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Square Root

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07/08/2013

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# Calculating the Square Root without a Calculator

As you probably know, the square root of a non-negative real number, x, is a non-negative real number,y , such that y 2= x . Another way to write it is " y= x ". In order to calculate the square root you can use the "Long Division" algorithm. This algorithm is based on the algebraic identity ab2 =a 22abb2 .

How to Calculate?
Divide the page into areas:
● ● ● ●

A line for the result above the argument. The argument under the radical (" Space for products and remainders.

 ¿ ").

A left margin for the factors (twenty times the current result + next digit).

Steps: 1 Separate the digits of the argument the following way: 1.1 Left of the decimal point: starting at the rightmost digit add a space to the right of each two digits. For example:                  "12345" -> "1 23 45". 1.2 Right of the decimal point: starting at the leftmost digit add a space to the left of each two digits. If the number of digits is odd, append a zero. For example:                 "56789" -> "56 78 90" 2. Calculate the 1st digit of the result. It is the largest number, n, such that n 2 is smaller than the 1st pair. Write that digit above the 1st pair For example:      1

2

17   23   .81   21

3. Write the square of the 1st digit under the 1st pair. Subtract the square from the first pair, and write the difference under it. Call the difference "remainder".      1 2                 1                 1 4 For each of the remaining pairs, starting from the left, perform the following steps: 4.1 Add the next pair to the right of the remainder.      1 2                 1 1 17 4.2 Multiply the current result, r, by 20, and add the largest digit, d, such that d(20r + d) is smaller than the remainder. Write 20r + d left of the remainder. Append d to the result. 17   23   .81   21

17   23   .81   21

or equal to 5. just remember where to place it.  2.               1            2          1  24| 1 287|               294.81   21 17 4.4 Repeat steps 4. [ Ignore the decimal point. You can add pairs of zeros to the argument according to the desired precision.29   .3 until done. To find it check if the     next digit is larger than.81 .           1         2       1               24| 1 4 17   23   .        . and subtract the product from the remainder. write the product under the remainder justified right.2 .81   21                                                88                                           26 Notes:                                                    ==  1.69| 17 21 1 23 09 14 26 .52 21 21 ==                       96                20 4 17 7 23 .52 .81 9 21 4 17   23   .3  Multiply (20r + d) by d.3 . Additional actions required for rounding are not included in the steps.3|              294. ]              1           2         1 24| 1 17                      96               21 4.4.

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