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Jasolyn Henderson and Phillip Strain January 2009
Roadmap to EffEctivE intERvEntion pRacticEs
& Strain.The reproduction of this document is encouraged. Florida: University of South Florida. www. This publication was produced by the Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children funded by the Office of Special Education Programs.S. service or enterprise mentioned in this publication is intended or should be inferred. Department of Education (H326B070002). S. (2009). Permission to copy is not required. U. Suggested Citation: Henderson. J.org . Tampa. Screening for delays and problem behavior (Roadmap to Effective Intervention Practices). P. commodity. Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children. No official endorsement by the U..challengingbehavior. Department of Education of any product.S. The views expressed in this document do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Department of Education.
2001). Although exhibiting some challenging behavior during for those children identified as at-risk by screening. language. and motor skills Although exhibiting some providers and families to quickly identify (e. In these cases. families. family. some children exhibit challenging behaviors that are and relationships that the all children have with those around more chronic and result in significant difficulties for the child. The purpose of the syntheses is to offer consumers (professionals. high quality early opmental areas to help identify those children and families childhood services can increase the likelihood of academic that would benefit from early and targeted intervention stratsuccess by improving cognitive. For some young children. The initial step towards Access to high quality early childhood services is fundamental detection and amelioration of such problems and the prevento the long-term success of our nation’s children and their tion of more severe issues is to conduct screenings across develfamilies (NAEYC.g. Briggs-Gowan. Phillips.vanderchildhood settings and even predictive of bilt. social and academic problems throughout many schools (Levitt et al. 2007). 1 . are more chronic and result challengingbehavior. National Research challenging behaviors that the Technical Assistance Center on Social Council. social.) practical information in a useful. For children. etc. and learning environment. January 2009 This document is part of the Roadmap to Effective Intervention Practices series of syntheses. 2002). The pracsuccessful in school. The syntheses are produced and disseminated by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children (TACSEI).edu/csefel) as well as that embraced by learning environment. 2001. high quality early childhood are likely to lessen the probability of longservices can provide the information during early childhood is term negative outcomes including severe and resources to help their children be typical and varies greatly persistent challenging behaviors.attention should be given to the quality of the environment ments. Universal screening enables service behavioral. NAEYC. 2000. other practitioners. special early childhood is typical and varies greatly across environ. tion to implementing targeted strategies 2004). body of research indicates that the early the prevention approach that is the foundayears are very influential on later developsome children exhibit tion of the Pyramid Model framework of ment (NAEYC. administrators. 2000. intended to provide summaries of existing evidence related to assessment and intervention for social-emotional challenges of young children. In addischool (Carter. 2000). 2000. Shonkoff & Emotional Interventions (TACSEI) (www. 2000). and Early Learning (CSEFEL) (www. 1998. egies. NASP. An overwhelming tice of universal screening is in line with across environments.Roadmap to Effective Intervention Practices Screening for Social Emotional Concerns: Considerations in the Selection of Instruments Jasolyn Henderson and Phillip Strain. & Davis. For difficulties and implement strategies that challenging behavior families. SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EARLY CHILDHOOD POPULATION family. it is important to have specialized early intervention services available to them and their families as soon as possible to help prevent long-term difficulties (Gorey. concise format and to provide references to more complete descriptions of validated assessment and intervention practices.org) and the Center on the presence of challenging behavior is a in significant difficulties the Social and Emotional Foundations for major obstacle to their success in early for the child.
designing longterm measurement strategies.g. Because there is an interconnection between domains of development (Powell. screening programs may reduce disproportionality in special education by providing early intervention services that reduce the likelihood of future special education placement and increase the likelihood of future school success. Rafoth. academic. and the overall goals of the screening program (Keith & Campbell. screening should not be used in lieu of comprehensive assessment and should not be perceived as a means to fast-track to special education placement (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. socialemotional. data-based decision making has taken a central role in instructional practices (e. defined by the National Center environment. language. 2004). educational psychologists. 2007 for more in depth discussion). Screening involves the use of brief. see Glover & Albers. These evaluations allow qualified professionals to make eligibility determinations and/or provide specific diagnoses of disabilities or disorders that may lead to a significant change in educational services. 2008). targeted domains. screening programs may reduce disproportionality in special education by providing early intervention services that reduce the likelihood of future special education placement and increase the likelihood of future school success (DEC. strengths and weaknesses of using multiple assessors across environments. Progress In the current educational monitoring. or behavioral functioning.g. data management. The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of the use of screening and to help administrators and teachers choose appropriate instruments for implementing a screening program. All of these aspects are important to promoting social and emotional competence in young children. informant types. dataon Student Progress based decision making Monitoring. Deficits in one or more developmental areas may lead to displays of challenging behavior. adaptive. . In addition. it is imperative that a screening program aimed at identifying children with challenging behavior initially assess all developmental areas.. strengths and weaknesses of particular screening instruments. Dunlap. and designing intervention plans. In addition to universal screening. emotional. Screenings not only assist in the identification of children who may need early and specialized services. how screening data will be used and shared with stakeholders..g. SYSTEMATIC SCREENING FOR CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR: IMPLEMENTING SCREENING PROGRAMS Consultation with specialists such as school psychologists. program evaluation. Screening tools cannot identify disabilities or disorders and should not be used for this purpose. assessment. data interpretation. information dissemination. is a “scientifically based practice has taken a central that is used to assess role in instructional students’ performance practices (e. Screenings not only assist in the identification of children who may need early and specialized services. Screenings can help gather 2 information about children’s risk and protective factors. 1997). 1998. RTI includes other methods for collecting and analyzing data (e. NRC. In contrast. 1997).g. 2000. and evaluation). Comprehensive evaluations are meant to provide information that enable judgments about a person’s cognitive. and designing interventions and measuring their effectiveness (Rafoth. cognitive. Response to intervention [RTI]). These specialists can also assist with professional development and training. motor development) will be screened. and are individually administered by qualified professionals... Although screening is useful for efficiently gathering information about a child’s developmental status. SYSTEMATIC SCREENING FOR CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR: TERMS & CONCEPTS In the current educational environment. Screening approaches can vary based on frequency of screenings. it is necessary to understand the differences between these methods to ensure that selected tools are used in accordance with their intended purposes. physical. Response and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction”. inexpensive tools that can identify characteristics that are predictive of future difficulties. 2000). When designing a screening program special consideration needs to be given to such issues as predictive validity (i. Fox. or early childhood specialists may be helpful when developing a comprehensive screening program. CSEFEL. targeted constructs. comprehensive evaluations are lengthy. consideration should be given to what developmental areas (e. expensive. 2006). to intervention [RTI]). progress monitoring. 2008. program evaluation.e.them (TACSEI. This type of assessment is also meant to be inexpensive and brief and cannot provide diagnoses of disabilities and disorders. which then should be used for educational planning. Therefore.. one of the most important psychometric properties for choosing screening instruments.
(c) values. tools should be chosen with careful consideration Structuring the screening to issues such as: (a) their purpose (e. More importantly. information about medical history. higher values are desired (e. when choosing measures that are relevant to assessing behav.effective screening and analyzed. and family history should be obtained as part of the follow up process when a reason for concern has been indicated through screening (Rafoth.. When and easily aggregated. Hemmeter. These instruments were chosen because they are relatively brief. research articles. pretation. However. social history. interpret.. day-to-day and from 2007).g. 2007). raters. For both of these indices. However. reliability and validity. and undervaries widely from stand by all stakeholders (Glover & Albers. and techniques across environments is often necessary with preschool children because their social behavior functioning varies widely from day-to-day and from settingto-setting (Keith & Campbell. 2007). effective screening programs should be structured so that data can be quickly and easily aggregated. sources.. Frye.g. as identified by a criterion measure. demographics of the population on which raters. In addition to the information provided by screenings. narrative explanations and quantitative representations may need to be used depending on the preferences and knowledge base of the consumers. Structuring the screening program to setting to-setting. and techniques the instrument was standardized. making decisions about data maintained. Glover & Albers. across environments is norms.. Aimsweb) or can be created by a technical specialist using database management software (i. A programprograms should be wide data management system allows for the chalstructured so that lenges of transient families data can be quickly and for efficient individual and group analyses. 1997). criterion-referenced.. & Perlman.e. and behavioral screening and assessment tools for pre-school aged children. Information contained within the table was obtained from the publishers’ websites. negative predictive value.g. obtaining this information to inform selection decisions may be problematic because oftentimes it is unreported (Levitt et al. sensitivity. Access)..g. Borg.70. >. Developmentally appropriate assessment practices are described as including the following qualities: utility. 2007). Graphical representations. Predictive validity refers to the accuracy with which a tool correctly identifies those who will and will not develop subsequent problems. specificity. special consideration needs to be given to the consumers of this information. 2007). and personal communication from publishers. include multiple screenings using a variety of . less than ten years old. 2007). and knowledge base of those who will be utilizing the data. 2003).This is not an ioral skills in the preschool population. easy to understand. easy to administer.. Most tools presented here have reliability and validity coefficients that meet or exceed . Excel. 2007). Smith. Printz. Positive predictive value is the proportion of students correctly identified as at-risk out of all students identified by the screening instrument as being at risk (Glover & Albers.75). McWayne. behavior rating scales. and have adequate psychometric properties.e. retrieved . naturalistic observations). the program to include ability of the tool to assess both strengths and weaknesses). norm-referenced. self-regulation. developmental history. The screening tools were examined with emphasis on the guiding principles for assessment of young children identified in the DEC Recommended Practices: A Comprehensive Guide for Practical Application (Sandall. direct assessment. who are also correctly identified by the screening measure as having the disorder (Levitt et al. Screening tools should be brief. exhaustive list of available screening tools in the area of social-emotional development. Data management systems are available for purchase (i.e. Screening should be conducted soon after children enroll in a program or if suspected of having developmental delays or challenging behaviors. maintained. Sensitivity is defined as the percentage of individuals with a disorder. Rafoth. 2007). 3 CHOOSING THE RIGHT TOOLS Social-emotional screening with young children should include skills such as prosocial behavior. McDermott.. and self-efficacy because research demonstrates that these skills are strongly related to school readiness and future school success (Fantuzzo. A psychometric property that is especially important when selecting screening tools is predictive validity (Glover & Albers. Bulotsky-Shearer. emotional. score. These guidelines are meant to assist practitioners in choosing assessment instruments that are appropriate for young children and their families. (b) demographics of the popu. preschool children and (d) theoretical and empirical support because their social (e. self-concept.and format (Glover & Albers. retrieved dissemination and interand analyzed. 2005). & Demaree. positive predictive value.. Several screening methods are available (i. preferences. as well as often necessary with the environments in which they will be used. behavior functioning 2007). and hit rate). 2000.multiple screenings using lation with which they are to be used and a variety of sources. Although there are several indices of predictive validity (e. positive predictive value and sensitivity are most important when selecting screening tools (Glover & Albers. test reviews in the Mental Measurements Yearbook database. McLean. The following pages contain descriptions of social. 1997. test manuals.
Assessment is individualized and appropriate for the child and family A13. standardized and normed with children similar to the child being assessed (p. program impact and outcomes (p.55). supported by the literature. Professionals report strengths as well as priorities for promoting optimal development (p. Professionals when appropriate choose only those 4 .acceptability. 2005). A20. circumstances (p. Professionals monitor child progress based on past performance as the referent rather than on group norms. A31. use only those measures that have high treatment validity (p. Professionals share information in respectful and useful ways A30. 2005): norm-referenced measures that are developed. Program supervisors in concert with the EI/ ECSE team. Professionals meet legal and procedural requirements and meet Recommended Practice guidelines A39.53). A23. money. and whether a data-management system was available for purchase. Professionals choose and use scales with sufficient item density to detect even small increments of progress (p. readability. SUMMARY An effective comprehensive screening program requires a longterm investment of time. A41.58). Professionals report assessment results so that they are useful for families (p. collaboration. Professionals use multiple measures to assess child status.57). Lastly. Families participate actively in assessment procedures (p. A40. convergence. Important aspects of these qualities were used in this review to examine social-emotional screening tools. Assessment provides useful information for intervention A21. Professionals assess the child’s strengths and needs across all developmental and behavioral dimensions (p. A19. Although the initial investment may be substantial. and congruence (Bagnato & Neisworth. Professionals and families collaborate in planning and implementing assessment A8.56). and recommended by professional organizations (Bagnato & Neisworth. Universal screening programs are essential to ensuring that the children who need services earliest get just that.55). A26. Psychologists rely on authentic measures of early problem-solving skills (instead of traditional intelligence tests) that link directly to program content and goals and that sample skills in natural rather than contrived. cost. These qualities are incorporated into guidelines and practices which were identified by focus groups (including both professionals and families). field validated.60). Challenges of the 21st century require a systems approach to early intervention and prevention services informed by valid and reliable data collection. Professionals gather information from multiple sources (p. equity. 2005).52). sensitivity.59). authenticity. these assessment tools were also examined according to time needed for administration and scoring. the following DEC assessment practices and examples should be considered when choosing assessment tools (Bagnato & Neisworth. Families and professional assess the presence and extent of atypical child behavior that may be a barrier to intervention and progress (p. and personnel resources.57). longterm benefits may include an overall decrease in costly special education referrals and grade retentions. progress.52). In addition to these eight qualities of developmentally appropriate assessment. age range.
Spanish version available. and language and communication materials. 2004). User’s guide includes creative activities and behaviors that can be provided to service providers and parents).633 SES Less than 24K .5% at 30 months to 98% at 6 months.EXAMPLE SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN Ages A nd stAges QuestionnAire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE. 90% of parents indicated that question content was appropriate.7% Underrepresentation of Caucasians. and children identified with social-emotional disabilities. textbooks and other resources in developmental and abnormal psychology. Predictive Validity--Sensitivity ranged from a low of 70. affect. overrepresentation of mixed ethnicity. Research. ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): 60% of parents indicated that it took less than 10 minutes to complete 96% of parents indicated was easy to understand. higher percentage of families with lower incomes. If an item is believed to be inappropriate for a family. 2002) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. Strong reliability and validity results (Squires. Normative sample included children identified as at-risk.23% Greater than 40K/yr . interpersonal interactions. Parents can complete short questionnaire at several designated age intervals). COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver AGE RANGE: 3-66 months TIME (admin.. & Twombly.41% 24K-40k/yr . CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: Based on 2000 US Census Sample Size: 2. Bricker. materials.30% Not Reported . methods): Behavioral questionnaires that examines strengths and challenges in self regulation. Twombly.6% at 60 months. compliance. scoring procedures can be adjusted. adaptive functioning. Appropriate for a variety of cultural groups and families. ASQ examines naturally occurring behaviors in the child’s typical daily environments through observations of play and learning (Neisworth & Bagnato. communication. Specificity ranged from 89. education and intervention resources. Progress Monitoring (e. Brickers. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. children with identified developmental disabilities.. autonomy. Used in several studies. higher percentage of well-educated mothers.g. Positive predictive value ranged from a low of 61% at 30 months to a high of 91% at 6 months. Developed by using sources. Squires. Intervention Planning (e.8% at 24 months to a high of 84. such as standardized socialemotional and developmental assessments.g. 2004). and scoring): 15-20 min/administration 2-3min/score READABILITY: Less than 6th grade COST: Less than $200 ASQ System Protocols (can be copied) DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 5 .
On the preliminary version of the BESS. Using BESS. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Normed on a representative sample of more than 12000 cases that approximates recent U. Student form2nd grade COST: Approx. social skills. attention. Spanish version available. methods): Behavioral questionnaire that examines strengths and problem behavior. materials. and 25 pk. Specificity ranged from . 2007). Teacher.82 (Total score on Teacher Scale) to .82 (Total score on Teacher Scale) to . ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data reported AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. READABILITY: Parent and teacher forms-6th grade. Data Base/ Scoring Software $589 6 . Census characteristics. 2008) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening system for measuring behavioral and emotional strengths and weaknesses. and learning problems.97 (Total score on Teacher and Parent Scale) to . there is a greater risk of overidentifying students as at-risk. Positive Predictive Value ranged from . Parent forms DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Yes. higher scores on the Pre-K teacher short form were related to a lack of behavioral school readiness.38 (Internalizing Problems score on Parent Scale). 25 pk. $100 for manual. anxiety. Student (Grades 3-12) AGE RANGE: Pre-k thru 12th TIME (admin. functional communication. Acceptable to strong reliability and validity. and scoring): 5-10 min/ administration. higher Pre-K teacher short form scores related to lower grades and test scores in second grade (DiStephano & Kamphaus. Teacher. aggression. Scale content includes items that examine hyperactivity. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver. Items originated from pool of items created during development of BASC-2. sensitivity ranged from .30 (Internalizing Problems score on Parent Scale). Qualified examiner needed for scoring.BehAvior A ssessment system for Children. Kamphaus & Reynolds.91(Internalizing Problems score on Teacher and Parent Scale). seCond edition BehAviorAl And emotionAl sCreening system (BESS. Computer scoring available. depression.S. For the Pre-school tool.
71. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. Progress Monitoring.66% African American . 2004). materials.. Carter. Positive BITSEA screenings during toddlerhood linked to persistent language/learning and/ or social-emotional problems as reported by kindergarten teachers (Carter. & Cicchetti. learning problems. Computer scoring available.Brief infAnt And toddler soCiAl And emotionAl A ssessment (BITSEA.16% Asian/PI . Irwin. ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): Greater than 80% of subset of respondents indicated easy to read. Carter. Strong specificity and sensitivity for detecting children with autism. 2005) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. Irwin. resources. statistical analyses. & Davis. Adequate to strong reliability and validity results. Greater than 65% of respondents would recommend to others (Briggs-Gowan. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: Based on 2002 Census Sample Size: 600 Ethnicity Caucasian . Research.5% Biracial . 2004). Sensitivity and specificity (i. Available in French. Especially suited for settings with limited time. Dutch. Briggs-Gowan & Carter. methods): Behavioral questionnaire that assesses problems & competencies. and/or technical training. Wachtel.8% Other . Wachtel. & Cicchetti. Child care provider AGE RANGE: 12-36 months TIME (admin.2% Hispanic . Examines four domains of behavior: Externalizing. and DSM and DC 0-3 diagnoses criteria (Carter. Dysregulation and Competence. READABILITY: 4th-6th grade COST: $99/ Kit (50 forms) DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 7 . Spanish. expert panel review. 2001). Hebrew. Internalizing. 2004). Briggs-Gowan. Other translations in progress. Items were developed specifically for infants and toddlers through a review of literature and existing instruments. and scoring): 5-7min/ administration. Qualified examiner needed for scoring. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent. Predictive Validity= . Sensitive to autism.2% SES: 18% Below Poverty & 16% Borderline Poverty (Briggs-Gowan.e. & delays in social-emotional competencies. ranging 80–99%) in detecting children with socialemotional problems.
reliable and requires minimal training to interpret. nationwide sample of 2. 2003). Shown to predict academic performance in primary grades. encourages collaboration between service providers and families. respectively. e-DECA.. strengths-based. and score (Buhs. current research. specificity.g. Progress Monitoring (e. materials. quick. Sensitivity. and positive predictive values unavailable in technical manual. Several research studies available at: http://www. Research. Adequate validity and reliability. Spanish version available.65 and 0. Developed with professionals in the early care and education field.69.devereux eArly Childhood A ssessment (DECA. LeBuffe & Naglieri. Intervention planning (e..g. DECA Program includes: DECA Preschool (DECA). parents. administer. DECA-Clinical (DECA-C). ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data reported. 1999) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. methods): Examines: Initiative. DECA Infant & Toddler (DECA-I/T). DECA can be administer 2-3 times per year). & Problem behaviors. and scoring): 5-10 min/administration. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content.devereux. and information from American Psychiatric Association. encourages data-driven decision making. DECA program uses multiple methods for data collection. Attachment. Teacher AGE RANGE: 2–5 yrs TIME (admin. Construct and criterion validity 0. Qualified examiner needed for scoring. DECA is useful. DECA program designed to promote resilience in children ages 2-5 and based on developmentally appropriate practices described by NAEYC: child-centered. DECA Protective Factor Kit. DECA program includes Classroom Strategies Guide which includes for universal and targeted intervention strategies).org/site/PageServer?pagename=deci_research_bulletins COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver. aligns with current practices of early childhood environments. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: Representative.000 children. READABILITY: Reported as “low” in technical report COST: $199/ Starter Kit DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: e-DECA $250 Annual License Fee 8 . Self-control.
Reliabilities were strong. Teacher.g. Japanese.3% Native Am. 2007). Progress Monitoring (e. Hoagwood.177)” (Levitt. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: 1999 sample based on child and adolescent population in the southeastern U. GL (SESBI-R) Ethnicity ECBI Caucasian . For SESBI-R.7%) Latinos (46.eyBerg CBi (Eyberg & Pincus. 44% Middle/Upper income. Items selected by reviewing charts completed by teachers. Chinese. Sample included African– Americans (28. Qualified examiner for scoring READABILITY: 6th grade COST: $174 Starter Kit DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 9 . Saka. Ethnicity SESBI-R Caucasian . German.74% African American . SESBI-R demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity (Quiero & Eyberg..49% Hispanic . . methods): Behavior questionnaire that examines frequency and severity of disruptive behaviors in the home/school settings and whether parents and/or teachers find the behavior troublesome. 1999) And sutter-eyBerg student BehAvior inventory –r ev.Less than 1% Mixed/Other .2% • Burns and Patterson (2001) analyzed ECBI & SESBI-R data on a sample of 2. consider local norms in determining cutoff scores (Caselman & Self. 2007). Korean. materials. 2-4 yr olds). sensitivity and specificity rates were not reported in the manual. Does not assess strengths or competencies.19% Asian/PI . 56% Low Income.5%).527 (2 yrs-17years old) for more relevant interpretation of cutoff scores and to provide more useful information for using tool as screening instrument.S Sample Size: 798 (ECBI). Sensitive to changes during intervention). 2008) • ECBI-“Highly accurate screening tool for conduct problems (p. limited validity studies. 2003). AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. (SESBI-R) AGE RANGE: 2-16 yrs TIME (admin. Contact Publisher for Spanish. and scoring): 5min/admin. SESBI items also selected from chart review of problem behaviors most frequently reported by teachers of children referred for treatment of behavior problems. Finish. validity adequate to strong for diverse population (Gross et al. Russian.49 % African American .1% Mixed/Other . • Gender and the interaction of child and teacher ethnicity significantly influenced scores. • In nonreferred sample of 74 preschoolers from predominantly middle class backgrounds. Romanelli. ECBI originally designed for completion by parents in clinical settings. 1999) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data reported. 5min/score. Danish. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver (ECBI). Items represent the most typical behaviors reported by parents of conduct-disordered children over a 2-year period from case record data. Research. (Eyberg & Pincus. • For ECBI (N=682.Less than 1% • Not all ages were represented in standardization sample • Cautions are recommended about using this instrument due to standardization sample.1% Hispanic .8%) non-Latino Whites (24. and Swedish translations. 415 children from Gainsville. Norwegian.
Adapted version of the Greenspan Social-Emotional Growth Chart is the social emotional subtest of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (e. Intervention planning (e. Census stratified according to race/ ethnicity. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver AGE RANGE: 0-42 mos. Sample Size: 456 children in the United States.to 9-month level and females overrepresented at the 19. 2007). Qualified examiner needed for scoring. No information provided on predictive validity. Limited psychometric data makes recommending tool difficult (Owens. Using Emotions in an Interactive Purposeful Manner.. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: 2003 sample of children ages birth to 4 years based on 2000 U. and parent or guardian educational level.g. materials.to 24-month level. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. Limited reliability and validity information reported in manual. Development of test based on traditional developmental models and author’s 30 years of clinical work and research. Engaging in Relationships.S. Progress Monitoring. Gender was generally equal at all age levels with the exception of males overrepresented at the 6. and Creating Logical Bridges Between Emotions and Ideas. Bayley III). Using Interactive Emotional Signals to Communicate and Solve Problems. Using Symbols to Convey Intentions or Feelings and Express More Than Basic Needs. READABILITY: NR COST: $99/Intro Kit DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 10 . and scoring): 10 min/administration. 2007). ages 15 days to 42 months. region. TIME (admin. Caregiver report includes activities that promote socialemotional competence) ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data available about social validity. 2004) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening.greenspAn soCiAl emotionAl growth ChArt (Greenspan.. methods): Examines 6 areas: Growing Self-Regulation and Interest in the World.g. Language development greatly impacts performance on this tool (McGregor.
Criterion validity ranged from poor to moderate.htm 11 . AGE RANGE: 0-36 months TIME (admin. Sample included 57 children resulting in 326 observations. 1998) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Yes. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Sample recruited from 5 childcare centers in Kansas. materials. READABILITY: Observational system COST: There are no costs to download and learn to use the IGDI instruments through website. Progress Monitoring ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): IGDIs are designed and field-validated by early childhood practitioners and interventionists. Brief to administer and economical. ESI was developed from outcome statement that was socially validated in a national survey of parents and practitioners (Priest et al.edu/index. Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development. split half & alternate forms reliability ranged from moderate to strong. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. 2001). ESI allows for the use of parent or other uncertified individual as play partner.igdi. Limited demographic information available about sample.. Important to note that during standardization there was near zero frequency of negative social behaviors. methods): ESI is observational system meant to identify “authentic” child behaviors in natural settings. Also allows for accommodations for children with physical and/or sensory impairments. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): For use by certified EC service providers.ku.indiCAtors of individuAl growth And development for infAnts And toddlers-eArly soCiAl indiCAtor (esi) (IGDI. ESI was developed from social skills literature and uses developmentally appropriate manipulatives and practices. and scoring): 6-10min/administration by certified practitioner. http://www.
Items developed based on child development literature review. multisetting uses for screening. with the exception of interrater reliability which ranged from poor to moderate. with majority collected between 1992 to 1994. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver. Intended for multimethod. COST: $114-Starter Kit DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 12 . In addition. 2004). remainder collected between 1996 and 2000. and special education classification closely resembles 2000 US census. Sample Size: 3.presChool And K indergArten BehAvior sCAles-2nd ed. with content validation based on examination by 16 early childhood professionals. (PKBS-2. CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: Ethnicity. Useful for screening purposes and research (Allin. Assessment. Externalizing Problems. ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data reported. Limited information available in manual for intervention planning (Allin.317 children. AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. Spanish version available. Intervention Planning. and scoring): 8-12 min/admin. socioeconomic status. and eligibility (Allin. and Internalizing Problems. Social Independence. Progress Monitoring. 2004). Information on predictive validity is not reported in the manual. Social Interaction. 2004). Teacher AGE RANGE: 3-6 yrs TIME (admin. methods): PKBS developed using a rational-theoretical approach. ages 3 through 6. 2004). Subtests include Social Cooperation. READABILITY: Not reported. Difficult to use for progress monitoring during early childhood because of the failure to separate norm tables by age (Madle. Merrell. 2005). Adequate to strong reliability and validity results. Research. 2003) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. materials. no research provided in manual attesting to usefulness as progress monitoring tool (Allin. assessment. Behavioral questionnaire that examines positive social skills and problem behaviors. multisource.
CONGRUENCE & SENSITIVITY (psychometrics): Norming Sample: Included approximately 1000 infants and toddlers (i. methods): Behavioral questionnaire that assesses temperament. play. materials. senses and movement. limited demographic information available about sample. Assessment component also available) ACCEPTABILITY (social validity): No data reported. vocal and oral behavior. attachment and social behavior. significantly negatively correlated with PKBS-2 social skills subscale (Gallen & Horrell.htm).com/store/books/bagnato-tabs/faqs. neurobehavioral state. Bricker. attention and activity.. Bagnato. Assessment and Eligibility Determination (e. Squires. and scoring): 5 min/admin. 1999) UTILITY (multiple purposes): Screening. and preschoolers.. Salvia. predictive validity not reported in manual.e. . READABILITY: 3rd grade COST: $75/Manual & 50 screening protocols DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: No 13 . toddlers. 2004).e.g. NAEYC. Monitoring.e.temperAment And AtypiCAl BehAvior sCAle (TABS. Per author-TABS meets all professional standards for educational and psychological tests of the American Psychological Association. Brief and easy to administer and score. Teacher AGE RANGE: 11-71 mos. TIME (admin.. COLLABORATION & CONVERGENCE (multiple sources): Parent/Caregiver. and DEC standards for authentic and developmentally appropriate assessment (http:// www.g. Item development based on literature review of various infancy and early childhood disorders. Neisworth.72) and specificity (i. “Promising developmentally appropriate screening measure with moderate to strong psychometric properties (p. Research. Davis.brookespublishing. 11-71 months old). 2007). not reported in manual) described as “superior” by author. Intervention planning (e. Sensitivity (i. Adequate to strong reliability and validity results.. Manual includes information on interventions). AUTHENTICITY & EqUITY (accommodating and developmentally appropriate content. and self-stimulatory behavior in infants. Hunt. Significantly positively correlated with PKBS-2 Problem Behavior Scale. Sample not nationally representative..135. sleeping.
M. Caselman. Barnett. R.. J. (1999).S. Sandall. from http://www. 36(1). Achieving science-based practice through response to intervention: What it might look like in preschools. Wachtel. Bulotsky-Shearer. & Pincus... A. Assessment of young children's socialemotional development and psychopathology: Recent advances and recommendations for practice. A. (2005). 17(1).T. Odessa. 2009 from http://www. Bracken. VanDerHeyden.. & R. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. D.nectac. Frye. J. 93-102. Test review of Devereux Early Childhood Assessment. 44(6). In S.. Bagnato. D. (2003). McWayne. FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.. Briggs-Gowan. (2005). T. & Carter. (2006). Infants & Young Children: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Special Care Practices.. H.S. 17(2). 15-28. Retrieved October 24.htm?pid=0158007-352 Briggs-Gowan. Smith.. S.R. Bourdon. & Gruber. Simpson. J.). M.org/~ppts/ calls/SocEmotslides/index. & Witt.. J. Impara. & Kamphaus.. D. D. M. 45(1). & Patterson. D. K. B. N. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Fantuzzo.L.pdf Division for Early Childhood (DEC).htm Carter. S.V. 2009.. W. Distefano. R. Mental health screening in young children.com/ haiweb/cultures/en-us/productdetail. Longmont: Sopris West. J.org/ uploads/docs/about_dec/position_concept_papers/ PositionStatement_ChallBeh. K. D. & Cicchetti. G. A.. North American Journal of Psychology. M... (2004). S. (2001. Normative data on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory: Parent and teacher rating scales of disruptive problems in children and adolescents. Irwin. DEC recommended practices: Assessment. Book Review: Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales-Second Edition. M. P. Assessment instruments for measuring young children's social-emotional behavioral development. B. Buhs. Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry. Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory & Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory . Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. D. 2009. S. Rae. Spies (Eds. Plake. & Ornstein-Davis. J. Retrieved from the Buros Institute's Mental Measurement Yearbook Online database. Journal of Pediatric Psychology.E.dec-sped. D.pdf Eyberg. 109-134. 5(3). (2007). G. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: Screening for socialemotional problems and delays in competence. From B.(1998). E. 45-70). 15(2). 29(2).J. 129-144. A.F. D.(1998).P. The Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and Brief Infant Toddler SocialEmotional Assessment (BITSEA): New instruments for evaluating 12. 23(1). Child and Family Behavior Therapy. R. An interview with Bruce Bracken about the measurement of basic concepts in children. Davis. M. & Shaughnessy. Burks Behavior Ratings Scales.. Division for Early Childhood (DEC). School Psychology Review. Investigation of dimensions of social-emotional classroom behavior and school readiness for low-income urban preschool children.dec-sped. & Self. Identification of and intervention with challenging behavior. (2005). (2004). The Brief InfantToddler Social and Emotional Assessment. Hemmeter. A. & Koretz. The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook [Electronic version]. A. (2007). Carter. 81-86. May).REFERENCES Allin. DEC Recommended Practices (pp. Retrieved January 20. Burns. 557-564. McDermott. 103-115.org/ uploads/docs/about_dec/position_concept_papers/ ConceptPaper_ChallBeh.. 30(2).to 48-month-old social-emotional/ behavioral problems and competencies.. A.J. 22(1). D. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U. S. A. J.S. 44-62. P. J. Children & Schools. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders. R. Briggs-Gowan. (2004). M. C. Retrieved January 20. Carter.. Identification of and intervention with challenging behavior. Bricker.). (2003).Revised.S. McLean (Eds. 2008 from http://pearsonassess. L. C. 31-54. C.. C. 14 . (2007).. from http://www. Goodman. & Squires. & Neisworth.. 351-363.. & Perlman. 143-155.. normative data and psychometric properties. Development and validation of a behavioral screener for preschool-age children.J. Retrieved January 20. (2001). (2008). Burks. Second Edition..(2004). J.
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Borg. Powell. J. & B. A. DC: Education Development Center. and behavioral screening tools for Head Start and Early Head Start. G. A. http://www. DEC recommended practices. J. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing... (2007). (2006).Owens. Bricker. Infant Mental Health Journal. B. & Fox.html 16 . J. mental health initiative: Compendium of screening tools for early childhood social-emotional development. Prevention and intervention for the challenging behaviors of toddlers and preschoolers. J. The seventeenth mental measurements yearbook [Electronic version]. H. E. & Twombly. 25-35. E. Spies.org/ Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL). Rafoth. 34(2). Developmental screening and assessment instruments with an emphasis on social and emotional development for young children ages birth through five. 1-15. S.. 455-465.org/PDF/screentools. From K.edc.challengingbehavior. Querido. Geisinger. 1. & Demaree. F. (2007).. 19(1). G. Squires. S. Retrieved from the Buros Institute's Mental Measurement Yearbook Online database. 34.. S. (2004). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina.. Dunlap. Early Childhood Education Journal. FPG Child Development Institute. F. Sosna. & Twombly. A. M. (2005). T. 34(6). R. A. & McLean. M. Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social and Emotional. Psychometric properties of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised with preschool children. (1997).. Printz.G. Longmont: Sopris West. D. & Eyberg. (2003). L. RESOURCES Allen. Infants & Young Children: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Special Care Practices.). Psychology in the Schools. Plake (Eds. (2005). Smith. 25(1). Test review of the Greenspan Socialemotional Growth Chart. http://www. Washington.M. Squires. A look at social. Guidelines for developing screening programs. Behavior Therapy. Bricker. M... 2008 from http://ccf. emotional. E. S..pdf Ringwalt. D. S. Assessing the development of young children in child care: A survey of formal assessment practices in one state. Carlson. Sandall. (2002). preschool. National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center. & Mastergeorge. P. 62-73. (2008). The infant. (2003). Sacremento: CA: California Institute for Mental Health. L. Parentcompleted screening for social emotional problems in young children: The effects of risk/disability status and gender on performance. Retrieved October 24. M. D. family. Technical Assistance Center of Social Emotional Intervention (TACSEI). 129. J.vanderbilt.edu/ csefel/index. Hemmeter.
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