.

B.M.

Ssa.

For the story of Killer's rise to greatness, v. Pes. 66a. 8 I am descended from Judah on the female side only. It is not mentioned elsewhere that he was not descended through the male side.
O/\T

XXXIII.
coffin has

3]

MIDRASH RABBAH

come/ he added. 'Go and see who wants you he ordered. He went out and found no one, wherewithout/ 1 R. upon he treated himself as banned for thirty days. remarked: During these thirty days of his Jose [Assi] excommunication he taught Rab, his sister's son, all the of the Torah, while he [Rab] taught [exegetical] principles 3 2 him the laws of the Babylonians. At the end of the thirty came before Rabbi disguised days Elijah, of blessed memory, 4 as R. Hiyya the Elder, laid his hand upon his teeth, and him. When R. Biyya subsequently visited Rabbi cured
he asked him, 'How is your tooth?' 'Since you laid your hand upon it it is cured/ he answered. 'I know nothing about it/ said he. On hearing this Rabbi showed him 5 honour and set him on the inner [bench]. Said R. Ishmael 'Even before me?' 'Heaven forfend/ b. R. Jose to him, 6 such a thing not be done in Israel!' replied he, 'let Our Teacher was singing the praises of R. Hiyya the Elder to R. Ishmael b. R. Jose. Said he [R. Ishmael b. R. Jose] to him: One day I saw him [R. Hiyya the Elder] at the baths but he did not make an obeisance before me/ 'Why did you not bow before him? inquired he [our of the Psalms/ Teacher]. 'I was meditating on an Aggadah On hearing this he gave him two disciples he answered. who used to go in with him to the vapour room, lest he 7 should stay too long there and become enfeebled. Another interpretation: The Lord is good to all, and His tender mercies are over all His works.' As it is written,
'
1

'

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH, etc. AND ELOHIM (Goo) REMEMBERED NOAH.
Samuel
b.

Nahraan
of

said:

Woe

to the

wicked
is

who

R. turn the
it

Attribute

Mercy

into

the

Attribute

of Judgment.

Wherever the Tetragrammaton ['Lord']
1

employed

*

He understood this to be Rabbi's meaning. 3 Rab being a Babylonian. Perhaps: guiding principles of exegesis. 4 was thought to visit men quite frequently. Elijah 1 Nearest to Rabbi this was a special mark of honour. * I do not promote him at your expense. 7 Meditating on sacred subjects in the baths is forbidden. Hence he assumed that he was given to absent-mindedness, in the course of which he might stay too long in the vapour room. Cf. Iid. 335,
262

GENESIS (NOACH)

[XXXIII. 3-4

connotes the Attribute of Mercy, as in the verse, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious (Ex. xxxiv, 6),
yet
it is

written,

And

the

Lord saw

And it repented the Lord that he had made man (ib. 6), And the Lord said: I will blot out man (ib. 7). Happy are the righteous who turn the
great (Gen. vi,
5),

man was

that the wickedness of

Attribute

of Judgment into the Attribute of Mercy. Wherever Elohim (God) is employed it connotes the Attribute of Judgment: Thus: Thou shall not revile Elohim

God

(Ex. xxn, 27)

;

the cause of both parties shall
;

Elohim

God

(ib.

8)

yet

it is

written,

And Elohim

come before heard
(ib.

their groaning,

and Elohim remembered His covenant

n, 24); And Elohim remembered Rachel (Gen. xxx, 22); AND ELOHIM REMEMBERED NoAH. 1 What did He remember in his favour ? 2 That he provided
for [the animals] the

hence

AND GOD REMEMBERED NOAH,
3
it,

whole twelve months in the Ark, and the spirit
for the sake of the clean animals

of justice approves
that were with

him

in the Ark. R. Leazar said:

He was

called [Noah] on account of his sacrifice, as it is written, And the Lord smelled the sweet (nihoah) savour (Gen. vm, 21). R. Jose b. R. Hanina said: On account of the resting

of the Ark, as it is written, And the ark rested wattanah (ib. 4). R. Johanan said: The planets did not function the whole twelve months. Said R. Jonathan to him, They

did function, but their mark was imperceptible. R. Liezer said They shall not cease (ib. 22) implies that they never ceased. R. Joshua deduced They shall not cease hence
:

'

'

:

:

it

follows that they

had ceased.

4

THE FOUNTAINS ALSO OF THE DEEP AND THE WINDOWS OF HEAVEN WERE STOPPED (VIII, 2). R.
4.

Leazar said In connection with punishment
:

it is

written,

Thus in the former case the wicked made the Lord decree punishment* while in the latter Elohim showed mercy. Cf. supra, xn, 15. 2 Since there is no forgetfulness before Him, the Midrash assumes that the verse implies that He bore in mind something in his (Noah's) favour. s I.e. Elohim, which connotes justice, approved Noah's actions.
1
4

V. supra> xxv,

2, for notes.

263

XXXIII.

4-53

MIDRASH KABBAH

On

the

broken up
written,

same day were all the fountains of the great deep is (ib. vn, n); but in connection with good it
.

THE FOUNTAINS ALSO OF THE DEEP WERE STOPPED, but not all the fountains, the exceptions
.
.

being the great well [of Biram], the gulf [of Gaddor], and the cavern spring of Paneas. 1
.
. .

AND THE ARK RESTED IN THE SEVENTH MONTH UPON THE MOUNTAINS OF ARARAT (VIII, 4):
2 upon the mountain range Cordyene.

i.e.

AND IT CAME TO PASS AT THE END OF FORTY DAYS, THAT NOAH OPENED THE HALON [E. V.
5.
*

WIN DOW'] OF THE ARK
it
y

(via,

6).

This supports the

view that

AND
written,

AND
SH OB ).
Simon:

w as a window [trapdoor]. 3 HE SENT FORTH A RAVEN (VIII, 7): thus it is He sent darkness, and it was dark (Ps. cv, 28).* IT WENT FORTH TO AND FRO (YAZO WA-

R. Judan said in the name of R. Judah b. R. 5 began arguing with him : 'Of all the birds that thou hast here thou sendest none but me!' 'What need for food ? for then has the world of thee ? he retorted a sacrifice?' 6 R. Berekiah said in R. Abba's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to him [Noah]: 'Take it back, because the world will need it in the future/ 'When ?
It
'

'

;

'

he asked.

'

When

He

replied:
7

'A righteous man
I will

the waters dry off from off the earth (ib.). will arise and dry up the

3

world,

and

cause

him

to have

need of them

[the

1 V. Saab. loHa (Sonc. ed.), p. 740, n. 8; the bracketed additions are in accordance with the reading there, Th. ad loc. identifying the first two mentioned here with the two quoted from there. The hot springs of Tiberias are omitted, as only the strongest springs are mentioned, the cavern spring of Paneas being substituted. The last named is a city in the north of Palestine 0ast. Caesarea PhiKppi, modern Baneas) whence the Jordan issues. SA 3 district E. of the Tigris and S. of Armenia. V. supra, xxxi, n.
:

Translating: He (Noah) sent darkness, viz. the raven, which is darkhued, and the raven found it dark i.e. without light or hope, and so
*

returned.
* Lit. 'giving him answers, refutations *. 'Wa-shob* (returning) is connected by a play on words with haskeb, the hifil form, * to answer.' f You are fit for neither. Cf. Sanh. 1086. 7 Viz. Elijah, who threatened drought, and the threat was fulfilled.

264

edd. Bui. [feeding on] them. Judah said: It refers to a town within the borders of Bashan called Arbo. Nehemiah said: Ravens literally are meant. it would not have returned. They wept at God's marvellous foresight. that the raven would be required one day. righteousness : is forgetteth' They blessed be He. 5 Rehem is translated mercy. I. conjectures that it is tains that the citizens of this . 5 therefore the Holy One. ' The worm feedeth sweetly on him : the worm became sweet through 6 'He shall be no more remembered. 5-6 ('orbim) brought him bread and flesh. they would not have returned [to God]. Similarly. 2 R. Judah b. and it was they 2 Lev. 'Rehem [the generation of the Flood] forgot to be merciful to their fellow men. A 265 . 7 ' : 6. Th. yet produces another stock In exchange . v.. 1 R. and the audience did not weep.) : R. And the ravens [XXXIII. viz. of Resh Lakish: Had it found a place of rest. 20). and there shall be no rest for the sole 1 El Arbain in Transjordania. to be merciful. . DOVE FOUND NO REST. Aibu said It is not written. he shall be no more remembered. R. and whence did they bring him [food] ? From Jehoshaphat's table. 50. from rahetn. made His mercy ' forget them. R. (i Kings xvn. 7 Which succeeded the generation of the Flood in wickedness. 6).ravens]/ as it Is GENESIS (NOACH) written. who supplied Elijah with food. 8 f . 3) : Nahman said in the name but had she [the nation] found rest. Judah maintown were called Orbim. 4 Probably what is related at the beginning of this section. Geogr^ p. And among these nations shalt thou have no repose. I Sanh. the worm feedeth sweetly on him. 1 130. and to what does that allude ? To the generation of the Separation [of races]. etc. Neub. like something which is broken. Again. to be merciful : he forgetteth 6 This corresponds to E. BUTTHE . 'is uprooted/ but 'is broken': i. (vin. but when he mentioned the story of the raven they wept. 375.V. xrx. 4 He then quoted this verse The womb (rehem) forgetteth him . She dwelleth among the nations. and un: broken as a tree (Job xxiv. Akiba preached in Ginzak 3 on the theme of the Flood. etc. is obviously out of place. she findeth no rest (Lam. AND HE SENT FORTH A DOVE. R. 8 city in the North of Media Atropatene. The reading 'Job* of cur.e. and unrighteousness is broken as a tree : R.

R. Birai said: The gates of the Garden of Eden were opened for her. 1133. ad the reading is: Lev. nor rained upon in the day of : 4 indignation (Ezek. AND SHE 7. R. Hanina said: There were three periods of seven days in all. 1 AND HE STAYED YET ANOTHER SEVEN DAYS 10 ff. SENT FORTH THE DOVE. say unto her : Thou art a land that is not cleansed. 24). for Eretz Israel was : not submerged by the Flood. the return of the raven and the sending forth of the dove. they (VIII. 33). cinnamon or the balsam leaf? But in fact she Noah. Thus the Holy One.).XXXIII. as you read. Jose b. He said to her: 3 grown into a great tree/ 'Had you left it. blessed be He. 4 In Lev.ANDLOINHER THE DOVE CAME IN TO HIM MOUTH AN OLIVE-LEAF FRESHLY PLUCKED (jARAF). R. should she have not brought something better. better is gave him a hint. . and from there she brought Had she brought it from the it. .). 1086. e. as stated in w. 266 . 2 AND AND AGAIN HE SENT FORTH THE DOVE . it would have Whence did she bring it ? R. 10 and 12. xxn. 6-7J MIDRASH RABBAH : of thy foot (Dent. loc. 65) but had they found it. Berekiah. does TARAF mean? Killed [slain]. while implies that he had already waited this period before. R. R. AND HE RETURNED NOTAGAIN TO HIM ANYMORE.AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE SIX HUNDRED AND FIRST 1 I. R. xxvin. said to Ezekiel Son of man. 2 Two DAYS s YET OTHER SEVEN between Thus she 'killed* its potentialities. Zeb. Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces tarof toraf (Gen. Lam. . . J 29. 12 ff. .g. Levi said: She brought it from the Mount of Olives. 3. than sweetness from : ' : 5 your hand. would not have returned. Jose b. etc. Sanh. R. said: DAYS.' AND HE STAYED YET OTHER SEVEN (VHI. xxxi end. R. saying to him [in effect] bitterness from this source [God]. Hanina [He waited] three seven-day periods in all. Said R. This supports what R. Abbahu Garden of Eden. 5 R. What xxxvii. Abba said She brought it from the young shoots of Eretz Israel.

4) the that the world was created in Tishri. IN THE FIRST MONTH. the next and the whole of Tebeth 150 days thus included the rest of Kislew and Shebat lyar (118)lyar (thus: 3 days in Kislew. the forty days ended on the 27th of Kislew. Tishri]. The calculation is the same. . For sixteen days the water diminished at the rate of a cubit per four days. 20) at the rate by the beginning of Ab. 9. According to a different on the reading. THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH. in 60 days . How . (ii) And (ib. on the first day of the month. vn. vu. the seventh month. Shebat. since the verse that follows completes the calculation (v. in the (i) In the six hundredth year of the second month.GENESIS (NOACH) : [XXXIII. 3 Var. upon the mountains of Ararat that means Siwan. 13)*: month : 1 2 Supra. This is perhaps preferable. From the descent of the rain means from the beginning of the Flood. 4) descent of the rain. 24) : this covers Tebeth. You may thus infer that the Ark was eleven cubits in the water. the seventh month from the (ib. Thus from lyth Marheshwan to I7th lyar is seven months. while the Bible). vni. next note). 2 Another interpretation in the six hundred and first year. Is this Noah's life. vm. and lyar (iv) And the ark rested in the seventh month. and Tebeth (29) to abate. to pass (v) And it came in the first month [i. Eliezer's view (supra. i. And (ib. Then on the ist of Siwan. on the seventeenth day. and it is deduced? . lee. and It all drained off .e. xxviii. the water began was completely by which it had covered the mountains (Gen. By the seventeenth of the month Siwan there- 267 . however (which Rashi has adopted in his commentary end of the Flood. We learned The judgment of the genera1 tion of the Flood lasted twelve months. so that second month mentioned is Marheshwan. thus it abated gone of one cubit in four days. only we reckon from Kislew to Siwan inclusive. Nisan. written. Commencing then on the ryth of Marheshwan. which is one and a half handbreadths per day. (iii) And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days (ib. Thus you read. 7 YEAR. * The verses are explained according to R. : in sixty days. 5) : the waters decreased continually until the tenth that is Ab. the waters were dried up from off the earth (ib.: and it is written. u). the tenth 3 from the descent of the rain. Adar. the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights 12): this embraces the rest of Marheshwan and Kislew.e. and the 15 cubits 150). the seventh month means from the tenth is from the beginning. on the seventeenth day of the month windows of heaven were opened (Gen. XXII. while from Marheshwan to Ab inclusive is ten months.

hence three seven-day periods were spent in sending out the birds. and consists of 354 days (to make up the deficiency extra months are intercalated at intervalsj. the following year at that season the sun will not reach it until eleven days later. whereas the Jewish year is lunar. but nothing would grow. 14) It became like parched soil. leaving the Therefore 1 soil 8 absolutely arid. * The twelve months of punishment mean a solar year of 365 days. R. Noah had waited 40 days after the tops of the mountains appeared (ib. 6) before sending out the dove. It 7] like a MIDRASH KABBAH marsh. Since the punishment of the generation of the Flood lasted twelve months. was the earth dry ? Because of the eleven days of 4 by which the solar year exceeds the lunar year. Now should not Scripture have said. and from this you may know that the solar year exceeds the lunar year by eleven days. Jose n b. and this supports R. 'On the sixteenth 3 why then is it stated.XXXIII. 8 the water of the Flood disappeared completely. on the seven and twentieth day of the month. which they sowed. 1 (vi) became And in the second month. 13). Gamaliel said: If you wish to prove for yourself that the wall solar year exceeds the lunar year mark on a by eleven days. make a on the day of the summer solstice. Simeon ' 'And b. * * Lit. Now from the ist of Ab until so that it was sunk the ist of Tishri. was the earth dry (ib. and then the Ark rested on the mountain. R. ' : in the second month^ on the seven and twentieth day the month. vm. Why was that? Because it [the Flood] had come as a curse. day of the month was the earth dry : . is a period of 60 days. 268 . by which time the earth was dry (ib. Hanina. vm. and the Flood commenced on the seventeenth day of the month in the previous year. like oozing soil exuding enough water to moisten other objects. fore it had abated four cubits. cubits in the water. and a curse cannot turn into a blessing2 so they waited until the next rainfall and then they sowed.

for Thou wilt deal bountifully with me (Ps.' R. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. the Holy One. imprisoned twelve months in the Ark . Bring soul out of prison' alludes to Noah. He remained in the Ark even after the earth became dry until he received God's command to leave it. * ' with me and say unto me : Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. (vni.' Another interpretation: 'The Lord . Jonathan said: A potter does not test defective vessels. blessed be He. actually covers them. xi. Similarly. upon which does he put the yoke ? Surely upon the strong one. because he cannot give them a single blow without breaking them. etc. xxxn. The Lord ' good quality. righteous. 2.). The Lord trieth the righteous. 8). R. 5). 1 For Thou wilt deal bountifully with me : Thou didst deal bountifully * . It is written. etc.). Similarly. does not test the wicked but only the righteous: thus. Eleazar said: When a man possesses two cows. ' trieth the trieth the righteous' applies to God said to him]: 1 Noah [who stayed in the Ark until Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. 3. 15 f. The Lord righteous. ' trieth the righteous. he cannot give it one knock but it splits. Similarly. the more he beats it the more it improves and the more it glistens but if it is of inferior quality. the righteous shall crown themselves because of me.2 These last two interpretations or translations seem to be a quotation from some Targum (Th. The E. my soul out of prison. : 269 .' one strong and the other feeble. R. CHAPTER i-2 XXXIV (NOACH) i. as it says The Lord trieth the R. the Lord does not test the wicked but only the righteous. worker knows that his flax is of Hanina said: When a : tests none but the righteous hence.V. CXLII. the Lord flax . SAYING: GO FORTH FROM THE ARK. that I may give thanks unto Thy name . (Ps.[XXXIV. Supra. Jose b. 2 Mah. That I 'Bring my ' who was may give thanks unto Thy name': to give thanks to Thine [aweThe righteous shall crown themselves inspiring] name because of me': the righteous shall glory in me.

they were brought to grief. and a time for him to leave it : Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. went in. 3-6] MIDRASH RABBAH commenced is R. ad fin. saying. he was to leave this exalted position. To the ark (Gen. Thus Come thou into the ark Ilai said : : And Noah went forth. Had I been there I would have broken it and gone out! Noah. Similarly. 1 : to 4. 5. Noah argued: Just as I entered the Ark only when I was permitted. Ark but was now 270 . blessed be He. as God's regent. This refers to Noah. He may to be compared an administrator who departed for a certain spot. 4). leave not thy place (EccL x. LXVII. as it is written. 3 to curse?* 1 Arn I to go out and beget children for a Until the Holy One. If the spirit of the ruler rise up against tkee. Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. 3. for twelve months Noah was in charge of the only creatures that were destined to live. Come thou and all thy house into 6. as it were. infra. On his return he said to the 2 other. everything there is a season. and a time to every purpose (EccL in. xn. 19) this alludes to said] : Of the ten generations man more than ten Noah [to whom God from Adam to Noah I spoke with none but thee': hence. a snare man But the righteous cometh out of trouble (&. as stated infra and also supra. blessed be He. Judah b. so may I not go out save with permission. and thus acted. xxxi. i) : there was a time for Noah to enter the ark. SAYING. swore to him ' . putting someone in his place. vn. Judan in Aibu's to ike evil name: In the trans- gression of the lips (Prov. Cf 2 Now 8 Sexual intercourse had been forbidden in the permitted. Go forth from the Ark And Noah Wisdom ' is a stronghold : to the wise rulers (EccL vn.XXXIV. R. 'Leave your position/ But he [Noah] was reluctant go out. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. R. Go FORTH FROM THE ARK. 13): the rebellion of the generation of the Flood against through the Holy One. said: I entered with permission and I will leave with permission. 12. i). however.) this applies Noah: hence.

ROMES 1 is written fully. EVERY CREEPING THING. THOU. Judah b. R. . AND THY WIFE. 9): thou wilt Indeed be fruitful He would and multiply. xxxr. And out. Aibu said. R. cohabitation was forbidden to him. the ark. 271 . 3 Viz. for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth.e. regard your wife as though she were lonely [i. AND BE FRUITFUL AND MULTIPLY UPON THE EARTH but not in the Ark. as it is When he went written. 7. BRING FORTH (HAYYEZE) WITH THEE EVERY LIVING THING THAT IS WITH THEE THAT THEY MAY SWARM IN THE EARTH (VIII. : And unto Joseph were born the XLI. Huna said : It is written. etc. Possibly. Judan said: Hozze Is written. however. l8). Rashi on the Pentateuch comments. and Mah. R. KOL . Simon and R. as It says. Go R. V. : him. but it is read HAYYEZE 2 THAT THEY MAY SWARM IN THE EARTH but not In the Ark. . 6-8 not bring another Flood upon the world. if they refuse to go. (Isa. LIV. possibly no particular significance attaches to this. and thy sons (Gen. supra. the full form implying that the animal must be complete. 3 AFTER THEIR FAMILIES: this forbade heterogeneous breeding and emasculation. then hozze: put them out forcibly.GENESIS (NOACH) that [XXXIV. For this is the waters of Noah unto Me. Samuel b. year of famine came 8. 19). . AND EVERY FOWL. hence into it is written. etc. : Th. it is from this full form that the prohibition of castration is 2 presently deduced. thou. nan not SETU Here too there may be no particular significance in this. And thou shalt come vi. Judan merely recording the fact. EVERY BEAST. R. and thy sons' wives apart. R. menstruous]. it 18) thy wife. He permitted to FORTH FROM THE ARK. Abin quoted: They are lonely in want and famine (Job xxx. R. 50) when? Before two sons (Gen. 12. Isaac said: As soon as Noah entered the Ark. Hayyeze implies: order them out. WHATSOEVER MOVETH (KOL ROMES) UPON THE EARTH (vin. IJanan in the name of R. Sanh. THOU AND THY WIFE. 3) when want and famine visit the world. apart. R.

Simeon said: Also against witchcraft. Jose b. AND HE OFFERED B U R N T . of the fat ones [i. R. 6 V. THE ALTAR. as it is written. 2 R. 32). Jose b. UNTO THE LORD is : AND NOAH BUILDED (WAYYIBEN) AN ALTAR : (vm. 4 I. etc. R. xvi. The : 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH Noah were enjoined concerning seven things Idolatry. Issi [Assi] said : The children : enjoined concerning everything stated in the following passage There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire. 4). of his flock of which the fat and of the fat How 2 Or V. 5 Straightway. xvrn. where sacrificed. supra. R. R. R. R. is (Gen. And Abel.O FFE R I N G S ON THE Eliezer b. And it shall please the Lord better than a bullock that hath Adam horns and hoofs (Ps. Hanina: But it is written. the best]. Hanina differ. 3 of : Noah were 9. (Dent. 20). AND TOOK OF EVERY CLEAN BEAST. 8a. Jacob said: ALTAR. Hanina: he also brought of the firstlings thereof offered. and a limb torn from a living children of animal. Eleazar and R. R. LXIX. incest. is based on the def . Eleazar sought to refute R. Hanina answer him? It means. R. where this is referred to Adam. AND THE LORD SHELLED THE SWEET SAVOUR. xxvi. R. That means on the great altar in Jerusalem. civil law. R. Eleazar sought to refute R. Johanan said: Also against emasculation. $upra. This interpretation 8 2 possibly: obedience to the civil authorities. Irlanina said: Also concerning blood from a living animal. Wayyaben (he understood) written 4 he considered the matter. art.e. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel. i. implying that did R. 6. 272 . blessed be He. order more clean animals [to be preserved] than unclean? Surely because He desired that sacrifices should be offered to Him of them. io). .e.Z. cursing the Divine Name 1 [blasphemy]. etc. 5 V. Jose b. 'A. reasoning For what reason did the Holy One. murder. Hanina said: They offered burnt-offerings [only]. R. Forbidding it. R. Jose b. R. R. the word can be so read. But it is written.XXXIV. Jose b. Eleazar said: The children of Noah brought [even] peace-offerings R. Leazar said Also against cross-breeding. iv.

Hanina: But it is Jose written. R. 5. which was killed at the north [side of the altar]. Jose b.} they will offer in the future. R. this alludes to the burnt-offering. R. vi. HQyya the Elder differ in this: R. rjanina This is the law of the burnt-offering : that is the : killed [even] at the south [side of the altar]. took a burnt- xvni. R. offering And and Jethro. does R. 9 offered burnt-offerings. Joshua of Siknin said in R. Jose b. Eleazar objected to R. Hanina: Awake. R. treats of peace-offerings. Jose b. But when And viz. He smelled the savour of the Patriarch Abraham ascending from the fiery furnace2 He smelled the savour of Hananiah. which (ib. IJiyya the Elder said: sacrifices (ib. R. 13. Moses' father-in-law. R. iz)? How does R. xxn. infra f sxxvni. this is the n).GENESIS (NOACH) who 5)? [XXXIV. sent the king a fine gift. 273 T .} apply? alludes to peace-offerings. To what burnt-offering (Lev. 'which they offered. some excellent 1 V.' but. R. Jannai and R. And come. To what does awake' O : ' To something which was asleep and now awakes. to pay his respects. which were does 'come' apply? To a new practice. who.S. which the Noachides used to offer. Jannai said: Jethro came before Revelation. R. Hanina observed: Yet they do not differ [in an independent controversy] He who says that Jethro came before Revelation holds that the children of Noah might offer peace-offerings . while he who says that Jethro came after Revelation holds that they might : offer burnt-offerings [only]. The following supports R. SAVOUR. This may be compared to a king's friend. How b. Jethro came after Revelation. 1 AND THE LORD SMELLED THE SWEET . viz. xxiv. thou south (ib. lianina explain this ? In accordance with the view that Jethro came after Revelation. and sacrificed peace-offerings (shelamim) unto the Lord (Ex. not having been flayed or cut up. not written. Mishael and Azariah ascending from the fiery furnace. it is law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings (ib. the whole passage supra. R. north wind (S. IJanina explain this ? It means that they were whole (shelemim) in their hide. Huna said: R. viz. 2) it viz. iv. Levi's name: This verse too supports R. 2 V. 16) Jose b.

Then his grandson came and showed him honour. i). xxiv. future generations.XXXIV. 7. she spoke at her heart (i Sam. 13) . hence it is written. 25) . Infra. 7 V. 'Your not gift is like your grandfather's/ 3 2 He smelled the savour of the generation of destruction. I. xv. EVIL. i. 6). Cf Ex. as it were. and Azariah made the same sacrifice as Abraham in order to sanctify God's name. 6). passions. 8. R. i). 6. The Rabbis interpreted I WILL NOT AGAIN CURSE the children of Noah. Similarly Hananiali. Th. he followed its scent and built it there. 274 . : [those of whom it is written]. Mishael.: Let that indeed suffice. * The generation of the abortive and disastrous revolt of Bar Cochba. 7 : AND THE LORD But Daniel purposed to his heart (Dan. supra. brisket g-10] MIDRASH KABBAH on a beautiful plate. 4 Thus it is written. And Esau said in his heart (Gen. 10. etc. and thus imply that the wicked speak in (subjection to) their hearts. Selah 5 (ib. 2) for whose sake ? For the sake of it. 6 The prepositions in these verses are translated literally. even Jacob. Now heart (Est.e. Shilum said in the name of R. AND THE LORD SAID TO HIS HEART. Thus it says]. xxvii. The phial was in the ground the king traced it to its exact spot and * made that the site for his palace (' Rashi '). VI. Such is the generation of them that seek after Him. that seek Thy face. For He hath founded it upon the seas (Ps. v. said in his heart xxvii. R. 41). And David said to his heart (ib. S I WILL NOT AGAIN CURSE THE GROUND. giving them orders. . . R. Ze'ira: Imagine a king who wished to build a palace by the sea. SAID ro HIS HEART. NEITHER WILL I AGAIN SMITE. 1 Then his son came and did show him honour. R. after being Or which 4 crushed was followed by tremendous slaughter. Now Hannah. But the righteous have their hearts under their control. xiv. whereupon he [the king] said to him. but did not know where to build Finding a phial of foliatum. Menahama b. The fool hath said in his heart (Ps. 8). while the righteous speak to their hearts. LXVII. xxvi. And Jeroboam Haman said in his (i Kings xn. The wicked stand in subjection to their heart [i. IJiyya the Elder 1 2 FOR THE IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART said: How wretched must IS be possibly: the gift being a beautiful salver. etc.

4. 'If so/ he objected. FOR THE : . Iid. R. Providence hath preserved x. 'will it not putrefy? 4 Rather. He remembereth that we are dust 1 (Ps. AND DAY AND NIGHT SHALL NOT didst determine me? When Thou CE ASE (vin. 2 Antoninus asked our Teacher3 'When is the evil urge placed in man?' 'As soon as he is formed [in embryo]/ he replied. 'breath'} is ' in me and y while in it is spirit (ib. IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART IS EVIL FROM HIS YOUTH (MINE'URAW). xin. R. gib. that planted thee hath spoken evil of . the destiny (to be rich or 6 Sanh. for Scripture too supports him: All the while my soul [E. 8 Viz. For the identity of Antoninus v.GENESIS (NOACH) the [XXXIV. plant For the Lord of hosts. because his view corresponds with that of Scripture. wise or foolish) of the foetus is determined. LXVII. cf. Leave meat without salt for three days/ said he. 3). 10-11 dough when the baker himself testifies it to be poor! [Thus man's Creator says] FOR THE IMAGINATION OF MAN'S HEART is EVIL. in my nostrils (Job xxvn. xi. when didst Thou place the soul the spirit of God is written. SEEDTIME AND HARVEST. 'he would dig through the womb and emerge rather is it when he emerges [from the womb]/ Rabbi agreed with him. R. AND SUMMER AND WINTER. ly). 2. Ber.V. poor. R. Abba Jose the potter said: How poor must be the leaven when he who kneaded it testifies that it is bad! Thus: For he knoweth our [evil] passions [E. AND COLD AND HEAT. The Rabbis said: How inferior must be the when he that planted it testifies that it is bad thus. He asked him further: 'When is the soul planted in man?' 'When he leaves his mother's womb/ replied he. And Thy My my fate. 170). in accordance with Rabbinic lore. 30^.' 5 Our Teacher agreed with him. infra. from when he awakes to the world. p. when his destiny is determined. 6. Num. Judan said: This is written mine'araw (from his awakening). 275 . y thee (Jer. WHILE THE EARTH REMAINETH. cm. 'frame'}. which means. n. 1 2 22). 6 n. 5 When. * Similarly the foetus would putrefy without a soul.V. viz. I4). Judan said in R. 12): hence. Judah ha-Nasi. 6 u. Aha's name: What did Leaven is a common simile for the evil passions (cf.

It once happened that one of the great men of his time some say that it was R. the covenant] will be broken in that day (Zech. 7). 6). 2 But when that day cometh. then [shall the verse be fulfilled]. and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them (Isa. and the earth shall be worn out like a garment (Isa. LI. Samuel b. * 5 Lit.e. xiv. n). 1 HEAT 276 . ana not night (Zech. . Nahman was suffering with headache. 5 as you read. CUTTING DOWN did not cut down. For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke. Aha commented: What was responsible for their rebelling against Me ? Was it not because they sowed but R. . : SOWING AND COLD AND SUMMER (KAYYIZ) AND WINTER (HOREF): I will cause the birds to summer upon them. and he lamented: This is what the generation of the Flood did for us s Another interpretation of WHILE THE EARTH 1 etc. And there shall be one day which shall be known as the Lord's. Yet when that day cometh of which it is written. 6). And the ravenous birds shall summer upon them. From the context this appears to mean that they would be exposed to the depredations of birds. : : the verse]. xvm.e. R. while the earth remaineth. Huna said in R. but only as long as the heaven and earth endure will their covenant endure.XXXIV. But as long as day and night endure. their covenant will endure. 8 He too understood to mean a high temperature. they gave birth but did not bury? 3 Therefore henceforth there shall be 4 they shall bear and bury. i. And it will be broken in that day. xi. none ever died young again smite .' R. of which it is written. not day. Isaac commented: What was responsible for their * The covenant of the previous verse: Neither will I again smite any more * every living thing. at that time [shall be fulfilled REMAINETH. for] thus said I to them: WHILE THE EARTH REMAINETH. Aha's name What do the children of Noah think: that the covenant made with them will endure to all eternity? [No. And it [sc. Reading the two verses together : Neither will I 3 I. translation of the verse. Il] MIDRASH RABBAH Noah think: that the covenant to all eternity? 1 the children of them would endure That is made with not so. HEAT: [they shall suffer] fever and ague.

Tebeth and half of Shebat are the winter How is this to be understood? They enjoyed the climate [now usual] between Passover and Pentecost [right through 3 months. Since Scripture implies that henceforth there alternating seasons of cold and heat. They used to sow once in forty years. the second half of Ab. making no more of the lions and leopards than of the vermin in their skin. Simeon commenced with [the beginning of] Tishri. a single harvest providing food for many years. Isaac said. This is a picture. exaggerated of course. Said R. but their Eliezer said: they never mark was NOT CEASE: 12. Judah counted from Marheshwan. 277 . This [blessing conferred] sacrifice. xxv. 1066. follows that they had ceased.rebelling against without having to reap?* For R. B. how was the climate 4 hitherto? I. 5 R. and they travelled from one end of the world to the other in a brief down the period. R. 2. Marheshwan and the first half of Kislew is seedtime. * 5 V. Gamaliel said in R. Joshua deduced: THEY SHALL hence it imperceptible. Jonathan to him: They did function. 2 the year]. the second half of Siwan. R. and R. Dosa too said thus: [The latter] half of Tishri. cutting GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXIV. R. This is * a 7 For the blessing itself had already been uttered (Gen. Tammuz and the first half of Ab is summer. 7 HIS SONS. would be new passage. lyar and the first half of Siwan is harvest time. Adar and the first half of Nisan are the cold season. the weather of a mild spring or early summer.M. supra. 11-12 Me? Was it not because they sowed cedars of Lebanon in their course. 4 R. Elul and the first half of Tishri are the hot season. which led to over-confidence in themselves and rebellion against a 1 God. the second half of Shebat. vm. THEY SHALL NOT CEASE implies that ceased. R. i). Johanan said: The planets did not function the whole twelve months [of the Flood]. the second half of Kislew. of the extreme ease of their lives. the second half of Nisan. AND here was a reward for their Every year.e. 17). Simeon b. Meir's name. 6 AND GOD BLESSED NOAH AND SAID UNTO THEM: BE FRUITFUL AND MULTIPLY (ix.

Sanh. 2 HITKEM A 278 . 2): fear and dread returned. to whom flesh to satisfy BE FOR FOOD FOR YOU . but dominion did not return. 28 f) in addition to 'fear* and "dread". 12-13] MIDRASH RABBAH OF YOU AND THE DREAD OF YOU SHALL BE UPON EVERY BEAST OF THE (HITKEM) EARTH (ix. 4). For he had dominion over all Kings It was taught. to whom flesh to satisfy their appetite was permitted. King of Bashan. . 5). Eleazar say: An infant one need not be guarded from mice or serpents them picking out his eyes: a lion sees him and a serpent sees him and flees. R. * suicide is punished. the region as (i AND THE FEAR it is written. v. where only plant life is permitted. * 5 Since all flesh was forbidden. dead. was not permitted. R. and dominion is not enumerated in this verse which restores them. thus too did R. his fear is removed from the lower creatures. SHALL YE NOT EAT (ix. when he dies. R. alive. b. 6 strangles himself. were admonished against eating a limb torn from the living animal. 3 was not admonished 4 against eating a limb torn from the living animal. 3 V. Johanan's name: Adam. 1516. Simeon b. your fear will only be co-eval with your life. But the children of Noah. 5 his appetite AND SURELY (WE-AK) YOUR BLOOD OF YOUR WILL I LIVES REQUIRE (ix. 10. CtC. must be guarded For as long as a man is alive his fear lies upon the [lower] creatures. the Sabbath may not be desecrated. 1 When did it return? In the days of Solomon. Eccl. i. Simeon b. Shab. for David king of Israel. Abin said in R. You might This includes one who think that even one in the ' ' 1 God's blessing to Adam conferred upon him dominion over all creatures (Gen. 29 f.. Eleazar said: For a live infant one day old the Sabbath is desecrated. I. EVERY MOVING THING THAT LIVETH SHALL ONLY FLESH WITH THE LIFE THEREOF. these prero* ' gatives were lost at the Flood. 3 ). as hayyathkem (only a change of punctuation is Reading required for this). Gen. 59*2. Yet Og. Jose b. a 13. R. 2. . your life thus. dead.. Thus it is written. WHICH IS THE BLOOD THEREOF.V. And day old. to prevent flees. ! AND THE FEAR OF YOU AND THE LIFE OF YOU.XXXIV.

Mishael and Azariah3 therefore we have A K . a save that) are limiting particles.e. 5 EVEN AT THE HAND OF EVERY MAN'S BROTHER. Greece. without a formal for [the warning. if he slays] by means of another SO committed suicide to save himself from the Philistines. 13-14 : meant 1 therefore we have A K. 916. WHO- 1 Who man s alone. because it WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. BY ONE MAN SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD BY MAN. from the hand of Edom. 17. says. R. I brother. particularly Rome (Edom). 8 Without a formal warning. in order to sanctify God's name. 2 You might think. 8 'One* is a deduction from the employment of the singular. I Sam. from the hand of I pray Esau REQUIRE THE LIFE OF this refers to Israel. are men (Ezek. 9 [He who C0mmits murder] through an agent. and Rome. (iX. On the testimony of one witness and on the ruling of one judge. Who risked their lives. vn. [viz. Thee. even one like Hananiah. Persia. i. that a man is condemned] on the testimony of one witness. this too refers to Esau (Rome). etc. 5 Reading this instead of Adam. Deliver me. AT THE HAND OF MAN (HA-ADAM): R. xxxiv. and murder of] an embryo. 6 I. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED: [i.GENESIS (NOACH) plight of Saul is : [XXXIV. imply extension even one who was not warned previously. 7 BJ . one xxxi. 4. the sheep of pasture. WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. WILL as it is written. The verse is made to foretell the punishment of the kingdoms that have enslaved Israel. 7 MAN: My My 6). for it SHALL His BLOOD BE SHED.e. Babylonia. 4 Viz. v. as it says. [for murder committed] through an agent. : BLOOD Th. i2). And ye sheep. Hanina said: All these are specifically Noachian laws. 2 It is a principle of exegesis that ok and rafc (excepting. were identified. AT THE HAND OF EVERY BEAST WILL I REQUIRE 4 IT: this refers to the four kingdoms. * says. from the hand of my 6 (Gen. 279 . WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. 3. xxxn. with whom. 14. on the ruling of one judge. the four beasts* mentioned in Dan. either as witness or as judge. which is akin to suicide.e. Edom and Esau stand for Rome.3i). BY MAN SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. presumably he understands to WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S may cause conviction. as it is written. Levi said: That means.

. What proof? WHOSO SHEDDETH is the reason? FOR IN THE IMAGE OF GOD MADE HE MAN. comes. 8 R. 391. For It murder BLOOD OF MAN WITHIN [ANOTHER] MAN. . AND YOU. the former two are transgressed. Radal: when Messiah comes. R. BE YE FRUITFUL. n. What is the proof? FOR is IN THE MADE HE MAN. of] His BLOOD SHALL BE SHED. 8 This is a play on words. is regarded as What is the though he had impaired [God's] MAN'S BLOOD. 'Azariah lectured: He who refrains from procreation is as though he impaired [God's] image. xxi. etc. Eleazar b. therefore be ye fruitful. Referring 'by man' to *$heddeth\ and ignoring the punctuation * man within another man is an embryo. shed. WHEN MAN COMES6 SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. ed. when 7 Deut. 7. which IS followed by. Akiba lectured: He who sheds blood likeness. 7 [for final judgment 5 . 2 R. What is the proof? WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. For the Kid. because man was made in God's image. further* the verse may be translated N i. whole passage cf. Eleazar to him: Teachings are becoming when they are uttered by those who practise v.XXXIV. BE YE FRUITFUL. why? FOR IN THE IMAGE OF GOD MADE HE MAN. if the last is violated. WHOSO SHEDDETH THE : who murders by as it strangling. . for says. A WHOSO THAT MA 280 . thus it is written]. Simon said Also he an embryo. AND MULTIPLY. which followed by. as it were.e. . 10 Thus. BY SAME * 4 Or it may mean : When Adam Having died peacefully in his bed. 25. . supra. Judah b. 390. 10 1 Said R. says. and on his own testimony. WHOSO SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD [while retaining it] WITHIN MAN. on his own confession shall . * I. 9 One can shed blood and yet retain it within the victim only by strangrula. 1 14] MIDRASH KABBAH [the person. BLOOD. AND MULTIPLY. R. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. SHALL HIS BLOOD BE SHED. man comes. when will he be SHEDDETH MAN'S BLOOD. if a man slew 4 slain? When man comes yet was not slain.). Ben 'Azzai lectured: He who refrains from procreation is as though he shed blood and impaired [God's] likeness. 4$a.e. etc. Sanh. tion. ba'adam fin man) being read ba adorn. Levi said: Behold. 3 R. in Sonc. v. IMAGE OF GOD AND YOU. 8 Thus murder is punished by death because it impairs God's image. WHOSO R. 57^ (pp.

when two women came out from there. Because I am an exile from home/ he replied. is satisfied with his own.e. IN THE EARTH. lee. but do not fulfil 1 That is because I desire to study Torah. 26). Sot-.: it contains no more than two stands (for scholars) with similar meaning. .e. xxxvm. 4 Resh Lakish was sitting and studying Torah in a small forest of Tiberias. 6 I. Resh Lakish judging it from the point of view nearest to his heart. a heart which has no desire of (boser) his neighbour's portion. 'When a child is born there we have to crush spices and smear his head with it. SWARM : I 1 cannot you grasp it ?' he asked. 'From Gabath Shammai/ he replied. B It is an insignificant place quite unworthy of praise. and yet these women preferred it to Tiberias. 'Azzai designated by his * 8 *My this being the reason that he (Simeon). was unmarried. Resh Lakish said A covenant has been made in favour 7). i. 'and it contains no more than two dwelling houses 5 Blessed is He who inspireth the inhabitants of a town with love for it! A disciple of R. xxxvi.' they replied.GENESIS (NOACH) S [XXXIV. 1 1 . is not own name Yeb. Issi was sitting before him and could not comprehend what he was explaining to him. 'Praised be He who has led us out from that bad climate/ 'Whence do you come?* he called out to them. 470. son of 'Azzai. Cf. 'Why 15. but you. 'Whence are you?' inquired he. 'I know about Mazga/ he observed. while the world can be preserved through others. 3 A'ND YOU. lest insects should eat him/ he replied. Var. preach well. 6 3 b. 14-15 them. 6 1 Ben Lit. one saying to the other. BE YE FRUITFUL. 4 God has implanted in man a love of his native soil even in bad climates (M. In the future too it will be thus And I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh and I will give you a heart of flesh leb basar * : y (Ezek.).. 'Blessed is He who inspireth the inhabitants of a place with love for it!' he exclaimed. tft/Vo. soul delights in the Torah*. 'What is its climate?' he asked. AND MULTIPLY THEREIN (iX. 2 your teaching he pleaded.K. of climates. AND MULTIPLY. 'From Mazga.

My COVENANT WITH YOU. R. etc. Joshua b. relations immediately on leaving the in planting a vineyard (v. * Though read le-doroth. Therefore [God's] he and his sons were favoured with [God's] allocution. LISH ESTAB9). Simeon b. 'Has the rainbow appeared in his days?' (ix. 282 . Judan said: which thus excludes two generations. he subdued his desires even after leaving the Ark. Levi/ he answered. SAYING: As FOR ME. i. 5 Elijah was believed to visit people quite frequently. Hezekiah omitted the generation of the Men of the Great Synagogue and substituted that of R. of R. 20) . Joshua b. Judah was put said: Because he transgressed [God's] to shame. 1 R. and therefore implies limitation. R. R. Joshua b. 3 This was not a transgression but on the contrary a more scrupulous observance of God's command. the le-doraih? Great Synagogue. 6 R. command and as it is written. Yohai of course was dead. Simeon b. 'The greatest of his generation. 4 generation of Hezekiah and that of the R. whereas he engaged two generations. For whereas God had forbidden marital relations in the Ark only. BEHOLD. Levi (3rd century). 22 seq. 2. R. 4). (ix. AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH AND SAID: . AND TO WITH HIM. Th. because they were completely righteous. therefore he was put to shame by Ham (w. These generations did not need the sign of the rainbow. Simeon b. . Said one: 'Here is the author of the 6 ruling: let us go and question him about it/ So Elijah of blessed memory went to him. i-2] CHAPTER XXXV (NOACH) HIS SONS I AND GOD SPOKE UNTO NOAH. Levi were Elijah of blessed memory and 5 when they came to a ruling sitting and studying together. AND GOD . Dorath (lit. Yohai. THIS is THE TOKEN OF THE PERPETUAL GENERATIONS FOR This is written 12). TO HIS SONS. t infra. Nehemiah said : He command he went beyond 2 acted with self-restraint. 'the generation of) is singular . etc. consult him. xxxvi.XXXV. 'Who is with you?' he asked. 4 A body founded by Ezra to act as the official guardians of the Law. having belonged to a much earlier generation But Elijah could still (2nd century) than R. 8. COVENANT LEDOROTH . he interprets the omissions of the two wows (rrro instead of Jinn^) as intimating the omission of 1 He was told to resume marital first Ark. Yohai.

Jeremiah's name: Thus did R. 6 (ix. Simeon Yohai had but to say. I HAVE SET MY BOW (KASHTl) IN THE CLOUD : likeness (Mshutki). 77^. if there is but one.: a hot axe. 28. 13) is My AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS. 5 Is that really possible? In truth. Simeon b. XLIX. Jeremiah's name: Thus did R. {Var. but gave it to his servant instead. 7 Var. Keth. while I can intercede for [all generations] from my time until the advent of Messiah. I. Hezekiah said in R. and was to his son. something that that means. Isaac. Simeon b. Jonathan and R. . LII. Hezekiah related in R. b. If there are thirty. * 283 . V. 3. 2 For in a truly righteous generation it would be unnecessary. O field. . once happened that R. 3. etc. he can effectively intercede for [ail generations] from his days until mine. if 4 two. let Ahijah the Shilonite unite with me. Judah it man who was going to give 1 6).GENESIS (NOACH) he inquired . etc. my son and I are two of them . 97^. Jeremiah's name: R. 4 s Sanh. lee. Ezek. 2 R. [the comparable bow resembles God] as the straw resembles the grain. infra. 8 To save his son the discomfort. [XXXV. my son and I are two of them if five. they are my son and I . * 5 It is but a faint reflection of God's glory. V. R.' and it was filled. R. (iX. 92^2. 14). Giyori went to hear an exposition of the Torah some say of the chapter on libations from R. R. 2-3 he is not worthy of being received by me/ 1 b. Judan said in name a of R. not on man. Yohai say: The world possesses not less than thirty men as righteous as Abraham. . it is I. Simeon b. O field. to Me. R. 3 R.) Thus here too God promises that in His anger He will bring the clouds on the earth.' if it has. Ex. lee. 8 : AND THE BOW SHALL It BE IN THE CLOUD. be filled with gold ' dinars. Yohai say: If Abraham is willing. and we can intercede for all from the days of Abraham until those of Messiah. WHEN I BRING CLOUDS UPON THE EARTH (ix. While if he is not willing. Hezekiah related in R. R. Simon This may be compared to 7 holding in his hand some hot flour. my son and I are two of them if ten. Judan b. is perhaps preferable: he wished to pour it out on his son in his anger but poured it. 3 Hul.

Others omit days'. 'they received permission To 4 Our edd. waited a couple of days. . saying : Return with much Another expounded thus: Since it is written. etc. So passage]. Therefore it 'Moreover. but that it contradicts the former. but stayed on another day. as it is written. 6). read: . why is it further stated. Y. R. One of them then expounded [a Scriptural 2 them Since it is already written. The people away unto their tents. to which the former verse refers. eighth And 1 a on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month. he blessed over when Joshua them (ib.XXXV. And they blessed the king is absent. and they the Jordan [on their return home]. etc. necessary to receive it again since they had stayed on after it. 3l MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Yohai. 5 Viz. xxn. for the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles. On the day he sent the people away. sent them away unto their tents. (ib.: the difficulty is not that the latter verse is superfluous. Lit. .T. 66). 5 twenty-second day]. Reuben and Gad formed them to saw that When his retinue was thus diminished. is that they obtained permission [to go on the however. and sent Moretheir tents (Josh. His last blessing was greater The tribes of than the first. which is preferable. the tribes of Reuben and Gad were with them and likewise in conquering and dividing the spent fourteen years there received permission country. ga. therefore it is said. And on the three and (i Kings vin. vn. 7)? The reason is because when the Israelites were engaged in conquering and dividing the land. And he spoke unto them. it was a M.K. or read 'one day'. saying to them away. 4 and they blessed the king (i Chron. and they went unto Joshua blessed them. when Joshua sent them away. 10) ? The reason. why twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away. Judan said: he accompanied Joshua's personal retinue. ' a couple of 284 . and they blessed the king is it stated. the twenty-second and twenty-third. After the fourteen years they but they stayed there another from Joshua to return home. : 3 says. they turned back and escorted him to his home. and then received permission a second time. and then asked permission a second time. not the twenty-third. Said they: We must bid him farewell a second time. 3 wealth to your tents. is the twenty- second of the month. few days. Then they took their adieus from him. from him* to go home. prove that though permission had already been granted. 8).

' because they found their wives clean. Levi said : It is written. And the angel of God. however. Simeon b. they were smitten with remorse. while Day of Atonement Is on the tenth of that month. Now the seven days before the Festival must include the Sabbath and the Day of Atonement. cit. had approved their actions. Perhaps we have done wrong by desecrating the Sabbath and eating on the Day of Atonement ? In order to tranquillise them and assure them that the Holy One. pay her debts. he sent a couple of scholars with them. R. Tabernacles] seven days (ib. until the resurrection of the dead.: not that they would live until then. loc. and glad of heart' because they conceived male children. saying. Isaac observed: 'Joyful. is because it says And the oil stayed (ib. Levi said: There went forth a heavenly voice and proclaimed. : : 1 the 2 The Feast of Tabernacles commences on the fifteenth of Tishri. 4 and she came to ask him whether to sell now or not. to them. 7) ?3 The reason. there came forth a heavenly voice and declared ' 'Ye are all worthy of the Hereafter. Elisha's first blessing had merely been that the oil would 7 Th. And live thou and thy sons of the 7 rest (ib.e. Yohai] saw that they were men of such culture. blessed be He. but that the oil would sustain them even if they lived so long. 3 R. This refers to the woman whom Elisha saved from slavery by the * miracle of the increasing oil. to hear what they would teach on the road. The last was greater than the first. So she went 2 from him (n Kings iv. 19). advanced in price. why then is it further stated. R. 1 during [all] these seven days the Israelites ate. 'Ye are all worthy of the Hereafter. i. xiv. which means that the market price advanced.). 9). [XXXV. hence it says. 5 His second blessing was greater than the first. ' yet drank. Then she came and told the man of God (ib. removed and went behind them (Ex. viz. ' 7 : . Whereas suffice to 285 . 6). however. 5) why then is it stated further. rejoiced and lit lamps.' The third expounded It is already written. For they kept the dedication of the altar seven days and the feast [sc. One of them expounded thus It was already written. 4 6 8 That the miracle had been duly performed. y) 6 which means. When he [R. And they blessing went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart (i Kings.GENESIS (NOACH) etc. Subsequently. who went before the camp of Israel. Probably translating: And the oil stood up But wait for a further increase.

And all thy desirable things are not to be compared unto her (ib. it shall watch over thee (ib. it shall mlk with thee (ib. IX. wisdom. AND I WILL LOOK UPON IT.J. 15) ? Things desirable' connotes religious acts and good ' deeds Thy desirable things. including cur. n). you sent me something which I must guard. When thou walkest. rigid while the judgment below wisdom is better A third expounded: One verse says. add the following: Arteban (the last Parthian king) sent our Teacher (R. 4 Several MSS. cf. edd. 6. A THE CLOUD. VI.)? It means that that very Attribute of 1 was Judgment. The passage is somewhat obscure. and knoweth Me (Jer. and directed against the Egyptians. supra. in. whereas I sent you something which guards you while you sleep at ease. 1 2 Judgment and mercy are often hypostasized as living personalities. THAT I MAY REMEMBER THE EVERLASTING COVENANT BETWEEN ELOHIM (GOD): this refers to the Attribute of Heavenly Judgment above. blessed be He. 22) when thou Kest down. Sc. which threateningly confronted Israel. Perhaps it means heavenly judgment is exacting only when earthly judgment is lax. as it in this world . The whole story about these three scholars is quoted here for the sake : of this verse. and stood behind them (#. with the request.* he retorted (the mezusah symbolising the knowledge * of God). AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE OF ALL FLESH THAT this refers second expounded: AND THE BOW SHALL BE IN IS UPON THE EARTH: judgment below: the judgment above is 2 is pliable. 'My desirable things and thy desirable things are not to be compared unto her. gems and precious stones.. [For to than rubies. Moreover. that ' ' . it shall lead thee (Prov. whereas you returned me something worth but a folar (a small debased coin). R. 'Let me have in return an article as valuable as this/ So he sent him a mezusah. 23). in the sense of the knowledge and the fear of God. Judah ha-Nasi) a priceless gem. turned round by the Holy One. Aha explained it in the name of R.} and all things desirable are not to be compared unto her (Prov.) in the Hereafter/ 3 ' : ' 286 . vm.) presumably because such wisdom is the foundation of all noble deeds.* in this. And 3J MIDRASH RABBAH the pillar of cloud removed from before them. And when thou wakest. R. Tanhuma b.XXXV. He sent back word I gave you a priceless object. whereas another verse says. Hiyya: My desirable things and thy desirable things are not 3 to be compared unto her. But let him that glorieth glory he understande th. xxvi. says.) in the hour of death. stands higher than material wealth and even than religious observances (*E. for.

R. 1 Let that suffice thee. like a judge before is spread. who then can conhideth His face whom a curtain ' He demn them? they replied. xix. v i. while elsewhere it is said.[XXXVI. When He gweth quietness. And He (ib. alter the meaning by adding: so said the generation of the Flood (according to this R. Then what is meant by. CHAPTER i XXXVI (NOACH) i. THAT WENT FORTH FROM THE ARK. pi. Levi were pregnant but three days and then stated here. Curedd. Even after one day. It is written. 1 287 . They send forth their little ones ('awilehem) like a flock' R. 15) just as 'nakon' there means for three days. 2) just as nakon there means in one day. of nakon) against the third day (Ex. (Job xxxiv. who can demand that He should have punished them sooner? Or perhaps: did He not give them tranquillity. When He giveth quietness. whilst elsewhere it is said. and what did they lack? Their prosperity was complete. They send forth their * little said: Their wives ones like a flock. so here too it means one day. AND HAM. Meir inter: quieteneth Himself from His world. xxi. 18). AND THE SONS OF NOAH. Cf. 8). 29) ? R. 'And their offspring before their eyes means that they saw their children's children.) from His world. that He seeth not (Job xxu.e. etc. R. Meir merely puts these words into the mouth of the wicked). n). Meir. But in that case it is difficult to see why his colleagues so sharply rejected this interpretation. WERE SHEM. 2 You have said more than enough heaven forfend that this teaching should be true! 8 I. when God is patient and long-suffering with the wicked. 14). The Rabbis said: : bore for nakon : ' is Be ready (nekonim. AND JAPHET who preted it (ix. Was not ease given to the generation of the Flood. Levi ' ' : ' * : He is unconcerned by what is done in this world and is not incensed by the deeds of the wicked a remarkable teaching of God's transcendence. Thick clouds are a covering to Him. (ib. and their offspring before their eyes (ib. for 'nakon' occurs here. who can condemn?' he demanded. then can condemn. etc. said 2 they to him. And be ready (nakon) by the morning (ib. so that he does not know what is happening without. so 'nakon' here means for three days. 3 And what ease was given to them? Their seed is established (nakon) in their sight with them. xxxiv. Lev.

9) of demons Neither the rod of God upon them (ib. 'Thou hast not done weir?6 And why did He hide his face from them? [Because as it is written].) like demons. Go and light me a candle to cut through your navel cord/ He went out. Mighty men do the 24) 1 men evil that is unfathomable (Job xxxiv. 2 When one of them gave birth me a by day she would say to her son. .V. 'Destruction'] met him and said to him. 'Go and bring flint to cut your navel cord/ If at night. Yoma ua. xm. Yet when He hid His face from them. she would say to her son. of the generation of the Flood did evil Is He translates So that I lack 'amlehem.V. 8 E.XXXVI. and He can set up His world * . but if the cock had not crowed yet. It once happened that a woman who gave birth at night said to her son. who then can behold Him (yeshurennu) ? By a play on words ye-shurennu is connected with ke~shurah 7 Since He can as easily establish the world from an light or just. Whether it be done unto a nation or unto a man> alike yahad (Job xxxiv. with which this section began: And when He hideth his face. said : 1-2] MIDRASH KABBAH In Arabia a child Is called 'awila* And their children dance (ib. and person.) they are spared sufferings. 5 who said to Him. 1 * : from a nation. as you read. I would have smitten and killed you/ 'Go and inform your mother that 4 my mother had not yet cut my navel cord/ he retorted. * Flood 29) : Unto a nation refers to the generation of the And unto a man y to Noah. 'Go and inform your mother that the cock has 3 crowed. without fear (Job xxi. And satyrs shall dance there (Isa. Hiis concludes the exegesis on Job xxxrv. 7 written. 'He breaketh in pieces mighty men without inquisition.' fi t 288 . and the ' ' demon Shlmadon [lit. Decreeing that they should all drown. He destroyed the whole generation. Go and light a lamp to cut [burn] through your 1 navel cord. when I am powerless * 6 both places. as 2. 29. 8 : it Is He can establish His word from a single etc. as they were wicked. Their : houses are is safe. which a rare cf. my full strength. a The same word for dance is used in 8 It is daylight. AND THE SONS OF NOAH. 2i). and killed you/ Thus it is written. as E. individual. "but I would have smitten had my mother cut my navel cord. word in this sense. 'alike' for from him [Noah] was the world established.

etc. THE HUSBANDMAN. 20). xxvi. Why (ib. And and 1 Uzziah: he had husbandmen and vinedressers 4 ' in the mountains in the fruitful fields. XLIII. 'Thou hast not done rightly'? But Noah entered [the Ark] in peace and left it in peace: thus. To his father. AND OF THESE WAS THE WHOLE EARTH OVERSPREAD (iX. and young shoots for fig trees and olive trees. / will work.. etc. Noah.GENESIS (NOACH) ' [XXXVI. 289 o . * Wayyahel is thus connected with hullin. 19). as by a huge 3. And whence did he procure it? Said R. xxxi. io). IV. : their setteth others in their stead (ib. AND NOAH THE HUSBANDMAN BEGAN WAY(ix. degradation. HUSBANDMAN. for he loved husbandry (n Chron. vi. day was I am He. hence AND THE SONS there is none that Yea.} ? In all the works and designs which I executed upon the people of the generation of the Flood. Canaan V. lowliness. since the can deliver out of hand (Isa. 21): a man gathers 3 in only what he will need [in the future]. 1 THESE THREE WERE THE SONS OF NOAH.). Abba b. And thou shalt gather to thee (Gen. transf.): viz. AND THE SONS OF NOAH. and My : who could say to Me. fish that spawned its eggs and filled the earth. YAHEL (hulliri)* YARD of use. and Uzziah. profane. and no good was found in them Cain. Noah: : AND NOAH. is treated as a substantive deriving from kana* 9 to subdue. xxn. subject. Cain was a tiller of the ground (ib. supra. 2-3 ' with their wicked deeds That is unfathomable wicked deeds were unfathomable [endless]. AND HAM is THE FATHER OF CANAAN: He was the source of degradation. was degraded (nithhallel) and debased Because HE PLANTED A VINEShould he have not planted something ? He such as a young fig-shoot or a young [olive-] shoot? Instead of which HE PLANTED A VINEYARD. supra. and who can reverse it (ib. as it is written. the children of Noah. Kahana: He took into the Ark with him vine shoots for planting. Three had a passion for agri- THE culture. And He . BEGAN. 14. 13) none can deliver any of the world nations out of My hand. 3. OF NOAH. hence 'subjection*. ' * V. 2).

but take care not to enter my portion. became to shame. The Tribes of Judah and Benjamin were exiled only on account of wine. by a play on words it is derived from galuth. xxxni. a contemptuous sense.: a land-worker is so called because he tills the land. Now understood in . i). v. R. Ba all drank thereof. 19). on one and the same AND HE WAS UNCOVERED (WAYYITHGAL) WITHIN His TENT. 7). n).XXXVI. n. omit it altogether.The original is difficult and the translation is only a con* This is a more intensive form jecture. R. cur. R. vi. 2 1 Jast. 2 is called A MAN OF THE GROUND . that they may follow strong drink (Isa. Come into partnership with ' into yard]. Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning. AND PLANTED A VINEYARD. and said: He planted was thus put it. 3~4l MIDRASH KABBAH [lit. just as a castle-guard Is A MAN 9). exile. OF THE WINE. As he was going to Shiniadon met him and plant the vineyard the demon me [in this vineproposed. DRUNKEN 21). Simon and R. But these also [viz. Judah and Benjamin] erred through wine (ib. as it Is written. R. 3 V. 290 . R. after having been called A righteous man (Gen. after was having been called An Egyptian man (Ex. who ended as a castrate. Intoxicated. as it is written. Noah. but Moses. he was so termed] because he saved the face of the ground. infra. WITHIN HIS TENT (AHALOH): this is written ahalah Th. 1 called by the name of the castle. He was more 3 beloved than Noah. Berekiah said: Moses was more beloved than Noah. he since for his sake the ground was preserved and because OF THE GROUND: filled the face of the ground. xxvm. A HUSBANDMAN 'A MAN OF THE GROUND': . Isaac said: Not WAYYGAL Is written but WAYYITHGAL exile for himself he was the cause of and subsequent generations. Samuel b. edd. The Ten : 4 Tribes were exiled only because of wine. AND WAS He drank immoderately. rjiyya b. then called The man of God (Deut. for if you do I will injure you/ 4. AND HE DRANK (ix. and was humiliated day. Judah b. Hanan in the name of R. 7.

He said to his brethren: Adam had . then 1 Though punctuated ahaloh. Abba b. Zabdi said Why does a slave go free for the loss of a tooth or an 6 eye? It follows from this: AND . and by a play on words it is translated 'woe'. 25). Huna said Ark name When Noah was mutilated him. Sanh. R. . . (Gen. and And Noah awoke (wayyikkez) covered (wayyekassu) and knew (wayyeda*) what his youngest son had done unto him. Johanan said Beware of a passion for wine. xxi. Thus on account of these organs he was con' demned to slavery. IX. and Shem and Japheth took (wayyikkah) a garment. R. as . AND : TOLD. Ex. . but two sons. EHezer's a lion struck (her tent). 22). and planted (wayyitta) a vineyard. . and went (wayyeleku) backward. Cf. and this man [Noah] has three sons and yet he wants four! He 5 spoke to them. consequently.. to draw (with words). And he drank (wayyesht) of the wine. 4 5. he forgot that he was unfit for intercourse. 4-6 in R. And he said (wayyomer) Cursed be Canaan (Gen. * The reference is to his genital organs. And Ham saw (wayyar) and told (wayyagged) his two brethren. I. . AND HAM. . SAW AND TOLD (WAYYAGGED) HIS TWO BRETHREN WITHOUT (rx. and laid it (wayyasimu) upon both their shoulders. 70*2. . it is written. wrong (v.e. his words being clipped. . his wife's tent. . he regains his freedom. Johanan said: Shem commenced the good deed. when him of one of them. by his teeth. 5 Wayyagged' is derived now from nagad. AND SHEM AND JAPHETH TOOK A GARMENT. HE SAW. THE FATHER OF CANAAN. * In this passage way as part of the verb occurs fourteen times. . 20-25). And Noah the husbandman began (wayyahel). 7 6. R. 8 Being drunk. 4).GENESIS (NOACH) 1 [XXXVI. : IX. 7 He saw with his eye and told with his mouth. 291 his master deprives . yet one arose and slew his brother.. as it were. 2 leaving the and Now3 : he went to cohabit. he tried to persuade them that their father had done 8 V. 26 f. but his semen 'was scattered and he was humiliated. R. . and persuaded them. and was drunken (wayyishkar) and he was uncovered (wayyithgal). : viz. whence 'to persuade'. because in this passage on wine way (woe) is written fourteen times.

HIS WINE (ix. as you read. I will reward thee. 2 3 * But actually facing Noah. Judan of be-sarbelehon'] R. Th. 292 . to Shem: 'Thou didst cover thy father's these men nakedness thy life I will reward thee When AND WENT BACKWARDS. thy descendants. 4). 7.e. young and old.XXXVI. ill. 5 ) cloaks. captives of Egypt. giving him 3 a son to a father. for It shall come to pass in that day. (Dan. 1 A cloak fastened with clasps or buckles. teaches that they hid their 2 faces with their hands and walked backward. 8 Burial in the land of Israel is regarded as a privilege moreover. Num. 5 Jast.: in their breeches. said to Ham: 'Thou didst bring Holy I will thy father's nakedness into disgrace: By thy life. however. the Greek) was ike pallium a cloak betokening his dignity. Huna said: It means in their : ' The Holy One. do we THEY SAW NOT THEIR FATHER'^ NAKEDNESS? : By ! ' are bound in their cloaks (be-sarbelehon). Now not since It is said. xxxix. said to Japheth : : Thou didst cover thy father's nakedness By thy life. his worthless son. When Shadrach. Here it means. Huna [differed as to the meaning ai)-* (R. blessed be He. and R. AND NOAH AWOKE FROM his wine. 24): he was sobered from AND KNEW WHAT HIS YOUNGEST SON HAD DONE UNTO HIM. naked and barefoot. and R. shall the king of Assyria lead away the requite thee: So 1 6 and the exiles of Ethiopia. Therefore Shem was Japheth came and hearkened a talliih and Japheth a pallium?granted AND LAID IT UPON BOTH THEIR SHOULDERS. ' etc. Said the Holy One. xx. TalUth here means a fringed garment. It would have been disrespectful to turn their back on him. blessed be He. 38). are cast into the fiery furnace. One. the respect due from blessed be He. xv. Judan said: It means in their prayer robes of state. Meshach. and with buttocks uncovered to the shame of Egypt' (Isa. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH to him. Gog is held to be a descendant of Japheth. and Abed-nego. I will save them. know that This. here it implies that they would enjoy the Messianic era. Jotianan means that the reward of Shem (the ancestor of the Jews) was the precept of fringes (v. while that of Japheth (i. R. that I will give unto The Gog a place fit for burial in Israel (Ezek. ii).

therefore the curse is attached to him who did wrong. declared]. Ham was actually not the youngest son. while there cannot be a curse where a blessing has been given. GOD OF SHEM . i). 5 copulated in the Ark and were punished. [your son] will be a servant to his brethren!' R. R. Joseph's name: You have prevented me from doing something in the dark [sc. and declared. rx. 2 According to the Rabbis he castrated him. therefore Ham came forth black-skinned while the dog publicly exposes to its one who minted copulation. 'You have R. 25): Ham sinned and Canaan is cursed R. in the second in the sense that it was too small and consequently unfit. Shem. 64). 6 Copulating in the Ark is compared to minting one's coinage (producing offspring in one's own image) in the King's (i. Nehemiah disagreed. blessed HE SAID: CURSED BE CANAAN. Levi said : This may be compared his own coinage 4 in the very palace of the king. Judah and R. v. AND HE SAID: BLESSED BE THE LORD. and Japheth. Nehemiah explained: It was Canaan [in the first place] and informed them. v. his effigy whereupon the king ordered: I decree that be defaced and Ham and the dog his coinage cancelled. (i Kings vm. R. etc. 6. Ham. . therefore your seed will be ugly and dark-skinned. 'When I go out I will beget a young son to do this for me/ But when Ham acted thus to him. 8. Joseph's name: [Noah 'You have prevented me from begetting a fourth son. . Similarly. God's) own house. Sc. And God ! AND HE receive the burnt-offering. he exclaimed. x. Noah and his sons (Gen. consequently. 7-8 1 Because the brazen altar that was before the Lord was too SAID: CURSED BE CANAAN (ix. Berekiah said: Noah had no young son prevented therefore me from that man 2 begetting a young son to serve me. Canaan. R. Katon is used in both verses. THE GOD ENLARGE JAPHETH (ix. Zeb. Judah said: Since it is written. sgb. Hiyya said : Ham and the dog copulated in the Ark. Huna said in R. therefore I curse your fourth son/ 3 R. Huna also said in R. * 8 Coins bearing his own effigy. who saw it R. 1 293 . cohabitation]. as appears from the order.GENESIS (NOACH) little to [XXXVI.e. that he grieved very much in the Ark to wait on him.

6 R. east of the lake of Tiberias (v. R. Lulianus said: It refers to the grammatical and finding there no Scroll of Esther. Which are not marked in the original Scroll of the Bible. And punctuation accents. Ned. 3#.) to a translation. whether certain words are to be read with what follows or also cf. This alludes to Cyrus who ordered the Temple to HE1 SHALL DWELL IN be rebuilt yet even so. 8] MIDRASH RABBAH 26 f. But it was taught It once happened : : 4 this refers to the beginnings of the verses. mean what precedes them. iSb. The reference is to the Septuagint. 8) this refers to : in the book. Judan said: From this 3 a translation [of the Bible is permitted]. 294 . reading (ib. 8 : Meg. p. AND THE TENTS OF SEEM: the ShecMnah dwells only in the tents of Shein. E. It may also refer to a town. 6. I. LXXX. in the .e. but ' ' it may * 8 translation in general. And they read God (Neh.} they gave caused them to understand the the R. he must not read it from 7 8 memory and write it. 6 376. 'And he'. I. that R. Ia R. Geogr.) And (ib. (ib. Meir was a skilled writer of Scrolls. 38). Law of : Scripture distinctly the sense i. Hiyya 5 sequence [of words]. he must not write a Scriptural Scroll from memory but copy from another. supposed to be Essa. 7 they taught the traditional vocalization. 9 3 s 8 Sc. I. Zera and R. which does not always agree with the written text. Meg. Neub. u suppressed the first and kept the second as valid [for use]. whereas the second was f copied.e. Hananel said Even if a man is as wellversed in the Torah as Ezra. 9&. V. he read it from memory and wrote it? 10 There [in Babylonia] they say: He wrote two Scrolls.e. .e. Targum usually connotes the Aramaic translation of Onkelos. Japheth.e. God. For the whole passage cf. Meg. we learn that : Thus it is written. The Rabbis of Caesarea said: Here we have an allusion to the traditional text. I. Meir visited Asia Minor. 11 Because the first was written from memory.V.XXXVI. Asia here means a tract of land including Lydia and some small portions of what is now Asia. Th. Bar Kappara explained it Let the words of the Torah be uttered in the language of Japheth [sc.). vm. infra . 2 Greek] in the tents of Shem.. b.

7 One verse calls them Dodanim. : : THE SONS . xxx. isanda being another name for Javan (Macedonia) j in that case several names are left unidentified. * Thus the family of Put existed as a distinct entity in the days of Ezekiel. etc. Resh Lakish said: We . the Rabbis said : It is Thrace. Hellas and Taras [Tarantum]. Th. Jast. had not Ezekiel came and explicitly enumerated him: Ethiopia. and all the mingled people . 2 The A . because they come and oppress (rodim) them. and Lud. 9 : 1 this probably refers to ancient Phrygia in Asia Minor. while another verse calls them Rodanim called Chron. Italia.).e. shall fall (Ezek. 7)? R. Simon said That is the Euphrates region R. however. AND 4 RlPHATH AND TOGARMAH (x. 2).e. KITHIM. AND THE SONS OF HAM: CUSH.. DODANIM (i ' * : ' 2. AND THE SONS OF GOMER: ASHKENAZ. i. AND PUT.. land of the Cimmerians. Adiabene. We are the descendants of your kinsmen/ but when they are low they come and oppress them. as it does the sons of the others. 6). . Berekiah said: Germanicia. Simon said: They are because they are the descendants of Israel's kinsmen (dodim). since Scripture does not enumerate the sons of Put. and Put. near the borders of Th. 3): Asia. not to Africa. Samuel b. 1 (x. Rodanim. : Asia proconsularis ancient Phrygia. Macedonia and Mysia. 2 Germania. Especially the southern part of Italy. AND DODANIM (x. AND MIZRAIM. Hanan said When Israel are elevated they say to them. 8 In the other branches of the family. R. XXXVII (NOACH) OF JAPHETH: GOMER. AND TARSHISH. 3 district of Asia Minor.). Cappadocia 6 (Jast. might have thought that the family of Put was 8 absorbed. maintains with Graetz that the text is correct. district and city of Upper Mysia. on the shores of the Caspian sea. 3 AND T i R A s R. Media. AND MAGOG. 4 Th.[XXXVII. i. 6 and Dardania. and Germania. s). Amini said: These are Africa. called Magna Graecia (Jast. 5 AND THE SONS OF JAVAN: ELI SHAH. 7 A 295 . with an emended text. 4): i. AND CANAAN (x. i-2 CHAPTER i. R. 5 Town and district in the province of Commagene.

i). This (hu) Ezra went up (Ezra VH.XXXVII. Isaac: He [David] composed this with reference to the seat of 1 judgment of that wicked man. R. 2-3] MIDRASH KABBAH GUSH BEGOT (x. These are (hu) that Dathan and Abiram (Num. I. Nehemiah said in the name of R. 'a Benjamite') in that case. I. LIKE NIMROD A MIGHTY AND NIMROD (x. xxviii. Hanina b. Berekiah said in the name of the Rabbis of the other country : [i. saying. 30). xxxii. This same (hu) Hezekiah (n Chron. concerning Cush a Benjamite ish yemini (Ps. Five times hu' denotes a good character: Abram the same is (hu) Abraham (i Chron. Was then Esau a 2 is so called] because he acted like Nimrod. and five times denoting a good one. It is not clear how he translates 'ben yemim* (E. 8). We have another that is better than all He is (hu) 1 Babylonia] the : Lord Sc. i). 22). but who was your accomplice in the murder/ .e. lying to the south of Judea. whilst Benjamin's territory was in the south of Palestine. R. 27) . 9): it is not written. 3. (*&. 27). xxxvi. [but tell us] who was your partner in the theft you have not killed. HUNTER BEFORE THE LORD Nimrod [was LIKE NIMROD '[True. which he sang unto the Lord. I. 296 . etc. vn. It is employed five times to denote a wicked character: HE (HU) WAS A MIGHTY HUNTER. 2 8 4 Surely not. meaning Rome. This explains the text. 6). Esau.V. S : a mighty hunter].] you have not stolen.e. Edom. Rome] snare people by their words. This same (hu) king Ahaz (u Chron. This (hu) is Esau the father of the Edomites (Gen. the land of Esau. 9). so did the just other [Esau. Shiggaion of David.e. Understanding hunter metaphorically. (HU) WAS A MIGHTY HUNTER. 43). the cunning ot the Romans in verbally entangling those whom they accused until they inadvertently confessed to what they had never committed. Joshua b. Cushite? [He Hence it is written. Implying that there was another like him. vi. These are (hu) that Moses and * HE Aaron (Ex. R. This is (hu) Ahasuerus (Est. being descended from Shem. Five times 'hu* is found denoting a wicked character. These are (hu) that Aaron and Moses 26). i. but 4 as the one snared people by their words. xxvi. Rashash conjectures * that it means a southerner '.

* 5 Lit. 10 Viz. in His Attribute of Mercy (v. AND CALNEH (x. xxxvii. [the I will give thee four'. 7 (X. OUT OF THAT LAND WENT FORTH ASSHUR from that scheme8 Asshur dissociated himself. xu 15). Wa-yenaer in Ex. assume that in this clause 'princes' means scholars. 6 Shab. 9 When he saw them come to wage war against the Holy One. he quitted his country. 5 without a light and without a bath. blessed be He.> however. 2 Nisibis. Accad. 7 This last is absent in several MSS.). and Ctesiphon. Babel. 6 anguish. 8a. xi. 3 IN THE SHINAR connotes that it is emptied (shemenu* ereth) of precepts. this is Babylonia. must be understood literally. cv. 297 . tithes. teaching that His mercy endures for 4. and the Sabbatical 4 connotes that its inhabitants die in year. were Tigris (Jast. finally connotes that its princes study the SHINAR SHINAR f. last-named being] Talsar.GENESIS (NOACH) our [XXXVII. 256. city in the southern part of Assyria. also Her. 11 Yet he [Asshur] did not remain constant [in his righteousness]. supra.e. Proem xxiv to Lam. 7). suffocation'. R. connotes that its princes (sarim) die young (ne'arim). LAND OF SHINAR: SHINAR 10): i. But v. 1-9). and Shab. AND ERECH. xiv. z6a on the lack of oils for lighting in Babylonia. where awsa instead of D^an is read: whose ' princes are youths and trample upon the Torah. Commentaries ad loc. 27 (E. which may have been the small kingdom of Bit-Adini Lit. AND BUILDED NINEVEH. lacking the precepts of terumah. Said God to Him: 'Thou hast departed from four places10 by thy life! . In that case princes v. on the eastern bank of the river * These. AND ACCAD. conjectures that this may be identical with Telassar mentioned in Isa. and when he came and joined I * them in destroying the Temple God said to him: is often understood to denote permanence. AND RESEN.V. Th.. AND CALAH. AND REHOBOTH-IR. hence. on the lack of baths. Edessa.): Torah ii in their youth. Erech. 12. 3-4 God (Ps. V ' 8 9 II build a city to heaven (Gen. like all precepts bound up with the soil. 'overthrew*) is * translated by the Targum suffocated '. and Calneh. Hu' God 3 A to be observed in Palestine only. 'went forth*. while 'Lord* describes 2 In Mesopotamia. AND THE BEGINNING OF HIS KINGDOM WAS BABEL. * ' To on the Upper Euphrates.

e. The first half of the verse reads : Assyria also is joined with them. [i. We do not know whether Resen is the great city or Nineveh. for a curse (le-lewat). the translation being only a conjecture. (x. therefore. 13 f. 9 THE ZEMARITE: Hamats10 and why is it called Zemarite? . said: etc. 4 The passage is extremely obscure. 7 THE SINITE: Orthosia. but the meaning of the actual words in the text is very doubtful. 5. HIS FIRSTBORN. EGYPT] BEGOT. I THE ARKITE: v I T E: the inhabitants of Hildin6 Arkas of the Lebanon. 8 THE ARVADITE: Aradus. THE H i. probably. * 4~6] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Yesterday a chicken and to-day an egg! Yesterday thou didst soar aloft with religious actions and noble deeds. you have stifled your good intentions. 7 Also called Caesarea Libani. 3 THE SAME is THE GREAT CITY. Jast. . a city of Syria on the eastern bank of the Orontes. it is written.e. 5 Kaftor (niJ-iBS) in Hebrew is a button. This is a play on words. * On the Phoenician coast. They have been an arm to the children of Lot (Ps. Abba b. Casluhim implies shame.XXXVII. aft (Lot) being read aV?. 14) : THE PHILISTINES AND CAPH- ToRIM the Philistines were mighty men. 3). have quite a different reading. (x. AND CANAAN BEGOT ZIDON etc. whilst now thou art shut up like [a chicken in] an egg' 2 . R. 8 s A 298 . it being loosely rendered: they have been delivered to a curse. 1 You have I. which means. a town at the north-western foot of Mount 8 Lebanon.e. since. it follows that Nineveh is the great city. 15-18). while the 5 Caphtorirn were dwarfs. Emesa. forth What came from them? (x. descriptive of disgraceful types which originated in Egypt. however. south of the river Eleutheros.e. Phoenician seaport. retrogressed. a curse. 9). LXXXIII. Kahana The entire coinage of Egypt is thoroughly debased: thus Pathruthim implies 4 degradation. translates: the cave-dwellers. Abba b. 10 I. AND MIZRAIM R. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city (Jonah in.). and he probably interprets 'Caphtorim* as meaning button-like little and rotund people. 6. Kahana said : The Pathruthim and Casluhim set up bazaars where they stole [interchanged] each other's wives. He seems to mean that the name of Mizraim's children are all adjectival. Other MSS. f If this is a place-name it has not been identified.

Shem would have been 102 years old two years after the Flood. . not 100. THE NAMEOF THE ONE WAS PELEG division]. . We do not know from this verse whether Shem or Japheth was the elder. Ham a year older. which reverses the statements (i. 6 Thus an infant's name corresponded to an event that might happen in Shem his later life. 2 7. as far as Caliirrhoe.). R. as it is 1 A city of Syria. IN HIS DAYS Jose said: WAS THE EARTH DIVIDED (x. while the Flood occurred in his 6ooth year. Halafta said: Eber must have been a great prophet. if these were in the order of birth. but we who cannot avail ourselves of the Holy Spirit are named after our fathers. selves 5 ancients. Shem was a hundred years and AND UNTO EBER WERE BORN TWO SONS. R. because they could avail themselves of the Holy Spirit. 25). AND THE BORDER UNTO LAS HA (x. Now his children are enumerated thus: Shem. there. This is rather forced. . Simeon b. FOR [i. Ham. 4 10). Gamaliel said: The ancients. are the generations of Shem. named days]. * For Noah begot his first child at the age of 500. and is therefore ambiguous. xi. R. is more logical and preferable. Jose b.e.GENESIS (NOACH) Because [XXX VII. themselves in reference to the events [of their The But we who do not know our genealogy name ourby our fathers. 21). 5 And thus found it unnecessary to state who their fathers were. not of age. seeing that he named his child in reference to a [future] incident. AND UNTO SHEM. begot Arpachshad two years after the flood (Gen. 69*). 6-7 wool (zemer) is 1 manufactured HAMATHITE: THE .e. 19): OF THE CANAANITE WAS i. Epiphania. R. the ancients did not know). TO HIM ALSO WERE CHILDREN BORN (x. Hence we must assume that they are enumerated in order of wisdom. being the youngest.e. Now these old. and perhaps the reading in the Yalkut. named themselves in reference to [forthcoming] events 6 . and Japheth consequently. * The Hebrew may mean: the brother of near the Dead Sea (Jast. since they knew their genealogy. the elder Japheth. and Japheth the eldest (Sanh. 3 Warm springs on the eastern side of the Jordan. THE FATHER OF ALL THE CHILDREN OF EBER. THE ELDER BROTHER OF JAPHETH. it follows that Japheth was the elder. 299 . 3 But since it is written.

Judah is vi. Rashi in Jid. . Samuel : They did not even have garments of papyrus. Huna: Do we not know from the birth records that he was the younger. plants. What did he thereby earn? He attained the birthright. Now if the younger is thus rewarded because he minimises his importance. * The island formed by the Euphrates. R. . while Maweth means death. how much more so when a great man minimises his importance! Similarly. who was the elder (ib. In ICid.XXXVII. 'district of the sea': that region of Babylon which is traversed by 1 The reading supra. & The Jews of Mesene are all unfit genealogically. wear garments of papyrus. R.e. it actually was. 2 Maweth. this * 2 rivers 7 and canals. Zuzira is the glory of Habil Yamma. son founded that place. 3 It is a place of extreme poverty and misery. I. R. AND HAZARMARETH said (x. jza: It may also mean its inhabitants are of the purest birth in Babylon. how much the more so when an older minimises his importance! 8. 716. Now if a younger is thus rewarded because he minimises his affairs. 8 as A 300 . in the other two they are mixed. is because he made himself small'. and the Royal Canal. 7 8 Babylon. but the majority of Media are pure. SONS. where and hope daily for said: It refers to a place called Hazar people eat leeks. 125. IJazar (hazir) is translated herbs. p. and laid it upon Ephratm's head. and Elam is dying. dead. Landschaft. AND THEIR DWELLING WAS FROM MESHA 4 Pappos said: Mesene (X. Obermeyer. which was rich and fertile. But younger (za'ir) means that he minimised (maz'ir) his importance. Eleazar b. 72<a it is called Zizura. And Israel stretched out his right hand. 1 What did he thereby earn? He was privileged to found thirteen families. And why was the other called 'Joktan'? Because he minimised (maktiri) [the importance of] his affairs. AND JOKTAN BEGOT Huna death. 26). 7^8] MIDRASH KABBAH AND UNTO EBER WERE BORN TWO etc. while the majority of Elam are not. XLVIII. Media is 5 Habil Yamma6 is the glory of sick. written. the waters of whose canal debouched into the Tigris between Baghdad and Madam. in general that it is the finest and most fertile district. Said R. Th. 30). 3 . (This is the explanation given in Iid.) 6 Lit. district not far from the Tigris. 4. : the reference is probably not to a place of that name in southern Arabia. 14). the Tigris.

rejects this purer than that of Palestine. Babylon] in 2 respect of genealogy.GENESIS (NOACH) said: [XXXVII Between the rivers 1 Is as the Exile [sc. the moun. The genealogy of Babylon was regarded as even ijast. 3 Its genealogy is pure. 4 pp.* and maintains that 'between the rivers' is the Talmudic designation for any region of island formation. As THOU GOEST TOWARD SfiPHAR: i. tains of the East.e. and here applies to the Euphrates region from Hit (Ihi de Kira) to Anah. cit. 301 . 6gb.: between the Euphrates i. Oberraeyer. 100 and the Tigris.e. Taphar3 UNTO THE MOUNTAIN OF THE EAST: i. Kid. 8 A city in southern Arabia. he. * The text is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew.

e. one In the south. For the sin of their mouth for the sin which they uttered with their mouth. The Rabbis relate the verse to Doeg and Ahitophel David said. Lix. let and the words of their lips (ib. Zimra with the text Slay them not. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS : etc. O Lord. [for he counselled]. lest my people forget the generations that follow them forget. This one [Ahitophel] permitted them. our Shield (Ps. ' ' : lest ' : The Lord be our shield. 3 But for us. is weary and weak-handed xvn. 302 . For the sin of their mouth. 12). And I . Supra.e. lest the generations that follow them forget. (xi.XXXVIII. i . XVI. 2 R. I. lest my and fro by Thy power people forget. lest my people forget. Jose b. * The period from the Creation to the Flood. Leazar commenced his discourse in the name of R. . make them wander to and bring them down. Make cast them away. And the other [Doeg] permitted them: Nahman b.' 1 i. Israel said: * Slay not the generation of Separation. cast 'And bring them down" from their greatness. 5 But they refused to recognise the Flood as a Divine visitation for evil. but for us. (NOACH) OF ONE LANGUAGE. R. Zimra related the verse to the generation of the Separation [of races]. ^ : "Slay not Doeg and Ahitophel. from the top of their tower. and that one permitted incest and bloodwander ' to 'Make them them about. whilst ' ' may : : 1 * 2 Their sin and their punishment. so that his blood was permitted [his life was forfeit] and his wife permitted. and fro by Thy power. Go in unto thy father's concubines (li Sam. will come upon him while he [while he further said]. Jose b. Samuel said: He annulled his [David's] citizen rights and declared him an outlaw and as one dead. Leazar in the name of R. 2). wander to and fro by Thy power them 'And bring them down' from above to below. and I will smite the king (ib. xxxii. 21). : shed.' i. one In the north. 13) this one permitted Incest and bloodshed. They said Once in one thousand six hundred and fifty-six years 4 the Firmament totters 5 .e. one in the west. . therefore let us go and make supports. i] CHAPTER XXXVIII I. i). The Lord be our Shield'.

yet. 2 This reading is preferable. thou shalt surely release it with him (Ex. the latter must return 6 7 The prove done him harm. 13). R. thou shalt forbear to pass by him. xvn. 3 evil shall not depart from his house (ib. is written.. Abba from said: Not only R. R. Simeon b. Said R. Alexandri point here is not quite clear. . 2 yet even as it [the pestle] rises and 3 Yet will his foolishness not depart from him (6. the punishment was being inflicted. the THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. 4 With this the generation of the Separation was deemed 8 Translating. Johanan began thus : VlHioso rewardeth evil for good. xxvi. . you are still indebted to him. 5 OF ONE LANGUAGE. why? Because he showed hospitality to ' you Whoso rewardeth 6 first. Whoso returneth evil instead of returning good. explains that thou see. 'Evil shall not depart Alexandri commented on the verse Wfioso rewardeth for good' now the Torah said: If thou see the ass of : Mm that hateth thee lying under its burden. Even while the fool is being chastised. as it is written. and quotes the verse.GENESIS (NOACH) at this spot ' [XXXVIII. Babylonia] their lips will ' be its it And 2. [sc. xxiii. R. (Prov. 3). Mah.). Abba. Shem begot Arpachshad] two years after the flood (Gen. word 1 of : thus AND eta R. yet good. R. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS etc. etc. to supports R. evil evil for good''. Said R.' etc. etc. Kahana began thus: Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats. but even he * who rewardeth his house. Kahana: Like a man who pounds barley in a frame. Abba b. Wfioso rewardeth evil for 7 the good. evil shall not depart.' evil for evil. for him that hateth thee implies that he had he is bound to go to his assistance. but [two years. 5) : of such Scripture saith. Thus the generation of the Flood was removed from the generation of Separation. Abba b. If that even if one has done evil to another. xxvii. though actually the Separation took place 340 years after the Flood 5 The lesson was forgotten so soon almost whilst (supra. to have begun. Johanan: If your neighbour [first] entertained you with lentils and you [subsequently] entertained him with meat. Simeon b. 1-3 eastern support. so he [who chastises the fool] thinks to improve him. falls. xi. 22). Berekiah related a * The Hebrew has the singular. 4 io).

as it is written. and let us go every one into his own country (ib. The generation of Separation. 3 This is his translation of debarim ahadim (E. the generation of the Flood from that of Enosh. vi. 'But she was not healed' in the generation of the Flood. and their hearts. 9) thus each went 'into Ms own country*. 10). viz. years after the flood AND etc. 3 for the deeds of the generation of the Flood are explicitly stated. R. 18). that they cannot see. Judah b. AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE AND OF ONE SPEECH (AHADIM). AND THE WHOLE EARTH WAS etc. 'Azariah commenced: We would have Babylon. Judah b. We would have healed 5. yet. is written. 4). etc. AND THE WHOLE EARTH etc. AND they 1 OF ONE SPEECH (AHADIM): that means that spoke against two who were unique [lit.V. Though God had saved them from the Flood. XLIV. that they cannot under- The Nephilim R. * N E SPEECH')- O 34 . neither do they understand . LI. 9) healed Babylon' in the generation of Enosh. but she was not healed (Jer. WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. 4. Thus were in the earth in those days. years after the flood.XXXVIII. xi. 6.' yet. for their eyes are bedaubed. they returned evil by rebelling against Him. 'Shem begot Arpachshad] two it stand (Isa. * As the narrative ends : And from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad (v. whereas those of the generation of Separation are not explicitly stated. 'one']. Rabbi commented: The later generations would not learn from the earlier ones. Rabbi commenced: They know not. Shem begot Arpachshad] two THE (Gen. (Gen.) * : is written. and the generation of the Separation from that of the Flood [from which it was but two years removed. WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE LANGUAGE. 3-6] verse to these MIDRASH KABBAH 1 Now the generation generations. 2 OF ONE LANGUAGE. ' 3 of the Flood was removed from the generation of Separation but [two years. of veiled deeds. R. Leazar said: That means. as it is written. Forsake as it her. R.

to tranquillise. united in thought. and let us build a tower at the top of which we will set an idol holding a 5 sword. And since the latter. : 35 x . therefore not a remnant of them was left. Come. He opened one barrel and found it sour. 1 2 The mule was : held to be incapable of breeding. whence to satisfy. the Lord is Said they: 'This Abraham is a barren ' GENESIS (NOACH) Abraham who was one (Ezek. (ib. and a third and found it sour.viz. another and found it sour. on the other hand. rather.' or the one who says. which will thus appear to wage ! war against Him/ Another interpretation: AND ONE SPEECH (AHADIM) means united in possessions. mule1 and cannot produce offspring/ Against The Lord OUT God. Leazar said: Who is worse the one who says to the king. against against The Lord our God. they violently take away flocks and feed them xxiv. The be Rabbis said: OF ONE LANGUAGE (SAFAH) may ' by the case of a man who had a wine cellar. 6 xxxin. So Mah. as it is written. that we should serve Him? (Job xxi. Either you or I will d\vell in illustrated * the palace. Either you or I/ 4 Similarly. This satisfies (mashpd) me that all the barrels are unfit/ he remarked. 15). 3 R. the Lord is One': 'He has no right to choose the celestial spheres for Himself and assign us the terrestrial world But come. 2 what one possessed being at the other's disposal. 24) and One (Dent. whereas of the latter a remnant was left! But because the generation of the Flood was steeped in robbery.T. that it may appear to wage war with Him/ Yet of the former not a remnant was left. 2). What is the ' * * Almighty. whereas the other wishes to drive him from it but not to usurp it. the generation of the Flood said. as in the text they convinced God that * For he means to usurp the king's throne. They remove the landmarks. they were uniformly evil. vi. 4). Neither you nor I will dwell in the palace ? Surely the one who says. 3 This is a play on words. let us build a tower at the top of which we will set an idol holding a sword in its hand. safah (language) being connected with skafe. [XXXVIII. loved each other. 8 Thus they wished to supplant God a more heinous offence. whereas the generation of Separation said: *It does not rest with Him to choose the celestial spheres for Himself and assign the terrestrial world to us. Y.

love and unity * Isaac said: Wherever A 4 * by the Rabbis.V.V. x. one in the north. says. 7. 4 They travelled from further interpreted: east to nearer east. R. I have no dominion ' THE WHOLE EARTH written. 'Once in one thousand six hundred and fifty-six Another AND ONE SPEECH Firmament totters . divided. for it is him alone (Hos. and eventually they found it. while this spot will be its eastern support. one in the south. HI. saying. 5 R. 2). But when their hearts are written? Their heart is divided. therefore let us go and make supports for it.' Thus years the it is written. 'Ephraim is joined to idols'. for even if Israel practise idolatry but maintain peace amongst themselves. R. * E. blessed be He. Thus here. 3 Rabbi said: Great is peace. Simeon They betook themselves away from the Ancient (kadmon) of the world. God permitted them to find a spot . He permits them to scorn (Job accept either :THEYFOUND: THERE.e. If it concerneth the scorners. 2). I. io&). Nehemiah observed thus it is written. AS THEY JOURNEYED FROMTHEEAS T M IKK E D E M (xi. as it 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH was left. as it were. 34)* 6 AND THEY DWELT 1 I. 306 . suitable for their purpose. Judah said: All the nations of the world assembled to discover which plain would hold them all. 3 OF interpretation : means that they spoke sharp words (hadim). united. one in the west. translation. AND ALL THE EARTH WAS ONE LANGUAGE OF SHARP WORDS. Since they came to Shinar (Babylon) which is itself in the east. Lit. is AND WAS OF ONE over let them ' . striHng tribute to the value assigned to brotherly 8 E. (AHADIM) saying. : Th. R. the Holy One. Mah. too. (ib. R. IV.XXXVIII. 17).e. AND IT CAME TO PASS. 'He scorneih them'. what is they bear their guilt Ephraim is united in idol-worship . the Rabbis maintain that they travelled from a still more easterly point. now shall said. God gives all men the opportunity to follow their desires. Leazar b. whether good or bad an assertion of free-will (cf Yoma 3 Sb. 'We refuse to Him or His Divinity/ THAT THEY FOUND A PLAIN. 1 therefore a remnant of them LANGUAGE.

Levi translates : AND THEY DOWN THER * V. R. 7. AND BURN THEM (WE-NISREFAH) THOROUGHLY: This is written weis AND THEY 5 6 nissorfah (and we will be burnt): this people to be burnt out of the world. Judan said: The tower they built. Abba said: however. the arch-robber [Satan] cuts his capers [is up to mischief]. loga. Satan accusations. 5) ? Read what follows. translates: And the brick turned itself for them into stone. x. 2 R. XLI. the word may be read so with a different punctuation. but they did not build the city.GENESIS (NOACH) : [XXXVIII. brings you find dwelling mentioned. R. Levi said: 3 Wherever you find eating and drinking. Berekiah: Mlzraim said to Cush. Who whom? Said R. drink. he sees like grasshoppers. 3). 4 COME. He 37 . 5 I. An objection is raised : city But it is written. a third was burnt. etc. v. while a third is still standing.e. 4). 7 AND THEY SAID: COME. 8. 6. 8). said to SAID ONE TO ANOTHER (XI. destined AND THEY HAD BRICK FOR said : : STONE. LXXXPV beginning. LET US MAKE BRICKS. Ex. Idi's it [the remaining third] is small R. R. 8 LEST WE BE SCATTERED ABROAD UPON THE FACE 1 By MT the Rabbis understood to live in tranquillity. R. etc. being mentioned. A third of this tower which they built sank [into the earth]. And should you think that in R. An d the Lord came down to see the and the tower (ib. two. Huna Their work prospered a man came to lay one [stone] and he laid two he came to plaster one [row] and plastered . Satan's ire! 3 E to eat and SAT R. Sanh. they themselves. LET us BUILD us A CITY. infra. Huna said name: When him : one ascends to the top. which rouses 2 So as to disturb it. 7 * The work seemed to grow of itself! I. Satan becomes active.e. Ishmael taught else SHEM (A NAME) means nought but an idol. The School of R. 7-8 R. he replied : And they not left off to build the city (ib. the palm trees below AND LET US MAKE A NAME (SHEM). AND A TOWER (xi. the tower. 1 Ilelbo said Wherever you find contentment. 8 Cf. Hiyya b.

but to fear the But they 'No!' THEN LET ALL WHICH THEY ? ! Lord thy God. x. He uproots it fruit. And the latter might easily have shared their fate. what does its owner do to it By saying this they unconsciously prophesied their fate and were them2 One of the ten occasions when God came it. for AND NOW What them an opportunity says. AND THE LORD CAME OF THE Simeon b. 4 so though the generation of the Flood [preceded that] of the Separation [by but two I bestowed upon him. i2). R. xvui. E. Nehemiah explained rebel it: What caused them to Me? Was it not because. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE AND OF ONE LANGUAGE? against AND NOW. Halputha ruin (Prov.' 7 * R. And now. He made I. as it is said]. to R. 2 is one of the ten descents WHICH THE CHILDREN OF MEN (ADAM) BUILDED. Simeon b.e. if they repent I will accept them. Israel. Abba b. R. (Gen. Abba now 308 . splits up the verse thus in three portions. 9. 8 4 fi 1 they showed themselves his spiritual heirs. gave repent. of thee.V. both being ungrateful. The woman whom Thou gavest with me. xi. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE AND THEY HAVE ALL ONE LANGUAGE. They are enumerated by Th. BEHOLD. years. blessed be He. selves responsible for I. however. When a vineyard does not yield 6). 7 decreed the Lord. ' THE WHOLE EARTH WAS OF ONE yet. (Deut. R. THEY ARE ONE PEOPLE. down. etc. Berekiah said : Would we then have thought that asses or camels built it ? It means. Kahana said: This teaches that the Holy One. BEHOLD. which they purpose to do. (xi. after all the good which : to be said. etc. cf. Yohai said: This mentioned in the Torah. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 WHOLE EARTH. the children of the 3 first man [Adam] Just as Adam.e. AND LANGUAGE.XXXVIII. 6). said. $upra> 6. God's very goodness the excuse for his sin. Judah interpreted it: Since. in. pEJalafta] quoted: A fools mouth is his DOWN TO SEE. indicates repentance. y). etc. R. Two years 5 after the flood' (ib. etc. io). as it doth the Lord thy God require etc.: 'And nothing will be withholden from them. AND THE LORD SAID: BEHOLD. they live in unity. PURPOSE TO DO BE WITHHOLDEN FROM THEM (XI. 12). R.

The idea is as though points were taken on the inner borders (i. Through their me an own lips I will 4 destroy them. 5 R. and this is presumably his comment upon it. Nehemiah who follows both hold that the Separation took place after the nations had been apportioned their territories thus. 'Bring earth. 2-4. Nehemiah holds that the people remained in their own countries after the Separation. 'their language') * The verse is not written as referring to the words of their lips. 8). Judan said: The Tyrians went to Sidon and the Sidonites to Tyre. 7 R. at me them. and there confound their language. SO THE LORD SCATTERED THEM ABROAD WAYYAFEZ (xi. 'While Mizraim (Egypt) retains his land* is obscure. Nehemiah said: All the countries assembled within the angular points and each absorbed 6 The Rabbis said its own inhabitants. * Th. 8 7 V. R. 23). as they were before they gathered to build the Tower. 5 subsequently to the Flood. 'Bring axe/ but he brought him a spade. transf. COME. I will go down. translators of the Septuagint. Gen. Levi's name No misfortune comes to a man which does not profit somebody. destruction) and interprets sefatham (E. and it is omitted in cur. 13-15The allusion is unknown. xxv. 'confound') as nebalah (meanness. 8 and as for the remaining two are in thy 1 And the Lord said unto her : Two nations womb (Gen.V. sixteen from the sons of Keturah and twelve from Ishmael. edd. at which he struck him and split his skull. Abba interpreted it: Through their own lips will I destroy GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXVII I.'* R. and the nations entered within this and withdrew each those of its members who had gathered there to build the tower. n. and in Yalkut. 3 The I. Phinehas said in R. the Separation merely transposing them. xxv.10. Thus R. vin. supra. obscenity. 7). those nearest to the Tower of Babel) of all countries and joined by lines into a huge figure. R. Judan and R. 309 . This is one 10 worker. Whence were those : WAYYAFEZ : thirty families replaced? From Abraham. Thus it is written. is to be read wayyazef (SCATTERED) (swept away): the sea came up and swept away thirty families. LET us GO DOWN (xi.e. while Mizraim [Egypt] retains his land. 8 He reads ndblah (E.3 Thus one said to his fellowwater/ whereupon he would give him which he struck him and split his skull. Cf.V.e. the singular instead of the plural to obviate any idea of plurality in the Godhead. of the things which they 1 altered for King Ptolemy [changing it to] 'Come.

'How old are you?' Abraham 13. and R. Thou shalt be buried in a good old age (ib. rejoined. He once went away somewhere and left Abraham to sell them in his place. 9). 'Whence do you come?" inquired he. 'Fifty years/ was the reply. R. 1 1-13] MIDRASH RABBAH BABEL of this ? could not grasp his teaching. Kahana said: Whoever has his name thus repeated has a portion in this world and in the World to Come.? That too does not disprove replied he. A disciple of he demanded. FATHER TERAH 28). this name being compounded of balal and safah and thus showing its it 1 origin. remarking at the same time that it should be called Balsif. 'Not that is its name/ he in accordance with the text. Johanan was sitting before (xi. THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF TERAH. But thou [Abraham] shalt go to thy fathers in peace (ib. A man came and wished to buy one. raised an THESE ARE THE GENERATIONS OF TERAH. ' Mm and THEREFORE WAS THE NAME OF IT CALLED R. Abba b. 'Woe to such a man!' he exclaimed. NOW objection to him: But it is written. broke them. AND HARAN DIED (xi. They 12. (xi.XXXVIII. IN THE PRESENCE OF HIS Hiyya said: Terah was a manufacturer of Idols. 'you are fifty years old and would worship a day-old object At this he became ashamed and departed. 'What is the cause It is because I am exiled from my home/ replied he. XV. Now it. and put the stick in the hand of the largest. 310 . 27). asked him. 11. TERAH BEGOT ABRAM. etc. for what is the meaning of. 'but Balsif. etc. On another occasion a woman came with a plate' ! ful of flour and requested him. R. Johanan identified with Babel. 'From Borsif/ he answered. ' BECAUSE THERE THE LORD DID CONFOUND (BALAL) THE LANGUAGE (SEFATH) OF ALL THE EARTH/ 1 TERAH BEGOT ABRAM. 'Take this and offer it to them/ So he took a stick.): He Informed him that Ishmael would repent In his own days. 15)? He [God] Informed him that his father had a portion in the World to Come. When his father returned he Borsif was a city near the site of Babylon.

[now deduct] the year of pregnancy with Milcah and the year of pregnancy with Iscah. I will say that I am of Abram's belief. IN THE PRESENCE HIS FATHER TERAH. One claimed. 1 ' ' ' ' 1 ' ' words/ he exclaimed. S OF ('AL PENE) it is written. 'What have you done to them?' *I cannot conceal it from you. and you find that Haran begot children at six years Nahor was a year 1 * You deny their knowledge and yet you worship them The Rabbis translate *al pens' 'because of he died because his father ! * * : manufactured idols. "I must eat first/' Thereupon the largest arose. etc. 3" . belief are you?' 'Of Abram's/ he replied. while if Nimrod is victorious I will say that I am on Nimrod's side. [hence Abram was] two years older [than Haran]. 'we but the fire.' he cried out. are just bandying will wind/ 'You If Abram is victorious. 'A woman came with a plateful of fine meal and requested me to offer It to them. took the stick. AND HARAN DIED 14. and let your God whom you adore come and save you from it/ Now Haran was standing there undecided. (xi. who withstand the retorted. 'have they then any knowledge!' 'Should not your ears listen to wiiat your mouth is saying/ he Thereupon he seized him and delivered him to Nimrod. I will cast you worship nought into it. Behold. "I must eat first.' he rejoined. AND ABRAM AND NAHOR TOOK THEM 29 f. he seized and cast him into the fire his inwards Thereupon were scorched and he died In his father's presence. he [Nimrod] asked him.GENESIS (NOACH) [XXXVIIL 13-14 demanded. 'Then let us worship water!' 'Let us rather worship the clouds which bear the water.). Nahor and older than Haran." while another claimed. and broke them/ 'Why do you make sport of me. Then let us worship the clouds Let us rather worship the winds which disperse the clouds/ Then let us worship the wind F Let us rather worship human beings. Abram was a year older than WIVES. Hence 'Of whose . 'Let us worship the fire!' he [Nimrod] proposed. 'Let us rather worship water. When Abram descended Into the fiery furnace and was saved. which extinguishes the fire/ replied he. [thought he].

however. yet you say that [The reason. as it is she bore three sons. > 312 . i). does not fit in so well with the text. could not beget a child! 1 : AND SARAI WAS (ib. 17). She is Zion. LIX. 17). 20). Again. it means that eventually she did have. Levi said : so). Sarah's father. and unto them that turn 1 from transgression. 21). there is none that careth for her (Jer. 14] MIDRASH KABBAH Abram was] ' of age. however. xvn. who was barren. * and yet you say that Abram could not beget child/ is not clear. and since the period of pregnancy and child-bearing is roughly a year for each child. i. The point of the difficulty. And a redeemer will come to Zion. as it is written]. when his wife conceived by him. etc. SHE HAD NO CHILD R. written. etc. 11. Now Abram was ten years older than Sarah (v. Haran must have been six years old when he begot a child. BARREN. And the xxi. xxx. And I. iJjn'jN tarn racMD says: If Haran. SHE HAD NO CHILD: eventually she did is WAS have.e. (ib. as it Thus AND SARAI BARREN. Again. irans VT gives a rather more plausible explanation which. an unbeliever. surely it should have been granted to Abram to beget children ! The Midrash answers that the fault was not in Abram but in Sarai. children And (i Peninah had Lord remembered Sarah (Gen. written. Sarah was bom when Haran was only eight years old.XXXVIII. 2): eventually she did have. According to the Rabbis. children. but Hannah had no Sam. Yet eventually she will have [one to care for her. could beget children at such an early age. (Isa. ' Wherever she had not : is found. she was his second daughter. since he was two years older then Haran. Iscah was Sarah.

however. THE LORD SAID : UNTO ABRAHAM: GET THEE. * By proclaiming the unity and oneness of God. fragrance blessed be He. CHAPTER i-3 XXXIX LECH LECHA i. 3. (xn. goodly fragrance (S. Berekiah: What did Abraham resemble ? A phial of myrrh closed with a tightR. its was disseminated. that the said. etc. vm. i). Now THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE OUT OF THY COUNTRY. because father said. Isaac: This may be compared to a man who was travelling from place to place when he saw a building in flames. n).)- 313 . as soon as hence. The owner of the building looked out and Abraham our is the owner of the building/ Similarly. 2 Bar Kappara observed: (ihah) Similarly Abraham saw the world being destroyed by the flames of vice and wrongdoing. blessed be He. Said R.[XXXIX. to make thee glorious in the world.S. Hearken. and lying in a corner. XLV. and con- and incline thine ear . Similarly. GET THEE. 2. and thy name will become great in the world': not disseminated.) hence. Berekiah commenced: We have a little sister ahoth to Abraham. O daughter. so that its fragrance was it was taken up. forget also thine own people. 12): ' i. 8): this refers the whole world for us. 3). said to Abraham: 'Travel from place to place. For he is thy Lord. Is it conceivable that the world without a guide ? the Holy One. and do homage unto him (ib. etc. the Sovereign of the Universe/ So shall the king desire thy beauty (ib. R. etc. 1 Is it possible sider. who united (ib. 'I building lacks a person to look after it? he wondered. R.e. This and the following are assumed 1 to be said by God to the angels (Th. fitting lid Berekiah commenced: Thine ointments have a I. the corollary of which is the unity and brotherhood of man. Said R. the Holy One. I am the Guide. looked ' ' am out and said to him. and thy father's house (Ps. Isaac commenced his discourse with.

Mishael. If she be a wall.: we. supra. enclose (nazur) her with boards of cedar (ib. VII.) unscathed hence. We would have * healed Babylon in the generation of Enosh . Said he [Abraham] to Him: Sovereign of the with boards of cedar ' : and * Universe! I Ahd my am a wall (ib. we will [a defence] for him. 'Azariah commenced: We would have ' * healed Babylon^ but she was not healed (Jer. as it is 6 written. wise Wisdom maketh a 5 man stronger than ten rulers Abraham. 9). and Azariah/ Then was I in his eyes as my one that found peace peace and left it he entered [the (ib. THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE. 5. 5. translates: a world will be built upon him he shall be the ancestor of a new order. 'Little': even while young he stored up pious acts and good deeds. 5. sons are breasts like the towers thereof (ib.) : if he is poor ' will enclose (nazur) her (da!) in piety and noble deeds. And 1 she hath no breasts (ib. He translates: We will treat her like a drawing.): no breasts suckled him in piety or good deeds. 3-S] MIDRASH KABBAH Like a person who sews a rent together. E. into his country (ib. Now THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM. on the day when the wicked Nimrod ordered him to be cast into the fiery furnace. whom to draw inspiration. xxxvin.) ? Le. (Eccl.): Hananiah. Mah.) y as it is written. ? him * from. xxxiv.V. so will I protect him only for a time. Cf. 10): I stand as firm as a wall. Wisdom is a stronghold to a wise man more than ten rulers that are 6 7 in a city'. Forsake her. Supra. [whom wisdom made stronger] than the ten generations from Noah to Abraham out of all of them I spoke to thee alone. R. He had none Will save It is easily rubbed off.XXXIX. we will build upon her (ib. : : Now fiery furnace] in THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: 4. 4 5 ' 3H . LI. lee. He [God] 2 will build up 3 if she be a door (deleth). And We just as a drawing (zurah) [on 4 boards] is only temporary. 9) : if he resists [Nimrod] like a wall. But she was not healed' and let us Now 1 3 go every one in the generation of the Flood. GET THEE. Var. that is the probable meaning of the passage. What shall we do for our sister in the day when she shall be spoken for (ib. ig) : this refers to .

3 But first you called dead. hence. R. 4 learn that the wicked. XT. Aba's name thus: Thou hast loved righteousness.6. (Ps. God. xvni.) 315 . Said the Holy One. R. 7. Aha explained this Thou hast sworn not to bring a deluge upon the world. are For Abraham was afraid. to Abraham oil ' : Thou hast loved righteousness. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. When Abraham our father stood mercy for the Sodomites. XLV. even during their lifetime. 12. * To bring the narrative to the death of Terah. R. and yet it is narrated before. and hated to condemn them as wicked. R. Wouidst Thou evade Thine : to plead for That be far oath! Not a deluge of water wilt Thou bring but a deluge of fire? Then Thou hast not been true to Thine oath. 25). 8). what is written there ? from Thee to do after this manner (Gen. and hated wickedness. 32). R. xn. this passage is ? And Terah died in Haran 32). Translating: Thou hast loved to justify (thy fellowmen). hence Terah. whose at 1 death was two hundred and this 4 five (ib. thy God. LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM: GET THEE may [which followed by] Now THE (LEK LEKA). whilst Abram departed from Haran at the age of seventy-five (fb. etc. age died sixty-five years after it is command. Levi commented: Shalt not the Judge of all the earth do justly (ib. For Terah was seventy years old at Abram's birth (Gen. what precedes xi. that he repented. 26). hath anointed thee with the of gladness above thy fellows (ib. and out of all of them I spoke with thee alone'.) ? If thou desirest the world to endure. and hated wicked- ness2 . Hence Terah is already in his lifetime called dead. 'Shall I go * I. justice untempered by mercy. Aha's name referred the verse to our father Abraham. THE LORD SAID UNTO Now Now (ib.): from Noah until thee were ten generations. xi. the world cannot endure. 4). 'Azariah in R. Unless Thou forgoest a little. saying. therefore ABRAHAM. 6-7 'Azariah commenced in R. desiring both the world and absolute justice. Isaac said: From the point of view of chronology a period of sixty-five years is still required.e. yet Thou wouldst hold the cord by both ends. blessed be He. presumably this was much later. there can be no absolute justice. (Though stated supra> xxxvur. 1 while if Thou desirest absolute justice the world cannot endure.

Thus it precedes his departure from Haran. etc. xv. Moreover. though it is recorded later. * Our faith in the hour of trial won many converts. blessed be He. cf. in the adornments. parents. I will record his death before thy departure/ Hence. will say. R.) Therefore the Midrash states that God made him fly from the Covenant of the parts to Haran. Gen. and this Leka (E. 13: Come (leka). * The Hebrew may be made Abraham's J. and the other [to his departure] from Aram Nahor. e{ J-8] MIDRASH RABBAH upon the Divine out and bring dishonour " old age and departed ? >l Therefore the Holy One.XXXIX. 6 'In the day of thy warfare' [lit. that the Exodus took place at the end of 430 years. 7 all those bands. reassured him: 'I exempt thee (leka) from the duty of honouring thy Name. when thou didst bring In the mountains of holiness . Nehemiah said: leka (Go. retinue']. THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM. ex. xn. 1 figure can be right only if Abraham was then 70 years old. xxm. Num. etc. Now 8. go) 3 is 'Lek leka' is written twice.V. 41. edd. This means: I was with thee ('immeka) when : thou didst willingly offer (nadabta) for * My name's sake to enter the fiery furnace. by comparing various figures mentioned in the Bible. 6 It is stated in Ex. a This is deduced from the emphasis GET THEE (LEK LEKA). ' R. 30 years later. Judah said: 'Lek written twice. of the Bible read 'mm. 316 . which can be proved. as people He left his father in his 2 though I exempt no one else from this duty. to mean this by a mere change of punctuation. to mean 430 years after the Covenant with Abraham . * V. : 3 I pray 'thee ) may mean 'go*. (The 400 years mentioned in the Covenant are calculated from Isaac's birth. one passage [referring to his departure] from Aram Naharaim. Thy people ('ammeka) offer themselves day of thy warfare (heleka). and then. GET THEE (LEK LEKA). one passage [referring to his departure] from Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor. from the ancient mountain did Me 1 This is one of the most important teachings of Judaism a wrongful deed dishonours one's faith and one's God. 5 It is written willingly (nedaboth) in the (Ps. 3). where lek (' go *) alone would have sufficed. and the other intimating that He made him fly from the Covenant between the pieces 4 and brought him to Haran. thee. 'And Terah died in Haran' is stated first.

xn. journey after journey. the wilderness. Thine is the dew of thy youth (ib. then I would .e.) because Abraham was afraid and said to himself. * even when exhausted by persecution. R. Levi said: When Abraham was travelling through Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor. So Abram went> as the Lord had spoken unto him. Israel. rest on a rock or a tree. or. he saw its inhabitants eating and drinking and revelling. R. Eretz Israel being so much superior. 2 This may mean either the Mount of Moriah (v. it is written. 8 thee. 6 why did he not emigrate [sooner] ? Because he had not yet been permitted but as soon as he was permitted. 4). Why like a dove? Said R. 'May my portion not * be in this country ! he exclaimed. when tired. wander far off (ib* / would lodge in 8) : exile after exile. the world was made to grow. 7). It is written: And I said: Oh that I had wings like a dove! Then I would fly away^ and be at rest (Ps. so art thou a sign of blessing to the world. but when a dove is tired she draws in one of her wings 3 and flies on with the other.) : better is it to 5 lodge in the deserts of Eretz Israel than in palaces abroad. and Lot went with him . 'Perhaps I bear guilt for having worshipped idols all these years. Selah (ib. But when he reached the promontory of Tyre and saw them engaged in weeding and hoeing at the proper seasons. 'Azariah in the name of R. still endeavour to Thus 5 This is a comment on 'Get thee\ i. Judan b. (Gen. but certainly gives the general meaning of the passage. 4 Lo. * The translation is only a conjecture. sake *. if he [Abraham] had no qualms but rejoiced [to go to Eretz Israel]. Simon: Because all other birds. LV.): from out of the womb of the world sought thee (shihartika) for Me. 'Go for thine own progress.I sanctify GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. according to tradition.' God reassured him: Thine is the dew of thy youth': even as dew evaporates. 317 . he exclaimed. 3 To her body and rests on it* from the very creation of the world. 1 From the womb of the dawn merehem 2 have (ib. so have thy sins mishehar I : ' evaporated [disappeared] as dew is a sign of blessing to the world. 'Would that my portion might be in this country!* Said the Holy 1 Tfcu: this may mean the mountain of Moriah out of which. preceding note). And should you object.

tell Upon one of the mountains which I will the proclamation that I forth into the plain. R. LV. blessed be He. R. 18). To THE LAND THAT I WILL SHEW THEE. infra. thee of (ib. Berekiah b. 8-10] MIDRASH RABBAH this One. AND from the place where thou OF THY FROM THY thy art settled. to place. Eliezer's name: The Holy One. He sifted Once here. 318 . xxii.' And why did He not reveal it to him [without delay] ? In order to make 1 ' him even more beloved in his eyes and reward him for every word spoken. Wherestationed his retinue there. xxii.) . literally. 1 and we do not know which was more precious [in the eyes of 2 God]. Arise y go I will there speak with thee (Ezek. first places the righteous doubt and suspense. Johanan.XXXIX. and then He reveals to them the meaning of the matter. Nehemiah's passing name This may be from place illustrated by a king who was when gem fell from his head. from thy province. upon the king halted and gathered the sand in 1 piles. to him: Unto thy seed have I given land(ib. Levl said: 'Get thee' is written twice. AND FROM THY FATHER'S HOUSE father's house.* emotions?' Said He to him: Even Isaac. 22). This agrees with another teaching of R. 9. whether the first or the second. 2) . 2). UNTO THE LAND THAT I WILL SHOW THEE: why did He not reveal it to him [there and then]? In order to make it more beloved in his eyes and to reward him for every step he took. 7. And make unto it bid thee (Jonah Hi. 2) 'which one?* 'Thine only 'Whom thou son. v. COUNTRY KINDRED Johanan said: GET THEE OUT means. Huna said in R. in blessed be He. xv. Johanan said: And he said: Take now thy son (ib. : R. This is apparently incomplete. R.' 'Each is the only one of his mother? 'I love them both: are there limits to one's lovest. and again when he was commanded to go and sacrifice 2 Isaac (Gen. Thus it is written. for R. and brought sieves. 10. and in. for R. Simon a said in R.

* p't&K respectively: both these words could be used in *pr*K and the required sense. regarded as a new creation. Berekiah said: Because travelling has three adverse 1 3 All this led up to thee. For what great nation is there. Abba said: Thrice is 'greatness' mentioned here. Arpachshad. Ram. And foundest his heart [Abraham's] 2 faithful before Thee (Neh. said to Abraham: 'What need had I to trace the descent of Shem. 7). but from me only one (Mah. them will I raise up from thee/ R. Some explain that '/ will make thee' counts as one. ix. Said he to A GREAT NATION Thou not caused the 3 seventy nations to spring from Noah?' He replied: 'That nation of which it is written. 18: Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation. I ham found David My servant. others include Gen. R. wherein is my greatness? From Noah Thou hast raised seventy nations. iv. Hezron. In like manner God said to David: 'What need had I to trace the descent of Perez. : He. Peleg. Levi b. Seventy was thought to comprise all the possible nations how then could another arise now? Or.. R. Y. AND 2). Eber. after I have created thee as a new creation5 : thou wilt be fruitful and multiply. e 10-11 but did not find it the second but did not find it but in the third he found it. 8 V. that hath God so nigh unto them (Deut.GENESIS (LECH LBCHA) the first pile .T. 8). Obed. the Holy One. Berekiah said It is not written. Nahor. Nachshon. LXXXIX. ' * 3*9 . xvni. Shalmon. AND I WILL MAKE THEE: i. * He was the pearl that God found. 21). [XXXIX. Boaz. 2 f. Ahyatha and R. Actually greatness is only mentioned twice. I WILL MAKE OF THEE Him: 'Yet hast (xn. and Terah? Was it not on thy account?' 1 Thus it is written.e. Shelah.' or 'And I will set thee/ 4 but. and 'blessings four times6 He thus informed him that there would be three Patriarchs 1 : and four Matriarchs. with My holy oil have I anointed him (Ps. * II. xii. Ren. 'And I will give thee. Serug. through both of which he may have been. and Jesse ? Was it not on thy account ? Hence it is written. Aminadab.). blessed be . Said The king they has found his pearl/ Similarly. 5 This may refer either to his circumcision or to his change of name to Abraham.

it [fame]. And what was its effigy? A staff and a wallet on one side. IV. diminishing procreation. corresponding to. while in a long journey a member of the household may easily die through the danger and fatigues of the 2 The promise of greatness. And what effigy did his coinage bear? An old man and an old woman on one side.' yet in truth thou wilt lose neither life nor property. which means that his coinage was current. vi. it decreases AND one's diminishes wealth. Abraham and Sarah. 320 . from whom Joshua was descended. I WILL MAKE OF THEE A GREAT NATION. as it is written. xiv. 15. 5 and a tower on the other. you lose a 1 shirt. ix. Cf. AND I WILL MAKE OF THEE. hence. road. though the AND MAKE from one house R. and a boy and a girl on the other.XXXIX. And what was its effigy ? An ox on one side and a wild-ox on the other. There were four whose coinage became current in the world (i) Abraham. 17). So the Lord was with Joshua. Il] MIDRASH RABBAH effects. Thy neck is like the with turrets (S. Berekiah said in R. builded it is written. one's name travel AND I WILL BLESS THEE. And 'When you hence. 4) this too means that his coinage was current. : as it is written. 17). corre(ii) Joshua. And what was its sponding to. as effigy ? Sackcloth and ashes on one side and a golden crown other. from one country to another. 8 I. which means that his coinage was current in the world. THY NAME GREAT. 4).e. 3 it is written. (iv) Mordecai. [God gave him counter assurances]. i . was in all the land (Josh. 4 (iii) David. 27). you lose a life. majesty is his. 6 on the 1 Even a short distance causes some loss. and reducing one's wealth and one's fame. Since it diminishes procreation [He said to him]. vio. And the fame of David went out into all the lands (i Chron. His firstling bullock.S. to another. proverb says. Est. Isaac and Rebekah. Indicating that he was originally a shepherd. For Mordecai was great in the king's house y and his fame went forth throughout all the provinces (Est. as his fame and tower of David. iv. * & 8 This refers to Joseph. and his horns are the horns of a wild-ox (Deut. XXXHI. etc. Helbo's name: It2 means that his coinage was current in the world.

10. Judan said: The numerical value of the letters of thy name will equal those of A : Look now hashamayim (at the Look now hashamaymah B. Levi said: No man ever priced a cow belonging to [in order to buy it] without becoming blessed. they conceived]. assumes that he reads reoiaKi with actually 5) at the end. this is * referred to here as Mine*. xv. Presumably he translates : and be thou the first of the blessings/ 4 The bracketed sentence has probably fallen out of the text. * = this gives the required 248. 2.' 2 Said R. The verse does not indicate which of these two takes precedence. This is R. but omits the conjunctive wow at the beginning. the blessing referred ' to here . Radal 5 I. so of thy name amount to two hundred and forty-eight.e. and then thou wilt be fruitful and multiply. Ze'ira's name Thine is before Mine after having recited 'the shield of Abraham'.) respectively. I will add it to thy name. 7 pnaitt ( a he = V. R. Huna said: It was not necessary for Abraham to go to the sick person. supra. the patriarchs. 'toward . for when the sick person merely saw him he was relieved. letter he to 4 thy name. R. heaven). 249. 321 Y . Etanina said: Even ships travelling the sea 1 The AND 2 principal part of the daily service. and they were healed. R. nor did a man ever price a cow [to sell] to him without his becoming blessed.V. R. another is termed geburoth (strength).] R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. 3 The concluding formulas of'abotk* and 'geburoth" (v. add the : Abbahu commented thereon It is not written. know whether Mine is first or thine is first.e. we then recite 'who not : resurrectest the dead/ 3 [AND I will I WILL MAKE THY NAME GREAT. heaven' (Gen. R. Yet thou dost . ' ' One of the eighteen is called aboth *. and on behalf of the sick. Isaac's comment on BE THOU A BLESSING. Th. but. xn. jwaem with a n (he) at the end of the word instead and Th. and they were remembered [i. Aha in R. in which mention is made of God's strength in bringing rain and resurrecting the dead. Abraham used to pray for barren Abraham women. w ABAREKEKA (AND I WILL BLESS THEE): to just as WA- ABAREKEKA do the letters 7 amounts two hundred and forty-eight. Isaac said : n [God promised Abraham] ' : I will set thee 1 as a blessing in the Eighteen [Benedictions]. s) 5 with this he I created the world 6 behold. ANDBETHOUABLESSING ' of D-wn.n. * this * means.

R. and at the beginning and end of We give thanks' and if a man bows at each benediction. 322 . these ships carried forbidden cargoes. Levi: Once he [the king] had bent the knee. For in respect to His own honour I will honour.XXXIX. R. blessed (xii. he did not 1 I. R. was taught 3 At these benedictions one must bow: at the beginning and end of the first. IJ-I2] MIDRASH KABBAH were saved for Abraham's sake. Berekiah said: Seeing that I it is already written. Simon said in the name of R. and High a king must bow at the beginning and the end of each benediction. 10) no man who took a farthing from Job had to take a second one from him. s reduces the demand for wine and thus cheapens it. My AND I WILL BLESS THEM THAT BLESS THEE : The Holy One. R. To : : R. Eleazar said be He.e. was stricter in defence of the honour of the righteous it is own honour. they that despise which means through others. he must be instructed to refrain. Ber. Jewish wine is ' cheap. Levi: The bows at the beginning of each benediction. AND BE THOU A BLESSING (BERAKAH): this means. [God] said world. and written. be thou a berekah (pool) just as a pool purifies the unclean. For them that honour shall be disgraced (i Sam. 30). what was the purpose then 2 of saving them ? An abundance of vinegar. AND WILL BLESS THEE. II. R. so do thou bring near [to Me] those who are afar. Joshua b. do thou him: 'Hitherto. Thou hast blessed the work of his hands (Job I. henceforth the blessings are entrusted to thee: whom it pleases thee to bless. Isaac b. It : ' . Jeremiah b. But did they not contain forbidden wine? 1 [There is a proverb]: 'Vinegar cheapens wine ? wherever Gentile wine is available. 340. whereas concerning the I honour of the righteous it is written. 3). Isaac said: Job too He did thus. as it is written. Joshua b. which may also be drunk. than of His Me Me AND WILL BLESS THEM THAT BLESS THEE. Nahman Priest said in the name of R. why is AND to BE THOU A BLESSING added? He / had to bless bless/ 12. AND HIM THAT CURSETH THEE WILL I CURSE I Myself.

that AND shall IN THEE SHALL BE BLESSED: come for thy sake. yet he had pity on him2 R.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) is [XXXIX. n. when Solomon had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication unto the Lord. (Est. 21 ad /oc. blessed be He. v.)? 8 The question is rhetorical. it And was so. and we give it to them. IJiyya the elder showed Rabbi the action of keri'ah. (i Kings vin. Levi b. but in different ways. And the thing became known to told it unto Esther the queen. its purpose being to show the Jewish attitude * of loyalty to his country of domicile. 7). : was merely joined on with him. This is a question why did Mordecai care about the conspiracy of Bigthan and Teresh against Ahasuerus (v. Rab said She was forty years old 4 Samuel said She was : . but was subsequently healed. who written. moreover. Judah quoted From my elders I receive understanding (Ps. And he brought up Hadassah (Est. he arose from before the altar the Lord. 7). AND LOT WENT WITH HIM (xn. 13. zoo) He [Mordecai] reasoned thus Jacob blessed Pharaoh. So ABRAM WENT. hence. said to Abraham: AND IN THEE SHALL ALL THE FAMILIES OF THE EARTH BE BLESSED. he became lame and was not healed. n. AS THE LORD HAD SPOKEN UNTO HIM. What is keri'ah and what is berikah? 1 R. Both denote a form of bending the knee. And Jacob blessed Pharaoh (Gen. ! : : : he meant ! we But in respect of wealth. 54). cxix. as written. they are surely wealthier than it was meant in respect of counsel : when they get into trouble they ask our advice. When chosen by Ahasuerus. and did not Daniel reveal his dreams to Nebuchadnezzar? So I too. Susi showed Rabbi the action of keri'ah. * : 1 3*3 . 'And he told it unto Esther the queen. Nehemiah said: The Holy One. and became lame. etc. as it is written. Now if that IS [Mordecai] was circumcised while the other [Ahasuerus] was uncircumcised. did not Joseph reveal his dreams to him. XLVII.'* R. from of kneeling on his knees. it is rain and dew Now 22): Mordecai. 12-13 it straighten himself until he finished his entire prayer. etc. Thus it is written. 4): Lot AND ABRAM WAS SEVENTY AND FIVE YEARS OLD.

Leazar (XII. LXXXIV. blessed be He. AND ABRAM PASSED THROUGH THE LAND . 5). THAT THEY HAD MADE? converted the you that he who brings a Gentile near [to God] is as though he created him. 4 Their measure of sin was not yet full.XXXIX. . 'That he had made'. they had made]. AND HE BUILDED THERE AN ALTAR stated here Israel. AND THE SOULS THAT THEY HAD MADE2 IN HARAN R. 16. 4. 'That they had converted That is to teach men and Said R. Gen. infra. UNTO THE PLACE OF SHECHEM CANAANITE WAS THEN IN THE LAND they still AND THE (xn. .V. 5 It was on that account that he built the altar. AND THE SOULS THAT THEY : HAD MADE! why It refers. 14. 9 2 * Lit. that they should be expelled from the country. R. E. Zimra If all the nations assembled to create one insect they could not endow it with life. translation. yet you say. Jose b. AND SAID: UNTO THY SEED WILL I GIVE THIS LAND. : 13-15] MIDRASH RABBAH eighty years old. the Rabbis of that place [i. 7): what is on account of the good tidings about Eretz AND HE REMOVED FROM THENCE UNTO THE i (4) -f D (60) -f n (5) 74. AND LOT THEIR BROTHER'S SON. however. cf. to which the word as a added. 5 is (XII. why THAT THEY HAD MADE? Then let it say. the redeemer whom I will raise up from thee shall be seventy-five years 1 old/ this being the numerical value of Hadassah. 1 noin: n (5) Is + = whole 324 . Ilunia: Abraham Sarah the women. AND ABRAM TOOK SARAI HIS WIFE. 6): so far had a right in the land* 4 AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO ABRAM. to the proselytes [which ' . Babylonia] said She was seventy-five years old. Now let it say. by thy life. making 75. xv.e. 3 15. : assured Abraham: 'Thou didst leave thy father's house when seventy-five years old. 'gotten . AND ALL THEIR SUBSTANCE WHICH THEY HAD GATHERED. observed in the name of R. Cf. Berekiah observed in the name of the Rabbis The Holy One.

Josh. does not merit being called ben but now it is called Liezer said: He who he-amal is There [in called ben he-'amad* R. that he might possess Eretz Israel for the merit of 2 ' Amal : toil 'amad = A having built this altar. XVIH. he and the and they put dust upon their heads (Josh. 6 AND ABRAM JOURNEYED. 4 l6. translated: in former times. earns for himself the other epithet. Leazar b. I. who said. 6). his tent. 4 deft touch. Shamua* said: They began recalling the merit of our father Abraham. 5 V. 15-16 MOUNTAIN ON THE (xn. another for his possession thereof. 9): he drew a [future] site of the ' STILL TOand journeyed toward the 1 Temple. R. R. written 3 . 1 R. the Lord until the evening. vii. cf. Hanina said: is after having pitched Sarah's tent he pitched his own. and fell to the earth upon his face before the elders of Israel. Palestine] Nahman called said: a good worker is (industrious). / am but dust and ashes (Gen. 5 and a third [as a prayer] that his descendants might not fall at Ai.e. Beth-awen (house of iniquity). 2. glory) of the 325 . 8): originally it EAST OF (MI-KEDEM) BETH-EL was called Beth-el (house of God).GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XXXIX. 17. vn. 1 6). a toiler in the Torah. did then Abraham build Thee an altar at Ai for aught but that his children should not fall Ark of there ! AND CALLED UPON THE NAME prayer. heap of dung : he who does not earn for himself the epithet. Leazar said: He built three altars: one on account of the good tidings about Eretz Israel. as it is written. 8 Though vocalised ahalo. GOING ON WARD THE SOUTH (xn. 27). while urine-soaked AND PITCHED Ahalah (her tent) dung is HIS TENT (AHALO). 'amela called 'amidah. Isaac b. AND HE BUILDED THERE AN ALTAR UNTO THE LORD (xn. 6 Translating: and he summoned people to the name Lord. And Joshua rent his clothes. Mi-kedem' is . OF THE LORD: with Another interpretation of AND CALLED: course he began to make converts. xin. (i. R.e. showing the honour paid in Judaism to women.

'And teachest out of Thy law (ib. and went on to Egypt. XL (LECH LECHA) A AND THERE WAS whom FAMINE IN THE LAND. etc. (*&. He hath given Him. the earth. 3. 19): from the 1 death decreed by Nimrod. but. xn. Levi commenced thus: teref [E. yet AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. he did not protest nor murmur against Him. 2). (Ps. : etc. 8 I. 326 . 2. (Gen. a Godit is written. 12). xxxvin. R.): what of Abraham? And I will bless thee. 10). 2 chastisest. Phinehas commenced his discourse in the name of R. xxxm. but Abram? 'And I will bless thee. the eye of the Lord is toward (xii. 5). thus it is written. xxxm. 12): yet is written then. he did not protest nor murmur against Him. 20). Hanan of Sepphoris: Happy is the man whom Thou should he object. xii.e.): (Gen. IN THE LAND.XL. mercy to Abraham faithfulness mercy Thou wilt show (Micah vn. Joshua b. R.3 As soon as he set out. cit. Behold. cxi. Joshua b. (Gen. he retained his faith 2 Calling God's justice into question. 13. supra. etc. Said R. It them that fear him (Ps. etc. AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. AND ABRAM WENT DOWN INTO EGYPT TO SOJOURN THERE. Ten famines have come upon 1 One in the days of V. 'food'} unto them that fear ever mindful of His covenant (Ps. He will be them hath given wanderings (tiruf) unto in the Messianic future. loc.' For what is written of Levi: In this world that fear He Him. and make thy name great famine assailed him. 18) this alludes to Abraham. but. And to keep them alive in famine AND THERE WAS A FAMINE thus it is written. To deliver their soul from death (Ps. and make thy name great" famine assailed him. yet 3 AND ABRAM WENT DOWN INTO EGYPT. fearing is written.): to Jacob. For now I know that thou art of Toward them that wait for His man xxn. 1-3] CHAPTER I. As soon as he set out.V. xciv. 'He will be ever mindful of His covenant. O Lord (Ps. 2).

that there was a famine in the land was a (Ruth i. Samuel b. postponed it and tree. the God of Israel. 3 Adam: Cursed is the ground for thy sake (ib. 17). 6) one in the days when the judges judged And it came to pass in the days that the judges judged. xxvi. nor a thirst for water. one in the days of Elisha: And there was a great and there is one famine famine in Samaria (il Kings VI. xxi. i) one in the days famine . but of hearing the words of the Lord (Amos vin. and Johana is brought it in the days of David.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XL. i). who lowly [weak] men but in the days could withstand it. liveth. R. Berekiah applied to them the verse. XL. that travels about the world. 6). hath the famine been in the land (ib. Until an Lamech and one in the . 29). 25) . Shila sins a glass-worker holding Said R. For that reason all these [famines] came not in the days of of the mighty ones. . : . 1 1). Aha's name: There was one days of Abraham. The famine productive and the ass's head in the days of Elisha was one of panic. i). blessed be He. time for its manifestation was in Isaac said: The proper the days of David. v. He giveth power to the faint (Isa. before whom I stand. 29) one in the days of Abraham: AND THERE WAS A FAMINE IN THE LAND. one in the days of Isaac: And there was famine in the land. beside the first famine that was in the days of Abraham one in the days of Jacob: For these two years (ib. the wall]. the Lord. R. and one will be in the of Elijah: As Messianic future Not a famine of bread. Jeremiah in the name of R. R. The famine of Elijah's time was one of scarcity. one in the days of Lamech: Which cometh from the ground which the Lord hath cursed (ib. one in the days of David: And there in the days of David (n Sam. he brought a nail and held on to it while he hung up his basket. Helbo's name : There were two famines in the days Abraham. XLV. R. but because Saul was the Holy One. one year being next year unproductive. Hiyya: Imagine punished! a basket full of goblets and cut glass . there shall not be dew nor rain these years (i Kings xvn. Huna in the days of said in R. Huna and R. and it ought really to have come in the the shoot of a sycamore days of Saul. when he wished to and drove it [into hang the basket up. Berekiah said of in R. in.

e. yet I now he WOMAN HOLD. R. . I will go with thee to battle. R. Dosa's name: From the price of two se'ahs [of wheat per sela'] it advanced to one se'ah [per sela']. etc. Nehemiah explained it: If thou wilt go with me in 5 Song. then I will go . THOU ART MY SISTER. even at a se'ah per sela one must not go abroad. 8 To summon the warriors of Zebulun and Naphtali v. viz. 3. If thou wilt go with me. is because travelling takes toll of one's beauty. And go 3 : 2 For notes v. Y. as it is written. but if it is obtain1 able. (n Kings vi. > 4. explained If thou wilt go with me to Kadesh. NOW KNOW THAT THOU ART says to her. Judg. (ib. And Barak said unto her . against Jabin who reigned in Hazor. however. II). 2. iv. Judah Abraham and called And she sent and Barak . name of R. 6 fL). 9 f * I. I will not go (Judg. xxv. As 3-4] MIDRASH KABBAH was sold for fourscore pieces of silver. . R. Huna said in R. AND ITCAME TO PASS. 5 If you undertake to join me in singing praises to God v. 'through journeying a person becomes despised' but Sarah retained her beauty. BE- A FAIR TO LOOK UPON! The reason. Judah b. I will not go with thee against Hazor. v. I will not go with thee to battle. whilst if thou wilt not go with me to Kadesh. (XII. Barak. 2 R. v. 'Azariah said in the name of R. 13). for the famine during the days of the judges. R.T. THAT IT MAY BE WELL WITH ME FOR THY SAKE. . 1 328 . Lit. Simon: [Abraham said to Sarah:] We have traversed Aram Naharaim and Aram Nahor and not found a woman as beautiful as you. I will go with thee against Hazor 4 . but if thou wilt not go with me. Reuben: Two people were principal actors and yet made themselves Barak. etc. etc. suggests that Hazor is an error for Tabor. WHEN HEWASCOME NEAR TO ENTER INTO EGYPT. I PRAY THEE. whereas it was taught: A man must not emigrate abroad unless two se'ahs cost a sela'. R.XL. Simeon observed: That is only when it is altogether unobtainable. . She Was with him all these years. 25). Phinehas said in the subordinate. but if thou wilt not with me in Song. SAY. R. supra. . now that we are entering a country whose inhabitants are swarthy and ugly.

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)
she said:

[XL. 4-5

will surely go with thee, notwithstanding (efes) the journey that thou takest shall not be for thy honour (ib. 9). R. Reuben said: as [Efes] is a Greek to

I

word, though say hafes (let alone).* Said she to him: 'What thinkest thou? that the glory for the Song shall be given to thee alone!' He retired into the second place, as it is written, Then 2 sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam, etc. (ib. v, i). Abraham was the principal, as it is written, And Abram took Sarai his wife (Gen. xn, 5), but he made himself of
importance,
saying, SAY, I PRAY THEE, SISTER, whereupon he really became her, as it is written, And he dealt well with
(ib. 16).

THOU ART MY
subordinate to

secondary

Abram for

her sake

was Sarah ? He had put her

S. AND IT CAME TO PASS, THAT, WHEN ABRAM WAS COMING INTO EGYPT, etc. (xn, 14). And where

When

officer]

he
'I

carrying silks/ he asserted. 'I will pay on silks/ 'You are carrying precious stones/ 'I will pay on precious stones/ 'It is imperative that you open it and we see what it contains/ he insisted.

replied. 'You carry garments in that will pay the dues on garments/ 'You are

in a box and locked her in it. he came to the customs-house, he [the customs demanded, 'Pay the custom dues/ 'I will pay/

box/

said he.

As soon as he opened it the land of Egypt was irradiated with her lustre [beauty]. R. 'Azariah and R. Jonathan in R. Isaac's name said: Eve's image was transmitted to the
reigning
written,
I,

beauties

And

Elsewhere it is generation. the damsel was very fair 'ad me'od (i Kings
to Eve's beauty;

of each

3

4),

which means that she attained
it

but

THE EGYPTIANS BEHELD THE WOMAN THAT SHE WAS VERY FAIR (ME'OD)
here in truth
is

written,

which means, even more beautiful than Eve's image. 4

AND THE PRINCES OF PHARAOH SAW HER, AND PRAISED HER (xii, 15). R. Johanan said: They went on

1

Gr. d^?- 2 Deborah first, as the principal. 8 As a standard of beauty. V. supra, vin, 5, where 'me'od' is treated as an allusion to Adam, and XXI, 2, where Eve is called Adam. The present comments are on the same lines (Th.). 'Ad implies up to a certain point, but no further.
*

329

XL.

5-6]

MIDRASH KABBAH
:

1 one said, 'I give a hundred outbidding each other for her dinars that I may enter [Pharaoh's palace] with her,' whereupon another bid, 'I give two hundred dinars to enter with her/ 2 I know this only of their advancement;

whence do we know
says,
(Jer.

it

of their degradation? 3 Because
cast

it

Then took they Jeremiah, and

him

into the pit

4 xxxvin, 6): they raised his price.

We

of this world:

whence do we know
it is

it

know it only of the Messianic

future ? Because

said,

And

the peoples shall take them,

and
6.
1 6).

bring them

to their place (Isa. xiv, 2).

AND HE DEALT WELL WITH ABRAM,
It is written,

etc.

(XII,

gave men charge concerning him, etc. (ib. 20). R. Phinehas commented in R. Hoshaya's name: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to our father Abraham, Go forth and tread out a path for thy children/ For you find that everything written in connection with Abraham is written in connection with his children. In connection with Abraham it is written, And there was a famine in the land (ib. 10) while in connection with Israel is it written, For these two years hath the famine been in the land (ib. XLV, 6). Abraham: And Abram went down into Egypt; Israel: And our fathers went down into
*

And Pharaoh

;

Egypt (Num. xx, 15). Abraham: To sojourn there; Israel To sojourn in the land are we come (Gen. XLVII, 4). Abraham For thefamine was sore in the land; Israel And the famine was sore
:
: :

in the land (ib. XLIII, i).

Abraham And it came
:

to pass,
:

when

he was come near (hikrib) to enter into Egypt ; Israel

Pharaoh drew nigh
1

hikrib (Ex. xiv, io). 5

And when Abraham: And

Lit. *she

3

This

is

a

was progressively raised' (in price). comment on the end of the verse

:

WAS TAKEN INTO PHARAOH'S HOUSE.
3

ANDTHEWOMAN

Viz. that when the righteous are to be humbled and mishandled, 4 As in last note. people outbid each other for the privilege of doing so ? 5 This appears difficult, since the second phrase refers to Pharaoh, not Israel. Mah. explains that in both verses fcarab, the bal form, should have been used, not ktfcrib) the hifil, which literally means, 'caused to draw nigh.' Hence the Midrash translates: the fear of the Egyptians caused Abraham to bring himself near to God, and similarly Pharaoh, by casting his fear upon the Israelites, caused them to come near to God ; cf. Ex. R. xxi, 4.

330

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XL. 6

they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive; Israel: Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter

ye

shall save alive

(ib.

I,

22).
it

that thou art

my

sister,

that

And God dealt well with the And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt ; Israel Now these are the names of the sons of Israel, who came in Egypt (ib. i). Abraham: And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold (Gen. xm, 2) Israel And He
:

Abraham: Say, I pray thee, may be well with me; Israel: midwives (ib. 20). Abraham:

;

:

brought them forth with silver and gold (Ps. cv, 37). Abraham: And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him, and they sent him away ; Israel: And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, to send them out (Ex. xii, 33). Abraham; And he went on his journeys (Gen. xm, 3); Israel: These are the
journeys of the children of Israel

(Num. xxxm,

i).

331

XLL

i]

CHAPTER XLI 1

(LECH LECHA)

i. AND THE LORD PLAGUED PHARAOH AND HIS HOUSE WITH GREAT PLAGUES, etc. (XII, 17). It is

written, The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. xcii, 13). As the palm and the cedar have neither crooked curves nor excrescences, so the righteous have neither crookedness nor
cast afar, 3 so

shadow of the palm and the cedar is the reward of the righteous far away [in the future world] ; as the heart of the palm and the cedar is directed upward, so are the hearts of the righteous directed
excrescences 2
;

as the

is

toward the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written, Mine eyes are ever toward the Lord, for He will bring forth my feet out of the net (ib. xxv, 15); as the palm and the cedar have desire, 4 so have the righteous desire. And what is their desire? The Holy One, blessed be He. R. Tanhuma 5 said: There was once a palm tree in Amatho that did not yield fruit. A palm-gardener passed and saw it; said he: 'This ungrafted tree looks to [a male palm] from Jericho/ As soon as they grafted it, it yielded fruit. Or [will you argue] as we cannot make utensils from a palm tree, so are the righteous Therefore, it says like a cedar'. R. Huna observed: There [in Babylonia] utensils are manufactured
:

*

!

from

it

[the
'

palm

6

tree].

Then

does not produce
stated,

fruit, so are

will you say: as the cedar the righteous ? Therefore it is

The righteous

part of the

shallflourish like the palm-tree ': as no palm has any waste, the dates being eaten, the
7

branches used for Hallel, the twigs for covering [booths], the bast for ropes, the leaves for besoms, and the planed boards for ceiling rooms, so are there none worthless in Israel, some being versed in Scripture, others in Mishnah,
1 In the British Museum MSS. Add. 27169, which forms the basis of Theodor's critical edition, this is still Ch. XL. But in the cur. edd. and several other MSS. Ch. XLI commences here, and this has been adopted for the sake of convenience. From Ch. XLIII the edd. and MSS. are 2 3 In their character. Their foliage being at the top. again alike. 4 To be grafted with the male palm standing at a distance (Th.). s Th.: a place in Transjordania. Var. lee.: Hamtham, also a place, one * 7 mile from Tiberias, v. Meg. zb. Cf. PCS. 88a. V. Lev. xxm, 42,

332

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)
some
in

[XLL
as

1-2

Talmud, others

1

in

Haggadah.

And

whoever

climbs to the top of the palm and the cedar and does not take care of himself falls and is killed, so whoever comes to
attack Israel eventually receives his deserts on their account, the proof being that because Pharaoh took possession of Sarah for one night he and his household were smitten

with

plagues,

as

it

is

written,

AND THE LORD

PLAGUED PHARAOH,

etc.

2. R. Simeon b. Lakish said in Bar Kappara's name: Pharaoh was smitten with lupus. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said An old man suffering with boils met me in Sepphoris said he to me: 'There are twenty-four varieties of boils, and out of all these the only one upon which a woman has an injurious effect is lupus' 2 and therewith was the wicked Pharaoh smitten. AND HIS HOUSE. R. Aha said Even the beams of his house were smitten, and all exclaimed, 'It is BECAUSE
:

;

;

:

OF SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE/

R. Berekiah said: Because

he dared to approach the shoe of that lady. And the whole of that night Sarah lay prostrate on her face, crying, Sovereign of the Universe Abraham went forth [from his land] on Thine assurance, and I went forth with faith;
' !

Abraham

is without this prison while I am within!' Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to her: 'Whatever I do, I do for thy sake, and all will say, "It is

BECAUSE

OF SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE/" R. Berekiah

said: Because
:

he dared to approach the shoe of that lady. 3 R. Levi said The whole of that night an angel stood with a whip in his hand; when she ordered, 'Strike/ he struck, and when she 4 ordered, 'Desist/ he desisted. And why such severity?
1 a

general discussions on the Mishnah. In both cases the translation is only a conjecture. 8 This repetition is absent in cur. edd. Its purpose is presumably to serve as an introduction to R. Levi's statement. 4 All these statements are deduced from the verse under discussion. Al debar (E.V. '/or the sake of) can also mean, 'by the word of. Hence it is account of Sarai ; interpreted By the word of all people, that this was on the word of again, by the word, i.e. prayer, of Sarah, and finally, by Sarai to the angel. 'Abram's wife' is superfluous, hence the comment:
:

The

that

he should have dared

to

approach Abram's wife!

333

XLI. 2-3]

married woman/ Because she told he would not leave her. R. Leazar said (the same was yet
also taught in the

MIDRASH KABBAH him [Pharaoh], 'I am a
name

of R. Liezer b. Jacob)

:

We

know

was smitten with leprosy and Abimelech with the closing up [of the orifices] how do we know that what is said here is to be applied there, and vice versa?
that Pharaoh
:

Because

'for the sake

of occurs

in

both places, that an

1 analogy may be drawn.

3.

AND ABRAM WAS VERY RICH
(xni,
2).

SILVER, AND IN GOLD

IN CATTLE, IN Thus it is written,

And He
cv
37).

brought them forth with silver and with gold; and there was none that stumbled among His tribes (Ps.

AND HE WENT ON
Leazar said
:

HIS JOURNEYS

(XIII,

3):

He

returned by the same route by which he had come. R.

He went
ALSO,

to settle his debts.

AND LOT
ALSO,
God

WHO WENT WITH ABRAM,
;

etc.

(XIH, 5). Lot enjoyed four boons on account of Abraham: And Lot went with him (Gen. xn, 4) (ii) A N D L o T (i)
etc., (iii)
(ib.

And

he also brought back his brother Lot,
;

and his goods

xiv, 16)
cities

and

(iv)

And it came

to pass,

when

of the plain, that God remembered Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow (ib. xix, 29). Now in return for these his descendants should have requited us with kindness, yet not alone did they not requite us with kindness, but they even did us evil. Thus it is written, And he sent messengers unto Balaam
destroyed the

Come now (Num. xxn, 5
.

.

therefore,
f.);

again,

children of

Ammon

thee, curse me this people he gathered unto him the and Amalek, and he went and smote

I pray

And

Israel (Judg. in, 13); also, And that . the children of Ammon,
.

it

came

to

pass after

this,

.

and with them some of

the

Ammonites, came against Jehoshaphat to battle (11 Chron. xx, i); also this verse, The adversary hath spread out his hand upon all her treasures (Lam. i, io). 2 Their sin is
V. Gen. xx, 18 For the Lord had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, for the sake of Sarah Abraham's wife. * All these verses refer to the Ammonites or Moabites (v. Lam. R. I, io; Yeb. 1 66), who were descended from Lot (v. Gen. xix, 30-8).
:

1

334

recorded in

GENESIS (LECH LECHA) four places: An Ammonite or a
.

[XLL

3-5

Moabite shall
(Deut.

not enter into the assembly of the Lord you not with bread and water in the
;

.

.

because they met

way,

etc.

xxm,

4 f.) Because they met not the children of Israel with bread and water, etc. (Neh. xm, 2) O My people, remember now what Balak king of Moab devised (Micah vi, 5). 1 Four arose and sealed their doom, viz. prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Zephaniah. Isaiah said The burden of Moab, etc. (Isa. XV, i); Jeremiah: Then I will cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammon, etc. (Jer. XLIX, 2); Ezekiel: / will open the flank of Moab
; :

. . . together with the children of Ammon, unto the children of the east . . and I will execute etc.

(Ezek. xxv, 9

Sodom,

judgments upon Moab, Zephaniah: Surely Moab shall be as and the children of Ammon as Gomorrah, etc.
.

if.);

(Zeph. u,
4.

9).

HAD FLOCKS, AND HERDS, AND TENTS.
b. R. Isaac said:

R.

Tobiah

He had two

tents, viz.

Ruth the

Moabitess and Naamah the Ammonitess. 2 Similarly it is written, Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are found (Gen. xix, i5) 3 R. Tobiah said: That means two 'finds 4 viz. Ruth and Naamah. R. Isaac commented: / have found David My servant (Ps. LXXXIX, 21) where did I find him? In Sodom. 5
:
1

,

:

5.

MEN

AND THERE WAS A STRIFE BETWEEN THE HERDOF ABRAM'S CATTLE AND THE HERDMEN OF
(xm,
7).

LOT'S CATTLE

name: Abraham's

R. Berekiah said in R Judan's used to go out muzzled, 6 but did not go out muzzled. Lot's Said Abraham's herdmen to them: 'Has then robbery been permitted?'
cattle

To which
1

Lot's

herdmen
Th. adds
(v.

replied:

'Thus
10):

did

the
the son

Only three

are stated.

Lam. R.

i,

Then Balak

of Zippor, king of Moab, arose and fought against Israel: and he sent and called Balaam the son of Beor to curse you (Josh, xxrv, 9). 2 He understands tents figuratively, as meaning descendants. 8 * V. infra, L, 10 ad fin. Two precious things. 5 He was descended from Lot who was saved from the destruction of * So as not to graze in others' fields. Sodom.

335

XLL

5-6]

MIDRASH RABBAH

Unto thy Holy One, blessed be He, say to Abraham: seed will I give this land (Gen. xn, 7); now Abraham is a 1 barren mule, who cannot beget children, therefore Lot will be his heir; if they eat, they are eating their own/ Said
the Holy One, blessed be He, to them: 'Thus did I say to him: Unto thy seed have I given this land' (ib. xv, 18): 2 When? when the seven nations are uprooted from it.

Now, however, AND THE CANAANITE AND THE PERIZZITE DWELT THEN IN THE LAND, etc.: so far
they
6.
still
3 have a right in the land.

AND ABRAM
I strife

NO STRIFE,
etc.

SAID UNTO LOT: LET THERE BE PRAY THEE, BETWEEN ME AND THEE,
name: Just

in R. Judah's (xin, 8). R. 'Azariah said

between the herdmen of Abraham and as the herdmen of Lot, so was there strife between Abraham and Lot, as it says, AND ABRAM SAID UNTO LOT:
there was

LET THERE BE NO STRIFE, etc. FOR WE ARE BRETHREN. Was
IS
9),

he then his brother? In fact he called him so because his features resembled his own.

NOT THE WHOLE LAND BEFORE THEE?
I

SEPARATE THYSELF (HIPPARED)
R.

PRAY THEE (xm,
is

Helbo
is it

said:

Not

hibbadel*

written,

but

HIPPARED:
semen, so

just as a peredah (mule) cannot develop impossible for this man [Lot] to mix with

the seed of Abraham.

IF THOU WILT TAKE THE LEFT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE RIGHT; OR IF THOU TAKE THE RIGHT HAND, THEN I WILL GO TO THE LEFT. He
said to him: 'If thou goest to the left, I go to the south, while if I go to the south, thou goest to the left, so that in 5 either case I go to the south/ R. Johanan said: This may

be compared to two
1

men who had two

stacks,

one of wheat

* As follows from w. 19 f. Cf. supra , xxxviii, 5. Pesikta comments a righteous man influences his household and servants to be likewise, while a wicked man makes his household wicked. * 4 Which has the same meaning. Translating the second half of the verse or if I take the right hand, then I will make thee go to the left.

3

The

:

:

336

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XLL

6-J

and the other of barley. Said one to the other: 'If the wheat is mine, then the barley is yours, while if the barley is yours the wheat is mine; in either case then the wheat is mine/ 1 R. Hanina b. Isaac said: It is not written, we-

man
7.

asme'elah but we-asme'ilah*: in [Lot] go to the left.

all

events I will

make

that

AND LOT
said:

b.

Hanan

LIFTED UP HIS EYES, etc. R. Nahman Whoever is fired with immoral desire is

eventually fed with his own flesh. 3 R. Jose b. R. Hanina said: The whole of this verse connotes immoral desire.

Thus:

AND LOT LIFTED UP
as

And
7).

HIS EYES,
to

as

you
(ib.

read,

AND BEHELD ALL THE PLAIN
you
read,

his master's wife lifted

up her eyes

Joseph

xxxix,
is

(KIKKAR) OF THE

JORDAN,
IT
as

For on account of a harlot a man

brought to a loaf (kikkar) of bread (Prov. vi, 26). 4

you read, And wehishkah (Num.
it

WAS WELL WATERED (MASHKEH) EVERYWHERE,
lie

THAT
drink

shall

make

the

woman
you

v,

24)* ;

BEFORE THE LORD
as

DESTROYED (SHAHETH) SODOM,
came
to pass,

read,

And

when he went

in unto his brother's wife, that
9).

he spilled

LIKE THE GARDEN OF THE LORD LIKE THE LAND OF EGYPT: LIKE THE GARDEN OF THE LORD in trees, and LIKE THE LAND OF EGYPT in cereals. SO LOT CHOSE HIM ALL THE PLAIN OF THE
,

on the ground (Gen. xxxvin,

JORDAN, etc. (xm, n). like a man who covets his

AND LOT JOURNEYED

R. Jose b. Zimra said: mother's dowry. 7

He was

EAST (MI-KEDEM): He

betook himself from the Ancient (kadmon) of the world, 8 saying, I want neither Abraham nor his God.
1

The probable meaning is
mine while
;

is
2

if

if you examine the wheat, you will see that you examine the barley, you will see that it is yours.
:

it

The

first is intransitive,

cause another to go left. 4 and beheld Translating & The reference Jordan.
:

I will 3 all
is

go

left

;

the second
incest.

is

transitive, I will

He

commits

the loaf i.e. the immorality of the to the water ordeal of a woman accused of

adultery.
7

Lot was

heritage.

We-shifieth, lit. 'destroyed'. as eager for immoral pleasures as 8 Cf. supra, xxxvm, 7.

a

though they were his due
2

337

XLL

7-9]

MIDRASH RABBAH

AND THEY SEPARATED THEMSELVES THE ONE FROM THE OTHER. ABRAM DWELT IN THE LAND OF CANAAN, etc. (ib. n f.). Rabbi said: There was no
was
a man was evil he Sodomite and there was no nation more cruel than the Arnorites; when a man was cruel he was called an Amorite. R. Issi said There was no city [in the plain] better than Sodom, for Lot searched through all the cities of the plain and found none like Sodom. Thus these people were the best of all, yet, THE MEN OF SODOM WERE WICKED AND SINNERS (ib. 13) they were WICKED to

city

more wicked than Sodom: when
;

called a

:

each other;

SINNERS

in adultery;

AGAINST THE LORD
refers to bloodshed.

in idolatry; while

EXCEEDINGLY

8. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM, AFTER THAT LOT WAS SEPARATED FROM HIM (XIII, 14 f.).

R. Judah said: There was anger [in heaven] against our
father

Abraham when his nephew Lot parted from him. 'He makes everyone cleave [to Me]/ said the Holy One,
'

cleave [to

blessed be He, 'yet he does not cause his brother's son to Me] R. Nehemiah said There was anger [in
!

:

heaven]

against the Patriarch
'

Abraham when Lot

his

promised him, Unto thy seed have I given this land" (Gen. xv, 18), said God, 'yet he attaches Lot to himself; if so, let him go and procure two common soldiers! This explains the text: Cast out the scorner (Prov. XXH, 10), which alludes to Lot; And contention will go out (ib.), alluding to, And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abraham's cattle, etc. Yea, strife and shame will cease (ib.), as it says, And Abram said to Lot :
I
1

brother's son went with him.

Let there be no strife. He that loveth pureness of heart that hath grace in his lips, the king shall be his friend (ib. n): FOR hence, AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAM:
, .
.
.

ALL THE LAND WHICH THOU SEEST, TO THEE WILL I GIVE IT, etc.

AND I WILL MAKE THY SEED AS THE DUST 9. OF THE EARTH (xni, 1 6). Just as the dust of the earth
is

found

from one end of the world
338

to

the

other,

GENESIS (LECH LECHA)

[XLI. 9-10

so shall thy children be found from one end of the earth to the other ; and as the dust of the earth can be blessed only through water, so will thy children be blessed only
for the sake of the

and

Torah, which is likened to water 1 ; as the dust of the earth wears out even metal utensils

yet itself endures for ever, so will Israel exist [for ever] while the nations of the world will cease to be ; and as the

dust of the earth

is

trodden upon, so

downtrodden under the heel of

written, And I will put 'it into thee (Isa. LI, 23); which means, those who make thy wounds flow. Nevertheless, it is for thy benefit, for they 2 purify thee of guilt, as you read, Thou makest her soft with

thy children be [foreign] powers, as it is the hand of them that afflict
will

Bow

3 showers, etc. (Ps. LXV, n). That have said to thy soul: that we may go over (Isa. loc. cit.). What did down,

they do to them ? They made them lie down in the streets and drew ploughs over them. R. 'Azariah said in R. Aha's name: That is a good augury: as the street outlives those who travel on it, yet itself remains for ever, so shall thy sons, [said God to Abraham], outlive the nations of the world while they will remain for ever. 4
10.
17). It

ARISE,

WALK THROUGH THE LAND,
:

etc.

(XIII,

he walks in the field, whether along its length or its breadth, he acquires it as far as he walks. This is the view of R. Liezer, 6 but the Sages maintain: He does not acquire it until he takes possession. 7 R. Jacob said R. Eliezer's view is based on the verse, ARISE,
If
:

was taught 5

WALK THROUGH THE LAND. 8
1 3

Cf. Isa. LV,

i.

2

Lit. 'they beat thee
'

out of thy

guilt*.
*

Words of the same root are used for makest soft* and that afflict thee'. The Midrash understands the former in the sense of making the rain flow, and hence the latter too to make the wounds flow. 4 Nations that persecute the Jews are in the long run doomed to perish.
6 6

B.B. iooa.

One of the legal methods of acquiring land is hasattah, taking possession,
in the land to

and R. Liezer holds that walking

be acquired constitutes

hazafrah. 7 text as emended E.g. by fencing part of it. The translation follows the by Th., which agrees with the text in the Talmud. 8 By this act of walking Abraham was to acquire the title to the land.

339

property is given to thee as a gift. and smote them. . and have bent the bow came up ' : * . Th. i). he and Amraphel and his . Their sword shall enter into in the way (ib. R. so will the fragrance of your learning be diffused from one end of the world to the other. Nikodemon ben Gurion. (xiv. from R. now. Ben Zizzith Hakeseth. i] CHAPTER XLII (LECH LECHA) IN THE DAYS OF I. AND IT CAME TO PASS * IN THE DAYS OF 1 AMRAPHEL). And he fought his servants. 4 The bracketed passage may be spurious . AND IT CAME TO PASS (Ps. however. AMRAPHEL. It cow was maimed.' After some time his father to disinherit him. while he was ploughing on the mountain.)to Lot. Joshua commenced his discourse in the name of R. Levi: The wicked have drawn xxxvn. I to disinherit thee. he said to him: 'As the smell of your mouth became unpleasant for the sake of the Torah. To slay such as are upright to Abraham. Through povert He would not profit through his learning.' 'Behold/ me3 .) their own heart (ib. etc. etc. 15). and The Ben Kalba Shabua. Johanan b. j were once ploughing in the plain. 'My son. against them by night. Eliezer's mouth smelt foul.XLII. Said his father to him. I will take only an 'let it be herem [accursed] to came up only equal share with my brothers/ (Another interpretation: The wicked have drawn out the sword' alludes to Amraphel and his allies. 14). (Gen. and found him sitting with the greatest of the land sitting before and lecturing him. as it is written. 4 8 a To study in his academy. all my he replied. etc. xiv. He was expounding this verse wicked have drawn out the sword. as it is written. 15). Johanan b. earth2 until his mouth emitted an offensive odour. when his cow fell and was maimed. this alludes to companions To cast down the poor and needy (ib.Liezer s brothers out the sword.R. and when Zakkai that the breath they went and told R. for proved fortunate for him that his1 ZakkaL He ate there clods of he fled to R.

Eleazar's name The following teaching came to us from the Exile3 : wherever 'And ' came to pass in the days of (wayyehi denotes trouble.2. Phinehas quoted in R. said : And it came to pass in the days of occurs five times it it : CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF (i) AMRAPHEL: THAT THEY MADE WAR. Samuel commenced his discourse: And this 2-3 also a grievous evil. viz. ends with four kingdoms: the kingdom of Babylon. and the empire of Edom [i. and Amraphel king of Shinar. Nahman biyeme) occurs. CAME TO PASS IN THE IN THE DAYS DAYS OF AMRAPHEL. Samuel: As he comes with slops. AND IT by the hands of Abraham. for the king will show favour to this province as was his wont. Abin relates the verse to the Jewish nation: just as his history commences with an engagement between Abraham and the four kings. on words the phrase is read way kayyah. Said R. 9) so he . 3)? In order that they might come and fall hence it is written. 1 R. why Came all these as allies (Gen. and in old age before death he is the same. so will he conclude with four kings. Woe to us. 3. And they turned c [this friend] [if 1 At birth he can only eat slops. so shall he go (Eccl. : R. v. Iliyya the Elder and R. xiv. I. This may be AND IT compared to a king's friend who dwelt in a province. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLII. the kingdom of Greece. is R. But when barbarians came to attack him they lamented. 2 3 4 so at an advanced stage of his history shall he be subject to four powers. and on his account the king used to visit the province and showed it favour. Samuel b. R. 2 [He commences with four kings. and Arioch king of Ellasar (Gen. 15). By a play from Babylon. Thus. that in all points as he came.e. xiv. 4 R. Tanhuma said in the name of R. Abin's name But : they know not understand they His counsel^ for the thoughts of the Lord. 12). 341 . etc. no longer his friend is killed]/ Thus it is written. Berekiah said in R. Rome]. and Tidal king of Goiim. there was woe. AND IT CAME TO PASS (WAYYEHl) OF AMRAPHEL.] With Chedorlaomer : king of Elam.e. Abin said: Just as he commenced with four kings. R. neither He hath gathered them as the sheaves to the threshing-floor (Micah iv. so he goes with slops. the kingdom of Media.

masc. that hideth His : face from the house of Jacob. and he will die of himself. Isaiah said: 5 And I will wait for the Lord. and since that hour I have hoped for Him. no sages. Though read hi. and the Philistines on the west (ib. no sages. etc. xxxi. ix. 5 hu. n. literally mouths of their seed (ib. 21). Ahaz] ? Behold. all began lamenting 'woe!'. Therefore I will rather withdraw his fostermother from him. For it And what 1 shall not be forgotten out of the did it avail him [sc. IJunia said in R. R. 341. 7): R. Understood in the sense of to shut out from them 342 . Aha's name: vin. back and came to En-mishpat. and I will look for Him (ib. Aha said: This is written hu (he) 3 : was he [Abraham] that sanctified Holy One. And I will surely hide my face. no prophets. i): (ii) And it came to pass [What]? The Arameans on the east. blessed be He. . is 2 3 4 The reference is to Abraham.XLII. Said he to himself: If I slay him now. in (kiddash) the name the fiery furnace. Leazar's name: Why was he called Ahaz ? Because he seized (ahaz) the synagogues and schools. vn. n). no disciples. 18). He reasoned thus to himself: No children. no adults. i6). its consonantal form V. no adults. I and the En-mishpat means 'the eye of judgment'. no disciples. Aha said: They came only In order to attack the eyeball of the world 1 the eye which executed judgment in the world they desire 2 to blind! The same (hi) is Kadesh: R. up the instruction among My disciples R. etc. thus 'There was woe in it of the the days of Amraphel/ 4 in the days of Ahaz (Isa.. blessed be He. Hence when barbarians came to attack him. This may be compared to the son of a king against whom his tutor plotted in order to kill him. no elders. Jacob said in R. and if there are no likewise : . 17) no hour is as grievous as that whereof it is written. Bind up the testimony. for He said to me. it i. 3] MIDRASH RABBAH . if there is no shepherd there is no world. 'he'. (Deut. will not cause His Shechinah to rest upon them. shut (ib. no elders. are prophets the Holy One. if there are no sheep there is no shepherd. Thus it is written. (ib. my life will be forfeit ' to the king. p.e.' Ahaz said If there are no kids there are no wethers if there no wethers there are no sheep. 4. feminine.

son that uprooted the vines. and the king sent a treasury officer to collect them. it with the penknife. it was waste and void (ib. Every is born ye shall cast into the river (Ex. when Jehudi had read three or four columns. 1 But as soon as he seized the synagogues and schools. When they saw this all began crying woe' thus there : was woe in the days of Jehoiakim. which three enemies attacked: the first plucked the second thinned the clusters. woe to the generation that 2 judged its judges Thus. Thus Pharaoh decreed. : 1 I. and burnt it in fire. xxiv. that : he cut 23). And it came to pass. 6).e. vin. iv. the craftsmen a thousand and the smiths a thousand. i) That there was a famine in the land (ib. tore it up. and the third single grapes. 22) Nebuchadnezzar a thousand (n Kings deported The craftsmen and the smiths Berekiah said in R. This may be compared to a king who sent an ordinance to a province what did its inhabitants do ? They took it. and so he called them his children. and to. (R. 23). to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (Est.).) But Haman !7 !) Wherefore Haman This . The Rabbis said: It means a thousand in all. 343 . I. there was woe in the days when the judges were judged. What did the inhabitants do? They seized him. may off yard. all began lamenting woe thus there was woe in the days of Ahaz. be compared to a king who had a vinem. (iv) And it came to pass in the days when the judges judged (Ruth I. (iii) 3) / beheld the earth. 'Woe to us when the king learns of this what he wished to do to us we have done to him': similarly. Judah's name That means. teaches that they were dear to him. * This so far his attempt to kill Jewish education was a failure. This may be compared to a province that owed arrears to the king. xxxvi. 16). however. Were ! shall be for signs and they then his children? Surely they were his disciples This. (v) And it came : ! sought to destroy all the Jews (ib.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) children [XLIL 3 whom the Lord hath given me for wonders (Isa. and cast it into the fire ' (ib. Then they cried. is the Rabbinical rendering of the present verse. [Similarly we read]. 18). beat him and mulcted him. ' J : It came to pass in the days of Jehoiakim (Jer. I.

connotes either trouble or joy . LI. . 6). R. Nahman came and drew a distinction: wherever wayyehi is stated. if joy. wished to slay. Samuel b. : 1 translated. He hid it away for the righteous. that shineth more and more unto the perfect day (Prov. a second (wayyehi) evening day (Gen. 'and Wayyehi is the impf of the verb to be with the waw conversive. And the Lord was (wayyehi) with Joseph (ib. When they saw this. as it is to pull written. with the shall he conversive. Simeon [b.. blessed be He. I. For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke. he answered. And God said : Let there be light and there was (wayyehi) light (Gen. as it is written. 6. But the path of the righteous is as the light of dawn. there was none like it.. 8) . supra.' 'and it came to pass'. Johanan's to pass) is in the days of Ahasuerus. 'and it 3 8 V. for everything created on the first day is destined to wear out. for whatever was created in the first six days of Creation 3 (Isa.XLII. generally rendered 'and it shall be'. we-hayah is the perf.. 1 8). R. foresaw the wicked. Judah said By the light which was created on the first day man could have seen from one end of the world to the other. To destroy. And there was and there was (wayyehi) morning. a fourth day (ib. xxxix. 13) . Abba] said Wherever wayyehi (and it came name: it employed trouble. iv. mustard must be sweetened. there was none like it. And there was (wayyehi) evening and there was (wayyehi) morning^ one day (Gen. 4) ? That too was not an occasion of joy. It should be noted that ' understands 'joy in the sense of a permanent joy. generally it was. They objected But it is written. 2 (R. e. in. : : as it is written. 3) ? That still does not connote joy. a third day (ib.? These still do not connote joy. but when the Holy One. R. 3] MIDRASH KABBAH up the very roots.. replied he.) They objected: But it is written. it denotes trouble . all began lamenting 'woe': thus there was woe in R. I. 2)? That too was not an occasion of joy. and the earth shall wax old like a garment objected: But it is written. They objected But it is written. since the world was not privileged to make use of that light. if 1 we-hayah denotes joy. They needs further preparation [before it is fit for use].g. waw come to pass/ 344 . etc. 19). I. and to cause to perish all Jews 13). (ib. wheat must 'be ground. he replied.

27) ? That still does not connote joy. xi. ix. 6 This refers to the Messianic era. and his fame was in all the land (Josh. (ib. that the Lord will set His hand again a second time to recover the remnant of His people (ib. Nevertheless. * 3 The chapter treats of the building Over the defeat at Ai (ib vn. vn. 28) ? Even that connotes joy. The This implies that the Tabernacle was . Said they to him: We have quoted our objections do you quote your proofs. 3 But it is written. that a a young cow. that a great horn shall be blown. because on that very day it is [Potiphar's wife] written. i) ? That still does not connote joy. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. xxxvin. vn. since he eventually had to rend his garments. etc. when the king dwelt in his house. as for sins. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in 13) . 345 .. The punishment of Temple was destroyed. that the mountains shall drop 1 8). So the Lord was (wayyehi) with Joshua. And he They objected: (Joel iv. vi. of the Temple. And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. etc. in existence (though probably not in its erected form) until the Temple was built. And it came to pass (wayyehi) on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle (Num. he answered. n). And it came to pass etc. 2i) 5 . Nadab and Abihu died. Thereupon he cited And it shall come to pass (we-hayah) 4 : (wayyehi). come to pass (we-hayah) in that day. But it is written. 1 2 verse treats of the final consecration of Aaron to the priesthood. (n Sam. 6) . 8). (Jer. And him. he replied. 2 But it is written. down sweet wine But it is written. 19). xiv. Samuel b. he replied. thou i)? shalt not build the house (i Kings vin. vn. Nathan came and informed him. (Isa. : in that day. that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. on that very day Israel received full quittance for their as R. because it [the tabernacle] was hidden away at the building of the Temple. xxvn.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) because that [XLIL assailed 3 she-bear Another objection: But it came to pass 1 (wayyehi) on the eighth day (Lev. Nahman said: Israel received that the quittance in full measure for their sins on the day it is written. i)? That does still not connote joy. And it shall man shall rear that day. (Jeremiah) was there (we-hayah) when Jerusalem was taken was his reply.

[lit. because these Powers fought against each Abraham. He was called by IN THE DAYS OF 2 imrah). 4. O daughter of Zion. because he incited the world to revolt (himrid)\ Amraphel denotes: he made a declaration (amar three . ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR. 6 R. as he was descended from Cush (Gen. is certain.' [Another interpretation is] that he made sport of (amar we-afle] the world. Goiim also means nations. The proof is that in the days of Abraham. look for the coming [lit. Thus Amraphel is read as an abbreviation. Th. Abina said: When you the nations of the world. is grow in the territory] of Ellasar.e. Cush. feet '] of the King Messiah. is MIDRASH RABBAH complete. Another interpretation: AND IT CAME TO PASS IN THE DAYS OF AMRAPHEL KING OF SHINAR: this alludes to Babylon. This is hardly intelligible and is probably a gloss. x.XLII. 3 . OF ELAM. 6 : 346 . AND this 'nations']: Rome] which levies troops from all R. because he was indeed a Clishlte1 Nimrod. 1 other. R. text reads: The language. Probably in Galilee. that is Media. also that to he made sport of Abraham again. in the Roman Latin). (Lam. its 5 The translation 4 is conjectural. AND IT CAME TO PASS AMRAPHEL. R. Nimrod. that alludes to Greece. peoples hence he interprets that he was king because the people had so appointed him. 'I will cast down (appilah). that he ordered Abraham be thrown (amar we-hippil) into the furnace. greatness came to 2 That was his real name. which is called there in Rome (or. Levi said Johanan said: And his name was Tidal. Eleazar b. ARIOCH KING OF ELLASAR: alludes to the wicked CHEDORLAOMER KING OF ELAM: TIDAL THE KING OF GOIIM Power [i. R. in Babylon]. 5 and [its inhabitants] took a certain man and made him king over them. Jose of Milhaya 4 said: Why are they [hazel-nuts] called elsarin? Because [they CHEDORLAOMER KING KING OF GOIIM. AND TIDAL : There is a place which so called there [sc. etc. 3-4] thine iniquity iv. Others translate 3 differently.e. 8). names: Gush. Neither the text nor meaning i. see the Powers fighting each ' other. and Amraphel. 22).

erected a large dais for him [Abraham] and set him on top. TWELVE YEARS. . as it is written. Aibu said There was : no sea there. 2 Siddim signifies that oak trees (saddanim) grew there. again. 8. LX. R. in thought and act. he made himself wings. pomegranate. Jose said: Twelve years Reading the name sam eber. that it was divided up into fields (sadini) . fig. alike here. 6. and the vale of Succoth. [XLIL 5-6 (xiv. Helbo in the name of there R. Simeon 1 etc. while uttering praises Hear us. the vale of Shaven. my lord : thou art a prince of before him. that its inhabitants were swallowed up Meir used : . 8 Identifying shaveh with shaweh. R. v. 5 apple. and peach-trees. This was called by three names: The vale of Siddim. . 10). Gamaliel disagreed. Nahman said: It was so called because all the peoples of the world became unanimous (hushewu)? felled cedars. 2 347 . 4). 2). 5 The valley was probably pictured as terraced by rows upon rows of 6 At the time of this engagement. and Ps. BEL A. Samuel b. 7 When Sodom was overthrown. that it suckled : vale of Shaveh its children like breasts (shadayim). R. He cutteth out channels among the rocks (Job xxvm. 17. (Gen. in the choice '. etc. to interpret l etc. Tanhuma said: said to God among him: 'Thou ' : * These were the vine. V. and finally. They art king over us. (xiv. fruit trees. names B E R A signifies that he was an evil son (ben ra ) B I R s H A that he was a wicked son that he amassed wealth (sho'eb (ben rasha')\ S H I N A B mammon) SHEMEBER. thou art a god to us/ 4 But he replied The world does not lack its king and the world does not lack its God/ Succoth/ implies that it was overshadowed (me-sukak) with trees. xxni. saying ' : us. almond. (niih-baWu). R. THE SAME 6 is THE SALT SEA. * Reading 'prince* and 'God* as independent substantives.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) 5. nut. but the rocky banks of the river [Jordan ?] were broken through7 and a sea [lake] was formed. 6). Jose and R. R. that he flew 1 and procured riches. the three are identified here. THEY MADE WAR WITH BERA. ALL THESE CAME AS ALLIES UNTO THE VALE OF SIDDIM (xiv. Berekiah and R. The R. . equal. b. 3).

which is also similar to that of cur. Simeon said: It means thirteen in all. 5 (xiv. ed. WHICH i. Aha said : They came only . by the 7 plain of Paran. v.e. CAME CHEDORweight of 2 AND THE KINGS THAT WERE WITH HIM. he had to be in the forefront now. AND IN in Ashtarta lying between the horns. And why was it called Eleutheropolis? Because its inhabitants chose it and made themselves independent [free] in the generation of Separation. I. 4 This connects ZUZIM with saw. thus amounting to twenty-five.: the terebinths of Mamre'). 2a. 7). and hori. The owner of the beam has AND it. free. freedom. How It then do I explain. his allies playing a subordinate part. 18 et passim. Jose's view.V. 6-7] MIDRASH KABBAH [service] and thirteen years [rebellion]. AND THE FOURTEENTH to bear the YEAR? 1 means their rebellion. Since they had served Chedorlaorner. ' * Kiryathaim is the dual form of kiryah. 3 Karnayim literally means two horns. which the Targum * translates: the plain (of Mamre. This is a proverb. a city. 6 Hori is derived from heruth. among them/ 5 Text as emended by Th. Suk. 6): Eleutheropolis [Free6 town]. 7. Aha it was he [Abraham] that On R.e. is BY THE WILDERNESS. 3 THE ZUZIM IN HAM: that means the most cities illustrious of them (ziwtane ba-hem}. which is found in several MSS. IN THE FOURTEENTH YEAR LAOMER. (* they were two reading Ninevehs'). and with bahem. R. between two mountains. 2 ' * ' HAM ' 348 .* AND THE EMIM SHAVEH KIRYATHAIM: They were twin both called Shaveh. On the present in Th's.. R. 7 Connecting El with elone in xni. or to a town Navah in Bashan in the vicinity of Ashteroth kamayim. edd. E.. it is suggested there may be an actual reference to Nineveh. in order to attack the eyeball of the world the eye which executed judgment in the world they desire to blind! THE SAME said: This 1 is written hu (he): (HI) is KADESH: R. AND THE HORITES UNTO EL-PARAN. lustre or brightness '. AND THEY TURNED BACK. AND SMOTE THE REPHAIM IN ASHTEROTH KARNAIM: i.XLII.e. AND CAME TO ENMlSHPAT THE SAME IS KADESH (XIV.

AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN. SODOM 8 f. io): full of pits producing asphalt (hamor). But when the King of Sodom descended in Abraham into the slime and was rescued. PITS THE VALE OF SlDDIM WAS FULL OF SLIME HEM OR (xiv. XX. Jonathan in R. yet you say. . 3 * ad init. AND THE KINGS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH FLED. R. AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALEKITES ! But. 'Azariah and name gave the following further explanation: When Abraham descended into the fiery furnace and was rescued. in the fiery furnace.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) sanctified (kiddasli) the name of the He. Tamar The And the king of Sodom went 349 . XLVI. * 3 It is called THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALIKITES in anticipation. . while AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN refers to the kings. Nehemiah. THAT DWELT this 3 IN HAZAZON TAMAR: palm-trees. Nehemiah said: AND THEY FELL THERE refers to the kings. R.. AND THEY FELL THERE. AND ALSO THE AMORITES. while of the nations believed some [that others disbelieved. Four NOW waged war with five and defeated them. then all believed retrospectively. Judah said: AND THEY FELL THERE refers to the troops. while AND THEY THAT REMAINED FLED TO THE MOUNTAIN refers to the troops. But on the vie\v R. . io).). . Amalek had not yet arisen. means. 2 He declareth the end from the beginning (Isa. AND THEY TOOK ALL THE GOODS OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH. Judah there is no difficulty. supra. v.. . V. is a palm-tree. hence it states out to meet him. 4 2. AND ALL THEIR VICTUALS (OKLAM). n Chron. R. 17: kings escaped . in En-gedi of the AND THERE WENT OUT THE KlNG FOUR KINGS AGAINST THE FIVE kings OF (XIV. in v. 1 [XLIL 7 Holy One. Now on 4 the view of R. it had happened]. blessed be AND THEY SMOTE ALL THE COUNTRY OF THE AMALE KITES. Isaac's of R.

Lakish name of Bar Kappara That was Og 2 and why was he called Og? Because he came and found Abraham said in the : . AND TOLD ABRAM THE HEBREW language of the dwellers across the 1 river. while I will take Sarah/ 'By thy life!' said the Holy One. And the Lord said unto Moses Fear him not . R. (Num. King of Bashan. 4 But because thou didst intend to slay that righteous man. for a different version. V. and engaged in the precept of [unleavened] cakes s He did not act from a pious motive.MIDRASH KABBAH XLIL 7-8] AND WENT THEIR WAY (xiv. I. Nehemiah said: [It denotes] that he was descended from Eber. And why did he come to this? Because HE DWELT IN SODOM (i&. It was Passover-time. blessed be He. 2 These are easy to carry yet highly esteemed. etc. 3 5 The Abraham. 5 (HA-'IBRI). and the Rabbis held that Abraham fulfilled all the precepts of the Torah even before they were promulgated. but the companion of fools shall smart for it (Prov. that he spoke in the . AND TOLDABRAM. xxi. 3. Judah said [HA-'IBRI signifies that] the whole world was on one side ('eber) while he was on the other side ('eber)* R. to him. 7 V. 13). (xiv. since he was alive in the time of Moses. . etc. R. Judah said: Was it not a big thing to take ALL THEIR VICTUALS? Said R. did this to Lot they put him in a boat and took him with them. viz. R. Nehemiah : What is meant is . 20). 25. thus fulfilling the verse. thou wilt see myriads of his descendants and wilt ultimately fall into the hands of his sons/ as it is written. Simeon b. 1 dry dates. is vindictive: I will apprise captured then will he go out to battle and be slain. AND THERE CAME ONE THAT HAD ESCAPED. sitting ('ugoth). R. . xin. 'thou wilt receive reward for thy journey [footsteps] by living a long time in the world. in the days * He alone of all mankind believed in the true God. 4 Obviously. xxiv. 34). but he said to himself: 'This man Abraham . 8.). n). Deut. past tense have delivered implies before. for I have that him Lot is : delivered him : into thy hand y etc. Josh. of 350 . He that walketh with wise men shall be wise. AND THEY TOOK LOT They : AND HIS GOODS. The Rabbis said: It means that he came from across the river7 further.

Judah b. Judah' s view a place called Mamre is meant. By circumcision. On R. to circumcise himself: by thy life! I will reveal Myself to him only in thy palace/ Hence it is written. blessed be He. blessed be He. Simon. etc. in the palace of Mamre 1 2 (Gen. 'Azariah said in the name of R. 'BY THE TEREBINTHS OF') MAM RE.V. Judah said: That means. to him: 'Thou gavest him good advice. 'he showed a * stern countenance*. R. Judah 1 Because he rebuked (himrah} 2 Abraham. xvin. 3 Aner said to him: 'You are already : a hundred years old. 34. R. it refers to a person called Mamre. on R. in the plain of of Mamra. Lit. Probably R. 8 NOW HE DWELT BE-ELONE (E. and in your war with the kings? Will you not obey Him then in this matter! Mamre 7 Said the Holy One. And why was he called Mamre? R. When the Holy One. Nehemiah' s view. R. And the Lord appeared unto him i). Nehemiah said: In the palace Mamre. 351 .GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLII. in famine. v. yet you would inflict this pain upon and yourself?' Eshcol said to him: 'Why should you go make yourself distinguishable to your enemies?' 4 But said to him: 'When did He not stand by you in the fiery furnace. 3 V. commanded Abraham to circumcise himself he went and took counsel with his three friends.

8). Zabda He made them with weapons. etc. Nehemiah^s himself pale by defying them. HE LED FORTH (WAYYAREK) R. cit. loc. It is written. Five 2 kings could not defeat them. saying. With the shimmer of (yerakrak) gold (ib. 4 Lit. also. as you read. His heart is established. he shall not be afraid (Ps. xv. i). say unto my soul: I am thy salvation (Ps. as you read. while in R. and the battle axe. yet we are to defeat them R. 3). 14). Nehemiah interpret wayyarek. etc. Andfoundest his heart faithful before Thee (Neh. xv. for in so doing he sanctifies the Divine Name. I5). (Gen. He shall not be afraid of evil things. Simeon b. i. 8) . LXVIII. 3 R. Judah holds that he made his I. 'draw out') also the spear. a wrathful ' ' who turned countenance (horiku panim) upon Abraham. servants' faces pale. Fear not Abram (Gen. Thus it is written. R.e. He 1 stoppeth his ears from hearing etc. : blessed be He. he made pale (in anger).V. Both R. Burnish (harek E. (Isa. Abba b. also.XLIII. Lakish said: He made them glitter with precious stones and pearls. AND ABRAM HEARD. 'stand against them'. Until he gaze upon his adversaries (Ps. R. opinion he made : 352 . ix. 1-2] CHAPTER XLIII (LECH LECHA) HIS i. AND ABRAM HEARD THAT BROTHER WAS TAKEN CAPTIVE (xiv. etc. 2.e. R.). 4 14). Judah and R. of blood. *he emptied them' (herifyari). z 1 Lit. trusting in the Lord (Ps. they opposed him. 15). I will ! ' go forth and glitter fall ' in sanctifying the name said of the Holy One. Judah said: It was they HIS TRAINED MEN. Nehemiah interpreted it: He turned a defiant countenance (horik panim) to them and exclaimed. CXH. Levi said: He thinned their numbers by reading (horikan) Abraham would not hear of violence without seeking to remedy it. also. CXH. And he divided himself against them by night. Consequently. also. xxxv. 3 This is one of the cardinal teachings of Judaism it is man's duty to act nobly and uprightly even at the cost of his life. xxxni. his heart is steadfast . against them that pursue me. 7) .

empty . as it says. 'AND HE DIVIDED HIMSELF AGAINST THEM BY NIGHT*. "his trained men'} with hanikah. Abraham was weakened now when he came to that place and so could pursue them no further. as it is written. said: 'Abraham has laboured with Me 7 at midnight. the numerical value of Eliezer being three hundred and eighteen.e. But since a man cannot ascertain the exact moment of midnight (cf. xx. those bearing his name. Benjamin maintains that the night divided itself. 6 Both explain the verse. i. The Rabbis say Its Creator divided it.V.e. ro'un). Simeon b. 4 3. while the Rabbis hold that God 7 Abraham's rescue of the captives. 2 This connects hanikaw (E. Idolatry smites both before it comes and after it has departed. as you read. 2 R. s. Sanh. showing Abraham the exact moment. and as they were converted by Abraham they took his * BORN (30) name. is). he inspired them with courage by pointing out that the fainthearted need not go. 353 Aa . is regarded as working with and assisting God. xviii. Similarly. What man is there 1 that is fearful (yare) and faint-hearted -rak (Deut. Ex.V.v. hence rendered: the men bearing his name.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIIL 2-3 the section of the heralds. n. 6 The Holy One. R. i. 19). g6a. as it is written. he emptied them '. Jepheth said in R. therefore I too will act for his sons at midnight/ And when did that happen ? In Egypt. i). Lakish said: It name being Abram. The snorting of his horses is heard from Dan (Jer. AND THE NIGHT WAS DIVIDED AGAINST T H E M to mean that exactly at midnight they suffered defeat and pursuit. 5 E.J. is that the evil effects of idolatry are felt both before and actually practised. their THREE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN. a surname (v. It smites retrospectively. con'E. Cf. Benjamin : b. IN HIS HOUSE figuratively. Cur edd. 4 3 K (i) + > + ' (10) -f j? (70) + f (?) + 1 (200) 318.: he understands verted by him. i6). vni. and was left with Eliezer only. R. even after it was destroyed Jeremiah speaks of terror raging in Dan. Johanan's name: The night was divided of own accord. being a divided it for Abraham. noble action. i. R. Cf. And it came to pass 1 He derives zvayyarefy from refc. like his own. AND THE NIGHT WAS 5 DIVIDED AGAINST THEM its (xiv. Because Jeroboam was destined to set up The meaning it is after a golden calf at Dan (i Kings XH. 8)? BORN IN HIS HOUSE. was Eliezer alone. Jast. It smites in anticipation.: he made them bright (encouraged them). AND PURSUED AS FAR AS DAN. blessed be He. 3 AND PURSUED AS FAR AS DAN. This means.

this in a different form. raise up. : : : : : ' : : sense of killed How then smite and then pursue them ? 3 E. Thus he passed over a whole mile without treading. it is written. The way with his feet he treadeth not (ib. R. AND PURSUED THEM. The said: will Some state Holy One. R. and maketh him rule over kings . By a play on words Tpn. his (righteousness') feet 6 Shalom (E. for 1 it says.XLIII. is connected with TWJ. It is written. and arrows. Nehemiah differed. Judah b. his sword maketh them ds the dust. (ib. 29). xi. 6 R. being read as an abbreviation of shalosh 7 M. xii. LXIX. can be called way. none will perform me. Again. He giveth nations before him. 5. AND SMOTE THEM. 3). 3 worlds. which became stubble. 4). three miles ('E. therefore I too go forth with his sons at midnight. Levi and R. R. to awaken.V.). vin. Who hath raised up (he'ir) one from the east. to illumine. Jose's safely name said: Abraham's steps were three miles long.e.J. and it turned to arrows. stubble. 3] MIDRASH KABBAH Tanhuma said: at midnight (Ex. Reuben said Righteousness 4 cried out and said 5 'If Abraham will not perform me.' It is written.}. Eleazar in R. etc. Does then a man pursue the slain? 1 Said R. 4 The Attribute of Righteousness personified. Berekiah said: The planet Zedek [Jupiter] illumined his path. and passeth on shalom (ib. R. R.). z) 2 the Righteous One] the Life of all [this alludes to Zedek who illumined (me'ir) his path wherever he went. as it says. One maintained This means that Abraham threw dust at them [the four kings] which turned to swords. Zedek (Righteousness) calling him to His feet (Isa.K. cf. 1 : AND HE SMOTE being understood in the first could he 2 Rendering: Righteousness (personified) summoned him (Abraham) to i. his bow as the driven stubble (ib. R. blessed be He.V. Judah and R.' as it says. Thus saith the Lord: About midnight will I go out. Phinehas: Those who were pursued by Abraham were [already looked upon whom thou hast as] slain. He pursueth them. 27). But the other argued It is not written. 'Abraham went forth at midnight. For they pursue htm smitten (Ps. 'safely') 5 354 . 'He maketh dust/ but 'He maketh them as the dust they threw swords at Abraham which turned to dust. XLI. to do it. Simeon said They were one mile long. : a mile is the shortest distance which milin. supra. 'At whose step victory attendeth* .

3 Thereupon they arose and became proselytes and cut off the reproach of their fathers. 'he brought I. 'Tyre 1 3 ]. daughter of Zor [E. Helbo in the name of R. It is written. 3-6 R.e.T. 7 saying to him: 'Just as you descended into the fiery furnace and were saved. XLII. Kahana said: He began putting on airs. 17). Samuel b. R. AND MELCHIZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE (xiv. of Sodom were wicked and 5. R. 8 V. but retained the children. so did I descend into the slime and was saved/ I H M SODOM WENT OUT TO MEET AT THE VALE OF SHAVEH THE SAME IS THE KING'S VALE. sinners (Gen. and said to Abraham: 'Be thou king over us/ But he replied: 'The world does not lack its king and its God/ 8 6. says. Y. evil I. 2 4.: he renders wayyasheb ('he brought back ') in the sense of restored to their place: Abraham restored the adults to their original place. * 355 .e.: they 5 underwent circumcision. 6 i3). under the wings of the Shechinah. "he began wagging his tail against him'. Abba b. in order to curry favour. vii. Who are The worst of the nations'! Said R. to teach them righteousness. 6 And it was the children of these that God brought back to Himself.V. xm. as it Now the men ' l6). Aliter : he began to fawn on him *. 7 Lit. And. supra. 24).K. AND HE BROUGHT BACK ALL THE GOODS AND THE WOMEN ALSO. .GENESIS (LECH LECHA) fXLIII. explains differently. 1 8). . Judan said: They brought back the men and the women. Cur. . 3 *E J. Nehunia said In R. Wherefore I will bring the worst of the nations 5 (Ezek. 5. as 2 back* 4 is preferable. Nahman said: It was so called because there all peoples of the world became unanimous. Judah: The people of Sodom. they freed themselves from their fathers' ways. the richest of the people This is Th/s conjectured emendation. Bibi's 1 name: Their feet became no more dust-stained than those of one who goes from his home to the synagogue. edd. 'They brought back* is thus meant generically Abraham's company. Berekiah and R. AND THE KING OF (xiv. Sc. though they had not trodden the way with their feet. AND THE PEOPLE (XIV. but not the children. R. as a sign of familiarity. 4 Thus it is written. M.

5). which means righteousness. Zedek (righteousness) lodged 21). as I. supra. Gen.T. and they shall afflict them. ' shall entreat thy favour with of Zor' alludes to Abraham. R. Abba b. 12 In Ned. said : R. is written. it THE KING OF ZEDEK. 13) respectively.XLIII. i. hence 'bread' and 'trine' there refer to the Torah. 10 The speaker is Wisdom personified (v. 5 This is the comment on the word Zedefe'. 9 The Rabbis said: He revealed Torah to him. e So translated ' '. This presumably refers to Abraham's pursuit of the four kings and his persecution by Nimrod (v. ' R. as it is written. xvir. and drink of the wine BREAD WINE which I have mingled (Prov. AND MELCHI ZEDEKS This place 4 made its in: habitants 7 5 righteous. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH a gift (Ps. as in the original. xxxvirr. R. of Zedek (Josh. i-io. 21). Nahman hood. instead of converting them to the true faith. for : immediately after this it was revealed to him. xv. Give me the persons (v. 356 . 11 Every mention of wine-drinking is followed by some record of trouble. u except in the present instance. Jerusalem (Salem in the English). ' 7 now. 13). Adom-zedek' 8 Translating Shalem whole. AND MELCHI- ZEDEK KING OF SALEM BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE. to vex. And they shall serve them. He instructed him in the laws of the priest- alluding to the shewbread. Y. eat of my bread. 6 The Lord i). distress. Isaac the Baby- lonian said : This implies that he was born circumcised. who favour with a gift^ as is written. i3).e. s Both were in charge of the priests. (Gen. 3 Read as two words. cf. 12 1 2 Deriving zor from sarar. Kahana said Wherever wine is mentioned in the Torah it leaves its mark. in her (Isa. Samuel b. 326 this is stated to have been Abraham's punishment for complying with the request of the king of Sodom. complete. etc. Levi perhaps holds that this complaisance was due to the convivial and friendly mood induced by the drinking of wine. R. Jerusalem called Zedek (righteousness).V. KING OF SALEM (SHALEM). 8 BROUGHT FORTH BREAD AND WINE. the 'whole' king. Come. is [Another interpretation] : AND x. XLV. 4 Sc. 'kings' in the second case being employed genetically. Levi said Here too we have not escaped unscathed. 10 AND HE WAS : PRIEST OF THE ' GOD MOST HIGH. 1-3). E. IX. and to libations. 'Daughter and who was distressed by it distressed (hezar) 1 kings 2 They shall entreat thy kings.

] as one says. The purpose of the Creation was the making of man who should ever strive to come nearer to God. AND BLESSED BE GOD THE MOST HIGH. R. 5 e The kings. And 1 the Lord blessed Abraham in all things (tb. schemes.3 8. among My AND OF THE GOD MOST HIGH. 2 R. thy plans. HE GAVE HIM A TENTH OF ALL.V. said to him: 'My Name was not known and thou hast made it known among them: I will regard thee as though thou wast associated with Me in the creation of the world/ Hence it is written. in possession of. AND HE BLESSED HIM. 'Maker of. R. By diffusing the knowledge of God amongst men.' 'What shall we say?* they asked. Isaac said: Abraham used to entertain wayfarers. Nehorai's name: In virtue of that blessing the : AND three great pillars of the world. with which irdggen by a play on words is connected . Le. blessed be He. 3 2 I. So-and-so has beautiful eyes and hair. Abraham thus became a partner in ' * God's work. WHO HATH DELIVERED (MIGGEN) THINE ENEMIES INTO THY HAND (xiv. AND SAID: BLESSED BE ABRAM OF THE GOD MOST HIGH. ' 357 . Judah said in R. R. Isaac. supra. Magnun. E. 7. 7-8 7. koneh here means. WHO [sc. 'Say a blessing. 8). R.e. xxiv. is written. These were highly esteemed . WHO HAS (XIV. ABRAHAM] HAS ACQUIRED HEAVEN AND EARTH. i). Huna interpreted it: Who hath turned thy weapons 4 against thine enemies. yet I incited them to rebel against each other. XLII. but it refers to Abraham. so that they might fall into thy hands. Abba: attributive. 19). and after they had eaten he would say to them. HE BLESSED HIM. 'Blessed be the God of the Universe of Whose bounty we have eaten/ replied he. -who acquired a partnership in the world. enjoyed prosperity. Abraham. AND SAID: BLESSED BE ABRAM creatures.ACQUIRED (KONEH) 1 HEAVEN AND EARTH From whom then did He acquire them? Said [ACQUIRED is GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIII. In the case of Abraham it and Jacob. fconeh does mean acquired. Judan interpreted By how many contrivances did I bring them5 under thy hands! They were close friends and used to 6 interchange gifts of dry dates and other presents. it may also mean. cf. Then the Holy One.

R. 358 . terumah thereof. R. AND HE GAVE HIM A TENTH OF ALL. . 5). 8-9] as MIDRASH RABBAH for. as you read. 33). therefore the Holy One. Num. 3 The leaders are Moses and Aaron. Then ye shall set apart (waharemothem) of it a gift (terumah) to the Lord (Num. When So magnify thy sons like the stars ? R.' The Rabbis taught: From Jacob. as a reward for. Look now toward heaven. One mainI reveal Myself to them with a message 'So'. xv. Nehemiah interpreted it: He had taken an oath in respect of it. Eleazar Hanina gave different replies.] So (koh) shall thy seed be (Gen. to which corresponds. 22) 3 . XVIH. as a reward for. 4 as you read. . blessed be He. edd. So (koh) IV. Of Jacob it is written. written. xxn. This introduces the chapter of Revelation. AND HE GAVE HIM A a reward AND HE GAVE HIM And I ALL. 23). vi. Because God hath dealt graciously with me. 11). Jose ' b. Cur. My firstborn (ib. xxxni. for it says. Judah said: He had separated . 'So shall ye bless the children of Israel' When tained: will I and R. So shall thy seed be preceded by. and because I have all (ib. 3). Judah said: Israel privileged to receive the Priestly From Abraham. [for in his shalt thou say to the house of Jacob (Ex. viz.XLIII. R. saitk the Lord: Israel My son. 21 f.: leader sc. So (koh) shall ye bless the children of Israel (Num. AND THE KING OF SODOM SAID UNTO ABRAM AND ABRAM SAID TO THE KING OF SODOM: I HAVE LIFTED UP (HARIMOTHl) MY HAND UNTO THE LORD (xiv. 26). 5). 23-27. Moses 2 4 1 is Of the spoil. 9. R. other maintained: is shalt thou say to the house of Jacob. Nehemiah said: From Isaac. promised: 'So (koh) shall ye bless the children of Israel. And he lifted up his right V. So (koh) R. it A TENTH OF have eaten of all (ib. Whence were 1 Blessing? case it is written. Of Isaac is TENTH OF ALL. xix. while there it is written. vi. and count the stars.). for it is written. xxvn. with a message 'So viz.' 2 The I reveal Myself to their leaders When '. And I and the lad will go yonder 'ad koh (Gen.

I WILL NOT TAKE A THREAD. 359 . 38). ESCHOL. The Rabbis said: He had uttered song [to God] on its account. i . AND MAMRE TAKE THEIR PORTIONS (xiv. R. NOR A SHOE-LATCHET alludes to the badger skins. assured him: 'Because thou saidest. My father's God. 24). Mammel said: The Holy One. 9 hand unto heaven. xxv. different sacrifices was sprinkled. And that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue (Num. and swore (Dan. Shoes being made from animal hides. This too probably means 4 Israelites obtained these in the 3 Mid.. a thread of blue wool. R. etc. 2). xii. in connection with which NOR you read. viz. 4 NOR A SHOE-LATCHET: this alludes to the feet of the : NOT : [festival] pilgrims. xv. viz. xv. vn. which was adorned with blue wool and purple wool. 5 Note the punctuation. as we learned3 A thread of scarlet girdled it [the altar] about the middle. and I will exalt Him aromernenhu (Ex. Bleazar's in name Moses : which my I said: With the very same language ancestor uttered song. as you read. by thy life! I will give thy children the precept of fringes/ as you read. according to their nature. Then 9). Zeb. WILL NOT TAKE A THREAD NOR A SHOEAbba b. and I will exalt Him THAT LATCHET (xiv. but kept guard in his absence. aromernenhu' V "My father's God. 53^. in. which is rendered. as it says. harimothi. shall she loose his shoe from off his foot' (Deut. 2).S. which differs from E. had not accompanied Abraham. Above or below which the blood of the they were to receive their portion. According to this Aner. 7). 1 A SHOE-LATCHET: 'I swear to thee that I will give thy children the precept of yebamah. 23). How beautiful are thy steps in sandals (S.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) hand and his left [XLIII. yet that the merit of Abraham's self-denial. blessed be He. SAVE ONLY THAT WHICH THE YOUNG MEN HAVE EATEN AND THE PORTION OF THE YOUNG MEN WHICH WENT WITH ME. Berekiah said in R.V. 5 Thus 1 2 The Aramaic translation of the Hebrew is given here. [also] LET ANER. Another interpretation A THREAD: this is an allusion to the Tabernacle. 2 Another interpretation: NOT A THREAD alludes to sacrifices. will I ' utter song.

'forward'. who said. 360 . my brethren . of those that went with David. Then said David : Ye shall not do so. so shall be the share of him that tarrieth by the baggage . that Sam. . [From that day] and onward/ but [From that day] and above' 1 from whom did he learn? From his ancestor Abraham. it is 9] MIDRASH KABBAH written. ESCHOL.V. 22-25). AND 1 MAMRE TAKE THEIR PORTION. and formerly. Then answered all the wicked men and base fellows. . Judah said: (i It is not written. they shall For as is all share alike. . SAVE ONLY THAT WHICH THE YOUNG MEN HAVE EATEN LET ANER. Which means. and said: Because they went not with w. xxx. [also] so it And ' made it a statute ' :. . the share of him that goeth down to battle. he was from that day and above. . .XLIII. we will not give them aught of the spoil . E. R. .

and departeth from evil (Frov. 3 for it is written. Another interpretation His way is perfect alludes to Abraham. AFTER THESE THINGS THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ABRAM IN A VISION.V. I AM THY SHIELD.[XLIV. It is written. His way Sam. intimates that the Holy One. man A 1 wise xiv. 4 The verse is apparently rendered as a rhetorical question : a wise man. name : ' R. Earneth ' deceitful wages'. 31) if is perfect. 7): Be not wise by what thou seest with thine own eyes5 ' : . art wise and departest from evil. FEAR NOT. fear the Lord (ib. ix. etc. Abraham's] way faithful before The word of the Lord is tried Thee. 8). canst thou say that I will cause thee to beget or that I will not cause thee to beget ? Fear the Lord' 6 thus it is written. in. etc. 6 But none else. And this is the meaning of The word of the Lord is tried. Be not wise in thine own eyes . 1560) Abraham saw in his horoscope that he was not destined to beget children. 6): though thou fearest! 4 feareth. xi. Abin commenced his discourse in R. JIanina's The wicked doeth work of falsehood? . the is word of the Lord tried (u His way said: perfect. etc. yet thou [Therefore I say to thee] FEAR NOT. I AM THY SHIELD. He is a shield unto all them that take refuge ' 1 And in Him 2. ABRAM. is As for God. FEAR NOT. 1-2 CHAPTER XLIV (LECH LECHA) i. doeth work of falsehood* alludes to Nimrod. (11 Sam. i). blessed be He. but he that The righteousness hath a sure reward (ib. ABRAM. 18). etc. hence. 1 how much the more He Himself! Rab The precepts were given only in order that man might be refined by them. does he fear ? 5 According to the Rabbis (Shab. blessed be He. care whether a man kills an animal by the throat or by the nape of its neck ? Hence its ' 2 purpose is to refine [try] man.) . xxn. (xv. 3 The verse will then be translated: O God! his (Abraham's) way. 361 . (Neh. of the same root as zerufah (' tried ') in the verse just quoted. who departeth from evil. whose 1 soweth wicked works Le-zaref. cit. For what does the Holy One. and this was the cause 2 of his fear. ' : thou foundest his [sc. loc. tried him in a fiery furnace. ABRAM. 7 E.

e.e. that I may feel thee (Gen. etc. thee from nobles 1 (ib. right hand. Jacob whom I have 3. thou whom I have taken hold of from the ends of the earth (Isa. and did not cast thee away when thou wast Abraham. those are hostile to thee . That they may keep the way of the Lord. yea. I AM THY SHIELD. whereupon the Holy One.V. Israel. chosen. R.) I chose thee when thou wast Abram. FEAR NOT. and these supported him by the elbows. 2 Fear not. perspirapoured over his legs. Behold. 4. be not dismayed. 21). the Rabbis in one. to do righteousness and justice (Gen. Levi said: Abraham was filled with misgiving. For I am thy God' . ABRAM. THY REWARD SHALL BE EXCEEDINGLY GREAT. for I am thy God (ib. country towns And called thee from out of its distinguished men. For I as nothing. R. they shall all be ashamed and confounded I pray tion 1 ' who that were incensed against thee (ib. Hence He said to him. The uttermost parts thereof. ABRAM. ' 2 I. the seed of Abraham friend. one at his right and one at his left.XLIV. be not wax-like (teshawa'). to 2-4] MIDRASH KABBAH r were of falsehood.e. 10). I uphold thee with My victorious right hand. Come near. XLI. 12) this refers to those who wage quarrels with thee. blessed be He. 19). those who with thee . thee. that he might not fall. 362 . FEAR NOT. in old age (Mah. Levi explained this in two ways. and in strife the Lord thy God hold thy not (ib. 8 f. They that strove with thee shall be shall perish (ib. 1 E. But thou. even them that contended with thee (ib. and Th. I help thee . is who say unto thee : Fear 13).) My My i. R. and his heart melted like wax.) that means.) : I summoned : for I am with thee. of whom it is righteousness' alludes written. / have chosen thee and not cast thee away (ib. 'Hath a sure reward'.) this means. 'Be not dismayed (tishta') i. as it is written. servant. as it written. from Mesopotamia and its its . 10 f. I strengthen thee. Thou shalt seek them. xvin. Hoshaya said: When Isaac said to Jacob. and shalt engage not find them. But he that soweth Abraham.). provided him with two angels. yea. xxvii.

Huna both said in the name of R. you have gathered them.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. THY REWARD SHALL BE EXCEEDING GREAT'. reassured . *I descended into the fiery furnace and was delivered I went through famine and war and was delivered: perhaps then I have already received my reward in this world and have nought for the future world ? Therefore the Holy One. etc. 5. : ' ABRAM. even as you read. descended [from his wagon] and took them. 363 . Judan: Wherever ahare occurs it denotes 'in immediate conwhereas ahar denotes that there is no nection with'. ) all that I have done for thee in this world I did for nought. said to were thorns already cut down 51 thus . R. xxxi. ' The Rabbis him : TEAR . all I AM THY SHIELD: spears and just as a shield receives withstands them. Maybe there was a righteous or Godfearing man among those troops which 1 slew. saying. AFTER (AHAR) THESE THINGS. a gift of grace (maggari) to thee. ABRAM. which Thou hast laid up for them that fear Thee. I AM THY SHIELD EN ( M A G meaning. now that and receive your reward/ He. Judan and R. Why do you hide?' he said to him. Perhaps the sons of the kings that I slew will collect and come and wage war against me/ Therefore the troops Holy One. 1 I. (Ps. Oh how abundant is Thy goodness. doomed to death. blessed be Abraham: 'Those troops that thou slewest it is written. said to him 'FEAR NOT. but in the future that is to come. reassuringly. so will I stand by thee/ : explained it thus Abraham was filled with misgivings. 20). 4-5 thinking to himself. and seeing some bundles of thorns. NOT. xxxin. blessed be He.e. And the peoples shall be as the burnings of lime . 'I needed labourers ' to gather them. Jose b. whereupon he tried to hide himself. This may be compared to a straw-merchant who was passing the king's orchards. as thorns cut down. saying to himself. Levi made another comment: Abraham was fearful. 12). blessed be He. R. [The king] caught sight of him. come Thus the Holy One. that are burned in the fire (Isa. R.

whereupon my covenant superseded his. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO ABRAM [Prophecy] is expressed by ten 4 designations: prophecy. as it says. etc. (Gen. I will see one righteous man amongst them who will be able to say to My Attribute of Justice. with kirhur. saying. Perhaps another will arise and accumulate even a greater store of precepts and good deeds. XLII. A grievous vision is declared unto me (Isa. 2). form of the first) a passage is introduced by ahare it implies that its contents are closely connected with what precedes it. Leazar said: Vision. as it says. to him but from thee I set up shields of the righteous. Johanan said: Speech (dibbur). preaching. connection. when thy children take to transgressions and evil deeds. ' * ' 364 . lord of the land. As a vision 1 and in speech. and enigma. T.: Noah's descendants could not shield their contemporaries. "Enough!" whereupon I will take him and make him atone for them/ ' : 6. 5-6] 1 MID RASH RABBAH R.: I did not say to Noah. 30). Lit. Misgivings were entertained Who entertained them Abraham. heavy Great then was the power of Abraham that [Divine] converse was held with him in burden (Ps. xxi. mean afyare (the second is the pi.' 3 Th. The man. Radal and Mah. whereas ahar after.XLIV. Huna said: Wherever ahar is stated it denotes 'in immediate connection with'. as it says. Moreover. ahar. 5).' being connected things'. 'flow of words'. vision. parable. 4 that I should forgive them for their sake. command. then I arose and I accumulated meritorious acts and pious deeds. xxxvni. the etc. burden. whereas ahare implies that there is no connection. 3 righteous. I am thy shield/ as I said to thee. metaphor. there. const. 'after. spoke (dibber) roughly with us. speech. Y. The Rabbis said: Burden. He said to God ? : Sovereign of the Universe Thou madest a covenant with Noah not to exterminate his children. R. And which is the severest form? R. Both ahar and When merely implies that one episode followed the other but was unconnected with it. misgiving. IN A VISION. 2 c AFTER THESE THINGS. blessed be From Noah I did not set up shields of the He. : this distinction holds good only in the phrase after these 2 This is a play on words. and then a covenant with him will supersede Thy covenant with me?* Said the Holy One.

Perhaps he nurses resentment against me for slaying his sons. Chedorlaomer and his sons. 3 And the other helped the former with gifts. viz. And he gave him a tenth of all (ib. They helped every one (tb. 7): this alludes to Shem. vn. One helped the other with blessings. And the latter feared the former. xiv. The ends of the earth (ib. and came each approached the other. And he blessed him. as it says. XLI.): he smoothed with the hammer and beat all whom mankind good (ib. and feared (Isa. Abraham. which were regarded as ends of the identified with Melchizedek. The former feared the latter. And he that smootheth with the hammer him that smiteth the anvil pa'am (ib.: Abraham and Shem dwelt in Transjordania and world.) into one path (pa am). 4 Shem is Together with Noah. WILT THOU GIVE ME 2)? R. ig).) : this is Abraham. Ahaz: Ask thee a sign (Isa. etc. had a Th. He directed 365 . Abraham. The the Holy One. 5 Saying of the join : It is : This refers to the nations of the world. 2 They drew near. refiner (ib. viz. : : XLI. (Gen. 7-8 R. The Berekiah said: Shem. 1 : as it is saw. Jonathan said: Three persons were bidden 'ask'. as it says. respectively. AND ABRAM SAID: O LORD GOD. It is better to idol of . Ahaz. all to the fear of God. blessed be He. Whom He feared did he fear? written.: Solomon. Solomon: Ask what I shall give thee (i Kings in. 5) just as islands stand out in the sea. who said: 1 be joined to the God of Abraham than to the Nimrod. n).) his neighbour (ib. and the King Messiah. thinking. 'And feared*: Each one feared the other. So the carpenter encouraged (Isa.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) 7. And he strengthened it with nails (ib.) One dwelt at one end of the world and the other dwelt at another end of the world. thinking. and said: Blessed be Abram. ABRAM. 1 Whose slain. who made the Ark 4 . fXLIV. : 8. 6): each helped the other. Perhaps he nurses resentment against me for begetting wicked offspring. 5).) viz. WHAT (xv. refined [tried] in the fiery furnace. so were Abraham and Shem outstanding in the world. 8 5 Jerusalem descendants. isles FEAR NOT.): Abraham strengthened Shem in religious acts and pious deeds He shall not be moved (ib. 20).

3 R. for 1 : by his assistance I pursued the Damascus. to translate 5. Zimra: BEN MESHEK BETHI (MY HOUSE) alludes to Lot. 2). Is DAMESEK ELIEZER [E.K. He led forth his trained men. will anger Thee. the steward of my God helped me. And of all that Thou shalt give me" unless He had previously said to him: 'Ask/ 9. WHAT WILT THOU GIVE M E unless He [G o D] had previously said to him. Ahi in the name of R. Two men Abraham children R. 8).e. Lakish said: BEN MESHED BETHI means 'The son of my household' 4 is ELIEZER .). 'Ask. cf. 22). 'ELIEZER OF DAMASCUS']: this means. and his name was actually i. Simeon b. 'twere better for me GO CHILDLESS/ David said: Search me.V. death. 'if I am to beget children to provoke Thee. Aibu in R. Johanan's name said: said the same thing. n.XLIV. Abraham and David. Leazar said in the name of R. Judan and R. .e. Ezek. (Ps. sarappay 'my branches 2 my 3 4 metaphorically. try me. etc.e. He appears sons. cxxxix. O and know my heart. and he would not say. 'ezer : I. Jose b. * xxvui. Berekiah and R. my house (M. ' three Th. And of all that Thou shalt give me (Gen.] longs (shokeketh) to be my heir. R. 23) know those in from me. Reading Eli I. said : O LORD GOD: to ' Universe/ he cried out Him. says. . 1 And see if there and lead me in the way be any way who have sprung me that is grievous. R. Samuel b. (xv.' Jacob said. 'if I am Sovereign of the destined to beget THAT God. everlasting (ib* 24): 'Sovereign of the Universe!' he pleaded. Abraham: WHAT WILT THOU GIVE ME? He could not say. for whose sake I pursued the kings as far as Damascus and God helped me. etc. Nahman said: We can cite another two from the Haggaddh: Abraham and Jacob. 8-9] MIDRASH RABBAH The King Messiah: Ask of Me. xxxi. whose soul. [said Abraham. me in the 2 OF DAMASCUS it kings as far as Eliezer . 'twere better for me that Thou didst lead way everlasting/ AND HE THAT SHALL BE POSSESSOR (BEN MESHEK) OF MY HOUSE. and know my thoughts who I sar'appay (Ps.

as you read. The Lord (spoke) to him as if that were not enough. THE LORD: He came and 5 spoke with him. GENESIS (LECH LECHA) AND ABRAM : SAID: 3). not as was 3 By changing your names I. suggests that R.] THE LORD TO HIM. (xv. THE WORD A previously stated. vm. Joshua said in R. is added. R. 'Abram cannot beget a child/ Said the Holy One. XLIII. AND. AND HE BROUGHT HIM FORTH WITHOUT HA-HUZAH (xv. he shall not be Abraham's heir/ R. we have. It means. This is a play on words. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME [SPOKE] UNTO HIM.e. Levi's name : Did He then lead him forth without the world. Samuel b. xiv. AND. 4). speech after speech. . While as yet He had not made the earth. 3 : this signifies. Simon spaces 1 2 Cf. R. etc. BEHOLD. 'Lot is accursed. that it AND HE BROUGHT HIM FORTH WITHOUT? says. E. commented Sarah can beget/ 2 11. 5 Not an angel. R. Huna stated that R. angel after angel. Isaac [Abraham said :] My planetary fate oppresses me and declares. that He showed him the streets of heaven. 9-12 hundred and eighteen (Gen. ' ' 367 . Jose's name: thus It is written. instead of the simple And the Lord said. 10. BEHOLD. speech after speech implying. which is usual. BEHOLD. supra. Ha-huzah and huzoth are both derived from the same root. 5). blessed be He. however. BEHOLD. 2. THE WORD OF THE LORD CAME UNTO HIM. Jose's LORD CAME UNTO HIM . TO ME THOU (xv. huzoth Is understood to mean the heavens. 6 R. The names cause some difficulty here. Th. I and three of my angels reveal ourselves 4 to thee and say to thee. 12. 26). Huna and R. Lot is Ufa. . Leazar said in R. nor the outer huzoth (Prov. Leazar name said: [We have here. 14). . and on top of that there is the further addition of N D. accursed. I will free you from your planetary fate. R. .[XLIV. Jose's name. THE WORD OF THE in R. angel after angel.V. 6 1 By contrast. to him: 'Let it be even as thy words: Abram and Sarai cannot beget but Abraham and HAST GIVEN NO SEED BEHOLD. the fields'. AND. Judah b. Eleazar said this in R. Judan and R. Each addition implies an additional messenger of God's 4 word. the numerical value of Eliezer being three hundred and 1 eighteen.

change of place. 7). R. R. The same word zedakah means both. Johanan's name: vault of heaven . VH. for he is a prophet (Gen. too. Levi said: While the sandal down the thorn . for it says. 367. you I shall behold Thy face xvn. that they turnedfrom their evil ways (Jonah in. charity. as My face (ib. 368 . not an astrologer/ as it says. xx. so trample would not permit him. and canst ignore it. 5 Good deeds. Change of name is learned from Abraham and Sarah. but the Holy One. Joseph's name: Also change of name and good deeds. Thus it is written. 1 Hence thou 3 4 as Or. x. Judan said in R. from the people of Nineveh. simple righteousness.) denotes repentance. p. And the three are enumerated in one verse: : If My people^ And read. would not permit them. man's wife. 32^ on this and the following passages. loc. as stated above. LOOK (HABBET) to look down from him]: 'Thou art a NOW TOWARD above. or actually. (Jer. Cf. 14) here you have seek prayer.XLIV. 15) And turn from their evil ways (n Chron. righteousness. and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven. n. 12] MIDRASH KABBAH He He lifted said in R. but I is on your foot tread below them fears them. R. placed 3 placed above them. Huna said in R. Leazar's name Three things nullify a decree [of evil]. 1 HEAVEN. in righteousness (Ps. shall humble and pray (n Chron. 3 Either metaphorically: you are superior to the influence of planets. Thus saith the Lord : Learn not the way of the nations. Then will I forgive their sin (ib. blessed be He. for it says. 2): your ancestor to entertain this belief long ago. . i$6a and Ned.) alludes to righteousness. HABBET signifying The Rabbis said: [God said to Now therefore restore the prophet. Shab. 10). charity being regarded 5 V. hence him up above the to says him. Some say. cit. Abraham wished etc. themselves^ upon whom My Name is called. 2. he who art is but thou [Abraham] them down [ignore them]. Now the Lord said unto Abram : art now above thy fate. after that.* In the days of Jeremiah the Israelites wished to entertain this belief [in astrology]. prayer. viz. 4 and repentance.). And God saw their works.

WHEREBY SHALL IT (XV. '! '. He showed him three kinds of bullocks. even : on the Sabbath. The Rabbis said: The Holy One. Hama not as one making a complaint. Mehasia and R. 14. etc. Guria said in Rab's name: Fasting is as effective for counteracting an evil dream as fire for consuming tow. AND HE KNOW THAT SAID: I O LORD GOD. which was proclaimed in dire trouble. * As the next verse says : Take me a heifer. and three kinds of rams. AND A RAM OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULASH). etc.e. rescued him. SAID Liezer b. (XV. three kinds i. IJama b. Raba b. Hanina said: ' ' : AND HE SAID UNTO HIM: TAKE ME A HEIFER OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULSHELETH) A SHE-GOAT OF THREE YEARS OLD (MESHULSHELETH). 369 Bb . Jacob said: Michael descended and rescued Abraham from the fiery furnace. 3 And when did Michael descend? In the case of Hananiah. (xv. 2). 12-14 1 Get thee out of thy country. 5 Three kinds of bullocks : the bullock sacrificed on the Day of Atonement. of goats. AND UNTO HIM: I AM THE LORD THAT BROUGHT THEE OUT OF UR OF THE CHALDEES. the change of place changing his destiny. thus it is written. and is so translated here: I brought thee forth from the fire of the Chaldees. Huna said: Also fasting. xu. 8)? R. I HE AM THE LORD THAT BROUGHT THEE OUT OF UR OF THE CHALDEES. Mishael. which was to be childless. R. 6 f. R. . ao). which also means fire. AND HE BELIEVED IN THE LORD . and Azariah. blessed be He.e. the 1 And only then Will I make thee a great nation (ib.).). etc. in a day of fasting.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. etc. The Hebrew for Ur is nw. xx. 13. i). The Lord answer thee in the 2 day of trouble (Ps. (Gen. as it says. [He spoke] but he asked Him: 'Through what merit [will I inherit the land] ? God replied Through the merit of the atoning sacrifices which I will institute for thy sons/ 4 I SHALL INHERIT b. 2 I. Joseph said Providing it is done on the same day. three kinds . 3 This is the source of the famous legend that Abraham was thrown into a fiery furnace. 5 The Midrash translates meshulsheletk' three-fold. as explained in the text. 9 f . . R. for three different purposes.

Leazar said: She conquered all parts [of the world] Balshazzar. 1 1 R. 8 V. v. and the goat 3 brought by an individual. and Ahasuerus12 AND A RAM THREEFOLD: this alludes to Greece. II ia V. Lev. the goats sacrificed on New Moon. V. : 6 brought by an individual. 2 V. A SHE-GOAT THREEFOLD: this alludes to Media. vi. stated here.XLIV. sin-offering 15. I V. Which the dove and young pigeon symbolised. 32. Darius. Three kinds of rams the guilt5 4 offering of certain obligation. R. 8). vi.G. Johanan explained how. a nazirite several other cases. Lev. R. blessed be He. the guilt-offering of doubt. All these are regarded as atoning sacrifices. The Rabbis said He showed him the tenth of an ephah [of fine meal] also for A L L T H E s E is : . One. 20. 37 . AND . 15. And thou shalt bring 9 the meal-offering that is made of these things (Lev H. V. R. IJuL 2i&. naziriteship. 24. xxi. 7 The Hebrew is translated into the more familiar Aramaic. Simeon finds no allusion to this in the present verse. A HEIFER which produced and Evil-Merodach. Dent. etc. xrv. 3 V. but the fowl Another kings. Simeon b. THREEFOLD: three interpretation: this alludes to Babylonia. iv. Lev. his 12. and the lamb [sin-offering] AND HE TOOK HIM ALL Yohai said: The Holy THESE. 8 The use of these in both verses hints that the same thing is referred to in 10 both cases. Lev. Three kinds of goats: the goats sacrificed on festivals. clean. 14-15] MIDRASH RABBAH bullock brought on account of [the unwitting transgression 1 was of] any of the precepts. a turtle-dove and a young pigeon. 4. 27 f. which produced three kings: Cyrus. AND A TURTLE-DOVE (TOR) AND A YOUNG PIGEON 7 (GOZAL): that is. and v. iv. 1-9. as stated at the beginning of the section. 13 f. while elsewhere it is said. BUT THE BIRD DIVIDED HE NOT. Only the kings who impinged upon Jewish history are taken into account* . TAKE ME Nebuchadnezzar. when he completed Num. Zeb. showed Abraham all the atoning sacrifices save the tenth of an 8 ephah [of fine meal]. a leper when he became 5 To which one is liable when in doubt whether he committed a transgression which if certainly committed would have 8 involved a sin-offering. 5.. intimated to him is divided. He that the fowl burnt-offering 10 11 is not divided. iv. xix. Lev. and the heifer whose neck 2 broken. 4 E. Leazar and R.

rv. This interprets gozal not 'a young pigeon* but as an attribute (fr. R. while the he-goat symbolises Greece. and southward. intimated to him that he who attempts to resist wave is swept away by it. however. 5 Only by such a course could the bird symbolical of Israel be saved from being cut up and destroyed. ABRAM This verse of Daniel is understood to allude to Greece. but [killed]. and that is his [R. R. Consequently he reverses the reading here. 1 A TURTLE-DOVE AND A PIGEON (GOZAL). R. the ram is related to Media and Persia.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) : [XLIV. Kahana the said in R. and no beasts could stand before him (Dan. but of a predatory nature. symbolising united ('E. / saw the ram pushing westward. 20.J. 371 . but he who bends before it is not swept away by it. a robber turtle-dove. does not reverse the text. Judah. Said R. Abba b. 5 l6. Nehemiah said: He showed him the princes of Israel. since eastward is not stated. name: The Holy One. . in contrast 2 with which the bird. 4 BUT THE BIRD DIVIDED HE NOT. This refers to Edom [Rome]: it was a turtle-dove. Rashash. yet even so. 2 AND YOUNG AND HE TOOK HIM ALL THESE. Sanhedrin [Court] of Israel sat and determined the laws of Israel. and northward. blessed be He. Judah said: He showed him the princes of the Gentile nations. 4). points out that in w. According to it symbolised the place where the great Nehemiah. vm. [prince] [HE LAID EACH HALF OVER AGAINST THE OTHER symbolised] the throne of one R. AND THE BIRDS OF PREY CAME DOWN UPON THE CARCASES AND ABRAM DROVE THEM AWAY (XV. This comment on Edom (Rome) was natural enough to the Rabbis. On the view of R. Mah. Eleazar's] reason too. 4 Israel. 3 opposing the throne of another. to rob). Assi said: Abraham took a they were not smitten 1 flail and beat them. 15-16 save the east. but explains it differently. gazal. 8 He showed him the hostility of the nations toward each other. n). too. 21. so that the ends could see each other (Sanh. was not to be divided but The Sanhedrin sat in crescent-shaped rows. Levi's R. 3) hence that too can be symbolised in this verse. Johanan to him Even so it is written.).

EVEN A GREAT DARKNESS. as it of prey represent the nations swooping down on Israel. an incomplete form of prophecy is the dream. the incomplete form of the next world is the Sabbath. Levi's fall is : name : 3 (xv. because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them (i Sam. it is then that Abraham's merit will disperse the birds of prey. 5. and it is only when Israel turns to God in penitence that his enemies are driven off.XLIV. Abin added another two the incomplete form of the heavenly light is the orb of the sun the incomplete form of the heavenly wisdom is the Torah. The torpor of sleep: Then the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man.). tried to beat them off by physical force but without success. 12). A DEEP SLEEP FELL UPON ABRAM. The whole passage supra. xxvi. For the Lord hath Stupefy yourselves. 2 He interprets the verse in the same way. 12). The torpor of unconsciousness And no man saw it. The Rabbis said: Also the torpor of folly. THAT. he does not engage in study and does no work. xxix. Joshua of Siknin The beginning of a man's down- sleep being asleep. MIDRASH KABBAH DROVE THEM AWAY WAYY ASHSHEB) 16-17] ( 'Azariah said: [God hinted as to by repentance. R. A DREAD. 2 17. WHEN THE SUN WAS GOING DOWN. 'Wayyashsheb' is thus connected with teshubah. 21). xvn. repentance. Hanina [or R. THAT.). PASS. nor knew it. the torpor of prophecy. AND. R. The torpor of prophecy: IT CAME TO PASS. . DREAD refers to Babylon. and he slept (Gen. LO. WHEN THE SUN said in R. 1 372 . n. 9 f. poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep (Isa. Abramj: When thy without 1 children become carcases [corpses] sinews or bones. and be stupid! AND : . . neither did any awake . as it is written. R. R. thy merit will support them. Rab said: There are three kinds of torpor (tardemah): the torpor of sleep. JJinena] b. FELL UPON HIM (/&. Israel The birds Abram i. but relates 'carcases' to Israel defeated and despoiled. Isaac said: There are three incomplete phenomena: the incomplete experience of death is sleep. 4 : .e. etc. for they were all asleep . 3 4 North of Jotapata in Galilee. and the torpor of unconsciousness. AND IT CAME TO WAS GOING DOWN.

supra. 4. Cf. a fourth beast. YEA Know that I shall disperse thy seed. 7 I. AND THEY SHALL AFFLICT THEM FOUR HUNDRED YEARS: this means. y). 1 in. and one hundred and twenty generals. (xv. King Ashuerus did make FELL UPON HIM great. DARKNESS refers to Media. which darkened the eyes of Israel with fasting and tribulation GREAT refers to Greece. know that I will give 6 pledge. know that I will free them. FOUR HUNDRED YEARS does not apply to SERVE THEM. : : : just as the scorpion lays sixty eggs at a time. (Est. fallen is Babylon (Isa. 7 R. for it is written. 2i). Fallen. Serpents. The earth FELL UPON HIM quaketh 3 at the noise of their fall (Jer. that darkened the GREAT i). vm. AND THEY SHALL AFFLICT THEM (in actual fact the oppression in SEED SHALL BE A STRANGER. ig). THAT THY SEED SHALL BE A STRANGER IN A LAND THAT IS NOT THEIRS. Egypt lasted much less) but to and this period is counted from the birth of Isaac. as is stated in the preceding verse qsu. fiery serpents. Some reverse it: (ib. DARKNESS of as Israel it is alludes to Greece its DREAD . one hundred and twenty governors. 8 This refers to Edom. xvr. alludes to Media. 1 ' ' The fourth beast was applied to Edom. xxi.e. Then was Nebuchadnezzar filled with fury (Dan. R. eyes with decrees. as it is written. 4. written. 9). Simon said The Kingdom of Greece set up one hundred and twenty commanders. exile is 6 4 5 The THY 373 . . AND SHALL SERVE THEM. After this I saw 5 . 13): that I will gather SAID UNTO ABRAM: KNOW. so did the Greek state set up sixty of each. The Rabbis said Sixty of each. etc. as it is written. alludes to Edom [Rome]. and scorpions (Deut. and Greece respectively. vn. Judan said: The The word for fury (noTt) is somewhat similar to that used for 2 dread (TO-K). as it is written. This is symbolically applied to Babylon. in. i5) 2 . until four hundred years after seed shall be granted to thee. know that I will allow them to be enslaved. 4 alludes to Edom. KNOW know them in AND HE them together. regarded as putting Israel in pledge to expiate their sins. 18. Media. 17-18 written. XLIX. n. know that I will redeem them.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) is [XLIV. dreadful and terrible (Dan.) alludes to Babylon.

1 9. 3 WILL I JUDGE (DAN). AND AFTERWARDS (AHARE KEN) THEY SHALL COME OUT WITH GREAT SUBSTANCE. and to Isaac when in Gerar. Judan said: In the passage. It apparently means. and by a mighty hand.E art. p (I will judge). would be spread over four hundred years. Eleazar said in R. by trials. 2 ALSO 374 . WHOM THEY SHALL etc. the Name of the Holy One. the condition of an alien being held to apply to Abraham when he had to dwell in the country of the Philistines. Viz. that only the three things together would occupy four hundred years. 3 Further. (Heb. l8-20] MIDRASH KABBAH condition of being strangers. but in the fulness of time Egypt and the other four kingdoms too would be subjugated.XLIV. and by an outstretched arm. gam} is generally treated as an extension . you will find seventy-two letters. and by wonders. 34). promised our forefather that He would redeem his children with these two 4 but if they repented.. Media. reduces the time still further by translating.jf. AND ALSO THAT NATION.' which is not to be counted. in servitude. and should you object that there are seventy-five. and by great terrors (Deut. blessed be He. SERVE. like the preceding statement. the time being counted from Isaac's birth. 14). deduct the second 'nation. Ilelbo said: Instead that nation/ Scripture writes AND of. Sc. Persia. which was their decreed term. Babylon. 5 In the Hebrew that passage contains seventy-two letters. Abin said: He redeemed them by His name. 'Names of God'. iv. con6 sisting of seventy-two letters. R. R. and by war. Th.two letters. he appears to translate: And also the nation which will put 4 thee to service. Rome. V. Helbo's interpretation it means that not only should Abraham's seed serve strangers. 'And ALSO THAT NATION WHOM THEY SHALL SERVE: this indicates. and to Jacob in Haran. according to R. R. [Or hath God assayed] to go and take Htm a nation from the midst of another nation.] also Egypt and the four kingdoms2 which will subjugate thee. blessed be He. Aha said: 1 The passage is rather obscure. 20. Jose's name: The Holy One. He would redeem them with letters . also they [Abraham's descendants. 5 R. by signs. of which there were several. R. and afflicted in a land not theirs was to last four hundred years. (xv. seventy. 6 The longest form of God's name.

A FLAMING name: He TORCH. 17) : there was intense darkness. R. IJanina said Abraham chose Gehenna. the Lord had delivered them up (26. p. but Gideon did not deserve Because. Papa said: Abraham himself chose [subjection to foreign] powers. 4 R. 4 This agrees with R. containing an additional yod (== 10) is used. THOU SHALT BE BURIED IN A GOOD OLD AGE' (ib. Simeon Abba said in R. He assured him. Aha's name: Abraham sat wondering all ivix Both mean after. viz. Papa. And Gideon made an ephod thereof (Judg. 30) : He [foreign] kingdoms? this alludes to Abraham And . then THEY SHALL COME OUT WITH GREAT SUBSTANCE. R. with the promise: As long as thy children occupy themselves with the latter two. Thus it is written. 3 Which would conquer Israel. AND IT CAMETO PASS. and the Temple. R. Wouldst thou rather that thy children descend into . except their rock had given them over (Deut.iv. tjinena b. when I have visited ten plagues upon them. Hama b. 2 BEHOLD A SMOKING FURNACE AND b. 15). they will be saved from the former two if they neglect the latter two they will be punished by the former two.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [Ai. 2 The Hebrew is translated by Aramaic. n. z. and two put ten thousand to flight. vin. THAT. WHEN THE SUN WENT DOWN. said in R. here the longer form.)? this Huna 1 teaches that God approved his choice. Johanan's [God] showed him four things. 375 . blessed be He. v. 374. Revelation. Lakish said: Of three men was 'In a good old age' said: Abraham deserved it. R. xxxn. Gehenna or into the power of the asked him. Gehenna. rJCinena b. AND THERE WAS THICK DARKNESS (xv. : Said he [Abraham] to servitude?' Him ' : Shall I too be included in this 'Bur THOU SHALT GO TO THY FATHERS IN PEACE. 20-21 Not ahar is written here but AH A RE 1 this teaches. the [foreign] 3 kingdoms. Idi. 27) for idolatry. Why? 21. Simeon b. it. Judan. R. but the Holy One. and R. chose [subjection to foreign] powers for him. David deserved it. How should one chase a thousand.

Ilinena b. tit. R. Jose b. Judan. Leazar and R. Papa said: Abraham himself chose [subjection to other] powers. cxxxvi.] (Ps. 21-22] MIDRASH KABBAH day. Irlanina.e. R. the future of Israel in this world. Judan. Zakkai and R. 3 I. gezarim . of R. Thou didst cause nations to ride over our heads. Lit. 22. Papa and R.} y THESE PIECES GEZARIM GEZARIM having the same meaning] as in the verse. for it written. R. R. while the other said: He revealed to him the future from that day. Dostai said in the i. (Gen. 13). 12). Ilanina said on the authority of a certain sage in Rabbi's name: The Holy One. i. Idi.). Thus it is written. Berekiah apparently states that one held that God revealed Israel's future to Abraham only until that day. R. which is as 2 though We went through fire and through water (ib. R. One maintains This world He revealed to him. One maintained: He revealed to him [the future] until that day. IJanina disagreed.). Akiba disagree.e. said: R. IJama b. thinking. Samuel b.XLIV. 18). * helped Abraham to make his decision. R. viz. when Israel would leave Egyp^ while the other held that He revealed the future to him from the Exodus until Messiah's coming (M. IJinena b. In this matter we come back to the controversy of R. blessed be He. The other maintains that He revealed to him both this world and the next. 3 but not the next. In that day the Lord made1 a covenant with Abram. blessed be He. and R. Gehenna LI. 18). 4 UNTO THY Huna and 1 2 SEED HAVE I GIVEN THIS LAND. IN THAT DAY THE LORD MADE Judan A COVENANT Johanan : WITH ABRAM (xv. 'Which should I choose?' Whereupon the Holy One. Idi. b. Joshua said: He is also showed him the dividing of the Red Sea. Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads (Ps. LXVI. Hana b. said to him. [O give thanks to Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder . 'cut* Sc. on the implication of IN THAT DAY. The discussion turns 376 . R. hence it is written. R. Berekiah said: R.K. xv. meaning. R. loc. 7. and R. THAT PASSED BETWEEN (Gen.e. chose the [foreign] kingdoms for him. 'Make a decision without delay'. Ex. R. R. our servitude should now exempt us from Gehenna. R. etc. V. name R.

AND THE KADRabbi said: They are Arabia. bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman Republic. one in Mesopotamia. Thrace. 3 V. but He gave them only seven. and the Nabatean. R. Joshua translates it as a simple perfect: has created. And the Lord has created 2 a cloud and smoke by day. being. Asia Minor. of R. AND THE GIRGASHITE. AND THEKENIZZITE. xxxi. is SEED HAVE equivalent to action. 23. THE MONITE. 'And the Lord will create (we-yibra). tjelbo said in R. blessed be He. THE KENITE. and 6 one in Syria (Jast. R. Deut. the Shalamite. but For UNTO THY HAVE : (Jer. AND THE AMORITE. Liezer 6 b. For a discussion of the various places Jast. For the Lord ransometh Jacob. 2). AND THE REPHAIM. Yohai said: They are the Damascus region. 22-23 Nahman: The mere speech of the Holy One. especially one in Bithynia. Simeon b. etc. (u-bara) . R. blessed be He. ad loc. AND THE PERIZZITE. R. The is as though it were already fulfilled. AND THE JEBUSITE (xv. did at first contemplate giving Israel possession of ten peoples. 4 and Apamea. and Carthage. AND THE HITTITE. era. x. 5 Several towns. 5): it has been created and ready. Jacob said: Asia Minor. vn. but 'For I have redeemed them' (Zech. but. I GIVEN: not 'I will I give'. i 2 . AND THE KADMONITE.). the other three KENITE. AND THE CANAANITE. but G i v E N . iv. So let the redeemed of the Lord say whom He redeemeth. Johanan's name: The Holy One.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLIV. Abba's name in R. . 'will create'. R. (Isa. : 4 The Roman mentioned in this passage. AND THE KENIZZITE. Abin said: It is not written. 377 . 1 Thus His mere promise province embracing the west part of the peninsula of Asia Minor. Dostai said in the name Samuel b. The Rabbis not written. Joshua said: It is not written. E. Whom He hath redeemed (Ps. Abba's name It is not written. 5 R. Th.' but.* R. / will hiss for them. for I will redeem them. v. U-bara is perfect tense with the waw conversive. and gather them. 8). Nahman: Because the Hivite is not mentioned here3 the Rephaim are substituted in their stead. for it says. but R.V. Judan said in R.). n). long the Lord hath ransomed Jacob is said: It . 19 f.

Seven nations greater and mightier than thou (ib. i) 1 2 The language is Biblical. vn. 'Once again* as Dan. etc. 8 litter This was proverbial the unclean swine is always surrounded by a large of its offspring. as it is said.XLIV. 3 Thus. [were promised to Abraham's seed]. For I will not give you of their land. THE KENIZ- ZITE. 23] MIDRASH RABBAH Rabbis said: Edom. though through God's promise : this had already been the case. etc. 5). He has given them but seven. THE KENITE. xi. far. 378 . i). Isaac said: The swine grazes with ten of its young whereas the sheep does not graze even with one. n. however. all these. in order to fulfil God's promise. v. Now. 41. ! xvi. whereas the clean sheep is alone. viz. (Deut. and the chief of the children of Ammon1 are the three nations that were not given to them in this world. But in the days of the Messiah 2 they shall once again belong to Israel. R. Moab. as it says. yet so Sarai Abraham's wife bore him no children (Gen.

in her were limited. the husband) Yeb. and you find that Haran begot nativity (Ezek. for her price (mikrah) is far above rubies (Prov. the usufruct of which the husband enjoys without responsibility for loss or deterioration. vn.T. mekuroth. * The verse continues And to her was a handmaid (E. (xvi. teaches that she did not bear to married to another she would have borne children.[XLV. 2 children at six years of age. Righteous women. AND SHE HAD A HANDMAID. you pluck/ he answered. is understood to mean pregnancy. etc. SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE BORE HIM NO CHILDA woman of valour who can find. 14. Nehemiah reads HIM and (disregarding the punctuation) TO HER. 3 DID NOT BEAR TO HIM. Simeon b.V. deduct] the year of pregnancy with Milcah and the year of pregnancy with Iscah. supra. i). conception.e. How then does R. 4 thus: She did Sarai's own account nor T o She was a handmaid of 'plucking' 5 whom he was bound to support but might not sell. [hence Abram was] two years older [than Haran. R. the usufruct without any further responsibility in the same. Thine origin (mekuroth) What and thy older than Nahor. find pregnancy more attainment than rubies. CHAPTER i. but had she been HIM NO CHILDREN. Now Abram could SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE BORE R. Judah said: To HIM Abram. Lakish was asked: What is the meaning of what we learnt6 Servants of 7 plucking'? 'What you pluck. and mikrah is now identified with mekurah. Kahana said: 10). 8 'Origin/ by contrast with 'nativity'. 5 This is a technical term. R. 3). Now Abram was a year and Nahor was a year older than Haran. From the term she had it is deduced that Abrarn's rights 6 'I. AN EGYPTIAN. : 1 as in the case of Sarah. xxxi. yet you say that not beget? Hence. * M on Abram' s account. XXXVIH. Abba b. R. 'and she had a Y. 1 as you read. for notes. does 'mikrah' mean? R. xvi. 3 V. i XLV (LECH LECHA) Now REN. pi. Nehemiah interpret DID NOT BEAR TO Interpret TO not bear to herself HIM? H i HIM on and TO HER. : difficult of : BEAR together with T o handmaid'). you (sc. It is written. Nehemiah said: Neither to him nor to anyone else. Her pregnancy. i. enjoy 379 DID NOT . describing the portion of a wife's dowry.

Pharaoh saw what was done on Sarah's behalf in own house. (ib. she needs a 4 NOW. written. xxx. z). ' saying. therefore hearken unto the voice of the words of the Lord : To Sam. As though dead And she said unto Jacob : Give me children. Gen. AND SHE HAD A HANDMAID. 5 A is only Lit. THE LORD HATH RESTRAINED ME FROM BEARING. is as : R. . i). WHOSE NAME WAS HAGAR. it is Said she I know the source of my affliction not as people say [of a barren woman]. when he saw the miracles performed in his house on Sarah's behalf. Kings' daughters are among thy favourites (Ps. xv. his 1-2] MIDRASH RABBAH Simeon When b. As though demolished: IT MAY BE THAT I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER. 1 he took his daughter and gave her to Sarah. or else I am dead 5 (Gen. At thy right hand doth stand the queen in gold of Ophir to Sarai. saying.XLV. (xvi. AND ABRAM HEARKENED TO THE VOICE OF SARAI. xn. she needs a charm/ but : : BEHOLD THE LORD HATH RESTRAINED ME FROM BEARING. Better let my daughter be a handmaid in this house than a mistress in another house thus it is written. XLV. translation. AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: BEHOLD NOW. 6 as you read. IT MAY BE THAT I SHALL BE BUILDED UP THROUGH HER. i). 3 10): viz.' * Abimelech. play on the name Hagar. gave his daughter to her. 'Better let my daughter be a handmaid in this house than a mistress in another/ as it is . Viz. AN EGYPTIAN. the daughters of [two] kings. 1 * 2 V. and the translation a conjecture.V. Yohai said: Hagar was Pharaoh's daughter.) this alludes 2. R. ' or else / die*. Jose said Now (i the voice of the Holy Spirit. E. 'Here is thy reward (agar). 4 Both the text and the meaning are doubtful. 6 Which he felt moved her to speak. It was taught He who has no child : though he were dead and demolished. etc. he (Pharaoh) saying. talisman. 17. too. and only that which is demolished must be builded up. Pharaoh and Abimelech.

let Me hear thy Yeb. ' AND art EGYPTIAN Ha PPY GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. Thus Hagar conceived time. AND SHE CON- R. E. immediately. thou art as the Why did I make thee barren? thy countenance. Johanan's name: Because the Holy One. Pazzi observed: Thorns are neither weeded nor sown.e. yearns for their prayers and supplications. 3). I. 4 4. but not to another. Ammi said in the name of Resh Lakish: What is the source of what we learned 1 If a man married a woman and spent ten years with her and she did not bear a child. 381 . and thus conceived at the first act of intercourse. n. R.3. Haytha said: She became pregnant through the first intimacy. Shila's name and R. 36)? 5 Said R. AND GAVE HER TO ABRAM HER HUSBAND TO BE To BE A WIFE. Thus it is written. : proves that the time he spent without the Land3 was not included in the reckoning. but not a concubine. Levi b. Tanhuma: By an effort of will power 6 objection is raised: surely they brought they grow and spring up. whereas Sarah had to wait a long barren.S. Hagar was to enjoy all the rights of a wife. IN UNTO HAGAR. Levi said in R. 8 clefts of the rock (S. 3-4 SARAI ABRAM'S WIFE TOOK HAGAR THE : AFTER ABRAM HAD DWELT TEN YEARS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN. Sc. She persuaded [took] her with words thou to be united to so holy a man/ she urged. Let 1 3 * Me see O my dove. IJanina b. Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father (Gen. AND HE WENT (xvi. 'they 8 mastered themselves*. But must remarry. Palestine. Helbo in R. R. yet of their own accord In order that. An CEIVED A it is written. Lit.V. xix. s 6 6 7 Though they were only once with him. 4). R. whereas how much pain and toil is required before wheat can be made to grow! 7 Why were the matriarchs barren? R. i4) : forth their virginity. Eleazar said: woman never conceives by the first intimacy. 640:. the Land par excellence. 'in the clefts/ etc. he may not stay sterile? 2 This verse : (xvi. AFTER ABRAM HAD DWELT TEN YEARS: this A WIFE TO HIM. blessed be He.

Thus the whole ninety years that Sarah did not bear she was like a bride in her canopy. Huna. Sarah complained Abraham robbed her of the words that he ought to speak on her behalf. whereas I conceived in one night Said Sarah Shall I pay heed to this woman and argue with her No I will argue the matter with her master 3 poor woman mistress Sarai ' ' ! : ! . Abin in R. Idi.). Judan explained this in R. R. 2 they might lean on their husbands in [spite of] their beauty. 'Azariah said in R. for had you said." he would ' have released 1 me just as he has released you but . Ladies used to come to inquire how she was. whereupon his fellow-prisoner says to him. "Execute justice for us. now that In prayer. AND SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: MY WRONG (HAMASI) BE UPON THEE (xvi. I have a grievance against you. HER MISTRESS WAS DESPISED IN HER EYES. Berekiah name I have a grievance against : For imagine two men incarcerated in prison. Abba said So that they might pass the greater part of their life untrammelled. and she would say to them. Hanina's name: So that (ib. Huna and R. R. would have felt quite independent of their husbands had they also been blessed with children in their early years. but she is not.XLV. for when a woman is with child she is disfigured and lacks grace. 5). and R. Judah's name: Thou wrongest me with words. see how many years have passed without her conceiving. 382 . Hiyya b. SHE 2 SAW THAT SHE HAD CONCEIVED. ' ! 5. Go and ask about the welfare of this : ' [Hagar]/ Hagar would tell them: 'My is not inwardly what she is outwardly: she appears to be a righteous woman. 4 R. 3 This paragraph is a comment on the phrase. since thou hearest me explained thee. The matriarchs. 4 AND WHEN that 'Hamad' really means. possessing both beauty and wealth. and as the king passes one of them cries out. Jeremiah in the name of R. R. Abba's insulted yet art silent. 'what is stolen from me*. it in R. R. 'Execute justice for me!' The king orders him to be released. voice 4-5] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH R. Meir's name said: So that their husbands might derive pleasure from them. For had she been a righteous woman.

i). and it of R. hadst thou said. Eleazar's name: said in the name Whoever plunges eagerly into litigation does not escape unscathed. 1 The Rabbis said: Women are said to justice for me. in. to us Thou hast given no seed/ then as He gave thee so had He given me. A : A SARAI SAID UNTO ABRAM: THEE. Abin's name She scratched his face. 2 xxxi. and envious. now however that you said. prone to steal and a gadabout. and rendered: my scratch be upon thee. however. : possess four traits they are greedy. And I go childless (Gen. We go childless/ then as He gave thee a child so would He have given me since. And she took of the fruit : thereof. R. 2. slothful: . He gave thee a child but not me. 'Lend me seed/ and he ordered. Levi said: She : is also THE LORD JUDGE BETWEEN ME AND THEE BENEKA). Menahema [Nehemiah] said in R. xvm. 'Behold. And Sarah Make ready : quickly three measures of fine meal (ib. i). slothful. from years. One of them asked. Joshua b. 6) envious Rachel envied her sister (ib. xxx. eavesdroppers: heard in the tent door (ib. 'Behold. Tanhuma the Elder. Sarah should have reached Abraham's but because she said. A gadabout: And Dinah went out (ib. 'my wrong'} is derived to scratch. 3). R. 1 (u- R. [XLV. Greedy. 383 . spoke against Moses xii. 10). 5 he released you but you not me/ Similarly. Nehemiah said: scratcher ND She is also a scratcher and talkative. '1 have a grievance against you. and did eat (ib. i). Now however that thou didst say. THE LORD JUDGE from frimmes. hadst thou said. R. thou saidest. Berekiah said in R." ' "Execute . xvin. Hiyya R. eavesdroppers. Talkative And Miriam : MY SCRATCH BE UPON (Num. By a play on words hamad (E. as it says. to me Thou hast given no seed' (ib. He gave to thee but not to me.V. 6).GENESIS (LECH LECHA) said. "Lend me seed/' he has given you but not me/ Similarly. Had you asked. supra. 2 Cf. 2). This may [also] be compared to two people who went to borrow seed from the king. 'Give it to him/ Said his companion to him. 19). xxxiv. Prone to steal And Rachel stole the teraphim (Gen. xv. "Lend us seed/' he would have given me just as he gave you.

the unborn Ishmael.XLV. THY MAID is IN THY HAND (xvi. would conceive again. Hoshaya said: Binka (thy son) is written. And he went in unto Hagar. Heb. because thou hast humbled her (Deut.). edd. 8 Abba from cohabitation. 5-6] MIDRASH KABBAH her life BETWEEN ME AND THEE. xxi. Behold. thou wilt conceive (ib. hence it is written. cit. Berekiah said: baths. it would have sufficed her. And Sarah dealt harshly with her. 6). can strained to do her neither 6 5 we now enslave her again? I am constrained to do her neither good nor harm. which may be read "pal. and she conceived. 9 1 The word for AND THEE. shall we make her a bondmaid again? I am constrained to do her neither good nor harm. AND SHE FLED She restrained her She slapped her face with a slipper. 8 9 But not Abraham's.) 2 Spoken by the angel to Hagar after her flight. it was reduced by R. the honour conferred upon her in that an 5 Because she has insulted you. Abba's name: She bade her carry her water buckets and bath towels to the R. given her the status of a wife. forty-eight years. loc. To sell her unto a foreign people he shall have no power. angel spoke to her! 6 7 Since she is now my wife. (In cur. and she fled from her face (Gen. 4 6. Thus she called down God's wrath on him. 8): after we have made her a mistress. AND SARAH DEALT HARSHLY WITH HER. xxi. 1 Seeing that is already written. I. Berekiah said in R. 4 8 Hence the How much greater then was angel told her that she 384 . R. 14): after we have vexed her. R. however. u)? 2 This. It is written. which means that it is disregarded. This was the work of a slave. while it is written. Said he: 'I am con- good nor harm/ It is written. Thus she did not actually ill-treat her but made her do work unsuited to her new status. R. teaches that an evil eye took 3 possession of her and she miscarried. why is it further stated. of the Bible T^i is actually written. but according to tradition each yod () is dotted. TJW is written -pal. BUT ABRAM SAID UNTO SARAI: BEHOLD. and thy son. seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her 7 (Ex. sc.e. said: FROM HER FACE. Hanina observed: Had the prophet Elisha told her that by the Holy Spirit. Thou shall not deal with her as a slave.

IJaninasaid: Five. xm. The Rabbis said: Four. etc. for each time 'speech' is mentioned it refers to an angel. them R. . though after the superfluous. 7): on the road of . supra. n). . . Aha said The finger-nail of the fathers rather than the stomach of the sons R. 1 GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. loc. 22) 4 . Three were called by their names before they Solomon. THOU ART WITH CHILD. So runs the proverb If one man tells you that have ass's ears. Hence. different angels are referred to.). 27) Abraham's household were seers. R. R. Isaac quoted She seeth the ways of her household (Prov. R. (xvi. How many llama b. etc. (xvi. 6) the angel said HAGAR. yet a bondmaid. so she [Hagar] was accustomed to them. and Josiah. Isaac said: were born. surely dte ! : ! : : 8.). this being the number of times 'angel' occurs. MULTIPLY THY SARAI'S HANDMAID* etc. SAID: HAGAR. order a halter/ Thus. AND HE xvi. What is said in the ' ' The name in Aramaic. 4 Actually they had seen an angel. AND AN ANGEL DF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER: I WILL GREATLY . 2 AND AN ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HEBi RETURN TO THY MISTRESS. etc. tliyya observed: Come and see how great is the difference between the earlier generations and the 3 ingels visited her? R. N THE WAY TO SnuR (xvi. 7-8 AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD FOUND HER 7. Abraham said: Behold. thy maid is in thy hand (ib. do not believe him. SARAI'S ' : SEED. 1 Isaac. 9 f. 8). a It is assumed that since occurs AND AN ANGEL OF THE UNTO HER LORD SAID first once. if two tell it to JTOU fou. Shur was the wall or fortification which protected Egypt on the east from the incursions of raiding Bedouins (Hertz on Genesis. more than time it is 385 cc . v. czf. xxxi. later ones! y What because did Manoah say to his wife? We shall we have seen God (Judg. 8 In spite of her higher status (v. . 13. . AND THE ANGEL OF THE LORD SAID UNTO HER: BEHOLD. sees five angels and is not afraid of Hagar. AND SHE SAID: I ?LEE FROM THE FACE OF MY MISTRESS SARAI. etc. 3) she recognised Sarai as her mistress. : HANDMAID.lalizah.

and thou shall call his name Isaac (Gen. In the case of Solomon? Behold. 8 Instead of the more usual Nebuchadnezzar. OF A this. His hand and his dog's (kalbo) 1 are alike. dwell. a son shall be born unto the house : of David. 'A WILD ASS') MAN (xvi. AND HE SHALL BE A PERE (E. for whereas all others plunder wealth. in the days of Nebuchadnezzar. his dog. and I will give him rest round about. a son shall be born case of Isaac ? to thee. 19). the beasts of the field. In the case of Josiah? And he shall be a cried against the altar by the thus saith the Lord : Behold. Resh Lakish said It means a savage among men in its literal sense. for his name shall be Chron. And wheresoever the children and the fowls of the heaven them into thy hand (Dan. z 1 386 . [i. R. 3 because he shut them up ^azurari)* in the wilderness and slew them. but Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son. 9). R. hath He AND HE SHALL DWELL IN THE FACE OF ALL HIS 'Kol bo' being read kalbo. 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH And God said : Nay.V. XLIX. which. Kings xm. Just as his dog eats carrion. xxii. HIS HAND SHALL BE AGAINST EVERY MAN. so does he eat carrion. AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM (KOL BO). Josiah by name Ishmael among the nations THOU ART WITH AND THOU SHALT CALL HIS NAME ISHMAEL. 2 given Hence it is written. whose ruthless policy of conquest aroused the whole world against him. Johanan and Resh Lakish debated : R. 38). Some add BEHOLD. 2). 4 A play on the name. he plunders lives. altar. non-Jews] CHILD.e. he would be reared in the wilderness. which Nebuchadrezzar smote (Jer. xvn. who (i from all Solomon his enemies man of rest. of men. and of the kingdoms ofHazor. Of Kedar. Eleazar said: When SHALL HIS HAND BE AGAINST EVERY MAN AND EVERY MAN'S HAND AGAINST HIM? When he shall come of whom it is written. 28): his name is written 'Nebuchadrezzar'. 9. n. Johanan said: It means that while all people are bred in civilised surroundings. AND SHALT BEAR A SON. word of the Lord : (i O altar. with the present spelling.e.XLV. I. ends in azar and is read as though it were *a$ar (nxy). to shut up. 12).

as thou didst laugh a roundabout it is way He took ! Birya's in order to written. Rabbah. 2 387 . 13). as soon as he died. That Thou hast brought me thus far 1 FOR SHE SAID: HAVE HIM THAT SEETH ME. who attacked Aristobulus and besieged Jerusalem (v. 6. but even with royalty too. in is R. Th. Ant. Kahana said in R. Nehemiah answered (ib.' In this world. He fell HE HE 10. 'He fell: Before he stretched out his hand against the Temple. Jose b. 'He fell. never con- Judah descended to hold converse with a woman save with that righteous woman [viz.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLV. 1 say. xx. xxv. ad loc. in the next world. Abba b. Idi's name: That was through an angel. Johanan in the name of R. as you read. while (Gen. xxv. on the bearing of this passage on the date of the composition of Gen. 17)? As long as Abraham lived. as soon as he stretched out his hand against the Temple. Zimra: it : explained Thou She said: I have been granted not only speech [with the angel]. xiv. AND SHE CALLED THE NAME (XVI. HE SHALL DWELL. SHALL DWELL. LORD b. R. i). 23)? R. and that too was through a particular cause. V. Sarah]. or to the Arabian Prince who joined V. written: Irjanina: name That was through an angel. R. Josephus. Leazar said in the That was through the medium of Shem. Aibu of R. 'Hefeir [shall be applicable to him]. supra. 2 THOU ART A GOD OF SEEING (EL ROI). R. THAT SPOKE UNTO HER R. Joshua b. AND SHE [HAGAR] CALLED THE NAME OF THE LORD THAT SPOKE UNTO HER? R. SHALL DWELL. seest the sufferings of the persecuted. but xvm. R. I EVEN HERE (HALOM) SEEN Bacher suggests that the statement that Ishmael (which is not to be identified with Rome) attacked the Temple alludes either to Aretes. And He said: Nay. BRETHREN. R. Levi said in the name of R. King of Nabatea. OF THE R. Eleazar b. 9-10 HE SHALL DWELL. JJama b. Vespasian's army. R. Simon and R. 15) But it is written. a. But it And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib. name: And what speak with her. Here you elsewhere you read. blessed be He. Simeon said: The Holy One.

vn. 2 Rendering : I have seen (the angels in the wilderness) after having seen ' them 8 (at home). Thus here too halom* expresses Hagar's gratitude that kings would spring from her. 2 R. Hiding her face in modesty. I was favoured [to see the angel] not only when with my mistress. 7. iS). 388 . Cur. halorn. have here: Not only was I favoured to see the angel together with my mistress. Samuel said: This may be compared to a noble lady whom the king ordered to walk before him. She did so leaning on her maid and pressing her face against her. but even my mistress who was with me did not see him (while I did). v. while she did not see him. This explains the comparison that ends the section. 1 Referring to David's royal rank. 3 Thus her maid saw [the king]. 10] MIDRASH KABBAH 1 (n Sam. edd.XLV. but even now that I am alone. supra.

etc. XLVI (LECH LECHA) AND ABRAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. at the beginning. Abraham was one (Ezek. Judan said: At first the fruit of a fig-tree is gathered one by one. supra. 4 V. ch. In the self same day was Abraham given circumcised (Gen. i). ix. v. 24). i). Until eventually. It is written. until eventually they are gathered in baskets and with shovels. xv. xxxm. when he recognised his Creator ? 2 In order not to discourage proselytes. (Ex. Judan said: Just as a fig contains nothing inedible save its stalk. 26). xvii. 5). 'so as not to shut the door in the face of proselytes'. 1 Even so. xxx. then two by two. 2. It is written. VI. should he not have circumcised himself at the age of forty-eight.[AX. etc. at her first season (Hos. as it is written. and Jacob. To everything there is a season. and multiplied. CHAPTER I found Israel like grapes in the I saw your fathers as the first-ripe in the fig-tree wilderness. 1-2 i. there was a season when his descendants were to neglect it. so did God say to Abraham: 'There is nought unworthy in thee save thy foreskin remove it and the blemish ceases * : : hence. 8. cised. Lit. etc. WALK BEFORE ME. then three by three. in. then Abraham. For all the people that came out were circumi). There was a season when circumcision should be to Abraham viz. AND BE THOU WHOLE. and increased abundantly. had not been circumcised (Josh. R. vn. There are several views as to Abraham's age at the time. 3 might otherwise think that it was too late in life for them to be circumcised. AND WHEN ABRAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. threes. viz. 3 Then why not be circumcised at the age of eighty-five. and a time to every purpose under the heaven (Eccl. Who 389 . then little clusters of twos and z Cf. 10). and with its removal even this defect ceases. And the children of Israel were fruitful. when [God] spoke with him between the pieces? 4 In order that Isaac might issue from Why 1 At first single figs here and there ripen . R. but eventually the whole tree ripens. then there were Abraham and Isaac. Isaac. in the wilderness. but all the people that were born in the wilderness by the way as they came forth out of Egypt. (xvii.

Simeon b.e. 4 If thou wilt not undergo circumcision. suffice thee that I am thy God let it suffice thee that thy Patron.e. 16. * I was not interested in the previous generations. V. which abolished circumcision in order to facilitate the spread of Christianity. Shaddai is derived from day> enough. and Y. eighty-six. men came and Said joined me [in my new faith].K. ' when ' let it I am circumcised?' 6 'Abraham/ said God to him. 5 Since none practised it. but it is I am . because they did not acknowledge and recognise me. lends colour to this interpretation. to him: 'Let it suffice thee that I and thou are in the world. it did not matter. sufficient for My world that I am its God and its Patron/ 7 R. the (enough)! AM EL SHADDAI (GoD My My a 1 I. By a play on words. Abraham's circumcision. it does not on the whole seem very probable. Will they come and join me 3.e. similar to that of M. 3 Abraham was to be like a cinnamon tree which no matter how old can be made to produce fruit. * Abraham am ' 39 .T. : ' : world: just as the cinnamon tree yields fruit as long as you manure and hoe around it. which is necessary. after I. and R. 'day' ALMIGHTY): It is I who said to And had I not said 'day I' to world. blessed why be He.XLVL 2-3] 1 MIDRASH RABBAH Then let him be circumcised at the age of when Ishmael was born? 2 Said R. translate differently: (Even) before I was circumcised. Berekiah said in R. so [shall Abraham be] even when his blood runs sluggishly and his passions and desires have ceased/ 3 [Abraham] asked: 'If circumcision is so precious.e. when a difficult operation is On this interpretation. let it suffice thee that I thy Patron. so was circumcision to renew his virility. and it 5 is enough for circumcision to have been forlorn until now/ he: 'Before I circumcised myself. and not only for thee alone. This may therefore be directed against Paulinism. Isaac's name : I world. Though God's reply. and it is enough for uncircumcision to have existed until now. xvi. Mah. This and the following comments are based on the phrase. men fought against me. 6 7 I. it is enough for My world to have existed until now. how much more when I am circumcised and so I emphasise the difference between us. was it not given to Adam? Said the Holy One. / am El Shaddai (God Almighty). I will set up a cinnamon tree in the Lakish [God said] a holy source. I. the world must cease. Aha's name. Th. Nathan said in R.. God assured that even if circumcision should deter would-be converts.

the (v. Jacob It is I whose Godhead outweighs the world and the fulness : thereof. the Hebrew is the same in both cases. 4. n. 23 ) 4 : just as 'orlah in the case of trees refers to the place where it yields fruit. author of a translation of the Bible into Greek in the second 3 Lit. 2). thought she. The ' 391 . sat '. God said to Abraham. He was a proselyte. xix. but that the nail of thy little finger is slightly too long. R. n). and this is Th/s conjecture. 1 The * ' ' ' ' sufficient z and ' assessed '. 4) is accordingly understood in the sense of 'assessment whole world cannot be assessed as having such greatness as *Mine. I WILL MAKE MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE. for. so 'orlah employed in reference to man means and and said in Bar Kappara's name: Abraham pondered 3 drew an inference: 'orlah (foreskin) is said here (v. WALK BEFORE etc. AND BE THOU WHOLE. viz.p. WILL MAKE MY COVENANT. Said R. 1 Akilas 2 translated it: Sufficient and incomparable. Huna 'orlah occurs in reference to a tree (Lev. The Targum that follows corresponds to these two meanings of day '. 'Walk before me/ She walked before him and her face went pale. * Though translated differently. AND WILL MULTIPLY THEE EXCEEDINGLY: hence. 3-4 heaven would still have been spreading and the earth would have gone on expanding to this very day. illustrated Levi the This may be by a noble lady whom king commanded.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVI. Eliezer b. AND BE THOU WHOLE. pare it and the defect will be gone/ Similarly. AND R. AND!WILLMAKE MY COVENANT BETWEEN ME AND THEE. 'Thou hast no other defect but this foreskin: remove it and the defect I will be gone/ Hence. WALK BEFORE said: ME. It was taught in the name of R. century. Day original is very difficult. ME. with [that member through which] I WILL MULTIPLY THEE EXCEEDINGLY. the IJanina to him: analogy already been given to Abraham? Surely not! But [he learned it from God's promise]: member which produces offspring Had then reasoning by [fruit]. who knows but that some defect may have been found in me? Said the king to her. (XVII. 'Thou hast no defect. 390.

as appears from the 2 1 reference to the heart. R. he would be unfit Hence. 14). 10). R. which disqualifies a priest. Nowhere else than Nakdah said It at the 'orlah of the is body. the mouth. 'orlah is used in connection with the ear. at the heart.V. written. and * think ' probably has that meaning here. If he circumcised himself at the ear. And he that shall be circumcised think? Only : at the 'orlah of the body. This is probably merely argumentation for its own sake. he cannot hear. he would not be WHOLE. 25). vi. at the heart. The Lord hath sworn. If he circumcised himself at the ear. however. 'dull' (Jer. xxv. is that we must perform circumcision on the member which marks the distinction between male and female. among you. at the mouth. as it says. he was ordered. In each case it would be a blemish. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your 'orlah (Gen. 4 Where then could he be circumcised and yet be able to : WALK Now. Ned. R. n). he would not be WHOLE. 6. every Now if he is circumcised at the ear. Ishmael and R. Akiba said: There are four kinds of 'orlah. Behold. at the mouth. then an uncircumcised female? The meaning. Tanhuma Is there observed This argument of Nakdah AND THE UNCIRCXJMCISED MALE (xvn. Akiba [reasoned R. 392 . 12). it is said. Where could he circumcise himself and yet be w H o L E ? is eight days old male (Gen. uncircumcised^ of lips (Ex. their ear is 'orlah E. I am 'aral [E. where could he perform circumcision and be fit to offer? Nowhere else than at the 'orlah of the yet body [the foreskin]. 4 The heart was regarded as the seat of the emotions. 326 and Lev. 2 viz. 4).XLVI. ex.V. Thus. at the heart. V. if at the mouth. he cannot speak.V. where the verse is applied to Abraham. xvn. 5] MIDRASH KABBAH as follows]. xvn. he would be unfit to offer. 'uncircumcised*] in the heart (Jer. ix. Ishmael said: Abraham was a High Priest. Behold. is logiqal. 3 'Aral has the same root as 'orlah. he cannot think. BEFORE ME. Again. AND BE THOU WHOLE. the heart: For all the house of Israel are ' 'arle [E. and will not repent : Thou art a priest 1 for ever after the manner of Melchizedek (Ps. he would be unfit to offer sacrifices . to offer. he would not be WHOLE. 5. R. vi. 30).

MY COVENANT IS WITH THEE.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVL 6-8 6. AND ABRAHAM FELL ON HIS FACE. when sitting : TUDE OF NATIONS). According to the Rabbis the Israelites in Egypt were uncircumcised until just Here. 5. 5). Scripture itself provides the exegesis. so that it might read ab (father of) ham (an abbreviation of hamon. Moses came and circumcised them. Samuel b. while a particular letter or so may have to be ignored. the resh being lacking. etc. Kahana. 5 8. n. R. (xvn. The above translation. Bar Kappara said: Whoever calls Abraham Abram'. BUT THY NAME SHALL BE ABRAHAM (xvn. Levi said: A positive commandment and a negative commandment. is not very probable. 7. 48). Notarilkon is a method of exegesis whereby words are broken up and each letter or syllable is treated as an abbreviation. 17. 3 V. f 1 2 when he was informed about the birth of Isaac. R. R. xn. once raised the question How is notarikon [as a permissible method of exegesis] deduced from Scripture? 4 We know it from this: AND THOU SHALT BE AB HAMON (THE FATHER OF A MULTIBerekiah. Ammi. Cf Shab. 3 AS FOR ME. 105*2. : his children were deprived of circumcision once in the wilderness and once in Egypt2 In Egypt. v. but v. v.Hence the n (resh*) must be ignored in a case where altogether. and prior to their departure. 5 His name was changed from onsN (Abram) to nrmx (Abraham). and studying. in the wilderness. Phinehas said in R. violates a positive commandment. Joshua came and circumcised them. Their question was: how do we know that even then notarikon is a permissible method of exegesis. 3 for a different interpretation. R. and R. Levi's name: Abraham fell on his face on two occasions. 4). EJ. His prayer 4 . In this treatment the general form of the word only is considered. Josh. etc. when circumcision became essential for the eating of the passover-offering (v. though fitting in with the text. His falling on his face is regarded as an indication of unwilling assent to God's command. Abba b. Ex. NEITHER SHALL THY NAME ANY MORE BE CALLED ABRAM. and he fell on his face in prayer that they might not lose it was answered through Moses and Joshua. Abba. (xvn. 393 . since it assumes Abraham's unwillingness (the second falling on the face can certainly not bear this connotation). 1 In consequence. : Abraham foresaw these two occasions when his descendants would not be circumcised. BEHOLD. It is related that R. 'multitude'). 3).

Promised Land. it is men of the Great Assembly1 called written. while Jacob should be a secondary one.XLVL MIDRASH KABBAH NEITHER SHALL THY NAME ANT MORE BE CALLED ABRAM that is a negative command. . xxxv. etc. R. they do not accept My they accept My Divinity Divinity. R. Judan said: God said: (i) 'If thy children accept My Divinity. : The authorship of Nehemiah is here apparently ascribed to it. s 3 V. they accept My the cause (dabar) why Joshua did circumcise (Josh. save that. 4) Joshua spoke a word (dabar) to them. But Israel [too] shall be thy name (Gen. Then. v. by analogy. as him while he was yet it means that He chose Abram. AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE. ' but that Israel should be his principal name. I will not be their God and Patron. . 7). R. if not. 'that 1 : A body instituted by Ezra as the supreme ecclesiastical executive council. 5 'What think you/ said he upbraiding them. Zebida interpreted in R. : ' ' ' ' : ' ' 9. 10) Jacob will be the principal name. if one calls Israel. (XVH. B. if not. IJelbo in the name of R. But 8-9] surely the as ix. i$a. if not. BUT THY NAME SHALL BE ABRAHAM that is a positive command. (ii)'If thy children enter the . they do not accept My Divinity. for only he [Abraham] was enjoined respecting her. Judan gave five interpretations of this. they will enter the Promised Land. There it different. Divinity. Aha's name At all events. I will be their God and Patron if not. for] it was taught: name Jacob should disappear. Berekiah and R. 394 . who didst choose him Abram. (iii) If they accept circumcision. R. xvii. THE LAND OF THY SOJOURNINGS. Gen. 5 Translating: And by this word did Joshua circumcise them. by analogy. Abin b. they will not enter the Promised Land/ 4 R. And this is . does one Sarah 'Sarai' infringe a positive command? 2 3 No. Thy name is Jacob. 15 Thou shalt not call her name Sarai.B. Abram (Neh. 8). and circumcised them. Surely not! * Only four are given here. while Israel will be an additional one. Y. (iv) If thy children accept circumcision. AND I WILL GIVE UNTO THEE. Again. Jose said: It is written. Thou is . 'Jacob/ does one who calls infringe a positive It was not intended ' that the command? [No.

also of one of his sons. He is possibly mentioned in error. and so by a play on words it is read: numi (a sore) maltem (shall ye circumcise). AND AND 1 2 other. etc. FOR THEE. Johanan each commented. 395 . and when they came to the verse. V. 4 the sons of King body 5 Ptolemy. one said to the 'Woe to thee. blessed be He. 6 Without his brother's knowledge. Then each went and had himself circumcised. TEM) It [the prepuce] is like a sore (numi) hanging from the 2 Once Monabaz3 and Izates. Ant. for he too is counted elsewhere as one of the heathen kings who embraced Judaism. 13) teaches that the circumciser must himself be circumcised.T KEEP MY COVENANT. brother of the second Monabaz. 9-10 enter the Land uncircumcised ? Thus did the ' to Abraham. * A prince of Adiabene. hence it follows that only he who is himself circumcised may perform circumcision. THOU SHALT KEEP. Johanan said: He must needs be circumcised himmol yimmol (ib. YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED. say GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVI. is unusual. This follows from the doubling of the verb. who embraced i seq. Judaism the second one is referred to here. 1 It was ! taught: An uncircumcised Israelite [Jew] may not circumcise. R. 6 Some time later they were sitting and reading the Book of Genesis. Rab said: AND AS FOR THEE means AND providing that you the condition. MY COVENANT* (XVII. AND YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED. AND TO THY SEED AFTER THEE. one turned his face to the Wall and commenced to weep. fulfil 'AND I WILL GIVE UNTO THEE. 2. Huna in Rab's name and R. since they were the sons of King Monabaz. When they came to the verse. xx. Jos. 6 The mention of King Ptolemy is surprising. and the other turned his face to the wall and commenced to weep. 8 The name of a king of Adiabene. 9). unemaltem. my brother!' to which he replied.you will Holy One. . 3 1). THOU SHAL.. The grammatical form. AND AS FOR THEE. . were sitting and reading the book of Genesis. YE SHALL BE CIRCUMCISED (U-NEMALIN THE FLESH OF YOUR FORESKIN (XVII. and how much more so an uncircumcised Gentile 10. AS one like thee [must perform the actual circumcision] . R.

R. per'i'ah. circumcision must be on the 2 * verse actually treats of the mother's period of uncleaneighth day. 1 11. Jos. 6) For a son means in 3 all cases. Mah. I. xn. V. 10-12] MIDRASH RABBAH 'Woe to thee. HE SHALL 5 SURELY BE CIRCUMCISED: ciser this teaches that the circum- must himself be circumcised. . ad loc. not of circumcision at all. . HIMMOL 12. whatever the circumstances in which the son is born. Hama b. It 1 signifies the inclusion of b. It was likewise taught. the same. taught: If a man buys the unborn child of a non. since its scope is covered by the preceding verses 4 The uncovering (<?. How did the Holy One. but not to me/ Thus they revealed the matter to each other. R. : HE SHALL SURELY one Beth Shammai BE CIRCUMCISED this who is born circumcised. Johanan said: He must be circumcised on the eighth day [after birth]. and 'For a daughter* means in all cases. AND HE THAT IS EIGHT DAYS OLD SHALL BE HE THAT IS BORN IN THE CIRCUMCISED HOUSE OR BOUGHT WITH MONEY (XVII. ness. iv. and whatever the status of his mother (the daughter '). R. Simeon : 8 V. Phinehas: When he went out to battle a band of enemies attacked him. 13). It Was . Shab. 12). Jose said: He must be circumcised on the eighth day. This intimates circumcision.XLVI. When their mother learned about it she went and told their father: 'A sore has broken out on our sons' flesh and the physician has ordered circumcision/ 'Then let them be circumcised/ said he.* and removal of the shreds [of the corona]. my brother. 5 This and the following statements are based on the emphasis and ' extension implied by the doubling of the verb.Jewish bondmaid belonging to a Gentile R. suggests that it may have been regarded as superfluous. Eleazar said was taught.e. himmol yimmoL* The 396 . of the corona by splitting the membrane and pulling it down. blessed be He. 1350.#. or for a daughter (Lev. and an angel descended and rescued him. and 6. requite them? Said R.). while Samuel taught SamueFs statement is based on the verse: For a son. HE SHALL SURELY BE CIRCUMCISED YIMMOL (xvii. and therefore it was applied to circumcision. with which this does not agree. 2 ' ' .

in which the competitors appeared naked. Shab. R. jza the reading is because it endangers his life. R. Nahman said in R. and R. xii.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XLVL 12-13 and Beth Hillel agree that when one is born circumcised. Eleazar Hakappar. Isaac's name. Judah: Yet there 1 HE HATH BROKEN MY COVENANT. Yeb. etc. 4 5 Lev. v. Hoshaya's name: halachah is as stated by the disciple. Eleazar Hakappar Beth Shammai and Beth Hillel agree that in both of these cases the blood of the covenant must be made to It is : flow. 'drawn' influence of the pre-Maccabean period. Under the Hellenising Lit. Eleazar the son of R. notwithstanding that it is hidden. a minor form of circumcision is necessary. Eleazar the son of R. ad loc. many underwent operations (epiplasm) to hide the fact that they were circumcised. They disagree about one who was born circumcised. 7ia. 6 This refers to whose circumcision is disguised. 4 . however. (XVII. Haggai said in R. the Sabbath. Said they to R. 7 the skin over the prepuce. 5 The 13. 14). V. because it is a 8 suppressed foreskin. is that we must perform circumcision on the member which marks the distinction between male and female. 5. supra. Beth Shammai maintain The blood of the covenant must be made to flow from him. and the eighth day after whose birth2 fell on the Sabbath. 2 When circumcision must be performed. it must be postponed until after the Sabbath. Judah said: He does not re-circumcise. I. 6 Cf. AND THE UNCIRCUMCISED MALE. 1 because it is a suppressed foreskin. when Greek games were intro- Hence duced into Judea. 3 On the eighth day. Beth Shammai then maintain: The blood of the covenant must flow3 while Beth Hillel rule: It is unnecessary. Berekiah said in R. R. Isaac b. while Beth Hillel rule: : said unnecessary. Sc. They disagree only about a man who became a proselyte when already circumcised. On the present reading the meaning is that it is indeed circumcised. In Yeb. R. 7 It was taught: He one whose circumcision is disguised must re-circumcise. 8 : 397 . 3. R. Isaac's name: Is there then an uncircumcised female? The meaning. the blood of the covenant must be made to flow from him.e.

GesMchte (fourth edition). On the historical fact v. Graetz. 73 . 398 . iv. 1 The leader of the ill-starred revolt against Hadrian. he whose circumcision is dis- guised. CISE D even four or HE SHALL SURELY BE CIRCUMfive times HE HATH BROKEN : MY COVENANT viz. which ended in the crushing defeat of Bithar in 135 C.XLVL 13] MIDRASH KABBAH were many in the days of the son of Kosiba1 who recircumcised and yet gave birth to children after that. 2 They survived it.E. Th/s text probably requires emendation. 2 Hence it is written.

And Moses 3 beginning of its letters. 1 The Rabbis said: She was her husband's ruler. Karhah The yod which the 12). its letters now I will set says. 16). BUT SARAH [i. sovereign) to him. R. Usually. i CHAPTER XLVII (LECH LECHA) i.' called (Num. 399 . 5) through Sarah. blessed be He. It is written. which was crowned (his name was changed to denote his greatness v. to in a woman's name and the last of thee in a man's name and at the as it it: 'Hitherto thou wast . but it would probably require a slight emendation of the text. 2 Thou hast withdrawn me from the name of that righteous woman Said aloft before ' ! the Holy One. her husband (Prov. R. Thus split it up into two n s. but Sarah was not crowned through him. one for her became (Sarah). Y. Mana Hoshea the son of Nun Joshua said: Formerly she was a -nttf. but she did not derive honour from him. The passage might interprets T H Y also mean quite simply that Abraham derived honour and glory from her. whereas here we read. which m name. > He numerical value of from her name and is God now the took the * THY : w : : a 8 In actual writing it is Changing j?ann into mn\ almost a mere dot 0). while that of n is 5. 1 i6). THOU SHALT NOT CALL HER NAME SARAI. THOU SHALT NOT CALL HER NAME SARAI. as we find in connection with Pharaoh (v. Her original name was 10. and one to be added to Abraham's was thus changed from erox to nrroK. which are apparently superfluous hence he i F E who brings thee honour. the husband gives orders. xii. R. xii. etc. explains was then her husband (Abraham) crowned through her while she was not crowned through him surely each cast glory upon the other? To which the Rabbis answer that the meaning here is that she was to be a mistress (crown. said: Lord took from * : Sarai soared 1 God and protested Sovereign of the Universe Because I am the smallest of all letters. hearken unto her voice (Gen.[XLVII. xm.M. In all that Sarah saith unto thee. xxi. but she was not crowned through her husband. PRINCESS] SHALL HER NAME crown BE (xvn. BUT SARAH SHALL HER NAME BE. 4).e. to virtuous woman is a 15). AND GOD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM: As FOR SARAI THY WIFE. This seems the most plausible interpretation. xvn. name. Aha said: Her A husband was crowned through her. Joshua b. Hence Abraham refers this verse to Sarah. He deduces this from the words WIFE. .

R. AND I WILL BLESS HER. IJama b. however. 9). 4 V. YEA. xxv. Levi's name: HIS FACE (xvn. On two occasions did Abraham fall on his face. 400 . 4 1 He holds that both Sarai and Sarah denote ' princess '. that she should give thee a son. infra. Abbahu explained it thus in the name of R. Joshua came and circumcised them. supra. This implied prophecy could not refer to Ishmael. Judan said in the name of Resh Lakish: She lacked an ovary. seeing that he was not even conceived yet. THEN ABRAHAM FELL UPON R. According to the Rabbis (v. Judah said that God informed her that He would bless her with sufficient milk to suckle other children too (v. once in the wilderness and once in Egypt. Moses came and circumcised them. so that they should not call her. but that the latter is 2 more comprehensive. 3 3. 1 6). In Egypt. Rash. In consequence. LII. I WILL BLESS HER. I WILL BLESS HER in respect of milk. Hanina said Abraham drew a deduction from AND : this and took back Keturah. AND I WILL BLESS HER. Judah said: This means. Abraham deduced that FROM HERhe would have kings of peoples. (xvn. It apparently means that there was no need to inform her that she would be able to suckle her child. 17). infra. R. in the wilderness. Nehemiah objected that she had so far not even been promised sufficient for her own child. IJanina: I will inspire all peoples with awe of her. infra. YEA. Said R. KINGS OF PEOPLES SHALL BE OF HER. Another interpretation is this: R. Nehemiah to him: Had she then already been informed about her milk? 2 This teaches. 4) Keturah was Hagar.XLVII. explains it differently. is The passage rather difficult. fromwhich the present passage might in error have come here. Jose b. LIII. for he was already born. XLVI. i. 'barren woman/ R. his children were deprived of circumcision. etc. 6. whereas a princess [Sarah] to all mankind. is 1-3] MIDRASH KABBAH now she princess [Sarai] to her own people only. V. 1 2. AND MOREOVER I WILL GIVE THEE A SON FROM HER. R. 8 V. Phinehas said in R. LXI. to which R. that God restored to her her youth. R. which implied that he was also to beget children from another wife who would not be kings of peoples. but the Lord fashioned an ovary for her. 5. R.

8 Reading shimatika instead of shem'atika (E. Judan's name: Imagine a king who wished ' I intend to double allowance/ the king informed him. BUT SARAH THY WIFE AND AS FOR ISHMAEL. but a woman does. said in the name of R. 4. and he was surprised only because of Sarah's age. l8). Abba b. AND AS FOR ISHMAEL.V. Who Isaac's. Hananiah: Here the son of bondmaid might learn [that he would be blessed] from the son of the mistress. AND ABRAHAM SAID UNTO GOD: OH THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT LIVE BEFORE THEE! (XVII. Lakish: When she is called Mother So-and-So and does not mind. Do not fill me your with a false hope/ he rejoined. Judah said in R. HAVE HEARD THEE. Biryai's name: There was nothing improbable in his begetting children. AND WILL MAKE HIM FRUITFUL refers to Isaac. For. Joshua b. 'I HAVE HEARD 1 THEE * '). 2 And I shall not hope for another son. SHALL SARAH. 4 R. Now that his name was coupled with Ishmael could be sure that his blessing too would be fulfilled. Johanan 5. .GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XJLVil. pray only that you do not withhold my present allowance! Similarly Abraham to increase his friend's allowance. 'EJ. 1 When is a woman to be regarded as aged? Said R. OH THAT ISHMAEL MIGHT SAID: LIVE BEFORE THEE. or (as spoke to Hagar.). AND GOD . etc. Simeon b. AND WILL MULTIPLY HIM refers to Isaac. Judan interpreted: SHALL A CHILD BE BORN UNTO HIM THAT IS A HUNDRED YEARS OLD? Why [this astonishment]? For. ' ' ' said. BEHOLD. . 3-5 AND SAID IN HIS HEART: SHALL A CHILD BE BORN UNTO HIM THAT IS A HUNDRED YEARS OLD.) that even his blessing would be increased. [said he]. etc. 19 f. 2 SHALL BEAR THEE A SON I NAY. I the HAVE BLESSED HIM refers to Isaac. xvi. R. 401 Dd . (xvn. 10. R. R. Kahana said in R. BEAR? ' A man ' does not grow aged. I have already informed thee 3 [about his blessing] through an angel. THAT is NINETY YEARS OLD.

must ask leave of him. and they would soon pass away. But these were matoth (tribes) as you read. xxv. He who ' ' ! 1 As the present verse continues : then lay Sarah's superiority? 2 Their glory would be transient. Selah (Hab. From whom do we learn it? From Abraham. Huna said in R. How AND WILL MAKE HIM FRUITFUL refers AND WILL MULTIPLY HIM refers to much the more then WILL I ESTABCOVENANT WITH ISAAC. All these are the twelve tribes (shibte) of Israel (Gen. Yet did not Ishmael too produce twelve 1 [princes] P In truth those were nesi'tm (princes) in the same sense as you read. and consists of about 354 days. 'vapours'] and wind> etc. 3 Shebet and mateh are synonyms. Isaac said: It LISH is MY written. and then I will speak with you/ When he had spoken with God all that he needed. 14).XLVII. we must assume that the year was prolonged by the intercalation of a month (Adar). Since this gives an interval of only six months. SHALL HE BEGET. Let us take leave of the Shechinah. 21). Passover. when the ministering angels came to speak to him. R. while la-mo ed means at the Festival. THIS SET TIME (LA~MO'ED) IN THE NEXT YEAR (XVII.V. On one occasion Abraham was speaking to God. Ishmael. which is greater than you. Sovereign of the Universe 6. Ishmael. 9 ). 'rods'] of the word. which then gives seven months. Said he to them. both meaning tribes and both meaning rods. 4 It Was from his neighbour. 3 WILL I ESTABLISH WITH SHALL BEAR UNTO THEE AT ISAAC. : AND HE LEFT OFF TALKING WITH HIM. Sworn are the matoth [E. To make up to the 365 days of the solar year a month was intercalated in certain years. 28) these were the descendants of the mistress [Sarah]. As nesi'im [E. 4 He holds that these tidings were announced at the time of the Feast of Tabernacles (i5th-22nd of Tishri). I HAVE BLESSED HIM refers to to Ishmael. R. 5-6] MIDRASH RABBAH Here the son of the mistress might learn from the son of the bondmaid: BEHOLD. XLIX. sc. Thus these tribes would endure like rods that are planted. Idi's name: That year was inter- BUT MY COVENANT WHOM SARAH calated. in Nisan. he said to Him. The Jewish year is lunar. Wherein TWELVE PRINCES (NESI'IM) 4O2 . 2 (Prov. whether he is taught departs greater or smaller than he. in.V.

The flesh of his foreskin* but in the second verse referring to Ishmael it is preceded by eth. ETH BESAR 'ORLATHO ? 3 The reason is this: BESAR 'ORLATHO is written in the case of Abraham. 1 ETH BESAR 'ORLATHO is written. Here you say. behold. 43 . AND ABRAHAM TOOK ISHMAEL HIS SON. 23).V. AND GOD WENT UP FROM UPON ABRAHAM.). God then said: . because he had been made flabby through a woman. 13). The idea is that through the Patriarchs the knowis * ledge of * f God was diffused among \ all peoples. as it were. WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN (ETH) THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN (xvn. and their odour ascended to the Lord like sweet incense. And God went up from upon him (Gen. The passage of course a lesson in manners. as though. and that is indicated by the extending particle eth. I will remember that odour in their favour and be filled with compassion My for them/ AND ABRAHAM WAS NINETY YEARS OLD AND NINE. Aibu said: When Abraham circumcised those that were born in his house. i3). 1 Resh Lakish said: The Patriarchs are [God's] Heavenly Chariot. R. again. xxvm. E. and a severer operation was necessary. 4 Understanding it as though God first asked leave. AND ALL THAT WERE BORN IN HIS HOUSE (XVII. Thus it is written. 2 7. a In these verses ty is translated literally upon '. the Lord stood upon him (ib. he set up a hillock of foreskins the sun shone upon them and they putrefied. xxxv. Me AND GOD WENT UP FROM ABRAHAM.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) [XL VI I. 'When children lapse into sinful ways. 24 f. while in the second verse you say. the sign of the accusative. 4 His flesh was firmer. AND ISHMAEL HIS SON WAS 8. and in Rabbinic exegesis denoting an extension. God rode upon them. Thus it is written. THIRTEEN YEARS OLD. further. BESAR 'ORLATHO. And. but since Ishmael had not been made flabby through a woman. WHEN HE WAS CIRCUMCISED IN THE FLESH OF HIS FORESKIN. 6-8 I have need to take speak [with the angels]/ 'Then let leave [of thee] in peace/ replied He.

Jewish fair Lakish: Not only circumcised. about a 1 Cf. b. Abba ' said: He the smart and suffered pain. These possess a semi-sacred character. : R. blessed be He. It was taught 4 You may attend a non: on the Intermediate Days of a Festival 5 to buy houses. 2 To suggest that Abraham did not perform circumcision. Kahana It is a lie and a falsehumiliated R. Radal and a falsehood? The passive indicating that he was made to lie suggests : would you teach a 8 4 5 feel his circumcision. 'A. Levi asked Resh Lakish: Is it permitted to buy uncircumcised [heathen] slaves from a Gentile? About when do you ask me. so that the Lord might double his reward.Z. "Let WAS ABRAHAM CIRCUMCISED. 404 . 3 so that the Lord might double his reward/ : CISED this intimates that ' : I 10. because you thereby bring them under the wings of the Shechinah. IN THE SELF SAME CUMCISED (xvn. Simeon b. THOSE BORN IN THE HOUSE. / 9-10] have not spoken in secret (Isa.XLVIL MIDRASH RABBAH DAY WAS ABRAHAM CIR9. i 3 a. Abraham circumcised himself/ but WAS ABRAHAM CIRCUM- he examined himself and found that he was [already] circumcised. Ammi said in the name of R. 19). vineyards. xxxn. R. Berekiah observed: It was at that time that R. R. WERE CIRCUMCISED WITH HIM (xvn. and only work which cannot be postponed is permitted on them. saying to him hood 2 He felt the smart and suffered pain. supra. fields. 26). R. but had we known of it we would not have Hence he was circumcised let him be circumcised. XLV. Some MSS. 27). Joshua b. all his contemporaries might have said: "We did not know of it. said: 'Had Abraham been circumcised at night. Abba b. Berekiah said: It is written. he replied. but even uncircumcised slaves. omit: on the Intermediate Days of a Festival. and male and female slaves from them. Levi said It does not say. Levi." IN THE SELF SAME DAY. 8. R. AND ALL THE MEN OF HIS HOUSE. AND THOSE BOUGHT WITH MONEY OF A FOREIGNER. R. him who objects speak out!'" 1 felt [with the challenge]. Thus the Holy One.

4 Abraham said: 'Before I became circumcised. 2 There were three annual fairs: the fair of Gaza.T. He would not actually hand him the money then. 1 Hezekiah taught: [Thou mayest build bulwarks against the city that maketh war with thee. Y.M. My 1 For the reason stated. And the Lord appeared unto him (Gen. reverses the meaning: the fair of Batanea was the loc. xx. Jast. a town and district east of the Jordan. n. blessed be He.] until it fall (Deut. 10 It was taught: This is permitted even on the Sabbath. But slaves were not always procurable at other fairs. but the parallel passage in Jer. the fair of Acco. i). : R. least idolatrous. xvin. and therefore the Intermediate Days may not be desecrated. now I in glory will appear to thee/ Hence it is written. Y. 3 and none of them is so clearly [of an idolatrous character] as the fair of Batnan. ad proves the correctness of the translation adopted. 20) even on the Sabbath. uncircumcised . perhaps they will no longer visit me? Said the Holy One. 2 Cf.: only these three fairs may be visited on the Intermediate Days. 3 4 Num.GENESIS (LECH LECHA) festival? [XLVII. 'A. as slaves are certain to be found there who may thus be initiated in Judaism. Z. travellers : used to visit me now that I am circumcised. for thus we find that Jericho was indeed reduced on the Sabbath. 9. and the fair of Batnan [Batanea]. ' mortals visited thee. to him: 'Before thou wast circumcised. .

Issi commenced his discourse thus : If I did despise my manservant. and Thy condescension hath made me great (Ps. : : 406 . xvm. Abraham said: After I circumcised myself. 4 Deriving nikkefu from hi%kift to surround. AS HE SAT. surrounding him. And when after my skin this is destroyed (nikkefu). i). why God have revealed Himself to me? 5 Therefore. i). Thou hast It is written. 2 2. 1 * He replied: 'Did not Job say. R. 5 Hence through circumcision performed on my flesh shall I see God. . 13)? R. and Thy right hand hath holden me up. God did not permit him to rise on account of his age and the weakness 8 caused by circumcision. when contended with me what then shall I do when God riseth they up ? and when He remembereth. 'And Thy condescension hath made me great': with what he condescension did the Lord make Abraham great ? In that sat while the Shechinah stood thus it is written.XLVIII. . Issi's wife quarrelled with her maid- servant. as it is written. or of my maidservant. / am thy shield (Gen. Translating and after I removed my foreskin. 26).e. ' i. Radal and Rash. 1-3] CHAPTER XLVIII VAYERA (xvm. 4 Then ' my flesh shall I see God': had I not done so. i. Thou hast also given me Thy shield of salvation. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM . AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM also given me Thy shield of salvation alludes 'And Thy right hand hath holden me up' ' to Abraham1 . then through my flesh shall I see God (Job xrx. proselytes flocked. 36). 'Why servant?' she complained. . 6 whereupon he gave her [his wife] the lie in her do you give me the lie before my own presence. what shall I answer Him the cause of (ib. * He denied that his wife was in the right. XV. and in [my battle with] the kings. in the fiery furnace. xxxi. through should 3. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. as it were. 3 many proselytes came to attach themselves to this sign [of the covenant]. in famine.

etc. The sinners in Zion are afraid. And Abraham took Ishmael his son . what shall I answer Him?"' Another interpretation: 'If I . it refers to cases is the verse. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. Said R. Levi commenced: . Isaac: If I reveal myself to bless him who built an altar in name. make unto Me My Abraham who circumcised himself for My sake! Consequently. and the locus classicus for said: ' all Scripture. trembling hath seized the ungodly (ha-hanefim). Simon said: This may be illustrated by a robber chief who revolted against of his servants. 5. faithlessness. . etc. R. what then "If I did despise the cause of my manservant I do when God riseth up? and when He remembereth. 3 R. 1 Said he: 'Had I not done so. Jeremiah b. but it also means x He did not despise the rights this godlessness. Judah b. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. R. Jonathan written. xvn. Eleazar said: This may be illustrated by two children who ran away from school: when one is punished the other trembles. when God punishes the heathens. did despise the cause of my manservant alludes to Abraham. how much the more . 14). being a 'right* (privilege). R. to [take] an ox and a ram for peace-offerings for to-day the Lord appeareth unto ix. . 21). . what could I do that God should honour me by standing before me? 3 Similarly. 23). It is XXXHI. who circumcised himself for My 6. as it says. etc. sake!' Consequently. 2 Translating: If I did despise. [God] said: 'If I reveal Myself to and you (Lev. 4). should God have revealed Himself to me?' 2 Con- sequently. Isaac An altar of earth thou shalt [then] / will come unto thee and bless thee (Ex. the sinners in Zion are * afraid.GENESIS (VAYERA) shall [XLVIIL 3-6 . but circumcised them too. how the more to Abraham. R. The sinners in Zion are afraid (Isa. 407 . 4. xx. and circum. ' cised why them (Gen. Whenever hanufah occurs in 4 heresy. . bless much him who sacrificed an ox and a ram for My sake.. AND THE LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. commenced thus: etc. Hanufah is generally translated hypocrisy. R. . And .

' R. a to the Patriarchs. To the end that he [sc. And speaketh uprightly (Isa. hence He said to him. He that despiseth the as it says. God Most High (Gen. and the king announced.) And I will fetch a morsel of bread (Gen. 16): R. xv. In S. 4).) this alludes to the clouds of Glory. Cf. 408 . in the Messianic future Israel shall fear. thinking what preferment the king would give him. loc. thinking what punishment the king would man who pronounce upon him. 22). infra. .S. 17). cit. this verse applied 8 Which frequented Abraham's home. 6] MIDRASH KABBAH ' the king. Because if they were given free passage they would burn up the whole world. Abraham] may command his children . XLIV. is Look now (habbet) at heaven (Gen. xxxni. that walketh righteously (ib. viz. cf. 15) alludes to Abraham. AND THE is ad loc.) y 23). 4). "Sincerely do they love thee' . morning. y 19).). His waters shall be sure (Isa. xiv. in.R.). Hanin in R. I have lifted up my holding of a shoe latchet (Gen. Thine eyes shall see the King in his beauty (Isa. xxxni. R. cit. Judah b. 5). and the Gentiles will fear: The sinners in Zion are afraid. loc.S.).) as it is written.) ? Why are they called Everlasting burnings (Isa. 12. loc. The other was filled with anxiety. loc. loc. xvm. xiv. The 1 upright ones do love thee (S. supra. LORD APPEARED UNTO HIM. Let now a little water be fetched (Gen. He shall dwell on high (Isa. And they shall come in fear unto the Lord and to His goodness (Hos. xvm. One was filled with anxiety.XLVIII. I. Simon ' said: tit. cit. that they may keep the way of the as it He is .V. written. LX. That shaketh his hands bribes (Isa. to any I will give preferment captures him/ A man arose and caught and the king ordered them both to be guarded until him. 5): 'habbet' 2 applicable only when one looks downward from above. Johanan's name said: He lifted him [sc. cit. R. Judah b. 3 His bread shall be given (ib. Abraham] up above the vault of heaven. cit. Thus. i His place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks (Isa. 16. 1 E. Lord to do righteousness and justice (Gen. / will not take a thread or gain of oppressions (tb. loc. Simon and R. from hand unto the Lord.

which means ready. Cur. E. 2i). edd. XL. E. R. Holy upon them. and accordingly it can be punctuated aw.V. Levi's name: This but GENESIS (VAYERA) he wished to rise. xix. as it says. 3 Ready to see God's glory. and permit no circumcised Israelite : 6 What then will he do to those who have sinned very much ? He will remove the foreskin from babes who died before circumcision and set it upon them to descend therein. but for thee I had not created the orb of the sun. 5).: That is when Israel enter their synagogues and houses of study and recite the shema'. 2. 2 My 409 . And thou shall 3 be stationed (nizzabta) upon the rock (Ex. retains E. 4 Cf. Levi said In the Hereafter Abraham will sit at the entrance to Gehenna. 6 The statement is suggested by the use of the word tent in both verses. S.[XL VIII. 5 Again. blessed : be He. 22). xxil. R. 1 I. He spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in (Isa. Hanina's name said Every time that Israel praise the One. 'Behold. What Thou that art enthroned 4). 'And thou shalt stand'.S. thou hast opened a good door to proselytes. token to thy children: as thou sittest while the Shechinah is standing. so will thy children sit and the Shechinah stand/ as it says.R. instead of atsrp. for if not for thee I had not created heaven and earth/ as it says. even for the moon He doth not set a tent ya'ahil (Job xxv.V. 5). R. God stands ready in the congregation of God to answer Israel's prayers. In them hath He set a tent for the sun (Ps. Behold. as you read.* 8. Samuel b. But for thee I had not created the moon. As HE SAT (YOSHEB) IN THE TENT DOOR IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. R. a tent. Mah. 9. even the moon hath no brightness'. 8 This derives ya'ahil from okel. [God said to him]: 'Thou hast opened a good door for travellers.V. add. O upon the praises of Israel (Ps. (nizzab) in the congregation of God (Ps. Berekiah said in R. for the whole passage. i. 7-8 7. xxxin. is : written yashab (he sat) 1 God said to him: 'Sit. and thou art a God LXXXII. He causes His Shechinah to rest is the proof? Yet Thou art holy. Isaac: Not 'omed (standing) is written here but 'nizzab' (stationed at standeth 2 i).e. Hiyya and R. Judan in R. as it says. and thus they sit in honour. R. it is written defectively aw. Haggai said in the name of R. his post). IN THE TENT DOOR.

When it says. it burneth as a furnace (Mai.XLVIIL hence were it is 8-9] MIDRASH KABBAH and then let [the sinners]. 1 . 6 I. For. it hours. 5 lN THE HEAT OF THE DAY implies that it was hot everywhere that condition is fulfilled at noon. perhaps it is shade and hot in the sun. 6 R. in. at four hours. R. IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. ' [Abraham] complained Before I was circumcised travellers used to visit me. the circumcised wicked. ig). IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. behold. 'Against them that were at peace * with hint' I. But And as the sun waxed hot indicates that it was hot only in the sun. Shall the righteous/ He said. 4 You and it say. 21) means at four perhaps that is not so. 3 day cometh. AND HE LIFTED UP HIS EYES AND LOOKED (xvin.e.V.e. perhaps they will no longer visit me ? Said the Holy One. Sc. them descend into Gehenna. this the implication of] IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY. at midday or just after. xvi. making the whole world intolerably hot to its inhabitants for a short while. blessed be He. 2 IN THE HEAT OF THE DAY: when the [this is an allusion to the time] that day will come of which it is written. ? it follows that heat is beneficial to a wound. 2) he saw the Shechinah and saw the : ' ' He . 4 About 10 a. angels. to him: 'Hitherto uncircumcised mortals visited thee but now I and My retinue will appear to thee. 7 Rashi in the Bible ad loc gives a different reason so that travellers might pause to rest. made a hole in Gehenna. 5 R. : 410 . Tanhuma said: must refer to six hours. Jannai said: The Holy One. put an uncircumcised foreskin upon the wicked. now that I am circumcised. written. whereas at six hours both the sun and the shade are equally hot. Ishmael taught: And as the sun waxed hot. 'be in pain while the whole world is at ease!' ' [That is From 9. 3 This interpretation is presumably the basis of R. Levi's teaching here. and not be a burden on Abraham's hospitality. he hath profaned his covenant. but not in the shade. . Thus it is written. E. yet means at six hours ? melted (Ex. Yet the reverse? At four hours it is cool in the that [!N THE HEAT OF THE DAY] means when people cannot find shade beneath it [the sun].m. blessed be He. He hath sent forth his hands to those that whole1 .

immediately HE RAN TO MEET THEM. 2 The 8 * rendering is conjectural. IF NOW I HAVE FOUND FAVOUR IN THY SIGHT (xvin. vm. Palestine. viz. I will know that they are coming to me/ When he saw them turn : aside. edd. xiv. and Gabriel. Michael. Rafael. LET NOW A LITTLE I WATER BE FETCHED. Arab. 10. Eretz Israel] ? A land of brooks of water (Deut. and an Arab (probably a Bedouin). swear that I will repay thy children (in the wilderness. xxi. yanina said us from Babylon. edd. and in the Messianic future)/ 3 Thus written. 4). AND SAID: MY LORD. I will know that . 'Thou hast said. I. Simeon b. or perhaps here. I will know that they are worthy and if I see that they pay respect to each other. Lakish said Also the names of the angels. xvi.R. they are distinguished/ And when he did see them pay respect to each other. Levi said: : : GENESIS (VAYERA) [XL VI II. Where do we find it in the Land [sc. a master mariner. Judan said It was like a double2 gated passage. 1 Said he [Abraham]: 'If I see that the Shechinah waits for them. Hiyya taught: He NOW said this to the greatest of them. he knew that they were distinguished. 8). that living it is sing waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. 7). Bracketed passage added from cur. LET A said to LITTLE WATER BE FETCHED (XVIII. Then sang Israel this song ! Spring up. the second and the third in the guise of an One appeared to him in the guise of a Nabatean. R. in a civilised country. O well ye unto it (Num. 7) that was in the wilderness. Said he: 'If I see them turn aside. make you clean (Isa. R. R. 9) refers to the wilderness. In the Messianic 1 Commentaries in cur. . R. 3). Abbahu said: The tent of the Patriarch Abraham opened at both sides. And in the Messianic future? And it shall come to pass in that day. Sc. in inhabited country [the Land Eretz Israel]. R. 'Thou WASH YOUR FEET: I swear to thee hast said: that I will repay thy children/ Then washed I thee in water AND 4 (Ezek. God Abraham. translate: a baker. 9-10 The names of the months came up with in the guise of a Saracen. Michael. 16). In the Land? Wash you.

standeth in the congregation of God (Ps. In the 21). lO-Il) future ? MIDRASH KABBAH Lord shall have iv. iv. 4). In the Messianic future ? The breaker is gone up. 42). Ye that was in the wilderness. 'Again. 5). I will that is cause to rain bread from heaven for you (Ex. II. xxiri. while the verse treating of quails as a reward is in Ex. where they received their territory instead of on the west of the Jordan. In the Land ? A land of wheat and barley.XLVIII. etc. In Transjordania. 21) HE reward for the Lord went before (xviii. 8). n. before them * and the Lord at the head of them (Mic. thou didst run after the herd: I swear that I will repay thy children/ Thus : And there went forth a wind from the Lord. 27). In the Torah: ANDIWILLFETCHAMORSELOFBREAD. 13). In the Messianic future? He will be as a rich cornfield in the land (Ps. 8). washed away the filth of 'Thou hast said: AND (ib.' Thus: Behold. AND STAY YE YOUR HEART Torah we (xviii. find that bread strengthens the heart. 4) in the wilderness. 2 xxxii. . AND STAY YE YOUR HEART. In the Land? Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle (ib. R. Messianic future ? in the And there A shall be a pavilion for a shadow day -time I from the heat (Isa. that the quails came up. xm. xvi. In the Messianic future? And it shall come to pass in that day. that a man shall rear a young cow. (Deut. 'Thou didst say. and the Writings [i. the Prophets. LXXII. In the cv. and swear that 1 brought across quails from the sea (Num. and two sheep (Isa. the the daughters of I will When Zion repay thy children/ He spread a cloud for a screen (Ps. It is : 412 . LXXXII. AND I WILL FETCH A MORSEL OF BREAD. merely quoted to prove that the quails came from God. 1 In the Prophets : Stay thy This verse is not really appropriate. 6). 13 And it came to pass 2 in the evening. since it refers to punishment. Isaac said: In the the Pentateuch]. As a AND And Land ? God i). there you have the wilderness. vin. that is in the wilderness. xvi. 16). XI. vn. STOOD BY THEM them (Ex.e. (XVIII. i). AND I WILL FETCH I will MORSEL OF BREAD 5): repay thy children. RECLINE YOURSELVES UNDER THE TREE: by thy life. In the Land? 39) shall dwell in booths seven days (Lev.

XLVIII.: a dish of flour. Hiyya's view too. and they did not have to do good their hearts were all as one two hearts. 'Turn lebabekem (your hearts) to the dance/ but. Actually fcemah denotes a coarse flour. but thou who dost eat and drink. SINCE FOR THIS PURPOSE YE ARE COME TO YOUR SERVANT. blessed be He. 6). Nehemiah said: [Abraham urged:] Since the day when the Holy One. Abiathar maintains that separate confections were made from kemah and soleth respectively. which is imperfect. KNEAD shorter form Dro ? is used.V. R. Aha said: It is not written. a dance. 'Mark ye well her ramparts' le-helah. AND SAID: MAKE READY QUICKLY THREE MEASURES OF FINE MEAL (XVIII.' 12. R. which the righteous will 4 for this purpose. ye are come so enjoy in the Messianic future. 'And stay le-babekem. honey and oil beaten into a pulp. read it le-holah. 4 AND THEY SAID: So DO THOU. Abiathar said: She baked nine measures in cakes.V.This proves that the 2 Tempter has no power over angels. 413 . AND ABRAHAM HASTENED INTO THE TENT UNTO SARAH. so wilt thou do on a future occasion*. three of 1 all. and he regards this as a limitation. and may this day be repeated in honour of the son 5 [that will be born to thee]. civ. which they derive from mehol. and interpret it as referring to the life of happiness. 5 Then too you will have an opportunity of displaying hospitality to guests. as it were. 'As for us/ said they.: this is deduced from the word rwyn. 5). as a dance. This proves that the Tempter will have no sway in the Messianic future. R. So DO THOU. created you ye were destined to come to me. In the Writings: And bread that stayeth man's heart (Ps. while 'three measures' denotes yet other kinds of pastries. I. Joshua b. and Rash. That is R. The Rabbis. however. AS THOU HAST SAID. SINCE So (ken) FOR THIS PURPOSE ( K I [KEN be the *AL KEN) YE ARE COME: as in the verse] has the same meaning here Lord with you (Ex. 11-12 heart with a morsel of bread (Judg. 3 E. 7 three of habiz^ and three of 1 pastries. R. Th. is kemah soleth (E. 'we neither eat nor drink. IJiyya said: It is not written. and so R.' but 'And stay libkem' (your heart)}. AS THOU HAST SAID. ly). Turn libekem 3 (your hearts) to the dance (Ps.GENESIS (VAYERA) [XL VIII. 'fine meal'). one to do good and the other to do evil. Mah.e. for R. io). 2 The Hence ' 7 The Heb. e Jast. lit. 15). x. xix.

from the creamiest part of its cream. [Abraham's] purpose being in good deeds. The manna was given to Israel in the wilderness of Sin (v. 7 If IT that it was E R . in the form in which unleavened bread is baked.T. 2 Or. AND ABRAHAM RAN UNTO THE HERD : R. Passover eve. Ex. 8). 2 of Passover. DID meaning half i. A CALF. 10 It is not mentioned that he did actually give them bread. R. 13. said in R. R. Levi said it is ran to anticipate the people of whom written.e. 8 So young that the flesh had not yet developed its proper taste. Jonah and R. 14. Meir. xvi). Levi in the name of R. 11 a disciple of R. tjama b. it therefore T E stated.). x. Meir's name Sarah became menstruous and the : dough was 1 defiled. not necessarily which refers to the young. 9 I. IJanina said: Best [butter] is made from a hundredth 9 medium quality is from a fortieth part . AND MAKE CAKES. Now where was the bread? 10 Ephraim Miksha'ah. n). ipa 6 The Heb. and the Rabbis understood it to mean unleavened cakes. lianina said: The wilderness of Sin and the wilderness of Alush3 are one and the same. calf.XLVIIL I2-I4J MIDRASH RABBAH 1 It was the SCaSOtl IT. 11 A nickname meaning one who was fond of raising difficulties. the second half of the day 3 V. 7 p a Heb. 71. The Rabbis said : He certainly brought "Ugoth' are thin wafers. Others a cucumber merchant. Ephraim is a heifer well broken. 4*4 . him AND HE TOOK BUTTER. [the merit Abraham who said]: IT). R. [The change of name to Alush teaches this] On account of whose merit : were Israel privileged to have the manna given to them? of On account of LUSHI (KNEAD 13. You might think N D E R is stated.e. xxxni. AND MAKE CAKES ('tJGOTH). that loveth to He thresh (Hos. 7). (XVIII. AND MILK . preceding Passover (Y. T E 8 . 4 (xvni. 4 By a play on words Alush is derived from lushi. might mean a member of the herd. 6 'Rashi': he ran to prepare atonement in anticipation for Ephraim. ND you might think that was lacking [in flavour] therefore AND GOOD this is AND GAVE UNTO THE LAD: to train was Ishmael. 5 AND FETCHED full-grown 6 . Num. part of the milk while inferior [butter] is from a twentieth.

14-15 them bread offered. AND HE STOOD BY THEM UNDER THE THEY DID EAT. 3 As though his superiors. this HE STOOD OVER THEM: name he inspired them with fear. we find. R. is AND THEY SAID UNTO HIM (ELAW): WHERE SARAH THY WIFE (xvni. cf. I did neither eat bread nor drink water (Deut. Here that the dotted letters exceed the undotted.'GENESIS (VAYERA) [XLVIII. and so he stood over them. Tanhuma in R. follow its customs'.. 1 too. 'when you enter a town. 15. so they said to Sarah. 7 Thus. [the angels asked Sarah. Three men stood over him (Gen. you must interpret the dotted text. 5 Lit. 'When in does/ 5 Above fin the celestial sphere] there is no eating and drinking. B. 'Where is Abraham?' AND HE SAID: BEHOLD. for If he brought them what he had not ! how much more what he had offered 2 AND HE STOOD OVER THEM. 9). 9)? The alef. 4*5 . Thus it is ' Sc. IN THE TENT. you must interpret the plain writing. The question is probably meant in the sense of how is he ? and was asked as a matter of polite* 7 ' ' ness. milk and (butter) curd. But earlier you read. 2) ? The explanation is ' : before they had performed their mission. TREE. Simeon b. Eleazar said Wherever you find the plain writing exceeding the dotted letters. 6 R. The three dotted letters read T>K. hence when Moses ascended on high he appeared like them [the angels]. Bleazar's name and R. 4 Michael trembled and Gabriel trembled. But in R. Meir's Rome. Did eat. yod. 2 1 The word I^K in this passage is traditionally written 1^x. 'Azariah said: Just as they said to Abraham.M. Then I abode in the mount forty days and forty nights .] 'Where is he Abraham?' R. he became their superior. AND to they then eat? They pretended removing each course in turn. as it says. do as Rome below. if the dotted letters exceed the plain writing. xvni. 4 Now that they had nothing more to do. where there is eating and drinking. They stood over him'*] but when they had performed their mission. Therefore the mention of it is omitted as superfluous. where is he. is 'WHERE SARAH. you must interpret the dotted letters. Abun said: The proverb runs. IX. and : waw are dotted. 870. but the lamed is not dotted.

yet but for her [Jael] they [the children] would have been 1 R. AND HE SAID: I WILL CERTAINLY RETURN UNTO THEE WHEN THE SEASON COMETH ROUND AND SARAH HEARD IN THE TENT DOOR. Blessed above women shall Jael be. 15-16] MIDRASH KABBAH written. as in the verse. 3 now written. so that they [the . And forbeareth 5 2 (we-hadal) to keep the passover (Num. restored him to the days of his youth. This is the reading in M. i) R. Samuel b. 416 . Presumably he reads zve-hi. irregular. xxin. Another interpreHE WAS BEHIND HIM: she understood tation 2 : AND that the guest had come. 24). 10). Eleazar said: It means. Since ? because the Holy One. R. 23).XLVIII. They gave birth to children. : 4 5 The second verse refers to a later period. it had forborne. above the women of the generation of the wilderness. above women in the tent shall she be blessed (Judg. 16. blessed be He. and she was behind him. is IT HAD CEASED (HADAL) TO BE WITH SARAH AFTER THE MANNER OF WOMEN. why is it again 4 The reason written. v. . Now Abraham was old (Gen. yet but for her they would have been destroyed. 'And Abraham was old' must then be written a second time. They gave birth to children. [HADAL means]. Nahman said: Above the destroyed. while further on it means old age without virility. Now ABRAHAM AND Johanan said : SARAH WERE OLD (xvm. the wife of Heber the Kenite. But if thou shalt forbear (te-hedal) to vow (Deut. her menses were now and fii) they had altogether ceased. We have here two renderings of ' hadal'i (i) it had forborne or refrained i. angel and Sarah] should not be alone.. By Sisera. Now ABRAHAM AND SARAH WERE OLD.K.e. 1 3 ix. it is n). Or. This refers to Ishmael: AND HE WAS BEHIND HIM. AND HE WAS BEHIND HIM (xvni. xxiv. and so she stood behind him to hear what they would say. She understood that Abraham had ordered the preparations for guests. The translation follows Th. Th. R. Ammi said: Here old age combined with virility is meant. as in the verse. it had ceased. Matriarchs. . therefore. 13).

V. she stated that she would become young. as long as she I AM WAXED OLD. before her relatives (bi-kero']. p. yet I A M 4 T o o o L D (xvm. a According to this. ga: they amended the text so that Ptolemy might understand that God was angry with Sarah because she had publicly laughed at the promise. peace. 17). xvi. R.' but SEEING THAT / AM OLD. Thus. IS ANYTHING TOO HARD FOR THE LORD name to a (XVIII. AND THE LORD SAID UNTO ABRAHAM: WHEREFORE DID SARAH LAUGH. I behah). R. n). blessed be He. . as in the verse. has her regular periods. This is one of the texts which they for AND SARAH LAUGHED . 13). 'PLEASURE She Said thus that ' : As long I AFTER woman is young she has finery. AFTER I AM WAXED OLD. 61. 2 however.e. Rashi in Meg. Judah said in the of R. yet impotent. R. : that MY LORD is OLD/ Judah said He is virile. SAYING SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH [E. 4 in v. reading it. in This may be compared 1 man who had Simon: his hand V. I SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH. made a mis-statement in order to it is preserve peace between Abraham and Sarah. n.* King Ptolemy. said:] 'Ye declare 3 yourselves young and your companions old. 17-19 SAYING (xvm. thus implying that she herself was young enough.GENESIS (VAYERA) [XLVIIL 17. R. 13 to refer to God. whereas Abraham had laughed to himself (v. 'edi (Ezek. SAYING SEEING THAT I AM OLD (xvm. . young. 8 I. for even Scripture written. 14). AFTER i. even Sarah ridiculed the promise on account of Abraham's age. i. supra. Bar Kappara said: Great is . while I fact. Since my lord is old. . Judah b. amended . spoken as a I This takes the AND AM OLD reproof.e. Rab Simon [The Holy One. / decked thee also with A woman. 12). is menses. . whereas AM WAXED OLD. 19. as a means ornaments is finery. The said: SHALL HAVE 'EDNAH. WHEREFORE DID SARAH LAUGH. 13) to perform miracles!' 18. Judan b. SAYING: I SHALL ' OF A SURETY BEAR A CHILD? It does not say. . xvii.

6. etc. 'I can create man from the beginning. R. Sarah]. xxv. AND THE MEN ROSE UP FROM THENCE. Zimra: That was 2 through the medium of Shem.). I LAUGHED R. Levi said in the name of R. * Supra> xx.XLVIII. AND ABRAHAM WENT WITH THEM TO BRING THEM ON THE WAY (xvm. R. Idi's name: That was through an But it is written. SAYING: etc. And the Lord said unto her Rebekah (ib. blessed be He. Jose b. 'and you think that I cannot repair them!' So here. ! THEN SARAH DENIED. [God said]. escort him/ Hence. R. 1 6). 19-20] ' MIDRASH KABBAH * ' two parts of a lock 1 and went to a smith and asked him: Can you repair these ? I can make them from the outset/ he replied. IJanina: That was through an angel. xvi. and that too was through a particular cause. 23)? R. never condescended to converse with a woman save with that righteous woman [viz. Simeon b. yet [you would say that] I cannot restore them to their ' youth 20. 13)? Said R. So runs the proverb: 'When you have given your guest food and drink. angel. Simon and R. AND LOOKED OUT TOWARD SODOM. AND ABRAHAM WENT WITH THEM TO BRING THEM ON THE WAY* 1 Or. Leazar said in the name of R. NAY. Abba b. (Gen. two parts of a chain (Th. rjama b. But And she [Hagar] called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her. BUT THOU DIDST LAUGH. Johanan in the NOT. Kahana said in R. R. Judah b. Biryi's name: And what a roundabout way He sought in order to speak with her. name of R. Joshua in R. as it is written. 418 . AND HE SAID: it is written. Nehemiah's name in R. Eleazar said: The Holy One.

' While he who mentions a wicked man and does not curse him also violates a positive command. R. He will : 2 bless . . Who had been . 8 I. Thus. whereas here (in the book of Esther) he was already dead. rot his bones!' Then why did they not say this (when they read his name) in the Book of Jeremiah? Because whenever Nebuchadnezzar occurs in Jeremiah he was yet alive. Est. IJelbo in the name of R. Huna said in the name of R. Jonathan. CHAPTER i i. 17)? R. 7). Isaac: If one makes mention of a righteous man and does not bless him. be he remembered for course thus ' ABRAHAM good/ R. Meg. say. Sisera. Cur. Samuel b. have you ever heard a man call his son Pharaoh. blessed be He. . He blesses them. Levi or 1 Rab [whenever he mentioned Haman] would Judah. 9. AND ABRAHAM single Israelite AND THE LORD 1 Nahman and carried . R. mentions Israel by name. R. cxv. if you lay them aside. Nebuchadnezzar. add: R. x. Samuel b. . Phinehas said: One must say. u. 12). vii. What is the reason ? But the name of the wicked shall rot (ib. 419 . 'Harbonah. * V. Nahman said: The names of the wicked are like weaving implements. R. they slacken. Berekiah. XLIX (VAYERA) AND THE LORD SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM : (xvm. or Simeon. as it says.). Text as emended according to Jer. when they came to the verse. 'Cursed be Haman and his children/ R. Reuben. they remain taut. he violates a positive command. Isaac commenced his disThe memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing (Prov. or Sennacherib? No: he calls him Abraham. 3 says: How Aha: I know this only of six hundred do we know that the Lord blesses every when He mentions his name? Because it SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM THAT WHICH I AM DOING. Said R.e. . thousand. edd. God blesses Israel when He mentions the whole nation. as long as you use them. the house of Israel (Ps. Isaac. whom Nebuchadnezzar away from Jerusalem with the captives had carried away (Est.[XLIX. Samuel b. in ad fin* ' . Jacob. The Lord hath been mindful of us. Nahman said We find that when the Holy One. 6) would exclaim. What is the proof? The memory of the righteous shall be for a blessing.

.' What 1 : He My the secret (sod) of the Lord? Samech stands for sixty. yet he was afraid. as it says. From them I will set up seventy elders. 7). Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel (Num. An d the Scripture Lord said : Verily. AND BECOME A GREAT AND ' 1 this righteous man. 4). him (Neh. said: SHALL SURELY BECOME Having made mention of bless him ? Hence. 20).XLIX. The secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him.V. Then Abraham said to Him: 'And who me?' 'Thyself/ He replied. Moses took upon him to clarify [E. 1 The secret of the Lord is with Another interpretation them that fear Him. to know it (Ps.V. Lord make them 2. whilst Abraham cut. What did the Lord do ? He put forth His hand and held it with him. as it says. x. shall I not ABRAHAMSHALLSURELY MIGHTY NATION.] Now God said to him: 'If thou wilt circumcise thyself. untiJ Abraham arose and He gave it to him. . Some commentators attempt to fit is ' : .] For the merit of what was all this ? For the merit of circumcision. being an old man. 16). [Radal: 'establish'] Between Me and thee implies that it was in the nature of a secret which remains as it were between two.] shall circumcise . blessed be He. holds that this is out of place here. xvn. [' Covenant' was often understood to refer to circumcision. 'madest'] a covenant with who didst choose Abram it in. Now it is not written. 'expound'] this law (Deut. who will study the Torah in seventy languages. 14).' At first the secret of the Lord was : Cur. which did not reveal until twenty generations after Noah.' as it says. And 1 will give [E.] The Holy One. edd. the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great (Gen. 42O . xi. waw for six. i.). and His covenant. making In the merit of circumcision I will cause seventy in all. blessed be He. add Now what is the secret of the Lord ? Circumcision. said to Abraham: 'It is sufficient for a servant to be like his master/ [Mah. I. as it says.V. but not very plausibly. 1-2] MID RASH RABBAH NATION. ix. covenant between Me and thee (Gen. [By 'clarify' the Rabbis understood that it was to be intelligible to all peoples hence it must have been explained in all languages. 22). is It is written. xxv. For it says. xvm. thou wilt receive the secret (sod) of the Lord. and daleth for four [that is the Hebrew spelling of sod (no)]. Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons (Deut. as it says. 'counsel'} of the with them that fear Him and ' His covenant. Thou art the Lord God> and didst cut [E. Now A GREAT AND MIGHTY need merely have said. The secret [E. From them I will raise up Moses.e. 'and didst cut a covenant for him/ but 'And didst cut a covenant with him\ which teaches that the Lord held [the foreskin] with him. [Thus God said] seventy people to spring from thee. but the Holy One.V. 7 f. Abraham took a knife forthwith and held his foreskin and was about to cut it.

the impending destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. ' : prophet (Gen. 12). 32). I. etc. later is it is written. Sodom and Gomorrah. supra. said: 'This Abraham is God-fearing/ as it says.GENESIS (VAYERA) with them that feared as it [XLIX. According to tradition all five were destroyed. They are likened to non-fruit-bearing trees. blessed be He. xv. but He revealeth His secret unto His servants the prophets (Amos in. 8 Sc. Now 2 4) . 'this Abraham is upright/ as it says. The verse is referred to Abraham. yet if I 'Now Unto thy seed have I given this land these five towns 5 were indeed in My heritage them even of his ancestral he would not refuse Me: what then does it desired matter [if I ask him] ? And so He consulted him. 2 1 Him . with the upright (Prov. But His secret was with the upright. for he is a I. 7). Now the Holy One. xxn. territory. the Holy One. he would certainly not refuse ' me: what then can it. because they Heb. Said the king: 'Had I wanted [to cut them] down even from his patrimony. v. Lit. 1 level. from the context these appear to be of a higher spiritual E. Simon said: This may be compared to a king who had three friends without whose consent he did nothing. as it says. 6. as says. in. S. (ib. But on one occasion he desired to do something without their consent. as it says. For the Lord God will do nothing.S. 'this Abraham is a prophet/ therefore restore the man's wife. 'Sincerely do they love thee'. said : Similarly. XLVIII.S. and Lasha. mentioned in x. R. b. and finally with the prophets. Whereupon he evicted one from the palace. D'Htzn a : produced nothing good. 4. AND THE LORD etc. 19. viz. 4 if I ask him first.V. R. AND THE LORD SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM THAT WHICH I AM DOING. Joshua Levi said : It is like a king who presented an estate to his friend and subsequently wished to cut down five nonfruit-bearing trees from it. Now I know that thou art a God-fearing man (Gen. R. 'what is in it' 6 Which I am to destroy. I lose? 4 And so he consulted to him about it blessed be He. The upright love thee (S. Judah b. Zeboiim. R. SAID: SHALL I HIDE FROM ABRAHAM. 421 . xx. I have already made a gift of this land Abraham/ 1 8). Admah. 7) shall I then not reveal it to him ? ' 3 Hence.

Alexandras name. said thus Did I designate him The man of My counsel (Isa. 2 R. I Adam So He drove Noah And the Lord shut him loved Abraham so much He Similarly. thee : that country [Babylonia] in R. he wished to do something without his consent. !' made For the father of a multitude of nations have I (Gen. He without his consent/ R. Simon in the name of R. . Judah's name said Not a day passes in which the Holy One. vii. blessed be He. blessed be He. says. XLIV. The Throne of God R. Hiyya. yet I am not to reveal it to The Rabbis said: I have already called as it him [Abraham] him their father. Abraham kept . Nathan's name: Abraham knew even the laws of the 'erub of courtyards. however. 5) does one judge the son without the father's knowledge? Gehenna I have revealed to him: the giving of the Torah I have revealed to him. 17). b. shall I not reveal to him Sodom's judgment! 1 R. place. My laws and belong to xxvi. But as * I will do nothing said. IJelkiah. in. his did nothing. is the proof? Hear attentively the noise of His voice. XLVI. Phinehas. does : What 1 not teach a new law (halachaK) in the heavenly Court. Nahman said in R. Cf. 21. R. will one day give to Jerusalem. 16). 24) . At that time they shall call Jerusalem. he * said. 422 . But as for the third. blessed be He. n) for any other reason than that I should do nothing without his consent? With them [the Sodomites] is Lot. xvn. and the Rabbis of (Jer. R. Because that . 2] MIDRASH RABBAH the second he put in prison. Samuel b. * : : He On : * brother's son. in (ib. Judan said The Holy One. affixing his seal on it [the prison door].XLIX. and R. Samuel said: Abraham even knew the new name which the Holy One. . whereupon he observed Surely I made him my adviser for no other reason than that I should do nothing without his consent/ R. Samuel Nahmansaid: It maybe whose compared consent to a king who had an adviser without one occasion. as it says. 5 hence the comments on : Abraham's knowledge of God's laws. 2 This and the following sentences are out of . whom he loved exceedingly. Berekiah. cannot do anything without his consent/ out the man (Gen. in. . Aha said in R. and R. supra.

and depart. 8). Even those laws Abraham knew. while connotes a kindly forbearance. Judah's name visiting First zedakah and then mishpat (justice): how is this to : be understood? 5 Abraham used to receive wayfarers. TO DO RIGHTEOUSNESS AND JUSTICE ZEDAKAH U-MISHPAT (xvin. heh five. Berekiah's name: He informed him that the world must never contain less than thirty the 2 righteous men like Abraham. Aha in R. 4 8 Cur. FOR HE MAY WAY OF THE LORD. what do I owe you? he would reply. Jast. One xestes 6 of wine costs ten follera? a pound of meat * ' * name not occurring elsewhere nevertheless it appears to be correct. drink. * Cf. Irlus Elai 1 in R. Pay me what you owe me/ 'Why.: to the (provision of) the These are the letters of rw. * 'mishpat' being an insistence on the strict letter of the law. 1 . Alexandras tality [to name This (zedakah) : refers to his hospi- 4 The Rabbis said: It refers to wayfarers]. After they had eaten and drunk he would say to them. yod ten. 'Now recite Grace/ 'What shall we say?' they asked. TO THE END THAT COMMAND HIS CHILDREN ANDmSHOUSEHOLD AFTER HIM THAT THEY MAY KEEP THE 4. as in the verse. 2-4 Now the meditation that goeth out of His mouth (Job xxxvn. R. Judan and R. A ' 423 . mourner's meal which had to be provided by neighbours. he would demand. edd. 5 Zedafyah' and 'mishpat' were often regarded as antithetical. supra. R. nearly a pint. 19). 3 : I HAVE KNOWN HIM. being found in several MSS.GENESIS (VAYERA) and 2). 'Azariah said in R. But thou shah meditate therein day and night (Josh. [XLIX. SURELY BE3. : A small debased coin. xxxv. SEEING THAT ABRAHAM SHALL COME HAYOH YIHYEH (xvni. z. * ' meditation refers to nought but Torah. Alexandras name deduced it from this verse: SEEING THAT ABRAHAM SHALL SURELY BECOME HAYOH YIHYEH yo d is ten. If one consented to recite grace. But if one refused. Aha said in R. * Blessed be the God of the Universe of whose bounty we have partaken/ he replied. R. 7 e A measure. the sick. R. and heh five. 1 8). i. he would [be allowed to] eat. Tanhum said in name of R.

R. R. and the reverse? Because 'great' is fire: mentioned in both 6. I will teach them that the Attribute of Justice exists in Implying that God's promises actually applied to Abraham himself.V. I places. because his descendants are occupied in z the study of the Torah. 3. * he who would say. Blessed be the God of the Universe of whose bounty we have eaten/ Hence ZEDAKAH is written first and then MIS HP AT. AND SEE WHETHER THEY HAVE DONE ACCORDING TO THE CRY OF IT. 3 * E. THAT WHICH HE HATH SPOKEN. supra. TO THE END THAT THE LORD MAY BRING UPON ABRAHAM THAT WHICH HE HATH SPOKEN OF HIM. Yohai taught: He who The verse. and the Sodomites whence do we know to apply what is stated here the case above. according/ etc. I WILL GO DOWN NOW. THE CRY OF SODOM AND GOMORRAH is GREAT (xvin. But of course Abraham died long before the land became his hence he must still be regarded as alive. leaves a son toiling in the died. 3 R. V. R.XLIX. Who wine in the wilderness. It does not say Simply. I WILL KNOW. TO THE END THAT THE LORD MAY BRING UPON ABRAHAM. i. . Johanan's name: of the Flood was punished We know greater. For it says. etc. Yohai taught: This is one of the ten descents mentioned in the Torah. gave them the opportunity of repenting. THEN IT IS AN END 4 they must be completely destroyed. Berekiah that the generation by to by water. . 9. 21). 1 424 . What is the proof? Torah is as though he had not Hanina interpreted: It waxed ever said in R. Simeon b. who will give you you meat in the wilderness. who will give you bread in the costs ten follera . R. Kahana said: This teaches that the Holy One. . . 20). 'have done altogether Supra. but THAT WHICH THE LORD HATH SPOKEN OF HIM. 4-6] MIDRASH KABBAH round of bread costs ten foilera. 2 WILL GO DOWN NOW (xvni. Simeon b. a will give wilderness? ' Seeing himself thus driven into a corner. Abba b. AND THE LORD SAID: VERILY. blessed be He. affording an analogy. 1 5. xxvii. xxxvm.e. AND IF NOT.

Lev! said: to Me two damsels went down to draw water from a well.T. R. is read ribah.' replied she. Sanh. yet I will not utterly destroy them. 5).2). as it is obvious. : 3 As they had * strictly forbidden charity. ' M. they took and burnt they [the Sodomites] her. did not know whether they were evil or not. 4 5 Lit. justice to keep silent/ 2 For it once happened that permit R. thus vindicating the demands of justice for their past misdeeds. 1 [XLIX. 5 ABRAHAM STOOD YET BEFORE THE LORD. 7. BUT back. When discovered this. and for twenty-five of these the Holy One. which is impossible (Man. b. Simon which has Rendering :AND IF ascended to Me. 'Why are you so pale?' 'We have no more food left and are ready to die. made the mountains tremble and brought terrors upon them in order that they might reform. Who removeth the mountains. Hence wayyifenu : thence' is apparently superfluous. 109 a. blessed be He. What did she do? She filled her pitcher with flour and they each taking the other's. This proves that angels have no AND THEY WENT TOWARD SODOM. justice for that maiden does not permit to keep silent/ Hence it does not say. cf. blessed be He: 'Even if I desired exchanged [their pitchers]. to be silent. the omniscient. I WILL KNOW how they are not as evil now to as the cry punish them by suffering. yet they did not. connected with panim.)2 By a play on words rabbah. face. Eleazar said: The real prosperity of Sodom lasted fifty-two years only.GENESIS (VAYERA) the world. This interpretation is adopted because otherwise it would appear that God. Jeremiah b. 3 Said the Holy One.K. and Y. a maiden. Thus they were given an opportunity of repenting. a(nd the verse translated And the men went toward Sodom. when to He overturneth them in His anger (Job XX. THEY Me WHETHER HAVE DONE ACCORDING TO THEIR CRY. yet their faces were still looking upon the place whence they came. NOT. Hence it is written. but ACCORDING TO HER CRY 4 the cry of that maiden.: 'from is 425 . Said one to the other. translation. and the verse translated The cry of Sodom and Gomorrah on account of the maiden. and they know it not. AND THE MEN TURNED (WAYYIFENU) FROM THENCE (XVIH. 2. 6-7 [God said]: 'Even if I wished for a certain maiden (ribah) does not keep silent. 1 R. great.

XLIX.
said:

7-8]

MIDRASH KABBAH

This is an emendation of the Soferim, for the 1 Shechinah was actually waiting for Abraham.
8.

AND ABRAHAM DREW NEAR, AND

SAID,

etc.

and the Rabbis each (xviii, 23). R. Judah, R. Nehemiah, R. Judah said: He drew near for battle, commented. as it says, So Joab and the people that were with him drew nigh unto battle, etc. (u Sam. x, 13). R. Nehemiah said: He drew near for conciliation, as in the verse, Then the children of Judah drew nigh unto Joshua (Josh. Xiv, 6) to effect a reconciliation. The Rabbis said: He drew nigh
for prayer, as it says, And it came to pass at the time of the ojfering of the evening offering, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said: Lord, the God of Abraham, of

O

Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that Thou art God in Israel, etc. (i Kings xviii, 36). 2 R. Leazar said: Interpret it thus: I come, whether it be for battle, conciliation, or prayer.

R. Phinehas, R. Levi, and R. Johanan,
of Gallia, 3 said:

in

the

name

of

Menahem
4

When

one

not say to him, 'Come and do/ 5 but 'Come and draw near ', which means, Come and wage war for us, come and offer the public sacrifice 6 R. Tanhuma said: Why did they institute [i.e. pray]. the fifteenth benediction should be 'who heareth that 7 To correspond to the Divine Name which prayer'?
passes before the Ark,
V. Ex. R. XLI, 4. The phrase, . implies that he was still at the same place, which is incorrect, since he had accompanied the angels some distance. Hence it really means that the Lord was still standing before Abraham, since He is omnipresent, but as it would be derogatory to His honour to say that He was standing before Abraham, as an inferior before his superior, it is reversed. Y.T. and Th. this does not mean that the Soferim actually emended the Bible, but that it was originally written thus in such a way that it might loosely appear a Soferic emendation. 2 He drew near to do 'battle 1 i.e. argue with God, viz. That be far from thee, etc. (v. 25); to conciliate: Behold, now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, etc. (v. 27); to pray: Peradventure there are fifty
1
. . : ,

we do

BUT ABRAHAM

LORD

righteous, etc. (v. 24).
8

Mah.
'

Gallia or Galatia in Asia Minor.
5
*

v. infra, xcni, 6. * officiate as

To

Reader for the
duty.

Congregation.
6

Which means, Come and do your

Because draw near implies both. In the original 'Amidah of eighteen Benedictions (before a nineteenth was added), the fifteenth ended with the formula, ' Who heareth prayer. '
7

426

GENESIS (VAYERA)

[XLIX. 8

occurs fifteen times in the Psalm, Ascribe unto the Lord, ye sons of might ... as far as The Lord sat enthroned
at the flood (Ps. xxix),
1 visiting the world.

which

restrains

punishment from

WlLT THOU INDEED SWEEP AWAY THE RIGHTEOUS WITH THE WICKED? R. Huna said in R. Aha's name: WlLT THOU INDEED (HA-AF) SWEEP AWAY (TISPEH)
I

Thou

confinest anger, but anger cannot confine Thee. 2

R. Joshua b. Nehemiah interpreted it: The anger (of) which Thou bringest upon Thy world, wouldst Thou 3 destroy therewith the righteous and the wicked And not
I

enough

dost not suspend judgment of the wicked for the sake of the righteous, but Thou wouldst
that

Thou

even destroy the righteous with the wicked! Rabbi and R. Jonathan each commented. Rabbi said: [Abraham pleaded:] A human being is mastered by his anger, but the Holy One, blessed be He, masters anger, as it says, The Lord avengeth and mastereth wrath (Nahum I, 4 R. Jonathan said: A human being is mastered by his z). jealousy, but the Holy One, blessed be He, masters His jealousy, as it says, The Lord is God [i.e. master] over 5 jealousy and vengeance (ib. i).
R. Simlai asked R. Jonathan: 'What
verse,
is

meant by the

swept away means without judgment on his own town/ 7 he answered. Thus it once happened that a man was sent to collect [a fine] from the citizens of Tiberias and Sepphoris. Whilst he was thus collecting in Tiberias, he saw a citizen of Sepphoris, whereupon he arose and
is is

But

there

that

without judgment

(Prov. xiii, 23)

?' 6

'It

seized him. 8

'I belong to Sepphoris/ he protested. 'I have warrants instructing me to collect in Sepphoris too/ he replied; but before he finished collecting in
prayers stay punishment. The Lord sat enthroned at the understood as a reference to His oath not to repeat the flood. 2 Translating a/, anger,' and tispeh 'to take away', 'remove/ from asaf, whence 'to dominate'. Thou dost rule Thine anger.
1

I.e. Israel's
is

flood

*

This gives tispeh its usual meaning of 'to destroy'. 5 E.V.: 'The Lord is a jealous and *E.V. 'Is full of wrath.' E.V. . 'by want of righteousness.' avenging God.' 8 1 For payment. As explained.
fl

8

.

.

427

XLIX.
this

8-9]

MIDRASH KABBAH
was granted
'gathered in'

Tiberias, remission

to Sepphoris, and thus without the judgment of his own town. R. Levi and R. Simon commented. R. Levi said: [Abraham pleaded: 'Is Thine anger] like a she-bear ravaging among animals which, if it does not find another

man was

beast to destroy, destroys its own young!' R. Simon said: [Is Thine anger] like a scythe which cuts down thorns,

but when
9.

it

finds [no more] cuts

down

roses

!

THAT

BE FAR

FROM THEE

HALILAH LAK (xvm,
:

R. Judan interpreted: It is a profanation (halalah) A LI L AH for Thee, it is alien to Thy nature. R. Aha said 1 Such action would profane is written twice, implying,
25).

H

2 (Mai) the Divine Name. R. Abba

said:

Not

'to

do

this*

is

written

here,

but

To DO AFTER THIS MANNER:
it

neither this or anything like lesser nature.

nor anything even of a
the same
thing,
viz.

R. Levi said:

Two men
:

said

Abraham and Job. Abraham THAT BE FAR FROM THEE, TO DO AFTER THIS MANNER, TO SLAY THE RIGHTEOUS WITH THE WICKED. Job It is all one therefore I say :
:

He

destroy eth the innocent

and
for

the wicked (Job
it,

ix,

22).

Yet Abraham was rewarded

while Job was punished for it! The reason is because Abraham said it in confirma3 'It is all one!' R, IJiyya tion, while Job said it in cavil 4 b. Abba said: We have here a merging of answers. Thus
:

Abraham

said: THAT BE FAR FROM THEE, to which God replied: So SHALL [THE WICKED] BE AS THE RIGHTEOUS! Thou desirest that judgment of the wicked
;

should be suspended for the sake of the righteous but are they righteous ? Surely they are but counterfeit righteous For R. Johanan said: Wherever zaddikim (righteous) occurs in connection with Sodom, it is spelled defectively. 5
!

1

In that verse,
it

a

q.v.

second,
8 *

would profane Thee

I*e. surely God is not so unjust as to slay the righteous with the wicked Abraham's question and God's answer are merged. the second yod being missing. This I.e. Dpnx instead of ffp^Sf, intimates that the righteousness even of those who laid claim to it was
!

Thus the first halilah means foreign ', and the by casting doubts upon Thy justice.
' '

'

5

defective, a hypocritical pretence.

428

GENESIS (VAYERA)
said:
'

[XLIX. 9
for R.
the

That corresponds with R. Johanan's view, And our elders (zekenenu) and all

Johanan

inhabitants

of our country spoke to us (Josh, ix, n): it is spelled zekenenu'V intimating that they were elders in wrong2 doing, eiders in wickedness. R. Joshua b. Levi said: [Abraham pleaded,] 'Combine their good deeds, and so they will amount to fifty/ 3 R. Judah b. R. Simon said: [Abraham pleaded:] 'Art

not the righteous One of the universe? Combine Thyself with them and they will amount to fifty/ R. Judah b. R. Simon said: [Abraham pleaded thus:] 'Even in the case of a human judge, an appeal can be made from
the

Thou

commander

to the prefect

and from the prefect
'

to the

governor; but Thou, because no appeal can be made from Thy judgment, wilt Thou not do justly ? R. Judah said further When Thou desiredst to judge Thy world, Thou
:

didst entrust

it

to two,

Romulus and Remus, 4 so

that

if

one wished to do something the other could veto him; while Thou, because there is none to veto Thee, wilt Thou not do justly ? R. Aha said: [Abraham pleaded:] 'Thou hast sworn
not to bring a deluge upon the world. Wouldst Thou evade Thine oath Not a deluge of water wilt Thou bring but a deluge of fire ? Then Thou hast not acted according to Thine oath/ R. Levi commented: SHALL NOT THE
!

JUDGE OF ALL THE EARTH DO JUSTLY?
desirest the

If

Thou

world to endure, there can be no absolutely strict judgment, while if Thou desirest absolutely strict judgment, the world cannot endure, yet Thou wouldst hold the cord by both ends, desiring both the world and absolute judgment! Unless Thou foregoest a little, the
1 a
8

imp? instead of iwpr.
'Elders'

means

Many must
The

have some

chiefs: in wickedness and evil too they were elders. little good in them, and if Thou combinest

the good of
4

all it will be equivalent to that of fifty righteous men. legendary founders of Rome. These are mentioned because Rome did appear as God's instrument for punishing the world. Or possibly (as Th.) this is a reference to the early Roman system of dyarchy, under which a duumvirate ruled, and appeal could be made from the decision of one to the other,

429

XLIX.

9-10]

MIDRASH KABBAH

world cannot endure. Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to Abraham: 'Thou hast loved righteousness (Ps, XLV, 8): thou hast loved to justify My creatures; and hated wickedness : thou hast refused to condemn them. Therefore God,
thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows (ib.). From Noah to thee were ten generations,

and out of
10.

all

of

them

I

remembered but thee alone/ 1

AND THE LORD
26). R.
2

SAID: IF

I

FIND IN SODOM
FORGIVE

(xvm,
b.

Judah b. R, Simon, in the name of R. Joshua Levi, quoted: For it is for God to have said: I have forThus,

given (Job xxxiv, 3i).

THEN WILL

I

ALL THE PLACE FOR THEIR SAKE. Lo ehbol (ib.) means, I will not take them in pledge, as in the verse, 3 If thou
at all take thy neighbour's garment to pledge

tahbol (Ex.

xxn,

Yet they [men] abuse Me with words and say: 'He does not judge well/ Apart from Myself, I will see (Job xxxiv, 32)*: i.e. without Me, do thou go and scrutinise My judgment. And if I have erred, Teach thou Me (ib,). And if I have wrought injustice (ib.) to the earlier genera6 5 tions, I will do it no more to the later generations. To him will I keep silence [and] to his branches (Job XLI, 4) 7 [God said to Abraham:] 'To thee will I keep silence and to the branches that proceed from thee/ [I will keep silence] to Abraham, who said: THAT BE FAR FROM THEE TO DO AFTER THIS MANNER; to Moses, who
25).
:

against Thy said: Wherefore people (Ex. xxxii, n); hast Thou at all brought this people over the Jordan (Josh, vii, 7); and to David, who said: Why standest Thou afar off,

said:

Lord,

why

doth

Thy wrath wax
to Joshua,

hot

who

1

a V. supra, xxxix, 6. E.V. 'For hath any said unto God: I have a borne chastisement , though I offend not?' I.e. take them for their sins. ' 4 I will see that you recognise the justice of actions. E.V. That which

My

I
5

see not.'

6

The generations of the Flood and of the Separation of races. The Sodomites. According to this interpretation God is the speaker
Abraham
Reading
V? (to
1

these verses, defending Himself before
injustice.
7

in against the charge of

branch,

i.e.

from la, a him) instead of x ? (not), and deriving ' to his descendants. E.V. Would I keep silence concerning

na

Ms

boastings.'

43

GENESIS (VAYERA)
1

[XLIX. 10-11

Lord, etc. (Ps. x, i). Or his proud talk, or his fair (hin) array of words (Job loc. cit.): his [sc. Abraham's] long speech was endowed with grace (hen) when he beseeched mercy for the Sodomites.
ii.

AND ABRAHAM ANSWERED AND
I

SAID:

BEHOLD

NOW,

HAVE TAKEN UPON ME TO SPEAK UNTO THE LORD, WHO AM BUT DUST AND ASHES (XVIII, 27). He said: Had Nimrod slain me, would I not have been
dust,

and had he burnt me, would I not have been ashes ? 2 Said the Holy One, blessed be He, to him: 'Thou didst say, I AM BUT DUST AND ASHES; by thy life, I will give thy children atonement therewith/ as it says, And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes ('afar) of the
burning of the purification from sin

(Num.
up

And

a

man

that

is

clean shall gather

xix, ly) also, the ashes of the
;

3

heifer (ib. 9).

We

learnt 4 :

What was

the ritual of a fast? 5

The Ark

was carried out into the public square of the town and burnt ashes were sprinkled on the Ark. R. Judan b. R. Manasseh and R. Samuel b. Nahman disagreed. One maintained: [The ashes were to recall] the merit of

Abraham,

for

it is

written, I

WHO AM BUT DUST AND

ASHES. 6
recall the

But the other maintained that they were to

merit of Isaac 7 ; he learnt 'ashes' only. 8 The following statement of R. Judah b. Pazzi disagrees, for he would publicly announce If the congregational beadle cannot get to anyone [to pour ashes on his head], let him take ashes himself and pour them on his own head. 9 [That is not so, for] R. Judah b. Pazzi's announcement
:

teaches that 'afar (dust) and efer (ashes) are identical. 10
All these indirectly questioned God's justice. $upra> xxxvm, 13 ad fin. * 3 Ta'an. 150. 'Afar really means dust (of earth). 6 Specially proclaimed in times of distress. 6 Thus either dust or ashes might be sprinkled on the heads of the people. 7 Who might have been reduced to ashes as a burnt-offering. 9 8 But not dust. This disagrees with the first view. Not dust. 10 Either could be taken. The text and meaning are doubtful, and the
a

1

V.

rendering

is

conjectural.

43

XLIX.

12-14]

MIDRASH RABBAH

12. PERADVENTURE THERE SHALL LACK FIVE OF THE FIFTY RIGHTEOUS. R. IJiyya b. Abba said:

descend from fifty to five, 1 but the 2 Holy One, blessed be He, said to him: 'Turn back/ 3 R. Levi said: This may be compared to a clepsydra full of water; only as long as it contains water may the defending counsel plead; yet sometimes the judge desires him to continue his defence, and so he orders, 'Pour more water into it.' 4
to
13.

Abraham wished

AND HE
.
.
.

ANGRY

SAID: OH, LET NOT THE LORD BE PERADVENTURE TEN SHALL BE FOUND

THERE
be

(xvin, 32).
all

And why

ten? So that there might

on behalf of

men to pray] of them. 5 Another reason, why ten? Because at the generation of the Flood eight righteous 6 people yet remained, and the world was not given a respite for their sake. Another reason, why ten? Because he thought that there were ten there, viz. Lot, his wife, his four daughters and four sons-in-law. 7 R. Judah b.
sufficient for

an assembly

[of righteous

R. Simon and R. Hanin in R. Johanan's name said: Here ten were required, while in Jerusalem even one would have sufficed, 8 as it is written, Run ye to and fro in the streets of Jerusalem and seek if ye can pnd a man, if there be any that doeth justly (Jer. v, i); and thus it says too, Adding one thing to another, to find
.

,

.

.

.

.

out the account (Eccl.

vii,

27).
[for

R. Isaac said:

How
far as

far

can an account be extended

one

city]

?

As

one

man. 9
14. AND THE LORD WENT His WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM (XVIII,

Without the intermediate steps. He probably renders Perad venture a fifty shall be lacking, and there be but five. This is too great a 3 jump. Jast. a water-clock used in courts of justice for measuring * the time given for argument. So too God desired Abraham to plead for the Sodomites, though He knew beforehand that it was useless (Mah.). 8 6 Ten is a quorum for public prayer. Noah, his three sons, and 7 their wives. But he was mistaken in thinking them righteous 8 But not even one was to be found. (M,K.). 9 Mah.: Translating, the righteousness of one man saving one town.
:

1

the

:

432

GENESIS (VAYERA)
33).

[XLIX. 14

A

when

Similarly, AND THE LORD WENT His WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM. Again, an advocate goes on pleading as long as the judge is willing to pay attention to him, but when the judge rises to go, the advocate becomes silent. Thus, AND THE LORD WENT HIS WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF

judge waits as long as the advocate is pleading; the advocate becomes silent, the judge rises [to go].

SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM; AND ABRAHAM RETURNED

UNTO

HIS PLACE. Again, as long as the defender pleads and the judge shows himself willing to hear, the accuser waits when the judge rises and the advocate is silent, the accuser LORD sets forth on his mission. Similarly: AND THE WENT HIS WAY, AS SOON AS HE HAD LEFT OFF
;

UNTO HIS PLACE.
angels

SPEAKING TO ABRAHAM; AND ABRAHAM RETURNED This is followed by, And the two
came
to

Sodom

at even (Gen. xix,

i).

433

Ff

L. 1-2]

CHAPTER
I.

L (VAYERA)
AT EVEN

AND THE TWO ANGELS CAME TO SODOM
(xix,
i).

etc.

It is written,

And

the living creature ran

(razo)

and returned
I,

as the appearance of a flash of lightning

Aibu said: Not razoth (running) is 14). (Ezek. written but 'razo': they are eager (raziri) to perform their mission. 1 'As the appearance of a flash of lightning'
R.
(bazak) R. Judah b. R. Simon said in the name of R. Levi Parta: [Like the flames breaking forth] when one scatters (bozek) olive refuse in a stove. R. tliyya b. Abba
:

b.

said: It was like wind driving sparks (zikd). The Rabbis 2 said: Like a lightning-flash to the eye. [returning to our subject,] they take leave of Abraham at noon, and arrive in Sodom in the evening! 3 The fact is, however,

Now

that

that they were angels of mercy, and they delayed, thinking perhaps Abraham might find something in their

favour ; but

when he found nothing

in their favour,

THE

TWO ANGELS CAME TO SODOM
2.

AT EVEN.
etc.

THEN THE TWO ANGELS CAME,

at one with Himself, and who can turn Him? soul desireth, even that He doeth (Job xxin,

But He is and what His It was 13).

taught*: One angel does not perform two missions, nor do two angels together perform one mission, 5 yet you read that two [angels came to Sodom]? The fact is, however, that Michael announced his tidings [to Abraham] and departed: Gabriel was sent to overturn Sodom, and
Rafael to rescue Lot; hence,

THEN THE TWO ANGELS

CAME,

etc.

It is written, He sent forth upon them the fierceness of His anger, Wrath, Indignation, and Trouble, a sending of

Deriving razo from razah, to be willing, desire. as the eye perceives a flash of lightning. Cur. edd. (as rendered by Y.T. and Jast.): like a wind scattering clouds. s Surely angels that travel like a flash of lightning should have reached
2

1

As quickly

.

Sodom much
6

earlier.

4

B.M.

866.
(angel).

Translating:

And He (God) performs His purpose through one
434

GENESIS (VAYERA)
1

[L. 2-3

messengers of evil (Ps. LXXVIII, 49) ; yet you say, [ANGELS]! But the fact is that Michael announced his
tidings

Two

and departed Gabriel was sent to overturn Sodom, and Rafael to save Lot. Hence, THEN THE TWO ANGELS
;

CAME. 2

[AND THE TWO ANGELS CAME TO SODOM.] Here you call them angels, whereas earlier they were termed men ?
when the Shechinah was above them, they were men; but as soon as the Shechinah departed from them
Earlier,

they assumed the form of angels. R. Levi said: To Abraham, whose [religious] strength was great, they looked like men 3 but to Lot they appeared as angels, because his strength was feeble. 4 R. tlunia said: Before
;

they performed their mission they were called men; having performed their mission, they assumed the style of angels. R. Tanhuma said: They may be likened to a man who received a governorship from the king. Before he reaches the seat of his authority, he goes like an ordinary citizen. Similarly, before they performed their mission, they are called men; having performed the style of angels.
3.
it,

they assumed

SEDOMAH

Nehemiah's name: prefix you add heh

(TO SODOM). When a word

It

was taught in R.

requires a lamed as a

(TO SODOM),
haranah
(to

as a suffix [instead], e.g. se'irah (to Seir), mtzraimah (to Egypt),
5

SEDOMAH

Haran). An objection was raised: Yet it is to the netherwritten, The wicked shall return lisheolah world (Ps. ix, i8). 6 Said R. Abba b. Zabda: That means 7 to the nethermost compartment of hell.

BA'EREB (AT EVEN). The
come,
said:
8

evening of

Sodom had
Levi

its

sun had

set,

and

its

doom was

sealed. R.

The Holy One,

blessed be He, judges the nations

1 The Midrash regards Wrath, etc., as proper nouns, each being the name of a particular angel each was sent alone on a separate mission. a 2 Because he was as familiar This passage is omitted in cur. edd.
;

with angels as with men.
8

*

Hence he was overawed by them.
1

Hebrew nnno
?
*

the prefix
8

6 Heb. miKt? ?, i.e. with both instead of nno ?, etc. 7 Hence the double form is used. and the suffix n.
1

Reading B A E R E B

as

two words ba

'ereb,

evening had come.

435

L. 3-4]
at

MIDRASH KABBAH
3
;

night only, when they are asleep from their sins while He judges Israel by day only, when they are engaged in good deeds. Hence it is written, And He will judge
the world (tebeT) in righteousness, He will minister judgment to the peoples with equity (ib. 9).*

AND LOT
principal

SAT IN THE GATE OF SODOM.

Sat

is

written defectively, 3 intimating that only that day had he been appointed by them chief justice. 4 There were five

judges in Sodom: False-Principles, LyingSpeech, Cad, Justice-Perverter, and Man-Flayer, while Lot was their chief judge. When he told them something
to him,
if
'

which pleased them, they would sa