KAKALI MUKHERJEE 1. INTRODUCTION Marwari is a speech of a community called Marwari (alternatively Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi etc.) mainly in the state of Rajasthan of Indian Union. The language as well as the community is also found in the neighbouring state of Gujarat and in some adjacent areas of Pakistan. In Rajasthan the Marwari people live mainly in Jodhpur, Bikaner, Barmer, Nagaur, Pali and almost all the districts of Rajasthan.
FAMILY AFFILIATION In Linguistic Survey of India by Sir George Abraham Grierson Marwari has
been attested as one of the dialects of Rajasthani language that belongs to the Central group of Inner Indo-Aryan languages. Rajasthani is comprised of Western, Central-Eastern, NorthEastern and South-Eastern dialect groups. Marwari is the principal member of Western Rajasthani dialect which is spoken in various forms in Marwar, Mewar, Eastern Sindh, Jaisalmer, South Punjab and north-west of Jaipur state. Jaipuri and Harauti mainly constitute the Central-Eastern Rajasthani whereas Mewati and Ahirwati comprise the north-eastern
Rajasthani group and Malvi being the principal member of South-eastern dialect meets Bundeli (a Western Hindi dialect) to its east and Gujarati to its west. The other member of this South-eastern group is Nimadi (LSI, Vol.IX Part II, pp 1-3). In ‘Language Handbook on Mother tongues in Census’ by R.C. Nigam. Marwari has been classified as ‘the principal dialect of Western Rajasthan spread along a wide area and also written as a common form of speech by the native speakers who are found spread along all over country. Marwari is known to have several traits showing affinity with Sindhi” (1971, pp-162-163). Dr. L.P. Tessitori in his ‘Notes on the Grammar of the Old Western Rajasthani with special reference to Apabhramsa and to Gujarati and Marwari’ has opined that Marwari language along with Gujarati is affiliated to Old Western Rajasthani which is the immediate off spring of the Sauraseni Apabhramsa (1914 -1916 ; p-1). Marwari is
included in Wikipedia (the free encyclopaedia) as the largest member of Rajasthani cluster of western dialects of Hindusthani. However, in Indian Census Marwari has been appearing as a member of Rajasthani language till 1961. The treatment has undergone changes from 1971 census onwards when Marwari along with Rajasthani has been classified as one of the mother tongues grouped under Hindi language. 1.2. LOCATION According to Grierson, Marwari is bounded by the “Eastern dialects of Rajasthani (of which Jaipuri is the Standard) on the east; on the south-east it is bounded by Malvi dialect of Rajasthani and a number of Bhili dialects; on the south-west it is bounded by Gujarati. On the west Marwari meets with Sindhi”. And “on the north-west Marwari merges into Punjabi and the Bangaru dialect of Western Hindi through Bagri” (LSI Vol.IX Part-II, p-16). Presently, Marwari is spoken in the state of Rajasthan which is constituted of 32 districts according to 2001 census, being the latest published census report. It is spoken also in Maharashtra, Gujarat with considerable number of speakers. In the year of 1829 the word “Rajasthan” first came into use by Sir Colonel Tod in his well known book “Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan” which gradually gained popularity and was consequently accepted by the Indian National Congress prior to Independence of India. The same has been accepted by the Government of India after Independence of the country. Rajasthan became a full fledged state on 1st November, 1956 through a process of state formation effected from 28 th February of 1948. The present Rajasthan state covers an area of 342,274 square kilomtres (Census of India, 2001, Primary Census Abstract) and is situated in the North-West direction of the country. As a state it is bounded by Uttar Pradesh state in the east and from east to south by Madhya Pradesh while the South-Western boundary is marked by the state of Gujarat. The west of Rajasthan meets the area of Sind (at present Sindh is beyond the territory of Independent India). Haryana and Punjab are the two states marked as the northern boundary of Rajasthan.
Keeping this geographic surrounding of Rajasthan state in view it can be said that starting from east to west via south and from south to north via west, Marwari is bounded by the Hindi dialects gradually assimilating with Gujarati through Bhili/Bhilodi on its way from east to west and that from western tract to northern tract Marwari meets Sindhi, Lahnda and Punjabi. 1.3. SPEAKERS’ STRENGTH: Language - Mother Tongue - Bilingualism Till 1961 Census Marwari has been treated as a dialect of Rajasthani which has changed in subsequent Censuses. Since 1971 Census it has been classified and presented as a grouped mother tongue of Hindi – one of the 22 Scheduled Languages of Indian Union - . According to latest Census of 2001, the Marwari is spoken by 79,36,183 speakers in India and they are majorly concentrated in the states of Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The following is the distribution of Marwari along with Rural-Urban break-up as per 2001 Census.
State Person India Rajasthan 7936183 6279105
Total Male 4120598 3240288 Female 3815585 3038817 Person 5860397 5389868
Rural Male 3018075 2774550 Female 2842322 2615318 Person 2075786 889237
Urban Male 1102523 465738 Female 973263 423499
Maharashtra Gujarat Karnataka Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Jharkhand
1076739 206895 60731 50754 48113 43195 40853
568284 114101 32671 26345 25032 22776 21352
508455 92794 28060 24409 23081 20419 19501
355655 37721 2020 34462 4501 2766 3452
181656 20485 1143 17851 2404 1592 1821
173999 17236 877 16611 2097 1174 1631
721084 169174 58711 16292 43612 40429 37401
386628 93616 31528 8494 22628 21184 19531
334456 75558 27183 7798 20984 19245 17870
The Marwari has been returned from all 32 districts of Rajasthan which is presented below in descending order :
State/District Rajasthan Barmer Jalor Jodhpur Pali Sirohi Ajmer Nagaur Jaisalmer Bikaner Jaipur Churu Jhunjhunun Sikar Bhilwara Ganganagar Hanumangarh Kota Rajsamand* Udaipur Total 6279105 1058704 1046963 883651 732307 718547 463544 341903 247690 234020 171656 93210 82814 52015 44103 38031 18006 10977 9268 6158 Male 3240288 559291 532176 459931 365972 366896 237349 175011 134044 123528 89935 47670 42328 26426 22498 20323 9511 5739 4665 3387 Female 3038817 499413 514787 423720 366335 351651 226195 166892 113646 110492 81721 45540 40486 25589 21605 17708 8495 5238 4603 2771
The individual bilingual figures of Marwari last appeared in Indian census in 1961. BILINGUALISM Information on bilingualism in Marwari or any mother tongue grouped under Hindi has not been appearing in Indian Census since 1971 onwards as Marwari bilingual figures are clubbed with bilingual returns of Hindi language. Hence the information on
bilingual/trilingual returns of Hindi language include the information/returns of Marwari also in the published Census data from 1971-2001. according to which the bilingual returns of Marwari both in India and Rajasthan ar e as follows:
.Chittaurgarh Bundi Alwar Bharatpur Baran* Tonk Banswara Dungarpur Jhalawar Dausa* Sawai Madhopur Karauli* Dhaulpur
5166 5152 3515 2889 2666 2088 1539 938 772 551 176 78 8
2754 2731 1874 1533 1377 1018 896 558 424 309 83 47 4
2412 2421 1641 1356 1289 1070 643 380 348 242 93 31 4
10.772 .144 .12. F-18.104.22.1682 (M-9.010 .923) 6.992. Other languages – 18.712 (M-57.032 188.665 Female 9.058 .535) 3.979 (M-38.800
6.904. F-6. English – 44.701) 2.418)
. F-32. Kannada – 7.476 (M-7. Marathi – 104.191 .76 2
The major languages in which people are bilingual 1. English – 33.050 . Hindi . F-3.450. F-3. F-2.909 2.892 (M-29.540
290. Urdu – 9. F-4.232
The Major languages in which people are Bilingual 1.014) [Census of India 1961 Vol. Part-1-c(ii) Language Tables c-VI Bilingualism pp-489-490] Rajasthan Language/ Mother Tongue Total Marwari Male Female Bilingual break up Total 54.374
5.242.361) 7.933 (M-8.628) 5.India Language/ Mother Tongue Total Marwari Male Female Bilingual break up Total Male Female 101.781.786 (M-12. Urdu .I.411 (M –4.439 (M-57. Gujarati .084 2.789.449 3.995. F-2. F-6.846 2.262) 2.902 .077) 4.039 Male 44.
F-64) 5. 1. SOCIOLINGUISTIC SITUATION/ INFORMATION The first and foremost distinguishing feature so far as sociology of Marwari language is concerned that throughout the Rajasthan state.086 . whether consciously or unconsciously. as appeared in 2001 Census is presented below in descending order. Instead.XIV Rajasthan Part-II c (i) Social and Culrtural Tables. the influence of Urdu may be realized in Marwari in perceivable quantity. Hence. Mewari. being a mother tongue of Hindi. Others – 6. F-1790) [Census of India of 1961 Vol. Marathi – 636 (M-572 . Kannada – 169 (M-164 .490] However. pp 489 . people avoid using or uttering the names of the dialects like Marwari. F-5) 6. Gujarati – 2. Harauti.5. it is established that Hindi language speakers are majorly bilingual in English which is applicable to Marwari also.876 (M-5.594 .3. people feel encouraged to identify themselves as speakers of ‘Rajasthani’ only. English language is followed by Urdu language by Marwari as well as Hindi speakers as a language of bilingualism. Mewati etc. F-396) 4.990 (M-2.
Total speakers of languages Persons Males Females
1 HINDI 51407216 2 3
1st subsidiary languages Persons Males
English Urdu Punjabi Sanskrit Gujarati Sindhi Bhili/ Bhilodi Others
2284961 236135 107520 76885 36306 33230 20240 23242 2818519
1602919 130168 57794 58280 19091 17720 10067 12948 1908987
682042 105967 49726 18605 17215 15510 10173 10294 909532
. the major bilingual picture of Hindi language in Rajasthan state.
The people of Rajasthan have become aspirant that by implementing this strategy of identifying themselves and their language as “Rajasthani” in the near future it will gain the status of one of the Scheduled Languages in India at par with other Scheduled Languages of Indian Union.he be a Marwari or Mewati or Mewari or Malvi or so on. Prior to Independence of India the Marwari speaking area was larger among the Rajputana Agency. is better known through its several dialects (like Marwari. presently Sahitya Academy. Ahirwati. Further. the name ‘Marwari’ is traced back to the old and popular name(s) of Rajasthani like Maru Bhasha. Mewati. Marwadi Bhasha. Moreover. And this trend is general irrespective of linguistic dimension or any socio-political or others dimension. mainly in connection with business and industry. as such. Rajasthan. Out of this expectation the people of Rajasthan consciously adopted the strategy for promoting “Rajasthani” at all level in the whole province under which “Rajasthani” is used consciously and awarely to distinguish as the language of Rajasthan. Malvi etc. Marwari-Mewari. richest. Harauti.) than Rajasthani language itself. After the independence of India when the states of India were reorganized under State Reorganisation Act. The general use of the name “Marwari” has been co-termed for “Rajasthani” language and literature. 1. Jaipuri or Dhundhari. University Grants Commission recognize ‘Rajasthani’ as the individual language which is taught in the University of Jodhpur and Udaipur as well as which is an optional subject under the Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education since 1973. for which the term “Marwari” has become most popular and widely known by the people. Marubhum Bhasha. Mewari. However. For its use in Dingal Literature (a form of Rajasthani literature since 15th century) Marwari or Maru Bhasha was treated as identical with Dingal and was considered as the most important among the dialects spoken in Rajasthan. National Academy of Letters. Marwari has been considered as the language of the oldest. varied and unbroken literary tradition among the five branches of Rajasthani namely. the people of Marwar have dispersed into the various parts of India as well as abroad. The name ‘Rajasthani’ is the later one which has been named after the name of the state i.
.e. Marwari along with other mentioned mother tongues are treated as the varieties of “Rajasthani” along with the acceptance of Marwari as the written/literary variety of Rajasthani language. Rajasthani. Moreover. Maru Bani etc. 1956 the people of Rajasthan expected that Rajasthani will be recognized as the language of the state. But Marwadi/Marwari is widely popular as well as famous name than Rajasthani.
2. part of Kishangarh and Ajmer – Mewara. Bhili or Wagdi (Bagadi). Marwari as L1 in domain other than home Marwari is used in the public places. Marwari as a ‘L1’ in the home domain In the home domain Marwari is used as a mother tongue in the ‘parent-ego children’ situation. Banswara and some parts of Mewar. Relevantly it may be mentioned also that Banjari and Gujari. The usage varies since the so called pure Marwari is restricted among the older generation people and it has started reshaping in the tongue of the younger generation Marwaris whose speech is a kind of Marwari mixed with Hindi. Alwar. Tonk. Sekhawati region of Jaipur. some parts of Punjab and Haryana around the district of Ganganagar with slight variations. 2. pp-12-13). Jhalwar. 5. 4. It is slightly influenced by Gujarati. 3. 1998 to 16th June 1998 in connection with the Linguistic Survey of India – Rajasthan scheme. 1980. (It has a slight tinge of Gujarati as well as Marathi and Bundeli) . Mewati – Ahirwati – spoken in Bharatpur. 2. as most of the Banjaras and Gujars were originally the residents of Rajasthan.
†Footnote The five-tier classification of Rajasthani as pointed out by Dr. 3. Part of Kishangarh and Ajmer-Mewara and the Harauti regions including Bundi. Marwari has achieved the form of poetic speech as well as the standard variety through its use in literature for about last 500 years (Maheswari. some parts of Gurgaon in Haryana and Mathura in Uttar Pradesh (It carries slight influences of Brajbhasha and Hariani). Jaipuri-Harauti. Marwari in the domain of education It has already been discussed that consciously people of Rajasthan are avoiding the use of the term “Marwari” for the sake of Rajasthani though the language used in literature and other written documents is mainly Marwari . Bikaner. Malwi – having the characteristics of Marwari and Jaipuri – Harauti is spoken in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Jaipuri – Harauti – a popular speech spoken in Jaipur (Except Sekhawati). Udaipur. Bhili or Wagadi – popularly spoken in Dungarpur. Kota. 4. Hiralal Maheswari in History of Rajasthan literature (1980 p-12-13) is the following 1. 5. Malvi. † Keeping this sociolinguistic scenario as the background in the state of Rajasthan the over all sociolinguistic situation prevailing in the ‘Marwari’ speaking region is presented in the following dimensions based on the survey conducted in Rajasthan during the period 21st April.a variety of Rajasthani. the superposed variety and the official language of the state of Rajas than. locality and the market where even the nonMarwaris come down to Marwari in their interaction with Marwari brethren. have affinity with Rajasthani. Marwari – Mewari – spoken in the Jodhpur. Sirohi. Jaisalmer. 3. .
. spoken in different parts of the country. 1. Mewati-Ahirwati.
e. Ph. Some of the most
remarkable literary magazines published from this Academy are Jagti Jodh.. among the so-called Rajasthani speech-community. For Senior Secondary i. And in the cultural assembly. UGC has recognized Rajasthani as a separate subject for NET and the Department of Education of Government of Rajasthan has sanctioned few projects on Rajasthani among which “Rajasthani Folklore” project coordinated by the Department of Rajasthani of Jay Narayan Vyas University is mentioanable one. specially. or meeting or any discussion on literature/language of Rajasthan. But in the common gatherings where both the Rajasthanis and non-Rajasthanis assemble Hindi is commonly used for interaction.A. Ajmer there is an individual compulsory paper on ‘Rajasthani language-literature-culture’ for 100 marks. Degree course Rajasthani is an optional subject.A.Litt in Rajasthani are awarded. 4. which cover the linguistic as well as grammatical features of language communities. Use of Marwari as ‘L2’ Among the people of Rajasthan. of the state of Rajasthan. course. In B. Phil. In Jay Narayan Vyas University at Jodhpur and in Sukharia University at Udaipur there is a full fledged department of Rajasthani from where M. cultural. literary. Maru bharati etc. In the University of Rajasthan at Jaipur. Rajasthani is an individual paper under Hindi M. In addition to this. social aspect. especially.A. M. In state Public Service Commission. XIth and XIIth standard the same Marwari variety of
Rajasthani is taught as an optional subject for vernacular.In schools under Rajasthan Board the same Marwari variety is taught in the name of Rajasthani narratives and poems as the main vernacular paper up to Secondary level. degree and D. Leaving aside the educational institutions in the state of Rajasthan there is an autonomous body named “Rajasthani Language Academy” at Bikaner established and funded by Government of linguistic-literary and cultural Rajasthan which is working sincerely to promote the activities in Rajasthani language. the Marwari is used by the participants as the lingua franca. that too. Sodh Patrika..
..D. generally the Marwari variety of Rajasthani is used for common interaction whether he happens to be Jaipuri or Mewati or Harauti or any one else.
An older Marwari as well as Rajasthani script also is traced which is popularly known as Modi/Modiya/Muriya / Mhajani / Vaniyavati etc. In District Courts Hindi/English is the main language of the court but the evidence is permissible in local dialect.
. 8. Use of Marwari in Judiciary In rural court – the pleading is processed in Marwari or in relevant local dialect In Sub-Divisional court . Sant and 5. The character of this script is like Gujarati script since the script characterizes without overhead line. But now the younger generation and specially the literate people have shifted to the Devanagari script for representing Rajasthani. Charan 3.The pleading proceeds in Marwari/relevant local dialect & In Tahsildar Court or Hindi or English according to the convenience in language use of the person concerned be he the Advocate or the accused. Of course.5. Use of Marwari in Assembly In Assembly of the Sate of Rajasthan. 7. This script is used in literature. In High Court The principal language from pleading to delivery of Judgement is English although hearing and crossexamination are done in Hindi and English either according to the situation. Laukik including secular love. Hindi is the ‘lingua franca’ though communication in Rajasthani local dialects is also privileged. Script The script of Marwari presently is Devanagari. Even today the old rural people are used to write in this script only. text books. 6. partial Government instructions in the state of Rajasthan. if the plaintiff or the defendant is a rural one he is heard and crossexamined in Marwari/or relevant local dialect with the help of interpreter. primers. Jain 2. Akhyan 4. Starting from the early and medieval period upto the present Century the major trend of literature is poetic only which have five distint divisions – 1. Literature Marwari (Rajasthani) is having a rich literary heritage.
The literary activities in Rajasthani (Marwari) has been advancing through different Institutions which are working to promote Rajasthani (Marwari) language (and literature) for recognition of the same as one of the Scheduled languages in India. Essays. Prose forms like Novels. which is the literary and poetic speech as well as the speech of the people.
c. socio-political condition of the country etc. The relations between Charan poets and the Rajput warriors were deep rooted in medieval period. The old writers of ‘Dingal’ or ‘Maru Bhasha’ confirm the fact that the language and metre used by them is the spoken language of the land. Dramas.
sufferings of human beings. Literary criticism etc. On the other hand. Satire. Along with poetic composition of different tastes and styles. Stories. The Maru Bhasha is otherwise called as Marwari Bhasha. The formation of Rajasthan Sahitya Akademi (Sangam) – established at Udaipur in 1958. One-act plays.Among the above five divisions the Charan trend deserves special mention. The journal Madhumati being its publication has given a new impetus to the writers of Rajasthani as well as of Marwari. The Charan poets used to accompany their heroes to battle fields even. In different stations of All India Radio and Doordarshan of Rajasthan state specific schedule have been programmed for presentation of Rajasthani on daily basis where programmes in Marwari and in other regional varieties are
b. According to Maheswari (1980 p-7). Charan poets used ‘Maru Bhasha’ or ‘Dingal’ and the ‘Bhats Pingal’ in their poetic compositions. Dingal literature was mainly composed as a form of hero-worshipping. The modern Marwari as well as Rajasthani poetry has come out from the heroworshipping trend and presently distinguished by compositions on the themes of nature. The Rajasthani Bhasha-Sahitya Akademi (Sangam) at Bikaner. Biographies and sketches. Mention may be made in this regard about the following : a. the Modern period experiences Humour. Pingal means prosody originally but in Rajasthan the term ‘Pingal’ is used to denote a form of language which is a combination of Brajbhasha and Marwari variety of Rajasthani. established in 1972 as a separate unit of the Akademy and the journal Jagti Jodh is its regular publication. The modern period of Rajasthani (Marwari) dates back from 1850 onwards. upto the end of the 19th Century Dingal was treated as identical or synonymous with ‘Maru Bhasha’ .
Apabhramsa state (sourced from Sauraseni Prakrit) correlating Marwari and Gujarati as the two branches descending from old Western Rajasathani. the Rajasthani has been recognized by the Sahitya Akademi. Next. ‘Rajasthani’ has been introduced as a full-fledged Department in the Jay Narayan Vyas University at Jodhpur. His a. A brief account of the earlier studies is given below in chronological order i.d. Marwari language and literature is the main concern of the Department. REVIEW OF EARLIER LITERATURE AVAILABLE Before the present survey several other studies were carried out towards the description of Marwari as well as Rajasthani language.
aired by the arrangement of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the State of Rajasthan. ii.6. that is.
. New Delhi (National Academy of Letters. Last but not least.IX Part-II) where “Rajasthani” was genealogically classified as an Indo-Aryan language mentioning Marwari as its most important and prominent dialect substantially keeping distance from Western Hindi.
e. First and foremost the name of Rajasthani language was brought in the light of Indian linguistic scenario by Sir George Abraham Grierson in his Linguistic Survey of India (LSI Vol. ‘Rajasthani Bhasha’ projects Rajasthani language or the socalled Marwari as coming out with its structural independence from that of Hindi through its literary exposure in the form of Dingal. L. iii.
1.P. Next comes the works of Professor Suniti Kumar Chatterji. Tessitori’s “Notes on the
grammar of the old western Rajasthani with special reference to Apabhramsa and to Gujarati and Marwari” – which is an approach of historical grammar deriving its source from old Indo-Aryan passing through the stages of Middle Indo-Aryan and coming down to the gateway of new Indo-Aryan. mention may be made of Dr. India) by which Marwari is also taken care.
Sidheswar Verma’s ‘Bihari-Hindi and Rajasthani – a linguistic analysis’ is a summarized version of Grierson’s narrated Bihari.‘Indo-Aryan and Hindi’ . Dr. v. Narottam Das Swami’s ‘Sanksipta Rajasthani Vyakaran’ is a traditional b. Padmasree Sitaram Lalas’s ‘Rajasthani Vyakaran’ is also a traditional reference grammar where Rajasthani language has been described in a most systematic way in Devnagari script. B. Kali Charan Bahl. a list of publications on Marwari/Rajasthani languagre has been referred by Sir G.A. The book presents a detailed grammatical description of Marwari from the structuralist point of view. following the modern descriptive format. Dr. These are :
. to the end of the twentieth century establishing the rich literary heritage of Rajasthan under the royal patronage. vii.etymologically establishes the Sanskrit sources of the lexicons used in Marwari along with other New Indo-Aryan equivalents. ix. Hindi and Rajasthani in Linguistic Survey of India Volumes VI and IX. Hiralal Maheswari’s ‘History of Rajasthani Literature’ is also a scholarly account about the origin and development of language and literature of Rajasthan from the period of 1050 A. vi. Mali’s ‘Rajasthani Bhasha ar Vyakaran’ is a traditional grammar of Rajasthani along with historical source of Rajasthani language. Rajasthani grammar written in Hindi language in Devnagari script. In addition to above works. The most interesting and fascinating work on Marwari as well as Rajasthani towards the end of the twentieth Century is Dr.D.IX Part-II p-19.’s ‘Adhunik Rajasthani ka Samracanatmak Vyakaran’ which is the Hindi version of original English book ‘A structural grammar of Modern Rajasthani’ [Published from University of Chicago] is an exclusively scholarly work that deals with the Marwari speech of Jodhpur (Standard Marwari region) in the name of Rajasthani. Grierson in his LSI Vol. iv. x.L. viii.
Benaras and London. of Delhi. Ofcourse. Second Edn. A Marwari grammar written in Marwari. J
A selection of Khyals or Marwari plays with an Introduction and Glossary. Sindhi. Shri Narayan Singh Peethal of Jaipur. consist of 500 core lexical items and around 2000 various lexical items. assisted by Lala Faquir Chand Vaish. Panjabi. London. Emblems. 1866.W.
Pandit Ram Karan Sarma MarwaRi VyakaraN.B. Shri Satya Prakash Acharya. Mrs. R. Gujarati. by the Late S. First Edn. 1893.. About 1901”.
1. Marwari is one of the mother tongues grouped with Hindi in Indian Census. The analysis of Marwari language in this volume is based on the elicited data from the following informants : Shri Rajendra Singh (Barhath). Shri Prehlad Ram Solanki and Shri Kishan Singh Rathore of Jodhpur acted as the main informants for the collection of Standard Marwari data.
. Puspa Vyas.. also the colloquial Dialects of ………….7. No date or place of publication in my copy ? Jodhpur. Bhojpuri and Tirhuti Proverbs. Lahnda and Punjabi.
A Dictionary of Hindustani Proverbs. folk stories and other relevant sociocultural – literary information were collected during the field work. Sayings. BASE FOR ANALYSIS AND DETAILS OF INFORMANTS The present work is a Descriptive Grammar of Marwari in Rajasthan.Robson. Apart from these data a few folk songs. Shri G. which is one of the major members of Indo-Aryan languages surrounded by the languages like – Hindi. Rev.
Kellog. Bewar Mission Press. Allahabad and Calcurtta. Morphophonemics. S. with copious Philological Notes. Rev. 1998 to June.F. Rajputana……………. Shri Srilal Nathmal Joshi of Bikaner and Shri Ghanashyam Acharya of Jaisalmer extended their help whole-heartedly for checking of the Marwari data collected from the basic informants. Goswami of Nagaur. 1886. The data. Bhili.. Linguistic and socio-linguistic data were collected during the field trip to Rajasthan from April.C.W. 800 sentences of different types and patterns along with one connected text.H. 1876.
Fallon. in which are treated the High Hindi ………. based on which the present grammar has been prepared. Aphorisms. Maxims and Similes. Edited and Revised by Capt.
A Grammar of Hindi Language. The present description covers Phonology. S. including many Marwari. 1998. Temple. Maggah. Morphology and Syntax of Marwari language in the following chapters.
2. /u U/. 1 trill. Out of the 10 vowel phonemes 4 are front. PHONEMIC INVENTORY Both the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of Marwari are presented in the following inventory . 2.1.1 Segmental Phonemes
The Segmental sounds used in Marwari can be classed into a number of 42 phonemes of which 10 are the vowel phonemes and 32 are the Consonant phonemes.1. The description of each phoneme has been presented in details in the following section
Vowels Front High Low-high High-mid Mean-mid Low-mid Low E a e A O i I U o Central Back u
The pairs /i I/. 2 are central and 4 are back. 4 nasals. I flap. /e E/ and /o O/ are co-related phonetically. 2 laterals and 2 approximants. Accordingly. the phonemic analysis consists in allotting all the indefinite number of sounds occurring in utterances to a definite and limited set of phonemes contrastive in at least some environments.2. 2 fricatives.
Phonology being concerned with the patterns and organizations of a language in terms of the phonetic features and categories involved. Among the 32 consonental phonemes 20 are stops. the phonemic inventory given below will show the distinctive sound units occurring in the Marwari speech.
2 Suprasegmental Phoneme
Suprasegmentation is significantly realised in Nasalisation. These are /b’/ .bilabial recusive and /d’/ .Consonants
BILABIAL DENTAL RETROFLEX PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL
VL STOPS Unaspirated Aspirated NASALS FRICATIVES TRILL FLAP LATERALS APPROXIMANT (semi-vowel) p ph b
d dh n
D Dh N
g gh M h
s r R l w L y
In addition to the above consonantal phonemes 2 other phonemes are realized in Marwari as the marginal ones as these occur only word-initially. 45
. Initial ã ĩ ũ/ ũ Ã ẽ/Ẽ ãt “intestine” ã trE “distant” ĩT “brick” ũco “upward” ũc(No) “(to) pick up” Medial Final
dã’t “tooth” orã “other’ gãTh “knot” mhã “we” chĩk “sneeze” nĩ “not” jhĩTa “pigtail of Brahmins” kAĩ “what” mũch “moustache yũ ‘thus” pũch “tail” torũ “ridgegourd” ghÃTi “neck” kÃi “what” cẽT(No) “(to) stick” mhẼ “I”
Length Length in Marwari is realized phonetically. /ũ/ are more in comparison to /Ã/ and /ẽ. /ĩ/. 2.dental recursive. Nasalisation Nasalisation is phonemic in Marwari. Frequency of /ã/.1.
PHONEMIC CONTRAST Vowels Initial i ~I imLi IN isAr Isar ‘tamarind’ ‘this’ ‘God’ ‘similar’ din ‘poor’ dIn ‘day’ mit ‘friend’ mInAkh‘man’ Medial Final
Initial occurrence of /i/ and final occurrence of /I/ are rare.2. Initial o~O Dhol ‘a drum’ DhOLO‘weak’ kom ‘one’s community’ kOm ‘work’ Initial occurrence of /O/ and final occurrence of /o/ are rare. Medial Final
. Initial u~U dhuN dhUn guNti gUNti ‘concentration’ ‘tune’ ‘donkey carried goods’ ‘counting’ Medial Final
Initial occurrence of /u/ and final occurrence of /U/ are rare. Initial e~E ved vEd beTO bEN ‘Veda’ ‘doctor’ ‘son’ ‘sister’ Medial Final
Initial occurrence of /E/ and final occurrence of /e/ are rare.
Medial bir bel piTh peT ‘brave’ ‘creeper (big)’ ‘back’ ‘belly’
Initial occurrence of /i/ and final occurrence of /e/ are rare. ‘buy’ ‘root’ ‘affection’ ‘face’ Medial ‘yesterday/ tomorrow’ ‘big rat’ ‘four’ ‘thief’ Medial Final
. Initial a~o aRi ‘axe’ kalE ori ‘measles’ koL akhAr ‘letter’ car okhAr ‘excreta’ cor Final occurrence of /o/ is rare. Initial a~A phal phAL kalE kAl Final occurrence of /A/ is rare. Initial o~u odAr ‘blab’ moL udAr ‘womb’ muL ojri ‘stomach’ moh ujar ‘exhaust’ muh Final occurrence of /o/ is rare. ‘nest’ ‘and’ Initial e~a eDi aDo eRO aLO ‘heel’ ‘door’ ‘such’ ‘nest’ ret rat tel tal ‘sand’ ‘night’ ‘oil’ ‘rhythm’ Medial aLO Ar ‘plough’ ‘fruit’ ‘yesterday/ tomorrow’ ‘machine’ Medial Final
Final occurrence of /e/ is rare.
Initial a~u abho ubho acho uco Consonants Initial pAn ‘leaf’ bAL ‘strength’ pita ‘father’ bidam ‘almond’ Initial tin din tarO daru ‘shy’ ‘stand’ ‘good’ ‘height’
Medial kaT(NO) kuT(NO) mar(NO) muR(NO) ‘to cut’ ‘to hit’ ‘to beat’ ‘to turn’
Final maLa balu ãtra daru ‘garland’ ‘sand’ ‘guts’ ‘liquor’
Medial khapAT TabAr kApRO dubLO Medial pita bidam pitAl badAl Medial beTi geDi moTO jaDO Medial bagicO pAnjO bec(NO) bij(NO) Medial bhAkAt jugAt kĩkAr AgAr
‘split bamboo’ ‘child’ ‘child’ ‘weak’
Final Top jeb pusAp dAbadAb Final nAkhAt nAnAd rut bind Final peT haD jaT laD Final kãc khaj cõc jej Final ek pug(NO) Dak Dag
‘hat’ ‘pocket’ ‘flower’ ‘fast/quick’
‘three’ ‘poor’ ‘star’ ‘liquor’
‘father’ ‘almond’ ‘brass’ ‘cloud’
‘star’ ‘sister in-law’ ‘season’ ‘husband’
Initial TaM ‘leg’ Dag ‘wing’ Topi ‘hat’ Dikri ‘daughter’ Initial cor ‘thief’ joD ‘field’ cawAL ‘rice’ jal ‘net’ Initial koL goLi keLO gilO
‘daughter’ ‘stick’ ‘fat’ ‘fat’
‘belly’ ‘bone’ ‘name of a community’ ‘kiss’
‘garden’ ‘claw’ ‘to sell’ ‘to sow’
‘glass’ ‘itch’ ‘beak’ ‘delay’
‘big rat’ ‘bullet’ ‘banana’ ‘wet’
‘devotee’ ‘means’ ‘how’ ‘if’
‘one’ ‘arrive’ ‘post’ ‘wing’
Initial waL yar wo/wa yũ Medial riwaj riyaj dhũwO hiyo
‘liquor’ ‘insect’ ‘measles’ ‘axe’
Final ghar peR mAjur jAR
‘house’ ‘tree’ ‘labourer’ ‘root’
Final ‘tradition’ ‘practice’ ‘smoke’ ‘heart’
‘meal’ ‘friend’ ‘he/she’ in this way’
‘cheek’ ‘gur (jaggery)’ ‘red’ ‘saliva’
Medial r~R daru kiRi ori aRi /R/ is not found in initial occurrence.m~n
Initial mArAd ‘male’ nAnAd ‘sister-in law’ mãs ‘flesh’ nAs ‘neck’ Initial
Medial jAmi bani kAmAr mInAkh
‘earth’ ‘ashes’ ‘waist’ ‘man’
Final kam kan nArAm gArAn Final nEN TaM jamAN lOM
‘work’ ‘ear’ ‘soft’ ‘eclipse’
Medial M~N paNi bEMgAN jANa kAMgi Initial occurrence of /M/ and /N/ are rare. Initial sat haD sal hAl Initial Medial posaL kAThAhAL mOsAm hahukAr
‘water’ ‘brinjal’ ‘person’ ‘comb’
‘eye’ ‘leg’ ‘mother’ ‘clove’
‘seven’ ‘bone’ ‘year’ ‘plough’
Final “school” kes “jackfruit” meh “season” m ãs “money lender”mãh Final ‘dry leaf’ gal ‘brass utensil’ guL ‘oven’ lal ‘lock’ laL
‘hair’ ‘rain’ ‘flesh’ ‘month’
Medial palO paLO culO taLO /L/ is not found in initial occurrence.
p ~ ph
Initial pag ‘turban phag ‘a folk dance’ purO ‘city/town’ phur(NO) ‘to turn back’ Initial bari ‘window’
Medial Topi DophO kApas tuphan
‘hat’ ‘dull ‘cotton’ ‘storm’
Final pusAp bArAp Top b’aph
‘flower’ ‘snow/ice’ ‘cap’ ‘steam’
b ~ bh
bhari ‘heavy abhO bAkri ‘goat’ ambo bhakhri ‘hill(small)’ gabhO Initial tarO tharO tau thuk Initial guN ghuN gilO ghosla Medial rato mathO pitAL sathAl Medial gArAn ghAr bagicO ghuMghAt Medial TeTO miThO khATai kAThAhaL Medial kacO kAchuO
‘elder brother’ ‘sky’ ‘mango’ ‘cloth’
Final ucchab lobh jeb jibh Final het hath jugAt sath Final bag bagh ag gagh Final ThaT kaTh peT puTh Final kãc chãch nac pach
‘festival’ ‘greed’ ‘pocket’ ‘tongue’
t ~ th
‘star’ ‘your’ ‘fever’ ‘sputam’
‘red’ ‘head’ ‘brass’ ‘thigh’
‘love’ ‘hand’ ‘means’ ‘with/together’
g ~ gh
‘quality’ ‘termite’ ‘wait’ ‘nest’
‘eclipse’ ‘house’ ‘garden’ ‘veil’
‘garden’ ‘tiger’ ‘fire’ ‘wound’
T ~ Th
Initial TAmkO ‘flirt’ ThAMkO‘sound of anklet’ TOg ‘supporting stone’ ThOg ‘cheat’ Initial cori chori cawAl chal
‘ripe fruit’ ‘sweet’ ‘sour’ ‘jackfruit’
‘crowd’ ‘wood’ ‘belly’ ‘back’
c ~ ch
‘theft’ ‘girl’ ‘rice’ ‘bark of tree’
‘glass’ ‘buttermilk’ ‘dance’ ‘behind/after’
D ~ Dh
Initial DagO ‘old camel’ DhagO ‘old bullock’ DIl ‘body’ DhiLO ‘slow’ Initial b’abO bapu b’al bAL Initial d’an dukh d’ai dIl
Medial DaL DhaL aDO DoDhi
‘branch’ ‘slope’ ‘door’ ‘door’
Final uD(NO) cADh(NO) laD gaDh Final
‘to fly’ ‘to climb’ ‘kiss’ ‘strength’
Medial “elder brother” ub’O(howNO) “ standing” “father” ubal(NO) “boiling” “hair” “strength” Medial dhard’ar dAbadAb
Final “sharp” “fast”
d’ ~ d
“paddy” “pain” “mid-wife” “heart”
PHONEMIC DESCRIPTION AND DISTRIBUTION The description and distribution of ten vowel phonemes of Marwari are presented below. Vowels /i/ High front unrounded short vowel. It occurs in the medial and final positions. jiN “that” niras “despaired” gigAn “sky” /I/ lobhi “greedy” duji “other” kani “towards”
Lower high fron unrounded vowel. It occurs initially and medially. IN “this” isa “this kind” IgyarE “eleven mIrc “chilli” mInAkh “man” kIwar “wooden gate”
High mid front unrounded vowel. It occurs initially and medially. ek eDi eRO “one” “heel” “such” ret pher geDi “soil” / “sand” “then” / “again” “stick” kAnE “near” larE “behind” pAchE “after”
Low mid front unrounded vowel. It ocurs medially and finally. bEl vEd nEN “creeper” “doctor” “eye” E chE wE “this” “six” “they”
Mean-mid central unrounded vowel. It occurs initially and medially. Ar “and” AthE “here” AgAr “if” ghAr “house” kAnE “at/near” bAL “strength”
Low central unrounded vowel. It occurs initially, medially and finally. aLsi aLO aDO “idle/lazy” “nest” “door” badAL bhaTO tarO “cloud” “stone” “star” ba / wa boba pacha “she” “female breast” “afterwards”
Low mid back rounded vowel. It occurs medially and finally. DhOLO dORai kOm “weak” “pain” “work” moTO “fat” sugLO “dirty” sukhO “dry”
High mid back rounded vowel which occurs initially and medially. or ori oDa “equal” “measles” “cover” koL hõTh thoth “big rat” “lip” “hole”
Lower high back unrounded vowel. It occurs initially and medially UN “that” UjaR “spoil” UdAr “womb” dhUN gUN lUgai “tune “quality” “woman/wife”
High back rounded vowel. It occurs medially and finally. jugAt guRda tuphan “means” “liver” “storm” saru baLu daru “for” “sand” “liquor”
Consonants /p/ Bilabial voiceless unaspirated stop. It occurs initially, medially and finally. pAn pun paNi /ph/ “leaf” “air” “water” kApas Topi khapAT “cotton” pusAp “hat” Top “split bamboo”pap “flower” “hat” “vice”
Bilabial voiceless aspirated stop. It occurs initially and medially and finally. phAL “fruit” phul “flower” phuThrO“smart” DophO tuphan phephRO “dull” “storm” “lung” b’aph bArAph hãph “steam” “snow” “pant”
Bilabial voiced unaspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. bag “garden” balu “sand” birkha “rain” TabAr Abar ubasi “child” “currently” “yawn” jeb dAbadAb lAbalAb “pocket” “fast” “quick”
Bilabial voiced aspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions bhaTO “stone” abhO bhai “brother(y.)” nabhi bheN “sister” gabhO “sky” “naval” “dress” jibh lobh labh “tongue” “greed” “profit”
Dental voiceless unaspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. tin tarO “three” “star” pitAL rato pita “brass” “red” “father” ret rut nAkhAt “sand” “weather/ season” “star”
taLO “lock” /th/
Dental voiceless aspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. thuk “sputam” thoRO “some” thaw “utensils” tithi mathO sathAl “datE” “head” “thigh” hath thoth Anath “hand” “hollow” “orphan”
Dental voiced unaspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. debLO “lean man” badAL dulhO “bridegroom” bidam dãtlO “sickle” nAdi “cloud” “almond” “river” mArAd cãd jAd “male” “moon” “when/ then”
It occurs in all the three positions. Dhil “slack” DoDhi Dhol “drum”/ “trumpet” daDh DhuNDhO “rejected house” buDhO “door” “beard” “old man” riDh “spine” DaDh “molar tooth” koDh “leprosy”
Palatal voiceless unaspirated affricate. It occurs in all the three positions. chorO “boy” AMochO choTO “small” pũchRi chekRO“bullock cart” pAche “towel” “small tail” “afterwards” pũch “tail” chach “butter milk” rĩch “bear”
Palatal voiced unaspirated stop. jaL “net” jaDO “fat” joD “field” kaju hejO ujaLO “cashew nut” “cholera” “bright”/ “light” aj khaj jej “to-day” “itch” “delay”
. It occurs in all the three positions. It occurs in all the three positions. dhAra “earth” dhANi “husband” dhAnAkh “bow” gAdhO bidhAwa Andho “ass” “widow” “blind” dudh bajubAndh bAndh “milk” “armlet” “closed”
Retroflex voiceless unaspirated stop. TabAr “child” Top “hat” TaM “leg” moTO ghÃTi TeTO “fat” TaT “neck” peT “unripe fruit” ThAT “baldness” “belly” “crowd”
Retroflex voiceless aspirated stop. ThaDO“cold” puThi Thola “finger joint” miThO TheThi “ear wax” ThAThera “back” “sweet” “cattle” hoTh kaTh lath “lip” “wood” “stick”
Retroflex voiced unaspirated stop./dh/
Dental voiced aspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. It occurs in all the three positions cunO “lime” cokhO “good” cellO “student” ghoca kacO sãcO “unused wood” “raw” “honest” rac “tool” kãc/kac “mirror” cũc “beak”
Palatal voiceless aspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions.
jhuTh “lie” jhamp “wing” jhupO “hut” jhajhARO “mud stone” jhunjhla(NO) “to annoy” sinjhya “evening”
Velar voiceless unaspirated stop. It occurs initially. It occurs in all the three positions. It occurs initially and medially. nak “nose” nAs “neck” nagO “naked” bani junO sinO “ashes” “old” “chest” un “wool” kan/kAn“ear” pAn “leaf”
. kes “hair” keLO “banana” kaLO “black” akas / Akas takO bakO “sky” “bitter” “mouth” ek nak khak “one” “nose” “arm-pit”
Velar voiceless aspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. medially and finally. maLa “garland” moDO “bald head” mAkRi “spider” jAmi bimar jimAN “land” “ill” “meal” jAlAm “birth” kam “work” bidam “almond”
Dental voiced unaspirated stop. ghAr “house” ghas “grass” ghoRO “horse” DighO siMghO ghuMghAT “tall” “lion” “veil” bagh “tiger” gagh “wound” jaMgh “thigh”
Bilabial voiced unaspirated nasal. It occurs in all the three positions. It occurs in all the three positions./jh/
Palatal voiced aspirated stop. khoTO “bad” bokhO “toothless” (male) “hungry” “good” dukh rũkh sakh “pain” “tree” “harvest”
khaTO “sour” bhukhO khaRwa “farm land” cokhO (jAmi) /g/
Velar voiced unaspirated stop. It occurs in all the three positions. gigAn “sky” gaE “cow” geNa “jewel” lagan lugai bAgicO “marriage” “wife” “garden” pAg Dag nag “foot” “wing” “cobra”
Velar voiced aspirated stop.
It occurs initially. It occurs essentially in medial and final positions. It occurs medially and finally. medially and finally. Nal “ruby” ciNa khuNi beNi “gram” “elbow” “pig tail of girls” phAN “hood of snake” nEN “eye” lOsAN “garlic”
Velar voiced unaspirated nasal. loL “ear lobe” laL “saliva” lOsAN “garlic” palAM lilar culO “hearth” “forehead” “earthen oven” gal al chal “cheek” “ash gourd” “barks”
. It occurs initially. ciRi TiloRi kiRi “sparrow” “squirrel” “ant hill” / “worm” piR “headache” bAR “banyan tree” b’AR “fence”
Dental lateral. Rarely it occurs initially. It occurs in all the three positions. It occurs medially and finally. medially and finally. aMi jhiMur DuMAr “apron” “cricket”/”insect” “big hill” siM TaM lOM “horn” “leg” “clove”
Dental voiceless fricative. rut rũkh rAmAt “season” “tree” “play” ori orO bhõra “chickpox” “room” “eye lash” koThar “godown” ghAr “house” Amur “grape”
Retroflex flap. It occurs in all the three positions sathAN siM sãkAL “friend” “horn” “chain” musAL lOsAN mOsAm “pestle” “garlic” “season” mãs sãs ghas “meat” “breath” “grass”
Velar voiced fricative. haD “bone” dohitO rohi hahukAr “grand son/” grand daughter” “forest” “money lender” khoh “cave” meh neh “rain” “love”
hoTh “lip” hirAN “antelope” /r/
Retroflex voiced unaspirated nasal.
aLO taLO koLO “nest” “lock” “white gourd” phAL “fruit” loL “ear lobe” guL “gur”
Bilabial approximant. /a/ and /o/ occur initially and medially and not finally. The occurrence of these sounds are realized mostly in the initial position. /e/ and /u/ occur initially and medially and not finally. Punjabi etc. /b’/ b’aerO b’akhAr b’aTkO b’aph Bilabial Implosive (Recursive) “air” “hill” “metal dish” “steam” /d’/ d’ab d’aw Dental Implosive (Recursive) “a small heap of grass” “animal”
d’ArO “sand dune” d’awO “a cold wave which changes crops”
This feature of recursive in Marwari may be due to the influence of neighboring languages of Indo-Aryan family who is having this feature.
Retroflex lateral. It occurs medially and finally. It occurs in all the three positions – initial. MAJOR ALLOPHONIC DISTRIBUTION The Vowel allophones are realized as free variational forms in Marwari. waL wakAL wAkhAt “meal” dAwa “well water” dhũwO “time” hAwa “medicine” “smoke” “air” sew taw byaw “apple” “fever” “marriage”
Palatal continuant. medial and final. For example. specially Sindhi. 2.4. 3. /E/ and /O/ occur medially and finally and not initially. It occurs initially and medially. yar yohi yũ “friend AniyarO “this very” hiyO “in this way” jyũi “face” “heart” “as soon as”
Note As discussed in the phonemic inventory the distribution of /b’/ and /d’/ are shown below. 2.
/ui/. The half-released consonantal sounds are represented by [`] sign /b/ /t/ /T/ /k/ /g/ /j/ /D/ 2. /ia/ and /aE/ occurring in the medial and final positions.1 Vowel Clusters In Marwari there are non-identical vowel clusters like /ai/ occurs in all the three positions. Below are exemples of the vowel clusters in Marwari Initial ai ia ae oi aiThaN “corn of feet” husiar “cunning” Medial mait “parents” Final lUgai “wife”
pAgodia/ “ladder” pagodia bhaelO “friend”
. /ei/.5 CLUSTERS A cluster is formed by two identical or non-identical phonemes. All the stops are half-released in word-final position.Consonants 1.5.
2. /ua/ and /uO/ occurring in the final position. [b`] [t`] [T`] [k`] [g`] [j`] [D`] in final position “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ [gulab`] “rose” [kArot`] “saw” / “blade” [koT`] “coat” [thuk`] “soab” [pAg`] “foot” [khaj`] “itch” [giD`] “eye sand”
The dental /n/ is realised as palatal nasal [M’] when it is a member of cluster with a
palatal stop. Both vowel and consonant clusters are identified in Marwari. /Ai/. /oi/. Thus /n/ is realised as [n] when it is a member of cluster with a stop other than palatal Andharo [M’] elsewhere paM’ c “five” paM’ jo “claw” “darkness” cand “moon”
In Marwari the consonant clusters are the combination of two identical as well as two non-identical consonants occurring essentially in the medial position and rarely in the initial and final position.ui Ai ei ua uo
Dui dAi sAdei tendua kẽcuO
“anus” “curd” “always” “leopard” “worm”
2.5. consonants. that is. Combination of two identical consonants are the homogenous clusters. Besides there are also heterogeneous consonant clusters consisting of three non identical phonemes in Marwari which occurs in the word-medial position only. In Marwari these are the following. Clusters formed of Stop + Stop /p/ + /T/ /D/ + /g/ = = -pT-DgkhapTO DeDgO “split of bamboo” “toad”
. the heterogeneous clusters are
formed as follows: a) b) c) d) e) f) Stop + Stop + Non-identical stop Nasal Flap/Trill Lateral Nasal Stop g) h) i) j) k) l) Nasal Fricative Flap/Trill Flap Lateral Lateral + + + + + + Fricative Stop Stop Fricative Stop Fricative
Stop + Stop +
Nasal + Nasal +
The examples as follows A. /t/ /T/ /D/ /c/ /k/ /n/ /l/ + /t/ + /T/ + /D/ + /c/ + /k/ + /n/ + /l/ The clusters = = = = = = = of two -tt-TT-DD-cc-kk-nn-llnon-identical kuttO “dog” TaTTu “pony” TiDDa “grass hopper” khAccAr “pony” / “donkey” cAkku “knife” minni “cat” hulli “caterpillar” etc.
-pr-br-Thr-dr-kr-bR-kR-khRkhopro nĩbro phuThrO AdrAkh DokrO chabRi kakRi pãkhRO “coconut” “neem” “smart´ / “beautiful” “ginger” “old man” “basket” “cucumber” “feather”
Clusters formed of Nasal + Stop i.B.
Clusters formed of Stop + Trill/Flap /p/ + /r/ = /b/ + /r/ = /Th/ + /r/ = /d/ + /r/ = /k/ + /r/ = /b/ + /R/ = /k/ + /R/ = /kh/ + /R/ = etc.
Clusters formed of Stop +Nasal /j/ + /m/ /T/ +/N/ = = -jm-TNAjmO/ijmO biTNi “ajowan” “nipple”
Clusters formed of Nasal + Nasal /M/ + /N/ = -MNriMNa “brinjal”
F. Word medial cluster /n/ + /t/ = n/ + /j/ = -nt-njbintak pAnjO “brinjal” “claw”
Clusters formed of Stop + lateral /c/ + /l/ = -clchl-kl-kL-gL-tL-jL-khLkãcli mAchli khaklO “bodies” “fish” “straw” / “hay”
/ch/ + /l/ = /k/ + /l/ =
/k/ + /L/ = /g/ + /L/ = /t/ + /L/ = /j/ + /L/ = /kh/ + /L/ =
takLi / takLO “small spindle”/ “big spindle” DagLO dãtLO khujLi mekhLO “roof” “sickle” “itch” “apron”
/n/ + /ch/ = /m/ + /b/ = /m/ + /bh/= /M/ + /g/ =
incha lambO kumbhar AMgochO
“wish” “tall” “potter” “towel”
Word final clusters /m/ + /p/= -mp-Mk-Mkh-NDhjhamp DaMk pAMkh dhuNDh “wing” “sting of scorpion” “feather” “buttock”
/M/ + /k/ = /M/ + /kh/= /N/ + /Dh/=
Clusters formed of Fricative and stop /s/ + /t/ = -strasto/rAsto ‘”way”
Clusters formed of Trill/Flap + Stop /r/ + /b/ = /r/ + /t/ = -rb-rt-rc-rg-RcArbi dhArti mIrc murgO kuRci “arum” “earth” “chilly” “cock” “ladle made of metal”
/r/ + /c/ = /r/ + /g/ = /R/ + /c/ =
. Clusters formed of Nasal + Lateral /m/ + /l/ = /M/ + /L/ = -ml-MLAmli aMLi “tarmarind tree” “finger”
1. Cluster formed of Nasal + Flap/Trill /m/ + /R/ = /n/ + /r/ = -mR-nrlomRi pAnra “fox” “leaf”
3. Clusters formed of Nasal + Fricative /m/ + /h/ = -mhkumhari “clay mould”
Examples are the following. Trisyllabic 4. The syllabic classification of Marwari words is as follows 1. Disyllabic 3. Clusters formed of Lateral + Flap /l/ + /R/ = -lRbelRi “creeper”
Heterogeneous clusters formed of three non-identical consonants as follows: /n/ + /d/ + /r/ = -ndrundrO bandrO /n/ + /d/ + /N/ = /n/ + /d/ + /g/ = -ndN-ndgbindNi mandgi jindgani “rat” “monkey” “newly married wife” “illness” “life”
Clusters formed of Trill + Fricative /r/ + /s/ = -rskArsO “farmer”
Clusters formed of Lateral + Stop /L/ + /j/ /l/ +/k/ = = -Lj-lklaLjO hAlkO “heart” “light”
L.J. vowel has the peak of sonority since vowels are more sonorous than consonants in each syllable. Generally. A syllable which ends with a vowel is called open syllable whereas a syllable ending in a consonant is called closed syllable.6 SYLLABLE A syllable is defined as a sequence of speech sounds having a peak of inherent sonority (Robins 1968).
. Tetrasyllabic Frequency of monosyllabic and disyllabic words are more than the other two types.
1. Clusters formed of Lateral + Fricative /l/ + /h/ /L/ + /s/ = = -lh-LsdulhO aLsi “bridegroom” “lazy”
2. Monosyllabic 2.
cvc v. 3. cv-cv-ccv vi. cvcc vi. cvc-cv v. cv-cv iii. cvc-cvc viii. cvv-cv a-bhO cho-rO Ta-bAr lAk-Ri b’aI-sa mo-Tyar sAm-dAr bind-Ni “sky” “boy” “child” “wood” “elder brother” “male” “sea” “bride” abhO chorO TabAr lAkRi b’aisa moTyar sAmdAr bindNi
vi. cv-cv-cvc v. Disyllabic words i. vc iii. cv-cvc-cvc vii. cv iv. Trisyllabic words i.
Monosyllabic words i. cv-cvc iv. ccvc a ag dhi rakh jhamp byaw “this” (feminine) “fire” “daughter” “ashes” “wing” “marriage”
Among the seven patterns under monosyllabic types the cvc pattern is more common in occurrence than the others. v ii. 2. cv-ccvc vii. cvcc-cv
Among the above nine patterns under disyllabic type the occurrence of cv-cv and cvc-cv patterns are more frequent than the rest. cv-cv-cv iv.1.
. cvc-cv-cv as-ma-ni lU-gai bA-De-ra ha-hu-kAr ku-La-trO kA-mAN-DAL den-gi-ya “blue” “wife” “ancestor” “money lender” “spider” asmani lUgai bADera hahukAr kuLatrO
“shell (for Sanyasis)” kAmANDAL “labourer” dengiya
Out of the six patterns in trisyllabic type the cv-cv-cv and cvc-cv-cv patterns occur frequently in comparison to the other patterns. cv-cvv iii. v – cv ii. vc-cv-cv ii.
/a/. /E/ /O/ /a/ E O a “these” “this” “this” (feminine)
In the word other than monosyllabic ones.gO ro .4.
Open syllables and Close syllables Marwari words have both open as well as close syllables.ba bu . the vowels which occur in the final position of an open syllable are /A/.wa ba – dAL gi .
. /u/ /A/ /a/ /i/ /o/ /u/ hA . /o/.DO bo .
Tetrasyllabic words i. The monosyllabic words with vowels are the examples of the words of open syllable.lu “air” “cloud” “baby” “forest” “door” “breast” “old man” “sand”
All the vowels occur in the close syllables in Marwari like /i/ din “poor” bhĩt “wall” /I/ dIn “day” IN “this” /e/ meh “ran” neh “affection” /E/ nEN “eye” bEN “sister” /A/ ghAr “house” phAL “fruit” /a/ ag “fire” TaM “leg” /o/ hõTh “lip” koL “big rat” /O/ kOm “work” lOM “clove” /u/ phul “flower” dur “far” /U/ rUt “weather” gUN “quality” The occurrence of /A/ in close syllable is more in comparison to the rest. cv-cv-cv-cv A-ni-ya-rO kA-wa-Ri-yO “face” “axe (big variety)” “mosquitonet” AniyarO kAwaRiyO mAcchArdani
iii. /i/.DhO ba .hi a . v-cv-cv-cv ii.cvc-cvc-cv-cv mAc-chAr-da-ni
The occurrence of Tetrasyllabic words are less frequent in Marwari.
When the monosyllabic verb roots in Marwari are inflected for person –numbergender-tense then -w. -tt-. The insertion of homophonous phonemes in the formation of higher numerals by the combination of allomorphs of ‘one’.is inserted between the verb base and the finite verb marker. phonological variations take place. ‘two’ etc. Deletion.+ tin + -is
Here –kk-. -sũ and –rO are added. Ikkis “twenty one” Ikattis “thirty one” < < ek. Morphophonemics deals with such phonological variations. The third personal pronomind bases /wO/ and /wE/ are changed into oblique bases i. kha leja“to eat” “to take” “to go” > > > khawE lewE jawE “eats” “takes” “goes” khawela lewela jawela “will eat” “will take” “will go”
. The bases of these variations are three in number 1. etc are the examples of insertion
3. In Marwari most of the morphophonemic changes are related to the alternation of vowel which may be referred as regular morphophonemic variation.3. Alternation 3. I.UNãne “to him” “to them” UNsũ “from him” UNro “his”
UNãsũ “from them” UNãro “their”
2. with the allomorph of ‘ten’.e /UN-/ and /UNã-/ respectively when the different case suffixes –nE. Insertion 2. /wO/ “he” > UN . Insertion 1.UNnE /wE/ “they” >UNã . MORPHOPHONEMICS The alternants of morphemes when they occur with various kinds of affixes.+ -is ek.
The occurrence of –w.is changed to -Akhawe “he eats” gawe “she sings” > > khAwawe gAwawe “he makes to eat” “she makes to sing”
4. delele.ũ/ of the pronominals is changed when they occur with different case –suffixes. The occurrence –r.
Alternation The alternation of the nucleus vowel phoneme regularly varies in following way.
The nucleus vowel phoneme /. Thus –a. The word-final –o in masculine singular noun is changed into–a (change of –o to –a) kuttO “dog” ghoRO “horse” chorO “boy” > > > kutta ghoRa chora “dogs” “horses” “boys”
2.4. for example. 1.
.“to take” is also an example of insertional morphophonemic change “to give” “to take” > > dewE “he gives” lewE “he takes” dirawE lirawE “he causes to give” “he causes to take”
The nucleus vowel /-a/ of the verb base is changed into /-A/ when the verb base changes to Causative verb base.in the causative verb base in case of irregular verb root like de“to give”.in case of causative verb base is also an example of insertional morphophonemic change in Marwari ga kha “to sing” “to eat” > > gawE “he sings” > khawE “he eats” > gAwawE khAwawE “makes to sing” “makes to eat”
With the addition on the plural markers with the nouns ending with /-i/ the /-i/ is alternated by /-I-/ chori “girl” + -yã -yã -yã > > > chorIyã ghoRIyã ciRIyã “girls” “mares” “birds”
ghoRi “mare” + ciRi “bird” +
) “your” (fem.i) -ũ > -A mhũ “I” thũ
before the accusative marker –nE > mhAnE thanE > > mAnE tAnE “to me” “to you”
ii) –ũ > -a mhũ thũ “I”
before the genitive marker –rO/ri > mharO tharO “my” “you” mhari thari “my” (fem.)
Deletion The morphophonemic rule of deletion operates in Marwari with the dropping of -h.of pronominals when the accusative case marker –nE is added.is dropped]
. Thus mhũ thũ “I” “you” mAnE “to me” tAnE “to you” < mhAnE < thanE [-h.is dropped] [-h.
a word is defined as “Any segment of a sentence bounded by successive points at which pausing is possible” (Hockett 1970 p167).g. Below is presented the details of word formation and word classes in Marwari.ending feminine words and /-O/ ending masculine words.1. / O ek kuttO hE / “This is a dog” where O. as for example.
Word-formation Following the definition of “word” as given by Hockett a Marwari word is
pronounced with a potential pause before and after it.1. ”/chorO/ “boy”. /pothi/ “book”. Thus a Marwari stem by itself can be a word such as /chori/ “girl. 1963. /pothi/ . in Marwari morphologically a word may consist of one stem (or more than one) which is followed by affixes. MORPHOLOGY
The internal structure of a word is dealt in morphology since “Morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words” (Nida. hE are all individual words with a particular pause between each other. Again /chorIyã/ “girls” . /pothIyã / “books”. Therefore. which are all free morphemes as well as /-i/ . And considering pause as the basic potential of a word. kuttO.1. /beTO/ “boy” etc. /chora/ “boys”. Semantically a word may be defined as “the union of particular meaning with a particular grammatical employment” (Lyons 1969 p-200). ek.
4. And according to the semantic definition of a word.(y) ã / and /-a/ respectively. p-1). /beTa/ “sons”
are also individual words consisting of stems /chori/ . /beTO/ and the plural suffixes / .
4. Word classes in Marwari Based on morphological and syntactical structure the word classes of Marwari are established. the Marwari words contain at least one stem which is a free form and takes the inflectional and derivational affixes to form a word.4. /chorO/ . Since a morpheme is a minimum meaningful unit which is equivalent to stem the stem classes in Marwari can be divided into different groups on the basis of the inflectional endings e. kuttO “dog” a masculine stem (-O being the masculine marker) minni “cat” a feminine stem (-i being the feminine ending)
. as given by Lyons.
The above mentioned seven word classes are broadly grouped into two categories ---.+ gUN moTA.Declinables and Indeclinables. forms (derived from stems) which show identical inflectional behavior or which have similar privileges of occurrences in building larger forms can be called as Form class (Hockett 1970 p-162). Verbs 7. And the distinction between human and non-human is natural as well as conventional. DuMgri “small hill” DuMgAr “big hill” . Adverbs.+-i kAda + kAda jam + phAL
“thickness” = “often” “guava” = =
Reduplication in the word like kAda kAda Compounding in the word like jam phAL
The morphological structure thus classed in Marwari is described in the following sections of Noun Morphology and Verb-Morphology
4. Conjunctions 6.g. adverbs belong to the Indeclinables. Accordingly. Among the animate human nouns the classification of the gender is based on some suffixes consistently and among inanimate nouns the small variety is classed under feminine and the big variety is classed under masculine (e.) in addition to the classification of gender based on vowel ending. Pronouns and
their declensional/ inflectional pattern in association with Gender – Number – Adjective etc. Nouns 2. adjectives and verbs. Prefixation in the word like Suffixation in the word like AgUN moTai “quality” = A.
Noun Morphology Noun Morphology deals with the forms and classification of Nouns. conjunctions.2. Declinables are those which are declined for number – gender – person. human or non-human being belong to one of the two genders – Masculine and Feminine. And the postpositions. adjectives and verbs are based on morphological grounds whereas rest are based on syntactic ground. Reduplication and Compounding. pronouns.Thus. Adjectives 4. pronouns. The Marwari nouns denoting animate or non-animate. Suffixation. Out of these seven word classes the nouns. for example.
. Pronouns 3. b’elRi “small creeper” b’el “big creeper” etc. Marwari words are divided into
following classes 1. nouns. The morphological processes found in the seven class of words in Marwari are – Prefixation. Post-Positions 5.
Most of the Marwari nouns end in vowels. Below are presented the types of nouns available in Marwari: 1.Human kAburO ghoRO kuttO suwO jũ Ullu pAMkheru TabAr “child” hirAN cil bagh (iv) moriyO guMgliyO kirgãTiyO “pigeon” “horse” “dog” “parrot” “louse egg” “owl” “bird” “deer” “kite” “tiger” “peacock” “dung-bug” “chameleon” Inanimate aLO aDO “nest” “door”
daru “liquor” balu “sand”
pãkh “wing” phAN “hood of snake” DaMk “sting”
Examples for Feminine Nouns Animate and Human (i) chori “girl” beTi
Animate and Non. The final vowel gives a clue to the gender of a particular noun. Masculine Nouns i) ending in –O ii) ending in –u iii)ending in Consonant iv)ending in –yO 2.Human pothi “book”
Inanimate TilloRi “squirrel” chabRi “basket”
bhAngi ‘style’ ]
[Ofcouse /i/ ending nouns may sometime realized as non-feminine nouns also like
. The nouns which end in consonant are masculine nouns. Feminine Nouns i) ending in –i ii) ending in vowel cluster iii)ending in Consonant
Examples for Masculine Nouns Animate and Human (i) beTO “son” chorO “boy” Animate and Non.
chorO (stem as well as nominative) “boy” = choronE (accusative) “to the boy” chorosũ (ablative) “from the boy” chororO (genitive) “of the boy” 4. These nouns are i) Consonantal ending nouns like goh meh rom aiThaN jAlAm “leech” “rain” “fur of animal” “corn of feet” “birth”
Vowel cluster ending nouns like
4. The noun marked with gender .1 Classification of Nouns Following the above classification of noun the details of Marwari nounmorphology are discussed below. i) Noun The Marwari noun can be defined both morphologically and syntactically based on gender. number and case markers. For eg. The nouns preceeded by the attributives – adjective. choro (stem)“boy” = chokhO chorO “good boy” (cokhO – an adjective) = tin chorO 71 “three boys” (tin – a numeral)
. saru etc.2. chororO wastE “for the boy”.chorO (masculine)“boy”=chori (feminine)“girl” 2. It is the agreement with adjective and verb which decides the gender.chorO(singular)“boy” = chora (plural)“boys” 3.(ii)
lugai “female / wife”
In addition to the above classification some nouns are found whose gender is not determined since those nouns are not declined for number. numeral etc. 1. The noun marked with number . The nouns followed by post positions like wastE. The noun marked with cases .
The examples are phul kuttO hath “flower” “dog” “hand” phAL gae pAg “fruit” “cow” “leg”
The basic nouns can further be divided into a) Mass nouns and b) Count nouns
Mass nouns are those which do not show number distribution and cannot be counted with cardinal numeral. namely 1. The derived nouns are formed in two ways i) by adding derivational suffix to other words.Nouns thus realised in Marwari can be categorized into two broad classes. Examples are paNi dudh (kacca) cawAL loi badAl “water” “milk” “(uncooked) rice” “blood” “cloud”
Count nouns are those which can take some suffixes for indicating plurality. Examples are chorO “boy” chori “girl” chora “boys” chorIyã “girls” iNDO “egg” pothi “book” iNDa “eggs” pothIyã “books”
Derived Nouns In Marwari some nouns are derived either from the verb or adjective or from another noun. Derived nouns
Basic Nouns Basic Nouns are those which are a class by itself as they are not derived from any other word class. They always occur in singular form. ii) by compounding words
.Basic Nouns and 2.
Derived nouns by adding derivational suffix – In Marwari some nouns can be derived from the verb or adjective or from any other noun by the addition of derivative suffixes. Noun + Noun forming suffix = Noun (Abstract Noun) TabAr chorO “child” + “boy” + -pANO -pANO = = TabArpANO “childhood” choropANO “boy hood”
Derived nouns by Compounding A compound word is defined as the combination of two or more words to form a new word. for example. Verb + noun forming suffix = Noun (verbal Noun) ro kha rAm kAr “to cry” = “to eat”= “to play”= “to do” = rokharAmkAr+ + + +-NO -NO -NO NO = = = = roNO khaNO rAmNO kArNO “crying” “eating” “playing” “doing”
2. mAcchAr (“mosquito”) + dani ( “a stand base”) = mAcchArdani “mosquito net” sita ( ‘Sita” literal meaning) + phAL “fruit” = sita phAL “custard apple” paTh (“study”) + sala (“a sheltering place”) = paTh sala “school” Dimunitive Noun In Marwari. Adjective + noun forming suffix = Noun (Adjectival Noun) Andhar ũD moTa “dark” + “deep” + “thick” + -O -O -I = = = AndharO ũDO moTai “darkness” “depth” “thickness”
3. These are 1. a class of noun forms are available as Diminutives where the bigger and the smaller form of the context is distinguished by two forms like the following pAg “foot of an adult” pAglya badLi pũchRi DuMri 73 “foot of infant” “small variety of cloud” “tail of small animal” “small variety of hill”
badAl “cloud” pũch “tail of big animal”
DuMAr“big variety of hill”
Examples are: mharO beTO “my son” tharO chorO “your son” mharO ghAr “my house” but but but mhari beTi thari “my daughter”
chori “your daughter” etc.2. Case.
mhari pothi “my book”
Number In Marwari nouns are inflected for number. The masculine gender is marked by /-O/ (singular) and /-a/.2. /-yã (plural)/ by shortening the /-i/ of the nouns
Masculine Singular chorO beTO kuttO TabAr Plural
Feminine Singular chori “girl” beTi “daughter” chabRi “basket” pothi “book” Plural chorIyã “girls” beTIyã “daughters” chabRIyã “baskets” pothIyã “books”
“boy” chora “boys” “son” beta “sons” “dog” kutta “dogs” “child” TabArIya “children”
Since gender is grammatically significant in Marwari the preceeding inflected pronominal forms serving as adjunct to the subject or as complement to the object receive the same gender marker as of the noun. The plural suffixes are /-a/ . /-Iya/ (for plural) and the feminine gender by /-i.4.
Gender Gender in Marwari is grammatically determined by two ways – Masculine and feminine.>-iya TabAr hirAn “dog” “horse” “dragon fly” “child” > > > > kutta ghoRa TaTIya TabArIya hirANIya Examples are Plural “dogs” “horses” “dragon flies” “children” “antelopes” / “deers”
. Singular -o > -a kuttO ghoRO TãTIyO -Con. Number. The following description give the details of Marwari gender-number-case system. /-wa/ for the masculine nouns and /-yã/ (Iyã) for the feminine nouns. The Marwari nouns are inflected for Gender. /-Iya/.(singular) /. The numbers are two – singular and plural. The singular is unmarked.
Reflexive Pronoun. -V. Interrogative Pronoun
. Another significant pluraliser is /-E/ which occurs also in the stems of Personal pronouns as well as in the Demonstrative pronouns.2.Cl>-yã
gae dhae lUgai
[ -Con. = consonant. /mInAkh/ “man” etc. Instead.Cl = Vowel Cluster]
Some nouns like /pan/ “leaf”. Indefinite Pronoun and 2. PRONOUN Pronoun is a class of word which substitutes noun and as such a pronoun also can take number. /ghAr/ “house”. gender and case markers like the noun. Singular O a wO wa mhũ thũ “this” (masculine) “this” (feminine) “he” “she” “I” “you” E E wE wE mhE thẼ Plural “these” “these” “they” “they” “we” “you”
4. Personal pronouns 4.2.-u>-wa
“bird” “scorpion” “book” “cat” “cow” “mid-wife” “wife”
> > > > > > >
pAMkheruwa “birds” bicchuwa pothiyã minnIyã gayã dhayã lugayã “scorpions” “books” “cats” “cows” “mid-wives” “wives”
-V. /pAg/ “foot”. 3. 1. The Marwari has the following types of pronouns. But the functional difference between a noun and a pronoun is that the pronoun can not take any determiner and pronoun can be used in all persons whereas a noun always refers to the third person. Demonstrative Pronoun 5. plurality is indicated by the preceeding attributes and the context. do not take any suffix to indicate the plurality.
which are realized by subject-verb agreement both for transitive and intransitive verbs. First Person Nominative Agentive Oblique Singular mhũ (for intrasitive verb) mhẼ (for transitive verb) Plural mhE (for intransitive verb) mhã (for transitive verb)
mũ (available in Bikaner district only)
The examples of use of first personal pronominal forms in transitive and intransitive verbs are given below. The verbal forms are First Person Intransitive Singular mhũ uThe jaũ “I go there” I there go mhũ gãwme rewũ I village-in live “I live in village” mhE we AthE hi ThAhArsyã here itself will stop Transitive mhẼ UNne dekhũ (hũ)“I see him” I him see mhẼ roTi khawũ (hũ)“ I bread eat “I eat bread” mhã gayã kuTã we cows beat
“We will stop here” mhE UThE jawã we there go hã
“We beat the cows” mhã roj gayã nE duwã hã milk
we everyday cows
“We go there” Second Person Singular thũ (ordinary) thẼ (honorific) ap (honorific)
“We milk the cows every day”
Plural thE (ordinary) thẼ (honorific) ap (honorific)
tũ (inferior – a variant found in Bikaner District) Examples of use of second personal pronominal forms – Ordinary thũ mAnE dekhE (hE) you me see “You (sg. Personal Pronoun Personal pronouns in Marwari are distinguished for three persons and two numbers (and in the third personal pronoun there is two-tier gender distinction as well).) see me” 76 the mAnE dekhO(hO) you me see “you (pl.) see me”
jawE (hE) go
TabArnE dekhO child see
“You go to school” thũ kãi khawela will eat
“You (pl.) go there” thẼ you (Hon. Third Person Singular Proximate Masculine Proximate Feminine Proximate Honorific Remote Masculine Remote Feminine Remote Honiorific Examples Proximate O he O a E wO wa wE “he” (ordinary) Plural E (ordinary) E (ordinary)
“he/she” (honorific) E “they” (honorific) “he” (ordinary) wE “they” wE wE “they “they” Plural E mhara beta my sons hE are
“she” (ordinary) “he / she”
Singular mharO beTO hE my son is
“He is my son” a she mhari beTi my hE
“They are my sons” E they mhari beTIyã my hE
“She is my daughter”
“They are my daughters”
.) see the child” thE you kãi what khawola will eat
“What will you eat?”
“What will you eat?”
wAthE/UThE jawo hO there go
“You (hon.sg.sg.) kãi what khawO eat
“What do you eat?” The honorific plural form is same as honorific singular. only the context determines the number.
mhara bapuji hE my fathe r is
“He is my mother” Remote wO wAThe / UThe ub’o hE wE he there stands
“They are my teachers” baRh mathesu kudE
they fence over jump “They jump over the fence” wE posaL jawE
“He stands there” wa she UThE ub’i hE
they school go “They go to school”
“She stands there”
Remote honorific singular and plural forms are same as the remote ordina ry plural forms. Below are given the oblique forms of the pronouns. mA-. The case inflections are added with the oblique bases of the pronominal forms.) wO / wa (f.. TAthathãINUN – INãUNã-
The case markers are added with these oblique forms in the following ways: mhAnE/mAnE “to me” mharO thanE/tAne thãnE tharO UNrO UNnE “my” “to you” “to you” “your” “his / her” “to him/her” mhãnE mhãrO thanE thãnE thãrO UNãrO UNãnE “to us” “our” “to you” to you” “your” “their” “to them”
. mhamhãthA-. Direct First Person (Singular) (Plural) Second person (Singular) (Plural) (honorific) Third person (Singular) mhũ / mhẼ mhE/ mhã thũ thE thẼ O / a (m.) (Plural) e wE Oblique mhA. The above indirect forms are the personal pronominals with which the case inflections are not added.
) he-buffaloes are
“That is not my work” wO UNro ghAr hE that his house is
“Those are his he-buffaloes” wE kukrIya hE
those puppies are “Those are puppies”
“That is his house” 79
. Singular Proximate Masculine O “this” (masculine) O moTyar this man andhO hE blind is Plural E E “these” (masculine) hE
these two houses are “These are two houses”
“This man is blind” O this ek a kuttO dog hE is
“This is a dog” O this ghAr house hE is
“These are three horses”
“This is house” Proximate Feminine a a “this” ek gae cow hE is E “these” E dO gayã hE
these two cows are “These are two cows” E dO gaDiyã hE
“This is a cow” a ek gaDDi hE this a cart is
“This is a cart” Remote Masculine wO “that” wO mharO kam koni that my work not
“These are two carts” wE wE those “those” UNãra paDa hE
his(hon. Demonstrative Pronoun The demonstrative pronoun in Marwari distinguishes for two-tier spatial distance like i) Proximate demonstrative pronoun that refers to the objects nearer to the speaker and ii) Remote demonstrative pronoun that refers to the objects away from the speaker. Below are exemplified the demonstrative pronouns in Marwari.2. Marwari demonstrative pronoun is distinguished by two-tier numbers – singular and plural.
wa “that” wa that pothi mhari hE book my is
wE wE those
“Those” pothIya mhari hE books my are
“That is my book” wa that ek a minni hE cat is
“Those are my books” wE dO minnIya cats hE are
“That is a cat”
“those are two cats”
3. Interrogative Pronoun The Interrogative pronouns are person and object specific in Marwari. kuN “who” wO he kuN who kuN hE “Who is he?”
who is jaNE knows awela “Who will come with me?” “Who knows”
mharE sagE kuN me 2.) field is
. 1. Below are presented the interrogative types with examples.
kimE thari which
“Which is your book?”
your book is khet hE “Which is your field?”
which your(hon. kãi “what” with
who will come nam hE is “What do you want?” “What is your name?”
tharO kãi your thũ you thũ you
what name kãi what kãi what cawE
do want khawela will eat “What will you eat?”
Out of the above forms /kuN/ is inflected by case markers and the case markers are added with the oblique form of /kuN/ which is /kIN-/. In Marwari the Indefinite pronouns and their uses in sentences are as follows thoRO “some” UNnE thoRO dhAn cawE to him some money wants “He wants some money” thoRa “some” thoRa nAwa thoRa juna some new some old hE are
“Some are new some are old” koi “anybody” koi bhi O kam kAr sAkE can
anybody else this
“Anybody can do this work” dusrO “another” dusrO another TabAr nE boy to bulawO call
“Call another boy”
. Indefinite Pronoun The pronouns which denote some non-definite person or thing instead of denoting definite person or thing are Indefinite pronouns. Thus kuN> kINa this thũ you pothi book kINnE whom + -ri kINrO whose kINri whose + -nE kINnE = dewela “To whom will you give this book” kINnE “whom” (accusative of kuN)
whom will give bolyO told -rO = = kINrO kINri hE is hE is
“To whom you spoke” “whose” “whose” “Whose horse is this?” (genitive of kuN)
kuN > kINkINwO this wa this + ghoRO horse chabRi basket
“Whose basket is this”
CASE Like other languages. In Marwari the case relations are expressed in three ways – i) by the absence of marker pAMkheru uDE “the bird flies” gae cArE “the cow grazes” khud khud khud “I myself only” “Your yourself only” “He himself only”
pAMkheru and gae are realized as nominative case ii) by the addition of case marker mharO beTO ghArE hE “My son is in the house” mha-rO is realized as genitive case thE TabArnE dekhO “You see the child” TabAr-nE is realized as accusative case
.3.2. Reflexive Pronoun In Marwari the Reflexive pronouns are formed with /ap/ “own” / “self” which are inflected for plural number and those are presented below ap apã “own” /“self” “we ourselves” apã we AthE here ghANa bArAs rey liya many yea rs lived
“We have lived here for quite many years” apãNE “to ourselves” apãNE apNO aLO duji ThoR we apNO “our own” aprE “self” our nest somewhere else bANawNO caije have to build
“We ourselves have to build our nest somewhere else” kagli aprE dhANi nE to kewO told
crow-hen herself husband
“The crow-hen told to the husband of herself” The Reflexive pronominal /ap/ is replaced by /khud/ “self” in the singular number and the same is realised in all the three persons as noted below mhẼ thũ wO 4. in Marwari also the semantic relations between a noun phrase or subject and a predicate is expressed by the grammatical category of case.5.
. In case of nouns the nominative case is unmarked. In the first personal pronominal pronouns the nominative is marked or unmarked according to the transitive and intransitive character of the verb. Ablative 2. Locative 4. Accusative 5. But it is marked in transitive verb Intransitive mhũ AthE jaũ “I go here” Transitive mhẼ uNãnE dekhũ mhã gayã kuTã “I see them” “We beat the cows”
mhE AthE ThAhAra hã “We stop here”
The first personal singular pronominal form /mhũ/ is changed into /mhẼ/ and first personal plural pronominal form /mhE/ is changed into /mhã/ in nominative case in case of transitive verbs. Nominative 7. /pAMkheru/ “bird”. Nominative case in pronoun In case of intransitive verb the first personal nominative is unmarked. Nominative Nominative case is used with the subject of the sentence which is either a noun or a pronoun. Benefactive 9. Nominative case in nouns TabAr heThE pAR pAMkheru rũkh gayã dudh gyo “the child falls down” “The bird sits on the tree” “The cows give milk”
Here /TabAr/ “child” .iii) by the addition of post-position
kuttO mharE pachE ayO “The dog came behind me” wO rũkhrE nicE sowE “He sleeps under the tree”
Accordingly the cases realised in Marwari are the following.Dative
10. /gaya/ “cows” are nominative forms and the case marker is unmarked. Instrumental 6. Vocative. Agentive 8. Genitive 3. Sociative and 11.
indicated by the verb. It is also called ergative construction when the agreement of the verb is with the object. In case of human nouns and
pronouns the case is marked by /-nE/ while inanimate and non-human nouns are unmarked.hon.
Agentive case Agentive is marked by /-ne/ case marker and occurs with transitive verb in perfective
This case is expressed by /saru/. 84
Accusative Case This case denotes the direct object of the transitive verbs.) see the child” wE khet jawE “They go to the field”
2. Examples ram nE ek pen khArid kAriyO sita nE dO ambO khayi “ram bought a pen” “sita ate two mangoes”
3.The second and third person pronominal forms are unmarked in nominative case.) go there” wO UThE jawE hE “He goes there” Transitive thũ TabAr dekhE “You (sg & non. Intransitive thũ UThE jawE “You (sg & non. /wastE/ mhẼ I mhari lUgairi my wife wastE for nuwa geNa new ornaments layO have brought
“I have brought new ornaments for mywife” mhẼ mhẼ I mharO mharO my beTE or beTE rE son saru dukhi hũ
wastE dukhi hũ for sorry am
“I feel sorry for my son” mhẼ I iNrE it wastE for sAgli every kani where dekhlyO looked
“I looked for it everywhere”
Benefactive case This case denotes the being in whose interest the action. is done.
But in the sentences below the objects like gayã. The marker /-sũ/
is used with the agent. mharE pensũ my pen with likh write
“Write with my pen” mhã we IN this sARAksũ aya road-by hã came
“We came by this road” wE she kINIsũ mAjurnE panc ripiya dirawE five hE
rupees is making to give
“She is making someone to give 5 rupees to labourers”
. mhã we wO he mhẼ I gayã cows ek a ek a kuTã beat TippAN note git song likhIyo has written gae rAyo hE “I am singing a song” hE “He has written a note” “We beat the cows”
Instrumental case This case is used to denote instrument with which the action is performed. TippAN and git appear without any marker.wO he
TabArnE child (to)
“He sees the child”
TabAriya children mhẼ I
mAnE dekhE me see dekhũ see
“The children see me”
lUgainE lady (to)
“I see the lady”
Here /-nE/ as accusative marker has been suffixed respectively with TabAr-. lUgai. mhũ > mA-.
When the possessing object is masculine singular the marker is /-rO/.
Dative Case The indirect object of the transitive verb is expressed by the dative case. for example. mhũ I uNnE to him ek a pothi book dey rAyO hũ am giving
“I am giving a book to him” mhara my bapu father mAnE me pisa money bhejIyo has sent
“My father has sent me money” wO he mAnE me panc five ripiya rupees dewE gives
“He gives me five rupees” Here /UNnE/ and /mAnE/ stem) + dative /-nE/ . The genitive case markers are /-rO/ /-ra/ /-ri/. 7. Ablative case The movement of the subject or the object from one place to another either at the spatial plane or at the temporal plane is expressed by the ablative case.from
8. This case is also expressed by /-sũ-/ rũkh tree wO he posaL sũ from pan leaves ayO jhArE fall hE “Where has he come from?” “The leaves fall from the tree” being the indirect object are formed with base (derived from
kATha sũ where-from sũ awO
come has “Come from the school”
school .6. The context only determines whether /-nE/ is dative or accusative. Genitive case This case expresses the meaning of belonging to or possession of something by the subject of the sentence. The dative case
marker is also /-nE/. It denotes the source.mharO beTO my son “my son” /beTO/ is masculine and Singular
thãra pAg “your feet” = /thãra/ is genitive of second person honorific (singular as well as plural) mhara chora “my sons” = plural of mharO chorO “my son” plural of tharO TabAr plural of UNrO beTO plural of UNãrO beTO “your son” “his son” “his (honorific) son”
thara TabArIiya “your sons” = UNara beTa UNãra beTa “his sons” =
“his(hon. thara pAg “your feet” = /thara/ is genitive second person masculine plural and in the present context /pAg/ is masculine plural.) sons”=
When the possessing nouns are feminine then the genitive marker is /-ri/ lUgairi lUgairi thari thari chabRi chabRIya pothi pothIyã “the basket of a woman” “the baskets of a woman” “your book” “your books”
9. for example mhãra mhãra pitaji mAsTarji “my father” “my teacher”
When the possessing object is masculine plural and honorific then also the genitive marker is /-ra/ tharO pAg “your foot” = /tharO/ is genitive or ordinary second person masculine singular and /pAg/ is masculine singular.
Locative Case The location of the subject or object is expressed by the locative case marker is /-mE/ or
/-E/ mhari my chori daughter khet mE field-in 87 hE is “My daughter is in the field”
.TabAr rO child-of tharO your
hath hand pAg foot
“the hand of the child” “your foot”
/hath/ is masculine and Singular /pAg/ is masculine and Singular
If the following possessing noun is honorific then the genitive marker is /-ra/ instead of /-rO/.
. he he rama bhaela “Oh. /sathE/ which are used after inflected nominal or pronominal form.)
“I will go with you to work” mharE me sagE with kuN who awela will come
“Who will come with me?” [Note The genitive marker –rO. -ra.mhE wE mharo my Tabriya children 10. The postpositions though appear independently in the sentence but they are not free forms and as a result they are neither inflected for gender and number nor the definite article is added to the post positions.4.
Vocative case The vocative case is expressed in the following way in Marwari.to
rewã live ghArE house-in aya come
“We live in the village” hE is “My son is in the house” “The children come to the garden”
This case denotes association with somebody.]
10. mhẼ I thãrE you sagE/ sathE kamsũ with to work jaũla / jaũli will go (m. Post positions always occur after the noun or noun-phrase. POST POSITION
In Marwari Post Position has also a role in expressing case relations. They are used postpositionally of a case-inflected nominal/pronominal form and the preceeding case marker essentially is genitive. Friend!” or “Oh Lord Ram!”
4./f. Thus.2. Sociative Case
gãw mE village-in beTo son bag mE garden. mharE sagE etc. God!” “Oh. -ri is modified into –rE when a sociative case marker/ post-position follows it. The sociative marker is /sagE/ .
The following are some of the post-positions in Marwari. mathE “up” kuttO minni mathE bhukhE dog wO he cat .at b’akhAr hill barks mathE gyo up .went “He went up the hill” “The dog barks at the cat”
[here the preceeding noun of the postposition is not inflected by case]
pachE/ larE “behind”
kuttO mharE pachE / larE dog me behind
“The dog came behind me” samĩ “in front of” thũ you mharE me samĩ kyũ ub’o hE
in front of why
“Why do you stand in front of me?” heThE “under” jAmi earth mhãrE pAgarE our feet heThE hE under is
“The earth is under our feet” nicE “under” pothi book mhãrE Tebul our table nicE hE
“The book is below our table” jyũ jeDO “like” wO he mharE me jyũ like dikhE looks
“He looks like me” kani “side” /“besides” mharE kani my side jAga seat lelO take
“Take seat by my side” sage/sathe “with” / “alongwith” wO mharE he me sagE / sathE alongwith ayO came
“He came alongwith me”
5.2. ADJECTIVE An adjective is a word which modifies a noun.
. /hAra/ are the plural forms of adjectives /dhoLO/. namely 1. are given below. In Marwari the adjective precedes the qualifying noun.
The list is quite exhaustive. Predicative Adjectives and 2. achO good dhoLO white chorO boy ghoRO horse “white-horse” “good-boy” achi good chori “good-girl” girl
moTi pothi “big book” big book
In Marwari adjectives are declined for gender and number. The gender bas ed adjectival suffixes are –o for masculine and –i for feminine. /dhoLa/ .Some other post-positions available in Marwari. Besides the above adjectival formation there are two grammatical classes of adjectives in Marwari. pachE bicaLE tãi mãE barE kAnE orũ bikani “after” “between” “for” “inside” “out of” “near” “through” “towards” etc. Derived adjectives which are discussed below. The gender and number of the adjective is in concordance with that of the following noun. /hArO/ respectively. Examples achO chorO dubLO ghoRO “good boy” “weak horse achi chori “good girl”
dubLi ghoRi “weak mare”
The number-wise adjectival suffixes are –a for masculine plural and –i for feminine dhoLa ghoRa “white horses” hAra panra “green leaves” moTi pothIyã cokhi chorIyã “big books” “beautiful girls”
The formation is the following: Verb Base + Past Participle form + -R.‘to fall’ . -a (plural). In predicative use the adjectives follow the nouns in the sentences. chAp. Examples Non-predicative use patLi chori “the lean girl” moTi pothi “the big book” > > > > > Predicative use a chori a pothi patLi hE moTi hE “This girl is lean” “This book is big” “The child is tall” “Clothes are old” “That house is new”
lAmbo TabAr “the tall child” juna kApRa “old clothes” “new house”
TabAr lAmbo hE kApRa juna hE
O ghAr nuwo hE
In the predicative use the adjectives form part of the verb phrase.Predicative adjective Adjectives in Marwari are found as used predicatively occurring before the verb substantives.‘to ripe’.‘to print’which have taken the adjective forming suffix –IyoR – -i (feminine) and number markers like –O (singular). chApIyoRi (feminine) respectively are derived from the respective verb roots pAR.1. pAk.+ Gender Examples pARIyoRO pARIyoRa pAkIyoRO pAkIyoRa chApIyoRi chApIyoRi phAl phAL ambo amba pothi pothiyã “fallen fruit” “fallen fruits” “the ripe mango” “the ripe mangoes” “printed book” “printed books”
pAkIyoRa (Plural). Derived Adjectives In Marwari some adjectives are found to have derived from verb and hence these may be termed as derived adjectives.
ghAnghor “deep / dark” etc. For example sAkhAt “hard” . niras “despaired” . semantically the Marwari adjectives can be categorized into three. Qualitative adjective The adjectives which attribute a quality to the nouns are called qualitative adjectives. The examples are hArO buDhO pan minAkh “green leaf” “old man” “clever child” “white horses” “the dark cloud” “the green leaves” “the big children” “the high hill” “the drenched child” “the wet cloth” “the small eggs” “the small egg” bADi gaDDi cAtri chori pAtLi pothi lAmbi chori aLsi chorIyã lAMgri lUgai khali taji chabRi mAchli “big cart” “wise girl” “thin book” “tall girl” “lazy girls” “the lame woman” “empty basket” “fresh fish” “greedy cat” “greedy man” “old lady”
cAtrO /cAtAr TabAr dhoLa kaLa hAra moTa ũcO alO gilO nanha nanhO ghoRa badAL panra TabAriya b’akhAr TabAr kApRO iNDa iNDO
lob’i minni lob’i admi
Some qualitative adjectives do not decline for gender and number. In Marwari the use of Quantitative adjectives are as follows
. i) Qualitative. Quantitative adjective The adjectives which refer to the quantity of the nouns with which they occur are called Quantitative adjectives. Accordingly.Further. ii) Quantitative and iii) Demonstrative adjective. the Adjectives in Marwari are realisesd as Variables and Non -Variables. khali “empty” . namely.
Demonstrative adjective The forms which demonstrate the nouns are called Demonstrative adjectives which are realised in following way in Marwari. kittO “how much” / “how many” kittO kittO jittO isO jisO “this much” / “that much” “this much” “that much” jittO isO jisO keLa cawAL dhAn kOm kOm “how many bananas” “how much rice” “that much money” “this much work” “that much work” “all people”
1. are added to pronominal bases for the adjective referring quantity. measurements and commonality when /-tt/.i) When the numerical unit is followed by the relevant attributed nouns. Masculine ek dO tin ii) kuttO “one dog” kutta kutta “two dogs” “three dogs” ek dO tin Feminine minni minnIyã minnIyã “one cat” “two cats” “three cats”
When the quantity is in indefinite unit followed by the attributed nouns: Singular thoRO dhAN “some money” thoRO phAL “some fruit” Plural thoRa cawAL thoRa kApRa “some rice” “some clothes”
The numerals – cardinals – ordinals – fractional – multiplicatives – are also the quantitative adjectives dealt separately in the following section: iii) Another category is expressed by the words of counts.
. /-sO/ etc.
/E/ . /panc ghAr / are demonstrated by /O/ . /-ra/. Igyara “eleven” . /dO/. /cO-/. /tin/ which are respectively /Ik-~Ig-/. The numerals are the following 1. /wE/ respectively and for this purpose here they function as Demonstrative adjectives only. tera “thirteen”. NUMERALS All the numerals belong to adjective class. /-da/. aTThara “eighteen”.O a E wE
ghAr pothi kApRa panc ghAr
mharO hE thari juna hE hE
“This house is mine” “This book is yours” “These clothes are old” “These five houses belong to him(honorific)”
In the above examples /ghAr/ . /pAn-/ etc. /-ara/ to the allomorphs of /ek/ . Multiplication Cardinal numerals The following are the cardinal numerals in Marwari ek panc aTh “one” “five” / “eight” dO “two” tin chE dAs “three” “six” “ten” cyar/car “four” sat “seven”
pãc/põc “five” nO “nine”
From eleven to eighteen the numerals are formed by adding /-yara/.2. /a/ . /te-/. pAndra “fifteen” . /pothi/ . Cardinals 2. bara “twelve” . Fractionals 4.6. sAtera “seventeen” . cOda “fourteen” . /kApRa/. 4. In Marwari the numerals follow decimal system of counting. soLa “sixteen” . Ordinals 3.
. /ba-/. Accordingly.
/dO/. ba. forty. -tis. seventy. /tin/ respectively as below./ pãc.. sAt-. ‘thirty-nine’ and so on are made by adding /–is/ (the allomorph of dAs “ten”) with /un-/~ /Un/ (the allomorph of “nine” ) and thus unnis “nineteen”./ chE / sAt. -wAn. 31 onwards the numerals are formed by adding /– is/ (the allomorph of /dAs/ “ten”) with the allomorphs of /ek/. ‘twenty-nine’.respectively. ninety which are respectively -ra. sixty. cO. -ttAr.. so. fifty./ sat-. pan.. un. ikkis one + twenty “twenty one” bais two + twenty “twenty-two”
teis three + twenty
cObis four + twenty
ekAttis one + thirty
bAttIs two + thirty
[The list is quite exhaustive] From eleven onwards upto ninety it is found that the allomorphs of ten. the forms are – Ikkis Iktis Ikcalis IkawAn IkattAr Ikasi IkkanwE/IkanAbbE “twenty one” “thirty one” “forty one” “fifty one” “seventy one” “eighty one” “ninety one”
. twenty.. sat. is./ chA. -asi .. -sATT. thirty. te. UncalIs ‘thirty-nine’ etc./ sẼ. eighty.The formation like ‘nineteen’. From 21. Thus.
-nAbbE are added with the oblique bases of cardinals from one to nine which
are ik. Untis “twenty-nine”. aTTh./ ig.
) “second” “fourth”
From fifth onwards the ordinal suffix –wã is added after the cardinals. -jo.Ordinals In the numerals from one to four the allomorphs are /pel-/ “one”. / ti -/ three” . -thi respectively. Thus. /co.) cOthi(f. -ji . -tho respectively which are further declined in feminine gender marked by -i ./ “four” are added with the ordinal suffixes –o. -jo. /du-/“two”. pElo tijO ~ ~ pEli tiji “first” “third” dujO ~ duji (f. pãcwO chATha/chAua satwã aThwã Fractionals The basic fractions are given below out of which /adha/ “half” has allomorph /saRi/ which is used with the cardinal numerals from three onwards ¼ ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2½ 3½ 4½ 5½ 6½ = = = = = = = = = = soa adha pon pura DeRh Dhai saRi saRi saRi saRi tin cyar pãc/ saRi pÃc chE [which is declined in feminine as adhi] “fifth’ “sixth” “seventh” “eighth” pãcwi chAThi satwĩ aThwĩ
. for example.
. 4. CLASSIFIERS The unit which classifies the quantitative counting of the noun may be treated as classifier. For example ek panc TabAr ghAr “one boy” “five houses” dO dAs TabAriya ghoRa “two boys” “ten horses”
and so on. VERB MORPHOLOGY This section deals with the structure of Finite and Non-finite verbal formations along with the categories of verbs in Marwari.1.3.
4. The structure of the verb classes are realized in the following patterns in Marwari: verb stem + tense ( + aspect) + personal marker+ number marker + copula.2.3. Definition of verbs in Marwari Verb is a form class that marks tense – aspect – modal – personal markers distinguished by number and gender.Multiplicatives The Multiplicatives are found in Marwari in the forms like the following dUgNO cOgNO chEgUNO “two times” “four times” “six times”
4. The cardinal numerical unit serves the purpose of classifiers in Marwari.
aspect/tense marker + feminine personal marker
“He will do”
Structure is verb stem -+.feminine personal marker
.) Stem + Durative Aspect Marker + Third Personal Copula
ghoRo doRyO hE
“The horse has run”
Structure is (Vb.) Stem + First Person Plural Present Marker + First Personal Plural Copula
[ = likh-+-ã + hũ]
Structure is same as s-1
[= likh.aspect / tense marker + masculine personal marker
“I will go there”
Structure is verb stem -+.first personal Singular marker + .third personal Singular marker +.) Stem + Present Tense Marker + Third Personal Copula
reyo hE “The horse is running” [doR-+ reyO + hE]
Structure is (Vb.+ .aspect/tense marker + .) Stem + First Person Singular Present Marker + First Personal Singular Copula
“we go there” [ = ja-+-wã+hã]
Structure is (Vb.third personal Singular marker + aspect / tense marker+masculine personal marker
“She will do”
Structure is verb stem -+.) Stem + Perfective Aspect Marker + Third Personal Copula
Pattern – II S-1 mhũ wAThE/UThE jaũ hũ “I go there” [= ja-+-ũ + hũ]
Structure is (Vb.ã + hã]
Structure is same as s-2
Pattern III S-1 mhũ jawũla Masculine) “I will go there”
Structure is verb stem -+.first personal Singular marker +.Pattern-I S-1 ghoRO doRE (hE) “The horse runs” [doR-+-E + hE]
Structure is (Vb.
IV S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 wO wa ek ek pothi pADhE (hE) pothi pADhE (hE) pothi pothi pADhi pADhela “He reads a book” “She reads a book” “He reads a book” “He will read the book”
UnNE ek wO ek
Thus.3. The conjugational pattern of vowel ending and consonant ending verb roots are given below . causative etc. Simple Verb A simple verb is composed of monomorphemic single root with or without a suffix.] 99
. kha(No) khaũ “eat” mhũ I khaũ eat hũ “I eat”
“eat” (1st person)
khayO “ate” (1st person) khaE “eats” (3rd person) rakh (No)“keep” rakhE “keeps”(3rd person)
mhũ khayO I eat (past) wo khaE hE
pothi AthE book here
rakhE hE keep-s
“He keeps book here”
wO pothi he book
AThE rakhela “He will keep book here” here will keep
[The details of the finite verb formation is presented in Finite verb section.2. If there are other markers like aspect.Pattern. they occur between verb stem and copula. 4.
The personal markers occurs at the end of form and copula appears separately whe re it is necessary.gender – number – personal markers. the basic structure of the verbal formation in Marwari is
Verb stem + tense marker + personal marker + copula. Classification of Verb The Marwari verb stems can be classified into simple and compound verbs. The verb is conjugated with aspect .
2. Transitive – Intransitive and 5. Intransitive. /dewO-/ etc. Example of Intransitive verbs are phir(NO) dOR(NO) bETh(NO) “walk” “run” “sit” aw(NO) jaw(NO) tir(NO) “come” “go” “swim”
The examples of Intransitive verbal formation are kuttO TabAr dORE posaL hE jawE “The dog runs” “The child goes to school” etc.
Intransitive – The verbs which do not take any object.Compound Verb A Compound verb consists of more than one root and may include one or more suffixes.
Transitive . The examples of transitive verbs are kha(NO) dekh(NO) kuT(NO) “eat” “see” “hit”/”beat” dewo(NO) likh(NO) mel (NO) “give” “write” “put”
. 4. 3. different compound verbs are formed with verb roots like /huwo-/ .The verbs which take an object. Based on morphological and syntactic function the verb stems can be further divided into three sub-classes. as a second member of the Compound Verbs. Compound Verb with root /kAr-/ hakO kAr (NO) ulTi kAr (NO) roLO kAr (NO) dãtiyã kAr (NO) “to shout” “to vomit” “to quarrel” “to quarrel” Compound verb with root /mar-/ goLi mar (NO) “to shoot” jhũrATiya mar (NO) “to scratch”
Further. Causative. /paR-/. Auxiliary. Transitive. These are 1.
> khA-+w-aw = khAwaw (NO) “cause to eat” su> so-+. the causative formation is like the following dewO. that is.The examples of Transitive verbal formation are wO mhẼ wO wa cawAL TabAr pothi ek khawE dekhyO pADhE TippAN likh reyi “he eats rice” “I saw the child” “He reads a book” hE “She is writing a note”
Causative Verb Causative verbs are those which have two agents of which one causes the other to do. The vowels of the verb bases are changed with which –waw/-aw are added The examples of causative verbs are Vowel ending verb kha.) teach her”
In case of some irregular verbs like /dewO-/ “to give”. by the addition of a transitive/intransitive suffix when the transitive . Examples are
.> dikh-+-a = dikhaw (NO)“to show” likh.waw = sowaw (NO) “cause to sleep” Consonant ending verb dekh. /lewO-/ “to take” etc.> likh -+-a = likhaw (NO) “to cause to write” The examples of Causative structure are mhẼ thũ TabAr nE UNnE khAwawũ (hũ) “I feed the child” “You (hon.> diraw(NO) mhẽ uNsũ ek “to make to give” pothi dirawE reyO hũ
“I am making her give a book” wa kINIsũi mAjur nE ripiya dirawe hE
“She is making some one give rupees to worker” Transitive – Intransitive A transitive – intransitive verb is one which is transitive or intrtansitive simultaneously.intransitive verbs are formed.
Accordingly. Mood which are discussed below. 4. pp-305). verbs in Marwari are morphologically marked for having three way opposition of tense as 1.
. Present 2. Future. Past and 3. Finite Verb Having the verb root as the base both Finite and Non-finite verbal formations are realised in Marwari. The details of Verbal sub-classes have been dealt after Finite and Non-Finite verb formation sections. And according to Lyons “The essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it relates the time of action. 1970.bAL(NO) mharo baL (NO) wa bako
“burn” bALgyO “burn” hE
an intransitive verb – which means self burn “My mouth has been burnt” a transitive verb “She is burning fuel of wood” an intransitive verb “The cattle moves into the field” a transitive verb. Following are the personwise tense formations in Marwari. “Bend the body”
bALitO baL reyi “move” -
ghum-a (NO) “bend” DIL ne ghumawO
Auxiliary Verb: The verb base /hu(wO)/ being conjugated in tense-person-gender-number is realized as the principal auxiliary verb. 1968. Aspect and 3. Tense 2. event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to the time of utterance” (Lyons.3.
Tense Hockett defines the tense as “a grammatical category showing different locations of an event in time” (Hockett. pp-167).3. The components of finite verb are 1.
ũ+ hũ mhũ khet jaũ hũ I field go mhẼ / mhũ pothi pADhũ hũ I book read [/mhũ/ .) “He goes to field”
. First Person verb stem -+.It indicates the action that takes place when the utterance is uttered.) thẼ / thE you (hon)/you (pl. is used in first person for intransitive i) verb ] ii) verb stem -+ -ã / -wã + hã mhE we khet field jawã go pothi book pADhã hã read “We read the book” hã for plural “We go to the field” for singular “I go to the field” “I read the book” verb and /mhẼ/ is used for transitive
mhã / mhE we
[/mhE/ is the 1st personal plural form for intransitive and generally /mhã/ is the first personal plural form for transitive verb] Second Person i) Verb stem -+.Present Tense .Ẽ+ hẼ thũ thũ khet jawẼ (hẼ) for singular “You go to the field” “You read a book”
pothi pADhẼ (hẼ)
ii) Verb stem -+. the present tense is formed in the following way.go pothi book pADhO hO read “You read the book”
Third Person Third person verb stem + -wE/ -E+ hE both for singular and plural wO he khet field jawE (hE) go(pr.) khet jawO hO
for plural and honorific “You go to the field”
field.wO / -O + hO thẼ / thE you(hon. generally.) you (Pl. Accordingly.wẼ / .
verb stem -+-y– / -iy.wE they wO he wE they
“they go to the field”
field go(pr.) pothi pADhE (hE) book pothi book reads(pr.(past marker) + -O (1st personal singular marker) mhũ I mhẼ / mhũ I khet field gAyO went “I wrote the letter” “I went to the field”
ciTThi likhiyO letter wrote
First person plural . The formation of past tense in different persons is the following First person singular .) pADhE (hE) read(pr.(Past marker) + -O thũ thũ gAyO likhIyO “You went” “You wrote”
Second Person plural / honorific .(past marker) + -a thẼ / thE you(hon.) “They read book” “He reads book”
Past Tense Past tense refers to an event which happened before the time of utterance.)/(pl.verb stem –y.+-y.) Third person singular masculine – feminine wO he khet field khet field gAya went “You (hon)/(pl) went to field”
verb stem -+-y-+ o verb stem -+-y-+ i wa she khet gAyi “She went to field”
gAyO “He went to field” went
.verb stem .(past marker) + -a (1st person plural marker) mhE we khet gAya “We went to field”
field went ciTThi likhIya letter wrote “We wrote the letter”
mhã / mhE we
Second person singular .verb stem -+-y– / -iy.
) “I will read the book” “I will read the book”
pothi pADhũli book will read (f.)
field will go pADhãla “We will read book”
book will read
Second person singular verb stem./ -ãmhE / mhã we mhã we pothi (future base marker)+ -l.( future base marker) + -l.) pothi pADhũla book will read(m.ũ / -wũ .(future tense marker) +-a (person marker) khet jawãla “We will go to the field” khet jawũla “I will go to the field”
field will go (m./ -ethũ you thũ you (future base marker)+ -l.verb stem -+-y + -o wE wE khet gAyO “They went to field” “They wrote letter”
Future Tense Future tense indicates the time preceeding the time of utterance. The future tense marker is -l-.Third person plural .(future marker ) + -a (person marker) khet field jawela will go “You will read the book” “You will go to the field”
pothi pADhela book will read
.(future tense marker) + -a (masculine personal marker) / -i (feminine personal marker) mhũ I mhũ I mhũ I mhũ I First person plural verb stem-+-wã.+we.) khet jawũli “I will go to the field”
field will go (f. The personwise future tense formation is the following
First person singular verb stem -+.
Second person plural / honorific – verb stem-+ - wO- / -O- (future base marker) + -l- (future marker) + -a (personal marker) thE / thẼ you (pl./hon.) thE / thẼ khet jawola “You will go to the field”
field will go pothi pADhola will read “You will read thre book”
you (pl./hon.) book
Third person singular - The formation is same as the second person singular. The subject, either in nominal or phonominal form, determines the distinction between third person and singular. Third person plural/honorific – Like the singular form the third person plural / honorific singular and plural – are expressed in the same way as in second person singular/honorific. The subject will indiate the occurrence for third person and second person.
Aspect Aspect is not related to the time of utterance as Hockett defines that “Aspect is a grammatical category of verb which has nothing to do with the location of an event in time but with its temporal distribution or contour”. (Hockett, 1970, pp-167). Accordingly, aspect is related with duration, perfection, habituality etc. Marwari has 3 aspects namely 1. Durative 2. Perfective and 3. Habitual which are found to occur in different tenses.
1. Durative or Imperfective Aspect It describes an action which is regarded as continuous in the past or present or future tenses. The durative aspect marker is derived from the subsidiarty verb root rewO – which is inflected according to tense and person and gender and which is placed in between the verb stem and copula. Thus the structure of the finite verb with durative aspect is -- verb durative + copula Present durative – The structure of the present duratibve in different persons is First person singular - verb stem - + reyo(<reh-) + hũ . mhẼ/mhũ I khet field jaE reyO hũ going am Examples “I am going to the field” stem +
pADh reyO reading
“I am reading book”
First person plural - verb stem - + reya(<rah-) + hã. mhã / mhe we mhã / mhE we khet field jaE reya going hã are hã a re
Examples “We are going to the field”
pothi pADh reya book reading
“We are reading book”
Second person ordinary singular – verb stem - + reyo + hã. thũ you thũ you khet field pothi book jae reyO going hã are
Examples “You are going to the field”
pADh reyO hã reading are
“You are reading book”
Second person ordinary plural / honorific - verb stem - + reya + ho thE / thẼ you (pl./hon.) ord(pl) (hon) thE / thẼ you (pl./hon.) pADh reya reading hO are (masculine) (feminine) “He is going to the field” You are reading” jaE reya going hO are “You are going”
Third person singular – verb stem - + reyO + hE verb stem - + reyi + hE wO he wa she wO he wa she khet field khet field jaE reyO going jaE reyi going hE is hE is hE is hE is
“She is going to the field”
pothi pADh reyO book reading
“He is reading book”
pothi pADh reyi book reading
“She is reading book”
Third person plural / honorific - verb stem - + reya (<rewo-) + hE wE they khet field jaE reya going hE are “They are going to the field”
pothi pADh reya book reading
“They/he(hon) are reading book”
Past Durative -
The personwise past durative formation is as follows-
First person Singular - verb stem - + reyO (<rew-) + hO mhũ / mhẼ I mhũ / mhẼ I First person Plural khet field jaE reyO going hO was hO was “I was reading book” “I was going to field”
pothi pADh reyO book reading
verb stem khet field pothi book
- + reya (<rew-) + ha jae reya going ha were ha were “We were reading book” “We were going to field”
mhE / mhã we mhã we
pADh reya readin g
Second person singular - Verbal Formation is same as in first person. thũ thũ khet jaE reyO hO hO “You were going to field” “You were reading book”
pothi pADh reyO
But in second person singular past durative feminine concord is also found; for example thũ thũ khet jaE reyi hi hi “You (fem) were going to field” “You(fem) were reading book”
pothi pADh reyi
So for the singular personal aspect wise formation the structure is verb stem - + reyi + hi (Past tense 2 nd personal sg. feminine marker) Second personal plural / hornorific - The structure is same as first personal plural i.e. verb stem - + reya (<rew-) + ha thE / thẼ you(pl./hon.) thE / thẼ khet field jaE reya going ha were ha were “you (pl) were reading book” “You (pl) were going to field”
pothi pADh reya reading
Third person singular is also same as First and Second person singular. Similarly, third personal plural is also same as First and second personal plural.
verb stem .+ reya (<rew-) + howola thE khet jaE reya howola “You(pl.The structure of finite verb with future durative aspect is the following First person singular .) verb stem ./hon.) will be reading book”
Third person singular .)will be going to field”
you field going will be (pl.) thE pothi pADh reya howola you(pl.) wO he wa she wa he khet field khet field pothi book jaE reyO going jaE reyi going pADh reyi studying huwela will be huwela will be huwela will be “He will be reading book” “She will be going to field” “He will be going to field”
./hon.+ reyo(<rew-) + huwela huwela will be huwela will be “You will be reading book” “You will be going to field”
jaE reyO going pADh reyO reading
Second person plural/honorific .) book reading will be
“You(pl.) mhũ / mhẼ I mhũ / mhẼ I khet field jaE reyO going (fem.+ reyi (<rew-) + huwela (fem.+ reyO + howũla / howũli (masc.Future Durative ./hon.verb stem .+ reya(<rew-) + howãla mhã we mhã we khet field pothi book jaE reya going howãla will be “We will be reading book” “We will be going to field”
pADh reya howãla reading will be
Second person singular thũ you thũ you khet field pothi book
verb stem .+ reyo (<rew-) + huwela (masc.)/(hon.) howũla will be howũli will be “I will be going to the field” “I will be going to the field”
khet jaE reyO field going
First person plural .verb stem .verb stem .
The aspect marker is principal verb stem . In the past it expresses the action which is already done.wa she
pothi pADh reyi book reading
huwela will be
“She will be reading book”
Third person plural / honorific – wE they wE they khet field jaE reya going
verb stem . In the present it expresses the completion of an action which is just finished.+ auxiliary verb root /lewO/ which is inflected for all the tenses – persons – number – gender.+ reya(<rew-) + howela howela will be howela will be “They will be reading book” “They will be going to field”
pothi pADh reya book studying
Perfective Aspect It describes an action either completed in the past or to be completed in the past or to be completed. The action to the completed in near future is expressed in future perfect. Thus First person Singular Present mhũ / mhẼ I khaE liyũ (hũ) eaten have Plural mhã / mhE khaE liyã we eaten have
“I have eaten” mhẼ I likh written liyũ have
“We have eaten” mhã likh we liyã
“I have written” Past mhẼ khaE liyO hO
“We have written” mhã khaE liya hã
“I had eaten” mhẼ likh liyO hO
“We had eaten” mhã likh liya hã
“I had written” Future mhẼ khaE liyO howũli/howũla
“We had written” mhã khaE liya howãla
“I might have eaten” mhẼ likh liyO howũla/howũli
“We might have eaten” mhã likh liya howãla
“I might have written”
“We might have written”
/hon. mhẼ thũ wO Third person Present wO “He wO “He khaE liyO has likh has eaten” liyO written” wE khaE liyO eaten” liya written” pothi pADh li pothi pADh li pothi pADh li “I have/had written” “You have / had written” “He has/had written”
“They have wE likh
same as above
“He might have eaten” wO likh liyO huwela
“They might have eaten” wE likh liya howela
“He might have written”
“They might have written”
.) have eaten” thE likh liya ha
“You had written” Future thũ khaE liyO huwela
“You had written” thE likh liya howola
“You might have eaten” thũ likh liyO huwela
“You (pl.) have eaten” thE likh liya
“You have written” Past thũ khaE liyO hO
“You have written” thE khaE liya ha
“You had eaten” thũ likh liyO hO
“You (pl./hon.) might have eaten” thE likh liya howola
“You might have written”
“You(pl/hon) might have written”
[Note If the object is feminine then the present and past perfect formation in case of transitive verb roots also concord with feminine./hon.Second person Singular Present thũ khaE liyO thE Plural / honorific khaE liya
“You have eaten” thũ likh liyO
) used to eat” wE pADhta ha
“He used to read” wa pADhti hi
“They used to read” wE pADhti hi
“She used to read”
“They (f. In finite verb the habitual aspect in present and future is same as discussed under the present tense and future tense formation.tO + -+.
./hon. The difference is observed in case of past habitual only and the structure of person wise past habitual is as follows – Singular First person mhẼ khawtO hO Plural mhã khawta ha
“I used to eat” mhẼ pADhtO hO
“We used to eat” mhã pADhta ha
“I used to read”
“We used to read”
“You used to eat” thũ pADhtO hO
“You(pl.) used to read”
Thus the structure of the past habitual is Verb root Verb root -+./hon.
Only the subject preceeding the verbal form will distinguish the occurrence of person.ta + hO for singular ha for plural.Habitual aspect It describes an action which happens/happened or will happen habitually or regularly.) used to read”
“He used to eat” wa khawti hi
“They used to eat” wE khawti hi
“She used to eat” wO pADhtO hO
“They (f.) used to eat” thE pADhta ha
“You used to read”
are used before the verb form and express the interrogation in the sentence.
Indicative Mood Simple declarative sentences express the Indicative mood for which no separate marker or particle is added. And in the right the modal marker is –o for the verb roots pADh – “read”. The following modal categories are realised in Marwari as per the available data. bula – “call” respectively. /kANO/“when” etc. Imperative 6. The question words like /kãi/ “what” . a doubt etc.Mood The mode or manner of a speaker (subject) about the occurrence of a particular event is expressed by mood which distinguishes a statement. a command. Negative. Compulsive 2. bol “speak”. a question. Interrogative 7. beTh – “sit” respectively. For example – mhũ TabAr nE rũkh dekhũ (hũ) mathE bEThE (hE) heThE aegyO / agyO “I see the child” “The bird sits on the tree” “He came down the hill”
Imperative Mood This modal category is indicated by the expression of a command. request. For example
. Potential 8. Conditional 4. Optative 3.
The structure of the modal formation under each category is discussed below. Indicative 5. /kAThE/“where”.
Interrogative Mood The interrogative mood is realised by a question in sentence. 1. The
imperative marker is –wo for vowel ending verb root and –o for consonantal ending verb root. For example – wAThE / UThE jawO “go there” posaL awO bhaine bulawO “come to school” “call your brother” a pothi pADhO “Read this book” hOLE bolO Tẽci “speak slowly”
mathE bEThO “Sit on the table”
In the above set of sentences in left side –wo has been realised as imperative mood marker for ja – “go”. a – “come”.
permission or request in a sentence which is expressed in following way in Marwari.ni for feminine object.inflected in person – number – tense expresses this potentiality in the sentences. /ij/ /pARela/ express the compulsion in the sentence.thũ
“where do you live?” “what is your name?” “when do you (hon.sg. For Example mhẼ wO wE aE sAkũ mar “I may come” sAkE “He may kill the bird” “They may ask”
pAMkheru puch sAkE
Compulsive Mood The compulsion on the part of the subject is expressed in compulsive mood. wE sAgLanE awAN dO
“Let them all come” tharE mãEsũ kĩ jawAN dO Ar ler awAN do
“Let some of you go and fetch”
. /ij/ . wish.) get up?” etc.NO for masculine object and verb base -+.
tharO kãi thE
kANO uThO hO
Potential Mood The potential action is expressed in potential mood and the verb stem sAk. /pARela/ expressed the compulsion of the sentences respectively and the preceeding verb of the compulsive marker is formed as verb base -+. for examplemhAnE UNnE TabArnE awANO pothi pADhNO caijE “I ought to come” likhniij “He ought to write a book” pARela “The child had to read”
Here /caije/ .
Optative mood The optative mood expresses a desire. The words like /caije/ .
The particle or set of particles that establishes the conditionality between the two verbal action is jE ……. For example
jE mhẼ If I
Thik / sawAL howũla / howũli tO well am (will be)
awũla / awũli will come
then tomorrow I
“If I am well I will come tomorrow”
wAkhAtsar in time
mhã iNnE pArkhala we this will examine
“If you come in time we will examine this”
mhAnE to me
will be then
“If he is in difficulty you will wire to me”
Further conditionality is expressed exclusively by the single particle /pAN/ “but” also. yet you kept quiet” wa she UThE hi pAN but begi gi
“She was there but went soon”
. In this mood two verbal actions are involved simultaneously.Conditional mood When the completion of one verbal action is conditioned by another verb that particular manner of expression is called as Conditional modal category. then” . thE you UThE there ha were pAN but thE you cup quiet reya kept
“You (pl. Examples mhAnE kalE I yesterday awANO hO could have come pAN but mandgi rE ill health of karAN nĩ ayO
due to did not come
“I would have come yesterday but due to my ill health I did not come”.) were there.. tO “if ….
Negative Mood In Marwari the negative mood is expressed by the negative words like /nĩ/ . In Marwari the non-finite verbal forms are the following
Infinitive The infinitive in Marwari is formed by adding /-wAN/ after vowel ending verb root and /-AN/ after consonantal ending verb root which is followed by the post position /saru/ or suffix /–ri wastE/ to indicate the meaning like “for doing”. The examples of negative modal formation in Marwari are given below thũ O wO nĩ kĩ nĩ pADh reyO kamrO nĩ O risto nĩ nĩ kAriyO hE hO hE “you were not reading” “It is of no use” “Not that one but this” “We are not related” “He has not done the work”
mharE ki wO kam
In the above sentences / nĩ/ indicates the negation of the statement .3. /mAt/ which precede the verb.4 Non-FiniteVerb The verbal forms which do not express the finiteness of a verbal action is a non –finite verb. /koni/also expresses the negation of the statement like mhẼ INnE kAThei koni dekhyO “I found it nowhere”
The negation of imperative is expressed as the following jhuTh mAt Itta hãka bega mAt bolO mAt bolO suwO “Do not tell lies” “Do not go to bed so soon” “Do not speak loudly”
Further. the negation is sometimes expressed by / nã / nã thũ jaNO Ar nã mhẼ “Neither you know nor I” “I should not have done the work”
mhAnE kam nã / nĩ kArNO hO
4. /koni/. /nã/. “for going” etc. The examples are – buTobalAN richpalAN saru saru “for destroying” “for protecting” “for killing” lawAN khawAn saru saru “for taking” “for eating” “for protecting”
marAN ri wastE
rukhalAN ri wastE
For example mhũ I thãrE you sathE with kamsũ to work cAlũla/cAlũli will go Thus.+ -NO lawO.+ -NO kh ĩc.NO khol.+ -NO toR. kamsũ “to work”
“ I will go with you to work”
Verbal Noun The Marwari verbal nouns are derived by the addition of the noun forming suffix /. Participle The participials in Marwari are formed in following two ways. “to do”) which is added after the verb root.Another infinitive marker is –NO (to indicate the form like “to see” . i) for consonantal ending verb khod-+.NO/ with the verb root.+ -NO = = = = UThawNO gawNO lawNO awNO “picking” “singing” “bringing” “coming”
Gerund The gerundial forms in Marwari is formed in the same way as the verbal noun is formed.+ -NO gawO. for example.+ -NO = = = = = khodNO kholNO rAmNO khĩcNO toRNO “digging” “opening’ “playing” “pulling” “breaking”
for vowel ending verb UThawO. 117
. The examples are – mhã we mhẼ I jawNO to go awNO to come pArsAn kArã like cawũ want “I want to come” “We like to go”
Sometime /-sũ/ is also added after the verb root to indicate infinite verb.+ -NO awO.+ -NO rAm.
the number – gender – tense – personal markers are added for causative verbs. /e/.+ -aw + -O = pADhawO “to cause to read” = dikhawO “to show”
With the causative verb bases like khAwawO. The nucleus vowels /a/. In case of irregular verb roots like /dewO/ “give”.Ar uD choD = = keAr jaAr uDAr choDAr “saying” / “having said” “going” / “having gone” “flying” / “having flown” “leaving” / “having left”
> uD -+. gAwawO.Ar = > choD -+.Ar =
ii) By adding auxiliary form /hui/ after the derived adjective to express the participial forms like “being sad”. /lewO/ “take” the causative bases are formed like dewO “to give” > dirawO lewO “to take” > lirawO purpose of causation.
4.3. pADhawO. /i/. The causative verb bases in case of vowel ending root in Marwari are khawO “to eat” gawO “to see” > khA -+.waw -+. for example – Darũpherũ nijora hui hui (nE) (nE) “being afraid in terror” “being helpless”
where / Darũpherũ/ and /nijora/ are the adjectival forms with whom /hui/ auxiliary (derived from verb root /huwo-/) is added. where one /–r-/ inserts for the
.O = khAwawO “to make to eat” gAwawO ”to make to sing”
The causative verbs in case of consonantal ending verb root are pADhO “to read” > pADh. for example – kewO > ke -+.O = >gA -+.
Causative Verb The causativity of the verb is expressed in Marwari by adding /-waw-/ with vowel ending
verb root and /-aw-/ after consonantal ending verb root. “to cause to give” “to cause to take” etc. /u/ in the vowel ending verb root are changed into /A/.+ -aw + -O dekh “to see” > dikh .Ar jawO > ja -+. /o/ respectively when /-waw-/ is added for causative purpose.waw -+. dikhawO etc.i) By adding /-Ar/ with the verb stem to express the English forms like “saying” “flying” “doing” etc.5.
) Plural Third Person Singular Plural hE hE ha ha huwela howela hE hO hO hO ha ha huwela howola howola hũ hã hO ha howũla/howũli howãla Present Past Future
The modal auxiliaries or subsidiary verbs being added with the main lexical (action) verb help in bringing out higher construction specially in the periphrastic construction. which helps to make distinction in mood. subordinate to the main lexical verb. Accordingly.
by someone to-workers
“She is making someone give 5 rupees to worker”
4.Examples mhẼ I UNsũ by her ek a git gAwawũ
song making to sing
“I am making her sing a song” mhẼ I kINIsũi thAnE pAisa money dirawE reyO making to give hũ am
by someone you
“I am making someone give you money” wa she kINIsũi mAjurnE panc five ripiya rupees dirawE hE is making to give etc. Auxiliary Verb An auxiliary verb is generally referred to as the set of verbs.3. The examples of auxiliaries are: Person First Person Singular Plural Second Person Singular Singular (hon. voice etc.
. in Marwari the main auxiliary verb is /hu(wO)/. And the class of auxiliaries derived from this verb base is distinguished grammatically from as they can be used with subject inversion conditioned by varying tense – aspect – mood etc.6. aspect. tense.
/ nĩ / 1. Negative Verb The Negative words in Marwari though uninflected for gender – number – person – tense but are treated as a separate class of verbs since they are added to either finite verb in a particular tense or to a particular verb stem. Expressing the negation the application of these words in both finite and non-finite construction are the following. wO O mhẼ O nĩ kĩ kale paNi O kamrO nĩ hE nĩ awũla / awũli hE “Not that one but this” “It is of no use” “I shall not come tomorrow” “This water is not drinkable” “She should not bake the bread” “His brother is not so clever” “We are not related”
piwAN jO nĩ nĩ sekNi
UNrO bhai itrO cAtAr nĩ hE mharE ki ristO nĩ hE
From the above examples it is found that / nĩ / helps the main lexical verb. 7. 5. But. /mAt/ .1 where without any supporting lexical verb /nĩ/ expresses the sense of negation. 6. and specially negation of identity.3. 2. 3. /koni/ . 4. exception is observed in the sentence No. pARsAkcah(discussed under Compulsive mood) (discussed under Potential mood) (discussed under Compulsive mood)
4.7. According to frequency of occurrence they are /nĩ/ . to construct the negative verb. /mAt/ itta bega mAt suwO mAt jaijO barE mAt jawO “Do not go to bed so soon” “Do not go before I come” “Do not go beyond time” “Do not speak loudly”
mharE awANsũ pela wAkhAtsũ haka mAt pAr kArO
. occurring before it.Below are given a list of modal auxiliaries or subsidiary verbs which also receive inflections according to person – number – gender – tense inversion. Negetive verb class is realized mostly by four particles. /nã/ .
“to give” etc.1 & 2. / nã/ /nã thE / thũ jaNO Ar nã mhũ “Neither you (honorific/ordinary) do know nor do I” 4. The first constituent generally belongs to a noun. dewOpaR. mar“to beat”. huwO.3./koni/ O O mhẼ mharO khawAN jO kam koni koni “It is not my work” “This is not eatable” “I found it nowhere”
INnE kAThei koni dekhiyO
mhAnE mharO jaL
koni miLi yO iN wastE aj mhũ n ĩ jawũ
“I could not find my net so I did not go to -day” In the above examples /koni/ negates the sentences with intense emphasis. And like /nĩ/ the negative word /koni/ also can perform the function of negation in the sentences without the help of substantive verb which appears in sentence No. kArbe” “to do”. an adjective. Compound Verb Compound verb is a combination of two constituents. leja.“to go”. ja.“to fall”.“to take”. In Marwari the compound verbs are formed with the following auxiliary verb roots. Examples with kAr kãm kArNO “to work” “to quarrel” “to clean” “to vomit” “to comb” “to vomit” “to fall” “to call” “to shout” “to shoot” “to scratch” “to scratch” = = noun + verb noun + verb
dãtiyã kArNO achO ulTi kArNO kArNO
= adjective + verb = noun + verb = noun + verb
kAMgi kArNO with pARpachO pARNO nice helO haka with margoLi pARNO pARNO pARNO marNO
= adverb+ verb = = adverb + verb noun + verb
= adverb + verb = = = noun + verb noun + verb noun + verb
khAroc marNO jhurATiya marNO mukO marNO 121
“to strike with fist” = noun + verb
. an adverb or a verb category and the second constituent is a verb. These auxiliary roots are inflected according to number –
gender – person – tense markers.8.
with with with with
“to buy” “freeze” “to swell”
= noun +verb = verb + verb = adjective + verb
sojO awNO aDO howNO
“to lie/ to take rest”= noun + verb “to stand up” = “to wet” “to repay” “to lend” “to swing” “to cover” verb + verb
ub’O howNO gilO with dewohowNO
= adjective + verb = adverb + verb = noun + verb = noun + verb = verb +verb
pAchO dewNO udhar dewNO hiNdO dewNO oDa dewNO
jewRO kaTNO maMs kaTNO
“to cut rope” = noun + verb “to cut meet” = noun + verb “to beat a drum”= noun + verb “to blow horn”= “to clap” “to bind” “to dip” = = = noun + verb noun + verb noun + verb noun + verb noun + verb
bhõpO bAjaNO taLi with lAgabAjaNO
gãTh lAgaNO Dubki lagaNO bindi lAgaNO
“to put kumkum” = “to enter”
= adverb + verb
4.3.9. Passive Formation The passive formation is realized in following structures in Marwari roTi bread roTi wãresũ him-by wãresũ khaijE is being eaten nĩ not khaijE is being eaten “The work will be done by me” “The bread is not being eating by him” “The bread is being eaten by him”
bread him-by kam work kam work mharE sũ me-by mharE sũ me-by
kAriyO jawela done nĩ not will be kAriyO jawela done will be
“The work will not be done by me”
/-a/ with the intransitive verb bases and the transitivity process is completed when that transitive verb root is inflected according to number – gender – person – tense in finite formation of the verb.g.iyo / -i + third personal finite form of the subsidiary verb root Or verb root -+. 4.) reads book” (Active sentence)
subject – object – verb reduced to pothi wãsũ subject object pADhi ji verb “The book is read by him” (Passive Sentence)
Since pothi “book” is a feminine subject so the verb is also inflected accordingly in the feminine. in the sentence the nominal/pronominal form is inflected for instrumental case e. Examples. wE pothi pADhE “He (hon.i + -je (masculine) / -ji (feminine)
this work anybody-by else not O kam
koisũ bhi nĩ kAriy ja sAkela
this work anybody-by else not done will be
From the above examples it is found that the structure of passive formation in Marwari is verb root -+. Transitivity In Marwari the formation of the transitive verb roots from the intransitive ones is realized by addition of the transitivity suffixes /-aw/ . wãsã ‘by him’ etc.3. mharE sũ.gAri bã nE rajsũ poor-to
pisa/pAisa dirijE is given
“Money is given to the poor by the government” “This work cannot be done by anybody”
O kam koisũ bhi
nĩ kAriya ja sAkE
this work anybody-by else not done can be O kam koisũ bhi nĩ kAriyO ja sAktO “This work could not be done by anybody” done could be “This work will not be done by anybody”. And the object of the active sentence is transferred to subject and subject is changed to object. Intransitive uD-NO “to fly” Transitive uD – aw – NO “fly”
Accordingly.NO “to decorate” “bend”
sArAp bALkhawtO calE/ghumE “The snake moves zig-zag” sAj NO mhũ sAjh reyi hũ “I am dressing myself” hiLO . Adverb of time In each category there are ordinary as well as interrogative adverbs also. Adverbs of place nicE / heThE pichE barE kani UThE / wAThE kAnE agO bicaLE jAThE kAThE Adverbs of manner kiyã iyan beg/tej / tejtej “somehow” “thus” “fast” “down” “behind” “out” / “out of” “toward” “there” “near” “far” “between” “where” “where” (Interrogative)
. namely. ADVERB
Morphologically adverbs are indeclinables and syntactically adverbs are the modifiers of verbs. Adverb of place 2.NO “to move”
chorO cil uDawE “the child flies the kite” ghum-a-NO DIL nE ghumawO “Bend the body” sAj -a. Adverb of Manner 3.pAMkheru uDE “the bird flies” ghum . 1.4.NO “to float” “to dress”
thAnE ghAr sAjawni caije “You have to decorate your rom” hiLolaw – NO TabAr naw hiLolawe “The child floats boat” “float”
mhũ nAdi mE hiLowũ “I float in the river” 4. the Marwari adverbs are classified into 3 categories.
person.) not found
sAkE “Anybody can do this work” can
anybody (emp. The Marwari particles are the following Emphatic particles The emphatic particle conveys an emphasis (=emp. gender. tense etc.hoLE / hoLE hoLE cokha haka kikAr / kĩya Adverbs of time AbE / AbkE jARã pAchE pher pache sAda kAdO / kAda kAda aj tARkE / kalE kalE / kAl jAd kAd [The list is quite exhaustive. i wO he mhẼ I kAThe i koni “He is nowhere”
anywhere (emp) is not INnE it kAThei koni dekhyO “I found it nowhere”
“slowly” “neatly” “loudly” “how”
“now” “then” “afterwards” “again” “after” “always” “some times” “today” ”tomorrow” “yesterday “when” “when” (Interrogative)
PARTICLE/ CLITIC Like adverb the particles also are indeclinables since they have only one form and are
incapable of showing distinctions as to number. pronouns.) not could be done
. adjectives and adverbs.) this work o kam koisũ
bhi nĩ kAriya ja sAkE “Nobody could do this work”
this work by one (emp.) to the word and this particle can be used with all types of words such as nouns with all cases.
tO/ “if……. thE sAgLa miLAr UNnE kuTO “you all together beat him” “who” “what” “where” “how” kiN kĩya kAd kyũ “which” “how” “when” “why”
.Conjunctive particle The conjunctive particle is one which is added with word or a group of words to give the meaning ‘and’ which in Marwari is /Ar/ “and / or”. Examples kuN kaĩ kAThE kĩkAr Additive particle The particle which expresses the additional attribute like ‘all’ is additive particle. (IN) wastE “so / for” Ar AThE ek kutto Ar here a dog and ek a minni He cat is “Here is a cat and a dog”
mhAnE mharO jal koni I my net not
miLiyO INwaste aj mhẼ found so today I
gyO did go
“I could not find my net so I did not go today” Conditional particle This particles like /jE…….. there will be no objection” pAN .jE wa if UThE rewE tO she there is uThE kĩ then etraj nĩ huwela will be
“If she is there.) kept quite Interrogative particle The particle which helps in interrogation is Interrogative particle. To express the meaning of ‘all’ the particle in Marwari is /sAgLa/ and feminine counterpart /sAgLi/.) there were yet you(pl.mhAnE I thE jawNO hO pAN had to go but gAyO koni did go not cup reya “You(pl) were there.then” . yet kept quiet” “I had to go but I did not go”
ThE ha pAN thE
you(pl. /pAN/ “yet/but” are added with the conditional construction in verb. jE……tO .
Echo word / Reduplication /i/ jARtaNi “of course/ yes” “until” . jARtãi “till”
Echo word and reduplication are available in Marwari mainly in adjectival and adverbial use as per the collected data.6. Adjectival Echo word ghANa sara DArũ pherũ achO khoTO “many” “afraid” “all kind mixed of good-bad” dubLO pAtlO / dubLi pAtli “thin” Adverbial Echo word jhATpAT dAbadAb lAbalAb DArũ pherũ “quickly” “fast/quick” “fast/quick” “fearfully”
Reduplication choTa choTa nenha nenha “many” “affectionate”
Reduplication dhirE dhirE reMgtO reMgtO larE larE kAda kAda “slowly” “by crawling” “behind “sometimes”
.Negative particle Statement negative /nĩ/ mhẼ kalE mhẼ kĩ nĩ nĩ awũli keyO “I shall not come to-morrow” “I said nothing”
Substantive/Copula negative /koni/ O mharO kam koni mhE iNnE kAThei koni dekhya Imperative negative /mAt/ haka mAt yũ mAt
“It is not my work” “We found it nowhere”
kArO / paRO kewO
“Do not speak loudly” “Do not say thus”
Other particles are like: Affirmative particle Quotative particle 4.
5. And a phrase is a group of words which stands for partial meaning.1 ORDER OF WORDS IN SENTENCES The Marwari is a subject-object-verb language where a sentence consists of a noun phrase (which functions as the subject)and a predicate phrase. noun and predicate . Subject – Object – Verb. /Tabriya/ . /thanE dekhO/ .. /thũ/ respectively comprise noun phrase and /TabArnE dekhu/ . The syntax of Marwari is discussed below.5. Without predicate there can be no sentence. But generally the order of words in sentence is as mentioned. Sometimes predicate itself stands for a sentence specially in case of imperative modal structure like: barE jawO “Go out” “Come to school” “Sit down on the floor”
posaL awO heThE bEThO
In the above sentences the subject being the second person does not appear in the sentence. Examples mhũ TabArnE I Tabriya children (thũ) to child thAnnE me thoRosO dekhũ (hũ) see dekhE (he) see paNi water lawO bring “Bring some water” “The children see me” “I see the child”
In the above sentence /mhũ/ . /paNi lawO / respectively comprise predicate phrase. Thus a sentence consists of phrases – namely. SYNTAX Syntax being the study of the rules governing the order of combining the words to form sentences in a language is opposite to morphology which is the study of word structure.
5.) pADhela will read “He will read a book”` “He read a book”
. achO moTi dhoLO chorO pothi ghoRO “good boy” “big book” “white horse”
If a numeral classifies a noun it ocuurs before the adjective dO dO cokha gãw phora gãw “two good village” “two bad villages”
If a plural marker is to be added to the noun it is added with the adjective as well as noun.g.1. ‘must’ etc. wO he wO he wO he a ek a ek a ek pothi book pothi book pothi book pADhE (he) “He reads a book” reads pADhtO read(pt.2
Predicate Phrase A predicate phrase consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase. These elements can be tense marker. aspect marker and auxiliaries like ‘may’.1. do panc gãw ghAr “two village” “five houses” cf. moTi pothi “big book” choTi chabri “small basket” moTi pothiyã “big books” “small baskets”
[Some nouns do not take any plural marker to form the plural counterpart e. A predicate phrase may
consist of a verb which is its nucleus and/or a noun preceded by a negative marker and an attributive like adverb and followed elements. noun section ]
5. dhoLO ghoRO “white horse” moTO TabAr “the big child” dhoLa moTa ghoRa TabAriya “white horses” “the big children”
Only with the feminine nouns the adjective remains same for singular and plural.1
Noun phrase A noun phrase may consist of a noun alone or noun preceded by one or more
attributes. mood marker.
Compulsive Sentence 5.) come here”
work not begO bhag gyO hE
wE khaE reya wE puch sAkE
thanE jawNO caijE
Thus the structure of the predicate verb is + Noun + Negative + Adverb + verb + Aspect + mood + tens e
TYPES OF SENTENCES Sentence is an independent linguistic form which is not included in any larger linguistic
form by virture of any grammatical construction (Bloomfield. 1963. Negative Sentence. p-170). Statement Sentence – The sentence which asserts a statement like the following E mhãra pitaji hE father is mã hE “She is my mother” “He is my father”
he(hon) my a she rũkhsũ tree-from mhari my
mother is pan/pAn leaves jhArE fall “The leaves fall from the tree”
. According to the function the Marwari sentences can be classified into the following types of sentences 1.) thE you(pl.mhũ I thũ you(sg. Potential Sentence 7.) mhẼ I wa
“I eat a bread”
bread eat AthinE here AthinE here kOm awE come awO come nĩ kArũla / kArũli wil do “He ran quickly” “They are eating” “They may ask” “you must go” “I will not do work” “You (pl) come here” “You (sg. Statement Sentence 2. Conditional Sentence 10. Question Sentence 3. Imperative Sentence 4. Purposive Sentence 6.
. Examples. a command. an advice is indicated.The sentence which indicates a question like tharO your kuN kãi nam hE “What is your name?”
what name is jaNE “Who knows?”
who knows wO he thũ you kAd when mharE me ayO came samĩ kyũ ub’o hE “Why do you stand in front of me?” “When did he come?”
in front of why stand
Imperative Sentence – The sentence through which a request. a this hoLE pothi pADhO book bolO read “Speak slowly” “Read this book”
slowly speak thoRosO some cokha neat paNi lawO wate akAr words bring likhO write “Write the words nearly” “Bring some water”
Purposive Sentence – The sentence which expresses a purpose like the following: mhã we sAmdAr sea mathE/mE to mAchli fish pAkARAnsarũ catching-for jawã go
“We go to the sea to catch fish” IN hAtyarE sArAprO snake lAgawANi to find out pARsi will have bũTobalAN destroying saru for mhAnE me
this deadly jugAt means
“I will have to find out means for destroying this deadly snake”.Interrogative Sentence .
doRijE running done UNsũ him-by gayo jaE sung roTi bread likhiji is written reyO hE “That song is being sung” “A note is written by him” “Running is done by the horse”
TippAN note git
that song wasũ him-by
being is khai jawE hE eaten is “The bread is eaten by him”
. ghoRasũ horse-by Ek a wO Examples.The sentence where the main action is expressed in passive may be called passive sentence. it can be called conditional sentence. jE if ghoRa rE pãkha wing huwti tO had then wE they uRtE would have flown
“If horses had wing they would have flown” jE if wO he kARi hard menAt kAri tO works sAphAl huwela
then succeed will
“If he works hard he will succeed” jE if gaDDi moRi train late ayi tO mhãnE UNnE pAkAR we it catch sAkã may
“If the train is late we may catch it”
Passive sentence . O wE koi hui puch bhi sAkE sAkE O kOm kAr sAkE “It may happen” “They may ask” “Anybody can do this work”
Conditional sentence – When two actions are conditioned by each other in a single sentence. Examples.Potential Sentence – When the potentiality is expressed in a sentence it can be called potential sentence. Examples.
The examples under different categories are presented below
.Causative Sentence – When the subject causes some agent to do the action the sentence functions as causative sentence. aj to-day UNnE she mhẼ I roTi bread pAr beyond nĩ not nĩ not awũli / awũla will come (f.) sekNi bake barE mAt caijE should jawO go “Do not go beyond time” “She should not bake the bread” “I will not come to-day”
wAkhAt sũ time-in
PATTERNS OF SENTENCES According to the structure the Marwari sentences can be classified in following
patterns: 1. Compound sentence. mhẼ I UNsũ her-by ek a git gAawũ
song making sing
“I am making her sing a song” mhẼ I choronE miThO khAawũ make to eat
the boy sweet
“I make the boy eat the sweet” wa she kINisu someone mAjurnE to workers panc five ripiya rupees dirawE hE is making to give
“She is making someone give 5 rupees to workers”
Negative sentence – The sentence which expresses the negation may be cassed as negative sentence. Complex sentence 3. Simple sentence 2. Examples./m.
suO rukrE mathE hE parrot tree -of on is Subject Predicate mharO bhai awela my brother will come Subject Predicate UNãnE ek kAhaNi / bat suNawO Predicate (= Subject “you) is understood here.
3. wa kalE UThE huwti pAN wa mandi pARgi she yesterday there would have been but she fell sick Subordinate clause Main clause “She would have been there yesterday but she fell sick” jE wo mharE sathE reyO tO achO reyO if he me with were then it would have been better Subordinate clause Main clause “If he were with me. Sometimes in the sentence only the predicate appears and subject remains understood here. kĩ mAchliyã moTi hE Ar kĩ choTi hE some fish big are and some small are Main clause Main clause “Some fish are big and some are small” wO su reyO hE Ar pADh reyO hE he lying down is and reading is Main clause Main clause “He is lying down and is reading”. 5.3.1
Simple sentence – A simple sentence is one which has only one subject and one
main clauses. it would have been better” jE wO dorai mE huwela tO mhẼ thAnE tar kAr dewũla if he difficulty in will be then I to you will wire Subordinate clause Main clause “If he is in difficulty I will wire you” Compound Sentence – A compund sentence is one which is made up of two or more
2.2 “The parrot is on the tree”
“My brother will come”
“Tell them a story”
Complex Sentence – A Complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more
subordinate clause. 1.
Further. Phonological Voicing Aspiration 5. Marwari distinguishes itself lexically and grammatically as well as in its rich and varied literary diction which leaves the scope of treating Marwari as the Standard variety of Rajasthani grouped with Hindi language in Indian Census. etc. Syntactical SOV Pattern etc.CONCLUSION In the forgone discussion the detailed grammatical structure of Marwari has been presented with illustration based on collected data from field. According to the presentation the Marwari shares the features of Indo-Aryan language family 4. Morphological Declension and Conjugation with inflectional affixation Compound formation Person-Number-Gender Concord in Finite Verb 6.
Languages with Comparative Vocabulary and Texts.. .. Firma K.IX Part – II Motilal Banarasi Dass. – 1500-1650).1949 Rājasthāthāni BhāSā. Maheswari.P. India (Book 1. C. New Delhi.H. Vol. Bahl. & et al. London.BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Mitra. Vol.K. Morphology.Constitutional Languages). New York. Chatterji. Registrar General. R. Cambridge University Press. Robins. Chatterji. Udaipur 5. Hiralal. Mahapatra.. 4. Rajasthan Vidyapith. 1963 13. Nida.
.K. Macmillan.(Reprint) Linguistic Survey of India. G. 1989 Written Languages of the World – A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use. B. 6. Delhi. Sahitya Akademi.L. Calcutta. Delhi. 1968 . Mukhopadhyay. Hockett. K. 1963 -
Language. L. New Delhi 9.1 Pt-1 & Vol. . S. (2 nd edition) General Linguistics – An Introductory Survey. Indian edition. Longmans. India. University of Michigon Press. 7. Lyons. Grierson. R.
3. Office of the Registrar general. Hiralal 1980 12.C. Calcutta.S. 11. 1968 History of Rājasthāni Literature. S. Maheswari. Jodhpur
2. University of Pennsylvania Press.Indo-Aryan and Hindi. .
10. 1970 A Course in Modern Linguistics.A. Eugene A. A.F.1. John 1968 Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. 1980
Ādhunik Rājasthāni kā Samracanātmak VyākaraN Rajasthani Sudh Sansthan. . 8. Adhunik Pustak Bhawan. Philadelphia. & Nigam. 1969 Rajasthāni BhāShā Aur Sahitya (V. Bloomfield.C. Sahitya Sansthan. India. 1969 (Reprint) .
Swami. Series –I Primary Census Abstract Census of India. 1961. Hindi and Rajasthani. Narottam Das. Verma. Series – I – Part – IV B(i)(a) -C Series Table C-7 Census of India. Bikaner.XIV . Part-II C(i)
VyākaraN.I . 15. Vol.14. Siddheswar 1978 Bihari. Vol-1 Part – II – C (ii) Vol-1 Part-II – C (vi) Census of India. Indian Antiquary.P.a Linguistic Analysis. Tessitori. 2001. Series –I . Calcutta. Paper 2 of 1992 Census of India 1991 . Punjabi University. Language Table C-16 Census of India.
Census of India. 16. Series . L. Bilingualism and Trilingualism Table C-17 Census of India 1991.
Research Institute. April 1914 to July 1916 “Notes on the Grammar of Old Western Rājasthāni with special reference to Apabhramsa and GujaraTi and MarwaRi”. 2001. 1961. 2001.
3. I refuse to live in this tree any longer”. 4. 6.
. the crowhen” 2. kalindAr reMtO reMtO aLE nE pugjawtO Ar
whenever crow-hen eggs laid the black snake crawling up nest to reached and
INDanE gAbALgAT kAr jawtO.
“If the black snake eats up my eggs this time also.MARWARI TEXT
[ kaglE kagli kaLindAr nE kiyã mariyO ] “How the crow-hen killed the Black Snake” 1.
and a crow-hen
“Among the spreading branches of a banyan tree lived a crow and his wife. aLE mE ha
nest in where
cyar nankARa INDa jikanE mait khyãts ũ sAmbhaLta .
husband to said
mother bird her
“we must build our nest somewhere else” – said the mother bird to her husband”. apãnE apNO aLO dujiThoR bAnawNO caijE”we our nest somewhere else to build have to
aprE dhANi nE kewO.
“In a hollow of that tree-trunk lived a black snake whom the crows feared greatly”.
“Every time the crow hen laid her eggs the snake crawled up to the nest and are them up”. 5. ek bARri
a baniyan tree
pAsRyori DaLiya mathE rewtO ek kaglO
spreading branches over lived a crow
Ar ek kagli . jE AbkE (AbkaLE) bhi kaLindAr mhara INDa giTgyO tO mh ũ O rũkhroO
if this time also black anake my eggs eats up then I that tree
choR dewũla. jAd kAdei kagli INDa dewti .
four little eggs which parents with care guarded
“In the nest were four little eggs which the parents guarded with care”. rũkhrE tANe ri thothmE
bAstO ek kaLindAr jiNsũ kaglO -kagli ghANa
one black snake whom crows greatly
in the hollow lived
8. Then with a loud hiss he tried to strike at the birds who flew away in terror”.
“I can’t bear to desert my home and go to live elsewhere” – said the crow.
being flew away
“The black snake crept higher and closer to the nest.
“One by one. the black snake swallowed the eggs”. 14. wE sAmAjh gya kE a
they knew that this
awaj kãri hi . jAd
wE bAntAL kArta ha
they talking were
wa aprE Thik nicE ek phuphkar suNi . kaglO bolyO – “ IN hAtyarE sArAprO bũTobalAN saru mhAnE jugAt lAgawANi
crow said this murderous snake-to destroying for I way find out
.7. ek ek kArnE kaLindAr INDa
one one by black snake eggs
giT gyO . wE INDa rukhalAN ri cesTa mE nijora huine beTh gya .
“The parents came back sadly to their nest. 12. 9. knowing well that they would find it empty”.
a long time
bArAs rey liya
“We have lived here a long time”. AN mANa mait pacha aLE mE aya .
she her just below a hissing sound heard
“while they were talking. “mAnE mharO ghAr chodAr
me my home leaving
duji jaga jaAr rewNO pAsawE
elsewhere going to live can bear
kaglO bolyO. 13. a sawA L jaNta thAkã
sadly parents back nest to came this well
kE aLO khali
known (knowing) that
ladhla . 15. 11. kaLindAr reMtO ucO Ar aLE rE neRO punchyO pher ek l ũThi phũkarO
black snake crept higher and nest of near reached again a loud hiss
sagE wO pAMkheRuwa kani
with it birds at the
tried to strike
j ĩka DArũ pherũ
huinE uDgya .
they eggs protecting for try-in helpless being sat
“They sat helplessly in their nest trying to protect their eggs”. they heard a hissing sound just below them”. 10.
sound what is
“They knew what the sound meant”.
sArApnE bhANAk nAĩ pAR jawE IN karAn
the snake might over hear
this for reason
“The crow said – “I must find a way to destroy this murderous snake”.”
who cruel (heartless) and greedy become there end always bad is/becomes
“when the jackal heard how the snake always ate up the eggs.
friend jackal lived
“Don’t you worry.)
soc rakhi . he said – “My friend.) not do my
mharO ek isO bhae lO
my a such friend
hE jikO isa
jerila sapãnE marAN mE ghANO husiar hE” .” “ 18. those who are cruel and greedy always meet with a bad end”.kaglO bolyO .“mhara mintAr (mit)
when the jackal eggs eating-of story heard then told my friend !
jika hayadaya baera Ar lobhi huwE . “pher tO
bAtawO bhaela . 19. 20. my dear. uNrO DaMk ghANO
crow wife said you him how can be able his sting very
jerilO hE”. the jackal. kaglO bolyO . UnarO Ant sAdei khoTO huwE .said crow” 21.iyã keAr
killing-in very cunning is this having said
enough poisonous snake
kaglO uDAr dujE peR (rukh) mathE gAyO jinrE
crow flying another treee over went which
nicE UnrO pAkkO
under his dear
bhaelO syaLiyO reya kArtO .) crow said
“Oh! do tell me what it is” . “t ũ uNsũ kiyã parpa sAkE .
“How can you ever fight him? His sting is so deadly” – said his wife in despair”. jAd syaLiyE INDa khawANri bat suNi tO bolyO .pARsi” . I’ve already thought of a plan to destro y him”. 17. ka ĩ
jugAt hE wa” . UNnE marAn ri
you fear do not him destroying-for
plan is that(f. mhari kagli
crow said you worry(emp. tũ Dar mAt . niras
kagli kuRAlai . 16.“tũ phikAr i na kAr. I’ve got a friend who is cunning enough to destroy the most poisonous of snakes” – said the crow and off he flew to another tree under which lived his dear friend.
have thought of
“have no fear.
“They had laid their golden chains. motyãra har
they golden chain
Ar duja geNa utarnE
pearl-of necklace and other ornaments wearing off the pond at the edge
mel rakhya ha . “It is rather risky” . jhATpAT wE rajarE mAhAL
quickly they king’s palace
kani uDya . jiN rũkh
wE bAsta uNsũ mAhAL aLgO n ĩ
they lived from that palace far
hO .said the mother bird bravely”. kagli heThE utri .) risky
bhAryO hE ” . wã soneri sãkLã . 27. wE mAhALrE bAgicE mãE ek baDE sArowAr kAnE
they plalace-of garden in one big pond
rajghAraNeri lugayã sAmpaRO kArti hi . 26.sAgLi jugAt
kaglE rE s yaLiyE
kan mE keyi . pearl necklaces and other jewellery on the edge of the pond”.“apãnE
very is crow said we
ghANO sawcet rewNO pARsi” . himtaLu kagli boli -“INDari richpaLsaru mhũ/hũ kĩ pach nĩ rakhũli . 22.
“The palace was not far from the tree in which they lived”. kaglO pachO kagli kAnE gAyO Ar sAgLi jugAt bAtai “kam tO
crow back crow-hen near went and all plan told
work (emp. whispered to his friend what he should do to destroy the snake”.
very careful have to be
“The crow flew back to his wife and told her about the plan. 28. said the crow “we’ll have to be very careful” “.
bravely crow-hen told eggs-of saving-for I any means not will spare(unturned)
“I’ll do anything to save my eggs” . 24.
“Then the jackal. 25. 23. soneri ek sãkAL cũc mE
golden one chain beak-in
Ar uN peR kani
mother bird down flew
picked up and that tree
.kaglO bolyO .
towards flew off
“So off they flew towards the palace of the king of the country”.
royal ladies bathing were
“They approached a big pond in the palace garden where they saw the royal ladies having a bath”. fearing he might be overheard.
wE dekhyO kE
r ũkh ri thoth mE sãkAL nhakh di . 30. 31. cOkidar laThi ri ek i
guard end stick-of
sArAp nE mar diyO
snake to killed
one(emp. sãkAL lewAn saru jyũi aprO hath tANeri
chain taking for as his own hand
khagALmE ghalyO u ĩ wAThE
put then there
tree trunk-of hole-inside
ek kaLO nag kuNDaLi maryã bEThO dekhyO . 29. he saw a black snake.
a black snake curled up sitting saw
“As he put his hand inside the hole to get the chain. “The crow and the crow-hen lived in that three happily afterwards and had many little baby crows ---------------------------. ta pAchE kaglO Ar
afterwards little crow
wi peR mathE sukhs ũ
tree had over happily
Ar b ãrE
and crow-hen that many baby
choTa choTa ghANasara TabAr huya . jAd mAhAl rE cokidarã kagli nE sãkAL liya uRti dekhi t O wE
when palace-of guards bird-to chain taking flying saw then they
leylE nE UNrE larE bhagya .
clubs with their behind chased
“When the palace guards saw the bird flying off with the gold chain. cOkidarã mãesũ ekjANO sãkAL
guards among one chain
khatAr r ũkh mathE
for tree over
.) stroke with
khAtmO huyO .
which over she lived
“The mother bird flew down. 33.
“With one hard stroke of his club he killed it and that was the end of the black snake”. curled up there”. they toop up their clubs and chased the bird”.dhirE dhirE Turgi
jiN mathE wa reya kArti . 32.
tree-of hollow-in chain dropped
that mother bird
“They saw the bird drop the chain into the hollow of a tree”.
“One of the guards climbed up the tree to get the chain”. 34. picked up a gold chain in her beak and started flying slowly towards the tree in which she lived”.