The Travel & Tourism

Competitiveness Report 2011
Beyond the Downturn

Jennifer Blanke, World Economic Forum
Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum

World Economic Forum
Geneva, Switzerland 2011

The Travel & Tourism
Competitiveness Report 2011
Beyond the Downturn

Jennifer Blanke, World Economic Forum
Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum
Editors

The full version of the Report with Country Profiles and Data Tables is available at www.weforum.org/ttcr

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness
Report 2011 is published by the World
Economic Forum within the framework of
the Centre for Global Competitiveness and
Performance and the Industry Partnership
Programme for Aviation, Travel & Tourism.

World Economic Forum
Geneva
Copyright © 2011
by the World Economic Forum
All rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
or otherwise without the prior permission of
the World Economic Forum.

Professor Klaus Schwab
Executive Chairman
Robert Greenhill
Chief Business Officer

ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-96-8
EDITORS

Jennifer Blanke, Director, Lead Economist,
Head of the Centre for Global
Competitiveness and Performance
Thea Chiesa, Associate Director, Head of
Aviation, Travel & Tourism

This book is printed on paper suitable for
recycling and made from fully managed and
sustained forest sources.
Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig.

CENTRE FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE

Ciara Browne, Associate Director
Roberto Crotti, Junior Quantitative
Economist
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director,
Senior Economist
Thierry Geiger, Associate Director,
Economist
Satu Kauhanen, Coordinator
Irene Mia, Director, Senior Economist
Pearl Samandari, Community Manager
We thank Hope Steele for her superb editing
work and Neil Weinberg for his excellent
graphic design and layout.
The terms country and nation as used in this
report do not in all cases refer to a territorial
entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms cover
well-defined, geographically self-contained
economic areas that may not be states but
for which statistical data are maintained on a
separate and independent basis.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

Contents

Partner Institutes

v

Preface

xi

1.7 Green Growth, Travelism, and the Pursuit
of Happiness

77

by Geoffrey Lipman, Beyond Tourism, and Shaun Vorster,
Ministry of Tourism, South Africa

by Robert Greenhill, World Economic Forum

Executive Summary

xiii

by Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum

1.8 A New Big Plan for Nature: Opportunities
for Travel & Tourism
by Julia Marton-Lefèvre and Maria Ana Borges, International
Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

1.9 Assessing the Openness of Borders

Part 1: Selected Issues of T&T Competitiveness

1

1.1 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011:
Assessing Industry Drivers in the Wake of the Crisis

3

by Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum

1.2 Crisis Aftermath: Pathways to a More Resilient
Travel & Tourism Sector

35

by Jürgen Ringbeck and Timm Pietsch, Booz & Company

1.3 Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging
Economies: What Does the Travel & Tourism
Competitiveness Index Tell Us?

45

by John Kester and Valeria Croce, World Tourism Organization
(UNWTO)

1.4 Premium Air Travel: An Important Market
Segment

53

61

by Alex Kyriakidis, Simon Oaten, and Jessica Jahns, Deloitte,
Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure

1.6 Investment: A Key Indicator of Competitiveness
in Travel & Tourism

89

by Thea Chiesa, Sean Doherty, and Margareta Drzeniek
Hanouz, World Economic Forum

Part 2: Country/Economy Profiles and Data
Presentation

101

2.1 Country/Economy Profiles

103

How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ..............................105
by Roberto Crotti
List of Countries/Economies .......................................................107
Country/Economy Profiles ...........................................................108

2.2 Data Tables

by Selim Ach and Brian Pearce, International Air Transport
Association (IATA)

1.5 Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis

81

387

How to Read the Data Tables......................................................389
Index of Data Tables ....................................................................391
Data Tables ..................................................................................393

Technical Notes and Sources

487

About the Authors

493

Acknowledgments

497

69

by Nancy Cockerell, World Travel & Tourism Council,
and David Goodger, Oxford Economics

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

Partner Institutes

Partner Institutes

The World Economic Forum’s Centre for Global
Competitiveness and Performance is pleased to
acknowledge and thank the following organizations
as its valued Partner Institutes, without which the
realization of The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness
Report 2011 would not have been feasible:
Albania
Institute for Contemporary Studies (ISB)
Artan Hoxha, President
Elira Jorgoni, Senior Expert
Endrit Kapaj, Junior Expert
Algeria
Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée
pour le Développement (CREAD)
Youcef Benabdallah, Assistant Professor
Yassine Ferfera, Director
Angola
MITC Investimentos
Estefania Jover, Senior Adviser
PROPETROL—Serviços Petroliferos
Arnaldo Lago de Carvalho, Managing Partner
South Africa-Angola Chamber of Commerce (SA-ACC)
Roger Ballard-Tremeer, Hon Chief Executive
Argentina
IAE—Universidad Austral
María Elina Gigaglia, Project Manager
Eduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor
Armenia
Economy and Values Research Center
Manuk Hergnyan, Chairman
Sevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate
Gohar Malumyan, Research Associate
Australia
Australian Industry Group
Colleen Dowling, Senior Research Coordinator
Nick James, Economist
Heather Ridout, Chief Executive
Austria
Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO)
Karl Aiginger, Director
Gerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan Marketing Society
Fuad Aliyev, Project Manager
Zaur Veliyev, Consultant
Bahrain
Bahrain Competitiveness Council, Bahrain Economic
Development Board
Nada Azmi, Manager, Economic Planning and Development
Jawad Habib, Senior Partner, BDO Jawad Habib
Rima Al Kilani, Director, International Marketing

Bangladesh
Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)
Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellow
Kazi Mahmudur Rahman, Senior Research Associate
Mustafizur Rahman, Executive Director
Barbados
Arthur Lewis Institute for Social and Economic Studies,
University of West Indies (UWI)
Andrew Downes, Director
Belgium
Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School
Priscilla Boairdi, Associate, Competence Centre
Entrepreneurship, Governance and Strategy
Wim Moesen, Professor
Leo Sleuwaegen, Professor, Competence Centre
Entrepreneurship, Governance and Strategy
Benin
Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment Policies
(MIMAP) Benin
Epiphane Adjovi, Business Coordinator
Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy Coordinator
Fructueux Deguenonvo, Researcher
Bosnia and Herzegovina
MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo,
University of Sarajevo
Zlatko Lagumdzija, Professor
Zeljko Sain, Executive Director
Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant Director
Botswana
Botswana National Productivity Centre
Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and Statistician
Parmod Chandna, Acting Executive Director
Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information and
Research Services Department
Brazil
Fundação Dom Cabral
Marina Araújo, Economist and Researcher,
The Competitiveness and Innovation Center
Carlos Arruda, Executive Director, International Board and
Professor and Coordinator, The Competitiveness
and Innovation Center
Arthur Kux, Economist and Research Assistant,
The Competitiveness and Innovation Center
Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC)
Erik Camarano, Director President
Cecília Macedo, Economist and Senior Projects Coordinator
Nikelma Moura, Communications Assistant
Brunei Darussalam
Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources
Pehin Dato Yahya Bakar, Minister
Dayang Hajah Suriyah Haji Umar, Permanent Secretary I
Dato Dr Amin Abdullah, Permanent Secretary II
Bulgaria
Center for Economic Development
Anelia Damianova, Senior Expert

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

v

Partner Institutes

Burkina Faso
lnstitut Supérieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP),
University of Ouagadougou
Samuel Kabore, Economist and Head of Development Strategy
and Population Research

Croatia
National Competitiveness Council
Martina Hatlak, Research Assistant
Kresimir Jurlin, Research Fellow
Mira Lenardic, General Secretary

Burundi
University Research Centre for Economic and Social
Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi
Richard Ndereyahaga, Head of CURDES
Gilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics
& Management

Cyprus
Cyprus College Research Center
Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic
and Academic Research

Cambodia
Economic Institute of Cambodia
Sok Hach, President
Poch Kongchheng, Researcher
Cameroon
Comité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee)
Lucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary
Canada
Institute for Competitiveness and Prosperity
Tamer Azer, Researcher
Roger Martin, Chairman and Dean of the Rotman
School of Management, University of Toronto
James Milway, Executive Director
Cape Verde
INOVE RESEARCH—Investigação e Desenvolvimento, Lda
Rosa Brito, Senior Researcher
Júlio Delgado, Partner and Senior Researcher
Frantz Tavares, Partner and Chief Executive Officer

vi

Chad
Groupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring
du Projet Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC)
Antoine Doudjidingao, Researcher
Gilbert Maoundonodji, Director
Celine Nénodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer
Chile
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Fernando Larrain Aninat, Director of the Master in Management
and Public Policy, School of Government
Camila Chadwick, Project Coordinator
Leonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government
China
Institute of Economic System and Management
National Development and Reform Commission
Zhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor
Chen Wei, Research Fellow
Dong Ying, Professor
China Center for Economic Statistics Research,
Tianjin University of Finance and Economics
Lu Dong, Professor
Jian Wang, Associate Professor
Hongye Xiao, Professor
Bojuan Zhao, Professor
Huazhang Zheng, Associate Professor
Colombia
National Planning Department
Alvaro Edgar Balcazar, Entrepreneurial Development Director
Carolina Rentería Rodríguez, General Director
Mauricio Torres Velásquez, Advisor

The Cyprus Development Bank
Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, International
Banking Services Unit and Business Development
Czech Republic
CMC Graduate School of Business
Tomas Janca, Executive Director
Denmark
Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University
Birgitte Gregersen, Associate Professor
Gert Villumsen, Associate Professor
Ecuador
ESPAE Graduate School of Management,
Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)
Elizabeth Arteaga, Project Assistant
Virginia Lasio, Acting Director
Sara Wong, Professor
Egypt
The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies
Omneia Helmy, Deputy Director of Research and
Lead Economist
Magda Kandil, Executive Director and Director of Research
Malak Reda, Senior Economist
Estonia
Estonian Institute of Economic Research
Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research Sector
Marje Josing, Director
Estonian Development Fund
Kitty Kubo, Head of Foresight
Ott Pärna, Chief Executive Officer
Ethiopia
African Institute of Management, Development and
Governance
Tegegne Teka, General Manager
Finland
ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy
Petri Rouvinen, Research Director
Pasi Sorjonen, Head of the Forecasting Group
Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing Director
France
HEC School of Management, Paris
Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy Dean
Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and Dean
Gambia, The
Gambia Economic and Social Development Research
Institute (GESDRI)
Makaireh A. Njie, Director

Colombian Council of Competitiveness
Hernando José Gomez, President

Georgia
Business Initiative for Reforms in Georgia
Tamara Janashia, Executive Director
Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of Directors
Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of Directors

Côte d’Ivoire
Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire
Jean-Louis Billon, President
Jean-Louis Giacometti, Technical Advisor to the President
Mamadou Sarr, Director General

Germany
WHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management, Vallendar
Ralf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics
Michael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics
and International Economics

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

Greece
SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises
Michael Mitsopoulos, Coordinator,
Research and Analysis
Thanasis Printsipas, Economist,
Research and Analysis
Guatemala
FUNDESA
Edgar A. Heinemann, President of the Board of Directors
Pablo Schneider, Economic Director
Juan Carlos Zapata, General Manager
Guyana
Institute of Development Studies, University of Guyana
Karen Pratt, Research Associate
Clive Thomas, Director
Hong Kong SAR
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce
David O’Rear, Chief Economist
Federation of Hong Kong Industries
Alexandra Poon, Director
The Chinese General Chamber of Commerce
Hungary
KOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd.
Ágnes Nagy, Project Manager
Éva Palócz, Chief Executive Officer
Iceland
Innovation Center Iceland
Karl Fridriksson, Managing Director of
Human Resources and Marketing
Rosa Gisladottir, Marketing Manager
Thorsteinn I. Sigfusson, Director
India
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General
Tarun Das, Chief Mentor
Virendra Gupta, Head, International and Trade Fairs
Indonesia
Center for Industry, SME & Business
Competition Studies, University of Trisakti
Tulus Tambunan, Professor and Director
Iran, Islamic Republic of
The Centre for Economic Studies and Surveys (CESS),
Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines
Hammed Roohani, Director
Ireland
Competitiveness Survey Group, Department of Economics,
University College Cork
Eleanor Doyle, Professor, Department of Economics
Niall O’Sullivan
Bernadette Power
National Competitiveness Council
Adrian Devitt, Manager
Caoimhe Gavin, Policy Advisor
Israel
Manufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI)
Shraga Brosh, President
Dan Catarivas, Director
Yehuda Segev, Managing Director

Italy
SDA Bocconi School of Management
Secchi Carlo, Full Professor of Economic Policy,
Bocconi University
Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University
Francesco A. Saviozzi, SDA Assistant Professor,
Strategic and Entrepreneurial Management Department

Partner Institutes

Ghana
Association of Ghana Industries (AGI)
Patricia Djorbuah, Projects Officer
Cletus Kosiba, Executive Director
Nana Owusu-Afari, President

Jamaica
Mona School of Business (MSB), The University of
the West Indies
Patricia Douce, Project Administrator
Evan Duggan, Executive Director and Professor
William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services Unit
Japan
Hitotsubashi University, Graduate School of International
Corporate Strategy (ICS) in cooperation with Keizai
Doyukai Keizai (Japan Association of Corporate Executives)
Yoko Ishikura, Professor
Kiyohiko Ito, Managing Director, Keizai Doyukai
Jordan
Ministry of Planning & International Cooperation
Jordan National Competitiveness Team
Hiba Abu Taleb, Primary Researcher
Maher Al Mahrouq, Team Leader and Director of Policies
and Studies Department
Kawther Al-Zou’bi, Primary Researcher
Kazakhstan
JSC “National Analytical Centre of the Government and
the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan”
Ayana Manasova, Chairperson
Aibek Baisakalov, Project Manager
Kenya
Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi
Mohamud Jama, Director and Associate Professor
Paul Kamau, Research Fellow
Dorothy McCormick, Associate Professor
Korea, Republic of
College of Business School, Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology KAIST
Ingoo Han, Senior Associate Dean and Professor
Ravi Kumar, Dean and Professor
Youjin Sung, Manager, Exchange Programme
Kuwait
Kuwait National Competitiveness Committee
Adel Al-Husainan, Committee Member
Fahed Al-Rashed, Committee Chairman
Sayer Al-Sayer, Committee Member
Kyrgyz Republic
Economic Policy Institute “Bishkek Consensus”
Lola Abduhametova, Program Coordinator
Marat Tazabekov, Chairman
Latvia
Institute of Economics, Latvian Academy of Sciences
Helma Jirgena, Director
Irina Curkina, Researcher
Lebanon
Bader Young Entrepreneurs Program
Antoine Abou-Samra, Managing Director
Hiba Zunji, Assistant
Lesotho
Mohloli Chamber of Business
Libya
National Economic Development Board
Entisar Elbahi, Director, Relations and Supported Services
Lithuania
Statistics Lithuania
Ona Grigiene, Head, Economical Survey Division
Algirdas Šemeta, Director General

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

vii

Partner Institutes

Luxembourg
Chamber of Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
François-Xavier Borsi, Attaché, Economic Department
Carlo Thelen, Chief Economist, Member of the Managing Board
Marc Wagener, Attaché, Economic Department

Centre for Economic Research (CER)
Corneliu Gutu, Director

Macedonia, FYR
National Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Council (NECC)
Dejan Janevski, Project Coordinator
Zoran Stavreski, President of the Managing Board
Saso Trajkoski, Executive Director

Mongolia
Open Society Forum (OSF)
Munkhsoyol Baatarjav, Manager of Economic Policy
Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive Director

Madagascar
Centre of Economic Studies, University of Antananarivo
Ravelomanana Mamy Raoul, Director
Razato Rarijaona Simon, Executive Secretary

Montenegro
Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)
Maja Drakic, Project Manager
Petar Ivanovic, Chief Executive Officer
Veselin Vukotic, President

Malawi
Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Chancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer
Malaysia
Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS)
Mahani Zainal Abidin, Chief Executive
Steven C.M. Wong, Senior Director, Economics
Malaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC)
Mohd Razali Hussain, Director General
Lee Saw Hoon, Senior Director
Mali
Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et
Théorique (GREAT)
Massa Coulibaly, Coordinator

viii

Moldova
Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (AESM)
Grigore Belostecinic, Rector

Malta
Competitive Malta—Foundation for National Competitiveness
Margrith Lutschg-Emmenegger, Vice President
Adrian Said, Chief Coordinator
Caroline Sciortino, Research Coordinator
Mauritania
Centre d’Information Mauritanien pour le Développement
Economique et Technique (CIMDET/CCIAM)
Khira Mint Cheikhnani, Director
Lô Abdoul, Consultant and Analyst
Habib Sy, Analyst
Mauritius
Joint Economic Council of Mauritius
Raj Makoond, Director
Board of Investment
Kevin Bessondyal, Assistant Director, Planning and Policy
Dev Chamroo, Director, Planning and Policy
Veekram Gowd, Senior Investment Advisor, Planning
and Policy
Raju Jaddoo, Managing Director
Mexico
Center for Intellectual Capital and Competitiveness
Erika Ruiz Manzur, Executive Director
René Villarreal Arrambide, President and
Chief Executive Officer
Jesús Zurita González, General Director
Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO)
Gabriela Alarcón Esteva, Economist
Luis César Castañeda Valdés, Researcher
Manuel J. Molano Ruíz, Deputy General Director
Roberto Newell García, General Director
Ministry of the Economy
Paulo Esteban Alcaraz, Research Director, ProMéxico
Trade & Investment
Felipe Duarte Olvera, Undersecretary for Competitiveness
and Standardization
Javier Prieto, Technical Secretary for Competitiveness
Jose Antonio Torre, Head of the Business Intelligence Unit,
ProMéxico Trade & Investment

Morocco
Université Hassan II, LASAARE
Fouzi Mourji, Professor of Economics
Mozambique
EconPolicy Research Group, Lda.
Peter Coughlin, Director
Donaldo Miguel Soares, Researcher
Ema Marta Soares, Assistant
Namibia
Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU)
Jacob Nyambe, Senior Researcher
Fanuel Tjingaete, Director
Nepal
Centre for Economic Development and
Administration (CEDA)
Ramesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor and
Country Coordinator
Bharat Pokharel, Project Director and Executive Director
Mahendra Raj Joshi, Member
Netherlands
Erasmus Strategic Renewal Center,
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Frans A. J. Van den Bosch, Professor
Henk W. Volberda, Professor
New Zealand
Business New Zealand
Phil O’Reilly, Chief Executive
The New Zealand Institute
Lisa Bailey, Executive Assistant
Rick Boven, Director
Nigeria
Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG)
Frank Nweke Jr., Director General
Sam Ohuabunwa, Chairman
Chris Okpoko, Research Director, Research
Norway
BI Norwegian School of Management
Eskil Goldeng, Researcher
Torger Reve, Professor
Oman
The International Research Foundation
Salem Ben Nasser Al-Ismaily, Chairman
Arabian Research Bureau
Gus Freeman, Managing Director
Mahir Al-Maskari, General Manager
Pakistan
Competitiveness Support Fund
Arthur Bayhan, Chief Executive Officer
Imran Naeem Ahmad, Communication Specialist
Maryam Jawaid, Communication Specialist

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum

Research Officer Swaziland Federation of Swaziland Employers and Chamber of Commerce Zodwa Mabuza. Professor. MAP Marc P. Director Gulnora Beknazarova. National Bank of Poland Mateusz Pipien. Russia Igor Dukeov. Vice Executive Director Rubén Rodriguez Startz. Executive Director Manoj Thibbotuwawa. Deputy Director. Faculty of Economics Peter Stanovnik. Director Michael Spicer. Y. Secretary-General Sarah Abdallah. Executive Director. President of the Board of Directors Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 2000. Sociologist and Economist The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum ix . Executive Director Irina Zgreaban. University of Dakar Diop Ibrahima Thione. Policy Analyst Saudi Arabia National Competitiveness Center (NCC) Awwad Al-Awwad. Technology and Law (ES-HSG) Beat Bechtold. Chief Executive Officer Sihle Fakude. Professor María Luisa Blázquez. Director. Senior Research Fellow Örjan Sölvell. MBC Michael B. Project Manager Syria Ministry of Economy and Trade Amer Housni Louitfi. Associação para o Desenvolvimento da Engenharia Ilídio António de Ayala Serôdio. Economic Research Department Tajikistan The Center for Sociological Research “Zerkalo” Qahramon Baqoev. Associate Professor Katerina Marandi. Associate Dean of Research Rwanda Private Sector Federation Molly Rwigamba. Deputy General Manager Romania Group of Applied Economics (GEA) Liviu Voinea. Economic Research Department Shieh. Research Officer Saman Kelegama. Acting Chief Executive Officer Emmanuel Rutagengwa. Lim. Head of State Planning Commission Syrian Enterprise Business Center (SEBC) Tamer Abadi. Chung Chung. Inc. J. Salvador. Planning Peru Centro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI). MBC Slovenia Institute for Economic Research Mateja Drnovšek. Research and Statistics Unit Cheng Wai San. Director Taiwan. Executive Director. Vice President Senegal Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA). Sociedad Nacional de Industrias Néstor Asto. Director Serbia Center for Applied European Studies (CPES) Srdjan Djurovic. Faculty of Economics Poland Economic Institute. Minister of Economy and Trade State Planning Commission Tayseer Al-Ridawi. Consultant Stockholm School of Economics. Area Principal Carl F. Stockholm School of Economics Christian Ketels. Researcher. Christina. Director Dusko Vasiljevic. Chief Economist. Researcher Matej Tunega. Project Coordinator Qatar Qatari Businessmen Association (QBA) Issa Abdul Salam Abu Issa. General Director Pedro do Carmo Costa. Executive Director Slovak Republic Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS) Robert Kicina. Jimenez. Professor Sonja Urši . Research Associate Sri Lanka Institute of Policy Studies Ayodya Galappattige.. Chief Executive Officer Business Unity South Africa Simi Siwisa. Gallen. Principal. Senior Researcher Partner Institutes Paraguay Centro de Análisis y Difusión de Economia Paraguaya (CADEP) Dionisio Borda. B. President Francisco Montalvo Fiol. Professor. President Khaldon Mahasen. Director María Belén Servín. Mundo. Head. Minister Hung. Project Director Luis Tenorio. International Center for Competitiveness Antoni Subirà. Suzette M. Communications Manager Alexander Jungmeister. General Director Piotr Boguszewski. Executive Director Peter Klatik. Research Member Fernando Masi. Fey. Executive School of Management. Director Jerry Vilakazi. Senior Researcher Ales˘ Vahc˘ic˘. Researcher Philippines Makati Business Club (MBC) in association with Management Association of the Philippines (MAP) Alberto A. Program Coordinator Russian Federation Bauman Innovation Alexei Prazdnitchnykh. China Council for Economic Planning and Development.Singapore Economic Development Board Lim Hong Khiang. Researcher Alikul Isoev. Advisor Portugal PROFORUM.Research Analyst Sweden Center for Strategy and Competitiveness. Research Member South Africa Business Leadership South Africa Friede Dowie. Director Planning 2 Chua Kia Chee. Vice President of the Board of Directors Fórum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE) Paulo Bandeira. Member of the Board of Directors Esmeralda Dourado. MBC Arnold P. Head. Professor Switzerland University of St. Chief Executive Officer Spain IESE Business School. Opulencia. Executive Yuan Liu.

Department of Macroeconomic Management Pham Hoang Ha. Dubai Competitiveness Centre Khawla Belqazi. Executive Counsellor Chekib Nouira. Researcher. Distinguished Fellow Yos Vajragupta. Executive Director Catherine Ssekimpi. Head of Department Trieu Thanh Son. Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS) Arturo Condo. Costa Rica. Senior Researcher Timor-Leste East Timor Development Agency (ETDA) Jose Barreto Goncalves. Zayed University Nico Vellinga. Director. Bull. Deputy Director. Chairman Tunisia Institut Arabe des Chefs d’Entreprises Majdi Hassen. Lithuania Stockholm School of Economics in Riga Karlis Kreslins. Executive Director Harrylal Nirmala. Senior Researcher. Rector Marlene de Estrella. Panama INCAE Business School. Researcher Zambia Institute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR). Manager. Director of Sasin Piyachart Phiromswad. Professor Venezuela CONAPRI—Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion Eduardo Porcarelli. University of Zambia Mutumba M. M. Research Director Chalongphob Sussangkarn. Project Specialist Vietnam Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM) Dinh Van An. London School of Economics and Political Science Niccolo Durazzi. Senior Research Fellow Toemsakdi Krishnamra. Nicaragua. Director. Director. Executive Director Vladimir Dubrovskiy. Dominican Republic. Commissioned Research Cornel Jahari. Ecuador. Department of Macroeconomic Management Institute for Development Studies in HCMC (HIDS) Nguyen Trong Hoa.Partner Institutes Tanzania Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) Joseph Semboja. CLACDS Latvia. Commissioned Research Department Thailand Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration. Faculty of Economics Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) Somchai Jitsuchon. Director Patricia Funjika.Secretary General Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER). Staff Development Fellow Jolly Kamwanga. Executive MBA Programme Director Anders Paalzow. CLACDS Víctor Umaña. Professor United Kingdom LSE Enterprise Ltd. Economic Affairs The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . President x Turkey TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness Forum Dilek Cetindamar. Executive Director Litsay Guerrero. Professor Bolivia. Coordinator Zimbabwe Graduate School of Management. International Centre The Competitiveness Company Rolph Balgobin. Center for Social and Economic Research Dmytro Boyarchuk. Director David Wilkes. Special Projects Manager Emirates Competitiveness Council Abdullah Nasser Lootah. El Salvador. Project Manager Uruguay Universidad ORT Isidoro Hodara. Professor and Executive Director Lucas Katera. Project Administrator Robyn Klingler Vidra. Researcher Jane Lac. Professor and President Du Phuoc Tan. University of Zimbabwe A. Survey Field Officer Trinidad and Tobago Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business Miguel Carillo. Researcher and Project Manager. Director. President Phan Thanh Ha. Research Associate Ukraine CASE Ukraine. Leading Economist United Arab Emirates Dubai Economic Council Gayane Afrikian. Director and Professor Funda Kalemci. Honduras. Chulalongkorn University Pongsak Hoontrakul. Hawkins. Survey Supervisor Palmira Pires. Director of External Relations Lawrence Pratt. Program Manager Delius Asiimwe. Rector Uganda Kabano Research and Development Centre Robert Apunyo.

without whose hard work the annual administration of the Executive Opinion Survey and this Report would not be possible. Indeed. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 could not have been put together without the distinguished thinkers who have shared with us their knowledge and experience. Roberto Crotti. after a significant contraction in 2009. We are grateful to our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company. with emerging markets leading the way. as well as an extensive section of data tables with global rankings covering over 70 indicators included in the TTCI. international tourist arrivals picked up again in 2010 and have returned to their pre-crisis peak level. and the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) for helping us to design and develop the TTCI and for providing much of the industry-relevant data used in its calculation. The theme of this edition of the TTCR.” reflects the cautiously optimistic outlook and many complexities still facing the industry that must be overcome to ensure strong sectoral growth going into the future. At the core of this year’s Report is the fourth edition of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). It also allows countries to track their progress over time in the various areas measured. In this context. the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). the results can be used by all stakeholders to work together to improve the industry’s competitiveness in their national economies. and 9. “Beyond the Downturn. the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). is to provide a comprehensive strategic tool for measuring “the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries. and our Data Partners Deloitte. an analysis of the T&T competitiveness of individual economies around the world remains pertinent. Jumeirah. the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Travel & Tourism Industry Partnership Programme to carry out an in-depth analysis of the T&T competitiveness of economies around the world. Satu Kauhanen. Hertz. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) estimates that. multiple security incidents. the sector is now witnessing a gradual recovery. and strikes among industry personnel. The aim of the TTCI. Silversea. Finally. we would like to convey our sincere gratitude to our network of 150 Partner Institutes worldwide. thereby contributing to national growth and prosperity.8 percent of world exports. accounting for a significant share of global employment and also providing an important opportunity for developing countries to move up the value chain toward the production of higher-valueadded services. The full Report is downloadable from www. RollsRoyce. This is the objective of this fourth edition of The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report (TTCR). The industry has faced not only the global economic crisis and volatile oil prices. Following all these shocks. Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa. These chapters explore issues such as the impact of the recent economic and financial crisis on the tourism industry. Bombardier. and the important role to be played by Travel & Tourism in the emerging green economy. the T&T sector now accounts for a remarkable 9. World Economic Forum After two years during which the Travel & Tourism (T&T) sector faced a myriad of obstacles. The World Economic Forum has for the past five years engaged key industry and thought leaders through its Aviation. Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz.” By providing detailed assessments of the T&T environments in countries worldwide. The aim is to provide a platform for multi-stakeholder dialogue to ensure the development of strong and sustainable national T&T industries capable of contributing effectively to international economic development. for their energy and their commitment to the project.2 percent of global GDP. pandemics. which covers a record 139 economies this year. Gulf Air.Preface Preface ROBERT GREENHILL Chief Business Officer. The T&T sector thus clearly remains a critical one for the world economy. but also climatic disturbances. Appreciation goes to the members of the competitiveness team: Ciara Browne.2 percent of world investment. SWISS. Jet Airways. In addition. We also wish to thank the editors of the Report. from direct and indirect activities combined. We thank our Industry Partners in this Report—Airbus.org/ttcr and contains detailed profiles for each of the 139 economies featured in the study. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum xi .weforum. Etihad Airways. and Pearl Samandari. the opportunities for increasing the sector's competitiveness. Thierry Geiger. it is now emerging from the most difficult period in its recent history. and Visa—for their support in this important venture. 4. it includes insightful contributions from a number of industry experts. Irene Mia.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

Silversea. Indeed. SWISS. Hertz. Jet Airways. Rolls-Royce. the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This year’s Report is published under the theme “Beyond the Downturn. Through detailed analysis of each pillar and subpillar of the Index. Travel & Tourism remains a critical economic sector worldwide. Although developing the T&T sector provides many benefits. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary Executive Summary xiii . and. Jumeirah. particularly within developing countries. this fourth edition of The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report is being released at a time when the industry is looking for ways to develop new market segments and attract new customers. five years ago the World Economic Forum.” which reflects the forwardlooking attitude of the sector as it aims to ensure strong growth going into the future. numerous obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. A growing national T&T sector contributes to employment. Bombardier. We have also received important feedback from a number of key companies that are Industry Partners in the effort. Gulf Air. and the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC). it can also play a key role in poverty reduction. together with its Industry and Data Partners. Thus the sector is an important driver of growth and prosperity. The TTCI has been developed within the context of the World Economic Forum’s Industry Partnership Programme for the Aviation. Etihad Airways. In this context. In this context. numerous obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. namely Airbus. businesses and governments can address their particular challenges to the sector’s growth. with the strong recovery in emerging economies compensating somewhat for the still weaker mature markets in Europe and North America. the International Air Transport Association (IATA). and can improve the balance of payments. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) aims to measure the many different regulatory and businessrelated issues that have been identified as levers for improving T&T competitiveness in countries around the world. embarked on a multi-year research effort aimed at exploring various issues related to the T&T competitiveness of countries around the world. Travel & Tourism sector. and Visa. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Although developing the T&T sector provides many benefits. with the potential to provide economic growth and development internationally. the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).JENNIFER BLANKE THEA CHIESA World Economic Forum The Travel & Tourism (T&T) industry is slowly recovering from the economic downturn. The Index was developed in close collaboration with our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company and Data Partners Deloitte. raises national income.

3. the second subindex captures elements of the business environment and the “hard” infrastructure of each economy. and Spain follow as the other countries among the top 10 overall. Switzerland is not only an attractive leisure tourism destination but is also an important business travel hub. a place it has held since the first edition of the Report. in turn. 11. The table shows that Switzerland remains the top-ranked country. 14. the United Kingdom. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index rankings 2011 Table 1 shows the overall rankings for the 139 countries included in this year’s TTCI. This natural heritage is buttressed by a strong national focus on environmental sustainability: Switzerland is ranked 2nd overall on this pillar. 12. 10. Added to these strengths is Switzerland’s excellent ground transport infrastructure (ranked 5th). and T&T institutions and experts (for example. with the first column showing the rank within the region and the second column showing the overall rank out of all 139 economies included in the Index this year. just behind Finland). and UNESCO). and the third subindex captures the “softer” human. IATA. 7. 2nd The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . made up of a number of individual variables. and natural resources subindex. cultural. 9. UNCTAD. Austria. cultural. the Americas. The Survey provides unique data on many qualitative institutional and business environment issues. grouping countries into the following five regional groups: Europe. The first subindex captures those elements that are policy related and generally under the purview of the government. Each of these three subindexes is composed in turn by a number of pillars of T&T competitiveness. perhaps not surprising in a country with many of the best hotel management schools. Tables 2–6 show the rankings in a regional context. ranked 6th worldwide for its 32 World Heritage cultural sites.1. Policy rules and regulations Environmental sustainability Safety and security Health and hygiene Prioritization of Travel & Tourism Air transport infrastructure Ground transport infrastructure Tourism infrastructure ICT infrastructure Price competitiveness in the T&T industry Human resources Affinity for Travel & Tourism Natural resources Cultural resources Each of the pillars is. the Middle East and North Africa. of which there are 14 in all. Switzerland is ranked 1st. It is based on three broad categories of variables that facilitate or drive T&T competitiveness. These are: 1. Germany. IUCN. with all of the top 5 places taken by European countries and 14 of the top 20 countries hailing from the region. Sweden. More countries are discussed in detail in Chapter 1. and (3) the T&T human. (2) the T&T business environment and infrastructure subindex. with top-quality roads and railroads and an excellent domestic transport network. 5. and sub-Saharan Africa. The country is characterized by abundant cultural resources. Table 2 shows the rankings just for European countries. comparing this year’s rankings with those from the 2009 edition of the Report.Executive Summary xiv The TTCI aims to measure the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries. Germany is ranked 2nd out of all countries in the TTCI. 4. 8. The exact methodology underlying the construction of the TTCI is described in Chapter 1. with readily available hotel rooms and automated teller machines (ATMs) for cash withdrawals. having moved up one place since the last assessment and overtaking Austria. The Survey is carried out among CEOs and top business leaders in all economies covered by our research. These categories are summarized into the three subindexes of the Index: (1) the T&T regulatory framework subindex. Staffing of the industry is facilitated by the availability of qualified labor to work in Travel & Tourism (ranked 2nd). Europe Table 1 shows that many countries from Europe do very well in the rankings. these are the people making the investment decisions in their respective economies. 13. A large percentage of the country’s land area is protected and the natural environment is assessed as being among the most pristine in the world (ranked 5th). WTTC. Also well assessed is the specific tourism infrastructure (ranked 8th). based on strong and wellenforced environmental legislation and with a particular focus on developing the T&T sector sustainably. Such high-quality infrastructure makes a tourist’s stay in the country easy and comfortable. 6. and natural elements of each country’s resource endowments. The dataset includes both Survey data from the World Economic Forum’s annual Executive Opinion Survey. and quantitative data from publicly available sources. as well as specific issues related to the T&T industry and the quality of the natural environment. an experience that is reinforced by the high level of general safety and security (ranked 2nd. with many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country each year. 2. We discuss here a selection of countries from each region to provide a sense of the results and how they are interpreted at the national level.1. including an impressive number of World Heritage cultural and natural sites for a country of its size. France. Switzerland is a country rich in cultural and natural resources. Asia Pacific (including Central Asia). international organizations. As the table shows. the UNWTO.

) Lebanon Albania Dominican Republic Georgia Indonesia Egypt Macedonia.27 4.11 4.35 3.98 4.05 2.34 5.41 5.07 4.03 4.63 3.56 4.89 4.2011 Country/Economy Switzerland Germany France Austria Sweden United States United Kingdom Spain Canada Singapore Iceland Hong Kong SAR Australia Netherlands Luxembourg Denmark Finland Portugal New Zealand Norway Ireland Japan Belgium Cyprus Estonia Malta Italy Barbados Greece United Arab Emirates Czech Republic Korea.23 4.61 4.30 5.87 4.77 3.18 3.92 4.85 2.17 4.98 4.42 3.18 3.37 3.96 3.98 3.38 4.80 2.50 5.99 2.87 3.12 4.04 1 3 4 2 7 8 11 6 5 10 16 12 9 13 23 14 15 17 20 19 18 25 22 21 27 29 28 30 24 33 26 31 35 34 32 52 43 38 47 41 39 37 51 42 53 36 44 50 58 56 48 45 40 46 49 55 57 63 59 65 68 71 66 54 60 61 69 62 74 2011 Country/Economy (Cont’d.84 4.49 3. Islamic Rep.37 4.79 3.15 5.56 3.77 4.30 5.60 3.17 4.44 3.35 4.96 3.36 4.47 4.45 4.24 3.49 3.41 5.44 3.01 3.56 n/a 90 67 73 81 64 80 72 75 84 89 78 88 76 82 77 70 96 83 n/a 91 79 87 92 86 95 94 107 102 93 103 105 n/a 97 101 85 104 106 110 108 98 100 118 115 n/a 111 n/a 114 109 121 120 117 123 122 112 113 125 116 124 129 128 130 126 119 n/a 132 127 131 n/a 133 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary Table 1: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 and 2009 comparison xv .31 3.20 4. Rep.09 3.74 3.06 3.88 4.68 3.35 4.78 4.90 3.29 5.99 3.94 4.54 3.85 3.24 4.01 5.42 4.36 3.40 3.81 2.14 4.56 3.70 3.13 5. China Hungary China Bahrain Thailand Qatar Mexico Costa Rica Puerto Rico Israel Tunisia Bulgaria Poland Turkey Latvia Brazil Mauritius Slovak Republic Lithuania Panama Chile Uruguay Russian Federation Argentina Oman Saudi Arabia Romania Jordan Jamaica South Africa Brunei Darussalam India Peru Rank/139 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 2009 Score Rank/133 5. Slovenia Croatia Malaysia Montenegro Taiwan.11 3.08 3.25 3.47 4.35 3.30 4.30 3.94 3.07 4.69 3.26 3. FYR Colombia Morocco Trinidad and Tobago Vietnam Sri Lanka Serbia Azerbaijan Namibia Ukraine Guatemala Ecuador Honduras Cape Verde Armenia Botswana Gambia.78 4.37 3.56 4.29 5.59 4.79 3.23 5.47 4.41 4.68 5.46 3.39 4.18 4.91 3.95 2.68 3.51 3.37 3.36 4.70 3.18 3.45 3.71 4.05 5.84 3.96 3.02 5.85 3.19 5.39 4.62 3.43 4.08 5.82 3.34 3. The Kazakhstan Philippines Kuwait El Salvador Bosnia and Herzegovina Guyana Moldova Nicaragua Mongolia Rwanda Kenya Senegal Syria Venezuela Kyrgyz Republic Ghana Cambodia Tanzania Zambia Nepal Algeria Iran. Uganda Swaziland Bolivia Tajikistan Zimbabwe Benin Malawi Ethiopia Paraguay Libya Pakistan Cameroon Madagascar Mozambique Bangladesh Nigeria Côte d’Ivoire Burkina Faso Mali Timor-Leste Lesotho Mauritania Burundi Angola Chad 2009 Rank/139 Score Rank/133 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 4.26 3.54 4.93 3.00 4.64 4.77 3.88 4.19 5.83 3.34 4.30 3.43 4.

49 93 3.56 32 5.96 56 4.01 53 4.38 49 4.18 Austria 4 4 5.28 Spain 7 8 5.32 6 5.93 Georgia 36 73 3.13 16 5.11 29 4.87 45 5. France attracts tourists with its rich cultural heritage (ranked 4th for the number of World Heritage cultural sites and 7th for creative industries).68 23 4.02 28 4.62 Serbia 38 82 3.85 67 4.19 33 4.51 16 5.41 3 5.15 49 4. France moves up this year by one place to 3rd position.51 7 5.92 18 5.74 30 4.48 35 4.50 18 5. with the world’s most stringent and best-enforced environmental regulations and strong support of international environmental efforts. The country also hosts many international fairs and exhibitions (ranked 5th).63 76 3.71 8 5. as demonstrated through its ratification of many international environmental treaties.66 Russian Federation 33 59 4.99 1 5.21 85 3.89 23 5.36 38 5.68 1 5. ranked 3rd for the quality of its ground transport infrastructure and 7th for its air transport infrastructure.57 98 3. Germany makes great efforts to develop the T&T industry in a sustainable way.75 100 3. with France ranked 9th on this pillar.30 21 5.34 11 5.78 34 5.29 22 5.23 Montenegro 25 36 4.30 61 3.14 46 4.49 Moldova 42 99 3.60 68 4.15 8 5.71 26 4.48 Czech Republic 22 31 4.26 37 4.37 Belgium 16 23 4.19 Estonia 18 25 4. and natural resources Rank Score Switzerland 1 1 5.01 19 5.37 66 4.23 73 4.88 37 4.84 17 4.55 Portugal 13 18 5.98 35 5.45 Ireland 15 21 4.50 12 5.77 26 5.86 65 3.57 5 5.02 5 5.98 8 5.Executive Summary Table 2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Europe SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy xvi Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework Score Rank Score T&T business environment and infrastructure Rank Score T&T human.90 6 5.37 Denmark 11 16 5.15 44 4.79 44 4.06 Malta 19 26 4.10 16 4.12 for the number of international fairs and exhibitions held in the country.15 Romania 34 63 4.41 7 5.00 27 4.11 26 4.75 25 4.13 Sweden 5 5 5.77 58 4.39 94 3.26 France 3 3 5.33 14 5.19 10 5.58 2 5.83 64 4.88 17 5.05 57 3. In addition.02 Italy 20 27 4.17 51 4.54 24 5.08 14 5.36 83 3.11 94 3.33 Armenia 40 90 3.06 Bulgaria 27 48 4.21 92 3.60 Ukraine 39 85 3. also overtaking Austria.34 10 5.57 84 3.09 50 4.48 Slovenia 23 33 4.35 39 5.78 Luxembourg 10 15 5. with the quality of roads and railroads particularly well assessed.62 Macedonia.50 19 5.53 118 3.22 Iceland 8 11 5.85 66 3.34 33 5.89 12 5.35 38 4.67 2 5.66 20 4.35 9 5.79 32 4.36 41 4. FYR 37 76 3.27 3 5. Ensuring that the sector is developed in a sustainable way is also a significant priority for the government.63 92 4.96 52 4.58 55 4.58 43 4. The country’s infrastructure is among the best in the world.75 29 4.35 11 5.07 39 4.56 31 4.05 15 5.49 53 4.31 Netherlands 9 14 5.11 129 3.79 91 3. cultural.04 Lithuania 32 55 4.70 53 4. although the country is still ranked a high 4th out of all 139 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .47 24 4.88 9 5.64 Cyprus 17 24 4.83 Greece 21 29 4.24 97 3.21 United Kingdom 6 7 5.32 51 4.69 22 4.53 Finland 12 17 5.84 Albania 35 71 4.98 10 5. thereby attracting business travelers as well.47 Bosnia and Herzegovina 41 97 3. as well as its air transport infrastructure (ranked 6th). and 3rd for its creative industries.66 Slovak Republic 31 54 4.05 Poland 28 49 4. France’s ground transport infrastructure is among the best in the world (ranked 4th).07 45 4.15 36 4.03 Croatia 24 34 4.39 54 4.78 78 3.48 Germany 2 2 5.61 42 5.19 2 5.29 45 4.50 Latvia 30 51 4.48 Turkey 29 50 4.38 Hungary 26 38 4. Austria drops by two positions this year.93 54 4.73 Norway 14 20 4.64 29 5.67 15 5.28 48 4.81 30 4.09 107 3.79 15 4.14 103 3.02 36 4.80 66 3.

Austria’s tourism infrastructure is assessed as second to none. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary economies. Other strengths include Austria’s assessment as one of the safest countries in the world (ranked 10th) and its excellent health and hygiene levels (ranked 3rd). Its cultural resources are ranked 6th and its natural resources are ranked 3rd out of all countries. Canada falls four places this year to 9th overall and 2nd in the region. The government prioritizes the sector significantly. although a perception exists that the environment is not being sufficiently protected (ranked 105th for environmental sustainability). with eight World Heritage cultural sites. taking great care to collect comprehensive and timely data on the T&T sector. In particular. having improved by two places since the 2009 T&T Report. with many hotel rooms. excellent safety and security environment (7th). The decline in rank can be traced to factors such as a weaker policy environment and increased concerns about safety and security. and natural resources. and a significant sports stadium capacity. The country’s T&T competitiveness is based on its excellent cultural resources (ranked 3rd). and ATMs. and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness. up one place since the 2009 T&T Report). facilitating the online T&T environment. and is ranked 20th in Europe. The country is ranked 2nd worldwide for the richness of its cultural resources. Italy’s strengths lie in areas such as the health and hygiene of the country (27th). with many international fairs and exhibitions in the country and strong creative industries in particular. The country also benefits from a supportive policy environment as well as significant focus on environmental sustainability. Spain’s tourism infrastructure is ranked 8th internationally. Canada’s policy environment is very conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 4th. Its rise in rank since the last assessment is driven largely by greater safety and security. Canada’s air transport infrastructure is ranked 1st out of all countries. a large number of international fairs and exhibitions.fairs and exhibitions. Its ranking is attributable to its rich cultural resources. However. and especially its excellent tourism infrastructure (ranked 1st). The country is ranked 1st out of all countries in three key areas that span the three subindexes of the TTCI: environmental sustainability. Its cultural resources are also a strong point. down by five positions since the last assessment. where Italy ranks 84th (consistently getting worse over the past few years) because of its lack of foreign ownership (ranked 112th) and its lack of transparency in government policymaking (119th). with the country’s nine World Heritage natural sites placing it 4th internationally. These include policy rules and regulations. Greece is ranked 21st in Europe and 29th overall. its air transport infrastructure (30th). The country’s supportive policy environment (ranked 8th). international xvii . The country places 3rd for its overall business environment and infrastructure and 1st for its human. and excellent air transport infrastructure (10th) contribute to this strong result and help the country to overcome its lack of price competitiveness (ranked 120th). and a top-notch tourism infrastructure (5th). along with the country’s focus on environmental sustainability (ranked 5th). with many World Heritage sites. and rich creative industries. ground transport infrastructure requires upgrading. as well as a lower prioritization of Travel & Tourism within the country (perhaps not surprising given the country’s recent more general economic travails). ICT infrastructure. a greater affinity for Travel & Tourism in the country. with many World Heritage Sites. Canada’s natural resources constitute a key strength. falling two places to 8th position. there is insufficient focus on developing the sector in an environmentally sustainable way. the United States has an excellent air transport infrastructure (ranked 2nd) and high-quality tourism infrastructure. Austrians are perceived as open and welcoming to foreign travelers. As this table shows. and many fairs and exhibitions catering to business travelers. Spain is ranked behind the United Kingdom within Europe. and the country makes strong efforts to attract tourists through solid destinationmarketing campaigns and by ensuring Spain’s presence at many international tourism fairs. Italy moves up by one position to 27th overall. respectively). Further. and solid ICT and air transport infrastructures (ranked 9th and 5th. Spain’s decline in rank is driven in large part by increased concerns about the availability of qualified labor and a comparative weakening of some aspects of the policy environment. The Americas Table 3 shows the regional rankings for the countries in the Americas. rich creative industries. The United Kingdom moves up by an impressive four positions since the last edition of the Report to reach 7th place this year. up two positions from the last assessment and with a somewhat stable performance since the TTCI was conceived. car rental facilities. strong human resources (ranked 8th). and it also gets good marks for its tourism and ICT infrastructure. and cultural resources. the United States is the highest-ranked country in the Americas and 6th out of all countries. with abundant car rental facilities. In addition. hotel accommodations. excellent health and hygiene (ranked 20th overall). In addition. As well as its cultural richness. particularly hotel prices. The natural environment is also well assessed. it faces a number of challenges that bring its overall rating down. there is a strong national affinity for tourism compared with many other European countries. The country benefits from rich cultural resources (ranked 25th). Sweden joins the top five countries for the first time. and its air transport infrastructure also gets good marks (ranked 8th). with many nationally protected areas and many World Heritage natural sites. and more competitive prices. cultural. and ATMs. including a generally open and positive attitude toward tourists (26th).

49 124 3.92 58 3.36 111 2.65 Colombia 15 77 3.30 39 4. particularly roads and ports.89 10 58 4.38 7 5.65 Peru 13 69 4.66 35 4.42 1 5. an area that shows an improvement since the last assessment. The country gets excellent marks for its natural resources (ranked 6th).04 87 4. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .94 102 4.13 111 3.41 Jamaica 12 65 4.67 96 3.43 Puerto Rico 6 45 4.43 74 4. Mexico has improved by eight places and is now ranked 4th in the region and 43rd overall.20 72 4. Some areas requiring attention are the ground transport infrastructure (79th).19 71 3.90 Costa Rica 5 44 4. Safety and security has also improved impressively since the last assessment.79 93 4. with a positive attitude toward tourists and toward the value of tourism in the country.99 62 3. an area where it has continued to improve over the past few years. although its tourism infrastructure is relatively well developed (39th).66 89 3. spending a high percentage of GDP on the sector.42 Guatemala 17 86 3.48 61 3. making travel in the country somewhat difficult.11 Note: Suriname is not covered this year.68 84 4.48 Canada 2 9 5.40 75 3.46 120 3.42 40 5.24 93 3.79 59 3.29 25 5.01 3 5.97 Chile Uruguay xviii Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure 9 57 4.24 30 5.21 Score Barbados 3 28 4.96 Ecuador 18 87 3.45 21 4.28 5 5.36 80 4. Costa Rica is ranked 5th in the region and 44th overall.55 11 5.62 91 4. Given the importance of the natural environment for the country’s tourism industry. and its very diverse fauna. ranked 128th. health and hygiene remains a concern (74th).84 20 5.66 69 3.30 52 4.91 13 4. This is buttressed by a focus on environmental sustainability (ranked 29th).Executive Summary Table 3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: The Americas SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy T&T human.12 55 4. The country is ranked 1st out of all countries for its natural resources and 23rd for its cultural resources. ensuring effective destination-marketing campaigns. with many World Heritage sites.79 90 4.19 Guyana 21 98 3.66 Venezuela 23 106 3.41 77 3.56 105 3.10 102 3.82 Paraguay 25 123 3.35 133 3.68 El Salvador 20 96 3. The country’s cultural resources are also among the best in the world (19th). Further. cultural.30 44 5.87 67 3.42 Dominican Republic 14 72 3.07 Mexico 4 43 4. Brazil is ranked 7th in the Americas and 52nd overall. ground transport infrastructure requires significant upgrading (93rd). at 28th overall.87 Honduras 19 88 3.51 70 3.95 122 2.93 87 3.36 Trinidad and Tobago 16 79 3.18 51 4.08 57 3.40 34 4. The country is prioritizing the sector to a very high degree (ranked 3rd).95 33 4.93 Argentina 11 60 4.72 130 3. up two places since the last assessment. a great proportion of protected land area.65 Brazil 7 52 4.35 79 3.99 47 4.84 52 4.91 56 3.50 Nicaragua 22 100 3. an area that has been improving over recent years.26 64 3. Barbados is ranked 3rd in the region.30 82 3.05 38 4. However.15 99 3. Increased efforts toward environmental sustainability would further reinforce the country’s strong T&T competitiveness. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank United States 1 6 5. and collecting relevant sector data on a timely basis.91 100 4.17 92 3.26 107 3. with effective marketing and branding campaigns for attracting tourists and significant efforts to collect T&T sector data in a comprehensive and timely manner. with a strong presence of major car rental companies and abundant hotel rooms. with several World Heritage sites.55 88 3.62 60 3.13 Panama 8 56 4. These inherent strengths are reinforced by the overall prioritization of the sector in the country (30th). and safety and security concerns. with 33 World Heritage cultural sites. several international fairs and exhibitions. with many World Heritage natural sites and rich fauna.27 48 4.25 99 3.55 Bolivia 24 117 3. and the richest fauna in the world. a high percentage of nationally protected areas. overtaking Costa Rica and Brazil since the last assessment.27 80 3.43 47 4. it is notable that it ranks a high 25th overall for environmental sustainability. Mexico gets impressive marks for its natural resources (ranked 10th).40 58 3. insufficient heath and hygiene (ranked 64th). declining by seven places since the last assessment but with a stable score. Barbados is ranked 2nd overall for the country’s affinity for Travel & Tourism.82 103 4.03 84 3.08 81 3.99 104 3. and strong creative industries.99 63 4.

21 Bangladesh 25 129 3.47 77 4. policy rules and regulations are conducive to the development of the T&T sector (12th).18 95 3.86 28 4.14 63 3.90 89 4.33 40 4.69 98 4.19 24 4.44 110 3. much time required for starting a business.39 23 4. Singapore benefits from excellent transport infrastructure.60 25 4.95 31 4. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Singapore 1 10 5.73 81 3.12 Sri Lanka 15 81 3. as well as high prices and high taxation more generally.71 50 4. Further.84 12 5.19 4 5. The country also continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (114th). It has notable cultural resources. cultural. Singapore is ranked 2nd for the quality of its human resources available to work in the country.52 64 3.85 59 4.20 112 2. 6 32 4.87 79 4. with discouraging rules on FDI.69 Mongolia 19 101 3.28 New Zealand 4 19 5.73 55 4.32 123 3. respectively.56 97 4.45 113 2.80 13 5.96 94 4.52 Tajikistan 23 118 3. with ground transport infrastructure and air transport infrastructure ranked 2nd and 14th.80 22 4.32 21 4. Singapore is the top-ranked country in the region at 10th position.71 40 4.72 Taiwan.31 46 4. well-protected property rights.00 13 5.42 134 2. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary Table 4: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Asia Pacific xix . with six World Heritage cultural sites and several international fairs and exhibitions held in the country.41 83 3.33 105 3.54 Cambodia 21 109 3.87 India 12 68 4. Asia Pacific Table 4 displays the regional rankings and data for the Asia Pacific region.62 101 3.70 65 4.18 75 3.28 89 3.35 18 4. it is perhaps not surprising that it ranks 1st out of all countries for its policy environment. the overall policy environment is not particularly conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 114th).37 106 3. However. and railroads requiring improvements.82 131 3.86 Korea.59 88 3.23 6 5. and few visa restrictions).45 43 4.40 68 3.97 128 2. China 8 37 4.67 Nepal 22 112 3. The country also benefits from good safety and security by regional standards (27th).82 86 3.00 China Thailand 9 39 4.76 27 4. In addition.07 114 3. maintaining a very stable performance since the last assessment.60 Japan 5 22 4. As the table shows.72 14 4. Price competitiveness also remains an area of strength compared with many other countries at the same advanced stage of development. And with the country’s famously well-functioning public institutions. Chile is ranked 9th in the region and 57th overall. with the quality of roads.59 Australia 3 13 5.24 32 4.20 50 4. with rules and regulations that are extremely conducive to the development of its T&T industries (policies facilitating foreign ownership and FDI. Rep.13 Pakistan 24 125 3.SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.11 4 5.60 128 3.59 60 4. Chile’s T&T competitiveness would be strengthened by upgrading both its transport and tourism infrastructures and by a greater focus on developing the industry in a more environmentally sustainable way.21 86 3. and somewhat restrictive commitments to opening up tourism services under GATS commitments.47 71 4.72 87 3.06 10 41 4. ports.65 Kyrgyz Republic 20 107 3. a liberal visa regime.35 Vietnam 14 80 3. and open bilateral Air Service Agreements. attributable in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges in the country. Further.71 19 4.53 Malaysia 7 35 4.65 Indonesia 13 74 3.06 122 3.05 Timor-Leste 26 134 2.81 Azerbaijan 16 83 3. the same position it held in the last edition of the Report.11 130 3.72 4 5.59 100 3.92 118 2.24 129 3.56 46 4.07 96 4.84 68 3.15 36 5.59 Hong Kong SAR 2 12 5.28 130 2.64 138 2.45 102 3.49 Kazakhstan 17 93 3.08 17 5.45 95 4. Singapore is among the safest countries of all assessed and is ranked 2nd for the overall prioritization of Travel & Tourism in the country. with few foreign ownership restrictions.94 27 5.90 On the other hand. although the time and cost for starting new businesses remains relatively high.99 123 3.34 88 4. the ground transport network remains underdeveloped (116th).64 Brunei 11 67 4.21 132 2.19 Philippines 18 94 3.

Executive Summary xx Singapore is followed in the regional ranking by Hong Kong SAR at 12th overall. especially railroads. it is notable that the stringency and enforcement of its environmental regulations are well assessed. down two places since the last edition. However. Its ground transport infrastructure is among the best in the world (ranked 6th). with good destination-marketing campaigns and price competitiveness. and it struggles with prices that are not competitive by international standards (ranked 137th). China. with a very friendly attitude of the population toward tourists (ranked 8th). where it ranks 1st. and the country is unsurpassed for the quality of health and hygiene. some weaknesses remain: despite the prioritization of the sector by the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . This is buttressed by the government’s strong prioritization of the sector (ranked 16th). with many World Heritage natural sites and fauna that are among the richest in the world. with. attributable to its 29 World Heritage cultural sites. and is now at 13th position overall. while also improving. there are some weaknesses pulling the country’s ranking down. The country also benefits from excellent price competitiveness (ranked 3rd). Malaysia benefits from its rich natural resources (ranked 22nd) and its cultural resources (ranked 33rd). with a number of World Heritage natural sites (ranked 17th) and a pristine natural environment (ranked 3rd). Although the country’s ground transport network remains somewhat underdeveloped. Like Singapore. with very transparent policymaking and among the least time and lowest cost required to start a business internationally. require further attention (95th). with many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country and strong creative industries. Japan benefits from its cultural resources (ranked 12th). low ticket taxes and airport charges. the country is ranked 24th in price competitiveness. Hong Kong gets relatively good marks for cultural resources. and the tourism sector is a clear priority (ranked 12th). very competitive hotel prices. However. the same place it held in the last edition. although this is an area that has improved somewhat since the last assessment. Malaysia is ranked 7th regionally and 35th overall. and both the tourism and ICT infrastructures are quite good by international standards. There are also some concerns related to health and hygiene (96th). moving up an additional eight places to 39th overall this year. with low comparative hotel and fuel prices. Given the importance of the environment for much of its leisure tourism. In addition. benefiting from diverse fauna and a pristine natural environment. Moreover. Hong Kong is safe from crime and violence (ranked 5th). Australia’s T&T competitiveness continues to be characterized by a number of clear strengths. Ground transport infrastructure gets middling marks (59th). respectively. The drop in rank since the last edition can be traced in large part to a perceived weakening of the focus on environmental sustainability and increased concerns about the availability of qualified labor in the country. China has a relatively good air transport infrastructure (ranked 35th). and a favorable tax regime. and the country’s tourism infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 95th). It is ranked 16th for its cultural resources. And given the country’s distance from other continents and the related importance of domestic air travel to overcome the large distances between major sites. with few hotel rooms available and few ATMs. China has been building on a number of clear strengths: it is ranked 5th for its natural resources. its air transport infrastructure gets excellent marks (ranked 11th). Hong Kong’s policy environment is rated second only to Singapore’s. It is endowed with rich natural resources and a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism (ranked 21st and 24th. Australia continues to decline in the rankings by four more places. policies related to environmental sustainability. and Japan continues to be a leader in the area of education and training (ranked 12th). has continued its ascent in the rankings. The overall policy rules and regulations in the country are conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 3rd). including its rich natural resources: the country ranks 1st for its World Heritage natural sites. Malaysia’s policy environment is assessed as conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 21st). up three places since the last assessment. New Zealand also benefits from high-quality human resources (ranked 14th) and a very safe and secure environment overall (14th). Furthermore. Hong Kong’s transport is even better assessed than Singapore’s. many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. The country benefits from its rich natural resources. ranked 9th regionally. the many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. With regard to weaknesses. However. China has a policy environment that is not conducive for T&T development (ranked 80th). Japan ranks third from the bottom for the affinity of the country for Travel & Tourism (131st). protected by strong and well-enforced environmental legislation. up one position since the last edition. in particular. respectively). a low physician density (placing the country 96th). and the country is characterized by a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism more generally (ranked 17th). and its rich creative industries. its competitiveness is also buttressed by excellent air transport infrastructure (ranked 3rd) as well as good general tourism infrastructure (ranked 16th). New Zealand is ranked 4th in the region and 19th overall. and creative industries that are unsurpassed. Japan is ranked 5th regionally and 22nd out of all countries in the TTCI. with ground transport and air transport infrastructures ranked 1st and 12th. with several World Heritage cultural sites. health and hygiene indicators lag behind those of many other countries in the region. Thailand is ranked 10th in the region and 41st overall. down three positions since the 2009 T&T Report.

the United Arab Emirates (UAE) continues to lead the region at 30th overall.74 Kuwait 12 95 3.03 78 4.93 69 4.18 76 3.77 Morocco 11 78 3.86 69 3. Indonesia is ranked 13th in the regional ranking and 74th overall. a number of international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. 15 114 3. particularly a lack of trust of police services and the business costs of potential terrorism.78 57 4.91 113 3. the country is ranked 4th overall on price competitiveness in the T&T industry because of its competitive hotel prices (ranked 6th).24 Bahrain 2 40 4.08 72 3.92 126 3. Indonesia also has rich cultural resources (ranked 39th). up three places since the last assessment.43 103 3.SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human. some aspects of the regulatory environment—such as stringent foreign ownership restrictions. and the long time required for starting a business in the country—are not particularly conducive to developing the sector (ranked 76th).61 74 3.45 43 5.69 Saudi Arabia 7 62 4.64 Israel 4 46 4.87 Tunisia 5 47 4. representing significant investment opportunities in the country. with eight World Heritage cultural sites.92 125 3.77 9 5. it sees a significant improvement in the assessment of its cultural resources (34th. Other areas requiring attention are health and hygiene standards (112th) and the country’s human resources base (96th).18 Syria 13 105 3.68 90 3.55 77 3. In terms of strengths. both natural and cultural.59 71 3. visa restrictions for many travelers.68 Qatar 3 42 4.80 10 75 3. Indonesia places 17th for its natural resources.87 110 2.94 Oman 6 61 4. up seven places since the last edition.32 42 4. these strengths are held back by underdeveloped infrastructure in the country. In addition.17 54 4. In addition. There are also some concerns related to safety and security. As the table shows. Islamic Rep.67 47 4. with very few hotel rooms per capita by international comparison and low ATM penetration. Note that these rankings were established prior to the political unrest experienced in North Africa in early 2011.37 131 3. the country is characterized by a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism (25th).14 37 5. India is ranked 12th in the region and 68th overall. and reasonable ground transport infrastructure (ranked 43rd). However.77 Jordan 8 64 4. India is well assessed for its natural resources (ranked 8th) and cultural resources (24th). including to a certain extent air transport (58th) and especially ground transport (82nd).37 112 3. In addition. low ticket taxes and airport charges. with several World Heritage natural sites and the richness of its fauna as measured by the known species in the country. The Middle East and North Africa Table 5 shows the regional rankings for the Middle East and North Africa region. with much time and cost for starting a business. and favorable fuel prices. The UAE’s infrastructure also gets good marks.41 41 5. As with China.05 59 3.39 Algeria 14 113 3. given the importance of the natural environment for the country’s tourism.02 34 4. While the UAE is not endowed with rich natural resources (116th).06 78 3.25 122 3. tourism infrastructure (116th).47 62 4. and visas required for most visitors. rich fauna.17 109 2. up from 84th). down six places since the last edition.49 101 4.64 107 2. particularly given the country’s stage of development. which has weakened measurably since the last assessment and is now ranked 128th. In addition. many fairs and exhibitions.35 70 3. Further.42 63 3.66 20 5. environmental sustainability should be a greater priority (ranked 97th). cultural.50 73 3. India also has quite good air transport (ranked 39th). and strong creative industries.04 42 4.64 Libya 16 124 3. it is ranked 15th for its national prioritization of Travel & Tourism. the country is not ensuring the sustainable development of the tourism sector (ranked 127th).39 31 5. However. Another area of concern is the policy environment. some aspects of its tourism infrastructure remain somewhat underdeveloped (ranked 89th). bilateral Air Service Agreements that are not assessed as open.35 Iran. with many World Heritage sites. and ICT infrastructure (96th).53 74 3.89 116 3.68 108 3.73 Lebanon Egypt 9 70 4.18 government. an area of particular concern given the sector’s dependence on the quality of the natural environment.33 65 3.17 81 4.18 61 4.96 70 4.03 91 3.94 60 3. particularly its air The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary Table 5: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: The Middle East and North Africa xxi .38 41 4. and strong creative industries. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score United Arab Emirates 1 30 4.

a ranking The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . this is an area where the country has improved since the last assessment. Israel benefits from its cultural attributes. its ICT infrastructure is quite well developed compared with those of other countries in the region. The country’s human resources base is also well evaluated (31st). including transport. The drop in rank is attributable to declines across most areas measured by the Index. The country’s tourism infrastructure is well developed by regional standards (47th). Safety and security remains of serious concern (ranked 129th). joining Mauritius as one of the only two sub-Saharan African countries in the top half of the overall rankings. along with high levels of safety and security. and more competitive hotel prices. Safety and security levels are also good by regional standards (ranked 45th). with reasonably priced hotel rooms and a favorable tax regime. although the government is seen to be making an effort to develop the industry in a sustainable way (ranked 10th). this effort could be backed up by more stringent and well-enforced environmental regulations (ranked 60th and 55th. In order to further improve the country’s T&T competitiveness. and the many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. respectively). South Africa comes in at a high 14th for its natural resources and 55th for its cultural resources. Qatar is ranked 3rd in the region and 42nd overall. and collecting tourism data in a timely fashion. particularly ground transport infrastructure (ranked 11th). The 2010 FIFA World Cup has reinforced South Africa’s position as a key international tourist destination. Mauritius remains the highest-ranked country in this region at 53rd overall. with the UAE moving up from 81st place in the 2009 Report to 38th place this year. down five places since the 2009 T&T Report. some aspects of safety and security continue to be a concern. Bahrain also has high-quality human resources to call on in the country (29th). and from a well-developed tourism infrastructure (ranked 26th). and ICT infrastructures. dropping 10 places to 46th overall. at 53 years.Executive Summary xxii transport infrastructure. with relatively low prices overall and taxation that is not overly burdensome. placing the country 124th overall. Bahrain is ranked 2nd in the region and 40th overall. with well-protected property rights and few visa requirements for visitors. Overall. in 2010 the government selected tourism as one of the five priority sectors in its growth plan and has been reviewing tourism legislation in an effort to streamline it further. South Africa is ranked 2nd in the region and 66th overall. including a number of World Heritage cultural sites. its creative industries. An area of clear improvement over recent years is in the rules and regulations. Qatar benefits from a safe and secure environment (ranked 28th). In terms of challenges. with the sector representing an important part of the economy and the general attitude of the population to foreign travelers being extremely welcoming. there are also some areas of weakness that have brought down the country’s overall ranking. where South Africa is ranked 88th as a result of its low physician density and concerns about access to improved sanitation in particular. However. up one place since the last assessment. and particularly those measuring the quality of infrastructure. ensuring excellent destination-marketing campaigns to attract tourists (ranked 8th). as is the level of health and hygiene. providing healthy and well-trained people to work in the T&T sector. based on its many World Heritage sites. in line with its increasing role as an air transportation hub. Infrastructure in South Africa is also well developed for the region. policy rules and regulations are conducive to the sector’s development (ranked 31st). On the other hand. tourism. South Africa also benefits from price competitiveness (37th). which is ranked a very high 4th out of all countries assessed. Indeed. the country should continue to improve its policy environment and also to focus on environmental sustainability (67th). Mauritius is ranked 4th for the country’s overall affinity for Travel & Tourism. South Africa’s life expectancy is low (albeit improving). The decline in rank since the last assessment is in large part attributable to a weakening in the policy environment. policy rules and regulations could be more supportive of the sector’s development (ranked 58th). Israel is ranked 4th in the region. Sub-Saharan Africa Table 7 shows the rankings for sub-Saharan Africa. its rich fauna. with air transport infrastructure ranked 43rd and a particularly good assessment of railroad quality (47th) and road quality (43rd). Mauritius is ranked 1st out of all countries for the overall prioritization of the sector. Mauritius also benefits from price competitiveness (ranked 18th). and excellent air transport infrastructure (21st). high-quality human resources in the country (ranked 18th). But although Israel gets excellent marks related to health and hygiene (ranked 16th). primarily related to concerns about terrorism (ranked 105th). and a sense that the sector is no longer being prioritized as strongly as in the past. The government is seen as prioritizing the sector strongly (ranked 8th) and carrying out very effective destination-marketing campaigns (ranked 1st). despite dropping 13 places in the rankings since the last assessment. and its policy environment is supportive of the development of the sector (ranked 27th). which have been adjusted to better support the sector’s development. Related to this. The country benefits from good transport infrastructure. Further. although this would be improved through lower ticket taxes and airport charges. good tourism infrastructure (34th). health indicators are extremely worrisome. with high government spending on the tourism industry (ranked 3rd). and environmental sustainability remains a particular area of concern (123rd).

50 132 2.37 62 3. placing 84th overall. and low prices more generally.88 139 2.46 90 3.49 111 3.06 117 3.64 119 2.30 109 3.93 72 3.76 120 3.56 Cameroon 19 126 3. despite efforts in recent years.34 98 3.24 48 4. Health and hygiene is also not up to international standards (106th): the country has few doctors and insufficient access to improved sanitation and drinking water.54 75 4. where it is ranked 8th because of low ticket taxes and airport charges. The country.06 Namibia 3 84 3.35 Rwanda 7 102 3. with much nationally protected land area (ranked 6th).09 137 2.85 136 3. and.11 82 4. which is critical given the importance of the quality of the environment for Namibia’s tourism. For example.57 Benin 16 120 3.08 134 2.67 115 3.37 67 3.40 104 4.77 85 4.84 83 4.88 49 4. as well as for all other sectors in the economy. The country also benefits from excellent price competitiveness.76 119 3.81 Zimbabwe 15 119 3. Namibia follows South Africa in the regional rankings.81 137 3.61 114 3.02 131 2.56 Gambia.31 118 3.70 138 2.18 126 3.95 Burundi 28 137 2.43 Kenya 8 103 3.80 138 3.64 96 3.47 Malawi 17 121 3.33 73 3. a favorable tax regime.42 121 3.82 Angola 29 138 2.95 125 3. and relatively few ATMs. cultural. placing the country 126th).08 135 3.99 Mali 25 133 3.42 121 3.58 Uganda 13 115 3. There are also some concerns in The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary Table 6: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Sub-Saharan Africa xxiii . some aspects of the policy environment are supportive of the sector’s development. improving the country’s human resources base through better education and training and more conducive labor laws will be critical. More generally.45 Cape Verde 4 89 3.97 Zambia 12 111 3.05 128 3.54 123 2. environmental sustainability is prioritized in the country (ranked 22nd). as is its tourism infrastructure. However.75 106 3.09 134 3.26 132 3. In addition.51 113 3. The 6 92 3.68 117 2.39 Botswana 5 91 3.42 114 2.49 Tanzania 11 110 3.35 28 5.67 10 108 3.22 124 2. with a low hotel room concentration.30 119 3.18 124 3. In addition.07 136 2.71 126 2.56 139 2. The country benefits from its rich natural resources.75 Senegal Ghana 9 104 3.44 133 2.67 Swaziland 14 116 3.65 80 3. known for its beautiful natural parks.46 120 2.75 125 2.07 121 2.71 135 2.52 135 2.61 108 3.72 139 2.30 Côte d’Ivoire 23 131 3.18 127 3.93 133 2.62 56 3.71 109 3.70 76 4.35 99 4.74 86 4.81 97 3.87 106 2.29 Mozambique 21 128 3.15 79 3. Improving the health of the workforce is of urgent concern for the future of the T&T sector.31 117 3.42 Ethiopia 18 122 3.67 South Africa 2 66 4.36 116 3. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Mauritius 1 53 4. with rich fauna and a pristine natural environment. Botswana’s transport infrastructure is somewhat underdeveloped.67 127 2. despite improvements.49 129 2. a limited presence of international car rental companies. much time is still required for starting a new business (61 days.45 Madagascar 20 127 3.47 137 2. ground transport infrastructure is well developed by regional standards (44th).44 115 3.92 82 3. Botswana is ranked 5th in the region at 91st overall.SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human. Indeed. Further.90 108 2.63 Mauritania 27 136 2.32 85 3. it remains costly and time consuming to start a business in the country.70 related in large part to the very high rates of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS. and a lack of environmental damage.22 115 2.49 116 2.61 Chad 30 139 2.16 136 2. a more conducive policy environment will be important.82 105 3. The country’s bilateral Air Service Agreements are not evaluated as open (105th).36 Burkina Faso 24 132 3.18 101 3.15 Nigeria 22 130 3. In order to further develop the sector.54 112 3. Botswana does face some challenges that lead to its rather low ranking overall. including wellprotected property rights and few visa restrictions.60 95 3.73 127 3. is ranked 33rd out of all countries for its natural resources. down 12 places after a significant improvement in the last edition of the Index.01 104 3.26 Lesotho 26 135 2. rich fauna.73 110 3.

The authors review which countries have felt the pain from the current downturn and which have managed to grow through the crisis. which have led to the sharpest decline in international tourist arrivals in history. despite the increasing importance of emerging economies in the T&T sector. is ranked 8th regionally and 103rd overall. They then study the extent to which these particular drivers explain The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .2 percent. with its two World Heritage natural sites and its rich diversity of fauna. The 14 pillars of the Index are also analyzed in detail to highlight the comparative advantages of each group of countries. although it must be noted that the country’s average life expectancy of 62 years represents a significant improvement over the situation in recent years. insufficiently protected property rights. the 2011 edition of the TTCI continues to see its top ranks held primarily by advanced economies. Tourism is a recognized priority within the country (ranked 18th on this pillar). Kenya. In addition. the policy environment is not at present sufficiently conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 103rd). The authors highlight the interplay between longterm trends such as the high growth dynamics of emerging tourism regions. attributable to a low physician density. At the same time. The authors begin by identifying and then quantifying. international tourist arrivals to advanced economies declined by 4. maturing travel spending in the western hemisphere. the authors compare the rankings in the TTCI relative to the overall stage of development of each economy. providing suggestions on how to overcome them. They highlight the fact that tourism destinations first need to manage downturn periods tactically in order to mitigate their short-term demand impact. respectively.Executive Summary xxiv the area of health and hygiene (100th). In 2009. the security situation in the country remains a significant hindrance to further developing the sector (ranked 139th). which is particularly important for Kenya given the sector’s dependence on the natural environment. In addition. complementing the TTCI analysis described above. The authors point out that.” Jürgen Ringbeck and Timm Pietsch of Booz & Company analyze structural trends in the global T&T sector and assess how the economic crisis of 2008–09 accelerated these trends. limited hospital beds. the authors investigate whether changes in the rankings over time reflect the progress made by emerging destinations in terms of tourism development. On the downside. In their chapter “Crisis Aftermath: Pathways to a More Resilient Travel & Tourism Sector. Finally. Exploring issues of T&T competitiveness The Report also features excellent contributions from T&T industry experts. Analyzing the four editions of the TTCI. and much time and cost required for starting a business. Given the tendency of the TTCI to rank advanced economies higher than countries at lower stages of development. with bilateral Air Service Agreements that are not open. the greatest comparative weakness relates to the health of the workforce. and they outline reasons and change factors driving these different experiences. and new opportunities for domestic/regional tourism as well as short-term volatility as a consequence of disruptive events. They note that over the past decade an increasing number of emerging economies have successfully been leveraging tourism to boost their economic and social development. the various factors related to the number of premium passengers. Many of the chapters focus on particular challenges facing the industry. in order to understand which economies perform better or worse than what might be expected based on their respective stages of development. through an econometric model. From these case studies. and insufficient access to improved sanitation. infrastructure remains underdeveloped and health and hygiene levels require improvement. drawing on the various qualities of successful emerging destinations.5 percent.3 percent and 8. emerging destinations showed fewer losses and rebounded faster than advanced economies. a country long famous for its tourism attributes. looking forward. some readjustment of the Index could be warranted. the authors outline implications for policymakers and map out pathways on how to prepare the T&T sector for the emerging new global environment. and in 2010 they enjoyed increases of 5. the authors suggest that. In their chapter on “Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies: What Does the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Tell Us?“ John Kester and Valeria Croce from the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) discuss the expansion and diversification of the tourism sector and the rising role of emerging economies as drivers of growth.3 percent and arrivals to emerging economies by 3. with high government spending on the sector and effective destinationmarketing campaigns. Finally. they also need to develop consistent strategies to transform structural market drifts into opportunities for more crisis-resilient long-term growth. Kenya is ranked 28th for its natural resources. In this context the authors try to shed some light on why this is the case. Collectively these all constitute new challenges but also opportunities in Travel & Tourism for national governments. In their chapter “Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment.” Selim Ach and Brian Pearce of IATA quantify the relative impact of the most important business travel drivers determining the size of premium travel markets between country pairs. Even during the recent economic crisis. Associated with this. there is a strong focus on environmental sustainability in the country (ranked 26th).

WTTC and Oxford Economics will continue to track T&T investment across individual countries and regions.8 percent. since it ignores the indirect and induced effects of the industry. at the back of the pack. T&T investment is a prime example of this phenomenon. The authors conclude that the economic crisis has undoubtedly impacted regions in differing ways in the context of the hospitality sector. Travelism. policies. between 2008 and 2010—as the global economy entered recession and easy access to finance dried up— investment in Travel & Tourism fell back sharply and corrected much more than the drop in global tourism spending. However. as well as the implications of recent investment trends. and the Pursuit of Happiness. more recent trends show that. productivity. is being even more closely aligned with the UN Statistics Commission–approved 2008 Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA:RMF 2008). The year 2011 sees the hospitality sector across the world emerging from a period of significant challenge and considerable change. In their chapter “Green Growth. since is not a component of the direct economic impact of the industry but is rather an important aspect of the broader indirect impacts.” Alex Kyriakidis. consumer satisfaction. the T&T The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum Executive Summary differences between country pairs. Indeed. regional. and institutional frameworks that in turn limit its value in green growth decision making. the traditional approach understates the full economic impact of Travel & Tourism. The global economic crisis. as the authors explain. Beyond compliance. as demonstrated by Asia. their continued growth is likely to be significantly outstripped by the Asia Pacific region. and the fragile recovery in Europe we are now witnessing is seeing some markets continuing to struggle while others resurge. exceeding Europe’s absolute revPAR for the first time. and price competitiveness—explain to some extent the number of premium passengers. On the other hand. as is the case in Europe. while remaining consistent with the recommended TSA framework. they caution that in order to fully capitalize on its potential. in 2010 Asia Pacific leads the pack in revPAR growth at 21. and the authors look at how this has impacted different regions of the world in contrasting ways. The authors describe how Travel & Tourism will be an integral part of this process at global. but also depends on other factors. because of their interconnectivity and mutual dependence. WTTC’s annual economic impact research. For this reason. However. xxv . factors captured by the T&T pillars—such as policy rules and regulations. Asia Pacific is now just $2 away from its peak while Europe. carried out in partnership with Oxford Economics. over the 15-year period 1995–2010. In “Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis. Further. and sustainability. Finally. global T&T investment increased by approximately US$280 billion (measured in 2000 prices). and competitiveness. with over half this increase attributable to the United States and China alone. is $16 away. compatible with a low carbon development trajectory. ICT infrastructure. is ahead of its 2007 peak by $12. the absence of credit. and will be a key sector driving the shift to a green economy. which is already proving its strength in the speed of its recovery. others continue to lag quite a bit behind.” Nancy Cockerell from WTTC and Dave Goodger from Oxford Economics highlight the importance of T&T investment for the industry’s performance and outlook. they investigate how changes in aspects of a country’s attractiveness to business travelers—measured by different pillars of the TTCI—could boost business and premium travel to a country. over the period 2005–08. The results of their analysis show that the number of passengers in premium seats are not driven only by economic activities between countries. and Jessica Jahns of Deloitte take a look back at hospitality performance across the globe. the sector has to break out of its historic inclination toward siloed goals. Simon Oaten. The authors note that 2007 was a record year. In contrast to 2007.” Geoffrey Lipman from Beyond Tourism and Shaun Vorster from the Ministry of Tourism of South Africa discuss the important role to be played by the T&T sector in the important shift toward the green economy. While the mature markets of Europe and the United States remain large in absolute terms. before and during the crisis and then review where we are today as we emerge from it. because of its multiplier effect that cascades through interrelated value chains in the economy. The model demonstrates that any effort to make improvements in these areas will tend to boost the size of this travel market. Comparing the 2010 performance with that of 2007 shows that only one region. yet its most significant impact may have been to accelerate the shift eastward. Nevertheless. In their chapter “Investment: a Key Indicator of Competitiveness in Travel & Tourism. a green revolution in the T&T sector could be a catalyst for green growth and transformation in the broader economy. competitiveness. and local levels. as well as being critical in determining future capacity and improving quality. Some regions are already seeing a strong recovery. For particular country pairs.The authors describe how global T&T investment closely tracked global tourism spending from the late 1980s to the mid 2000s along a stable upward trend path and how. Central and South America. As of 2011. with world tourist arrivals reaching 900 million and healthy double-digit revPAR growth across the globe. growth began to significantly outpace global tourism spending growth. this is also about market leadership.

threats to nature must be minimized through the integration of biodiversity considerations into tourism management systems. Trujillo Herrera. ———. 3–26. As the authors point out. transport and ICT infrastructure and services. In 2010. Geneva: World Economic Forum. The World Economic Forum has developed Indexes for both the travel and trade sectors: the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index discussed in this Report and the Enabling Trade Index featured in The Global Enabling Trade Report series. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Assessing Key Factors Driving the Sector’s Development. The final sections of the Report provide detailed country profiles for all 139 countries included in the TTCI. T. and E. This is particularly critical in an era when security and economic concerns threaten to slow—or even. The intent is to heighten awareness of the impact borders can have in hindering both travel and trade. four focus areas are suggested for Travel & Tourism: (1) adoption and integration of biodiversity-friendly operating practices in T&T supply chains. and customer. 3–37. and physical safety as the common areas across the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness and Enabling Trade Indexes. 2008. this Big Plan aims to steer public and private decision making in the next decade. was adopted by the world’s governments. and a louder voice. protects. J. with 20 biodiversity targets for 2020. compartmentalized. J. there are many opportunities for the industry to reap the rewards of being biodiversityfriendly. The authors stress that collective action to conserve biodiversity and implement this plan is a shared responsibility of governments. if Travel & Tourism is to support global biodiversity goals. Key policies will have to be consolidated and/or aligned to meet the twin objectives of sustainable mobility and sustainable destinations. investment.Executive Summary xxvi sector and its constituting industries are in need of greater convergence and closer collaboration.” As the authors point out. they share common areas of interest— both trade across national borders and are affected by their physical and administrative manifestations. Sean Doherty. In their chapter “Assessing the Openness of Borders. Chiesa. the private sector. both travel and trade are enabled by factors that extend far beyond physical and administrative borders and include elements such as the general business environment or infrastructure. including market differentiation and increased competitiveness and the development of premium products and services as well as new business propositions and emerging markets. In addition. a new “Big Plan” for nature. These are the elements that are included in the new Open Borders Index (OBI) introduced in the chapter. leading to serious biodiversity impacts. In order to capitalize on the opportunities and minimize the risks.” Thea Chiesa. on issues that affect the sector.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007: Furthering the Process of Economic Development. and interested parties from the private sector are often separate for each sector. This approach identifies market access. and development. ministries. travel and trade facilitation have traditionally been considered fairly separate disciplines. for the most part. green. 3–25. The authors also stress that. While they admit that this is a cursory and preliminary look at the synergies between the two areas. Geneva: World Economic Forum. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Measuring Key Elements Driving the Sector’s Development. and Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz of the World Economic Forum discuss the measurement of “open borders. (3) capacity building and market creation for “biodiversity businesses”. Chiesa. as well as tables displaying all of the data used in the computation of the Index. and respects nature. and (4) emerging businesses and markets based on biodiversityfriendly goods and services. and civil society. Biodiversity is vital for T&T. References Blanke. and reveal how that hindrance can be minimized. Blanke. the authors point out that the T&T sector is in a unique position to mainstream biodiversity-friendly practices and nature-based solutions. The authors conclude by stressing the importance of transforming “classic tourism” dominated by considerations of growth and market share to “smart tourism” that is clean. Convergence will enable the sector to speak with one voice. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2009: Measuring Sectoral Drivers in a Downturn. They have remained distinct because academic research and data are still. with many tourism products and services owing their attractiveness to surrounding natural environments.. This in turn will ensure that the sector becomes a market leader in the green growth paradigm and its related green jobs.” Julia Marton-Lefèvre and Maria Ana Borges from IUCN discuss how 2010 was an important year for understanding how the world values. trade. and T. the business environment. The governing institutions. On the other hand. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . the authors stress its usefulness in demonstrating the symbiotic relationship between Travel & Tourism and trade facilitation.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008: Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability. reverse—progress in opening borders. Yet the value of the natural assets used by the industry is often not internalized. in some cases. 2007. border administration. (2) destination stewardship. In this context. Geneva: World Economic Forum.and qualityorientated. the authors attempt to pull together those elements of the data that overlap to produce a common view on the openness of borders both from a travel perspective and from a trade one. Nonetheless.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a Time of Turbulence. In “A New Big Plan for Nature: Opportunities for Travel & Tourism. ethical. 2009.

Part 1 Selected Issues of T&T Competitiveness The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

The T&T sector’s potential to provide economic growth and development internationally led the World Economic Forum five years ago to embark on the project of assessing the T&T competitiveness of nations around the world. emerging-market economies in Asia and Latin America continue to grow briskly despite the global recession. the T&T sector now accounts for 9. representing a growth of 5 to 6 percent over 2009. international tourist arrivals picked up again in 2010 and have returned to their pre-crisis peak level. particularly within developing countries. with emerging markets leading the way and Europe and North America lagging behind. and “homecations” might well continue to be the choice for many. This factor. coupled with a rapidly growing middle class and a marked public-sector commitment to the importance of tourism in many countries—an example of this commitment is China’s recent declaration that Travel & Tourism is “a pillar of the economy”—are stimulating the growth in T&T services and benefiting many key destinations. which must now look to attract new travelers. and 9. especially from the emerging markets.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 CHAPTER 1. and labor disruptions. the industry should end 2010 with US$15. 4. This will have important consequences for many key destination markets. which recast much of the Travel & Tourism (T&T) industry’s landscape.2 percent 2009. According to the International Air Transport Association (IATA). according to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). numerous obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. The TTCI aims to measure the many different regulatory and businessrelated issues that have been identified as levers for improving T&T competitiveness in countries around The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.1 3 . it can also play a role in poverty reduction. returning to the position it held before the crisis. Thus the sector is an important driver of growth and prosperity. A growing national T&T sector contributes to employment. especially in Europe. the sector is slowly recovering from the economic downturn.2 percent of global GDP. from direct and indirect activities combined. and can improve the balance of payments.The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Assessing Industry Drivers in the Wake of the Crisis JENNIFER BLANKE THEA CHIESA World Economic Forum After a difficult period. Although developing the T&T sector provides many benefits.1 Indeed. The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) estimates that. abundant snowfalls.8 percent of world exports. they are expected to return to the long-term average of 4 percent in 2011. This chapter presents the fourth edition of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). raises national income. launched for the first time in 2007. Slow growth combined with austerity measures adopted by many European countries is likely to affect travel choices. after a contraction of 4.1 billion in profits.2 percent of world investment. With respect to travel. On the other hand. the air transport sector seems set for slight recovery after a disastrous 2009 and a 2010 marked by many and varied crises such as the Icelandic volcano. and.

3. WTTC. Etihad Airways. the Report has become an important component in the toolkits of government ministries around the world. we intend to provide the industry with useful comparative information and an important benchmarking tool for making decisions related to business and industry development. by providing a cross-country analysis of the drivers of T&T competitiveness. 7. First. cultural. the time and cost required for setting up a business.1. These are: 1. 12. and natural resources subindex. Each of these three subindexes is composed in turn by a number of pillars of T&T competitiveness. Silversea. 10. The TTCI aims to measure the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries. Bombardier. The dataset includes both Survey data from the World Economic Forum’s annual Executive Opinion Survey (Survey). 14. IATA. These categories are summarized into the three subindexes of the Index: (1) the T&T regulatory framework subindex. and the openness of the bilateral Air Service Agreements into which the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . 6. The Forum is committed to publishing this Report every two years in an effort to ensure that it continues to provide a leading strategic tool used by both business and governments for creating blueprints for sustainable and viable T&T development. businesses and governments can address their particular challenges to the sector’s growth. given its importance to the future of the T&T sector it is our intention to integrate this pillar into the Index in the future as relevant data become available. In this pillar we take into account the extent to which foreign ownership and foreign direct investment (FDI) are welcomed and facilitated by the country. Rolls-Royce. UNCTAD. international organizations. and UNESCO). The Survey is carried out among CEOs and top business leaders in all economies covered by our research. and T&T institutions and experts (for example. The first subindex captures those elements that are policy related and generally under the purview of the government. namely Airbus. 13. and natural elements of each country’s resource endowments. the extent to which visa requirements make it complicated for visitors to enter the country. 9.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 4 the world. Although we have not yet included this concept in the calculation because of data deficiencies in measuring various aspects of climate change. SWISS. 8. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) has been developed within the context of the World Economic Forum’s Industry Partnership Programme for the Aviation. and (3) the T&T human. since its introduction. (2) the T&T business environment and infrastructure subindex. The TTCI is based on three broad categories of variables that facilitate or drive T&T competitiveness. 4. in turn. and Visa. the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). and the third subindex captures the “softer” human. the UNWTO. Hertz. Policy rules and regulations Environmental sustainability Safety and security Health and hygiene Prioritization of Travel & Tourism Air transport infrastructure Ground transport infrastructure Tourism infrastructure ICT infrastructure Price competitiveness in the T&T industry Human resources Affinity for Travel & Tourism Natural resources Cultural resources Figure 1 summarizes the structure of the overall Index. Sometimes wellintentioned policies can end up creating red tape or obstacles that have the opposite effect from that which was intended. IUCN. made up of a number of individual variables. Jumeirah. We have also received important feedback from a number of key companies that are Industry Partners in the effort. and to enable dialogue between the private and public sectors for improving the environment for developing the T&T industry at the national level. Each of the pillars is. and WTTC. This Report aims to serve two purposes. Travel & Tourism sector. these are the people making the investment decisions in their respective economies. Through detailed analysis of each pillar and subpillar of the Index. Jet Airways. IATA. 2. how well property rights are protected. the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). as well as specific issues related to the T&T industry and the quality of the natural environment. The figure also shows a notional 15th pillar on climate change. depending on whether the policies that they create and perpetuate support or hinder its development. The Index was developed in close collaboration with our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company and our Data Partners Deloitte. The policy rules and regulations pillar captures the extent to which the policy environment is conducive to developing the T&T sector in each country. Governments can have an important impact on the attractiveness of developing this sector. showing how the 14 component pillars are allocated within the three subindexes. 11. 5. Indeed. the analysis provides an opportunity for the T&T industry to highlight for national policymakers the obstacles to T&T competitiveness that require policy attention. of which there are 14 in all. Second. the second subindex captures elements of the business environment and the “hard” infrastructure of each economy. Gulf Air. The Survey provides unique data on many qualitative institutional and business environment issues. and quantitative data from publicly available sources. cultural.

including carbon dioxide emissions and the percentage of endangered species in the country. as well as the quality of the air transport infrastructure both for domestic and international flights. In addition to policy inputs. Quality air transport infrastructure provides ease of access to and from countries. and the extent to which police services can be relied upon to provide protection from crime as well as the incidence of road traffic accidents in the country. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. and it is clear that policies and factors enhancing environmental sustainability are crucial for ensuring that a country will continue to be an attractive destination going into the future. as measured by the available seat kilometers. The importance of the natural environment for providing an attractive location for tourism cannot be overstated. we also take into account the extent to which governments prioritize the sustainable development of the T&T industry in their respective economies. this pillar includes some of the related environmental outputs. In this pillar we measure the stringency of the government’s environmental regulations in each country as well as the extent to which they are actually enforced. Tourists are likely to be deterred from traveling to dangerous countries or regions. which can have positive spillover effects such as attracting further private investment into the sector. and by reflecting this in its budget priorities. Safety and security is a critical factor determining the competitiveness of a country’s T&T industry. cultural. Here we take into account the costliness of common crime and violence as well as terrorism. It also sends a signal of its intentions.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Figure 1: Composition of the three subindexes of the TTCI 5 . airport density. the number of departures. such as government efforts to collect and make available T&T data on a timely basis and commissioning high-quality “destination-marketing” campaigns. This year we have included an additional variable measuring the commitments made within the international trade regime to opening tourism and travel services (under GATS). The extent to which the government prioritizes the T&T sector also has an important impact on T&T competitiveness. and the number of operating airlines. as well as movement to destinations within countries. the country’s health sector must be able to ensure they are properly cared for. By making clear that Travel &Tourism is a sector of primary concern. Given the environmental impacts that tourism itself can sometimes bring about. the government can channel needed funds to essential development projects. making it less attractive to develop the T&T sector in those places. as measured by the availability of physicians and hospital beds. and natural resources Policy rules and regulations Air transport infrastructure Human resources Environmental sustainability Ground transport infrastructure Affinity for Travel & Tourism Safety and security Tourism infrastructure Natural resources Health and hygiene ICT infrastructure Cultural resources Prioritization of Travel & Tourism Price competitiveness in the T&T industry Climate change government has entered with other countries. And in the event that tourists do become ill. Health and hygiene is also essential for T&T competitiveness. In this pillar we measure both the quantity of air transport. Prioritization of the sector can be reflected in a variety of other ways as well. The access within a country to improved drinking water and sanitation is important for the comfort and health of travelers.Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Subindex A: T&T regulatory framework Subindex B: T&T business environment and infrastructure Subindex C: T&T human.

to get a sense of the extent to which these tools are in fact being used for business (including T&T) transactions. This has led to a net increase in country coverage for a total of 139 economies this year—six more than in the 2009 Report— The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . a measure of the extent to which business leaders are willing to recommend leisure travel in their countries to important business contacts. The health of the workforce is also included here. telephone lines. as shown in Figure 1. and broadband). as measured by the overall life expectancy in the country as well as the specific costliness of HIV/AIDS to businesses. including the availability of specialized training services and the extent of staff training by companies in the country. Finally. as well as a measure of its financial infrastructure for tourists (the availability of automatic teller machines. These include four new African countries (Angola. including the number of UNESCO natural World Heritage sites. Also included is the affinity for Travel & Tourism. one country covered in the last Report. In this pillar we include a number of environmental attractiveness measures. We have also included a pillar that captures a number of aspects of the general tourism infrastructure in each country. In particular. Country coverage Seven new economies have been included in the analysis this year.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 6 Vital for ease of movement within a country is the extensiveness and quality of its ground transport infrastructure. This takes into account the accommodation infrastructure (the number of hotel rooms) and the presence of major car rental companies in the country.1. airfare ticket taxes and airport charges (which can make flight tickets much more expensive). Rwanda. The subpillar measuring the availability of qualified labor further takes into account the extent to which hiring and firing is impeded by regulations. and ports. Suriname. as assessed by the business community. two Middle Eastern countries (Iran and Lebanon). as distinct from the general transport infrastructure. which provides an indication of cultural richness. sports stadium seat capacity. which provides a sense of the importance of tourism relative to the country’s overall size. fuel price levels compared with those of other countries. It is clear that natural resources are another important factor underlying national T&T competitiveness. as well as a measure of its creative industries exports. and the overall score for each country is derived as an unweighted average of the three subindexes. we take into account factors such as the extent to which goods and services in the country are more or less expensive than elsewhere (purchasing power parity). with lower costs increasing the attractiveness of some countries for many travelers. These 14 pillars are regrouped into the three subindexes described above. The details of the composition of the TTCI are shown in Appendix A. In this pillar we include the number of UNESCO cultural World Heritage sites. Quality human resources in an economy ensure that the industry has access to the collaborators it needs to develop and grow. we provide a measure of the national population’s attitude toward foreign travelers. the richness of the fauna in the country as measured by the total known species of animals. and whether labor regulations make it easy or difficult to hire foreign labor. This takes into account the quality of roads. we also capture the quality of the ICT infrastructure in each economy. as well as the extent to which the national transport network as a whole offers efficient. and taxation in the country (which can be passed through to travelers) as well as the relative cost of hotel accommodations. It is clear that the general openness of the population to travel and to foreign visitors has an important impact on T&T competitiveness. and one Asian country (Timor-Leste). which provide a sense of the society’s online activity. and is made up of two specific subpillars. Here we measure ICT penetration rates (Internet. To measure countries’ price competitiveness. We also include a specific measure of the extent to which the Internet is used by businesses in carrying out transactions in the economy. Besides the formal educational system. Countries that are able to offer travelers access to natural assets clearly have a competitive advantage. detailed rankings and scores of this year’s Index are found in Appendix B. is not covered this year because of a lack of Survey data. The education and training subpillar measures educational attainment rates (primary and secondary). the cultural resources at each country’s disposal are also a critical driver of T&T competitiveness around the world. and Swaziland). a measure of the quality of the natural environment. and a measure of tourism openness (tourism expenditures and receipts as a percentage of GDP). The price competitiveness in the T&T industry is clearly an important element to take into account. railroads. or ATMs). Given the increasing importance of the online environment for the modern T&T industry for planning itineraries and purchasing travel and accommodations. accessible transportation to key business centers and tourist attractions. Cape Verde. and the percentage of nationally protected areas. and the number of international fairs and exhibitions in the country. On the other hand. This pillar takes into account the health and the education and training levels in each economy. we also take into account privatesector involvement in upgrading human resources. which measures the extent to which a country and society are open to tourism and foreign visitors. as well as the overall quality of the educational system in each country.

and the Nordics in particular. Sweden. Barbados. Top three performers in each pillar of the TTCI Table 2 shows the rankings of those economies demonstrating the top three performances in each of the 14 pillars of the TTCI. and move around in these countries. and many ATMs for withdrawing cash. and the United States). such as high levels of access to clean drinking water and sanitation and good health infrastructure. Germany. and Italy. all with a significant focus on protecting the environment. with various strengths. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. as well as Canada. strong destination-marketing campaigns. Switzerland. Additionally. Singapore. and Norway holding the top three spots in this pillar. which are also making great efforts to successfully develop their tourism sectors. These countries are characterized by environmental legislation that is both stringent and well enforced. and Denmark—three countries with a good reputation for environmental protection— hold the top three spots in the environmental sustainability pillar. Hong Kong. a specific focus on developing the tourism sector in a sustainable way. 7 . Cyprus. the United States. This is perhaps not surprising given the importance of the sector for their economies. and Australia. and Norway. respectively (both shown in log form) in 2009. The tourism infrastructure pillar is also dominated at the very top by European countries. the Index is quite highly correlated with both the number of tourists actually traveling to various countries and the annual income generated from Travel & Tourism. railroads. and a minimum of red tape required in setting up new businesses. topped by Austria. Lithuania. The best ground transport infrastructure is found in Hong Kong. and it is borne out through their high government expenditure on the sector. These are vast countries that are highly dependent on air transport. and they all benefit from effective police forces. visitors have choices in how they visit.The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index rankings 2011 Table 1 shows the overall rankings of the TTCI. Finland. they gain from roads that are safe by international standards. They are joined in the top 10 by two Nordic countries. This situation strongly supports the T&T industries in these countries. They also make significant efforts to collect data measuring tourism-sector activity on a timely basis. among the countries shown in the table. and Barbados are the top performers in terms of the overall prioritization of the tourism industry. with high penetration rates of ICTs and strong use of the Internet for business transactions. with few notable outliers. They are therefore able to cater well to a major concern that tourists have when considering where to traveling abroad. which are providing quality service and high levels of air traffic. The ICT infrastructure pillar is best in Sweden. All three have high-quality roads. These countries do not suffer from high levels of crime and violence. Figures 2 and 3 show the correlation between the TTCI and tourist arrivals. and indeed they are home to many airports and operating airlines. including well-protected property rights. Finland and Sweden. and ports and also are characterized by ground transport networks that work together seamlessly. as is the case in many countries today. For example. The air transport infrastructure pillar continues to be dominated by three English-speaking countries: Canada. Iceland. showing all countries ranked together. Singapore. The table shows that two economies are among the top three performers in four pillars (Singapore and Switzerland). As the figures show. The results are positively correlated with a number of T&T indicators. and Germany. travel. Also in the top 10 among countries shown in the table are Austria. which have become increasingly dependent on such tools for marketing and distribution. They are also not overly concerned by the threat of terrorism. Visitors to these countries have many hotels to choose from. and between the TTCI and tourism receipts. and New Zealand are top ranked for policy rules and regulations. Mauritius. Hong Kong. rules attracting FDI. supporting the idea that the TTCI captures factors that are important for developing the T&T industry. Four countries are among the best performers in two pillars (Austria. and Iceland. and good overall environmental outcomes in terms of low levels of pollution and environmental damage. Switzerland. In other words. excellent car rental facilities. increasing their attractiveness as destinations. and they have the necessary facilities for a comfortable stay. Travelers in these economies can get from one place to another without hassle or complication. These economies have put into place overarching policy environments that are conducive to the development of the T&T sector. with few deaths caused by road traffic accidents. comparing this year’s rankings with those from the 2009 edition of the Report. All other countries shown in the table demonstrate notable strengths in one area measured by the TTCI. Switzerland. This relationship has held since the Index first appeared in 2007. Other countries shown in the table that are among the top 10 in this pillar are Cyprus and Iceland. with Finland. and Austria are top ranked for the quality of their health and hygiene.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 covering all of the world’s regions and accounting for over 98 percent of world GDP. all tied at first place. and two economies are among the best in three pillars (Hong Kong and Sweden). Singapore. Safety and security is another area dominated by European countries. and country-level presence at key international tourism fairs.

17 4.88 4.30 3.35 4.08 5.71 4.94 3.77 3.18 3.31 3.87 4.43 4.68 3. Rep.18 3. Slovenia Croatia Malaysia Montenegro Taiwan.41 4.29 5.37 3.88 4.79 3.85 3.13 5.18 3.06 3.35 4.47 4.85 3.79 3.60 3.1.25 3. The Kazakhstan Philippines Kuwait El Salvador Bosnia and Herzegovina Guyana Moldova Nicaragua Mongolia Rwanda Kenya Senegal Syria Venezuela Kyrgyz Republic Ghana Cambodia Tanzania Zambia Nepal Algeria Iran.24 3.37 4.45 3.19 5. Islamic Rep.99 3.74 3.36 3.96 3.70 3.99 2.68 3.34 4.35 3.94 4.24 4.68 5.56 4.30 4.50 5.59 4.77 4.87 3.01 3.69 3. China Hungary China Bahrain Thailand Qatar Mexico Costa Rica Puerto Rico Israel Tunisia Bulgaria Poland Turkey Latvia Brazil Mauritius Slovak Republic Lithuania Panama Chile Uruguay Russian Federation Argentina Oman Saudi Arabia Romania Jordan Jamaica South Africa Brunei Darussalam India Peru Rank/139 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 2009 Score Rank/133 5.64 4.07 4.03 4.40 3.98 4.05 2.61 4.49 3.19 5.54 3.20 4.04 1 3 4 2 7 8 11 6 5 10 16 12 9 13 23 14 15 17 20 19 18 25 22 21 27 29 28 30 24 33 26 31 35 34 32 52 43 38 47 41 39 37 51 42 53 36 44 50 58 56 48 45 40 46 49 55 57 63 59 65 68 71 66 54 60 61 69 62 74 2011 Country/Economy (Cont’d.26 3.30 5.85 2.56 n/a 90 67 73 81 64 80 72 75 84 89 78 88 76 82 77 70 96 83 n/a 91 79 87 92 86 95 94 107 102 93 103 105 n/a 97 101 85 104 106 110 108 98 100 118 115 n/a 111 n/a 114 109 121 120 117 123 122 112 113 125 116 124 129 128 130 126 119 n/a 132 127 131 n/a 133 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .23 5.07 4.98 3.42 4.78 4.11 4.26 3.00 4.56 3.54 4.38 4.51 3.30 5.18 4. FYR Colombia Morocco Trinidad and Tobago Vietnam Sri Lanka Serbia Azerbaijan Namibia Ukraine Guatemala Ecuador Honduras Cape Verde Armenia Botswana Gambia.36 4.91 3.44 3.56 4.46 3.36 4. Uganda Swaziland Bolivia Tajikistan Zimbabwe Benin Malawi Ethiopia Paraguay Libya Pakistan Cameroon Madagascar Mozambique Bangladesh Nigeria Côte d’Ivoire Burkina Faso Mali Timor-Leste Lesotho Mauritania Burundi Angola Chad 2009 Rank/139 Score Rank/133 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 4.41 5.09 3.39 4.84 4.12 4.82 3.42 3.96 3.15 5.29 5.89 4.08 3.84 3.30 3.95 2.92 4.02 5.96 3.62 3.35 3.83 3.81 2.77 3.78 4.63 3.01 5.45 4.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 8 Table 1: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 and 2009 comparison 2011 Country/Economy Switzerland Germany France Austria Sweden United States United Kingdom Spain Canada Singapore Iceland Hong Kong SAR Australia Netherlands Luxembourg Denmark Finland Portugal New Zealand Norway Ireland Japan Belgium Cyprus Estonia Malta Italy Barbados Greece United Arab Emirates Czech Republic Korea.70 3.23 4.90 3.17 4.) Lebanon Albania Dominican Republic Georgia Indonesia Egypt Macedonia.34 5.05 5.47 4.93 3.47 4.37 3.98 4.27 4.56 3.41 5.44 3.11 3.34 3.49 3.37 3.14 4.39 4.80 2.43 4.

1. 2009 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 scores 9 Figure 3: T&T competitiveness and tourism receipts Log of international tourist receipts (thousands). 2009 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 scores The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 6 .1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Figure 2: T&T competitiveness and tourist arrivals Log of international tourist arrivals (thousands).

1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Table 2: Top three performing economies per pillar 1 41 13 55 2 14 2 33 20 29 2 12 96 30 85 33 36 29 11 8 13 8 30 106 46 37 35 8 7 36 60 10 16 37 120 13 54 45 2 1 127 1 34 16 9 56 125 80 2 101 Switzerland 18 1 2 2 13 14 13 5 8 1 2 Tanzania 97 43 115 134 90 121 123 125 130 United Kingdom 13 11 30 46 49 5 17 19 9 135 8 86 23 3 United States 16 105 62 45 33 2 28 13 21 100 11 104 3 6 Sweden The price competitiveness pillar is topped by Brunei Darussalam. When choosing a destination. the Gambia. and Iceland hold the top three spots in the human resources pillar. These countries each have several World Heritage natural sites and much protected land area. The top three countries in the natural resources pillar span three continents: Brazil. also offering rich natural resources to visitors. All three countries benefit from low fuel costs. Brunei benefits from low ticket taxes and airport charges. These countries have strong educational systems as well as top-notch training facilities and healthy workforces. and significant sports stadium capacities.Natural resources Cultural resources 66 55 96 97 77 71 94 57 3 113 83 18 58 37 3 51 16 24 113 20 55 4 20 Austria 28 5 10 3 16 26 15 1 25 121 25 15 43 13 63 Affinity for Travel & Tourism Air transport infrastructure 44 59 Human capital Prioritization of Travel & Tourism Price competitiveness in the T&T industry Health and hygiene 72 30 ICT infrastructure Safety and security 46 Australia 75 30 34 33 3 25 10 28 27 74 48 2 129 Brazil 114 29 75 73 108 42 116 76 56 114 70 97 1 23 Brunei Darussalam 120 136 23 70 127 41 49 91 47 1 47 78 38 91 Canada 4 35 24 52 40 1 33 21 14 105 5 52 11 18 Cyprus 79 51 26 43 6 21 20 1 31 109 24 11 117 47 Denmark 17 3 8 38 81 17 7 24 10 139 4 111 77 22 5 7 1 12 65 16 21 42 17 128 7 83 66 26 Gambia. All three have a large number of World Heritage cultural sites. More details on the T&T competitiveness of specific countries will be discussed in the section below. Finally. and Albania. The countries with the top three assessments for the affinity for Travel & Tourism are Lebanon. Sweden. These countries have the great fortune to be endowed with inherent attractions for tourists interested in nature tourism. Spain. while the Gambia and Malaysia are characterized by moderate-to-low taxes. Tanzania. The 86 44 88 103 26 82 52 127 108 2 107 30 106 116 Germany 20 4 9 7 83 7 15 7 125 19 81 18 4 2 109 5 1 12 12 3 1 70 4 67 6 8 68 40 Iceland 33 15 4 4 9 18 32 7 3 71 3 14 80 56 Italy 84 60 48 27 56 29 39 1 34 129 45 91 49 8 Lebanon 98 125 123 48 39 56 100 29 80 55 64 1 139 98 Lithuania 83 19 59 1 97 107 26 50 32 73 62 84 114 57 Malaysia 21 64 83 75 46 34 36 74 52 3 37 17 22 33 Mauritius 27 62 45 68 1 61 41 47 66 18 53 4 131 110 3 20 14 30 21 11 50 36 23 84 14 18 30 49 15 6 3 23 36 9 63 23 11 134 16 88 60 27 Barbados Finland Hong Kong SAR New Zealand Norway Singapore Spain 10 Tourism infrastructure Environmental sustainability Albania Country/Economy Ground transport infrastructure Policy rules and regulations 1. with all three displaying great openness to foreign travelers and with their business communities also expressing their sense of the great value of tourism on offer in their countries. Within the table we see that Australia is ranked 4th. Barbados. and highly competitive hotel prices. In addition. Switzerland. low fuel prices. strong creative industries. and low taxation more generally. which makes it much easier to manage the seasonal hiring so critical for the T&T industry. These attributes come together to provide a variety of cultural attractions for visitors. they are characterized by flexible labor markets and significant ease in hiring foreign labor. and boast a rich fauna as measured by the total number of known species living in them. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . and the United States. many international fairs and exhibitions. and the United Kingdom are the top three ranked countries for their cultural resources. these countries benefit from the interest of many visitors in getting more for their money. and Malaysia. Singapore.

The profiles show the rankings on each subindex and pillar. excellent safety and security environment (7th). Such high-quality infrastructure makes a tourist’s stay in the country easy and comfortable. with top-quality roads and railroads and an excellent domestic transport network. as well as its air transport infrastructure (ranked 6th). the Americas. Other strengths include Austria’s assessment as one of the safest countries in the world (ranked 10th) and its excellent health and hygiene levels (ranked 3rd). just behind Finland). rich creative industries. In addition. This natural heritage is buttressed by a strong national focus on environmental sustainability: Switzerland is ranked 2nd overall on this pillar. grouping countries into the following five regional groups: Europe. Austria’s tourism infrastructure is assessed as second to none. with eight World Heritage cultural sites. Its ranking is attributable to its rich cultural resources. an experience that is reinforced by the high level of general safety and security (ranked 2nd. having improved by two places since the 2009 T&T Report. France. a position it has held since the first edition of this Report in 2007. Switzerland is ranked 1st out of all countries in the 2011 TTCI. perhaps not surprising in a country with many of the best hotel management schools. The country’s supportive policy environment (ranked 8th). ranked 3rd for the quality of its ground transport infrastructure and 7th for its air transport infrastructure. A large percentage of the country’s land area is protected and the natural environment is assessed as being among the most pristine in the world (ranked 5th). and 3rd for its creative industries. ranked 6th worldwide for its 32 World Heritage cultural sites. 2nd for the number of international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. Austria. based on strong and well-enforced environmental legislation and with a particular focus on developing the T&T sector sustainably. with the quality of roads and railroads particularly well assessed. Staffing of the industry is facilitated by the availability of qualified labor to work in Travel & Tourism (ranked 2nd). 11 . with abundant car rental facilities. Switzerland is a country rich in cultural and natural resources. France moves up this year by one place to 3rd position.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Regional rankings This section will discuss some of the highlights of the rankings in a regional context. with all of the top 5 places taken by European countries and 14 of the top 20 countries hailing from the region. and ATMs. Austrians are perceived as open and welcoming to foreign travelers. with the world’s most stringent and best-enforced environmental regulations and strong support of international environmental efforts. The country’s infrastructure is among the best in the world. The country also hosts many international fairs and exhibitions (ranked 5th). France’s ground transport infrastructure is among the best in the world (ranked 4th). and excellent air transport infrastructure (10th) contribute to this strong result and help the country to overcome its lack of price competitiveness (ranked 120th). Germany is ranked 2nd in Europe and out of all countries in the TTCI. and cultural resources. Added to these strengths is Switzerland’s excellent ground transport infrastructure (ranked 5th). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.Europe Table 1 shows that many countries from Europe do very well in the rankings. Germany. we provide two-page profiles in Part 2 of the Report. with many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country each year. also overtaking Austria. and many fairs and exhibitions catering to business travelers. For further details for each of the 139 economies included in this Index. Asia Pacific (including Central Asia). having moved up one place since the last assessment and overtaking Austria. thereby attracting business travelers as well. as well as on each of the 74 indicators included in the Index. as demonstrated through its ratification of many international environmental treaties. In addition. with the first column showing the rank within the region and the second column showing the overall rank out of all 139 economies included in the Index this year. ICT infrastructure. Ensuring that the sector is developed in a sustainable way is also a significant priority for the government. Also well assessed is the specific tourism infrastructure (ranked 8th). hotel accommodations. The country is characterized by abundant cultural resources. but is also an important business travel hub. with France ranked 9th on this pillar. the United Kingdom. The country is ranked 1st out of all countries in three key areas that span the three subindexes of the TTCI: environmental sustainability. The United Kingdom moves up by an impressive four positions since the last edition of the Report to reach 7th place this year. and Spain follow as the other countries among the top 10 overall. Sweden. The country’s T&T competitiveness is based on its excellent cultural resources (ranked 3rd). although the country is still ranked a high 4th out of all 139 economies. Germany makes great efforts to develop the T&T industry in a sustainable way. including an impressive number of World Heritage cultural and natural sites for a country of its size. The natural environment is also well assessed. Sweden joins the top five countries for the first time. France attracts tourists with its rich cultural heritage (ranked 4th for the number of World Heritage cultural sites and 7th for creative industries). As the table shows. the Middle East and North Africa. along with the country’s focus on environmental sustainability (ranked 5th). Table 3 shows the rankings just for European countries. Switzerland is not only an attractive leisure tourism destination. with readily available hotel rooms and automated teller machines (ATMs) for cash withdrawals. and sub-Saharan Africa. Austria drops by two positions this year.

96 56 4.01 19 5.48 Czech Republic 22 31 4.88 9 5.71 26 4.05 Poland 28 49 4.02 28 4. Spain is ranked behind the United Kingdom within Europe.74 30 4.35 38 4.30 21 5.68 23 4.66 Slovak Republic 31 54 4.38 Hungary 26 38 4.88 17 5.50 Latvia 30 51 4.67 15 5.06 Malta 19 26 4.62 Serbia 38 82 3.15 8 5.21 92 3.29 22 5.87 45 5.02 5 5.11 29 4.85 67 4.63 92 4.19 2 5.60 Ukraine 39 85 3.69 22 4. and its air transport infrastructure also gets good marks (ranked 8th).79 91 3.34 10 5.28 Spain 7 8 5.50 18 5.21 United Kingdom 6 7 5.11 129 3.93 54 4.15 49 4.35 9 5.36 41 4.27 3 5.19 10 5.75 100 3.77 26 5.83 64 4. a large number of international fairs and exhibitions. and more competitive prices.09 50 4.13 Sweden 5 5 5.61 42 5.38 49 4. Spain’s decline in rank is driven in large part by increased concerns about The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .75 25 4.22 Iceland 8 11 5.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 12 Table 3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Europe SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.78 Luxembourg 10 15 5.34 33 5.06 Bulgaria 27 48 4.02 36 4. taking great care to collect comprehensive and timely data on the T&T sector.62 Macedonia.57 5 5.11 94 3.39 94 3.19 Estonia 18 25 4.03 Croatia 24 34 4.53 Finland 12 17 5.07 39 4. with many World Heritage sites.35 11 5.28 48 4. Spain’s tourism infrastructure is ranked 8th internationally. cultural.36 38 5. falling two places to 8th position. respectively).15 44 4.37 Belgium 16 23 4.55 Portugal 13 18 5. The government prioritizes the sector significantly.98 10 5.07 45 4.90 6 5.23 Montenegro 25 36 4.49 53 4.96 52 4.78 34 5.64 Cyprus 17 24 4.23 73 4.57 98 3.31 Netherlands 9 14 5. and ATMs.66 Russian Federation 33 59 4.05 57 3. with many hotel rooms.80 66 3.29 45 4. The country is ranked 2nd worldwide for the richness of its cultural resources.15 Romania 34 63 4.10 16 4.32 51 4.98 35 5.89 12 5.99 1 5.57 84 3.92 18 5.48 Turkey 29 50 4.00 27 4.58 43 4.50 12 5.66 20 4.47 Bosnia and Herzegovina 41 97 3.51 16 5.48 Slovenia 23 33 4.86 65 3.60 68 4.11 26 4.70 53 4.63 76 3.05 15 5.71 8 5.37 66 4. and a significant sports stadium capacity.36 83 3.75 29 4. Its rise in rank since the last assessment is driven largely by greater safety and security.26 37 4.47 24 4.32 6 5.37 Denmark 11 16 5.84 Albania 35 71 4. particularly hotel prices.13 16 5.56 32 5.73 Norway 14 20 4.49 93 3.49 Moldova 42 99 3.01 53 4.19 33 4.58 55 4.58 2 Score 5.79 32 4.08 14 5.09 107 3.78 78 3. and the country makes strong efforts to attract tourists through solid destinationmarketing campaigns and by ensuring Spain’s presence at many international tourism fairs.14 46 4.79 15 4.1. car rental facilities.14 103 3.53 118 3.41 3 5.67 2 5.45 Ireland 15 21 4.89 23 5.56 31 4.98 8 5. FYR 37 76 3.35 39 5.17 51 4.54 24 5.50 19 5. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Switzerland 1 1 5.33 14 5.02 Italy 20 27 4. The country also benefits from a supportive policy environment as well as significant focus on environmental sustainability.77 58 4.33 Armenia 40 90 3.48 Germany 2 2 5.84 17 4.04 Lithuania 32 55 4.26 France 3 3 5.83 Greece 21 29 4.15 36 4.88 37 4.30 61 3.51 7 5.39 54 4.48 35 4. and solid ICT and air transport infrastructures (ranked 9th and 5th.41 7 5.21 85 3.85 66 3.18 Austria 4 4 5.64 29 5. a greater affinity for Travel & Tourism in the country.68 1 5.24 97 3.93 Georgia 36 73 3.12 strong human resources (ranked 8th).79 44 4.81 30 4.34 11 5.

with a high level of crime and violence. Turkey is ranked 29th in Europe and 50th in the TTCI. up six places since the last assessment. due in particular to its many World Heritage sites. Safety and security issues are also of serious concern (113th). and Moldova. ground transport infrastructure (95th) gets lower marks. In line with their less-advanced development. It is endowed with a remarkable 15 cultural and 1 natural World Heritage sites. it faces a number of challenges that bring its overall rating down. Health and hygiene is also a comparative weakness (67th). at the bottom of the European rankings are a number of Balkan countries (Macedonia. Russia is assessed as having a very nonconducive policy environment (126th) due. a goal will be to upgrade ground transport infrastructure. However. there is insufficient focus on developing the sector in an environmentally sustainable way. these countries will require significant investments in upgrading the infrastructure needed to support healthy and growing T&T sectors. it is also prioritizing the sector more 13 . Croatia. Greece is ranked 21st in Europe and 29th overall.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 the availability of qualified labor and a comparative weakening of some aspects of the policy environment. ground transport infrastructure (109th) and air transport infrastructure (62nd) could be further improved to reinforce the country’s T&T competitiveness. in order to improve the sector’s competitiveness further. ranked 98th. international fairs and exhibitions. On the other hand. and a top-notch tourism infrastructure (5th). However. The country’s policy rules and regulations for the sector have improved substantially. It also has a quite well developed air transport infrastructure (31st). further attention must be placed on protecting the country’s natural resources (it is ranked 85th for environmental sustainability). 2 World Heritage natural sites. and many deaths caused by road traffic accidents. In addition. as well as a lower prioritization of Travel & Tourism within the country (perhaps not surprising given the country’s recent more general economic travails). on a par with countries such as Malaysia and well ahead of several EU members. with many World Heritage Sites. to extremely rare foreign ownership. particularly related to terrorism and concerns about the ability of the police to provide protection from crime and violence. the country’s overall T&T competitiveness is held back by worries about safety and security (97th). Armenia. the country’s tourism-specific infrastructure is ranked 4th out of all 139 countries. the sector is not seen to be a priority of the government. property rights that are not well protected. Most strikingly.strongly. the policy rules and regulations governing the sector are supportive and have improved since the 2009 T&T Report (ranked 34th). is ranked 24th in Europe and 34th overall. and is ranked 20th in Europe. its air transport infrastructure (30th). and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness. there is a strong national affinity for tourism compared with many other European countries. now ranked 10th in this area. just behind Croatia in the region. and is ranked a low 122nd. Italy’s strengths lie in areas such as the health and hygiene of the country (27th). particularly railroads and ports as well as air transport infrastructure. and rich creative industries. a lack of trust in the police to provide protection from crime. as well as Ukraine. In addition. and especially its excellent tourism infrastructure (ranked 1st). as well as ground transport infrastructure inadequacies (especially railroads and ports). perhaps not surprising given the importance of the sector for the country’s economy. Croatia’s performance has remained stable over the last several editions of the Report. where Italy ranks 84th (consistently getting worse over the past few years) because of its lack of foreign ownership (ranked 112th) and its lack of transparency in government policymaking (119th). and Bosnia and Herzegovina). However. and is ranked 20th in terms of its overall affinity for Travel & Tourism. Montenegro sees one of the most impressive improvements this year out of all countries. In addition. Yet while tourism infrastructure is already well developed (ranked 25th). going up by a full 16 places to 36th overall. and strong creative industries. The decline in rank can be traced to factors such as a weaker policy environment and increased concerns about safety and security. is also an area of concern. More generally. Serbia. In addition. The country certainly benefits from its rich cultural heritage. for example. Russia is ranked 33rd in Europe and 59th overall. ground transport infrastructure requires upgrading. As in past years. Further. including a generally open and positive attitude toward tourists (26th). down by five positions since the last assessment. several international fairs and exhibitions. The country gets relatively high marks for natural resources (27th) and cultural resources (35th). A lack of focus on environmental sustainability. a country well known for its tourism industry and one that is aiming to join the European Union (EU) in the coming years. The country benefits from rich cultural resources (ranked 25th). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. although this is an overall area that has seen some improvement since the last assessment. with 17 World Heritage cultural sites. an assessment that has improved somewhat since the 2009 T&T Report. excellent health and hygiene (ranked 20th overall). Italy moves up by one position to 27th overall. Montenegro has a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism (ranked 7th). As well as its cultural richness. These include policy rules and regulations. and visa requirements for visitors from many countries. and to bring policy rules and regulations in the country more in line with those that are needed for developing the sector (presently ranked 77th). with a stable performance compared with the last Report.

Mexico gets impressive marks for its natural resources (ranked 10th).65 Peru 13 69 4. Barbados is ranked 2nd overall for the country’s affinity for Travel & Tourism.24 93 3.19 71 3.42 Dominican Republic 14 72 3.15 99 3. cultural.93 Argentina 11 60 4. The Americas Table 4 shows the regional rankings for the countries in the Americas.35 133 3.21 Barbados 3 28 4.65 Colombia 15 77 3.68 84 4.95 122 2.96 Ecuador 18 87 3.66 35 4. As this table shows.43 74 4. with 33 World Heritage cultural sites.97 Chile Uruguay 9 57 4.26 107 3.26 64 3.92 58 3.07 Mexico 4 43 4.91 100 4.55 Bolivia 24 117 3.50 Nicaragua 22 100 3.66 89 3. several international fairs and exhibitions.56 105 3.94 102 4.90 Costa Rica 5 44 4.18 51 4.40 58 3.89 10 58 4. with many international fairs and exhibitions in the country and strong creative industries in particular.08 57 3. facilitating the online T&T environment. The country places 3rd for its overall business environment and infrastructure and 1st for its human.42 40 5.72 130 3.41 Jamaica 12 65 4.93 87 3.38 7 5.35 79 3.51 70 3.62 91 4. Barbados is ranked 3rd in the region. up two positions from the last assessment and with a somewhat stable performance since the TTCI was conceived. Canada’s policy environment is very conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 4th. Mexico has improved by eight places and is now ranked 4th in the region and 43rd overall. In particular.79 90 4. ensuring effective destination-marketing campaigns. with the country’s nine World Heritage natural sites placing it 4th internationally.30 44 5. spending a high percentage of GDP on the sector.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 14 Table 4: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: The Americas SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.30 82 3. overtaking Costa Rica and Brazil since the last assessment. cultural.36 80 4.45 21 4.40 34 4.67 96 3.30 52 4.95 33 4.66 69 3.08 81 3. Its cultural resources are ranked 6th and its natural resources are ranked 3rd out of all countries. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank United States 1 6 5. at 28th overall. although a perception exists that the environment is not being sufficiently protected (ranked 105th for environmental sustainability).87 Honduras 19 88 3. an area that shows an improvement since the last assessment. The country’s cultural resources are also among the best in the world (19th). with a positive attitude toward tourists and toward the value of tourism in the country. Canada’s air transport infrastructure is ranked 1st out of all countries.99 47 4.27 80 3.48 61 3. Canada falls four places this year to 9th overall and 2nd in the region.30 39 4. with many nationally protected areas and many World Heritage natural sites. These inherent strengths are reinforced by the overall prioritization of the sector in the country (30th). up one place since the 2009 T&T Report).66 Venezuela 23 106 3.62 60 3.87 67 3.05 38 4. Its cultural resources are also a strong point. Increased efforts toward environmental sustainability would further reinforce the country’s strong T&T competitiveness.99 104 3.40 75 3.91 56 3.82 Paraguay 25 123 3.12 55 4.36 111 2.10 102 3.41 77 3.84 20 5.48 Canada 2 9 5.84 52 4. with many World Heritage natural sites and rich fauna.55 11 5.68 El Salvador 20 96 3. the United States has an excellent air transport infrastructure (ranked 2nd) and high-quality tourism infrastructure.19 Guyana 21 98 3.49 124 3.42 Guatemala 17 86 3.29 25 5. and strong creative industries.13 111 3. the United States is the highest-ranked country in the Americas and 6th out of all countries.43 Puerto Rico 6 45 4. The country is prioritizing the sector to a very high degree (ranked 3rd).20 72 4. and natural resources.36 Trinidad and Tobago 16 79 3.91 13 4. with effective marketing and branding campaigns for attracting tourists and The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Canada’s natural resources constitute a key strength.11 Note: Suriname is not covered anymore this year. and collecting relevant sector data on a timely basis.28 5 5.46 120 3.27 48 4.65 Brazil 7 52 4.24 30 5.01 3 5.82 103 4.25 99 3.13 Panama 8 56 4.99 62 3. and it also gets good marks for its tourism and ICT infrastructure.99 63 4.1.79 59 3.04 87 4.43 47 4.42 1 Score 5.17 92 3.03 84 3.55 88 3.79 93 4. up two places since the last assessment.

several government policies—such as weak property rights and stringent rules on FDI (both ranked 134th)—are not supporting the development of the sector. with Puerto Rico ranked 33rd on this pillar. Costa Rica is ranked 5th in the region and 44th overall. Areas of measurable improvement are Puerto Rico’s price competitiveness and its affinity for Travel & Tourism. On the other hand. up eight places since the last assessment. It has notable cultural resources. Among its significant weaknesses are a lack of safety and security (ranked 134th). policy rules and regulations are conducive to the development of the T&T sector (12th). For example. Given the importance of the natural environment for the country’s tourism industry.required for starting a business. Further. despite being ranked a high 9th for its natural resources (with much protected land area and diverse fauna).1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 significant efforts to collect T&T sector data in a comprehensive and timely manner. with the quality of roads. and safety and security concerns. with several World Heritage sites. Puerto Rico is ranked 6th in the region and 45th overall. its T&T competitiveness could be strengthened by upgrading its ICT infrastructure (63rd). and FDI is also not encouraged (ranked 139th. Puerto Rico has a number of strengths. a high percentage of nationally protected areas. Chile’s T&T competitiveness would be strengthened by upgrading both its transport and tourism infrastructures and by a greater focus on developing the industry in a more environmentally sustainable way. an area where it has continued to improve over the past few years. Brazil is ranked 7th in the Americas and 52nd overall. The country also continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (114th). Property rights are not well protected in the country. and railroads requiring improvements. Puerto Rico’s air and ground transport infrastructure are also well assessed (ranked 31st and 19th. ports. respectively). which include a policy environment that is conducive to the development of the sector (14th) and solid efforts to ensure environmental sustainability (14th). Venezuela. declining by seven places since the last assessment but with a stable score. the same position it held in the last edition of the Report. the overall policy environment is not particularly conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 114th). the ground transport network remains underdeveloped (116th). as well as high prices and high taxation more generally. This is buttressed by a focus on environmental sustainability (ranked 29th). with many World Heritage sites. The policy environment is also not very conducive to the development of the T&T sector. a great proportion of protected land area. However. and its extremely low rank for national affinity for Travel & Tourism (138th). Asia Pacific Table 5 displays the regional rankings and data for the Asia Pacific region. health and hygiene remains a concern (74th). Other areas of concern include safety and security in the territory (61st) and health and hygiene issues (69th). Further. Argentina is ranked 11th in the region. with four World Heritage sites and very diverse fauna. particularly ground transport infrastructure (ranked 136th). attributable in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges in the country. Argentina has strong natural resources (20th). environmental regulation is not sufficiently stringent (ranked 119th) or well enforced (ranked 134th). although the time and cost for starting new businesses remains relatively high. and a number of operating airlines. and the richest fauna in the world. particularly by regional standards. and its very diverse fauna. ranked 128th. infrastructure is in need of upgrading. The country also benefits from good safety and security by regional standards (27th). making travel in the country somewhat difficult. In addition. is ranked third from last in the region. Safety and security has also improved impressively since the last assessment. A number of other weaknesses are pulling the country’s overall score down. a liberal visa regime. The country also benefits from a relatively high airport density. although its tourism infrastructure is relatively well developed (39th). However. much time 15 . and somewhat restrictive commitments to opening up tourism services under GATS commitments. particularly roads and ports. placing 60th overall. up five places since the last Report. abundant seat kilometers. although the quality of air transport continues to be highlighted as a problem area (ranked 115th). As the table shows. Further. which is of concern given the importance of natural resources for the country’s tourism industry. with discouraging rules on FDI. at 106th overall. for both indicators). with few foreign ownership restrictions. it is notable that it ranks a high 25th overall for environmental sustainability. The quality of human resources is a comparative strength as well. maintaining a very stable performance since the last assessment. On the other hand. The country is ranked 1st out of all countries for its natural resources and 23rd for its cultural resources. a low prioritization of the tourism industry (126th). Singapore benefits from excellent transport infrastruc- The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. In addition. an area that has been improving over recent years. Singapore is the top-ranked country in the region at 10th position. and open bilateral Air Service Agreements. with a strong presence of major car rental companies and abundant hotel rooms. insufficient heath and hygiene (ranked 64th). Chile is ranked 9th in the region and 57th overall. Some areas requiring attention are the ground transport infrastructure (79th). last out of all countries. The country gets excellent marks for its natural resources (ranked 6th). with six World Heritage cultural sites and several international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. ground transport infrastructure requires significant upgrading (93rd).

86 28 4.56 46 4.19 24 4.71 40 4.11 4 5.45 43 4.70 65 4. and is ranked 2nd for the overall prioritization of Travel & Tourism in the country.14 63 3. it is perhaps not surprising that it ranks 1st out of all countries for its policy environment.64 138 2.90 89 4.47 71 4.94 27 5.35 Vietnam 14 80 3.60 Japan 5 22 4.59 88 3.87 India 12 68 4.95 31 4.08 17 5. respectively.23 6 5.32 123 3.31 46 4.45 113 2.45 102 3. with many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country and strong creative industries.54 Cambodia 21 109 3. cultural.59 100 3. Price competitiveness also remains an area of strength compared with many other countries at the same advanced stage of development.11 130 3.06 10 41 4.76 27 4.71 50 4.52 64 3.60 128 3.39 23 4. with ground transport infrastructure and air transport infrastructure ranked 2nd and 14th.81 Azerbaijan 16 83 3. with rules and regulations that are extremely conducive to the development of its T&T industries (policies facilitating foreign ownership and FDI.32 21 4.15 36 5.41 83 3.20 50 4.40 68 3.07 114 3. with ground transport and air transport infrastructures ranked 1st and 12th.60 25 4. benefiting from diverse fauna and a pristine natural environment. Singapore is ranked 2nd for the quality of its human resources available to work in the country.33 105 3.05 Timor-Leste 26 134 2.65 Indonesia 13 74 3. well-protected property rights.72 87 3. China 8 37 4. Hong Kong is safe from crime and violence (ranked 5th).20 112 2.67 Nepal 22 112 3.28 130 2. and the tourism sector is a clear priority (ranked 12th). Singapore is among the safest countries of all assessed with regard to safety and security.59 Hong Kong SAR 2 12 5. Australia continues to decline in the rankings by four more places.65 Kyrgyz Republic 20 107 3.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 16 Table 5: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Asia Pacific SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human. Like Singapore. and the country is unsurpassed for the quality of health and hygiene.37 106 3.18 75 3.33 40 4.28 New Zealand 4 19 5.12 Sri Lanka 15 81 3. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Singapore 1 10 5.96 94 4.49 Kazakhstan 17 93 3.19 4 5.84 12 5.00 China Thailand 9 39 4. Further.1.52 Tajikistan 23 118 3.71 19 4. Singapore is followed in the regional rankings by Hong Kong SAR at 12th overall.59 Australia 3 13 5.69 98 4.86 Korea.44 110 3.34 88 4.18 95 3.06 122 3.72 Taiwan. The drop in rank since the last edition can be traced in large part to a perceived weakening of the focus on environmental sustainability and increased concerns about the availability of qualified labor in the country.64 Brunei 11 67 4.82 131 3. Given the importance of the environment for much of its leisure tourism.80 13 5.47 77 4. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .56 97 4.59 60 4. Hong Kong gets relatively good marks for cultural resources.82 86 3.07 96 4.21 Bangladesh 25 129 3.84 68 3. it is notable that the stringency and enforcement of its environmental regulations are well assessed. Hong Kong’s policy environment is rated second only to Singapore’s. and is now at 13th position overall.80 22 4.24 32 4.69 Mongolia 19 101 3.13 Pakistan 24 125 3. 6 32 4.21 86 3.85 59 4.90 ture.72 14 4. Hong Kong’s transport is even better assessed than Singapore’s.97 128 2.73 55 4.62 101 3. and few visa restrictions).92 118 2.28 89 3. And with the country’s famously well-functioning public institutions.24 129 3.73 81 3.45 95 4. including its rich natural resources: the country ranks 1st for its World Heritage natural sites. Rep.42 134 2.19 Philippines 18 94 3.87 79 4. Australia’s T&T competitiveness continues to be characterized by a number of clear strengths.72 4 5.21 132 2.35 18 4. the same place it held in the last edition.53 Malaysia 7 35 4. where it ranks 1st.00 13 5. respectively. And given the country’s distance from other continents and the related importance of domestic air travel to overcome the large distances between major sites.99 123 3. its competitiveness is also buttressed by excellent air transport infrastructure (ranked 3rd) as well as good general tourism infrastructure (ranked 16th).

just ahead of Malaysia in the regional rankings. This is buttressed by the government’s strong prioritization of the sector (ranked 16th). with good destination-marketing campaigns and price competitiveness. protected by strong and well-enforced environmental legislation. Malaysia’s policy environment is assessed as conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 21st). attributable to its 29 World Heritage cultural sites. and Japan continues to be a leader in the area of education and training (ranked 12th). Japan benefits from its cultural resources (ranked 12th). with a very friendly attitude of the population toward tourists (ranked 8th). require further attention (95th). with very few hotel rooms per capita by international comparison and low ATM penetration. China has a relatively good air transport infrastructure (ranked 35th). up one position since the last edition. especially railroads. However. ranked 9th regionally. down six places since the last edition. and a favorable tax regime. The overall policy rules and regulations in the country are conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 3rd). with several World Heritage cultural sites. while also improving. Korea’s strengths lie in its excellent ground transport and ICT infrastructure (ranked 18th and 8th. Furthermore. However. and its rich creative industries. In addition. policies related to environmental sustainability. with very transparent policymaking and among the least time and lowest cost required to start a business internationally. As with China. However. many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. there are some weaknesses pulling the country’s ranking down. and strong creative industries. The country also benefits from excellent price competitiveness (ranked 3rd).places to 39th overall this year. Rep. with few hotel rooms available and few ATMs. up three places since the last assessment. with a number of World Heritage natural sites (ranked 17th) and a pristine natural environment (ranked 3rd).1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 New Zealand is ranked 4th in the region and 19th overall. and the country’s tourism infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 95th). health and hygiene indicators lag behind those of many other countries in the region. Thailand is ranked 10th in the region and 41st overall. a low physician density (placing the country 96th). particularly given the country’s stage of development. low prioritization of the sector more generally (94th). with many World Heritage natural sites and fauna that are among the richest in the world. is ranked 32nd. some aspects of its tourism infrastructure remain somewhat underdeveloped (ranked 89th). some aspects of the regulatory environment— such as stringent foreign ownership restrictions. very competitive hotel prices. With regard to weaknesses. down two places since the last edition. although this is an area that has improved somewhat since the last assessment. bilateral Air Service Agreements that are not assessed as The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. its air transport infrastructure gets excellent marks (ranked 11th). given the importance of the natural environment for the country’s tourism. with. Moreover. On the other hand. China has been building on a number of clear strengths: it is ranked 5th for its natural resources. India is ranked 12th in the region and 68th overall. with low comparative hotel and fuel prices. Japan ranks third from the bottom for the affinity of the country for Travel & Tourism (131st). There are also some concerns related to health and hygiene (96th). with much time and cost for starting a business. which has weakened measurably since the last assessment and is now ranked 128th. and its relative costliness as a destination (ranked 96th). China. visa restrictions for many travelers. It is endowed with rich natural resources and a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism (ranked 21st and 24th. Ground transport infrastructure gets middling marks (59th). low ticket taxes and airport charges. Its ground transport infrastructure is among the best in the world (ranked 6th). some weaknesses remain: despite the prioritization of the sector by the government. and reasonable ground transport infrastructure (ranked 43rd). many fairs and exhibitions. has continued its ascent in the rankings. respectively). its overall T&T competitiveness is held back by a weak affinity for Travel & Tourism (ranked a low 120th). and the country is characterized by a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism more generally (ranked 17th). China has a policy environment that is not conducive for T&T development (ranked 80th). and it struggles with prices that are not competitive by international standards (ranked 137th). Although the country’s ground transport network remains somewhat underdeveloped. and both the tourism and ICT infrastructures are quite good by international standards. in particular. India also has quite good air transport (ranked 39th). Malaysia benefits from its rich natural resources (ranked 22nd) and its cultural resources (ranked 33rd). It is ranked 16th for its cultural resources. Korea. down three positions since the 2009 T&T Report. In addition. Japan is ranked 5th regionally and 22nd out of all countries in the TTCI. respectively) and its rich cultural resources (ranked an impressive 5th). the many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. and the long time required for starting a business in the country—are not particularly conducive to developing the sector (ranked 76th). both natural and cultural. with many World Heritage sites. environmental sustainability should be a greater priority (ranked 97th). and creative industries that are unsurpassed. Malaysia is ranked 7th regionally and 35th overall. moving up an additional eight 17 . rich fauna. Another area of concern is the policy environment. India is well assessed for its natural resources (ranked 8th) and cultural resources (24th). the country is ranked 24th in price competitiveness. However. New Zealand also benefits from high-quality human resources (ranked 14th) and a very safe and secure environment overall (14th). The country benefits from its rich natural resources.

The Middle East and North Africa Table 6 shows the regional rankings for the Middle East and North Africa region. down five places since the 2009 T&T Report. rules related to foreign investment. up from 84th). the country is not ensuring the sustainable development of the tourism sector (ranked 127th). Bahrain is ranked 2nd in the region and 40th overall. There are also some concerns related to safety and security. Indonesia places 17th for its natural resources. and ICT infrastructures that require upgrading. low ticket taxes and airport charges. with eight World Heritage cultural sites. which have been adjusted to better support the sector’s development. while ensuring that the sector is developed in an environmentally sustainable way (115th). such as few visa requirements for foreign visitors (ranked 3rd) and bilateral Air Service Agreements that are assessed as comparatively open (29th). a number of international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. and ICT infrastructure (96th). The government is seen as prioritizing the sector strongly (ranked 8th) and carrying out very effective destination-marketing campaigns (ranked 1st). As the table shows. The country’s human resources base is also well evaluated The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . with a weaker performance across most areas measured by the Index. and strong creative industries. particularly hotel prices. Further. particularly ground transport infrastructure (ranked 11th). Among the country’s strengths are aspects of its natural resources: it is ranked 24th for the number of World Heritage natural sites and 40th for the total known species in the country. tourism infrastructure (116th). representing significant investment opportunities in the country. several international fairs and exhibitions. and excellent air transport infrastructure (21st). and strong creative industries. Indonesia is ranked 13th in the regional rankings and 74th overall. the country should continue to improve its policy environment and also to focus on environmental sustainability (67th). The Philippines also benefits from excellent price competitiveness (ranked 20th). These attributes are reinforced by the country’s price competitiveness (16th). these strengths are held back by underdeveloped infrastructure in the country. high-quality human resources in the country (ranked 18th). which is ranked a very high 4th out of all countries assessed. the United Arab Emirates (UAE) continues to lead the region at 30th overall. Note that these rankings were established prior to the political unrest experienced in North Africa in early 2011. although other areas— such as the protection of property rights. Other areas requiring attention are health and hygiene standards (112th) and the country’s human resources base (96th). Qatar is ranked 3rd in the region and 42nd overall. Bahrain also has high-quality human resources to call on in the country (29th). up one place since the last assessment. There are also some aspects of the policy rules and regulations regime that are conducive to the development of the sector. including to a certain extent air transport (58th) and especially ground transport (82nd). and from a well-developed tourism infrastructure (ranked 26th). it is ranked 15th for its national prioritization of Travel & Tourism. ranked 24th for its World Heritage natural sites. it sees a significant improvement in the assessment of its cultural resources (34th. It benefits from its rich cultural resources (ranked 36th). In order to further improve the country’s T&T competitiveness. The UAE’s infrastructure also gets good marks. good tourism infrastructure (34th). Indonesia also has rich cultural resources (ranked 39th). While the UAE is not endowed with rich natural resources (116th). In addition. In addition. an area of particular concern given the sector’s dependence on the quality of the natural environment. including a number of World Heritage cultural sites. up seven places since the last edition. with several World Heritage cultural sites. and low ticket taxes and airport charges. with the UAE moving up from 81st place in the 2009 Report to 38th place this year. In terms of strengths. In order to strengthen its T&T competitiveness. and transport. tourism. particularly a lack of trust of police services and the business costs of potential terrorism. the country is ranked 4th overall on price competitiveness in the T&T industry because of its competitive hotel prices (ranked 6th). However.1.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 18 open. An area of clear improvement over recent years is in the rules and regulations. Israel is ranked 4th in the region. and with very diverse fauna in the country. along with high levels of safety and security. and environmental sustainability remains a particular area of concern (123rd). Israel benefits from its cultural attributes. with low prices overall. and visas required for most visitors. the country is characterized by a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism (25th). up nine places since the last assessment. In addition. Vietnam must further develop its transport infrastructure and its tourism infrastructure (110th). in line with its increasing role as an air transportation hub. dropping 10 places to 46th overall. and favorable fuel prices. Vietnam is ranked 14th in the region and 80th overall. Qatar benefits from a safe and secure environment (ranked 28th). and the difficulty of starting a business in the country—remain a challenge. On the other hand. policy rules and regulations could be more supportive of the sector’s development (ranked 58th). Another attraction is Vietnam’s natural resources. down eight places since the last edition. The country benefits from good transport infrastructure. particularly its air transport infrastructure. Other matters of concern are safety and security (ranked 109th). with several World Heritage natural sites and the richness of its fauna as measured by the known species in the country. health and hygiene levels (97th). up three places since the last assessment. The Philippines is ranked 18th regionally and 94th overall.

38 41 4.35 Iran.39 Algeria 14 113 3.74 Kuwait 12 95 3. effective destination-marketing campaigns. and a sense that the sector is no longer being prioritized as strongly as in the past. In addition. Tunisia is ranked 5th in the region and 47th overall. Islamic Rep. The TTCI points to a number of longer-term issues that must be addressed.80 10 75 3.77 Jordan 8 64 4.87 Tunisia 5 47 4. While the effects of the recent political turmoil are not yet captured by the data discussed here.04 42 4.47 62 4. and low prices more generally.43 103 3.50 73 3.94 60 3.55 77 3. and impressive efforts to collect tourism data in a comprehensive and timely manner.14 37 5. 15 114 3. in order to further improve Lebanon’s T&T competitiveness. with high government spending on the sector. But although Israel gets excellent marks related to health and hygiene (ranked 16th).02 34 4.18 Syria 13 105 3. some aspects of safety and security continue to be worriesome. and access to improved sanitation and water that could be improved.41 41 5.92 125 3. cultural. particularly its tourism infrastructure (74th).08 72 3.37 131 3.68 90 3.91 113 3. ranking 9th in the region and 70th overall. Looking forward. safety and security issues must be addressed (123rd). such as five World Heritage cultural sites and some creative industries.03 78 4.67 47 4.64 Israel 4 46 4. health and hygiene remains an area of concern (79th). On the other hand. primarily related to concerns about terrorism (ranked 105th).93 69 4.77 Morocco 11 78 3.18 61 4.86 69 3. The country has a number of cultural attributes. and an appreciation of the value of the country’s attributes for tourism. Further. with a relatively low physician density and a low concentration of hospital beds.17 81 4. would also improve the country’s overall T&T competitiveness. And indeed.61 74 3. reasonable taxation.42 63 3. in the short term it is clear that political stability will be crucial to buttressing the country’s T&T competitiveness. The country’s ICT infrastructure also remains underdeveloped (ranked 76th). The effects of the recent political unrest in the country are not captured by the present assessment. its ICT infrastructure is quite well developed compared with those of other countries in the region.03 91 3.64 Libya 16 124 3.33 65 3.24 Bahrain 2 40 4.18 76 3.45 43 5.25 122 3.77 9 5.94 Oman 6 61 4.05 59 3. dropping 11 positions to reach 75th overall.59 71 3. ranked 87th. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score United Arab Emirates 1 30 4.66 20 5. environmental sustainability will also need to be taken into account (125th).73 Lebanon Egypt 9 70 4. with competitive hotel prices. a very positive attitude toward foreign travelers.49 101 4. Lebanon is ranked 1st out of all countries for its affinity for Travel & Tourism. down three places since the last edition.SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human. the country continues to benefit from its price competitiveness. The decline in rank since the last assessment is in large part attributable to a weakening in the policy environment. On the other hand.69 Saudi Arabia 7 62 4.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Table 6: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: The Middle East and North Africa 19 . its ground transport infrastructure (88th). tourism infrastructure is well developed in the country (ranked 29th).68 Qatar 3 42 4.78 57 4.18 (31st). all areas that have weakened on a comparative basis since the last assessment. with tourism accounting for a significant amount of economic activity.87 110 2. which we expect to become apparent in the next Report. ground transport infrastructure should be further developed (ranked 100th).32 42 4. Lebanon enters the Index for the first time.17 54 4.39 31 5.06 78 3.17 109 2. and its ICT infrastructure (93rd). Tunisia benefits from its strong prioritization of Travel & Tourism (8th).92 126 3. providing healthy and well-trained people to work in the T&T sector.37 112 3.68 108 3.53 74 3. Egypt is ranked 10th regionally. Egypt’s infrastructure needs improvement. ranked 9th.89 116 3. Perhaps more importantly.96 70 4.35 70 3. A focus on improving education and training in the country. and policy rules and regulations should be more generally reviewed in order to better support the sector’s development (98th).64 107 2. On The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.

with high government spending on the tourism industry (ranked 3rd).15 Nigeria 22 130 3.54 123 2.56 Cameroon 19 126 3. and its policy environment is supportive of the development of the sector (ranked 27th).93 72 3.52 135 2.64 96 3.07 121 2.40 104 4. Morocco is ranked 11th in the regional rankings and 78th overall.18 127 3.42 114 2. The 6 92 3.95 Burundi 28 137 2.61 Chad 30 139 2.30 109 3. with seven World Heritage cultural sites and several international fairs and exhibitions held in the country.36 116 3. Mauritius is ranked 1st out of all countries for the overall prioritization of the sector. and is notably ranked 23rd for its many World Heritage cultural sites. the country is seen to be prioritizing the development of the sector (ranked 23rd). Mauritius also The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .37 62 3.87 106 2.1. The country’s tourism infrastructure is well developed by regional standards (47th). cultural.99 Mali 25 133 3.46 90 3.56 Gambia. Mauritius is ranked 4th for the country’s overall affinity for Travel & Tourism.47 Malawi 17 121 3.34 98 3. and is characterized by a strong affinity for Travel & Tourism more generally. Safety and security also remain an area of concern.61 108 3.42 Ethiopia 18 122 3.81 97 3.70 138 2.82 Angola 29 138 2.61 114 3.76 119 3.39 Botswana 5 91 3.09 134 3.06 117 3.95 125 3. Morocco also receives a good evaluation for aspects of its cultural resources. low fuel costs. and collecting tourism data in a timely fashion.92 82 3.30 Côte d’Ivoire 23 131 3.73 127 3.26 Lesotho 26 135 2.22 124 2. the Index highlights the many strengths on which the country can build its T&T competitiveness.64 119 2.05 128 3.63 Mauritania 27 136 2.35 99 4.70 76 4.71 109 3.58 Uganda 13 115 3.45 Madagascar 20 127 3.67 115 3.46 120 2. and low prices more generally.60 95 3. despite dropping 13 places in the rankings since the last assessment.31 117 3.06 Namibia 3 84 3.68 117 2.22 115 2. it has been benefiting from excellent price competitiveness.36 Burkina Faso 24 132 3.88 49 4.88 139 2.37 67 3.08 135 3.32 85 3.80 138 3.01 104 3.67 127 2.81 Zimbabwe 15 119 3. In addition to its cultural attributes.09 137 2.97 Zambia 12 111 3.49 111 3.71 135 2.16 136 2.57 Benin 16 120 3.42 121 3.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 20 Table 7: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Sub-Saharan Africa SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.42 121 3.15 79 3.85 136 3. ensuring excellent destination-marketing campaigns to attract tourists (ranked 8th). the government is seen to be making efforts to develop the T&T sector in a sustainable way. with competitive hotel prices. Mauritius remains the highest-ranked country in this region at 53rd overall.70 a positive note.49 129 2.67 10 108 3.84 83 4.93 133 2.18 126 3.90 108 2. efforts should be made to improve health and hygiene levels in the country (104th) and upgrade education and training (102nd).76 120 3.18 101 3. Egypt is rich in cultural heritage.75 106 3.43 Kenya 8 103 3.02 131 2. ranked 5th. In order to improve the industry’s competitiveness further.54 75 4.18 124 3.62 56 3.56 139 2.49 116 2.65 80 3. Moreover. as well as make additional improvements to the country’s transport and tourism infrastructure.72 139 2.31 118 3.26 132 3.73 110 3.33 73 3.71 126 2.11 82 4.74 86 4.75 125 2.82 105 3.35 28 5.08 134 2. Sub-Saharan Africa Table 7 shows the rankings for sub-Saharan Africa.07 136 2.50 132 2.44 133 2.67 Swaziland 14 116 3.29 Mozambique 21 128 3.47 137 2.30 119 3.67 South Africa 2 66 4.24 48 4.51 113 3.49 Tanzania 11 110 3. In addition.45 Cape Verde 4 89 3. and natural resources Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Mauritius 1 53 4. with the sector representing an important part of the economy and the general attitude of the population to foreign travelers being extremely welcoming.54 112 3. looking forward.35 Rwanda 7 102 3.77 85 4.75 Senegal Ghana 9 104 3.44 115 3.81 137 3.

a more conducive policy environment will be important. and insufficient access to improved sanitation. policy rules and regulations are conducive to the sector’s development (ranked 31st).critical given the importance of the quality of the environment for Namibia’s tourism. rich fauna. with much nationally protected land area (ranked 6th). environmental sustainability is prioritized in the country (ranked 22nd). and ICT infrastructures. down 12 places after a significant improvement in the last edition of the Index. with well-protected property rights and few visa requirements for visitors. However. ground transport infrastructure is well developed by regional standards (44th). this is an area where the country has improved since the last assessment. including transport. health indicators are extremely worrisome. and relatively few ATMs. and particularly those measuring the quality of infrastructure. The 2010 FIFA World Cup has reinforced South Africa’s position as a key international tourist destination. The country. and a lack of environmental damage. There are also some concerns in the area of health and hygiene (100th). Safety and security levels are also good by regional standards (ranked 45th). where South Africa is ranked 88th as a result of its low physician density and concerns about access to improved sanitation in particular. The drop in rank is attributable to declines across most areas measured by the Index. In addition. its rich fauna. including wellprotected property rights and few visa restrictions. joining Mauritius as one of the only two subSaharan African countries in the top half of the overall rankings. although it must be noted that the country’s average life expectancy of 62 years represents a significant improvement over the situation in recent years. is ranked 8th regionally and 103rd overall. South Africa is ranked 2nd in the region and 66th overall. known for its beautiful natural parks. as well as for all other sectors in the economy. In addition. Kenya is ranked 28th for its natural resources. in 2010 the government selected tourism as one of the five priority sectors in its growth plan and has been reviewing tourism legislation in an effort to streamline it further. Indeed. there are also some areas of weakness that have brought down the country’s overall ranking. Botswana’s transport infrastructure is somewhat underdeveloped. is ranked 33rd out of all countries for its natural resources. Botswana is ranked 5th in the region at 91st overall. Tourism is a recognized priority within the country (ranked 18th on this pillar). placing the country 124th overall. with rich fauna and a pristine natural environment. a favorable tax regime. it remains costly and time consuming to start a business in the country. with bilateral Air Service Agreements The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. improving the country’s human resources base through better education and training and more conducive labor laws will be critical. although the government is seen to be making an effort to develop the industry in a sustainable way (ranked 10th). attributable to a low physician density. The country also benefits from excellent price competitiveness. the greatest comparative weakness relates to the health of the workforce. with relatively low prices overall and taxation that is not overly burdensome. which is 21 . respectively). Associated with this. and. Health and hygiene is also not up to international standards (106th): the country has few doctors and insufficient access to improved sanitation and drinking water. based on its many World Heritage sites. limited hospital beds. South Africa also benefits from price competitiveness (37th). although this would be improved through lower ticket taxes and airport charges. and more competitive hotel prices. Infrastructure in South Africa is also well developed for the region. The country benefits from its rich natural resources. its creative industries. where it is ranked 8th because of low ticket taxes and airport charges. despite improvements. there is a strong focus on environmental sustainability in the country (ranked 26th). Indeed. Safety and security remains of serious concern (ranked 129th). Botswana does face some challenges that lead to its rather low ranking overall. and the many international fairs and exhibitions held in the country. a country long famous for its tourism attributes. with its two World Heritage natural sites and its rich diversity of fauna. On the downside. South Africa comes in at a high 14th for its natural resources and 55th for its cultural resources. More generally. Related to this. For example. at 53 years. placing 84th overall. tourism. as is the level of health and hygiene. some aspects of the policy environment are supportive of the sector’s development. with air transport infrastructure ranked 43rd and a particularly good assessment of railroad quality (47th) and road quality (43rd). Further. with reasonably priced hotel rooms and a favorable tax regime. a limited presence of international car rental companies. In addition. Namibia follows South Africa in the regional rankings. In order to further develop the sector. which is particularly important for Kenya given the sector’s dependence on the natural environment. However. with high government spending on the sector and effective destinationmarketing campaigns. The country’s bilateral Air Service Agreements are not evaluated as open (105th). Overall. despite efforts in recent years. much time is still required for starting a new business (61 days. Improving the health of the workforce is of urgent concern for the future of the T&T sector. this effort could be backed up by more stringent and well-enforced environmental regulations (ranked 60th and 55th. the policy environment is not at present sufficiently conducive to the development of the sector (ranked 103rd). In terms of challenges. Kenya.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 benefits from price competitiveness (ranked 18th). South Africa’s life expectancy is low (albeit improving). as is tourism infrastructure. with a low hotel room concentration. a ranking related in large part to the very high rates of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS. placing the country 126th). and low prices more generally.

until recently. The TTCI represents our best efforts to capture the complex phenomenon of T&T competitiveness. 3–25. Note 1 However. with several World Heritage natural sites. and much time and cost required for starting a business. with low enrollment rates in primary and secondary education by international standards.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008: Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability. demonstrating that a whole array of reforms and improvements in different areas are required for improving the T&T competitiveness of nations. Indeed. Zimbabwe is ranked 15th in the region and 119th overall. the TTCI is a tool that can be used to identify the competitive strengths of individual economies as well as the barriers that impede the development of the sector. T. Tanzania places 2nd worldwide for its natural environment.1. and much protected land area.. and improving all types of infrastructure on which the industry is dependent. which have attracted tourists to Zimbabwe over the years. and thus improving the growth prospects and prosperity of their citizens. Geneva: World Economic Forum. J. Geneva: World Economic Forum. with extremely poor assessments for laws related to FDI and property rights.org/ pressroom/pr/Pages/2010-12-14-01. We will continue to publish The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report on a biennial basis. In addition. much nationally protected land area. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Trujillo Herrera. Chiesa. 2010. the country’s policy environment is not sufficiently supportive of the development of the sector.” Press Release 57.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007: Furthering the Process of Economic Development. ensuring that the TTCI can continue to be used as a platform for dialogue between the business community and national policymakers working together to improve the T&T competitiveness of their respective economies. Chiesa. placing it 139th—last of all countries covered.org/facts/ eng/barometer. In this context. and a focus must be placed on improving the health of the workforce. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . a surge of aircraft deliveries in 2011 will fuel capacity expansion. although there has been a weakening in this area since the last assessment. Safety and security is also a major concern. ———. insufficiently protected property rights. 2011 will likely see a decrease in the sector’s growth because of lingering high rates of unemployment and low consumer spending and confidence in Europe and North America. and among the worst health indicators in the world: while life expectancy has been increasing in many other countries in the region. Madrid: UNWTO. References Blanke. World Tourism Barometer. and E. Blanke. rich fauna. and is now just 42 years in the country. Despite these strengths. In addition. It also allows countries to track their progress over time on those indicators of interest.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 22 that are not open. “Improved Profitability but Margins Still Pathetic: Europe Continues to Lag. the Index mainly highlights the country’s weaknesses in other areas. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Measuring Key Elements Driving the Sector’s Development. 3–26. upgrading the educational system.iata.unwto. 2007. and rich fauna. October 2010 8 (3). with high crime and violence and a lack of trust in the reliability of police services to provide protection from crime (126th). There are also concerns related to human resources. On the other hand. 2008. spanning all regions of the world. Other issues of concern are security levels in the country. Finally. This is buttressed by some focus in the country on environmental sustainability (ranked 43rd). infrastructure remains underdeveloped and health and hygiene levels require improvement. 3–37. it continues to decline in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is ranked a remarkable 13th for natural resources overall. see IATA 2010. UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). This continues to be a low ranking for a country that was. TSA Research. By highlighting success factors and obstacles to T&T competitiveness in economies around the world. After years of political mismanagement. 2010. and T. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Assessing Key Factors Driving the Sector’s Development. a popular tourist destination. IATA (International Air Transport Association). WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council). the security situation in the country remains a significant hindrance to further developing the sector (ranked 139th).” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a Time of Turbulence. reflecting the general breakdown in law and order in the country in recent years. despite a marked consolidation of the industry and good management of stock. the policy environment is among the worst in the world (ranked 136th). based on the World Economic Forum’s Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). Tanzania is ranked 11th in the region and 110th overall.aspx. J. 2009. IATA notes that it will be important to temper this recent optimism given that. “The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2009: Measuring Sectoral Drivers in a Downturn. IATA estimates that profitability of the air transport industry will fall somewhat in 2011. with a number of World Heritage natural sites. December 14. Available at http://www. down 12 places since the last assessment. For further details on IATA’s projections. and where starting a business is extremely difficult and costly. and in fact is measurably less so than it was in the last edition of the Index. 2010. Available at http://www.htm. Conclusions We have looked at the T&T competitiveness of 139 economies. an improvement of two places since the last assessment. continuing a downward trend from previous years. October 2010.

04 Visa requirements* 1. prioritization of Travel & Tourism. In the case of the human resources pillar. The Survey data comprise the responses to the World Economic Forum’s Executive Opinion Survey and range from 1 to 7. domestic*3 Available seat kilometers.02 T&T government expenditure* 5. composed of the 14 pillars of T&T competitiveness shown below: namely.03 Business costs of crime and violence 3.This appendix provides details about the construction of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). which are described in the Technical Notes and Sources section at the end of the Report.01 Physician density* 4. international*3 Departures per 1.g.04 Broadband Internet subscribers* 9. ground transport infrastructure. and the relative distance between.03 Sustainability of T&T industry development 2.03 Business impact of rules on FDI 1.05 Particulate matter concentration* 2. country scores.05 Road density* Pillar 8: Tourism infrastructure 8. The numbering of the variables matches the numbering of the data tables.03 6. These data are identified by an asterisk (*) in the following pages. The variables of each pillar and subpillar are listed below. environmental sustainability.05 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* 1.03 Quality of port infrastructure 7. cultural.01 Business costs of terrorism 3.03 Effectiveness of marketing and branding to attract tourists 5. Pillar 2: Environmental sustainability 2. human resources.01 Stringency of environmental regulation 2. and the T&T human.02 Quality of railroad infrastructure 7. which is itself composed of two subpillars (education and training and availability of qualified labor).09 GATS commitments restrictiveness index of T&T services* Pillar 3: Safety and security 3. These subindexes are.02 6. ICT infrastructure.03 ATMs accepting Visa cards* The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . the overall pillar is the unweighted average of the two subpillars. The subindexes are then calculated as unweighted averages of the included pillars. natural resources.01 Prevalence of foreign ownership 1.04 Road traffic accidents* 1. in turn.03 Telephone lines* 9.01 Government prioritization of the T&T industry 5.01 Quality of roads 7. variable 1.1 Each of the pillars has been calculated as an unweighted average of the individual component variables.02 Access to improved sanitation* 4.04 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*2 5. The pillars are calculated from both variables derived from the Executive Opinion Survey (Survey) and data from other sources. The TTCI is composed of three subindexes: the T&T regulatory framework subindex.02 Enforcement of environmental regulation 2.01 belongs to the first pillar). tourism infrastructure.02 Internet users* 9. To make the aggregation possible. price competitiveness in the T&T industry. and cultural resources. affinity for Travel & Tourism. We apply a min-max transformation.03 Access to improved drinking water* 4.04 Quality of domestic transport network 7. air transport infrastructure. The overall TTCI is then the unweighted average of the three subindexes. which preserves the order of. and natural resources subindex.02 Reliability of police services 3.05 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data*2 23 Subindex B: T&T business environment and infrastructure Pillar 6: Air 6.06 6.07 Environmental treaty ratification* Subindex A: T&T regulatory framework Pillar 9: ICT infrastructure 9. The number preceding the period indicates to which pillar the variable belongs (e.04 Hospital beds* Pillar 5: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5. policy rules and regulations.02 Property rights 1.06 Threatened species* 2.06 Transparency of government policymaking 1.07 transport infrastructure Quality of air transport infrastructure Available seat kilometers.08 Cost to start a business* 1.01 Hotel rooms* 8. other data were collected from various sources.04 6.07 Time required to start a business* 1. these variables are transformed into a 1-to-7 scale in order to align them with the Survey results..02 Presence of major car rental companies* 8.04 Carbon dioxide emissions* 2.01 6.05 6.01 Extent of business Internet use 9.05 Mobile telephone subscribers* Pillar 1: Policy rules and regulations 1.000 population* Airport density* Number of operating airlines* International air transport network* Pillar 7: Ground transport infrastructure 7. the T&T business environment and infrastructure subindex. safety and security. health and hygiene.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix A: Composition of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Pillar 4: Health and hygiene 4.

02 11..g.04 Primary education enrollment* Secondary education enrollment* Quality of the educational system Local availability of specialized research and training services 11. but also on how costly it is for business.01 11.) Pillar 10: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10. we combine its incidence rate with the Survey question on its perceived cost to businesses. The inverse of this ratio is then multiplied by each country’s score on the related Survey question.01 Ticket taxes and airport charges* 10.04 Total known species* Pillar 14: Cultural resources 14.04 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data and 5. In this way we treat them as if they were one additional variable.05 Extent of staff training 2 A weight of 0.02 Sports stadiums* 14.03 Available seat kilometers.04 Creative industries exports* Notes 1 The standard formula for converting each variable that is not derived from the Survey to the 1-to-7 scale is 6 x ( country score – sample minimum sample maximum – sample minimum ) + 1 The sample minimum and sample maximum are the lowest and highest scores of the overall sample.03 Quality of the natural environment 13.05 Hotel price index* Subindex C: T&T human.03 Extent and effect of taxation 10.01 Number of World Heritage natural sites* 13. road traffic accidents. and natural resources Pillar 11: Human resources Education and training 11. 3 Variables 6. we rely on a normalization formula that. reverses it.02 Available seat kilometers.07 11. in addition to converting the series to a 1-to-7 scale. regardless of their scores on the related Survey question.1.5 is applied to the variables 5.05 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data.03 Number of international fairs and exhibitions* 14.02 Protected areas* 13.08 11. 4 The impact of HIV/AIDS on T&T competitiveness depends not only on its respective incidence rate. adjustments were made to account for extreme outliers in the data. so that 1 and 7 still correspond to the worst and best respectively: –6 x ( country score – sample minimum sample maximum – sample minimum ) + 7 In some instances.02 Purchasing power parity* 10.04 Fuel price levels* 10. Availability of qualified labor 11.02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors 12. international are combined to form one single variable.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix A: Composition of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 (cont’d.09 11. For those variables for which a higher value indicates a worse outcome (e.01 Number of World Heritage cultural sites* 14. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .01 Tourism openness* 12. Note that countries with zero reported incidences receive a 7.03 11.03 Extension of business trips recommended Pillar 13: Natural resources 13.10 24 Hiring and firing practices Ease of hiring foreign labor HIV prevalence*4 Business impact of HIV/AIDS4 Life expectancy* Pillar 12: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 12. in order to estimate the impact of HIV/AIDS. To combine these data we first take the ratio of each country’s incidence rate relative to the highest incidence rate in the whole sample. respectively. domestic and 6. Therefore.06 11. This product is then normalized to a 1-to-7 scale. cultural. fuel price levels).

01 3.67 3.80 5.07 4.94 4.In this appendix we present the detailed rankings and scores of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index for 2011 for all 139 countries covered this year.47 3.64 25 Cont’d.28 5.79 3.67 4.99 3.82 4.50 3.37 53 112 138 72 58 36 3 59 62 130 20 18 119 133 92 86 80 96 54 117 137 110 127 25 85 139 48 71 102 47 135 42 23 26 15 63 93 70 84 17 132 5 7 76 35 12 115 34 103 91 90 4 24 2 114 94 131 4.35 2.92 3.29 3.56 4.36 3.33 3.68 3.35 3.14 4.07 4.87 3.05 3.42 5.49 5.20 3.22 5.52 4.15 5.79 3.26 5.36 4.01 4.90 3.10 3.61 4.20 4.26 3.21 3.50 3.61 2.81 4.84 4.82 3.99 4.40 4.68 4.58 5.38 3.54 5.49 3.51 4.75 3.74 5.09 3.23 4.47 3.65 4.88 3.09 2.07 4.71 3.24 4.25 4.77 5. cultural.82 3.44 4.13 3.71 3.84 4.19 4.41 3.67 3.35 5.28 5.37 2.08 5.13 3.46 5.41 5.11 4.84 3.50 2.43 3. Islamic Rep.89 5.91 4.49 4.77 3.62 5.48 3.92 3.02 5.26 3.03 61 116 139 35 107 4 10 105 78 131 47 20 106 67 103 98 11 63 51 132 135 81 108 7 114 137 62 12 39 33 115 43 44 31 26 89 64 71 124 50 97 25 9 117 92 5 104 29 58 102 77 24 48 41 19 40 91 3.28 4.49 5.21 5.92 3.57 3.61 4.05 4. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guyana Honduras Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran.75 5.70 3. This complements the regional rankings shown in the chapter.40 3. Table B1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chad Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gambia.87 4.62 3.26 5.95 2.82 3.36 4.47 3.96 3.59 4.50 3.35 3.33 5.89 4.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings .52 2.79 3.15 4.31 3.08 4.45 5.19 4.79 5.21 3.47 5.32 4.30 2.45 5.66 3.11 4.53 4.68 4.09 5.96 3.05 2.18 5.39 3.17 4.72 3.89 2.85 4.27 5.30 3.53 3.89 4.43 3.48 3.88 4.41 3.30 3.78 3.06 4.66 2.41 3.06 4.51 4.77 5.80 4.35 3.56 5.99 2.93 3.87 3.08 4.08 3.11 5. and natural resources Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 71 113 138 60 90 13 4 83 40 129 28 23 120 117 97 91 52 67 48 132 137 109 126 9 89 139 57 39 77 44 131 34 24 31 16 72 87 75 96 25 122 17 3 92 73 2 108 29 86 98 88 12 38 11 68 74 114 4.36 4.18 3.99 3.72 4.39 2.07 3.74 4.34 3.19 4.56 4.45 5.24 4.19 3.68 3.77 2.32 2.66 3.33 5.14 3.59 3.65 3. T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.06 3.36 4.98 5.48 4.81 3.66 3.11 5.27 4.33 2.06 2.31 4.82 5.29 5.55 4.61 5.55 5.06 2.44 3.19 4.43 91 110 121 70 100 17 12 87 20 113 21 35 117 111 97 85 75 50 44 135 134 118 129 5 73 139 56 64 92 58 124 36 14 37 16 69 93 74 79 19 114 30 8 90 94 2 105 29 81 99 80 13 45 6 68 86 103 3.66 4.96 3.75 2.71 4.73 2.70 3.35 3. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.56 5.75 5.19 4.11 3.87 3.49 3.02 5.64 3.63 3.

83 3.08 2.66 3.95 3.04 5.47 5.39 Cont’d.60 3.35 4.49 10 41 45 55 27 37 65 113 50 108 95 38 78 125 122 33 14 56 126 109 60 128 9 136 28 74 68 97 32 69 124 83 106 16 13 105 134 8 61 129 52 107 87 98 49 19 40 43 51 73 75 81 111 67 6 39 29 82 22 79 99 11 1 101 5.54 3.23 3.79 3.81 4.15 3.69 3.65 4.22 5.99 3.76 3.67 3.48 3.23 4.93 3.18 5.57 5.76 4.54 4.60 3.24 4.42 4.96 3.95 3.79 5.07 2.72 3.43 3.30 4. cultural.60 4.70 3.39 5.72 3.68 3.71 4.05 4.93 4.02 4.24 4.09 4.52 4.59 4.45 4.18 3.54 3.93 2.15 4. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . and natural resources Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 21 46 27 65 22 64 93 103 32 95 107 51 70 135 124 55 15 76 127 121 35 133 26 136 53 43 99 101 36 78 128 84 112 14 19 100 130 20 61 125 56 123 69 94 49 18 45 42 63 59 102 62 104 82 10 54 33 66 8 81 116 5 1 105 4.18 3.91 37 65 15 87 14 74 123 72 27 126 100 83 69 138 125 85 38 93 120 112 18 121 54 133 79 13 129 86 36 73 127 109 101 16 22 84 119 32 76 122 57 130 34 75 30 17 88 90 66 45 110 70 82 94 23 52 53 49 6 68 136 8 2 113 4.40 3.03 2.36 3.62 3.26 4.98 4.18 3.45 3.18 3.04 3.97 5.30 3.07 5.47 5.50 2.80 4.24 5.85 5.60 3.75 4.50 5.21 5.54 4.68 5.38 5.73 3.71 2.40 3.70 3.76 2.81 5.64 4.18 4.70 2.85 4.77 3.84 3.48 4.19 3.21 5.37 5.37 5.86 3.87 3.87 4.15 3.18 3.72 3.08 4.51 4.64 4.84 4.91 3.56 4.96 4.37 3.) Table B1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 (cont’d.18 3.20 5.49 3.36 4.87 4.56 3.84 3.30 4.90 3.69 4.63 3.84 4.88 4.48 4.93 4.15 5.21 5. Rep.82 4.46 4.49 2.73 3.71 3.15 3.88 5.42 3.00 3.35 3.05 5.03 4.44 4.57 4.80 2.86 5.68 3.79 4.65 3.94 4.25 4.88 2.71 3.) SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.06 5.42 3.67 5.04 4.69 4.03 2.87 4.38 3.34 5.26 4. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia.49 4.21 3.67 3.35 4.92 3.35 2.85 4.18 3.38 3.37 3.01 4.61 3.34 5.45 3.59 3.72 5.56 3.00 4.53 3.95 4.39 3.42 4.43 3.15 3.1.73 3.90 4.73 4.92 2.13 5.41 4.16 5.12 3.35 2.55 4.37 3.74 3.66 4.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 26 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d.11 2.99 4.07 4.19 4.45 4.11 5.55 3.02 2.86 2.65 4.12 4.30 4.64 3.10 4.14 5.42 4.80 3.62 5.11 4.66 3.49 3.51 4.32 2.69 3.32 3.05 5.29 3.94 4.41 4.67 4.17 4.08 3.59 3.78 3.17 3.06 4.68 3.97 3.58 2.35 5.86 3.22 3.98 4.33 4. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.64 5.45 4.92 4.78 4.93 4.34 4.14 3.17 23 42 27 59 32 72 88 106 28 60 132 39 63 123 107 46 7 78 116 133 40 137 22 136 48 61 98 112 49 77 119 67 128 18 25 104 115 26 47 102 52 122 82 95 65 24 38 34 66 53 120 41 108 84 4 57 33 62 10 83 101 15 1 109 4.59 4.29 3.81 2.

24 5.42 3.48 3.67 4.30 4.19 3.15 3.30 5.33 4.91 4.63 4.34 3.35 5.71 31 130 127 43 138 51 54 55 125 76 9 11 3 71 96 89 131 126 4.27 5.01 5.58 3.28 4.56 3.67 3.47 2.73 2.32 5.40 3.Table B1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 (cont’d.) SUBINDEXES OVERALL INDEX Country/Economy Taiwan.32 2.42 4.28 5.65 3.42 4.05 4.) 27 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .55 4.36 3.83 4.45 3.99 3.62 3.12 3. and natural resources Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 37 118 110 41 134 79 47 50 115 85 30 7 6 58 106 80 111 119 4.64 4.58 3.53 5.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d.94 4.67 4.75 4.78 5.90 3.24 3.50 3.18 5.77 5.97 4.90 3.64 55 128 56 21 134 111 59 28 80 118 42 3 1 60 99 46 95 96 4.00 3.13 4.62 4.37 3.42 3.64 2.39 4.57 1.60 2.02 2.93 3. China Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe T&T regulatory framework T&T business environment and infrastructure T&T human.31 46 88 121 77 123 100 31 66 116 64 57 21 44 30 120 89 104 118 4.28 3.17 4. cultural.46 3.95 4.60 2.02 3.13 3.31 2.

00 4.32 4.42 5.89 4.55 4.61 3.16 4.46 6.37 4.20 1.75 5.09 4.39 3.26 5.83 2.1.54 3.07 46 118 137 89 92 30 28 74 58 116 75 26 117 138 129 64 114 120 94 104 133 132 125 4 73 139 12 80 60 66 122 77 79 52 17 32 124 49 39 25 93 5 22 86 54 20 72 82 57 99 50 2 29 33 128 88 112 7 62 84 11 51 47 95 103 53 127 96 59 4.12 4.62 4.43 5.70 3.08 4.40 5.17 5.84 3.55 2.52 4.26 5.88 4.08 4.82 3.53 4.53 4.12 6.24 4.66 4.48 5.22 4.88 5.47 3.24 5.87 3.65 3.62 4.87 4.16 4.46 4. Islamic Rep.59 3.51 5.32 4.41 4.17 4.69 4.34 4.69 5.89 5.83 4.19 4.46 5.07 4.74 4.74 5.59 3.82 5.18 3.07 4.65 5.61 5.34 4.93 4.53 5.20 44 95 111 77 51 18 10 57 32 105 34 15 101 112 40 87 75 23 81 93 132 79 99 24 85 136 27 58 126 63 122 33 26 41 8 116 90 135 118 25 102 1 20 88 47 9 98 73 131 110 106 5 43 4 78 72 121 12 46 48 104 19 64 108 139 60 31 120 53 5.99 6.95 6.63 5.54 4.22 1.68 2.14 5.70 4.18 5.00 3.81 5.99 4.39 5.76 4.86 6.84 4.25 4.00 2.93 5.84 4.36 4.88 4.13 5.41 3.53 3.87 4.35 3.22 3.94 4.76 6.91 4.98 3.25 5.08 3.79 3.07 6.22 4.07 4.51 5.18 4.02 3.33 4.70 5.93 3.12 4.61 4.47 6.43 6.62 6.46 5.16 4.50 3.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 28 Appendix B: A: Travel Structure & Tourism of the Global Competitiveness Competitiveness Index Index 2011 detailed 2008–2009 rankings (cont’d.02 3.45 4.44 5.19 6.47 4.63 4.99 3.40 6.01 5.73 4.35 3.54 5.11 5.68 3.06 5.56 4.67 3.08 3.91 4.74 1.56 4.52 4.31 4.36 6.57 4.21 1.62 5.74 5.36 4.26 6.29 5.31 5.79 3.49 4.44 3.20 6.95 5.33 4.73 4.47 4.40 4.28 4.36 5.13 4.72 4.70 5.26 4.20 4.11 4.67 5.22 3.22 5.02 5.68 2.56 4.81 5.37 2.22 5.31 5.) Table B2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Regulatory framework PILLARS Country/Economy Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chad Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gambia. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guyana Honduras Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran.64 4.95 6.53 5.65 3.32 5.19 4.19 6.30 4.41 3.17 3.09 3.15 3.73 6.33 4. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia T&T REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 1.35 2.47 4. Rep.45 5.07 2.33 2.28 5.08 4.62 4.86 3.04 5.56 4.49 5.32 6.47 4.59 3.23 4.) The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .30 4.18 4.91 4.03 4.87 4.04 5.83 3.38 3.07 4.89 4.51 4.46 4.16 6.47 3.47 4.37 4.05 5.51 72 120 119 130 111 59 5 92 123 135 30 13 39 128 108 58 29 136 99 80 91 82 96 35 56 89 73 95 77 25 104 46 51 28 3 93 75 113 63 24 87 7 9 44 69 4 47 68 118 34 66 109 31 15 107 127 83 12 74 60 116 52 54 129 26 81 139 100 21 4.03 6.33 5.52 4. Policy rules and regulations 2.66 3.84 3.59 6.20 4.41 5.52 2.12 4.21 5.48 4.90 3.95 4.75 5.44 4.92 4.79 4.21 3.24 4.65 1.47 5.00 4.66 4.39 3.29 5.13 6.87 4.26 5.68 3.96 2. Health and hygiene 5.47 4.71 4.43 3. Environmental sustainability 3.26 5.83 5.08 4.71 5.09 3.81 3.95 4.22 4.49 4.40 4.00 4.64 2.60 4.87 4.34 3.19 4.48 3.63 5.87 4.98 4.72 4.71 3.60 5.72 5.24 5.72 3.33 5.97 5.50 4.54 4.33 7.88 4.10 5.00 6.48 5.71 5.27 4.56 3.83 4.30 (Cont’d.20 4.02 5.51 4.22 5.91 2.59 2.89 3.42 4.64 6.41 5.92 3.08 4.87 4.69 5.85 2.42 3.79 5.74 5.95 3.06 5.36 5.36 4.27 5.92 5.67 3.10 3.18 5.14 4.84 4.31 5.16 4.96 3.35 5.53 4.12 5.38 3.05 4.73 3.01 2.90 4.57 4.06 3.92 3.09 4.69 4.38 4.85 3.08 5.14 4.67 4.85 4.14 6.60 5.65 4.78 4.98 4.45 3.37 4.10 5.58 5.71 6.94 3.71 5.80 2.33 4.90 5.10 6.76 4.81 5.17 5.00 4.99 5.70 3.18 5.53 4.60 6.72 4.33 5.40 4.78 3.31 4. Safety and security 4.90 4.16 66 84 129 40 37 58 3 54 60 114 33 14 128 110 61 100 73 70 10 127 120 133 116 52 105 138 71 96 95 74 126 32 43 6 38 86 82 56 92 24 139 12 5 103 31 7 123 20 94 91 101 1 18 4 112 115 121 25 16 27 87 22 57 9 130 28 62 51 26 4.15 4.21 1.03 4.92 3.47 2.17 4.95 4.55 4.17 55 130 136 92 76 37 16 54 84 131 3 77 113 124 128 73 108 127 71 104 138 13 135 40 45 129 66 35 89 19 139 72 6 74 81 7 82 22 67 25 119 65 28 26 31 83 123 17 78 86 51 12 53 9 91 15 133 29 75 56 4 50 10 93 18 94 137 118 87 4.68 4.88 4.23 4. Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.90 4.68 5. Prioritization of Travel & Tourism Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 53 112 138 72 58 36 3 59 62 130 20 18 119 133 92 86 80 96 54 117 137 110 127 25 85 139 48 71 102 47 135 42 23 26 15 63 93 70 84 17 132 5 7 76 35 12 115 34 103 91 90 4 24 2 114 94 131 10 41 45 55 27 37 65 113 50 108 95 38 4.22 2.74 4.24 4.23 4.46 4.52 6.05 5.45 5.21 4.80 5.61 4.55 1.

24 2.71 6.39 4.27 3.32 4.01 4.13 4.56 4. Safety and security 4.88 4.99 4.42 3.92 4.15 4.67 6.44 4.65 3.58 5.85 4.93 4.82 4.24 3.81 5.21 4.78 3.17 4.06 5.54 3.02 3.71 3.02 4.49 3.00 4.30 3.07 2.92 4.08 4.71 5.52 123 114 100 59 11 42 137 74 83 107 6 130 45 128 65 67 37 84 125 86 127 16 14 92 133 3 17 138 71 124 119 109 50 22 61 28 35 113 39 52 70 66 13 49 29 129 36 91 76 7 2 69 38 55 115 94 89 103 56 97 117 82 54 30 62 21 134 68 80 96 3.32 3.49 5.46 5.95 4.38 3.47 5.39 4.) 29 .52 5.72 4.41 4. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan.17 4.44 5.69 3.34 5.38 48 118 83 1 21 42 135 111 75 132 8 137 68 64 49 76 53 104 136 106 102 19 30 109 131 23 78 107 85 99 98 97 44 34 69 47 59 11 119 93 124 41 55 15 39 88 29 81 113 36 13 90 50 63 134 80 117 72 79 67 125 17 65 46 45 35 77 89 122 108 5.64 4.93 125 106 134 19 16 65 103 42 64 102 53 110 62 114 78 138 45 36 32 22 84 10 20 55 61 6 76 133 38 121 79 94 37 17 14 67 50 98 8 131 86 124 41 27 23 48 33 117 57 1 2 126 112 90 43 97 132 137 18 85 40 88 122 11 105 70 101 115 49 71 3.95 4.56 4.83 4.83 5.63 5.41 4.99 5.41 4.36 3.64 4.38 4.76 4.09 4.23 5.84 4.78 4.67 3.45 3.86 5.45 4.01 3.74 4.86 2.70 3.90 4.13 4.11 4.33 3.98 5.45 2.18 4.89 4.16 5.15 5.31 5.27 3.39 3.94 3.82 4.46 5.91 3.76 4.50 5.04 4.98 5.85 4.08 4.20 4.78 4.48 4.11 5.78 3.09 5.07 3.22 5.75 4.04 6.19 4.89 4.65 5.17 4.79 4.36 3.) PILLARS Country/Economy Lebanon Lesotho Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia.29 4.73 4.11 4.61 4.90 4.84 4.07 6.19 6.57 4.19 4.56 3.37 4.94 2.02 4.51 4.22 1.37 3.64 4.90 5.49 3.84 4.89 5.71 4.08 6.99 4.37 3.42 3.60 4.43 4.93 5.46 4.54 5.91 4.29 3.35 5.50 5.57 4.70 3.61 4.63 4.52 2.54 4.06 4.32 6.33 2.74 4.89 3.93 4.91 3.94 5.95 4.75 3.06 6.05 5.74 5.81 4.54 4.64 4.80 3.28 4.72 4.) (cont’d.01 5.30 4.75 4.93 4.01 5.15 3.67 4.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix B: A: Travel Structure & Tourism of the Global Competitiveness Competitiveness Index Index 2011 detailed 2008–2009 rankings (cont’d.19 5.63 2.47 4.57 5. Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 1.78 3.69 5.36 5.41 3.61 5.45 4.69 5.07 4.19 4.01 4.90 5.98 39 120 132 97 85 106 41 117 46 100 5 125 1 30 115 96 42 23 63 62 43 68 21 99 134 36 109 121 24 57 47 70 98 20 48 58 80 102 95 88 59 105 2 116 44 64 11 32 52 60 14 79 69 122 90 38 112 103 8 61 110 101 34 49 33 27 126 107 111 114 4.20 5.64 5.01 6.05 5.30 4.00 4.85 6.58 3.40 2.48 4.67 4.Table B2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Regulatory framework (cont’d.07 4.79 5.39 4.32 5.99 3.62 5. China Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe T&T REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 1.67 4.48 4.27 6.83 4.80 3.52 4.58 5.53 6.88 5.24 3.74 5.21 5.38 6.50 4.86 4.77 5.58 4.70 4.85 5.34 3.80 4.01 5.26 6.16 2.63 4.32 5.98 3.28 3.55 3.74 5.16 4.87 4.19 4.05 5. Environmental sustainability 3.49 4.43 4.38 3.27 7.40 4.07 5.10 6.19 4.43 4.18 5.55 4.70 2.67 4.62 3.79 4.07 5.50 3.80 5.34 4.98 4.50 4.76 1.23 4.72 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5.86 5.09 5.61 4.07 4.32 3.38 4.59 5.19 5.70 5.55 4.99 4.17 4.14 4.13 4.04 3.14 5.72 5.84 5.24 4.91 3.39 5.23 4.28 4.67 3.71 98 121 135 83 6 78 101 102 21 130 69 113 27 56 81 87 10 48 109 55 115 19 3 105 131 15 41 106 24 110 45 70 61 35 14 37 63 126 40 43 108 68 1 36 65 31 85 91 90 8 18 123 9 119 97 76 111 42 23 34 100 107 38 13 16 71 134 67 44 136 3.49 3.99 4.39 6.19 3.85 4.56 4.09 4.17 4.61 5.82 4. Health and hygiene Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 78 125 122 33 14 56 126 109 60 128 9 136 28 74 68 97 32 69 124 83 106 16 13 105 134 8 61 129 52 107 87 98 49 19 40 43 51 73 75 81 111 67 6 39 29 82 22 79 99 11 1 101 46 88 121 77 123 100 31 66 116 64 57 21 44 30 120 89 104 118 4.49 4.95 1.49 4.44 4.80 3.70 3.10 6. Policy rules and regulations 2.11 3.46 3.10 5.97 5.19 3.67 5.99 4.84 3.48 4.76 5.06 3.17 4.47 5.06 3.47 3.65 1.42 6.18 4.46 4.36 4.00 6.24 3.21 5.44 4.50 5.46 4.91 4.39 5.40 3.18 5.44 4.32 5.95 4.12 4.29 4.41 4.42 4.15 3.88 4.77 4.71 4.03 2.57 5.14 5.53 5.75 4.26 4.40 4.26 4.60 3.31 4.15 4.93 6.51 4.11 5.53 1.07 6.95 4.35 3.58 3.18 5.58 4.13 5.76 4.61 6.16 3.62 2.68 3.39 3.93 3.22 5.76 4.89 4.46 3.63 5.37 5.99 4.22 5.33 6.31 3.44 4.69 5.21 4.08 2.25 4.72 3.30 4.94 3.58 4.89 1.94 4.64 3.37 5.53 5.81 3.17 5.72 4.52 5.94 4.88 3.18 4.

Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Rank 91 110 121 70 100 17 12 87 20 113 21 35 117 111 97 85 75 50 44 135 134 118 129 5 73 139 56 64 92 58 124 36 14 37 16 69 93 74 79 19 114 30 8 90 94 2 105 29 81 99 80 13 45 6 68 86 103 23 42 27 59 32 72 88 106 28 60 132 39 Score 3.96 2.73 4.07 4.47 1.66 3.09 4.93 4.59 5.10 4.14 2.33 4.73 2.96 7.40 4.61 5.48 2.08 1.05 4.22 3.36 3.96 4.70 4.23 6.85 2.75 2.03 4.48 3.35 3.31 3.28 5.61 3.23 4.15 6.12 3.34 4.47 4.19 6. Air transport infrastructure Rank 96 103 126 73 95 3 26 83 28 120 25 32 124 100 134 91 42 41 89 135 129 113 130 1 48 137 52 35 70 44 114 66 21 50 17 49 76 55 79 54 87 16 6 82 105 7 101 19 71 115 69 12 75 18 39 58 94 24 51 29 64 22 60 86 72 40 67 132 63 Score 2.13 3.22 5.94 4.45 4.97 2.53 4.85 2.55 4.72 3.72 2.97 3.87 4.11 4.05 4.90 4.35 1.) Table B3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Business environment and infrastructure PILLARS T&T BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE Country/Economy Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chad Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gambia.54 2.26 1.29 3.33 4.93 2.18 4.31 7.79 2.62 3.80 4.84 3.55 4.56 4.90 2.80 2.00 3.09 4.31 8.22 3.14 5. Price competitiveness in T&T industry Score 71 107 126 53 97 24 25 88 37 129 27 16 118 102 70 104 56 47 43 134 137 123 121 14 90 139 54 73 64 72 117 35 31 40 10 83 86 93 77 13 138 17 12 108 82 7 114 39 78 87 92 4 38 3 111 96 89 29 22 34 60 28 85 61 112 8 69 91 36 3.59 3.37 3.03 2.57 3.20 5.98 2.30 2.57 7.26 5. Tourism infrastructure Rank 77 122 103 55 92 16 1 96 26 132 28 60 112 109 62 90 76 91 6 120 134 131 114 21 63 133 68 95 83 39 106 4 1 27 24 61 86 88 79 11 128 42 18 127 87 15 102 5 85 97 80 70 30 7 89 116 136 10 44 1 75 48 64 81 111 56 65 135 35 Score 3.22 5.25 7.40 4.45 4.33 5.99 3.70 4.95 5.68 5.01 2.41 5.94 5.29 1.97 4.61 3.36 2.00 2.36 3.05 2.34 3.39 4.14 6.86 4.86 3.27 2.24 4.71 4.46 4.78 (Cont’d.01 5.58 4.21 5.48 5.49 4. Ground transport infrastructure Rank 97 105 139 107 106 51 15 58 11 62 10 9 99 134 137 73 116 49 90 110 84 103 111 33 64 132 55 59 120 93 80 54 20 22 7 81 118 76 70 29 98 21 4 52 69 3 94 61 102 104 85 1 37 32 43 82 86 38 47 39 23 6 75 96 87 18 57 129 42 Score 3.29 5.30 2.71 2.29 2.86 1.00 3.87 3.09 5.52 2.15 5.49 4.42 3.32 2.24 2.32 5.79 3.96 2.00 2.05 4.11 5.51 4.75 2.12 1.29 3.09 5.30 5.80 5.49 3.55 4.82 5.43 2.15 6.50 5.28 4.50 2.1.33 3.66 4.16 5.40 Rank 94 35 13 70 61 113 121 76 21 50 74 136 68 33 103 8 114 1 46 112 78 31 110 105 126 133 41 24 88 62 131 101 109 77 139 72 36 5 34 44 23 128 138 2 91 125 26 123 27 43 32 67 87 71 28 4 7 122 115 129 90 137 65 92 93 96 12 64 53 Score 4.35 2.87 2.17 4.47 2.75 3.12 4.99 4.18 5.10 3. Rep.71 3.34 6.01 4.00 3.63 2.11 1.18 4.75 3.55 4.74 1.15 2.84 4.07 5.37 4.89 5.06 6.08 5.07 2.22 3.91 2.18 4.30 3.84 2.13 3.70 1.33 4.69 1.83 2.40 5.24 2.45 4.52 5.11 3.56 5.93 2.15 4.35 3.61 2.77 6.35 2.99 2.50 4.24 4.54 5.96 1.61 5.14 3.84 4.07 5.07 3.35 5.12 2. Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.30 3.05 4.82 4.64 4.47 2.08 3.84 6.19 3.19 1.46 2.53 3.66 2.20 6.47 3.27 3.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 30 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d.60 1.91 5.22 2.36 3.86 5.55 4.30 1.85 4.02 5.49 5.16 2.93 4.05 2.53 3.77 3.19 3.38 2.89 2.61 3.30 2.52 3.61 3.34 3.66 3.49 2.92 2.83 4.30 3.44 2.16 2.79 4.37 2.57 6.87 4.) The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .23 2.76 3.62 2.81 4.66 1.82 1.86 4.87 3.96 1.66 2.68 3.59 5.03 2.38 2.49 3.10 2.81 5.14 3.12 5.50 4.66 5.21 3.06 2.50 2.10 3.09 3.12 2.93 4.15 4.07 4.97 5.16 4.01 3.05 2.85 3.45 1.39 1.33 3.07 9.78 3.91 4.08 5.74 4.91 1.59 4.92 5.79 3.66 2.63 4.72 2.11 3.26 2.25 4.76 2.02 4.61 4.81 6.10 4.73 4.13 4.09 4.08 2.76 4.38 3.58 5.89 4.14 3.03 3.79 2. ICT infrastructure Rank 10.96 3.02 5.93 3.92 6.76 3.90 2.19 1.46 5.72 3.30 2.37 4.73 3.15 3.30 3.86 5.96 5.36 2.87 3.00 5.40 3.59 4.95 2.23 4.63 2.92 5.09 2.75 5.59 4.26 3.61 1.53 4.32 2.70 3.63 4.62 3.80 4.88 4.40 4.75 4.53 4.59 4.19 4.89 2.59 4.41 3. Islamic Rep.60 3.91 2.61 3.07 3.59 5.67 4.14 4.89 6.20 2.54 5.52 2.35 2.73 4.09 2.11 2.84 3.11 6.36 6.14 6.31 5.52 5.66 1.25 4.69 3.33 2.96 3. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guyana Honduras Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran.59 4.33 5.06 2.99 3.72 2.35 3.75 3.80 3.92 1.

12 5.70 3.78 4.23 5.90 3.58 6.25 2.82 4.13 2.67 3.21 1. Ground transport infrastructure Rank 100 112 127 26 12 88 126 91 36 113 30 125 41 79 124 133 109 72 128 44 135 8 50 122 131 63 40 71 68 138 121 114 78 24 19 35 101 95 67 53 89 115 2 45 25 66 13 34 65 16 5 92 14 117 123 56 130 27 48 60 119 74 31 17 28 46 136 77 108 83 Score 3.32 3. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan.39 4.67 4.94 4.18 1.17 5.17 4.09 4.15 3.82 2.68 2.88 1.81 4.71 3.45 3.84 4.30 4.70 2.60 5. China Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe Rank 63 123 107 46 7 78 116 133 40 137 22 136 48 61 98 112 49 77 119 67 128 18 25 104 115 26 47 102 52 122 82 95 65 24 38 34 66 53 120 41 108 84 4 57 33 62 10 83 101 15 1 109 31 130 127 43 138 51 54 55 125 76 9 11 3 71 96 89 131 126 Score 3.28 3.85 1.57 1.51 6.79 2.18 2.49 3.84 4.42 3.15 3.32 2.19 4.80 2.95 3.95 1.45 5.60 2.75 3.02 2.30 5.70 2.09 3.76 4.97 4.42 3. Price competitiveness in T&T industry Score 2.40 3.81 5.73 5.27 3.03 2.65 3.43 5.21 5.55 3.15 2.16 7.87 2.78 4.47 2.09 4.02 2.00 4.66 3.25 4.94 4.39 1.31 3.07 1.99 1.94 1.20 5.32 3.03 2.73 3.82 6.74 3.81 2.11 2.40 4.96 2.41 4.42 4.14 1.17 2.80 2.53 5.03 2.40 3.28 4.65 2.35 2.28 4.75 5.17 2.16 2.11 4.31 3.83 3.10 5.71 2.38 1.71 2.56 4.70 2.53 1.30 2.59 5.73 4.80 4.16 5.92 4.01 6.25 5.51 4.52 2.29 1.93 4.18 3.81 3.35 5.49 2.09 2.01 2.84 4.76 2.46 2.65 2.16 4.66 1.41 4.79 4.03 2.86 5. Tourism infrastructure Rank 29 113 107 50 12 69 100 129 74 117 20 124 47 43 93 121 25 71 99 67 130 31 36 84 105 23 59 119 66 101 58 98 52 14 32 34 38 45 139 46 94 49 33 41 17 57 8 104 108 37 8 115 72 138 125 40 137 73 51 54 126 53 22 19 13 82 78 110 123 118 Score 5.93 3.24 2.32 5.24 1.45 3.34 3.89 1.71 1.25 1.) 31 .99 5.68 3.10 3.20 4.54 3.11 5.83 5.42 5.07 2.38 1.73 3.92 2.89 5.37 1.50 4.63 5.72 3.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d.94 3.08 2.59 5.62 4.24 4.96 4.70 2.18 3.49 5.17 4.90 5.68 2.80 1.79 2.13 4.25 2.19 2.91 4.08 4.96 5.73 2.17 1.28 2.62 2.48 4.28 2.79 6.21 4.05 4.10 4.06 2.80 4.27 5.31 2.30 3.10 3.02 4.02 5.64 2.19 4.88 5.96 2.15 5.87 1.76 4.22 2.55 4.29 2.35 3.74 2.27 4.54 4.73 1.70 5.25 2.31 5.62 3.38 2.66 3.88 1.18 4.39 5.39 2.83 4.92 Rank 55 22 39 73 86 49 79 95 3 130 111 107 18 45 54 59 48 83 89 47 10 132 84 25 98 134 19 11 30 52 81 20 66 116 69 38 80 75 63 6 124 118 29 102 99 37 106 60 14 120 127 51 17 58 56 15 85 42 9 108 57 119 40 135 100 82 97 16 104 117 Score 4.58 1.73 5.50 2.23 4.43 5.18 3.82 5.96 3.17 4.53 1.45 4.92 3.71 1.70 2.34 2.38 4.76 5. Air transport infrastructure Rank 56 139 99 107 36 127 106 133 34 131 27 138 61 47 128 77 62 68 112 59 116 15 11 108 102 9 53 98 33 136 78 80 88 38 31 20 81 30 109 45 92 111 14 122 74 43 8 90 123 10 13 110 46 117 121 23 104 57 65 37 119 93 4 5 2 97 84 85 118 125 Score 3.77 2.59 4.52 4.44 4.26 2.16 3.07 5.93 9.59 4.85 4.58 2.04 4.68 1.68 5.92 3.76 3.31 5.65 2.99 3.10 2.19 4.Table B3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Business environment and infrastructure (cont’d.99 3.33 2.80 2.47 6.64 2.17 2.85 2.17 2.10 4.72 2.86 2.47 2.21 8.16 2.83 3. ICT infrastructure Rank 80 132 101 32 5 55 131 128 52 135 19 119 66 75 65 99 42 79 127 109 133 6 23 116 105 11 58 113 57 100 84 98 44 33 63 45 49 46 120 51 103 62 20 41 26 95 30 94 115 1 2 106 15 110 130 81 136 50 76 59 125 68 18 9 21 48 74 67 122 124 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 10.05 3.76 5.86 3.51 6.62 3.35 3.13 5.55 2.33 3.16 4.91 4.27 5.26 3.54 4.19 3.88 3.72 4.27 6.75 5.99 4.54 4.56 4.42 4.09 1.66 4.48 4.46 4.09 3.46 5.93 2.61 4.70 2.37 4.07 4.97 2.51 5.21 4.24 3.80 3.75 2.43 2.12 4.23 4.40 3.44 4.48 2.32 5.74 5.61 3.15 3.35 6.53 3.53 4.52 4.27 2.08 3.39 3.21 4.93 4.56 3.99 5.49 2.30 4.93 6.32 2.69 4.64 6.27 3.46 4.16 6.46 4.05 4.62 4.95 4.72 2.62 2.27 5.05 3.15 4.10 3.77 3.75 3.60 2.28 2.91 3.13 5.57 3.68 4.72 2.51 3.69 4.72 4.62 5.50 2.49 5.13 3.89 6.03 5.50 3.46 1.57 4.31 5.60 2.08 2.47 3.70 4.25 3.81 3.43 4.18 5.37 4.86 2.65 4.31 2.60 3.35 2.84 5.32 5.08 1.88 3.27 5.26 2.48 4.06 4.14 4.68 4.06 3.11 2.54 4.) PILLARS T&T BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE Country/Economy Lebanon Lesotho Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia.69 4.34 5.90 3.75 3.

87 1.34 2.20 4.85 4.04 3.56 4.89 5.49 5.47 5.18 3.33 5.54 3.64 3.53 2.65 4.75 4.25 5.93 2.75 5. CULTURAL.61 4.87 2. Rep.13 1.53 3.63 2.67 3.52 1.65 2.35 3.23 3.67 4.87 2.42 4.30 4.05 4.60 2.15 4.49 3.92 5.42 3.02 1.86 1.18 5.39 3.13 3.64 4. Islamic Rep.45 2.52 4.51 2.80 2.55 1.65 3.43 5.63 5.57 1.24 5.49 3.82 3.67 1.21 3.35 3.06 4.84 1.09 1.75 4.48 4. Cultural resources Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 61 116 139 35 107 4 10 105 78 131 47 20 106 67 103 98 11 63 51 132 135 81 108 7 114 137 62 12 39 33 115 43 44 31 26 89 64 71 124 50 97 25 9 117 92 5 104 29 58 102 77 24 48 41 19 40 91 37 65 15 87 14 74 123 72 27 126 100 83 3.56 3.51 4.69 2.23 4.92 4.19 3.46 1.51 2. Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.33 4.13 4.35 4.03 4.38 2.62 3.48 1. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .61 6.66 5.51 2.35 5.94 4.62 5.50 3.36 4.49 4.11 5.70 3.87 4.51 4.88 5.48 4.49 2.48 4.99 2.98 2.38 4.91 4.65 4.07 4.52 1.93 3.44 4. Human capital 12.01 4.47 5.76 2.10 4.77 4.05 4.36 4.71 2.40 4.11 2.17 3.93 4.99 2.90 5.63 5.22 3.70 2.54 5.30 4. and natural resources PILLARS T&T HUMAN.25 5.68 3.53 4.43 4.90 4.40 4.40 4.67 5.53 3.40 4.61 4.03 83 72 135 38 85 20 13 81 61 114 63 7 122 68 75 106 23 91 37 128 138 111 131 18 133 136 51 16 43 90 130 31 47 15 22 92 73 65 113 64 84 26 10 116 80 4 115 25 79 127 94 40 29 56 24 39 52 28 67 8 105 12 96 118 107 5 87 103 70 1.18 3. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia 11.62 5.96 3.35 3.62 3.39 Cont’d.94 5.20 5.82 3.18 4.45 5.43 5.70 3.84 2.13 3.65 6.42 4.77 5.32 2.56 5.86 4. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guyana Honduras Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran.80 6.02 5.) Table B4: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Human.36 1.23 5.14 1.98 3 129 139 72 38 55 15 98 44 133 2 63 61 134 58 85 97 78 51 77 103 21 82 52 5 125 89 124 93 26 114 20 11 105 111 28 109 29 115 31 107 83 40 30 46 81 45 47 67 108 64 8 100 14 116 121 130 32 56 91 6 131 10 126 70 120 127 16 112 6.22 5.10 3.59 3.26 113 99 58 20 124 4 43 109 133 93 129 125 62 24 121 33 1 38 78 91 118 53 42 11 136 105 76 5 12 6 32 75 117 87 77 79 25 85 130 59 37 66 31 106 120 18 57 61 26 63 50 68 98 80 8 17 72 112 74 49 110 36 102 107 28 103 138 97 73 2.96 4.37 3.47 1.86 3.31 4.77 3.26 1.00 2.68 4.83 4.58 5.23 4.50 2.26 5.07 5.80 3. AND NATURAL RESOURCES Country/Economy Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chad Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Finland France Gambia.17 2.80 4.60 4.03 4.17 1.89 5.34 2.87 3.61 4.76 5.49 4.09 4.33 5.98 4.49 4.73 2.17 4.93 4.73 5.1.06 4.49 4.06 3.84 4.00 4.49 4.27 4.88 5.18 1.81 5.54 4.04 4.74 4.23 4.48 3.87 4.54 6.04 2.46 4.83 2.96 3.73 3.50 4.42 2.47 6.41 4.88 6.56 4.75 1.86 4.85 4.68 3.05 2.05 4.81 3.59 4.31 4.53 3.21 3.60 5.11 4.42 2.03 3.36 4.01 4.67 3.11 4.70 3.83 3.94 5.25 5.88 1.99 5.26 3.62 4.84 2.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 32 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d.25 4.29 5.30 5.47 3.08 4.30 4.56 4.97 5.53 3.05 2.83 3.93 1.19 4.90 3.77 4.87 4.50 3.61 5. cultural.11 4.89 4.44 3.13 6.22 6. Affinity for Travel & Tourism 13.43 3.19 3.73 4.98 4.59 4.66 57 91 138 61 81 20 25 49 29 116 48 15 104 103 77 119 70 47 71 133 131 109 112 5 98 136 41 39 65 21 127 83 24 36 4 92 102 93 67 32 123 7 26 107 30 19 114 59 88 52 94 6 44 3 96 51 95 10 31 45 89 22 79 80 106 38 55 101 60 5.30 2.19 4.21 2. Natural resources 14.17 5.33 3.86 3.55 5.30 4.55 3.24 5.15 2.06 1.05 2.50 2.76 5.94 4.51 1.30 1.15 5.35 5.37 4.19 5.47 4.62 4.39 2.11 3.21 1.21 5.99 2.33 3.88 1.29 4.74 4.32 1.98 2.91 5.41 3.07 6.95 4.61 4.46 3.86 3.95 4.49 4.15 5.28 5.41 4.05 2.57 2.48 2.09 4.35 2.88 3.49 4.34 1.04 4.03 1.

62 5.32 4.88 1.31 4.90 3.88 3.23 1.02 2.43 1.39 4.36 5.87 4.86 1.98 5.68 4.48 1.18 1.84 4.88 3.06 1.86 3.60 4.72 3.96 4.86 4.84 2.37 3.95 3.92 2.48 3.58 3. China Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe 11.15 3.90 3.77 98 132 66 57 50 74 126 112 33 78 48 129 110 19 121 71 46 54 117 123 124 14 49 108 89 27 77 62 104 109 44 76 17 11 93 60 41 35 134 97 95 59 30 53 58 55 2 82 137 1 9 88 42 120 101 32 139 100 69 21 125 86 34 3 6 45 99 36 119 102 1.89 6.44 5.40 2.84 4.73 3.59 3.84 4.91 3.50 5.60 3.53 2.56 4.51 4.69 3.69 4.48 4.22 4.61 4.33 3.21 3.31 2.16 4.66 5. cultural.69 5.25 4.09 1.49 5.18 5.61 3.02 5.89 3.67 2.57 2.54 5.92 3.70 2.88 4.75 2.15 3.75 4.21 4.16 5.64 3.33 4.78 5.34 4.81 2.70 3.66 3.47 1.18 2.43 3.65 5.33 1.97 3.02 2.26 4.28 5.11 4.72 4. Natural resources 14.90 1.67 3.83 2.45 3.29 3.27 4.89 3. AND NATURAL RESOURCES Country/Economy Lebanon Lesotho Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia.66 4.65 4.00 4.94 4.42 6.) PILLARS T&T HUMAN.39 4.64 3.01 4.93 4.30 4.51 5.40 4.35 5.30 4.80 4.68 3.42 4.57 4.19 3.14 2.57 4.30 5.57 64 137 115 62 17 75 110 121 37 130 28 132 53 73 97 99 35 90 135 124 129 9 14 85 126 16 84 122 87 105 66 86 43 40 33 18 63 78 100 34 117 76 2 50 42 128 46 54 139 13 1 108 23 82 125 74 118 58 27 69 113 68 12 8 11 56 111 72 120 134 4.47 2.03 6.92 2.91 2.85 3.46 1.60 3.03 4.71 5.81 5.21 5.64 2.63 3.73 4.25 4.12 3.19 4.17 5.97 4.94 5.52 4.78 4.93 3.58 2.24 3.64 2.00 5.53 4.38 3.75 2.50 5.80 2.57 4.82 2.63 3.55 4.24 2. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan.48 4.22 3.63 6.38 4.32 1.85 2.52 5.37 3.89 5.47 3.64 1.97 4.76 4.57 4.41 4.65 5.68 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.13 3.59 5.88 4.59 2.67 3.42 3.72 1.58 1.42 3.29 4.21 5.90 3.14 3.18 3.69 4.14 5.79 4.06 4.44 3.23 2.89 4.02 1.72 3.55 4.79 2.19 4.57 1.89 1.64 4.72 3.38 1 106 122 84 13 53 62 92 17 59 9 76 4 73 75 36 7 22 94 50 48 79 18 101 123 88 71 137 42 135 74 65 132 33 27 118 95 136 60 102 39 66 12 110 49 43 37 99 69 54 34 23 68 128 80 24 96 119 19 35 57 117 25 86 104 41 138 87 113 90 6.11 5.68 4.74 3.73 4.67 4.50 5.27 4.48 4.55 3.78 4.02 4.26 3.92 5.16 4.55 4.57 4.) 33 .36 1.43 5.38 2.17 4.42 3.62 3.49 2.89 5.1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 Appendix B: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 detailed rankings (cont’d. Cultural resources Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 69 138 125 85 38 93 120 112 18 121 54 133 79 13 129 86 36 73 127 109 101 16 22 84 119 32 76 122 57 130 34 75 30 17 88 90 66 45 110 70 82 94 23 52 53 49 6 68 136 8 2 113 55 128 56 21 134 111 59 28 80 118 42 3 1 60 99 46 95 96 3.50 3.00 1.89 1.03 4.74 2.31 1.42 2.46 139 135 134 114 65 92 82 46 22 104 137 108 131 10 132 84 71 126 55 47 34 67 30 39 52 60 69 83 19 89 7 70 54 86 111 127 94 27 56 48 40 123 96 41 64 14 35 44 90 45 16 128 100 115 2 21 122 88 95 81 29 119 116 23 3 101 9 51 15 13 1.25 4. and natural resources (cont’d.52 3.52 1.45 3.97 2. CULTURAL.42 4.73 5.06 5.15 3.33 2.61 1.58 3.03 1.00 3.25 1.82 3.52 6.Table B4: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Human.95 3.39 4.04 4.86 4.16 2.21 4.73 6.69 5.14 2.76 1.64 3.23 5.60 4.26 4.23 2.70 2.15 3.11 2.64 6.99 4.73 3.24 5.89 5.99 5.29 2.35 1.96 2.28 2.04 5.93 3.40 3.72 3.00 3.01 1.20 3.34 4.81 4.32 3.99 4. Affinity for Travel & Tourism 13.11 4.81 4.88 5.69 4.82 2.37 4.65 3.82 4.75 1.20 3.89 4.34 4.48 4.96 2.35 4.36 4.77 3.83 4.94 4.34 2.75 1.75 3. Human capital 12.42 3.83 3.15 3.23 3.89 3.25 1.72 5.27 4.32 5.21 4.77 4.83 4.81 2.78 4.13 5.30 3.77 3.41 5.91 4.59 4.70 5.84 4.65 4.81 6.77 5.12 3.70 3.48 3.81 2.69 4.48 4.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

Even so. lags significantly behind global GDP recovery which is 4. For example. but this has declined slightly in the past decade in North America (with a CAGR of 1. and other tourism-related businesses driving a multibillion-dollar global industry. reflected in a 0. with an average annual growth of just 0. However. by the current economic downturn.Crisis Aftermath: Pathways to a More Resilient Travel & Tourism Sector JÜRGEN RINGBECK TIMM PIETSCH Booz & Company Over the past two decades. hotels. This led to a drop of 1. the economic crisis left travelers from the western hemisphere insecure about their future economic well-being and for a short time in late 2008 and early 2009 made distant travel look like what it was just a few decades ago: a luxury affordable to only a lucky few. according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) October 2010 World Economic Outlook.7 percent). The recent economic crisis led more people to change their travel plans more significantly because of their worsened economic situation. or CAGR. although the most recent crisis has caused a stronger dip than previous downturns.6 percent. During the economic downturn of 2008–09 it came as no surprise that this sector could not escape the impact of the most significant economic collapse since the Great Depression. spending on personal Travel & Tourism is expected to have recovered somewhat. while overall GDP growth was unaffected (+2. restaurants. global spending on personal Travel & Tourism has stagnated since 2000 when measured in real terms. of 3. as shown in Figure 1. The T&T sector has always been sensitive to external shocks. while China has maintained impressive momentum with 7. tourism officials and market observers were astonished by the pace and intensity with which major tourism destinations and economies tumbled into recession after years of continuous growth. Consequently. Travel spending from major source markets such as Western Europe and North America still fueled the overall sector’s growth in the 1990s.7 percent.2 percent from 2008 to 2009—the sharpest decline in history. however.1 percent. This increase still.5 percent in travel spending from 2001 to 2002.9 percent). but not initiated. travelers avoided flying for a couple of months but quickly picked up their usual travel behavior thereafter. and has not followed the general economic growth (compound annual growth rate.0 percent) and Western Europe (CAGR –0. in the aftermath of 9/11.6 percent drop in real GDP growth from 2008 to 2009.2: Crisis Aftermath CHAPTER 1. Travel & Tourism (T&T) has become one of the world’s leading exported commodities with airlines. These developments highlight the point that structural change is already underway and has been amplified. Despite increasing numbers of international tourist arrivals in the last decade prior to the setback of this crisis. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.2 percent per annum.6 percent) experienced in the decade of 1990 to 2000. from 2009 to 2010.2 35 . The number of international tourist arrivals dropped by 4. with an increase of 1.

and discuss reasons and change factors using individual country examples.2% | T&T: +3. from these cases. tourism destinations will continue to face increasing volatility of traveler demand caused by short-term shocks such as economic downturns. Even if the short-term outlook for the global T&T sector is considered promising.9% | T&T: –1.5% GDP: +3. Finally. The interplay of short-term demand shocks and long-term structural drift is slowly but surely changing the global T&T landscape. India. global GDP (real growth rate) 1996 1998 ■ Western Europe 2000 2002 ■ Asia Pacific 2004 ■ China 2006 2008 2010 ■ Rest of world Sources: WTTC. 2010. demanding quickresponse capacity combined with strategic foresight from policymakers to enable national T&T sectors to continue to create economic benefit. BRIC countries (Brazil. Russia. Note: GDP refers to the indexed real growth rates. shifting travel patterns to more regional/ domestic travel. and China) alone represent 42 percent of today’s world population. we outline implications for policymakers and map out potential pathways for managing downturn periods tactically while simultaneously developing consistent strategies for turning structural market drifts into opportunities. When these efforts are successful. We also analyze which countries have felt the pain from the downturn and which have managed to grow throughout the crisis. the T&T economy will experience more crisis-resilient growth and show a consistent advantage over competing tourism destinations. Both short-term and long-term factors will urge policymakers to develop new answers to looming new realities.9/11 and SARS GDP: +2. However. carbon cost/environmental regulation. and political upheaval. IMF. Trend 1: A continental drift of economic gravity to the East Nascent middle classes from emerging outbound markets in China and other regions continue to move up but have not yet reached the critical volumes needed to fully replace the western hemisphere as the global T&T growth driver.500 120 1. which makes tourism officials dream The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . T&T refers to personal spending on Travel & Tourism.500 200 2. This chapter discusses the major driving forces that continue to influence the T&T sector throughout and after the crisis period of 2008–09.1% ! ! ! US$ billion (2000 prices) Financial crisis GDP: –0. oil price spikes. and 3.7% 2. 2. Tourism nations are also exposed to longer-term structural shifts that challenge tourism development strategies and range from destination marketing to product offerings and infrastructure planning.000 80 500 40 0 0 1990 1992 1994 ■ North America 36 Real GDP growth (indexed at 1990 = 100) 1.6% | T&T: –2. Booz & Company analysis. currency fluctuations. Overarching forces set to shape the future of the T&T sector include: 1. pandemic outbreaks. a continental drift of economic gravity to the East. terror attacks.000 160 1.2: Crisis Aftermath Figure 1: Personal spending on Travel & Tourism (US$ billion in 2000 prices) vs. lack of growth in western hemisphere markets.

This has fueled growth along the cheaper The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 37 . and the United States 5.000 is calculated based on the correlation of GDP and RPK 1975–2010 (linear progression with R 2 = 0. destination managers must develop a clear value proposition for this group of travelers and reduce access barriers in terms of regulations. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2009. and—last but not least— cultural and language issues. world average. China’s travel activity— measured in revenue passenger kilometers (RPK) per capita—is well below the world average for 2010 and is not expected to reach that average before 2025. forcing the sector to take advantage of new distribution channels such as online and to establish new business models such as low-cost carriers. To cater to the needs of tourists from BRIC countries bears enormous potential for both traditional tourist destinations as well as emerging touristic hot spots that compete for visitor shares.7 percent (Western Europe) based on real terms. Thus even by 2025 there will still be a huge gap between air travel activity in China and that in developed economies. whereas global Travel & Tourism contracted sharply by 4. as shown in Figure 2. Trend 2: No growth in western hemisphere markets Western Europe and North America represented 70 percent of total global personal spending on Travel & Tourism in 2000. 90 percent of Chinese travelers prefer to stay in Asia for their holidays. Bubble size indicates RPK per capita in respective year.000 per capita 2.000 ■ China ■ World ■ United States 4.98). The projection for China's theoretical RPK per capita on assumed values for GDP per capita of US$25. Ultimately.000 2010 1990 0 2000 1 2010 2005 2015 2 3 4 2020 5 2025 2030 10 20 30 40 50 Real GDP per capita (US$ thousands) Sources: UN Population Department.7. To tap into these emerging tourist segments. This has resulted in improved efficiencies along the tourism value chain that offset price pressure. Notes: GDP per capita is shown in constant 2005 prices. GDP per capita: China. FAA. Bubbles outlined in white indicate estimated RPK per capita based on assumed values for GDP per capita. IHS Global Insight. Booz & Company analysis. 2010. During the downturn.000 China US$35. tour packages. 2010. travelers became less engaged with the traditional sun-and-beach destination brands and looked instead for the best value in a two-hour flight range. Sixty-one percent of all Chinese travel activity in the past 15 years has been undertaken since 2005.000 2035 1.1.2 percent and 5. but this share decreased to 62 percent by 2010—an average annual decline of 1 percent (North America) and 0.000 and US$35. and a large portion of the population is able to afford only domestic travel. The downturn following the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 has not altered the fundamentals of the T&T industry because the propensity to travel increases with disposable personal income available for discretionary spending. the growth of new source regions is going to push the economic center of gravity from the western hemisphere eastward. It has continued to grow by 4 percent in trips and 4 percent in spending from 2008 to 2009.000 China US$25. of an enormous demand waiting to be unleashed as increasing prosperity enables people to travel abroad.000 per capita RPK per capita 2010 3. The travel industry has been experiencing price competition for a long time. showing swift growth. respectively. Notably.2: Crisis Aftermath Figure 2: Propensity to travel vs. This trend has been accelerated by the greater price sensitivity of travelers who get used to seeking the best bargain when it comes to private consumption of any kind. Outbound travel from China has proven resilient to the economic downturn.

Domestic travel represents massive shares in overall travel spending in some large countries. Notably.5 billion domestic trips per annum nearly twice the number of all international tourist arrivals globally. Scandinavia. inland numbers remained stable (+0. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .9 billion in 2009. Trend 3: Travel patterns shifting to more regional and domestic travel In emerging nations. shorter trips enabled by the proliferation of low-cost air travel and more flexible work-life arrangements. Underlying consumer trends in the western hemisphere see a shift from the classical annual holiday abroad to more frequent. domestic travel can mean a massive volume of touristic activity. Tourism destinations will need to fulfill the needs of well-traveled sophisticates with diversified and high-quality travel experiences rather than mass market products. compared with €63. Greece. Prospects can be expected to lighten up with the baby boomer generation reaching pension age in the western hemisphere in the mid term.3 percent). In Germany.3 billion expenditures by residents on vacation in Germany. IHS Global Insight. helping to stabilize the sector from demand drops. The economic crisis has prompted even more travelers in predominant source markets to visit domestic destinations. domestic and regional travel represents a highly promising tourism market in its nascent stage. 2010. and the Baleares (–13 percent) over the summer of 2008.3a: Domestic spending Real global GDP growth 1. saving on expensive long-haul air transport and leading to countercyclical effects in offsetting fewer international receipts by more domestic spending. and Booz & Company analysis. the demographics of this group of affluent travelers will differ from today’s mass markets. in the summer of 2009. for example. exchange rate fluctuations as a side effect of the crisis have played an important role as price drivers in choosing where to go. The Chinese people alone undertake an estimated 1.2: Crisis Aftermath Figure 3: Sensitivity of personal T&T spending to GDP growth by year (in real terms. 2010. the Canary Islands (–21 percent). They opted instead for Egypt (+34 percent) or Tunisia (+21 percent). and the United States. which offer similar experiences at more favorable cost. For example. UK travelers cut trips to Portugal (–28 percent). 38 Mediterranean countries and left euro zone countries such as Spain. such as Germany. However. income from foreign visitors has been estimated at €59. However. even if long-haul travel has not yet reached significant volume because of low average levels of disposable income. External risks such as terrorist attacks or unfavorable exchange rate fluctuations in preferred destinations are likely to drive the propensity for traveling domestically. 1991– 2010) 3b: Foreign spending 15 15 10 10 5 ’94 ’97 ’04 ’91 ’99 ’03 ’02 ’01 ’08 ’93 ’98 0 5 ’96 0 ’09 –5 –10 –10 –15 –10 –5 0 ’94 ’03 ’01 ’08 ’98 ’02 ’00 ’92 ’09 –5 –15 ’10’06 ’07 ’04 ’91 5 10 15 –15 –15 –10 –5 0 5 10 15 Real global personal T&T domestic spending growth Sources: WTTC. Although hotel overnight accommodation of foreign visitors in the country fell by 3 percent from 2008 to 2009. Mass markets in European destinations are likely to remain under the influence of consumer austerity and demand volatility. Exchange rate fluctuations can be expected to become even more eminent with future currency volatilities on the horizon. and Portugal coping with declining tourism traffic.

regionally focused and domestic tourism is playing an increasingly important role in traditional and emerging tourism economies because residents of emerging nations tend to explore neighboring regions before taking long-haul trips. thus. It is important to note that.1 In this respect. In the longer run. but some have managed to weather the downturn successfully and have grown in spite of the global contraction of the travel market. from a policymaker’s point of view. Countries that were slow to adapt to changing demand patterns—such as Vietnam—and that bet on continuing growth from Western European and North The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .1. Taiwan. China Indonesia Bulgaria 10 United States 5 Thailand 0 –25 –25 Dominican Republic Tunisia Vietnam Ireland Switzerland Canada Singapore –20 –15 Japan –10 Russian Federation Brazil Sweden Spain Crisis epicenter Australia Hong Kong SAR Greece China Turkey Hungary India Mexico France –15 –20 Croatia Germany Jordan Egypt Austria Italy –5 –10 Malaysia Ukraine Argentina United Kingdom Poland –5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Change in int’l tourism receipts (%) Sources: UNWTO. The overall performance as a T&T destination is determined by international tourist arrivals as an approximation of demand. domestic tourism may gain even more importance because regional travelers will aim to avoid the increasing cost of long-haul travel and benefit from lower transport costs to domestic destinations. hinting at less revenue per visitor and. These are the major European and North American destinations that suffered from weakened long-haul or regional source markets. Notes: Bubble size indicates international tourist arrivals in 2009. 2010. and Europeans and Americans redirect parts of their travel activity to inland destinations to save money. and the change of international tourism receipts is an indicator of the sector’s overall economic well-being in terms of money inflow. as shown in Figure 4. domestic spending directly supports the home economy because it originates from residents who would have otherwise spent their money abroad.2: Crisis Aftermath Figure 4: Impact of the economic crisis on major tourism destinations (2007–09) 20 Crisis winners Change in int’l tourist arrivals (%) 15 Taiwan. as shown in Figure 3. but it remains to be seen what longterm effect the crisis might have on price levels in these economies. It will be important for policymakers to put regional and domestic tourism on their T&T development agenda when looking at the sector as a whole. Booz & Company analysis. International tourist receipts were based on local currency units applying an annual average exchange rate of each currency versus current values in US dollars. 39 Spending on domestic tourism has proven to be more crisis-resilient than travel money being spent abroad. Most major destination economies clearly suffered during the crisis. and Indonesia— had already experienced some increasing demand from emerging outbound travel activity out of China. and North African countries—gained throughout the crisis by attracting price-sensitive travelers from crisis-struck outbound regions in Western Europe. Others—such as Turkey. price pressure. Most of them—France and Spain being among the most visited countries worldwide—also lost significantly on tourism receipts. Winning destinations—such as Malaysia. Recovery was already visible during the second half of 2009 and the first half of 2010. Bulgaria. Crisis winners and losers: Lessons learned The period from 2007 to 2009 highlights the direct impact the financial crisis has had on tourism economies. Economies losing both on tourist arrivals and international tourism receipts are considered to represent the crisis epicenter.

Conventions. Turkey started to direct its destination-marketing efforts toward more diversified travel segments such as winter sports. outbreaks of diseases. policymakers should aim to make their T&T sector more crisis-resilient going forward by broadening the foundation on which it is built (Figure 5). and so forth. terror attacks. and sailing tourism. the T&T sector has navigated stormy waters after the financial crisis. such as Canada. and Exhibitions). cultural experience. Build up fast crisis-response capability based on close cooperation between the public and private sectors.2: Crisis Aftermath 40 American source markets lost significantly during the crisis. Providing a low-cost alternative to traditional destinations has been the recipe for success for markets within the reach of Western Europe—such as Turkey. destination countries are increasingly facing risks and uncertainties that have the power to severely impact their T&T economy on very short notice: economic downturn. It also encourages high-net-worth individuals to choose the country as a permanent secondary residence (“Malaysia My Second Home”). such as its homestay program. Tunisia. Considering environmental regulation and respective customer preferences for more eco-friendly travel in this respect will become a key differentiator in the future. and Egypt—which have enjoyed steady growth while their direct competitors from the euro zone suffered. For example. Italy.2 Winners of the crisis managed to increase international tourist arrivals and value creation in terms of more receipts. currency fluctuations. Alarmingly. and Greece. These countries have managed to keep international tourism receipts above the downward trend by focusing on crisis-resilient source markets. At the same time. Looking ahead. Taiwan. health tourism. and Indonesia—have done well. thus demonstrating favorable long-term T&T prospects. Some countries have managed to maintain growth in tourist arrivals during the downturn by enjoying an increase caused by fortunate events or circumstances. Policymakers should aim to manage downturn periods by linking consistent short-term crisis responses with their broader T&T development agenda to build the resilience of their tourism sector and to find paths to future growth. family fun. An example of such growth is Taiwan. driven by dedicated development policy fostering close collaboration between the private and public sectors. Malaysia has also established innovative vacation formats. affordable luxury. More than 75 percent of Hungary’s inbound travelers in 2009 were same-day visitors from neighboring countries who were drawn in by the favorable exchange rate of the Hungarian currency. And countries such as the Dominican Republic. This includes the expansion of touristic services from mass market to additional high-yield segments. To navigate future turbulences more effectively. Destination marketing has been focused on crisis-resilient demand from regional sources such as China as well as long-haul markets with a clear focus on high-yield segments such as nature adventure (including ecotourism). with almost all major destinations having seen a significant decline in visitor numbers and receipts while overarching trends have continued to reshape the sector as a whole.1. 1. which anticipated the looming decline in its traditional source markets in the United States and Europe. However. Countries in the winning zone fall broadly into two categories: Destinations benefitting from China as an emerging and crisis-resilient outbound market—such as Malaysia. which had become accustomed to high growth rates year over year. quickly adapted to grim short-term outlooks by redirecting destination-marketing efforts to alternative source markets with similar spending and travel habits. Turkey has turned the economic crisis into an opportunity for its travel sector by offering attractive prices on sun-and-beach products similar to those of competitors in the Mediterranean such as Spain. As another example of a T&T winner throughout the downturn. cultural diversity. which attracted large volumes of travelers from the Chinese mainland after direct flights were resumed in July 2008. these risks are less and less under the control of governmental policy and precautionary actions are becoming nearly impossible.3 Government agenda: Paths to a more crisis-resilient T&T sector Overall. and MICE (Meetings. as the most recent examples of the upheavals in Tunisia and Egypt demonstrated. Incentives. it will be important to consider a sensible balance of tourist arrivals and tourism receipts growth to drive the long-term development agenda of the T&T sector. The economic downturn of 2008–09 has left lasting uncertainty on the long-term growth prospects of the sector. Malaysia has harvested the fruits of its long-standing tourism promotion strategy during the economic crisis. Tourism nations need to ensure their long-term competitiveness with a consistent sustainability perspective. Reacting quickly to deteriorating demand conditions is key when making the T&T sector more robust against future market shocks in the short term. Countries need to establish resilience management and The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . which allows tourists to experience “real life” in resident families while discovering the country by rail. Bulgaria has kept its growth momentum partly because (and not despite) of the crisis attracting budget-orientated tourists from Western Europe seeking low-cost alternatives to traditional sun-and-beach destinations in the euro zone.

41 controlling functions within their sector governance. the European The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Close source-market monitoring and detailed understanding of demand dynamics must be established to anticipate market movements up front. Reduce access barriers and implement an open market environment. a world-class telecommunications infrastructure. countries should aim to overcome national boundaries in developing their common T&T sector. Effective collaboration is vital when trying to cope with higher levels of uncertainty in the market environment and higher complexities on the T&T operating side. For example. close and consistent cooperation between the public and private sectors will benefit the whole sector in a variety of ways. Also. a destination needs to make sure that it participates in the proliferation of the internationally most competitive private service offerings. potentially on the national level. and capacity and infrastructure development. and comfortable land transport options (e. a set of shortterm measures such as reducing taxes or visa regulations can help to stabilize declining inbound traffic.2: Crisis Aftermath Figure 5: Measures addressing disruptive events and structural shifts Destination development (strategic) Enable fast crisis response by involving stakeholders Foster close cooperation between public and private sectors Lower access barriers Promote open market environment Target crisis-resilient & strong growth source markets Diversify source markets Incentivize and promote domestic tourism Promote strong domestic tourism Promote more flexible investment schemes Plan sustainable infrastructure Source: Booz & Company analysis. while open market conditions support development at the local level. Apart from focusing on international inbound tourism from traditional source markets.Disruptive events (short term) Travel & Tourism competitiveness Crisis resilience management (tactical) Structural shifts (long term) 1. rail system) increase the competitiveness of tourist destinations. even in developed major tourist destinations.. For example. tourismsector governance institutions often lack effective and consistent resilience management and controlling capabilities. In times of plummeting visitor numbers. factors such as attracting international hotel investors. bus. an increased focus on emerging regional markets may help to turn volatile demand into a more robust inflow of tourists during downturn periods and thereafter. including destination marketing. that orchestrates local and regional efforts and initiatives. not only in crisis mode. For example.and private-sector stakeholders to enable consistent rebound of short-term crisis impacts. Redirect destination marketing to diversify source markets. Ultimately.g. A fast-track communication and decisionmaking framework must be defined between public. multi-destination tour packages targeted at important source markets can be supported only when countries consistently establish close cooperation among their T&T industries. It is important to create a single platform. taxi. 2. However. product offering and differentiation. In the longer run. deregulation of the local airline market and the pursuit of open sky policies will ensure a destination’s connectivity and accessibility. To leverage shifting demand and travel patterns. 3.

gov/data_research/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/ 2010-2030/media/2010%20Forecast%20Doc. or domestic tourism demand. Available at http://esa.thomascookgroup.faa. Characteristics of International Trips Quarter I-IV (January–December) 2009. HKU (Hungarian Statistical Office). and Rebalancing. The increasing cost of long-haul travel and changing demographics will drive more demand for short-distance trips in developed regions. 3 Ringbeck and Gross 2008. 2009.org/unpd/wpp2008/index. Available at http://www. thus. The 2008 Revision. MA.pdf (accessed December 2010). J. Domestic tourism is a powerful market on its own. Any crisis reveals the weak spots of each destination’s positioning toward global. into underdeveloped areas. February 22. FAA Aerospace Forecast Fiscal Years 2010–2030. A.2: Crisis Aftermath 42 Travel Commission (ETC) launched an integrated website (www. Available at http://www.pdf (accessed December 2010). China Statistical Yearbook – 2009. 2010.messe-berlin.un. Investor Day Presentation. Environmental Sustainability as a Driver for Competitiveness. COTRI (China Outbound Tourism Research Institute).globe-expert. Ringbeck. China Outbound Tourism 2010: Good News for the Year of Transformation. 2010. 2010.com/ CountryIntelligence (accessed December 2010). serial number 28.booz.com/media/uploads/Environmental_Sustainability _as_a_Driver_for_Competitiveness. upmarket/luxury experiences. Because infrastructure investments typically require long lead times. regional. Foster local initiatives and entrepreneurship to promote domestic tourism.pdf (accessed December 2010).de/vip8_1/website/Internet/Internet/ www. ITB Berlin. it serves as a strong catalyst for internal development as personal income levels allow for more discretionary activities. New customer segments can be exploited by offering ecotourism. 5. it has the potential to establish a broader foundation for the T&T sector as a whole. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . 2 HKU 2010. demand-based investment planning helps to avoid accumulating overcapacity. 39–47. It will become key for policymakers to offer incentives for sustainable development in order to support the long-term prospects of the T&T sector instead of seeking short-term profits. March.eu/quixplorer/filestorage/ Interfocus/3-Economie/31-Europe/31-SRCNL-HCSO_News/ 201002/Characteristics_of_International_Trips_Quarter_IIV_2009. IHS Global Insight. Gautam.deutschland-tourismus. 2010.htm (accessed December 2010).org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/index. Flexible. Notes 1 See Ringbeck et al. These weak spots must be carefully assessed when formulating and implementing an appropriate policy response.imf. although the crisis hurt traditional source markets. DZT (Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus). FAA (Federal Aviation Administration). National Bureau of Statistics of China. Frankfurt am Main: Deutschland das Reiseland. 2008. Incoming —Tourismus Deutschland Edition 2010.com/downloads/pdf/Investor_Day_ FINAL_Website. and thus investment. or voluntourism. and S. March 11. 2010.1. Available at http://www..htm (accessed December 2010). These years of global downturn have demonstrated that.visiteurope. health tourism. Washington DC: FAA.pdf (accessed December 2010). Country Intelligence Database. Available at http://www. Available at http://www. W. Risk. Destination development and marketing needs to reflect this sector by segmenting residents along their domestic travel potential and conclusively cater to their needs to build a strong domestic tourism demand that drives the T&T sector as well as overall economic growth. In countries with a focus on long-haul inbound tourism. “Endangered Growth: How the Price of Oil Challenges International Travel & Tourism Growth. J. Lexington. Washington DC: IMF. drive economic development. IMF (International Monetary Fund). Ringbeck. 2010. March 10. Royal Opera House. Pietsch. London. Available at http://www. Such adaptability helps to cope with rapidly changing mass markets and mitigates global risk factors that temporarily drive down tourism demand. World Population Prospects. Available at http://www.itb-kongress/pdf/Praesentationen_ITB_Kongress_2010/ 11_03_ITB_Destination_Day2_1630_Wolfgang_Arlt_en. 2009. Gross. The impacts of a crisis should be leveraged to turn tactical crisis management into strategic opportunities for development that ultimately drive a destination’s attractiveness and competitiveness. it represents huge spending and traffic volumes. UN Population Department.pdf (accessed December 2010). Available at http://www1. Presentation at Social Media Tourism Marketing – The Example of China.ihsglobalinsight. Thomas Cook Group Corporate Strategy. Fostering a vibrant domestic tourism sector helps to steer tourists. and T. References Arlt. Introduce more flexible investment schemes to create sustainable growth. World Economic Outlook: Recovery. In developed countries.pdf (accessed December 2010). These travel formats empower local communities to actively participate in the tourism sector and. long-term sustainability should be reflected at very early stages in the planning process and should involve stakeholders at all levels.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a Time of Turbulence. Hungarian Statistical Office. Booz & Company. Geneva: World Economic Forum. United States.com) in 2009 presenting Europe to foreign visitors as a one-stop platform. G. Beijing: National Bureau of Statistics of China. in developing nations.de/ pdf/Incoming-Tourismus_Deutschland-Edition_2010%281%29. 4. some emerging tourism destinations have been able to grow not only because of the weakness of competing destinations but also by leveraging the crisis to pave the way for future growth. 2009. 2010.

org/eng/ Tourism_Research/ (accessed December 2010). 2010. UNTWO World Tourism Barometer 8 (3): October 2010. Tourism Satellite Account Data.WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council). 1.wttc.2: Crisis Aftermath UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). London: WTTC. 2010. Available at http://www. 43 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

and Southern Europe. 435 million in 1990. Do the four editions of the TTCI reflect the progress that emerging destinations have been making in tourism development? Have they been bridging the gap that exists within the TTCI and improved their rankings? 1. 935 million in 2010.1 while tourism growth over recent years has largely been driven by emerging economies. and. Among them are many emerging economies that have successfully been reaping the benefits of tourism to boost their economic and social development. Malaysia. which has been dominated by advanced economies since the 1950s but which has been increasingly populated by emerging economies—China. it might seem incongruous that the top ranks of the Index are invariably dominated by advanced economies. Ukraine. 675 million in 2000. This is reflected in the list of the top 15 receiving countries.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies CHAPTER 1.3 2. In spite of occasional shocks. tourism has experienced continuous expansion and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest-growing economic sectors in the world. In this contribution we try to shed some light on how emerging economies are comparatively evaluated by the Index by exploring the following three questions: 1. this share had fallen to 56 percent by 2009. finally. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 45 . Currently there are close to 100 countries receiving over 1 million arrivals a year. and the Russian Federation—over the past decades. Many destinations in the emerging and developing regions of the world have managed to fruitfully develop and exploit their tourism potential to attract and cater to visitors from both domestic and international markets. Mexico. How do economies rank on the TTCI relative to their level of development? Long-term trends in the development of international tourism Over the past six decades. How do emerging economies and advanced economies compare within each of the 14 pillars of the Index? 3. international tourist arrivals have shown virtually uninterrupted growth— from a mere 25 million in 1950 to 277 million in 1980. Many new destinations have found their place in the sun alongside the traditional tourism destinations of North America and Northern. Turkey. While. though the focus in this chapter will be on international tourism. in 1950. Western. almost all (97 percent) of international arrivals were concentrated in only 15 destination countries.Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies: What Does the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Tell Us? JOHN KESTER VALERIA CROCE World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) When reviewing the four editions of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) compiled so far alongside recent trends in tourism development.

International tourism in the first decade of the 21st century In 2010. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 The strong growth of tourism in emerging destinations has been possible only when the appropriate conditions and business environment to develop these destinations are in place. At the current rate.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies 46 Table 1: Comparison of advanced and emerging economies: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index over time Rank 2007 2008 2009 2011 Average rank 18. The last of the advanced economies. and the third. According to preliminary data presented in the Advance Release of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer of January 2011. growing at an average rate of almost four percentage points higher than advanced ones. by comparing how they rank against others overall.2 percent. it is likely that emerging destinations will attract more international arrivals than advanced ones over the next five years. Ranks 55 to 139 are all taken by emerging economies. 28. This was followed by a rebound in the shape of a mirror image of high growth on a seriously depressed base.7 percent.2 18.6 77. The “bust” year 2009 and the rebound of 2010 were preceded by four “boom” years that followed the dismal period marked by the terrorist attack of September 11. 2001.0 percent. coupled with the appropriate proactive policies to develop tourism and ensure substantial investments in infrastructure and marketing in emerging destinations. by individual pillar. The increase more than offsets the exceptional 4 percent decline in 2009. As a result of this two-speed recovery.2 18. Estonia. emerging economies recorded a growth of 5. respectively.7 percent a year.6 18. For international tourism. In 2009. the second. A year-over-year comparison shows that.3 percent and emerging economies by 3. emerging economies increased their international tourist arrivals from 259 million to 442 million.5 percent. ranks 54. while advanced destinations fell back from 62 to 53 percent. ranks 25. international tourist arrivals worldwide were up by 6. In the same period. Destinations can identify and assess their strengths and weaknesses vis-à-vis other destinations and over time. emerging economies improved on their precrisis peak year 2008 with 20 million additional arrivals in 2010. Looking back on the impact that the financial crisis and economic recession have had on tourism. and the SARS outbreak in 2003.3 percent for the full 2008 year. emerging destinations performed very dynamically. from 416 million to 493 million. advanced economies declined by 4. with five years of growth above the long-term average annual growth rate of 4 percent and another five seriously troubled years. the United Arab Emirates. The first emerging economy. with an additional 22 million arrivals over the former peak year 2008. and reached 935 million in 2010. increasing from 38 percent in 2000 to 47 percent in 2010. while advanced economies were only 2 million arrivals above their pre-crisis peak year 2007.” It does this by comparing destinations according to a comprehensive set of indicators in a number of relevant areas or pillars. As a result.Vibrant economic growth in emerging source markets. corresponding to an average annual growth rate of 5. The aim of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) is to measure “the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the Travel & Tourism (T&T) sector in different countries. or by each separate indicator. were and will be the primary drivers of this performance.3 percent and 8. the top ranks in the 2011 edition of the Index are secured by the 33 advanced economies.5 percent a year. while advanced economies had already suffered a small decline of 0. Emerging and developing economies start to enter the mix only from rank 25: the top 24 ranks are all taken by advanced economies. Over the whole decade. Emerging economies weathered the storm much better than the advanced ones. emerging destinations gained nine percentage points in terms of share of worldwide arrivals.5 Highest rank 1 1 1 1 Lowest rank 44 51 46 52 ADVANCED ECONOMIES (33) EMERGING ECONOMIES (89) Average rank 77. the decade 2000–10 was particularly mixed. Barbados. arrivals in advanced countries grew on average by 1. from August 2008 to October 2009. with the biggest decline in March 2009 (–12 percent).4 Highest rank 18 26 27 25 Lowest rank 122 122 122 122 Note: The table considers only those 122 economies that are present in all four editions of the Index.6 77. in 2010. a monthby-month analysis shows a near-perfect V-shape of 15 consecutive months of negative growth in international tourist arrivals. they enjoyed increases of 5. international tourism rebounded more strongly than expected from the shock caused by the economic turbulence of late 2008 and 2009. Between 2000 and 2010.1.4 77. the Slovak Republic. As in previous editions. 30.

7 1 59 85. China 5). of just over 77 for all four years. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. Also. China) enters the rankings only in 17th place. while only for the pillar Price competitiveness in the T&T industry do emerging economies outperform advanced ones (Table 2). Cape Verde 5).8 1 139 C 13 Natural resources 61.8 8 131 73. These figures are based on the 122 economies that have been covered in all four editions of the TTCI. Ground transport infrastructure. a number of interesting observations can be made. Barbados 2. Table 1 shows that there is hardly any variation over time. Air transport infrastructure.9 2 116 77.6 1 63 84. Prioritization of Travel & Tourism. the Human resources.3 1 133 Have emerging countries been reducing the gap in the TTCI? In order to determine whether emerging and advanced countries have moved closer together over the past few years. Comparative advantage for emerging economies: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index pillars When analyzing 2011 rankings for advanced and emerging economies by pillar. the only one on which emerging countries rank considerably higher on average (with an average rank of 58) than the advanced ones (with an average of 108). Affinity for Travel & Tourism. In six other pillars.2 1 112 80.8 8 139 A 5 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 44.0 16 139 A 4 Health and hygiene 25. and Tourism infrastructure pillars are predominantly the domain of advanced economies.8 1 72 83. with an average rank for advanced economies of just over 18 and.6 1 139 B 10 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 107. Albania 3. with all 33 of them ranking among the top 41.5 17 139 B 7 Ground transport infrastructure 23.0 12 139 A 3 Safety and security 23. Jamaica 4). They may have been able to improve their T&T competitiveness. Barbados 3.8 1 139 B 8 Tourism infrastructure 25.0 1 122 84. from the very small differences shown. Prioritization of Travel & Tourism (Mauritius 1. and Air transport infrastructure (United Arab Emirates 4). On all but one pillar. The failure to close the gap could be due to the fact that the advanced countries are so concentrated at the top. the gap is somewhat smaller but still significant.9 1 41 85. Environmental sustainability. For the Policy rules and regulations. Because the Index has evolved over time and indicators included have varied somewhat.5 1 73 84.0 4 139 C 14 Cultural resources 25. Cultural resources.5 17 139 58. Mauritius 4. and Natural resources pillars.8 10 139 A 2 Environmental sustainability 35.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies Table 2: Comparison of advanced and emerging economies: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 by pillar 47 .7 4 139 A 1 Policy rules and regulations 32.6 1 58 83. along with the highest and lowest ranks achieved. for emerging economies. Affinity for Travel & Tourism (Lebanon 1. Tourism infrastructure (Croatia 4).8 1 139 C 12 Affinity for Travel & Tourism 57. Health and hygiene.6 1 54 86. Health and hygiene (Lithuania and Hong Kong tied. at 1). and also because the series of Index values covers a limited time span. with the average ranking of each group showing a difference equal to or higher than 58. Safety and security. In this case. but not at a faster rate than advanced economies.5 3 137 72. to draw any conclusions as to whether emerging countries have been bridging the gap. the first advanced economy (Taiwan. The highest rankings of the ICT infrastructure pillar includes almost exclusively the advanced economies. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the Price competitiveness in the T&T industry pillar. Tanzania 2.0 25 Lowest 139 ICT infrastructure 18. it is not possible.Advanced economies (33) Emerging economies (106) Average rank Highest Lowest Average rank Highest Pillar title 18.9 13 139 Subindex Pillar number B 9 C 11 Human resources 21.0 1 85 81. advanced economies rank on average significantly higher. emerging economies rank among the top five positions: Natural resources (Brazil 1. Table 1 compares average ranks for both groups of countries.0 1 67 84.4 10 139 B 6 Air transport infrastructure 25.

respectively. As Table 3 shows. 27 countries (20 percent) rank 15 or more positions higher on the TTCI than would be expected based on their rank on the HDI. Advanced economies started earlier with their overall development. in their contribution to the first Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007. safety and security. to provide necessary services. They have had more time and more resources available to resolve basic issues. 48 Travel & Tourism competitiveness relative to level of development The analysis above emphasizes the fact that where a country places in the Index is highly related to its level of development. Thailand leads this alternative list with a noteworthy difference of 44 positions. advanced economies rank higher on the TTCI. and to build infrastructure. the difference between the indexes is less than 5 positions higher or lower. using gross national income (GNI) per capita as an indicator for the latter. looking in detail at the T&T competitiveness of each country. They identify best practice examples in each of the defined peer groups for an internal benchmarking analysis. such as rules and regulation. another 27 countries (20 percent) rank between 5 and 14 positions higher. though it is interesting to note that China has an advantage over India of some 25 ranks on both The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . which has the advantage that they would have the same value when perfectly positively correlated (overall. Our objective. of the 135 economies with data available for both indexes. between the indexes. Both indexes are compared not according to their absolute values but on their rankings.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies Figure 1: Travel & Tourism competitiveness relative to development stage 0 TTCI less than 5 positions higher or lower than HDI TTCI 5 or more positions lower than HDI 30 60 90 120 150 150 120 90 60 30 0 Human Development Index (HDI) rank Source: Compiled by UNWTO. it also takes into account life expectancy and education. as well as with their tourism development. which countries are doing better or worse. with differences of 42 and 40 ranks. and invest in the quality of their human capital. As a result. and health and hygiene. What we want to see is how economies are doing compared with what one would expect based on their respective stages of development. Jürgen Ringbeck and Stephan Gross of Booz Allen Hamilton. is to try to control for the influence of the stage of development. better reflecting the quality of people’s lives and countries’ achievements.89). and have thus been wealthier over a longer time. based on World Economic Forum and UNDP 2010 data. besides living standard as indicated by per capita income. China and India follow. as developed and compiled by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Note: See Table 3 for data series. their correlation is high at r = 0. The last piece of analysis presented here also focuses on T&T competitiveness relative to the overall level of development of each economy.TTCI 5 or more positions higher than HDI Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) rank 1. pointed to the close correlation between the TTCI and the stage of development of a country. given that the TTCI measures the overall “stock” of T&T competitiveness rather than improvements over time (the “flow”). The HDI is conceptually broader than income measures since. and why. For 26 countries (19 percent). The indicator used for the country’s level of development is the Human Development Index (HDI). accurately reflecting their advantage in these areas. however. as it ranks 84 on the HDI and 40 on the TTCI.

Senegal. For 31 countries (23 percent). Zimbabwe. since the first might be much more decisive in determining T&T competitiveness than the latter. Rwanda. Morocco. and hotel rooms). Kuwait. while those at the bottom right-hand side of the graph represent countries where conditions for tourism development have not kept pace with overall development (e.Conclusions The overall analysis confirms that the TTCI. telephone lines. and Algeria. and—the first two among the advanced economies—Portugal and Austria. the TTCI is 15 or more positions lower. this is inevitable because it reflects the better overall conditions in those economies. Currently. India. South Africa. Venezuela. on an equal footing. The scatter plot in Figure 1 illustrates the close overall correlation between the HDI and the TTCI. Egypt. for instance. it might be worthwhile taking the following into account: • It is vital to continue reviewing the Index. • The weighting of pillars might be reconsidered. with regard to future editions of the TTCI. tends to rank advanced economies higher than countries at lower stages of development. additional or alternative factors might play a key role. At the bottom end of the table. including more relative indicators (flow) that reflect the progress made in certain areas.g. Furthermore. in order to see whether the model needs adjustment or whether the indicators need to be revised. higher-ranking countries can always serve as a reference for pointing out The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. Outliers on the top left-hand side represent countries where TTCI consistently exceeds HDI. countries that rank 20 positions higher on the TTCI are the Gambia. but that challenge should not be avoided. all pillars are weighted equally within their respective subindexes. Indonesia. and for the group below. the development of the tourism sector is broadly in line with what one would expect given the general level of development. For emerging destinations. Israel. and its indicators with a critical eye. the Islamic Republic of Iran. the Gambia. the availability of suitable indicators is always a constraint. Comparing rankings relative to stages of development shows that. Libya and Kuwait). It is interesting to note that many emerging economies that feature at the top end of this alternative ranking are successful tourism destinations. Paraguay. given comparable resources. it might be necessary to make changes to the way these countries are perceived alongside the established destinations.e. as a matter of course. Turkey. China. the number of additional airlines. Countries at a more advanced stage of development should not be taken as the norm for one’s own ranking (it is less useful to compare one’s performance with that of Switzerland if resources in the two countries are very different). the TTCI rank is between 5 and 14 positions lower than the HDI rank. • It is essential to study successful emerging destinations in greater depth to determine whether there are specific factors that can explain their progress. such as Thailand. Until now. as the difference between a country’s positions on each Index is less than 5 positions. and South Africa. In this respect. its pillars.. For the group above the line. Vietnam. advanced economies have been very much taken as the model of development that should be replicated. telephone lines. while at the bottom end are many countries that have not yet been able to fully realize their tourism potential. For instance. 49 . It is possible to make a valid evaluation of one’s own relative position only by comparing oneself with destinations at a comparable stage of development. • The Index might have to be supplemented with indicators that show the improvement of an existing situation.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies indexes. in addition to absolute indicators (stock). operating airlines. Tunisia. in the case of infrastructure. the Index might also include the increase in these respective volumes over a specific period (i. Even though there is always room for improvement.e. In a way. yet one could question whether it is appropriate to treat Price competitiveness in the T&T industry and ICT infrastructure. Brunei Darussalam. Of course. the current Index is still a very valuable and useful tool for different countries to assess their strengths and weaknesses and to give some indication about what they should focus their efforts on.. as well as including the absolute volumes (i. To do justice to the rising stars of world tourism among the emerging economies. some economies are able to create rather better conditions for tourism development than others. However. vice versa. This would mean. hotel rooms). Guatemala. the TTCI rank is higher than the HDI rank. for another 24 countries (18 percent). For the group of 31 economies around the diagonal (marked with a solid gray circle). The importance of comparing countries with their relevant peers should not be underestimated. countries are found that rank rather more poorly on the TTCI than would be expected according to their level of development as indicated by their HDI ranking.. Nevertheless. Countries with a difference of 30 or more in their ranks on the two indexes are: Libya. the impression remains that the TTCI favors advanced economies and insufficiently reflects the progress made by many emerging and developing economies.

54 98 29 Morocco 9 E 0.611 92 3.26 118 11 Kenya 34 E 0.08 15 8 Hong Kong SAR 49 A 0.885 8 5.788 40 4.61 34 13 Dominican Republic 31 E 0.572 100 3.44 104 8 Luxembourg 48 A 0.743 55 4.36 111 9 Nepal 43 E 0.284 133 3.18 124 9 Uganda 42 E 0.467 112 3.385 127 3.328 129 3.812 32 4.74 87 1 Colombia 64 E 0.41 4 20 Cape Verde 18 E 0.862 20 5.79 84 10 France 40 A 0.885 8 5.422 120 3.567 101 3.41 3 10 Mozambique 41 E 0.68 1 11 Malawi 38 E 0.39 45 31 Turkey 7 E 0.470 110 3.23 10 16 Costa Rica 27 E 0.47 40 44 China 2 E 0.600 95 3.40 107 18 United Kingdom 22 A 0.37 48 30 Rwanda 8 E 0.50 2 6 Iceland 54 A 0.795 38 5.309 130 3.866 18 5.534 104 3.56 96 6 Sri Lanka 52 E 0.34 5 3 Denmark 60 A 0.14 61 16 Mauritius 25 E 0.44 105 3 Russian Federation 58 E 0.78 30 0 Benin 67 E 0.815 30 4.1.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies 50 Table 3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index relative to the Human Development Index Human Development Index T&T Competitiveness Index Rank by difference Stage of development Score Rank Score Rank Thailand 1 E 0.305 131 3.654 84 4.94 73 1 Georgia 65 E 0.96 70 25 Vietnam 11 E 0.663 80 4.35 51 16 Singapore 26 A 0.385 127 3.863 19 5.62 94 –2 Bahrain 69 E 0.815 30 4.719 60 4.42 106 17 Jordan 24 E 0.12 62 13 Croatia 30 E 0.06 128 3 Cambodia 57 E 0.620 91 3.767 47 4.39 46 9 Montenegro 45 E 0.88 25 7 Nicaragua 51 E 0.679 78 4.84 28 12 Ethiopia 33 E 0.519 105 4.428 117 3.874 12 5.49 100 21 Guatemala 13 E 0.725 58 4.701 67 4.81 133 1 Mali 62 E 0. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .29 8 11 Switzerland 37 A 0.565 102 3.37 108 9 Bulgaria 44 E 0.390 126 3.140 135 3.683 76 4.59 35 19 Zambia 21 E 0.744 54 4.663 80 3.47 39 –2 Cont’d.851 24 5.849 25 5.597 97 4.43 43 15 Namibia 28 E 0.395 125 3.98 69 1 United Arab Emirates 66 E 0.51 99 11 Mexico 35 E 0.658 83 3.88 26 4 Burkina Faso 56 E 0.852 23 5.31 115 20 Egypt 15 E 0.633 88 3.36 50 19 Malaysia 20 E 0.05 16 2 Burundi 61 E 0.494 108 3.93 74 27 Indonesia 10 E 0.11 63 34 Tunisia 6 E 0.84 80 13 Jamaica 29 E 0.99 68 12 Barbados 32 E 0.869 16 5.30 116 –2 Guyana 68 E 0.846 26 5.398 123 3.07 65 40 Gambia.05 129 1 Botswana 63 E 0.699 69 4.688 75 4.87 77 6 Germany 53 A 0.30 117 10 Honduras 39 E 0.282 134 2.689 74 3.30 7 18 Tanzania 23 E 0.411 121 3.43 42 11 Spain 36 A 0.750 53 4.70 88 38 Country/Economy Difference in rank (number of positions) South Africa 5 E 0.56 36 9 Cyprus 46 A 0.560 103 3. The 4 E 0.801 37 4.872 13 5.89 24 9 Ghana 47 E 0.769 45 4.435 114 3.698 70 3.606 93 3.47 38 42 India 3 E 0.810 33 4.19 11 5 Malta 55 A 0.01 18 20 Austria 17 A 0.82 82 21 Zimbabwe 14 E 0.681 77 4.96 71 20 Portugal 16 A 0.77 85 19 Brazil 19 E 0.604 94 3.23 57 3 Sweden 59 A 0.19 12 8 Estonia 50 E 0.90 76 24 Senegal 12 E 0.

37 110 –44 Kuwait 134 E 0.91 75 –19 Norway 120 A 0.70 89 –27 Bolivia 126 E 0.872 13 4.433 116 2.80 134 –12 Pakistan 104 E 0.56 135 –3 Côte d'Ivoire 74 E 0.735 57 3.24 121 –12 Lithuania 105 E 0.45 41 –5 Slovenia 84 A 0.884 10 4. E indicates emerging economy.696 71 3.295 132 2.63 93 –29 Algeria 128 E 0.56 97 –7 Albania 91 E 0. 122 A 0. Islamic Rep.775 43 4.85 132 –16 Azerbaijan 115 E 0.710 64 3.98 21 –16 New Zealand 117 A 0. Notes: Rankings in this table are based on the 135 economies that appear in both indexes.07 64 –30 Venezuela 130 E 0.752 52 4.767 47 4.623 89 3.29 9 –2 United States 72 A 0.30 6 –2 Chad 73 E 0.98 20 –19 Serbia 121 E 0.795 38 4.423 119 3.92 23 –6 Nigeria 88 E 0.02 17 –2 Canada 71 A 0.35 113 –28 Bosnia and Herzegovina 127 E 0. to two decimal places.20 58 –15 Mauritania 114 E 0.17 60 –13 Bangladesh 109 E 0.69 90 –3 Hungary 77 E 0.09 126 –7 Kyrgyz Republic 89 E 0.937 2 5.49 101 –3 Philippines 76 E 0.13 14 –8 Madagascar 97 E 0.677 79 3.17 59 –7 Uruguay 94 E 0.803 36 4.502 106 2. based on World Economic Forum and UNDP 2010 data.34 114 –15 Argentina 113 E 0.94 22 –12 Lesotho 107 E 0.37 109 –30 Brunei Darussalam 129 E 0.01 67 –7 Peru 92 E 0.71 32 –21 Slovak Republic 123 A 0.68 91 –47 Libya 135 E 0.888 7 5.736 56 3.640 86 3. This table provides the scores as they appear in their respective indexes.36 49 –4 Czech Republic 80 A 0.498 107 3.695 72 3.83 81 –17 Trinidad and Tobago 119 E 0.805 34 4.460 113 3.85 79 –16 Ireland 116 A 0.15 13 –11 Angola 103 E 0.755 50 4.45 103 –7 Mongolia 90 E 0.771 44 3.805 34 4.27 55 –14 Tajikistan 112 E 0. The TTCI provides scores for a value of 1 to 7. FYR 82 E 0.46 102 –31 Israel 131 A 0.435 114 3.79 83 –11 Australia 102 A 0.855 21 4.643 85 3.907 3 5. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.783 41 4.702 66 3.490 109 3.95 131 –13 Romania 108 E 0.828 28 4.78 29 –8 Netherlands 96 A 0.469 111 3.64 33 –5 Italy 85 A 0.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies Table 3: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index relative to the Human Development Index 51 .18 122 –9 Poland 99 E 0.08 127 –3 Syria 75 E 0.35 112 –5 Macedonia.818 29 4.30 54 –4 Latvia 79 E 0.659 82 3.77 86 –14 Chile 111 E 0.38 47 –9 El Salvador 100 E 0.765 49 4.18 123 –9 Cameroon 98 E 0.701 67 3.871 15 5.427 118 2. A indicates advanced economy.895 5 4.902 4 5.638 87 3.96 72 –5 Qatar 83 E 0.723 59 4.Human Development Index Country/Economy Rank by difference Stage of development Score Rank T&T Competitiveness Index Score Rank Difference in rank (number of positions) Finland 70 A 0.26 119 –33 Iran.25 120 –70 Source: Compiled by UNWTO.769 45 4.34 53 –12 Japan 106 A 0.54 37 –3 Panama 78 E 0.938 1 4.622 90 3.397 124 3.24 56 –7 Greece 95 A 0. The HDI provides scores for a value from 0 to 1.719 60 4.854 22 4.403 122 2.710 64 3.714 62 3.60 95 –6 Belgium 87 A 0.04 66 –7 Saudi Arabia 93 E 0.580 99 3.755 50 3. 133 E 0.85 78 –21 Korea. Rep.77 31 –4 Swaziland 81 E 0.890 6 5.841 27 4.35 52 –23 Timor–Leste 124 E 0.589 98 3.41 44 –31 Paraguay 132 E 0.99 130 –24 Kazakhstan 125 E 0.867 17 4.695 72 3. to three decimal places.598 96 3.11 125 –14 Armenia 110 E 0.783 41 4.00 19 –16 Ukraine 118 E 0.877 11 4.68 92 –10 Ecuador 101 E 0.713 63 3.87 27 –5 Moldova 86 E 0.

Norway.org/facts/eng/barometer. Slovakia.3: Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging Economies possible next steps to take in order to improve a country’s competitiveness. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Washington DC: IMF. New York: UNDP. Italy. Greece. Belgium.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02.htm. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report: Furthering the Process of Economic Development. they can be used to identify new ideas and best practices. “Taking Travel & Tourism to the Next Level: Shaping the Government Agenda to Improve the Industry’s Competitiveness. Ringbeck. 52 UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). Note 1 As defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Geneva: World Economic Forum. and the United Kingdom. in Europe: Austria. 2010. J. 2010. Available at www. At the same time. 2009. The 33 advanced economies are (by UNWTO region) in the Americas: Canada. 2007. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Switzerland. October. January. World Economic Outlook: Recovery. in Asia and the Pacific: Australia. Denmark. Madrid: UNWTO. Malta. Ireland. References IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2011. New Zealand.1.org/en. Sweden. World Economic Forum. Finland. Japan. 27–43. Germany. World Economic Forum. Slovenia. Netherlands. Available at http://hdr. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Singapore.imf. Iceland. Taiwan (pr. Available at www. Portugal. see further the Statistical Annex of the IMF World Economic Outlook of October 2010 at page 169. and S. Risk. Luxembourg. of China). 2007. Republic of Korea. ———. Hong Kong SAR. Advance Release. The Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a Time of Turbulence. Gross. Spain.unwto. 20th Anniversary Edition: The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. World Tourism Barometer. Czech Republic. and Rebalancing. Cyprus. ———. Human Development Report 2010. France.undp. Israel.” In The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007: Furthering the Process of Economic Development. United States. The Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008: Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability. 2008. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

we will identify and then quantify. and other business activities. the United Kingdom was the country with the greatest number of premium travelers. This figure suggests that there are some interesting country-pair outliers to the estimated relationship between the size of the economies involved and the number of premium passengers. but the figure shows that the top 10 countries in terms of premium passengers. finance. particularly for hotels and network airlines. These outliers can be classified as: • those country pairs (at the top left of the figure) with a relatively small number of premium passengers but large economies at both origin and destination (such as the United States–Russian Federation pair). we will explore how changes in aspects of a country’s attractiveness to business travelers—measured by different pillars of the World Economic Forum’s Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI)— could boost business and premium travel to a country. because an important way in which people build and maintain business relationships is through face-to-face meetings.1 Premium travel by air is closely related to business activities. Figure 2 confirms that there is a positive relationship between the number of premium passengers traveling between the countries in a pair and the size of the economies at either end of the flow. through an econometric model. such as the international trade of goods and services and foreign direct investment (FDI). but also for others in the Travel & Tourism (T&T) value chain. and The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. In the last part. investment.4 53 . except the United Arab Emirates. There is a wide range of experiences across countries. For example.Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment SELIM ACH BRIAN PEARCE International Air Transport Association (IATA) The premium (first and business class) travel segment is an important market. This chapter reports on research that quantified the relative impact of the most important business travel drivers determining the size of premium travel markets between country pairs. In the first part of the chapter. the size and potential of premium travel markets between country pairs will reflect the size and potential for flows of international trade. In 2009. Drivers of premium-class passengers Figure 1 shows the number of passengers traveling on premium seats for the top 50 countries. the second part focuses on how successfully these particular drivers explain differences between country pairs.2 A previous survey showed that around 70 percent of passengers on premium seats are traveling to do business. international air passengers traveling on premium seats represent 8 percent of traffic but 26 percent of passenger revenue. various factors related to the number of premium passengers. are large economies.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment CHAPTER 1.3 Consequently. followed by United States and Japan.

400 1. 54 Figure 2: GDP and premium passengers by country pairs Product of GDP at origin and destination (billions) 100.000 10.000 Japan–South Korea Australia–United Kingdom 1.000 Saudi Arabia–Egypt UAE–Bahrain 1.000 100. top 50 economies (2009) Top 50 economies in 2009 Source: IATA PaxIS.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment Figure 1: Premium international arrivals.000 Japan–United States United States–Russian Federation Canada–United States 10.000 Hong Kong SAR–China 100.000 Premium passengers (logarithmic scale) Source: IATA PaxIS.800 1.000 Lebanon–Kuwait 100 100 1.000.1. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .600 Premium passengers (thousands) 1.000.000 800 600 400 200 0 United Kingdom United States Japan Canada China Hong Kong SAR United Arab Emirates Singapore Australia Italy Germany India France Switzerland South Korea Saudi Arabia Thailand Brazil Spain South Africa Indonesia Malaysia Mexico Egypt New Zealand Argentina Venezuela Kuwait Bahrain Austria Philippines Russian Federation Oman Portugal Turkey Greece Belgium Pakistan Qatar Israel Jordan Colombia Peru Finland Vietnam Sweden Hungary Panama Denmark Cyprus 1.000.000 1.000.000 UAE–India Saudi Arabia–UAE 10.200 1.

Indeed.1. Therefore we analyze the relationship of premium travel to only those pillars directly associated with business activities and premium travel. This pillar includes some The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . related to the country’s historical relationship with the United Kingdom. the pillars that consider health and hygiene. and consequently travel cost is similar. However. all other things being equal. the TTCI score. For example. Besides economic size and the distance between countries. For country pairs of similar size in terms of GDP. at both origin and destination. and natural and cultural resources may not be as relevant to business travelers as the others. which is about half of the size of the one between Canada and the United States in terms of business passenger numbers.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment Figure 3: Distance between country pairs vs. For example. as the distance on the first market is shorter. some of which might be less crucial than others to international business travelers. but represents only 3 percent of the US-Canadian economies. the number of premium travelers between Canada and the United States is about twice the number of business passengers between Japan and the United States. the TTCI allows a closer analysis of the other factors associated with the size of the premium travel market. as shown by Figure 3. The distance between countries for both markets is similar. tourism infrastructure. among other factors. suggesting that travel to Australia is. despite Japan being a bigger economy than Canada in terms of GDP. trade and business travel will. captures a wide range of factors and policies. business travelers and holidaymakers have different perspectives when planning to invest in or visit countries. Another example is the market between Hong Kong and China. Travel cost will rise with distance in both time and money terms. One interesting indicator from an investor’s point of view is the regulatory framework of a country. the prioritization of Travel & Tourism. In particular. such as Germany–United Kingdom and Canada-Japan. the figure shows that the number of passengers traveling between Germany and the United Kingdom is higher than it is for the route between Canada and Japan. These examples demonstrate that there are factors other than economy size that need to be taken into account when explaining differences in the number of premium passengers. which is captured through the first pillar. which is composed of 14 pillars. 55 • those pairs (at the bottom of the figure) with a relatively high number of premium travelers but small economies (such as the United Arab Emirates–Bahrain pair). Figure 2 shows several examples where economic size.000 travelers— about three times larger than the Singapore–United States market. One clear outlier to the estimated relationship with distance is the premium travel market between the United Kingdom and Australia. diminish with distance. is not the only factor that drives premium passengers. with 80. number of premium passengers 18 United Kingdom–Australia Distance (kms in thousands) 15 Canada–Japan 12 9 Canada–United Kingdom 6 Germany–United Kingdom 3 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Premium passengers (thousands) Source: IATA PaxIS. the relationship between travel and distance is one of them. Consequently.

and price competitiveness. among other factors. have shown a consistently good business environment in terms of regulatory framework. and price competitiveness would lead to an increase of 4. with the ICT infrastructure. it captures the extent to which the policy environment is favorable to the development of the T&T industry. and the price competitiveness in the T&T industry (B10) have a positive relationship with the number of passengers traveling on premium seats. premium travel to Middle Eastern destinations. premium travel market between China and Hong Kong is explained to some extent by both short distances between these two countries (13 percent) and also by the size of both economies (56 percent). the model suggests that a 10 percent rise in GDP would lead to a 6 percent increase in the number of business passengers.6 million premium passengers. the model suggests premium travel markets. such as how well property rights are protected and the cost of setting up a business. According to the model. such as the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. According to the model. As such. with more than 1.4 out of 7) than in Egypt (with a score of 2. the extent to which online tools are used for business transactions. The number of passengers traveling on premium seats between the United States and Canada was the largest market. As shown in Figure 1. factors apart from economic size and distance—are related to premium passenger numbers. and 13. ICT infrastructure.000 passengers. Another example shows that economic size could be as important as the business environment of the destination country. Traffic flows between the United Kingdom and Singapore and between Thailand and the United Kingdom also illustrate the extent to which pillars—that is. suggesting that these economies are attractive for business travel. Economies and distance are The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . in the number of travelers. and a relatively low cost of doing business. Both distance and size of economies is comparable in these two markets. Any 10 percent improvement in policy rules and regulations. 2. it is important for investors to assess the quality of the information communication and technologies (ICT) infrastructure. over and above the flows implied by economic size and distance. we developed an econometric gravity-type model. such as the United Arab Emirates or Saudi Arabia. the average score for the three pillars is high.1. As expected from the graphical analysis in the first part of this chapter. Additionally. is related to some extent (30 percent) to a favorable regulatory framework. will be 9 percent smaller. economic size explains about 76 percent of the traffic flow between these two countries. For every 10 percent increase in distance between economies. The difference in the number of premium passengers is associated. which is more developed in Saudi Arabia (with a score of 4. Price competitiveness is the third important element to take into account when planning to visit or invest in a given country. Figure 2 shows examples of where these pillars appear to be strongly related to the number of passengers traveling on premium seats. Those factors will also influence the development of business activities such as trade in goods or services and FDI relative to the size of the economy. Figure 4 shows the top 30 biggest markets in 2009. For this purpose. Premium travel between Lebanon and Kuwait (see Figure 2) is explained almost equally by the favorable environment (33 percent) and economic conditions (35 percent). all other things being equal. This is a catalyst for investors and therefore an important aspect of analyzing the premium travel market. However. ICT infrastructure. respectively. All the pillars selected—the policy rules and regulation (A01). as it captures some of the costs of doing business. with more than 400. that insight requires quantification.4). According to the model. Similarly.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment 56 essential factors. a well-developed ICT infrastructure.8 percent. among other factors.5). coming in at 5.2 percent. this market is strongly related to both economic conditions (55 percent) and a good regulatory framework and ICT infrastructure (20 percent). representing about 18 percent of the total traffic flows of the year. business traffic between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates has been 35 percent stronger than the traffic between Saudi Arabia and Egypt. premium travel to the United Kingdom was the biggest market. It measures factors such as the extent to which goods and services in the country are more or less expensive than they are in another destination (purchasing power parity). a greater distance between countries has a negative effect on the number of business passengers.5 (compared with a regional average of 4. The implication of these outlying country-pair markets is that it is possible for countries to succeed in boosting or failing to realize the potential of premium travel. Given the increasing importance of the online environment and electronic transactions. This is captured by a specific pillar that measures. economic size explains to a greater extent (60 percent) the travel market between the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. ICT infrastructure (B09). and taxation levels in the country. The model shows that all three do indeed play an important role. But to be useful. economic size explains premium traffic between the United States and Japan and between the United States and the United Kingdom by more than 80 percent.5 percent. airfare ticket taxes.5 Looking at the fourth-largest market. For the United Kingdom– Singapore pair.4 Economic size at both origin and destination is the most significant factor in explaining differences between country pairs. Another relevant factor for investors is how easily and quickly business deals can be made in a country. All other things being equal. Middle Eastern destinations.

respectively.0 out of 7) and also in terms of the regulatory framework (3. bringing the value of this pillar up to the sample average of 4. India is among the countries that showed a weak position in 2009 in terms of ICT infrastructure (2. which had about 3. and serves about 70.8 and 4.5.9 to 4. the first market. compared with the regional average of 3.5 and 3. Another example in Europe is the travel market between the United States and Russia. Even if this pillar explains only a small proportion of the difference in number of premium passengers (12 percent). with more than 25. Boosting premium travel by improving T&T competitiveness Many countries have a great potential to increase the number of business travelers by improving one or several of these drivers.Premium passengers (thousands) 500 400 300 200 100 UK–Singapore Hong Kong–Canada UK–Italy Hong Kong–UK UK–Canada Canada–UK Hong Kong–Japan US–Mexico South Africa–UK Italy–UK Japan–Hong Kong Switzerland–UK Singapore–Australia UK–India Singapore–Indonesia China–Singapore Saudi Arabia–UAE UAE–India UAE–Saudi Arabia Australia–New Zealand UK–UAE Australia–UK France–UK Germany–UK China–Japan Japan–South Korea US–UK China–Hong Kong US–Japan US–Canada 0 1. however.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment Figure 4: Number of premium passengers by country pairs.8 and 2. which explains about 50 percent of the size of premium travel flows between these two countries.000 passengers during 2009—would increase by 50 percent if France improved its price competitiveness from a score of 2.9. the number of premium passengers on this market could rise by 0.3).4. This number could be improved by 30 percent if India could manage to raise its infrastructure and regulatory frameworks to the regional average.9. In Asia. 57 comparable between these two country pairs. The number of premium passengers traveling from the United States to Russia has the potential to increase by some 23 percent if Russia were to raise its policy rules and regulation and ICT infrastructure to the European average. According to the model. The premium travel market from the United Arab Emirates is one of the biggest markets serving India. as both scores are below the regional average of 4. Russia shows relatively low scores on the regulatory framework and ICT infrastructure (3. is more than twice the size of the second one.5 would increase the number of inbound business between the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom by about 60 percent. the number of business passengers from Italy— which is one of the largest markets for France. assuming all other factors remain unchanged. respectively) compared with the European average (4. European economies have low scores for the price competitiveness of the T&T industry. 2009 Top 30 country pairs in 2009 Source: IATA PaxIS.7). assuming all other factors remain unchanged. we assess the degree to which changes to the drivers of the premium travelers could boost the size of the premium travel markets over and above the flows determined by economic size and distance.6 percent if India’s GDP improves by 1 percent.000 premium passengers in 2009. countries such as the United Kingdom and France show the relatively low scores of 2. the performance of the first market is associated with its excellent infrastructure.5. In 2009. Using the model developed. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . all else being equal. Alternatively.000 travelers a year. at 51.000 business passengers. Similarly.

2000 Econometric Analysis. Civil Aviation Authority. Greene. IATA Economics Briefing No. factors captured by the T&T pillars—such as policy rules and regulations. I. Corporate Air Travel Survey (CATS). 9. NJ: Prentice Hall. 2009. is another group of outliers because those countries provide a favorable business environment and infrastructure. ———. The Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008: Balancing Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment Conclusion This chapter shows that the number of passengers in premium seats is not driven only by economic activities between countries. World Economic Forum. 2 US Travel Association and Destination & Travel Foundation 2008. 2009 Edition. “Gravity Model: An Application to Trade Between Regional Blocs. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . 4 All three of the pillars identified explain a large proportion of the variation of the data (68 percent) and are statistically significant within a 95 percent confidence interval. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Gravity Models: Theoretical Foundations and Related Estimation Issues. 2008. which seem to be driven by other factors—such as historical relationship— that are not captured through the model. “What Determines Intra-EU Trade? The Gravity Model Revisited.unwto. Presentation at the ARTNetCapacity Building Workshop for Trade Research. The analysis identified some outliers. 58 3 Civil Aviation Authority 2009. and price competitiveness in the T&T industry—explain to some extent (30 percent) the number of premium passengers. such as the United Arab Emirates. Washington DC: Oxford Economics USA. Geneva: World Economic Forum. 4th edition. June 2–6. World Economic Forum. UK Business Air Travel: Flying on Business: A Study of the UK Business Air Travel Market. Upper Saddle River. Notes 1 These figures come from the IATA Origin-Destination database. O. Geneva: World Economic Forum. but depends also on other factors.org/facts/eng/highlights. London: Civil Aviation Authority. 2007. The premium travel market to some Middle Eastern countries. all other pillars included in the TTCI have been tested and are not statistically significant within a 95 percent confidence interval. which shows the number of passengers traveling by seat class and its associated revenue.” AEJ 31 (2): 174–87. Available at http://www. ———. ———. The Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007: Furthering the Process of Economic Development. 2010.htm . 2009. such as the traffic flow between the United Kingdom and Australia. W.H.” International Research Journal of Finance and Economics 39 (2010): 244–50. Süleyman. 2008. Martinez-Zarzoso. 2003. 2008. US Travel Association and Destination & Travel Foundation. The Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Report 2009: Managing in a Time of Turbulence. and B10 refers to pillar 10 of subindex B. For particular country pairs. 5 A01 refers to pillar 1 of subindex A. UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization). Cambodia.1. ICT infrastructure. The model demonstrates that any effort to improve one of the drivers will boost the size of this travel market. For sake of completeness. 2008. and therefore are not included in this particular model. IATA. IATA (International Air Transport Association). 2009. Phnom Penh. T. References ARTNet. B09 refers to pillar 9 of subindex B. The Return on Investment of US Business Travel. “Air Travel Demand: Measuring the Responsiveness of Air Travel Demand Changes in Prices and Incomes. 2010.

92 0. and B10: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry. distance between countries i and j. is the error term between country i and country j. The time range of the model covers the period 2007 through 2009. # is the fixed cross-section specific effects between t 3.All drivers identified above are statistically significant. X is a matrix of regressors. All the coefficients are statistically significant. a greater distance between countries has a negative effect on the number of business passengers.54 –61. All the pillars selected—that is. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 59 . and is the time period covering 2007. The formal description of a panel data model is Yijt = ! + (X’ijt. The total number of cross-sections (country pairs) included is 12. through the time period t. ! is the overall constant of the model. and the value of the 10th pillar (B10).26 14.79 0. B09: ICT infrastructure. Data on number of passenger traveling on premium seats are from the IATA PaxIS database.30 4. The dependant variable of the model is the number of passengers traveling on business seats.41 123.We have used a gravity model to capture the business and structural effect of the change in the number of passengers traveling on premium seats. and 2009.22 1. The total number of observations is 36.1 The other variables are GDP (in real terms) of origin and destination economies and the distance between each country of the country pairs.38 Notes: Coefficients are in log form assuming cross-section fixed effect (rounded to two decimal places). 2008. including GDP of country i.60 –0. the policy rules and regulation pillar (A01). the value of the 9th pillar (B09). the value of the 1st pillar (A01).19 Note 1 A01 refers to pillar 1 of subindex A.49 4." ) Table 1: Estimation of the coefficients Coefficients C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 Constant Real GDPi x Real GDPi Dist: Distance A01: Policy rules and regulations B09: ICT infrastructure B10: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 17. where Y is the dependant variable—the number of business passengers traveling between country i and country j. We estimate the model in (natural) logarithm terms using a panel data technique.4: Premium Air Travel: An Important Market Segment Appendix A: Specification of the model country i and country j. and the model explains a large proportion of the variation of the data with an R2 value of 68 percent. $ijt t statistics 1. the ICT infrastructure pillar (B09). including fixed effects representing drivers specific to the individual country: log (Passengers)ijt = C1 + C2 * log (GDPi * GDPj)t + C3 * log (Dist)ijt + C4 * log (A01) + C5 * log (B09) + C6 * log (B10) + $ijt + (CX = F) The estimation of the model is broadly in line with our expectations. B09 refers to pillar 9 of subindex B. #ijt + $ijt.45 0. GDP of country j. and B10 refers to pillar 10 of subindex B.707.953. with the correct sign and estimated with standard errors that are robust to serial correlation. The product of GDP at both origin and destination is highly significant. and the price competitiveness in the T&T industry pillar (B10)—have a positive impact on the number of passengers traveling for business. Explanatory variables include the following T&T pillars A01: Policy rules and regulations.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

This 6 percent year-on-year increase was even more remarkable given that the worldwide figure had hit the 800 million mark just two years previously. and then reviews where the industry is today as it emerges from the crisis (Figure 1). Aviation was also experiencing a major shake-up. exceeding Europe’s absolute revPAR for the first time. Europe is $18 short of its own top performance in 2007. overtaking tourism forecasts for the fourth successive year.Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis ALEX KYRIAKIDIS SIMON OATEN JESSICA JAHNS Deloitte. Strong economies across most regions. The year 2007 was a record year for the sector. where more people had more disposable income than ever before. by $12. as demonstrated by Asia. confirming how eager people were to take advantage of cheaper airfares and easier access to emerging markets. Tourism. From March 2008. The inaugural flight of the A380 double-decker airbus from Singapore to Sydney in October 2007 was an important milestone. Asia Pacific leads the pack in revPAR growth at 21. While Asia Pacific is on par with its 2007 performance. the absence of credit. All tourist arrival statistics have been sourced from the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). but particularly in China and India. ending years of restrictions and leading to more flights and lower fares. European and American airlines would be able to fly to any destination in Europe and the United States. Some are already seeing a strong recovery. with Airbus predicting massive growth in the number of passengers worldwide. and the fragile recovery in Europe now evident has resulted in some markets continuing to struggle while others resurge. only one region—Central and South America—is ahead of its 2007 peak. The introduction of this supersize aircraft was expected to generate increased demand at a time when the United States and the European Union (EU) had finally agreed to liberalize the transatlantic air travel market. This has impacted different regions of the world in a variety of ways. Inc. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. When we compared 2010 performance to that of 2007.3 percent.5 61 . There were around 52 million more international travelers than the previous year. This chapter takes a look back to hospitality performance across the globe before and during the crisis. were an important factor in this increase. Note: All hotel performance data have been sourced from STR Global Limited and Smith Travel Research. In contrast to 2007.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis CHAPTER 1. The global economic crisis. with world tourist arrivals reaching 900 million and healthy double-digit revenue per available room (revPAR) growth across the globe. while others continue to lag some way behind. in 2010. 2007: Tourism before the world economic crisis World tourist arrivals passed another milestone in 2007 to reach 900 million. as is the case in Europe. Hospitality & Leisure The year 2011 sees the hospitality sector across the world emerging from a period of significant challenge and considerable change.

followed closely by the Middle East at 16. the UNWTO said that figures started to fall in the second half of the year. 2008 presented a challenge. up 14. Adding up the total number of travelers. it is easy to see the correlation between sports and politics on hotel performance. Europe. This was an obvious slowdown from the 7 percent growth recorded in 2007. 2007 was the last year to see such growth before the global economic crisis reached the industry. hotel performance was starting to struggle. Best performers were hotels in Central and South America with a revPAR growth of 19. and emerging from the crisis 10 0 –10 United States Asia Pacific Central and South America Middle East Europe –20 –30 –40 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc. respectively. including the Open Skies agreement in March. At the back of the pack was Asia Pacific. Central and South America. With plunging global economies and unprecedented bailouts by governments around the world. however. it was only a matter of time before the tourism industry fell victim to the economic slowdown. and the long-awaited opening of the $1. 62 With so many more people traveling. the number of international tourists was still growing. The industry did make headlines for many positive reasons during 2008. while Asia Pacific and Europe saw growth of less than 2 percent. Then the deepening recession took its toll. As business travelers and tourists started to think twice about trips away.4 percent. Across the globe. Asia Pacific. confirming that. Central and South America and the Middle East.8 percent. and the Middle East not only celebrated double-digit growth in revPAR but also in average room rates. taking the number of tourist arrivals to a record high of 924 million.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Figure 1: Global revPAR performance.5 percent. which stood at $114. Europe came in third place with 15. but it still meant that an additional 16 million people had traveled around the world. even though the market was difficult. it was not uniformly so around the world. there was a significant slowdown in revPAR.5 percent and 18. Most world regions were reporting double-digit growth in hotel performance until mid way through the year. Just beneath the surface.BEFORE DURING AFTER 40 30 20 Percent change 1. and was up 5 percent above 2007 figures. The impact of the world economic crisis 2008: Entering the crisis Although an extremely positive year worldwide for travel. with year-on-year performance running at –1 percent.3 percent. went on to turn in doubledigit revPAR growth.5 billion Atlantis Hotel in Dubai.9 percent. when the full extent of the financial crisis was still some way off. bringing down the net growth for 2008 to 2 percent. North America ended the year with a 1. during. with many world regions seeing performance take a nose dive in the final quarter of the year. it is no wonder that 2007 was a year of double celebrations for hoteliers and a double first for the hospitality industry (Box 1). but was still the revPAR king in terms of absolute revPAR. the 2008 Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games. before. it was only a question of time before tourism experienced the same troubles.6 percent decline. During the first half of 2008. with 12. If we look at performance country by country. however. The Beijing 2008 Olympic and The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

the Great Wall of China. Peru. Fierce competition among the low-cost carriers was also bringing down the cost of travel. Brazil’s statue of Christ the Redeemer. with Spain. exceeding growth in both Europe and Asia for the fourth consecutive year. Another driver was the decision made by 12 countries across South America to allow their citizens to travel among them without a passport. the biennial Paris Air Show. faced uncertain futures. Chile. commodity prices were high. Colombia. In September 2007. In 2007. Uruguay. Growth was driven primarily by average room rates. Guyana. But despite concerns over safety and security. with average room rates increasing by 17. 1. such as Russia. including Paris and London. during 2007.2 percent. the United Kingdom. and Russia completing the list. While Dubai. Suriname. the US economy started to slow in 2007.1 percent. Paraguay. These companies were transporting a new wave of travelers from China and India and opening up new source markets. while occupancy dipped slightly to 64. Ecuador. tourism figures suggest this strategy is working. the region remained on top of the world when it came to revPAR performance—up 15. While the dragon limbered up for the 2008 Olympics. Despite an increase in activity from overseas. Those signed up to the pact are Argentina. Europe’s share of the global tourism market topped 480 million in 2007—up 19 million over the previous year—and seven of the world’s top 10 tourism destinations were in Europe. a strong economy drove both corporate and leisure business. and the Coliseum in Rome—are geographically spread. An important factor was the weak US dollar. As in previous years.6 percent.000 flights with companies extending their networks rapidly.1 percent and 8.3 percent to $150. However. Italy. making it an affordable option for many more people and subsequently pushing up the demand for hotel rooms. Iraq and Lebanon. Austria. average room rates were the main driver. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 63 . and consumers started to feel the pressure on spending. Brazil. took the largest share of the limelight in recent years. Central and South America Tourist arrivals to Central and South America were up 11. and Venezuela. Several factors were behind this growth. The others—the Taj Mahal palace in India.2 percent. up 11. the hothouse of the region. which ended the year at $104.4 percent to $74.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Box 1: 2007 regional review The Middle East The Middle East increased revPAR by 16. the Middle East attracted 46 million international tourists in 2007— up 5 million over the previous year—with Saudi Arabia and Egypt increasing visitor numbers rapidly. Its newly rich population was keen to explore life beyond their national borders. to $67. too. China was enjoying excellent GDP growth and attracting a massive amount of foreign investment.9 percent to $108 in 2007. and attracting many more tourists—tourist arrivals to India were up 13 percent in 2007—while its emerging middle classes were anxious to spread their wings. and it made staying at home an attractive option for Americans otherwise interested in traveling abroad. when more than 100 million voters worldwide placed three of the region’s most famous attractions—Mexico’s Chichen Itza pyramid.8 percent to $114. That year also marked the fourth of doubledigit growth in the region. The two countries that made the biggest impact on the region’s tourism during 2007—and on its economy as a whole— were China and India. Europe remained the favorite destination of more than half of the world’s travelers. which kept US travelers—keen to get good value for money—closer to home. and the Rugby World Cup. Hotels in the Middle East during 2007 had the kind of business growth rates that hoteliers in other parts of the world could only dream about. had high-profile events such as the Tour de France Grand Départ in London. Bolivia. The United States The United States saw revPAR rise a modest 6. The weakness of the dollar made the United States an attractive destination for international travelers during the year. but the concentration of ”wonders” in Central and South America will enhance the region as a preferred destination. was booming. The region also received a massive global accolade in 2007. Even though the sports and culture calendar for 2007 was not as busy as it had been the previous year. its neighbors started getting in on the act. and eager to spend their money on vacation. which was up 19. One of the main drivers behind increased tourism in Europe was the growth of low-cost air travel. and several key cities. Petra in Jordan. Hoteliers in this region had already achieved the world’s best growth in revPAR in 2007.1 percent in 2007. Generally. and some countries can only watch this dynamic growth with envy. Germany. while occupancy increased 5 percent to 71. the low-cost players provided almost 22 million seats on 133. respectively. Housing prices were down roughly 20 percent compared with their 2006 peak. France took pole position. for example. and Peru’s Machu Picchu—on the list of the New Seven Wonders of the World. the Middle East remained a politically volatile region.Asia Pacific Europe More than 185 million international tourists visited the Asia Pacific region in 2007—an increase of 10 percent over the previous year. By 2007 the impact of these two economic powerhouses was being strongly felt in their own backyards—the greater Asia Pacific region— and worldwide. including the phenomenal expansion of low-cost airlines. India.

The A (H1N1) influenza also continued to spread around the globe.4 percent to $73 during 2009. Despite the full year double-digit declines in the region. Hotel performance around the world remained weak at the half-way point in 2009. as revPAR there fell 31. although it would still be some time before hoteliers saw a positive impact on performance. Tempting as it is to slash room rates to bring in business. The Middle East continued to be the least affected region. the least severe declines of all global regions.2 percent and $10 being stripped off average room rates to settle at $98. When record highs of $147 a barrel hit in July. Singapore. what differentiates them from others.0 percent to arrive at $54. witnessing a revPAR decline of 17. to land at $124. behind Central and South America. Emerging from the world economic crisis: Asia leads the way The year 2010 marked more than just a new decade: it marked the beginning of the recovery process in many of the world’s economies and an upturn in hotel performance (Box 2). And fluctuating oil prices took their toll on some airlines. News stories reported that some airlines and cruise companies took extra precautions and refused to carry passengers who were showing symptoms. The strategy for the tourism industry in 2009 was to focus on survival.0 percent to reach $67 in 2009. the tourism industry looked at ways to stop the spread of the virus. 2009: Global tourism plummets Entering 2009. Germany. Many of the enablers of the growth seen in 2007 were starting not just to weaken but to be removed. Despite this. In July. hotel performance picked up during the latter part of 2009. These results put North America at the bottom of the global league table in all three performance indicators. however. and shown a dramatic difference between the top. North America took second place.8 percent in December alone to attain 62. the region continued to post the highest occupancy. and the bombings in India all had the expected impact on tourism in the affected countries. but at a time when consumers and businesses were already cutting back on travel. allowed the city’s hotels to push up room rates by more than 450 percent on the opening night of the Games. but it did not seem to cripple tourism demand in the affected areas in the same way SARS had in mid 2003. for instance. as it takes average room rates much longer to recover than it takes occupancy levels. with the inevitable loss of jobs during the year ahead.7 percent to 52. What the overall impact this pandemic would have on hoteliers at this time was still uncertain.1 percent. the outlook for 2009 was naturally cautious. many hoteliers foresaw the time as one that would determine survival of the fittest.3 percent. As the swine flu pandemic escalated and more cases and deaths were reported around the world.3 percent. Concentrating on what they do best. Most economists expected the global slowdown to last into 2010.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis 64 Paralympic Games.2 percent to $81. and revPAR in the world.and bottom-performing regions in terms of hotel performance. many airlines went into liquidation—including long-haul low-cost carriers Oasis Hong Kong and Zoom Airlines Inc. the economic gloom was considered likely to keep consumer confidence—and therefore spending on travel—down for a much longer time. Europe remained the worst performer in 2009. In the second quarter of 2009. France. and Thailand were among the first to emerge from the recession. with occupancy increasing 9. Asia Pacific The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . At the end of 2008. followed by Asia Pacific and the Americas. The last two years have proved that not all regions are created equally. supported by improving economic conditions. RevPAR in Asia Pacific fell 19. and providing the essentials of good hospitality would help them to maintain their brand strengths as hoteliers competed to fill their rooms. most economists were expecting the recession to hold down employment as well as housing and equity markets for some time to come. Other operators cut schedules and altered their timetables to cope with falling demand. Outbreaks of political unrest in Thailand. the war in Gaza. Formula 1 racing in Singapore and the European Football Championships in Switzerland and Austria had a similar—though not as spectacular—impact on hotel room prices. Unlike specific.5 percent. as well as European budget carrier XL Leisure Group. this is not a long-term solution. forecasting a drop of between 1 and 2 percent. with revPAR dropping 21. This decline was a result of occupancy falling 8. Europe was the most affected region. reporting declines of 17. average room rates. the hotel industry suffered from terrorism once more when the JW Marriott and Ritz Carlton hotels in Jakarta were targeted by a suicide bomber. How have the regions fared compared with their performances in 2007? Are any of them close to their 2007 peak? In terms of revPAR growth.1. individual events that have knocked the tourism industry. Hotels in Central and South America saw revPAR fall 14.. this was a further contrary factor in the generation of room night demand. This was good news for the region and confirmed that Asia Pacific was on the road to recovery. and for hotels in particular this meant providing value for money. RevPAR in the Middle East fell 18. 9/11 and SARS for instance. with the UNWTO predicting either a stagnation or a slight decline in international tourist arrivals. Meanwhile. Reductions in airfares because of low oil prices— $35 a barrel in February 2009 compared with $147 in July 2008—helped to keep hotel rooms partially booked. the first economies started to emerge from the recession and hoteliers hoped for increased consumer and business confidence to drive the recovery.

which has seen revPAR rise 32. sought emergency bailout packages during the course of the year. hotels in the Middle East experienced fast and strong growth due to a supply shortage combined with increased interest in tourism in its burgeoning destinations. The Icelandic volcanic ash cloud caused widespread chaos over much of Europe during April 2010. RevPAR in Europe is currently sitting at levels not seen since 2006 and is $19 off the region’s peak in 2008. and increasingly available air travel will continue to support the strong performance of the hospitality industry in Asia. Now that supply has filled the gap. Past experience has taught us that natural disasters do not generally impact tourism over the long term. which—with revPAR growth of 17. China performed particularly well in 2010. the region will continue to lose ground to Asia. as at 2010 year-end. including the devastating earthquake in Chile in February.4 percent to $123. aside from Central and South America. A number of European countries. with revPAR up 30. putting extra pressure on the region’s economy and consumer confidence. With rising travel costs. and landslides in Mexico in September. and its prospects for the future look good. Brazil is a prime example of this trend. The World Tourism Organization predicted that China would overtake France to become the world’s largest tourist destination by 2015. Many countries in the region are experiencing strong economic growth. The region suffered a number of setbacks in 2010. which is boosting the area’s domestic travel. and slow underlying economic growth. the only region to remain in negative growth. Over the past few years. it is only natural that hotel performance is experiencing an adjustment. The Middle East Hotel performance in the Middle East at the end of 2010 was down 4.4 percent—is likely to overtake Europe shortly. driven principally by regional travel. including Greece and Ireland. on the flip side.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Box 2: 2010 regional review 65 . reductions in low-cost airline supply. While difficult to prove. The fundamentals of strong economic growth. the region’s strong exchange rates are discouraging international inbound travel. rising 17. May Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1. The region’s hospitality sector is recovering well from the economic crisis and. boosting performance in the city. The World Expo 2010 in Shanghai also helped the recovery process in Asia. however. an increasing middle class.9 percent. getting off to a strong start in January with revPAR growth in excess of 20 percent. closing European air space and grounding all flights in and out of the region. The market is underperforming all of the regions in absolute revPAR terms. The year 2010 saw modest revPAR growth of 3. Global absolute revPAR performance. has come out on top.Asia Pacific Europe Asia Pacific was the frontrunner in terms of recovery in 2010.4 percent to attain $78. This pressure has been softened in part by the weak euro making Europe more affordable for American tourists. 2010 150 United States Asia Pacific Central and South America Apr Jun Middle East Europe revPAR.8 percent. Central and South America Central and South America took the second spot in terms of revPAR growth during 2010. the economic crisis may well have accelerated the shift of hospitality growth from Europe to Asia. Europe’s hospitality sector is likely to continue to experience challenging markets in to 2011. Although the timing of the global economic crises exacerbated Cont’d.3 percent in Europe. US$ 120 90 60 30 Jan Feb Mar Source: STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc. However. the floods in the Cusco region of Peru that trapped tourists at the famous Inca ruin Machu Picchu in April. and the effects of these disasters are not expected to override the recovering growth rate overall.

revPAR in the region is now the same as 2007 at $88. Many coastal resorts and beaches along the Gulf Coast suffered serious losses as a result. the Middle East saw a 9. there will be a significant rise of the middle classes. A recent Deloitte report. With 51 percent of global travel to Europe in 2007. The oil spill off the Gulf of Mexico also threatened the tourism industry along the Gulf Coast. with revPAR now at $78—some $12 higher (18 percent more) than 2007. As shown in Table 2. the rise of the affluent.2 percent increase in hotel supply (higher than any other world region). Asia Pacific has seen the lowest percentage decrease in travel during the period and has surpassed 2007 levels. particularly for aviation. GDP per capita in China is forecast to more than double between 2010 and 2015. The crisis has been very different for each region.8 percent. The Middle East’s geographical position as the crossroads between West and East. however.1. which is still experiencing revPAR declines of 5.6 Central and South America 66 78 18. after 19 consecutive months of decline.2 Europe 101 83 –17. According to year-to-November 2010 results from STR Global. as can be seen in Table 1. the Federal Reserve announced that it would be pumping $600 billion into the economy to help stimulate growth—the second major stimulus package the Fed has introduced to try kick-start recovery. The United States 66 The United States reported a modest 5. Unemployment in the United States hit a seven-month high in November 2010 and started to raise concerns about the strength of recovery.” focused on seven areas. with most of the undersupply in the budget sector. the high unemployment rates and the weak housing market in particular are hampering growth.0 Middle East 136 123 –9. Each is a potentially huge feeder market. as consumer demand recovers.7 percent in the year. However. boomers are expected to control 60 percent of the nation’s wealth and account for 40 percent of spending.2 Asia Pacific 88 88 0. that will be critical to the development of the hospitality sector through to 2015. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . “Hospitality 2015. and travelhungry baby boomer generation—aged 45 to 64—will evolve and grow. 2010 vs. India is forecast to have 50 million outbound tourists by the end of the decade. came out the clear winner.6 percent growth in revPAR during 2010. tourism destinations along the coast suffered in its wake. spending can be expected to be more focused around travel. This revPAR is $35 higher than in Asia Pacific. It can proudly boast that it is the only region that has surpassed its 2007 performance. coupled with its well-developed infrastructure. to reach $56. as highlighted in Figure 2. Europe has been hit the hardest and has the most to lose in the structural shift that may have been accelerated with the move to the East. the Indian government has identified a shortage of 150. and has been strengthening each month: November posted the strongest monthly growth in 2010 of 11. it will be reshaped by two key demographic trends. In comparison with its 2007 performance. an increase that will continue to put pressure on hotel performance in the region as the supply pipeline remains substantial. In emerging markets such as India and China. 2007 2007 revPAR 2010 revPAR Percent change United States 66 56 –15. In the same month.000 hotel rooms. up 17. The report highlighted the argument that. When a BP Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and eventually sank. it may now be that Asia Pacific is signaling it is time for Europe to move over as it takes the lead—the first signs are there. apart from the Middle East. Table 1: Global hotel performance. Indeed. With low growth envisaged for some time in Europe and the dramatic decline it experienced in the last three years. In established markets such as those of the United Kingdom and the United States. hotels across the Middle East still achieve the strongest average room rates ($201) and revPAR globally at $123. illustrated in Figure 3. The US economy made a slow but steady recovery during the year. The next best performing region in terms of revPAR growth was Central and South America. While much of the development until recently has focused on the upscale and luxury market.8 Source: STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc. March 2010 was the first month of positive revPAR growth in the country. generating an increase in demand for both business and leisure travel. the next best performing region. the stakes were high. with revPAR up 21. time-rich. By 2015 in the United States alone.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Box 2: 2010: regional review (cont’d) the decline. spewing thousands of barrels of oil a day into the Gulf of Mexico. Understanding the desires and motivations of the Chinese and Indian traveler will be fundamental to success in these markets. All other regions fell into single-digit growth during 2010. providing the population with greater disposable income to spend on hospitality. will see it fare well in the future with continuing visitor growth forecast. the greatest potential in these markets lies in the growth of branded mid-market and budget product aimed primarily at the domestic traveler.8 percent for the year. as can be seen in the figure. With more time for leisure as they approach retirement.8 percent over 2009.

It is forecast that the share of global tourism GDP will shift by less than 5 percent from mature hospitality markets to emerging markets by 2015.1. This growth compares with forecasted growth rates of around 2 to 3 percent in more mature markets (the United States.0 53.2 2.0 471.5 0. North Africa. and Japan.9 90.3 –4.8 40.2 60.9 13. percent change (2010) United States Asia Pacific Central and South America Middle East Europe 30 Percent change 20 10 0 –10 –20 –30 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Source: STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc.0 19. but they also offer unique challenges.8 1.3 97. with the key exceptions of China and India. Russia. Emerging markets present hospitality groups with significant opportunities.3 12.4 487. By 2015. millions PERCENT CHANGE 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2008–07 2009–08 2010–09 6. 67 Table 2: World tourist arrivals. which opened up earlier and presents fewer hurdles for new entrants.2 Source: UNWTO.0 463.1 –1. While the growth in these emerging markets is significant. and Japan).7 3. despite the fact that their hospitality industries show rapid relative growth. The travel and hospitality industries are expanding rapidly in a number of emerging economies across the globe.0 182. However. This is particularly the case in India.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Figure 2: Global revPAR performance. China and India will each have absolute yearon-year industry growth comparable to or greater than the United Kingdom.9 441. and China—and certain countries in South East Asia.0 184.6 Asia Pacific Middle East Europe 37.8 153.9 56. the Gulf States. and the West African coastline. Chinese absolute industry growth is forecast to exceed that of the United States. it should not distract from the absolute size of the mature markets. the United Kingdom.6 460. many brands that have already begun their expansion into China are now assessing The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .6 –5. these emerging markets are unlikely to become truly significant on a global scale. France.0 –4. Despite this.7 92.6 95.5 –5.9 485.7 World 802 846 901 919 880 935 2.6 166. India.0 181.1 99. where hospitality is lagging behind the Chinese market.2 North America 89. France.6 203.9 46. By 2019.7 7. Countries with a forecasted average annual industry growth rate from 2009 to 2015 of 5 percent or more include the BRIC nations—Brazil.

Airlines Restaurants Dem ogr ap hi cs ing erg ets m E ark m nology Tech Bra nd 1.5: Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis Figure 3: Seven key areas needed for development of the hospitality industry to 2015 v se s n o u le E x o ge d cyc an Online travel agents en ts u ap m a n ita l Hospitality H S u s t a i n a b i lit y c Cruise lines Gaming 68 Source: Deloitte. STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc. 2010. The economic crisis has undoubtedly impacted regions in differing ways for the hospitality sector. their continued growth is likely to be significantly outstripped by Asia Pacific. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer.com/view/en_GB/uk/industries/thl/ 95678626aa309210VgnVCM100000ba42f00aRCRD. which is already proving its strength in the speed of its recovery in 2010. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .htm. Madrid: UNWTO. Hospitality 2015: Game Changers or Spectators? Available at http://www.deloitte. While the mature markets of Europe and the United States remain large in absolute terms. STR Global and Smith Travel Research Inc. “where next” and are reinforcing their long-term commitment to the Indian market. 2007–2010. References Deloitte. yet its most significant impact may have been to accelerate the shift East. 2010. UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). 2007–2010. STR Annual Global Hotel Review reports.

Investment in T&T products and infrastructure is not only essential for destinations to maintain and expand capacity. In 2011.Investment: A Key Indicator of Competitiveness in Travel & Tourism NANCY COCKERELL. but it also allows for and encourages improvements in quality. Nevertheless.6: Investment: A Key Indicator CHAPTER 1. now that the global economy has emerged from recession. This means that T&T investment remains important at every stage of the global business cycle. investment includes expenditure on goods that are expected to be used for The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.6 69 . World Travel & Tourism Council DAVID GOODGER. Visitors from emerging source markets often distinctly prefer more mature destinations. an appreciation that has been reflected in annual research spanning more than a decade. however. Why investment in the T&T industry matters From a national accounts perspective. The importance of investment in Travel & Tourism This chapter addresses the importance of T&T investment for the industry’s performance and outlook. since it ignores the indirect and induced effects of the sector. as well as a critical element for determining future capacity and competitiveness. Historical data and our joint research over the past decade confirm that both new capital projects and major refurbishments—both of which are classified as investment— are integral to current and future destination performance. we are enhancing this research— and making it more user friendly—by aligning our analysis of the direct industry contribution of Travel & Tourism even more closely with that of the UN Statistics Division–approved Recommended Methodological Framework for Tourism Satellite Accounting (TSA: RMF 2008). which is not a component of the direct economic impact of the industry but is an important aspect of the broader indirect impacts. the industry’s capacity is not necessarily directly aligned to evolving consumer preferences. competitiveness. and all markets tend to be unpredictable: their tastes evolve over time in line with their individual definitions of both basic home comforts and luxury goods. and considers the implications of recent investment trends for its future prospects. At the same time. Proposed capital projects may remain constrained by limited access to finance. A prime example of these consequences is T&T investment. and productivity. even in locations where demand is growing strongly. Oxford Economics The World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) and Oxford Economics have long recognized the importance of Travel & Tourism (T&T) investment. In contrast. however. even in destinations where existing T&T infrastructure is sufficient for the current volume of demand. we will continue to draw attention to the fact that the approach of the recommended TSA framework understates the full economic impact of Travel & Tourism. there is also evidence of overinvestment in some destinations despite the clear upturn in industry performance. and even where there is excess capacity.

such as aircraft and cruise ships. Some of the most important T&T investments are: • accommodation development and major maintenance. • The motivation for investment. All these forms of investment are important for the future of Travel & Tourism for the following reasons (note also that some of these apply to different industries across the economy. 70 an extended period of time. upgrading a hotel’s star rating). as well as holiday homes. investment is typically split into three component parts: machinery and equipment used for commercial or industrial purposes.. should not be exclusively assigned to T&T investment spending. as well as expenditures that change the value of previous investments still in use. although some are primarily relevant for Travel & Tourism): • Investment increases the sector’s capacity to support a greater volume of travelers and visitors.. which could mean diverting business to other destinations and/or lead to upward pressure on prices.1. including buildings for commercial or industrial purposes (such as hotels). etc. T&T investment fits within the above definition and includes capital investment spending by tourismcharacteristic industries as well as spending on specific tourism assets by other industries. such as major refurbishments and upgrades. At an economy-wide level.0 1. selected countries and regions (2006–10 average) Russian Federation Germany United Kingdom France Canada Japan Europe Italy OECD United States World North America South Africa Brazil Latin America Africa Australia Oceania China Spain Caribbean Middle East South Asia Malaysia Southeast Asia India Egypt 0. for specific tourism use. examples include access routes or water supplies to serve new resorts or attractions.5 1. such as spending on transport infrastructure (e. enhancing the quality of the industry’s product (e.g. • passenger transportation.5 2. road and rail construction and improvement). which affects competitiveness. for use by visitors. guesthouses.6: Investment: A Key Indicator Figure 1: T&T investment spending as a percentage of GDP. and furniture and equipment to “fit out” hotels and so on. or primarily.0 0. Investment can also be for maintaining current capacity and standards through major refurbishments. is not always about volumes of demand and capacity. which includes owner-occupied and rental housing (highly relevant for segments of the T&T industry such as the holiday home market. • capital projects and refurbishments designed to attract visitors.). residential investment.0 2. An obvious example is increasing the number of hotel beds or conference facilities to accommodate more visitors. Other forms of related investment. and nonresidential investment. and • “green” investments within the industry. according to the recommended TSA framework.g.5 Percent Source: Oxford Economics research for WTTC. improving The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . such as solar and retrofit schemes to enhance energy efficiency. Passenger transport infrastructure is included in this category only if it has been put in place specifically. Insufficient supply capacity acts as a bottleneck to growth. however. including new building structures.

adopting new technology). The growth in spending would not have been possible without the increased capacity brought about by investment growth. However. • Capital projects that attract visitors are a different case. This is because they are at a different stage of economic development. as there was no significant drop in occupancy rates.6: Investment: A Key Indicator Figure 2: T&T investment spending as a percentage of total economy investment spending. as the global economy entered recession for the first time since World War II and the global financial system cut back dramatically on lending and raised the cost of borrowing (despite historically low central bank interest rates). supported by relatively cheap. typically. Global T&T investment closely tracked global tourism spending from the late 1980s to the mid 2000s. investment that enhances the quality of the industry’s product offering.. the immediate yearto-year cyclical movement of investment may lag total spending. of the importance of T&T investment in terms of overall economy GDP (Figure 1) and overall investment in the economy (Figure 2). For these. This situation has been helped by the wider downturn in construction and greater global availability of construction labor. Indeed. selected countries and regions (2006–10 average) 15 Percent Source: Oxford Economics research for WTTC. Indeed. may also generate additional domestic and international tourism. rather than scrapping projects completely midway through construction. In contrast. Many developers still sought to complete projects in order to recoup some of their investment outlay. For example. such as hotel or resort construction. T&T investment over the period 2005–08 is estimated to have grown significantly faster than global tourism expenditure. green investments). or improving environmental sustainability (e. Figures 1 and 2 present a comparison. This is clear from even a quick look at the growth in airline fleet sizes or hotel room supply over this period. T&T investment corrected much more harshly than the drop in global tourism spending. whether for visitor attractions or accommodations. the motivation is likely to be to stimulate additional demand and to gain or retain market share. fast-growing emerging economies have a higher investment rate (as a percentage of GDP) than more mature economies. This period coincided with the wider boom in the global economy and global investment. 71 productivity and efficiency (e. which can take several years to plan and implement. This phenomenon is partly due to the nature of many capital investment projects. However. The comparison demonstrates that. although this activity has now fallen back. Furthermore. Strong growth in hotel investment was sustained during the early part of the downturn because of the length of time projects take to reach completion. investment in Travel & Tourism fell back sharply. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .Russian Federation Canada France Japan Germany China Europe United Kingdom Italy OECD World Australia Oceania South Africa Spain North America Latin America United States Africa Brazil South Asia Middle East India Southeast Asia Caribbean Malaysia Egypt 0 3 6 9 12 1.g. easy-to-access finance. for selected countries and regions. in some cases. although it is likely that there was some dual causality over this period. rising by 37 percent compared with an increase of only 11 percent in global tourism spending.. hotel projects were completed ahead of schedule and at a lower-than-budgeted cost. investment continued to grow in 2001 when the spending cycle had already turned.g.

and • other machinery and equipment specific to tourism-characteristic products. T&T capital investment is calculated as the sum of spending on: • accommodation for visitors. comprising: hotels. vacation/holiday homes. but a much-higher-than-average investment intensity. wider effects.g. thus generating a larger contribution to total GDP. T&T investment will help to expand capacity and potentially generate increased demand to allow future growth in Travel & Tourism. with emerging economies generally needing to invest more to catch up with more mature economies. The direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP reflects the “internal” spending (total spending within the particular country) on Travel & Tourism by residents and non-residents for business and leisure purposes. as a share of GDP. where—given the size of other industries—the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP is low. For emerging economies. and other non-residential building primarily dealing with tourists. In reference to the UN Statistics Commission– approved TSA methodology. for example. primarily including two key components: aircraft and cruise ships. which has a particularly small T&T industry. But it is also important to note that investment as a share of GDP is especially high for Spain for the period in question. produces annual research into the economic contribution of Travel & Tourism to the global economy. At both the global and the country levels. The upper left portion of Figure 3 shows economies that exhibit a lower-than-average T&T contribution to GDP. the share varies over The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .g. Spain. As already indicated. is much higher in Spain because tourism itself matters much more to the Spanish economy. T&T investment makes a much greater contribution to the Caribbean economy overall— between 20 and 25 percent of total investment in the region is attributed to Travel & Tourism—compared with China. airports. T&T investment in China and Singapore as a share of total investment is three times lower than it is in Spain. was clearly unsustainable. airlines. Not surprisingly. By way of example. Direct T&T GDP is calculated from total internal spending by “netting out” the purchases made by tourism sectors. However. • passenger transportation equipment. some markets of interest have significantly higher T&T investment–toGDP ratios than would be expected given just the current size of their T&T industries. and leisure and recreation services that deal directly with tourists. T&T investment. national parks) services provided by government. between 2006 and 2010. it is not a fixed share of total economy investment. such as cultural (e. By contrast. This approach will continue to allow direct comparison across countries and regions while at the same time providing interim results for those countries lacking the resources to undertake a full and costly TSA. this will incorporate a new methodology that follows closely the conceptual structure of the recommended TSA framework of 2008. This is calculated to be consistent with the output of tourism-characteristic sectors such as hotels. airports. museums) or recreational (e. in conjunction with Oxford Economics. as Figure 4 shows. including restaurants. This applies to economies such as Russia. and China are each estimated to have had higher ratios of T&T investment to GDP than the Caribbean region. there is a correlation between the two measures of investment intensity. since it coincided with a wider investment boom that. Looking first at the developed markets.6: Investment: A Key Indicator 72 but it says little about the actual importance of T&T investment to overall investment in the economy.. two factors are key: the relative importance of the industry to the economy in each country and the relative stage of development of each economy. travel agents. Measuring investment in the T&T industry WTTC. must be considered as well. including the contribution of investment. where T&T investment accounts for less than 10 percent. and recreation and cultural services. at one end of the spectrum are mature economies.1 This new research will not only align concepts and methodology with the TSA framework. to fully calculate the total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP. To understand the differences in T&T investment to GDP ratios across countries and regions. on average. such as Germany. However. Singapore. Turning to emerging economies. However.. For the different types of markets. It therefore comes as no surprise that T&T investment as a share of GDP in Germany is among the lowest across the list of countries and regions considered. as well as government individual spending—individual government T&T spending that is directly linked to visitors. with the benefit of hindsight.1. T&T investment is correlated with broader investment activity in the economy as a whole and is clearly influenced by similar factors such as the availability of credit. as well as land improvement for tourism purposes. yet as a share of GDP it has been marginally higher than in Spain over the last five years. the calculation is consistent with calculations in Tables 1 through 6 of the TSA framework. beginning in 2011. including capital investment. Similarly. but will also be aligned exactly with any specific country results created by national statistical agencies—assuming these countries do have Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSAs) of their own. as well as investments specific to tourism-characteristic industries.

2.5 Mature T&T markets India Malaysia T&T investment (percent) 2. selected countries and regions (2006–10 average) Spain 1.0 France 0.5 1.5 Germany 0. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 35 40 .6: Investment: A Key Indicator Figure 3: Direct T&T industry and investment spending as a percentage of GDP.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Direct tourism industry (percent) Source: Oxford Economics. 73 Figure 4: Share of world T&T investment Europe North America Africa Middle East Australia & New Zealand Oceania China Japan South Asia Southeast Asia ■ 1990 ■ 2010 Caribbean Latin America Rest of world 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 World total (percent) Source: Oxford Economic research for WTTC.0 Potential growth markets Caribbean Middle East 1.

where T&T investment expansion was much more aligned to actual demand trends. 2000 prices) Country/Region 1995–2001 2001–03 2003–08 2008–10 United States 54 –27 65 –34 1995–2010 58 India –1 1 20 15 37 China 4 0 30 –9 24 Australia 1 5 –1 2 7 Germany 6 –7 11 –4 6 Brazil 5 –4 8 –3 6 Italy 5 2 2 –4 5 11 –5 0 –2 4 Canada 3 0 3 –1 4 Egypt 0 0 2 –1 2 –1 0 3 –1 1 1 0 1 0 1 Japan –6 4 4 –2 1 Spain –3 3 4 –3 0 Malaysia –1 0 0 1 0 1 –7 7 –3 –2 28 –1 44 –14 57 109 –35 205 –61 218 United Kingdom Russian Federation South Africa France Rest of world World total Source: Oxford Economic research for WTTC. investment in Travel & Tourism fell back sharply and corrected much more severely than the drop in global tourism spending. over half of this increase is attributable to China and the United States alone. However. As expected. And.1. More recently. there is the opposite risk of underinvestment. The period 1995–2001 represents the period of steady growth in global T&T investment and spending. T&T investment growth began to significantly outpace global tourism spending growth. mainly at the expense of Europe and Japan. as both 9/11 and SARS adversely affected activity. China has been investing for the future. in Europe. Table 1 presents estimates of the change in Travel & Tourism investment by major countries over key selected periods. finally. while several key economies (including that of the United States) entered recession. which would be detrimental to price competitiveness in long-haul markets. By contrast. A lack of geographical competition and alternative destinations could allow prices to rise excessively. This could have implications for future capacity. Over the period 2005–08. The growing importance of Chinese T&T investment is evident in Figure 4. and competitiveness. global T&T investment growth began to significantly outpace global tourism spending growth.6: Investment: A Key Indicator Table 1: Change in T&T investment spending. one critical concern is whether China has overinvested in Travel & Tourism. productivity. Trends in T&T investment and industry implications in 2011 Global T&T investment closely tracked global tourism spending from the late 1980s to the mid-2000s along a stable upward trend path. 2008–10 spans the global recession. between 2008 and 2010. Its share of global T&T investment has risen significantly over the last 20 years. since a rapidly expanding middle class and international business travel market will sustain strong growth in T&T spending in the years ahead. and South Asia—but even their combined increase is smaller than China’s. Over the entire period 1995–2010. the Middle East. Data for 2001–03 reflect challenges for global Travel & Tourism. as the global economy entered recession and easy access to finance dried up. Clearly. selected countries (US$ billions. This concern is based on the estimated slower growth in T&T spending over the same period during which investment has expanded rapidly. global T&T investment increased by approximately US$218 billion (measured in 2000 prices). But there is still a risk of underutilized capacity and low returns on investment. Of course. despite major residential and office property booms. Travel & Tourism’s share of global investment had been gradually rising until the onset of the global recession. T&T investment continued to expand in 2001–03 while investment in the rest of the world declined. which fell back sharply during the world recession. 74 time. Other regions have also increased their share—notably Africa. In fact. given China’s long unbroken period of economic growth. In 2003–08. the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

Since the late 1980s. competitiveness. may result in insufficient capacity and a future lack of competitiveness. Even in destinations where existing T&T infrastructure is sufficient. 75 . The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. The world recession and the end of relatively cheap. is that underinvestment in some markets. or where there is excess capacity.Conclusions Investment in T&T products and infrastructure is essential to enable destinations to maintain and expand capacity for future growth and to improve quality. while remaining consistent with the recommended TSA framework. February 26–29.org/unsd/statcom/doc08/BG-TSA.6: Investment: A Key Indicator effect on non-price competitiveness in terms of quality and alignment with evolving market preferences is of greater concern. “Tourism statistics. 2008. Item 3 (f) of the provisional agenda. As the global economy moves on from the important crossroads it has now reached.pdf. and potentially of great concern. the implications of potential over. especially between 2003 and 2008. changing consumer preferences and aging products mean there will be a continual need for investment. Conversely. But this has arguably occurred too quickly in some destinations. Note 1 See UNSD / EUROSTAT / OECD / UNWTO 2008. easily accessible finance have corrected some of this excess.and underinvestment in different destinations will start to be felt. Statistical Commission.” Available at http://unstats.un. 2008 Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework (TSA: RMF 2008). productivity. T&T investment has shown good growth. Reference UNSD / EUROSTAT / OECD / UNWTO (United Nations Statistics Division / Statistical Office of the European Communities / Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development / World Tourism Organization). even at this early stage of recovery. and sustainability. WTTC and Oxford Economics will continue to track T&T investment across individual countries and regions as a key component of the total contribution of Travel & Tourism to the global economy.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). South Africa Green Growth In the past two years. Beyond Tourism SHAUN VORSTER. and is a major lifestyle aspiration of people everywhere across the social. as well as the largest service sector for developing countries generally and for Africa specifically. and energy crises—all of which are compounded by a dramatically increasing world population. to reduce dependence on fossil fuels while massively increasing use of renewables and linking energy technology with information technology. the shift toward a ”green economy” has accelerated significantly. Most importantly. and to ensure inclusionary growth through technology.7: Green Growth. Regional and other cooperative institutions. the Bretton Woods institutions. the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). and geographic spectrum. the share is dramatically higher. regional. national governments and their industry stakeholders are enthusiastically integrating the principles. touches billions more through its marketing. thus intensifying research and implementation programs. In tourism-centric areas such as the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean. demographic. practices. The sector directly represents some 5 percent of the global economy. have fully embraced this concept.1 Ministry of Tourism.Green Growth. since the last issue of this Report.3 At a global level. the UN system. It engages billions of consumers. and enabling programs into policy actions. its engagement is less evident than that of other sectors. massive economic volatility.4 Travel & Tourism (Travelism for short) as a major economic and lifestyle driver will be an integral part of this process at global. The international community has increasingly recognized the need to deal coherently with today’s global challenges of extreme poverty. in every The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. Travelism. the African Union (AU). because of its structural and institutional fragmentation. water. with another 5 percent represented indirectly through its supply chain. finance support. the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation organization (APEC). and climate change while at the same time preparing for tomorrow’s anticipated food. and the Pursuit of Happiness CHAPTER 1. It represents a massive component of domestic demand in industrialized and emerging economies. and capacity building while conserving essential biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.2 The broad-scale response is to seek to limit global temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. and its potential underexploited. Travelism could play a bigger transformational role than it now does. its impact is often undervalued. and local levels. Travelism. and the Pursuit of Happiness GEOFFREY LIPMAN. However. And it creates jobs like no other sector—rapidly. and the European Union (EU). Achieving these goals over the next 40 years will require the decarbonization of consumption and production— essentially decoupling economic growth from carbon emissions. and the G-20 have all reiterated their commitment to green growth.7 77 .

Many small island states that depend heavily on tourism receipts do not have the capacity or resources to respond and are particularly exposed. corporations. green jobs could be created. Simply put. public sectors. hotels. Without aviation. in far less than a decade. Not only will industry in the near future be faced with changing preferences of consumers who want to travel responsibly.7: Green Growth. health. Convergence will enable the entire sector to coherently pursue a common agenda on issues of shared impact and concern. in regulatory reform. Travelism also presents an opportunity for more equitable global economic growth. Travelism and its constituting industries need greater convergence and closer collaboration. security. as well as increased shareholder activism. it is a green services export. in economic impact and operational terms. but.g. and across the employment spectrum. many airlines would face unprofitable load factors. and infrastructure. This will be crucial in advancing the sector’s relationship with governments. restaurants. thereby promoting social inclusion. and are vulnerable to terrorism. because of their interconnectivity and mutual dependence. every journey uses a wide range of public and private suppliers. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .5 Travelism But an equally important point is that. global exchange rate volatility. with government departments responsible for economy. Travelism. especially on the ecosystems and conservation areas and marine resources that are most threatened. And they all require the same human resources. trade. from the side of Government. rising oil prices. and trade bodies to rise above their important but nevertheless partial vision and see the value of a clear cross-sectoral approach to the jobs. “Industry would have to change the way it does business in a carbon-constrained world. and climate response priorities. climate change. investment. to affect the seasonality patterns at a local level. The mainstreaming of Travelism as a strategicchange sector at a global and national policy level could also assist to consolidate strategic green-growth initiatives within and outside the sector (e. I believe that. Given the volume of tourism activity in developing and emerging market destinations. developing countries are more dependent on tourism services exports. Climate change holds the potential to disrupt tourism destinations at a macro-level. the sector will need to mitigate its environmental impacts. we see that our opportunities far outweigh the challenges. in global environmental governance. and without tourism. policies. travel services. Adaptation priorities include dealing with the effects of climate change on key environmental assets. They are equally affected by archaic global legal frameworks that govern the air space and ownership of airlines. finance. Globalization and the Internet makes this joint product delivery and supplier cross-fertilization increasingly easy and increasingly integrated. through non-tariff trade barriers such as visas and travel advisories. consumer satisfaction. and retail outlets. and institutional frameworks that in turn limit its value in green-growth decision making. Minister of Tourism of South Africa.20 Tourism Ministers.. A key issue is how to get multilateral institutions. many hotels would be virtually empty. In terms of consumption and production. in rural communities as well as cities. natural disasters (such as the 2010 Ash Cloud). In general. and external economic shocks. The realities fall into three broad areas: • First. with combinations of the activities of the subsectors. and information communication technology). and hence to seriously influence competitiveness. • Second. energy. in safety and security issues. and so on. Travelism could and should be compatible with a low carbon development trajectory and a key sector driving the shift to a green economy. as other sectors do. The key point is that.”6 Once we accept the realities. Travelism will need to adapt to unmitigated climate change in a way that reduces vulnerability— and in that process. to fully capitalize on the sector’s potential. Ideally global emissions must peak and begin to decline within 10 to 15 years. it is also about market leadership. To quote Marthinus van Schalkwyk. environment. It is more than compliance to avoid costly economic measures designed to punish untransformed industries in a carbon-constrained world in decades to come. and competitiveness. Key policies will have to be consolidated and/or aligned to ensure that the twin objectives of sustainable mobility and sustainable destinations are met. as well as on other ecosystem goods and services that support so many livelihoods. they can also expect a much tighter regulatory framework on issues of the green economy. They are also mutually enabling. and the Pursuit of Happiness 78 country. development. it has to break out of its historic inclination toward siloed sectoral goals. and to the degree that they have a competitive advantage in eco-tourism. The tourism and aviation sectors are dependent on each other as well as on global conditions for their prosperity.1. The UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has been highlighting this point in its Roadmap for Recovery initiative. a low-carbon value chain for the tourism sector will be an increasingly important driver of competitiveness. pandemics (such as H1N1). taxation. all travelers use booking systems that integrate transport. So too have the T. in multilateral forums or vis-à-vis other industries—for example.

the father of the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. Travelism.Opportunities will emerge as a result of incentivesupported innovation. Stiglitz suggests that we can learn much from the Kingdom of Bhutan. or host destination processes. that cannot be considered as resources with imputable prices. and an important driver of inclusive and shared economic growth and social development. many of Travelism’s negative impacts can be fixed with quite simple shifts in operator. in this context of contributing to a country’s gross national happiness. and. it is also far smaller than that of many other sectors. there will be increasing investment in green tourism product offerings and nature-based tourism. Moreover. and in biodiversity-based businesses and the maintenance of ecological infrastructure. and as Travelism is coherently engaged. even if individuals do make trade-offs among them. its environmental sustainability also has a huge untapped potential. happiness and satisfaction. as well as the community well-being it creates.7 Analysis has shown that the progressive reductions that governments are committing to. to seek carbon-neutral growth thereafter. Travelism is the primary vehicle of delivery of leisure. particularly in poor and emerging markets. and environmental balance is evolving to become a “quadruple bottom line” in order to fully reflect the green growth paradigm. and micro enterprises—a green revolution in the Travelism sector could be a catalyst for green growth and transformation in the broader economy. both domestically and internationally. the classic “triple bottom line” of economic. airports. or development funds. Finally. technology deployment. and new market offerings that flow from climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and measures. are possible. Travelism’s most visible component—air transport—has. and conservation areas. land transport. and coastal preservation. This is the dimension that Maurice Strong. These will include green entrepreneurship. Along with these increased opportunities. and green transport. Huge indirect opportunities for Travelism will also be uncovered in the general push for sustainable low carbon cities.”10 It is not difficult to see how an activity such as Travelism could be a high-value-added sector in this kind of new measurement approach. job creation. Further opportunities will be found specifically in the energy efficiency retrofitting of accommodation establishments and other hospitality infrastructure. Gross national happiness That transformational role may be even more significant as a result of the work of the Stiglitz Commission. medium. Travelism must be at the forefont of the global climate response drive. where the metrics for prosperity include gross national happiness—a measure that looks beyond the material to the spiritual and other nonquantifiable values. and to aim for ambitious absolute reductions by 2050. At one level. unfair discriminatory taxes imposed unilaterally are especially problematic—particularly those that pretend to support a needed response to climate change but are actually simply another means of collecting revenue for general budgets. tourism’s wellknown conservation contribution is already significant and could be easily ramped up—particularly with incentives from climate. These include “values that are not traded in markets and not captured by monetary measures such as cognitive evaluations of one’s life.7: Green Growth. the green investment in tourismrelated infrastructure in hotels. It is also clear that. Similarly.and private-sector policy decisions. and improved waste management. green building design. made groundbreaking commitments to reduce its emissions progressively until 2020. Unlike manufacturing or extractive sectors. through the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). the sector adds to its well-established wealth and jobs creation impact with the social good it creates through people-to-people understanding. particularly the game-changing climate dimension. launched by President Sarkozy of France in 2008 to look beyond GDP as a measurement of socioeconomic well-being. when new factors such as human happiness/well-being and sustainability begin to be reflected in public. trade. the scaling up of renewable energy sources. Travelism is at the heart of trade and leisure. in this evolution. consumer. and because of the multiplier effect that cascades through interrelated value chains in the economy—including the 80 percent of the sector that is composed of small. wetlands. social. At another level.9 The Commission’s report suggests the importance of also considering “quality of life” and “sustainability” in broader balance sheets of the common good.8 Air transport is critical for global commerce and for the economies of the most vulnerable states. These opportunities will increase as Travelism engages in carbon offsetting and trading schemes. 79 . very significantly. parks. and the Pursuit of Happiness • Third. Capitalizing on the new paradigm It is clear that a careful balancing act will be required as the world moves down the green growth path. which are arguably two of mankind’s most fundamental vehicles for creating well-being and happiness. In this context. including parks. The sector’s overall carbon footprint—of some 5 percent of total global emissions—is far smaller than its overall socioeconomic contribution.

IPCC 1999. Johannesburg. Stiglitz. 1999.pdf (accessed December 12. 2010a. Available at www. 8 ICAO 2010a. Available at http://www. poverty alleviation. October 20–21.” FCCC/SBSTA/2010/MISC. Available at http://www. 2 Since 2008. environmental degradation. Israel. 2010). develop infrastructure and rural economies. Cape Town. to create green jobs and decent work through new investment in game-changing technologies/natural infrastructure and. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). to address multiple challenges by accelerating the fight against climate change. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Canada.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.pdf (accessed December 12. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization). We need to transform “classic tourism” dominated by considerations of growth and market share into “smart tourism” that is also inclusive. 2010. 9 Stiglitz et al. June. Hot. E. 2010b. “A Global Green New Deal – A Policy Brief. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Annual Report 2010: International Air Transport Association. 2009. and to check the feasibility of measurement tools proposed by the Commission. Straus and Giroux.org/sdt/news/en/pdf/ climate2008. trade. Montreal. Background paper prepared for the ICAO 37th General Assembly. Berlin.int/env/ A37_Res19_en. ———. alleviate poverty. 3 See Friedman 2008. 86th Session of the Tourism Committee (CFE/TOU(2010)10).20 Tourism Ministers’ Meeting.and quality-orientated. 2010.org/greeneconomy/ Portals/30/docs/seoul_g20_final_communique. 11–12 November 2010. T. has called “the potential Armageddon if we don’t face it down.pdf (accessed December 12. b). 5 “.gov. ethical. G20. Available at http://www. 2010).net/sat/action/ media/downloadFile?media_fileid=32030. green. Notes 1 Views expressed in this chapter are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of his institutional affiliation.southafrica.” They also committed to support “country-led green growth policies that promote environmentally sustainable global growth along with employment creation while ensuring energy access for the poor” and recognize the importance of investment in energy efficiency. June 16–18. Montreal.pdf. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Strong. Travelism. and low carbon transport as part of the transformation to a “sustainable green growth.org/pressroom/Documents/ IATAAnnualReport2010.pdf. clean energy technologies. and J. pp. September.”11 This is why we must progressively accelerate our attack on Travelism’s carbon footprint—to optimize carbon abatement without compromising growth. 16. presented at the 84th Session of the Tourism Committee (CFE/TOU(2009)14). 2009. Available at http://www.icao. Speech delivered by Mr Marthinus van Schalkwyk. 2008. Press release. green cities. J.iata. M. IATA 2009. Canada. . Available at http://www. 11 Strong 2009. This in turn will ensure that the sector becomes a market leader in the green growth paradigm and its related green jobs. 2009b. ———. 2010). Available at http://www. 2010). 2009a. and poverty has gained much traction (UNEP 2009a. Available at http://www. Resolution A37-19.” Policy Brief. ———. UNWTO/UNEP/WMO (World Tourism Organization/United Nations Environment Programme/World Meteorological Organization). 2009. L. October 4. 2010c.unwto. . 2010). to increase the share of green sectors in global GDP.za:8001/ TSME/t20-docs/TMSE%20final-opt. Presented at the IATA 66th Annual General Meeting.” T.7: Green Growth. Report on Sustainable Tourism Development and Climate Change Issues and Policies. United Nations Environment Programme.” See G20 2010. 2010b.20 Tourism Ministers. Available at http://www. A Special Report of IPCC Working Groups I and III. A. Available at http://www.1. and development.int/icao/en/env2010/Statements/sbsta-33_ Item-6a. Fitoussi. M.” World Policy Journal 26 (2): 25–32. South Africa. Flat. 2010). and the Pursuit of Happiness sustainable development movement. and sustainable development. June 16–18. 2009. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Consolidated Statement of Continuing ICAO Policies and Practices Related to Environmental Protection: Climate Change. 2010a.unep. 2010). 7 OECD 2010. Available at http://www.20 Tourism Ministers 2010. Submission by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) at the 33rd Session of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA33) (30 November to 4 December 2010 – Cancun. clean. Minister of Tourism of South Africa. and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—and How It Can Renew America. investment. ———. 80 4 The 2010 G-20 Seoul Summit committed “to undertake green growth and innovation oriented policy measures to find new sources of growth and promote sustainable development. agenda item 6(a) “Emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport.20 Joint Communiqué adopted at the 1st T. Sen. Summary for Policymakers: Aviation and the Global Atmosphere.Multilingual/Default.asp? DocumentID=556&ArticleID=6057&l=en (accessed December 12.org/pdf/A_Global_Green_New_ Deal_Policy_Brief. A Global Framework for Addressing Aviation CO2 Emissions: Frequently Asked Questions. 2010). Geneva: IATA. Van Schalkwyk. 2010a.iata. Mexico). 2009. environmentally as well as socially sustainable travel and tourism sector on an ethical basis can play a meaningful role to stimulate growth. The output is designed to provide a template for every interested country or group of countries. ———. 10 Stiglitz.pdf (accessed December 12. Aviation and Climate Change.org/Documents. growing an economically. 2008. promote trade..fr/documents/ rapport_anglais. 6 Van Schalkwyk 2010. New York: Farrar. to discuss how to present this information in the most appropriate way.unep. March 2009. b.pdf (accessed December 12.14. at the same time. IATA (International Air Transport Association). “Facing Down Armageddon: Our Environment at a Crossroads.pdf (accessed December 12.pdf (accessed December 12. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme).org/ SiteCollectionDocuments/Documents/Global_Approach_Reducing _Emissions_251109web. February 22–24. and to remove market distortions. 2010. 2010. and customer. The G20 Seoul Summit Leaders’ Declaration. T. 2010. References Friedman. 2010. 144. to internalize all costs. UNWTO/UNEP/WMO 2008. A Global Approach to Reducing Aviation Emissions. resource efficiency.unep.icao.-P. to consider additional information required for the production of a more relevant picture. at the Opening of the Travel Corporation 2010 International Conference. et al. b. c. T. create jobs.tourism. The aim of this report was to identify the limits of GDP as an indicator of economic performance and social progress. Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges. and particularly facilitate development in the least developed and emerging economies. Davos: A Green New Deal for a Post-Crisis World. adopted at the ICAO 37th General Assembly. the idea of a “Green New Deal” to place the global economy on a lower carbon growth trajectory.

is a burgeoning section of the fast-growing T&T sector that has a huge potential to act as a catalyst for business. A new “Big Plan” for nature. and local development. The attention brought to biodiversity and ecosystems by IYB. Yet despite our growing understanding of the vital role biodiversity plays in supporting human well-being.A New Big Plan for Nature: Opportunities for Travel & Tourism JULIA MARTON-LEFÈVRE MARIA ANA BORGES International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) The year 2010 was a landmark year for charting the way forward for how we value. and ecosystems that constitute life on Earth—is essential for human well-being and provides society with many The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1. It then goes on to outline how recent developments in the biodiversitypolicy sphere will affect the T&T sector.8 81 . Furthermore. we are beginning to realize the full economic impacts of biodiversity loss and the significant business value of conserving nature. As one of the world’s largest and fastest-growing industries and one that is directly dependent upon healthy ecosystems. protect. also launched in 2010. and stands much to gain from capturing these values. this document aims to steer public and private decisionmaking in the next decade. and loss of livelihood for millions of people. human-induced climate change will magnify existing environmental stresses and contribute to food insecurity. with 20 biodiversity targets for 2020. for instance. The value of nature and the necessity to internalize this value into products and services is also discussed. Thanks to the landmark study The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB). biodiversity. was adopted by the world’s governments at the end of 2010. It is therefore essential for the T&T public and private sectors to work together to ensure that conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems are part and parcel of their operations. The state of nature Biodiversity—the variety of genes. Ecotourism. conflict over resources. Travel & Tourism (T&T) has an important role to play in mainstreaming biodiversityfriendly practices and nature-based solutions. together with increased awareness and support for nature conservation from government and business leaders as well as the general public. species. 2010 provided an important opportunity for raising awareness about biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation but also for understanding the immense value of our natural capital. more formally known as the Strategic Plan 2011–2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Designated the International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) by the United Nations. nature is in crisis: one in five of the world’s vertebrate species is facing extinction and many ecosystems are on the verge of collapse. and respect nature. This chapter describes the state of biodiversity and explains the importance of healthy ecosystems for the prosperity of the T&T industry.8: A New Big Plan for Nature CHAPTER 1. has generated momentum to take action for safeguarding nature.

along with spiritual. concluded that one-fifth of the world’s vertebrate species—nature’s “backbone”— are facing extinction. and help protect from natural disasters. These result from: • the loss of habitat to tourism developments. tourism also has the potential to make positive contributions to conservation.1 In fact. with natural habitats becoming increasingly fragmented and degraded. In fact. human activities are increasingly causing damage to ecosystems and species around the world. soil formation. • the disposal of solid and liquid wastes from accommodation. one in four mammals. insects pollinate crops. and • the production of an estimated 5 percent of global CO2 emissions. birds disperse seeds. disease regulation. • the use of unsustainable sources for food supplies. water supplies. However. one in three coral species. and micro-organisms produce nutrients and fertile soils. “to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global. Often acclaimed for its ability to reconcile conservation and development goals. • Supporting services: These are the services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. worms. and provision of habitats. bars.” has not been met. Tourism has major negative impacts on biodiversity and the natural environment. the prosperity of the tourism industry is directly dependent on healthy ecosystems and the many services they provide—whether these are related to ecotourism. Another major study. and fungi. educational. • the sale of souvenirs produced from threatened or protected plant and animal species. from the nature conservation perspective. At the same time. aesthetic.1. and materials such as wood for furniture and construction and fiber for clothing as well as genetic resources for medicines and crop security. and with genetic diversity continuing to decline in agricultural systems. Tourism and nature: A double-edged sword Tourism and nature are intimately related. Interactions between organisms and the physical environment influence climate. The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook demonstrates that the target agreed by the world’s governments in 2002. for which tourism is responsible. such as scuba diving. with many species moving toward extinction. • Regulating services: These are the services that keep major ecological processes in balance. and air quality. tourism development represents a double-edged sword. the report shows that biodiversity loss is continuing at unprecedented rates. including of fish. • disturbance and damage to wildlife and habitats caused by tourism activities. and water purification. Although biodiversity provides society with vital products and services. regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth. flood control. and despite the the fact that the UN Convention on Biological Diversity is one of the most widely ratified treaties in the world. the world’s most authoritative and objective source of information on the conservation status of species. • high levels of the use of non-renewable energy and water supplies. such as climate regulation. and restaurants. These benefits are collectively known as ecosystem services (see Box 1). beach holidays. seafood. it can rapidly get out of control and become the driving force for ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. including biomass production. and one in eight birds are threatened with extinction. and recreational benefits. spiritual. including food. and educational values. the rate of biodiversity loss is now at least 20 percent less than it would have been without global environmental efforts—showing that targeted conservation action works. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM. nutrient cycling. one in three amphibians. At the same time.8: A New Big Plan for Nature Box 1: Ecosystem services The 2005 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes four basic types of ecosystem services: • Provisioning services: These are the tangible products that biodiversity provides. including aesthetic. or visiting national parks. These recreational values offered by ecosystems have been recognized as one of the main cultural services that nature provides to humankind. fresh water. skiing. by: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . including new resorts and tourism facilities. fuel. based on the IUCN Red List. and agricultural products. • Cultural services: These are the non-material values that humans derive from nature. 82 important benefits and services: for instance.

among other things. provides incentives for biodiversityfriendly practices in the sector. etc. which are part of the Strategic Plan. 83 . It appeals for systematic appraisal of the contribution of nature for human well-being and makes a number of recommendations that will bring us closer to the CBD’s 2050 vision for biodiversity. and such products and services will be rewarded by increased market differentiation and competitiveness. A summary of T&T-related TEEB findings is found in Box 3. It is also essential that the industry strive to reduce its impact on nature through the integration of the value of biodiversity into its products and services. Because T&T is a biodiversity-dependent industry. the opportunities outlined in TEEB are perhaps the most apparent and easily realized. including: • strategies and tools for the integration of sustainability/conservation in public policy/decisionmaking processes. applies economic thinking to the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in order to correct this failure. the private sector. sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.”3 TEEB is explained in more detail in Box 2.8: A New Big Plan for Nature • providing an economic incentive to governments and communities to protect biodiversity and natural environments that attract tourists and provide highquality ecosystem services for tourism. Biodiversity-friendly goods and services will also begin to penetrate into new markets as well as to secure a premium for their offer. will help shape the conservation agenda going forward with an emphasis on integrating biodiversity into all sectors. and civil society. The TEEB study. nearly 200 governments adopted a new Strategic Plan for 2011–20. maintaining ecosystem services. desert. and through voluntary financial contributions from tourism companies and tourists. • guidelines for tourism development and operations in sensitive and protected areas (mountain. Biodiversity conservation as a competitive advantage for Travel & Tourism There is a growing demand for responsible tourism products and services. In particular. it is important to fully include this sector in the conservation agenda. A new “Big Plan” for nature As part of the International Year of Biodiversity. The Time for Biodiversity Business study carried out by IUCN in 2009 demonstrated that there are numerous possibilities for creating biodiversity businesses linked to tourism and that these can be good for business and good for nature conservation. Aichi Prefecture. Those destinations and businesses setting the trend will most certainly gain a competitive advantage. The 20 biodiversity targets. culminating with a special session of the United Nations General Assembly dedicated to biodiversity and the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP10) in Nagoya. wildlife watching in protected areas. The T&T industry has an important role to play in implementing the CBD Strategic Plan. launched in 2010. TEEB also outlines opportunities for capturing the value of nature and simultaneously finding nature-based solutions to current challenges. Capturing the value of nature The failure to include the value of the services provided by ecosystems and biodiversity into economic and other decision-making processes is believed to be one of the principal factors leading to the overuse and degradation of such services. and UN agencies on sustainable tourism and nature conservation. restored and widely used.2 Collective action to conserve biodiversity and implement the global vision and targets is a shared responsibility of governments. through access and use fees for biodiversity-based activities. the T&T private sector can bring to the table perspectives that are complementary to those of governments. During the CBD COP10. At the same time. knowledge of markets and management experience can be valuable assets when applied to conservation. which are split into five strategic goals. much work has been carried out by nature conservation organizations. In order to capitalize on the positive contributions made by T&T to biodiversity. and the ecosystems services which this capital supplies are fully reflected in the mainstream public and private decisionmaking. In the past. TEEB is probably the most comprehensive review of the value of biodiversity and ecosystems to society. coastal areas. such as scuba diving or wildlife watching in protected areas. Japan. The 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The aim of TEEB is to catalyze the development of a new economy “in which the values of natural capital. and • supporting conservation activities. The Strategic Plan’s vision is that: By 2050 biodiversity is valued. numerous events drawing attention to biodiversity and ecosystems were organized on all continents. The T&T public sector can create an enabling policy framework that. conserved.). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.• raising awareness about biodiversity and conservation among tourists. industry associations. set out a roadmap for reducing pressures on biodiversity and restoring ecosystems as well as informing and enhancing national and international policymaking on biodiversity and ecosystems (see Table 1).

the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives. business. at the latest. its values. at least 17 percent of terrestrial and inland-water areas and 10 percent of coastal and marine areas. Target 1 By 2020. governments. indigenous and local communities and the poor and vulnerable. people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Source: CBD. particularly of those most in decline. and contribute to health. * Targets that are most relevant for the tourism industry. species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services. ecosystems that provide essential services. has been improved and sustained. as appropriate. and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Target 6 By 2020. Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning. Target 19 By 2020. recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species. including restoration of at least 15 percent of degraded ecosystems. Target 7 By 2020. fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks. legally and applying ecosystem based approaches. functioning. Target 12 By 2020. at the latest. 84 Target 5* By 2020. priority species are controlled or eradicated and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan. and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities. at the latest. the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs. at all relevant levels. including from excess nutrients. aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably. 2010b. at the latest. are restored and safeguarded. especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services. subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations. Note: These targets are part of the CBD’s Strategic Plan and were adopted during CBD COP10. invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized. Target 20* By 2020. Target 3* By 2020. Target 15* By 2020. Target 11* By 2020. species and genetic diversity. ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Target 16 By 2015. Target 8* By 2020. and applied. Target 10* By 2015. and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use. through conservation and restoration. Target 13 By 2020. all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably. has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity. phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied. incentives. so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. areas under agriculture. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resources needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties. status and trends. each Party has developed. are improved. an effective. Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems. taking into account national socioeconomic conditions. are respected. and the consequences of its loss. livelihoods and well-being. innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. widely shared and transferred. and integrated into the wider landscape and seascape. adopted as a policy instrument. ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced. harmful to biodiversity are eliminated. the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity. pollution.8: A New Big Plan for Nature Table 1: The Aichi Biodiversity Targets Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society. Target 9 By 2020.1. at the latest. is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero. ensuring conservation of biodiversity. consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations. the traditional knowledge. the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 from all sources and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization should increase substantially from the current levels. consistent with national legislation. including forests. Target 18 By 2020. and their customary use of biological resources. the rate of loss of all natural habitats. Target 14 By 2020. Target 2* By 2020. including other socioeconomically as well as culturally valuable species is maintained and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity. including services related to water. are conserved through effectively and equitably managed. and reporting systems. Target 4* By 2020. so that overfishing is avoided. Target 17 By 2015. taking into account the needs of women. including subsidies. and has commenced implementing. knowledge management and capacity-building. the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status. the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational. knowledge. biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into nation accounting. and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized. thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 85 . • TEEB for Policymakers (D1): A key focus of TEEB is to support policies that stem biodiversity loss and encourage conservation. • In the United States in 2006. or just under 1 percent of GDP.300/year to the tourism industry in contrast to US$32 for a single catch. and human value of biodiversity. promoting a better understanding of the true economic value of ecosystem services and offering practical economic tools that take proper account of this value. development of payments for ecosystem services. single gray reef sharks were valued at US$3. • In the Maldives. Box 3: Summary of Travel & Tourism–related findings of the TEEB study • The global tourism industry generated about US$5. as follows: • Ecological and Economical Foundation (D0): The core science component of TEEB includes a state-of-the-art synthesis of theory and methods for valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services. • Several biodiversity hotspots are experiencing rapid tourism growth: 23 hotspots have seen growth in tourist visits of over 100 percent in the last decade. • TEEB for citizens (D4): This component aims to find novel ways of communicating the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity to a mass audience around the world.The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) study was an international initiative bringing together science. including the reform of harmful subsidies. • TEEB for business (D3): This component identifies business opportunities linked to the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources. This component will provide practical tools for local administrators. the study offers solutions to rebuild traditional market mechanisms and shows how to improve them. private spending on wildlife-related recreational activities (e. • In 2004. and promotes new tools for measuring and reporting the biodiversity impacts of business. and observing wildlife) amounted to US$122 billion. hunting. fishing. economics. and increased financing for protected areas.g.8: A New Big Plan for Nature Box 2: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity • Tourism is a key export for 83 percent of developing countries: for the world’s 40 poorest countries. the nature and ecotourism market grew three times faster than the tourism industry as a whole.1 billion per year in 2008. with over 13 million people undertaking the activity in 119 countries. By highlighting the costs and benefits of biodiversity and ecosystems. TEEB delivered five major studies from 2009 to 2010. • Revenues from dive tourism in the Caribbean (which account for almost 20 percent of total tourism receipts) are predicted to fall by up to US$300 million per year because of coral reef loss. it is the second most important source of foreign exchange after oil. • Whale watching alone was estimated to generate US$2.7 trillion of value-added in 2010 (over 9 percent of global GDP) and employs around 235 million people directly or indirectly. • TEEB for local and regional policy (D2): Biodiversity conservation requires strong support for rural communities and local governments. • Many tourism businesses are fully or partially dependent on biodiversity and ecosystem services. and policy. societal. The aim of the study was to analyze and assess the economic. stronger environmental liability. to help them manage their resources and confront external threats. 1.

it has considerable potential to support biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service restoration. During the year. In order to achieve this. there needs to be increased focus on not only integrating biodiversity into policymaking but also on creating the enabling conditions for such policies to be implemented. The way forward The year 2010 represented a milestone in terms of increasing public awareness of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. Yet the value of the natural assets used by the industry is often not internalized. This should. Achieving significant and lasting improvements in biodiversity and the quality of a destination’s environment requires coordinated action by all parts of the tourism supply chain and the involvement of all stakeholders. but it is also important to broaden partnerships to include small. important decisions were taken to safeguard biodiversity and a global plan of action was agreed upon by the world’s governments. In terms of the adoption and integration of biodiversity-friendly operating practices in T&T supply chains. but also by raising awareness of their consumers and within their supply chains. as the largest and fastest-growing sector in the world. threats to nature must be minimized through the integration of biodiversity considerations into tourism management systems. which are generally different from those of large enterprises and may be informal. and need to be built through dialogue and the mobilization of key stakeholders in the destination. and initiatives. With regard to destination stewardship. There is also the opportunity to support mechanisms for supply chain management by methods that include certification and standard development. IUCN is in an unmatched position to provide guidance for the industry and craft a way forward for Travel & Tourism to help implement the Big Plan for nature. If T&T is to support global biodiversity goals. but also in furthering global efforts on biodiversity conservation. including governments. This plan requires its adoption and implementation by all sectors of society. Partnerships are central to the implementation of destination stewardship. ensuring that food supplies and other natural resource products come from sustainably harvested and/or sustainably produced sources. as many tourism products and services owe their attractiveness to surrounding natural environments.4 and (4) emerging businesses and markets based on biodiversityfriendly goods and services. networks.8: A New Big Plan for Nature 86 • certification and accreditation schemes. On the other hand. and raising the awareness of tourists about the biodiversity of the places they visit and the actions they can take to help protect it. In particular. As such. and civil society. the development of premium products and services. Finally. and new business propositions as well as emerging markets. with an emphasis on recognizing and internalizing the value of biodiversity. it is essential that the public sector creates an enabling environment that rewards biodiversityfriendly practices. it would be important to focus on four key areas: (1) adoption and integration of biodiversity-friendly operating practices in T&T supply chains. be backed by capacity building to ensure that local businesses implement the standards of sustainable tourism and improve their business skills. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . leading to serious biodiversity impacts. there are many opportunities for the industry to reap the rewards of being biodiversity-friendly. of course. a holistic approach is needed to integrate biodiversity and ecosystems into tourism products and services at the destination or landscape level. (2) destination stewardship. the T&T sector is now in a unique position to become a leading industry in mainstreaming biodiversity-friendly practices and nature-based solutions. In terms of emerging markets. IUCN has been involved with and has supported the development of most of the key processes and documents outlined in this chapter. The T&T sector. examples include following good practice guidelines for siting and designing tourism facilities and developments to avoid damage to biodiversity. Beyond 2010. businesses. if it is well planned and managed. and • on-the-ground projects for the management and development of tourism. there are numerous opportunities to establish payments for ecosystem services schemes in the tourism sector as well as to support the restoration of coral reefs and other ecosystems for tourism and to support protection against the effects of climate change. (3) capacity building and market creation for “biodiversity businesses”. IUCN sees tourism as a priority sector in achieving this because.1. Biodiversity is vital for T&T. the private sector can respond by raising the bar within their operations. • development of partnerships.and medium-sized enterprises in the destination by working through their local business networks. can have considerable influence in ensuring that the targets are met and that biodiversity is protected for future generations. Often it is easiest to start with local business leaders and public authorities. the development and marketing of biodiversitybased tourism products is paramount in ensuring the success and proliferation of these businesses. Building on this previous work and the momentum generated in 2010. including market differentiation and increased competitiveness.

Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. 2011). A. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). “Biodiversity Conservation: Challenges Beyond 2010. W.org/about/work/programmes/business/bbp_our_work/ biobusiness/ (accessed December 12. 2010b.aspx. Adams. Available at http://pub.teebweb. V. J. 2010. W. 4 Biodiversity businesses. are “commercial enterprises that generate profits via activities which conserve biodiversity.org/en/ index. UNWTO/UNEP/WMO (United Nations World Tourism Organization / United Nations Environment Programme / World Meteorological Organization). M. 2010). use biological resources sustainably and share the benefits arising from this use equitably. Hodge. 2010. and B. S. 2010).iucn. TUI Travel PLC. J. Hicks. Available at http://www. 3. Montréal: SCBD. Available at http://gbo3. Strategic Plan 2011–2020: Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Bennun. A. Available at http://iucn. J. ———. 2010. SCBD (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity). Available at http://data. 2011). M.org/ (accessed January 24. W. and F. Sutherland. p. TEEB (D3).pdf (accessed December 23. S. R. 2008. teebweb. COP 10 Documents. Switzerland: IUCN. Tourism and Biodiversity: Achieving Common Goals Towards Sustainability. 2008. Gland.cbd. TUI Travel Sustainability Survey 2010.unwto. Available at http://www. M.sf/?ObjectPath=/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1455/SubProducts/ 1455-1 (accessed January 24. 3 TEEB 2010. Rands. 2010a. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. 2011). Building Biodiversity Business. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A Synthesis of the Approach..int/sp/targets/. Available at http://www.int/ (accessed January 23. P. TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity). Vira. as defined by a 2008 IUCN report entitled Building Biodiversity Business. 2010.com/tui/uploads/qreports/ 1TUITravelSustainabilitySurvey2010-External.org/epages/ Store. Butchart. Entwistle. Kapila.” Science 10 (329): 1298–1303. Available at http://www. I. 2010). D.org/ dbtw-wpd/edocs/2008-002. Coomes. 2010. 2005. The Time for Biodiversity Business. 2011). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 87 .unwto.org/epages/ Store.pdf. ———.org/ (accessed January 24. Scharlemann. TEEB for Business.cbd. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.8: A New Big Plan for Nature Notes References Bishop. W.sf/?ObjectPath=/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1505/SubProducts/ 1505-1.org/pdf/UNWTO_Recommendations.1 SCBD 2010. 2 CBD 2010a. Vorhies. UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organization). CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity).unwto. Available at http://pub. Conclusions and Recommendations of TEEB. Kapos.cbd. Clements. Mitchel.pdf (accessed December 23. P.maweb. Available at http://www. 2010a.int/cop10/doc/. Available at http://www. L. 2010b. H. F.” 1.tuitravelplc. Recommendation to the 10th Conference of Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2009. Available at http://www.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

this approach aims to identify common areas across the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness and Enabling Trade Indexes. For some years the World Economic Forum has organized ministerial-level dialogues around the world on facilitating both travel and trade. to which borders are a central barrier. In this short chapter. travel and trade facilitation have been considered fairly separate disciplines. We try to take these into account by looking at the continued servicing of the traveler or goods to their final destinations. we have selected five pillars from each of the Indexes for inclusion into the OBI. The details of indicators from The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.9 89 .9: Assessing the Openness of Borders CHAPTER 1. and include elements such as the general business environment or infrastructure. and thus to encourage mutual support between the travel and trade communities. for the most part. We aim to help bring about a mindset change. supported by national rankings devised by the private sector. More recently these dialogue series have been combined in the hope of identifying common priorities. they share common areas of interest— both trade across national borders and are affected by its physical and administrative manifestations.Assessing the Openness of Borders THEA CHIESA SEAN DOHERTY MARGARETA DRZENIEK HANOUZ World Economic Forum Traditionally. A potential factor in our approach concerns migration. compartmentalized. we can view these two aspects of travel as a kind of parallel to imported goods. the Indexes for the two sectors (the Enabling Trade Index and the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index) so far remain distinct because academic research and data are still. Appendix A shows the detailed structure of the Index. The intent is to heighten awareness of the impact borders can have in hindering both travel and trade. we attempt to pull together those elements of the data that overlap to produce a common view on the openness of borders both from a travel perspective and from a trade one. for this review we have concentrated on short-term leisure and business travel. however. thereby bolstering the case for action by national administrations. As shown in Figure 1. with the aim of capturing those elements that determine whether a country’s borders are open. Both travel and trade are enabled by factors that extend far beyond the physical and administrative borders. in which the importance of the border crossing dwindles. currently restricting our examination to these elements in view of creating the Open Borders Index (OBI). Nonetheless. and interested parties from the private sector are often separate for each sector. and reveal how that hindrance can be minimized. ministries. Though this is tremendously important. Appendix B provides descriptions and sources for variables from the ETI. Although the dialogue series have been combined. By taking a time-limited perspective. and do not here address the long-term questions of migration and production investment. Description of the Open Borders Index As outlined above. The governing institutions.

the variance of tariffs. 7. and the like. the transparency of border administration pillar assesses the pervasiveness of undocumented extra payments or bribes connected with imports and exports.1. Given the significant hindrance that corruption can impose on moving goods or people across borders. Market access Efficiency of customs administration Efficiency of import-export procedures Transparency of border administration Air transport infrastructure Ground transport infrastructure Availability and quality of transport services ICT infrastructure Policy rules and regulations Safety and security The market access pillar measures the level of protection of a country’s markets. The efficiency of customs administration pillar measures the efficiency of customs procedures as perceived by the private sector. as well as the overall perceived degree of corruption in each country. 6. but also the share of goods imported duty-free. which resulted in the following 10 pillars: 1. 3. excluding tariffs and trade taxes. The measures taken into account include not only tariffs and nontariff measures imposed by a country on all imported goods.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders Figure 1: Composition of the Open Borders Index Open Borders Index Market access Availability and quality of transport services Efficiency of customs administration ICT infrastructure Efficiency of import-export procedures Policy rules and regulations Transparency of border administration Safety and security Air transport infrastructure Enabling Trade Index Ground transport infrastructure T&T Competitiveness Index 90 the TTCI are to be found in the Technical Notes and Sources at the end of this Report. 10. Protection in foreign markets is captured by tariffs faced. as well as movement to destinations within countries. and the total official cost associated with importing as well as exporting. 4. 9. the frequency of tariff peaks. the quality of its trade regime. airport density. 5. Quality air transport infrastructure provides ease of access to and from countries. the number of distinct tariffs. The efficiency of import-export procedures pillar extends beyond the customs administration and assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of clearance processes by customs as well as related border control agencies. In the air transport infrastructure pillar we gauge both the quantity of air transport—as measured by the available seat kilometers. and the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . 2. and the level of protection that a country’s exporters face in their target markets. The rationale for selecting these pillars was based on the common areas identified above. 8. and also by the margin of preference in target markets negotiated through bilateral or regional agreements. the number of days and documents required to import and export goods. the number of departures. as well as the extent of services provided by customs authorities and related agencies.

Despite the region’s overall openness to trade and the movement of people. the time and cost required for setting up a business. boast well-developed infrastructure transport services. market access remains constrained. Chile tops the rankings among the Latin American and Caribbean economies at 29th. and a lack of physical 91 . establishing contacts with potential clients. the timeliness of shipments in reaching destination. as well as the extent to which the national transport network as a whole offers efficient. purchasing travel and accommodations. Both economies are strongly geared toward the international economy and consequently perform very well across all 10 pillars of the OBI. Tourists are likely to be deterred from traveling to dangerous countries or regions. and the extent to which police services can be relied on to provide protection from crime as well as the incidence of road traffic accidents in the country. This pillar also considers the degree of openness of the transport-related sectors as measured by economies’ commitments to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Given the diversity of the region. railroads. Rwanda. outperforming the rest of the region by a significant margin. and the openness of the bilateral Air Service Agreements into which the government has entered with other countries. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1..g. This pillar takes into account the quality of roads. Results The results of the OBI and its pillars are presented in Table 1. how well property rights are protected. Swaziland. telephone lines. China (27th) occupy places in the top 30. the Islamic Republic of Iran. ahead of second-placed Hong Kong SAR by a sizeable margin. the extent to which visa requirements make it complicated for visitors to enter the country. Coverage is limited to the 125 economies covered by the Enabling Trade Index in 2010. and Japan at 19th. Australia at 16th. accessible transportation to key business centers and tourist attractions within the country. In this pillar we take into account the extent to which foreign ownership and foreign direct investment (FDI) are welcomed and facilitated by the country. At the same time. and the overall competence of the local logistics industry (e. and Taiwan. and broadband). The policy rules and regulations pillar captures the extent to which the policy environment is conducive to business in each country.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders number of operating airlines—and the quality of the its infrastructure both for domestic and international flights. with Nordic economies such as Denmark and Sweden occupying top positions. Timor-Leste. and Trinidad and Tobago. In this pillar we take into account the costliness of common crime and violence as well as terrorism. ranging from top-ranked Singapore and Hong Kong to Tajikistan at 114th and Nepal at 118th positions. These are Angola. shows a profile similar to China’s. Malta. the ability to track and trace international shipments. Vital for ease of movement within the country is the extensiveness and quality of the country’s ground transport infrastructure. Governments can have an important impact on the development of sectors of the economy. Barbados. the final OBI score is calculated as a simple average of the scores for each country. Puerto Rico. We also include a specific measure of the extent to which the Internet is used in carrying out transactions in the economy. Based on these 10 pillars. Other than Singapore and Hong Kong. depending on whether the policies that they create and perpetuate support or hinder that development. some economies lag behind. Japan. Safety and security is a critical factor when measuring the ease of movement of goods and people. and ports. so 14 countries covered by the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index are not included. Most European countries. customs brokers). the Republic of Korea (25th).security imposes significant costs on trading. Singapore tops the rankings for openness of borders. Moldova. In this pillar we measure ICT penetration rates (Internet. to get a sense of the extent to which these tools are in fact being used by businesses. New Zealand at 14th. Lebanon. Given the increasing importance of the online environment for travel and trade—for planning itineraries. have efficient border procedures in place. the only nonEuropean countries in the top 20 include Canada at 8th. Weakest performers Bosnia and Herzegovina and Ukraine occupy the 86th and the 88th positions out of 125 economies. India. marketing measures. The top 20 ranks of the OBI are dominated by European countries. Brunei Darussalam. including the quantity of services provided by liner companies. the United States at 15th. transport operators. China’s ranking of 43 reflects the country’s fairly efficient border procedures and air transport infrastructure on the one hand and fairly protected markets and a somewhat difficult policies and regulations on the other. and have safe and enterprise-friendly business environments. The availability and quality of transport services pillar complements the assessment of infrastructure by taking into account the amount and the quality of services available for shipment. it is not surprising that the results of Asian economies spread almost across the entire rankings. general postal efficiency. and utilizing the full potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) for facilitating border procedures—we also capture the quality of the ICT infrastructure in each economy. Cape Verde. ranked 67th. in many EU member states. Libya. Sometimes well-intentioned policies can end up creating red tape or obstacles that have the opposite effect from the one intended. which provide a sense of the society’s online activity. in particular the members of the European Union (EU). while Malaysia comes in at a good 35th position.

81 5.97 4.81 5.37 5.21 4.52 3.87 3.18 5.83 3.83 4.44 5.31 4.92 5.65 4.53 6.25 5.15 3.19 5.74 3.01 5.72 6.97 3.60 5.36 3.96 5.47 3.28 14 12 10 13 17 7 15 1 5 6 16 36 27 11 2 3 18 9 23 25 4 32 54 8 40 29 46 22 52 38 51 74 50 21 34 75 30 45 53 61 107 63 35 122 66 105 65 24 19 44 33 88 62 37 81 97 60 64 96 49 79 43 47 5.50 4.78 4.27 2.75 3.80 3.55 5.38 3.55 5.38 3.40 6.28 3.96 4.33 5.87 3.22 4.72 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .70 4.79 5.99 4.71 5.84 4.72 3.86 4.90 3.32 5.91 4.21 5.45 4.72 3.18 4.84 4.76 3.01 5.17 3. Rep.54 4.33 5.45 6.21 5.68 4.72 5.24 6.88 5.73 5.57 5.27 5.14 5.74 4.79 5.04 3.23 4.25 4.04 5.88 1 16 96 58 95 101 85 25 91 97 90 73 94 37 62 63 14 33 121 109 81 99 83 102 111 29 106 86 2 77 43 88 105 72 31 108 78 54 34 8 70 80 79 103 28 5 35 113 75 7 69 93 24 47 82 36 51 59 21 46 3 87 22 5.19 4.15 5.10 5.87 3.59 2.10 5.44 4.81 4.27 4.25 2.97 3.37 5.45 4.65 5.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders 92 Table 1: The Open Borders Index 2011 Country/Economy Singapore Hong Kong SAR Sweden Switzerland Denmark Germany Netherlands Canada United Kingdom France Finland Luxembourg Austria New Zealand United States Australia Iceland Norway Japan Ireland United Arab Emirates Belgium Estonia Spain Korea.66 6.02 3. Bahrain Taiwan.84 5.11 4.59 4.78 3.79 4.75 4.14 4.21 6.76 3.37 4.30 3.53 4.28 5.92 5.11 5.59 4.63 2.96 4.13 5.26 4.70 4.20 4.46 4.86 3.36 3.75 4.65 4.65 3.29 4.43 5.76 4.68 3.66 3.90 3.93 4.25 5.20 3.17 5.59 2 14 3 7 4 18 8 11 19 28 5 12 16 1 22 10 6 9 15 13 21 23 24 32 37 30 33 27 20 31 26 25 45 17 52 44 55 39 29 41 40 50 56 49 59 42 43 71 61 47 64 38 54 62 51 34 36 90 73 76 65 46 70 6.70 3.54 4.94 6.05 4.19 5.65 5.29 2.10 4.50 4.67 5.12 4.62 5.17 5.17 3.61 4.78 3.87 5.15 4.17 4.00 4.86 4.94 4.83 4.62 5.91 4.71 4.28 4.54 5.99 6.76 3.74 3.35 4.96 4.21 3.24 5.42 4.56 4.12 1 2 3 32 4 12 11 30 16 10 5 23 21 24 17 25 57 8 18 19 9 36 7 45 6 35 31 22 47 20 15 67 41 46 29 53 39 26 82 28 34 27 33 81 74 38 43 14 63 51 13 37 49 52 48 91 61 88 62 42 50 99 71 6.17 4.73 4.49 3.53 5.56 5.59 5.32 5.56 4.77 4.30 4.06 3.33 4.67 4.26 4.44 4.40 5.67 3.52 5.77 4.47 5.19 6.16 3.48 3.97 5.85 4.22 4.20 5.50 4.36 3.52 3.88 4.79 4.36 5.98 4.89 4.49 4.1.34 4.83 5.58 2.91 3.96 4.02 5.85 5.36 3.77 3.49 4.31 4.77 6.22 4.13 5.11 5.49 4.35 6.99 5.95 4.74 3.14 4.77 3.67 5. China Cyprus Chile Portugal Israel Slovenia Czech Republic Qatar Malaysia Hungary Italy Saudi Arabia Oman Mauritius Lithuania Latvia China Slovak Republic Croatia Georgia Tunisia Thailand Greece Costa Rica Panama Poland Montenegro Turkey Romania Uruguay Jordan Jamaica Albania Dominican Republic El Salvador South Africa Mexico Pillar 2: Efficiency of customs administration Pillar 3: Efficiency of import-export procedures Pillar 4: Transparency of border administration Pillar 5: Air transport infrastructure OPEN BORDERS INDEX 2011 Pillar 1: Market access Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 6.40 4.12 3.11 4.85 3.28 5.55 4.88 4.93 5.06 6.69 3.20 3.18 4.01 4.76 2.53 5.71 3.10 5.65 4.17 5.51 5.86 5.12 3.63 4.84 4.25 6.09 4.65 3.69 5.43 4.94 4.29 6.95 4.85 3.56 5.77 3.75 4.87 4.24 2.09 5.93 5.91 3.49 5.55 3.68 5.16 2.89 4.95 4.81 4.11 6.83 5.74 3.13 6.49 5.68 5.57 5.85 4.71 4.51 3.18 5.67 3.96 4.03 3.39 6.70 4.79 5.23 5.73 4.40 3.23 2.25 4.43 5.51 5.96 4.40 4.70 4.48 4.35 3.49 4.72 4.91 5.38 3.57 4.08 4.27 3.95 6.75 6.56 5.37 5.30 3.42 5.02 5.77 5.52 5.46 4.37 5.92 4.25 4.23 3.37 4.14 4.23 4.08 5.40 5.22 4.16 4.03 5.77 5.09 5.97 3.40 5.32 4.89 3.34 5.75 6.36 5.21 4.18 4.48 4.62 4.18 4.29 4.91 3.69 6.35 4.36 3.18 4.21 5.96 4.82 5.50 5.82 3.37 5.90 1 13 2 10 4 20 5 19 8 24 30 35 3 7 11 18 29 42 17 6 12 41 9 22 26 15 51 43 21 72 33 14 23 84 48 16 68 27 52 47 39 45 40 25 54 31 57 36 88 34 79 58 74 69 32 75 50 53 49 73 61 28 65 6.05 5.09 2.17 6.25 4.89 3.33 4.42 3.71 3.32 5.47 4.16 5.98 5.26 4.

96 4.57 4.32 6.53 4.22 6.20 5.31 5.65 4.29 3.22 4.34 6.35 4.65 4.39 5.96 5.13 5.94 4.33 4.64 4.22 4.60 4.23 4.86 5.49 5.14 5.63 3.79 3.31 3.13 6.26 5.29 3.79 3.17 5.70 4.76 6.14 4.73 5.87 5.80 2.61 5.00 5.58 6.88 5.28 1 9 12 13 15 3 2 25 6 10 22 5 8 39 16 11 43 33 4 23 29 7 37 14 21 54 24 35 64 28 49 41 27 76 17 30 19 51 40 86 44 45 18 20 48 65 79 26 32 87 74 34 96 57 46 97 53 71 69 50 101 60 67 5.36 5.63 4.16 5.75 3.30 2.32 4.47 3.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders Pillar 6: Ground transport infrastructure 93 .14 5.10 4.61 5.52 6.70 5.03 5.70 5.98 3.00 4.30 4.27 4.24 4.47 2.05 4.43 5.53 5.44 4.53 4.66 5.20 4.95 3.38 3.63 4.69 5.92 4.68 3.19 3.20 2.88 4.31 4.11 5.74 5.58 5.19 5.05 2.36 5.96 4.86 6.22 4.27 6.57 4.78 5.47 4.77 4.47 4.26 4.23 5.09 5.48 6.72 5.40 3.10 5.90 4.90 4.76 6.61 4.37 5.09 4.40 5.13 3.12 3.54 4.43 4.01 5.52 3.31 4.39 5.18 3.10 3.03 4.80 4.12 3.09 5.01 3. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.37 3.71 5.19 5.25 4.33 5. Bahrain Taiwan.66 5.31 3.92 2.59 4.79 4.85 4.56 4.03 4.03 5.79 3.61 3.19 5.07 4.58 5.04 4.70 5.00 4.26 5.27 3.48 4.56 6.11 4.27 5.27 4.15 4.83 5.16 5.37 4.76 5.16 5.75 2.Country/Economy Singapore Hong Kong SAR Sweden Switzerland Denmark Germany Netherlands Canada United Kingdom France Finland Luxembourg Austria New Zealand United States Australia Iceland Norway Japan Ireland United Arab Emirates Belgium Estonia Spain Korea.99 3.75 4.88 4.86 5.15 4.65 3.10 6.75 5.81 5.20 5.89 5.10 5.72 4.87 4.76 6.09 3.04 5.59 3.70 4.26 5.85 4.73 3.01 4.62 3.93 5.26 3.08 3.39 5.70 20 4 1 2 10 7 6 14 9 12 17 5 25 23 21 24 3 11 28 29 18 16 13 30 8 37 15 31 54 33 22 26 40 45 52 38 34 51 58 66 32 36 73 41 35 82 76 81 39 72 57 44 42 59 49 48 85 60 71 83 77 95 75 5.49 5.00 5.35 4.77 5.99 4.33 4.63 5.60 Cont’d.05 5.45 5.16 5.48 5.11 5.16 5.26 3.18 5.93 3.45 5.55 3.00 4.45 4.46 5.11 4.45 6.36 3. Rep.25 5.39 5.56 4.96 4.61 4.29 4.59 5.47 5.18 5.50 5.15 4.41 5.51 4.80 4.18 4.46 4.44 5.74 4.72 5.91 6.78 4.65 5.74 5.68 4.09 1 2 8 18 17 20 19 4 13 22 5 6 28 3 16 30 33 15 51 7 38 26 25 85 53 58 9 79 12 35 62 65 52 37 21 29 84 43 41 27 83 59 80 36 77 54 23 76 82 66 24 61 10 34 63 71 47 11 46 32 39 31 56 6.96 5.21 5.03 4.11 4.47 3.14 3. China Cyprus Chile Portugal Israel Slovenia Czech Republic Qatar Malaysia Hungary Italy Saudi Arabia Oman Mauritius Lithuania Latvia China Slovak Republic Croatia Georgia Tunisia Thailand Greece Costa Rica Panama Poland Montenegro Turkey Romania Uruguay Jordan Jamaica Albania Dominican Republic El Salvador South Africa Mexico Pillar 7: Availability and quality of transport services Pillar 8: ICT infrastructure Pillar 9: Policy rules and regulations Pillar 10: Safety and security Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 2 1 16 5 7 3 8 33 17 4 21 12 15 50 28 51 32 63 6 38 31 9 29 13 18 11 14 20 55 24 47 25 22 35 36 37 39 53 40 41 26 42 59 45 54 69 48 56 61 93 68 78 109 60 101 46 75 23 97 81 70 66 79 6.84 4.95 4.79 4.40 5.99 5.03 3.66 4.90 5.74 5.64 5.38 4.29 3.47 5.07 4.69 4.16 3.56 13 5 7 2 8 9 16 24 30 20 1 11 10 14 62 18 4 3 19 12 54 15 25 36 60 32 38 26 27 22 46 29 41 28 83 43 48 52 17 45 59 53 58 49 33 47 56 94 73 63 71 50 37 97 35 21 64 104 44 116 118 129 128 6.66 5.95 5.11 5.18 4.14 6.39 4.15 4.23 5.54 5.81 3.78 5.09 4.18 4.64 4.70 4.08 5.72 5.87 3.33 4.70 5.77 5.34 4.63 5.06 4.37 4.32 4.93 3.31 4.40 4.08 5.06 5.32 5.03 5.25 5.42 6.38 4.51 4.90 5.97 4.16 3.78 5.08 3.54 6.01 4.40 5.32 5.62 4.38 5.98 4.18 4.00 3.80 4.

41 3.39 2.26 2.27 2.02 4.83 4.87 4.40 3.90 3. The Argentina Colombia Bosnia and Herzegovina Senegal Ukraine Ecuador Nicaragua Russian Federation Ghana Zambia Pakistan Kazakhstan Malawi Guyana Uganda Bangladesh Ethiopia Cambodia Bolivia Benin Madagascar Mozambique Syria Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Tanzania Paraguay Algeria Lesotho Tajikistan Cameroon Burkina Faso Mali Nepal Nigeria Mauritania Côte d’Ivoire Venezuela Zimbabwe Burundi Chad Pillar 2: Efficiency of customs administration Pillar 3: Efficiency of import-export procedures Pillar 4: Transparency of border administration Pillar 5: Air transport infrastructure OPEN BORDERS INDEX 2011 Pillar 1: Market access Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 3.80 3.78 2.68 3.79 3.34 4.23 3.22 3.69 4.80 3.75 3.71 3.12 1.78 5.94 3.20 3.76 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .16 3.29 2.83 2.65 2.57 3.03 3.60 2.33 3.61 3.62 4.21 4.11 3.90 2.33 2.86 4.19 2.45 3.87 4.94 3.84 2.78 3.86 2.92 2.11 2.42 3.31 3.65 3.63 4.06 1.33 3.26 3.61 3.55 3.99 3.55 4.74 2.32 59 68 64 72 83 75 95 44 54 78 70 89 111 85 40 123 105 55 60 66 86 84 58 56 98 92 76 110 73 117 69 125 115 65 106 79 114 96 93 94 80 97 87 104 116 113 77 101 90 103 124 102 121 112 107 100 108 109 120 119 122 118 4.90 4.45 4.06 1.95 4.30 3.50 3.89 2.90 2.98 2.68 3.44 2.17 3.60 3.60 2.28 2.86 3.44 1.12 4.30 4.04 2.52 2.03 58 68 72 75 77 57 63 88 104 67 53 109 35 85 80 87 48 119 82 69 96 66 108 94 102 116 84 115 74 78 100 81 60 107 111 122 83 120 110 91 86 93 103 112 123 105 95 113 101 92 89 117 79 98 114 106 97 118 124 99 121 125 3.47 2.58 4.87 2.17 3.16 2.66 3.35 4.87 2.54 38 42 112 115 76 71 13 60 50 104 15 9 32 4 114 61 41 64 107 119 98 57 44 117 30 27 11 125 67 17 120 53 19 84 10 52 68 40 18 92 6 12 116 26 20 110 55 39 124 23 66 65 48 45 49 123 74 122 100 118 89 56 4.16 2.83 2.75 4.77 3.94 2.35 5.91 2.34 2.56 3.46 3.31 3.69 2.33 4.79 2.68 2.76 3.48 2.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders 94 Table 1: The Open Borders Index 2011 (cont’d.64 3.37 4.87 1.99 3.78 3.00 2.10 3.12 4.77 2.60 2.53 2.96 2.84 2.49 3.95 4.92 2.31 4.91 2.69 4.08 3.97 2.28 3.82 2.29 2.83 3.31 3.75 2.50 3.87 2.24 4.70 2.72 2.47 3.76 3.08 2.78 3.92 4.76 4.66 3.66 3.28 3.93 2.13 5.67 4.16 2.72 2.70 2.08 3.12 4.72 5.70 2.67 3.44 4.44 3.19 3.64 3.35 3.17 3.99 1.52 2.19 4.01 2.05 3.30 2.77 2.68 4.87 2.65 2.12 1.31 2.26 4.18 4.79 5.21 3.78 4.23 2.85 2.45 1.47 4.07 4.76 4.94 5.74 2.19 1.73 3.72 3.25 108 64 44 62 63 115 37 67 107 94 70 76 46 93 80 38 95 56 90 78 87 91 106 86 110 83 92 85 102 66 60 103 82 109 71 104 59 89 77 112 121 98 125 122 81 97 123 55 105 111 114 99 96 119 120 117 118 116 101 100 113 124 2.69 3.79 2.15 4.39 5.32 2.79 2.46 2.13 3.60 4.83 2.90 3.61 2.61 3.97 4.78 3.67 3.89 2.05 2.22 3.12 2.00 3.66 3.01 3.34 3.46 4.74 4.59 4.96 2.66 2.17 4.68 3.94 1.24 4.11 2.29 3.24 2.99 4.50 3.29 2.15 2.72 2.) Country/Economy Macedonia.72 4.04 5.06 2.39 2.43 1.83 4.93 1.20 3.91 2.37 3.40 2.57 2.03 2.77 5.71 1.97 3.03 4.49 3.85 2.70 3.19 3.74 4.76 3.17 3.58 2.68 2.81 4.58 4.42 2.40 3.74 3.01 3.25 2.75 2.82 4.06 4.77 4.08 3.21 3.78 4.62 4.62 2.11 2.12 2.30 2.14 4.31 4.52 2.18 2.86 3.36 4.49 2.35 1.23 2.35 4.25 2.55 2.28 3.74 2.84 3.08 4.37 2.05 4.69 5.34 2.50 2.36 2.30 3.81 2.20 4.17 2.84 3.12 3.56 2.53 3.55 2.92 2.43 3.43 3.36 2.42 4.24 3.49 4.29 3.96 2.90 3.42 3.68 3.77 3.50 3.95 3.25 3.85 2.59 2.61 2.05 4.79 3.35 3.54 2. FYR Serbia Morocco India Bulgaria Kuwait Guatemala Indonesia Vietnam Brazil Peru Armenia Botswana Honduras Egypt Azerbaijan Namibia Philippines Sri Lanka Gambia.29 3.62 5.82 3.62 2.81 3.79 3.83 2.24 3.61 3.25 5.97 3.04 127 111 68 39 89 67 71 58 85 42 78 95 91 69 55 83 59 80 90 82 73 70 134 92 93 76 108 31 101 118 98 86 133 115 119 120 87 113 100 124 106 112 110 72 132 77 121 136 103 139 117 130 135 131 116 102 138 114 84 125 129 137 2.04 5.20 2.19 4.91 2.77 5.44 3.1.35 2.33 4.40 2.40 2.74 2.94 1.41 3.94 2.60 1.47 2.05 4.11 3.54 4.88 3.86 2.69 2.93 2.

01 2.29 2.17 4.85 4.05 3.18 4.14 3.30 3.35 1.45 2.45 4.48 3.52 2.47 4.67 4.81 3.95 2.21 2.19 4.04 55 62 79 111 43 69 78 96 67 56 84 97 104 92 93 88 109 98 94 108 53 64 70 103 68 86 116 46 114 122 113 61 128 87 125 129 138 123 102 118 131 127 106 112 91 99 130 100 107 132 110 121 134 135 133 105 119 117 74 124 137 139 3.60 3.62 4.71 4.61 4.40 3.19 4.88 3.17 1.80 2.23 2. The Argentina Colombia Bosnia and Herzegovina Senegal Ukraine Ecuador Nicaragua Russian Federation Ghana Zambia Pakistan Kazakhstan Malawi Guyana Uganda Bangladesh Ethiopia Cambodia Bolivia Benin Madagascar Mozambique Syria Kenya Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Tanzania Paraguay Algeria Lesotho Tajikistan Cameroon Burkina Faso Mali Nepal Nigeria Mauritania Côte d’Ivoire Venezuela Zimbabwe Burundi Chad Pillar 7: Availability and quality of transport services Pillar 8: ICT infrastructure Pillar 9: Policy rules and regulations Pillar 10: Safety and security Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score 88 115 72 43 90 57 102 82 77 116 121 106 73 85 76 58 44 114 34 52 107 120 137 89 74 118 122 95 94 108 71 96 91 104 119 62 98 103 134 99 126 128 92 87 129 133 123 138 105 112 117 111 110 113 135 131 125 80 136 83 84 132 3.01 3.70 2.80 1.22 3.05 1.93 3.79 1.87 2.09 3.88 3.21 2.10 4.91 2.Country/Economy Macedonia.14 3.27 3.97 3.92 3.55 2.99 2.56 3.54 4.91 5.99 3.38 3.36 4.61 3.03 3.80 4.62 3.09 2.66 3.76 4.54 4.88 3.52 2.86 2.92 1.91 2.60 1.24 3.64 2.21 3.76 3.18 4.82 3.62 3.86 2.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders Pillar 6: Ground transport infrastructure 95 .22 2.01 2.25 2.76 2.70 3.37 3.33 4.02 3.01 2.39 4.89 3.70 4.33 2.87 2.20 4.16 4.12 3.25 3.74 3.62 4.15 4.37 4.25 4.95 1.80 2.14 2.57 4.79 1.81 2.41 2.84 3.10 3.74 2.46 4.93 3.97 2.42 2.82 3.00 3.70 4.96 2.59 4.62 2.96 3.40 4.39 55 58 77 59 62 81 82 73 31 42 94 36 99 92 61 52 125 38 109 115 72 88 56 63 93 78 98 70 120 118 91 47 106 111 85 105 75 112 119 66 114 124 68 83 84 108 107 121 110 103 80 116 113 117 100 89 95 102 90 122 123 104 3.36 4.56 4.68 3.40 3.67 3.31 2.31 2.62 3.14 4.43 2.22 2.21 3.62 3.19 2.23 3.35 1.14 2.50 3.10 3.70 3.17 2.01 5. FYR Serbia Morocco India Bulgaria Kuwait Guatemala Indonesia Vietnam Brazil Peru Armenia Botswana Honduras Egypt Azerbaijan Namibia Philippines Sri Lanka Gambia.07 2.01 4.83 3.85 2.13 3.16 3.02 4.93 3.74 2.95 3.53 78 68 48 128 94 127 57 88 67 114 45 92 64 50 49 74 55 70 91 86 89 60 129 108 107 124 105 126 72 44 106 95 102 99 100 116 93 132 138 117 101 109 123 103 96 87 97 110 118 121 119 125 104 130 115 131 113 122 134 136 133 139 4.07 3.24 4.41 4.77 3.38 3.46 4.28 2.27 3.74 5.35 2.26 3.73 1.63 3.35 3.08 3.09 3.93 3.13 3.17 3.47 4.37 4.46 3.44 4.32 1.74 1.42 2.43 3.20 3.69 2.90 4.69 42 66 84 78 81 31 131 72 68 75 119 51 87 106 135 57 86 109 91 88 77 126 40 70 82 90 92 113 98 80 138 108 74 110 117 105 102 79 112 101 137 125 69 139 120 67 115 124 95 114 55 99 93 107 127 133 130 122 134 96 132 136 5.37 4.56 2.75 3.30 1.61 3.61 3.62 4.71 3.50 3.72 4.57 4.81 3.78 4.30 4.96 3.75 2.53 3.93 4.39 4.52 3.83 3.83 3.12 3.62 2.73 2.90 1.08 4.96 1.88 3.66 2.13 4.85 3.30 4.96 2.89 2.38 4.97 3.76 4.78 3.07 3.44 1.83 4.70 2.38 4.56 4.08 4.67 3.59 3.38 3.41 3.80 1.52 3.80 2.41 4.05 3.57 3.65 3.33 3.96 1.95 2.76 2.81 3.89 3.25 2.62 3.92 2.08 3.56 4.92 2.35 3.29 3.18 2.99 4.13 1.84 4.10 2.35 5.91 3.55 5.22 3.82 2.02 2.95 2.22 3.54 1.73 3.54 3.80 3.07 4.84 2.32 3.71 3.12 3.17 4.60 3.27 3.49 2.04 3.09 3.37 4.41 4.67 4.17 3.35 2.66 2.80 2.68 3.10 3.38 3.92 3.12 4.98 3.74 2.50 4.85 4.25 3.39 2.34 3.47 3.07 2.86 2.33 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 1.55 3.

Going forward. with excellent infrastructure and efficient borders. and Nigeria 119th. suffers from inefficient border procedures and low levels of physical security. Further research and more complete data will be necessary to identify those factors that could enable the flow of services across national borders. Costa Rica.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders 96 Indeed. The best-performing country in sub-Saharan Africa is Mauritius at 40th. places 73rd. reverse—progress in opening borders. mainly because of concerns related to market access. The region’s most sizeable country. Conclusions and the way forward Though this is obviously a cursory look at the synergies between the two areas. This is particularly critical in an era when security and economic concerns threaten to slow—or even. the concept that the promotion of Travel & Tourism has a symbiotic relationship with the facilitation of trade seems important. Senegal 87th. Brazil. In parallel. the approach underlying the OBI and the related dialogue series could be widened to include a fuller set of factors that impede or enable trade in services. achieves only 50th position. Mauritius’ strengths include free market access. Deeper research and cooperation among the public and private sectors as well as academia on this broader issue can potentially be facilitated by the work of the World Economic Forum in this area at a later stage. South Africa. such as Egypt at 78th or Algeria at 112th. Doha Round are certainly key. The UAE has very successfully developed into a key logistics hub and an attractive destination for Travel & Tourism. at 47th place.1. The best-performing country from North Africa is Tunisia. behind Mexico at 63rd and ahead of Colombia at 85th. the lens chosen here reveals only part of broader themes. Whereas much trade liberalization has been achieved with respect to goods trade. a business-friendly environment. 2010. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Through joint ministerial-level meetings at World Economic Forum summits around the world. Reference World Economic Forum. The regional ranking closes with Venezuela at 122nd place. and fairly efficient import export procedures. significant barriers still impede trade in services. Some of the larger economies in the region attain much lower rankings. Efforts to make border agencies more efficient and to further liberalize market access would allow Brazil to benefit from its solid air transport infrastructure and its well-developed transport services. yet some room for improvement remains with respect to market access and policy rules and regulations. followed by Panama at 51st and Uruguay at 56th. Israel at 31st. The UAE is followed by Bahrain at 26th. of which Travel & Tourism is only one sector. on the other hand. in some cases. The Global Enabling Trade Report 2010. The vast majority of countries from the region place in the lower half of the league table: Botswana ranks 76th. significantly outperforming South Africa at 62nd. Led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) at 21st. we hope to at least highlight common areas where both sectors could collaborate. and Qatar at 34th. the rankings for the Middle East and North Africa also reflect the region’s diversity. among which the efforts to further liberalize services under the World Trade Organization’s The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Of course. the second-best placed country in that group. enlivened by a short open borders video. the logistics and Travel & Tourism industries are working with governments on securing transport and increasing resilience to risk—while at the same time trying to balance this growing concern for safety with ensuring the everyday access and smooth movement of people and goods.

03 Business impact of rules on FDI.* index 1–7 (best) 3.03 Logistics competence.* deaths/100.* 0–132.05 Tariffs faced.* % 1.02 and 6. 1–7 (best) 6.* 1–5 (best) 6.* number/100 population 1. For details of data sources for the ETI.* 0–10 (best) Availability and quality of transport services (OBI pillar 7) 6. number 1. FROM THE TRAVEL & TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS INDEXa FROM THE ENABLING TRADE INDEXa Policy rules and regulations (OBI pillar 9) Market access (OBI pillar 1) 1.03b Available seat kilometers. 1–7 (best) 1.* days 3.* number 3.000 population* 6.* km roads/100 square km of land ICT infrastructure (OBI pillar 8) 9.04 Visa requirements.The following table lists the variables that enter the selected pillars from the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) and the Enabling Trade Index (ETI) that are used in the calculation of the Open Borders Index.01 Burden of customs procedures. 1–7 (best) 7. 1–7 (best) 3.01 Quality of roads.01 Tariff rate. please see Appendix B. b Variables 6.06 Margin of preference in destination mkts.03 from the TTCI enter the OBI Index calculation as an average (one variable). 1–7 (best) 3.5 (best) 6.02 Quality of railroad infrastructure.05 Mobile telephone subscribers.05 Time to export.03a Tariff dispersion.02 Non-tariff measures.* index 0–100 (best) Safety and security (OBI pillar 10) Complexity of tariffs.* % 1.03d Distinct tariffs.03 1.03 Documents to import.* % GNI per capita 1.01 Extent of business Internet use. For details about the data sources for the TTCI.01 6.03 Business costs of crime and violence.01 Liner Shipping Connectivity Index.* average number of countries entirely or partially exempt from visa requirements 1.* 1–5 (best) 6.* index 0–100 (best) 1. 1–7 (best) 9. a The number for each variable refers to the number according to the TTCI and the ETI.9: Assessing the Openness of Borders Appendix A: Open Borders Index structure Transparency of border administration (OBI pillar 4) 4.* number/100 population 9.01 Efficiency of the clearance process.01 Business costs of terrorism. international.02b Available seat kilometers. 1–7 (best) Efficiency of customs administration (OBI pillar 2) 3.07 Cost to export. 1–7 (best) 4.02 Reliability of police services.06 Number of operating airlines.* index 1.05 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements. 1–7 (best) 7. 1–7 (best) 1. standard deviation 1.09 GATS commitments restrictiveness of T&T services.04 Cost to import.08 Cost to start a business.02 Property rights.02 Time to import.* index 0–100 (best) 1.* number 3.06 Postal services efficiency. domestic.01 Prevalence of foreign ownership. see the Technical Notes and Sources at the end of this Report.* number/100 population 9. 1–7 (best) 1.* millions per week 3. % 1.* days 6.* 1–5 (best) 6.* millions per week 3. 1–7 (best) 2.04 Share of duty-free imports.06 Transparency of government policymaking.* number/100 population 9.04 Tracking and tracing ability.04 Quality of domestic transport network.* 1–5 (best) 6.* % 1.* number of days 1. 1–7 (best) 2.03b Tariff peaks.07 International air transport network.* US$ per container 6.* index 0–1 (best) Notes: Quantitative measures from sources other than the Executive Opinion Survey are indicated with an asterisk (*).02 Corruption Perceptions Index. % 1.05 Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination.05 Road density.03 Telephone lines.04 Road traffic accidents.* 1–5 (best) 6.07 Time required to start a business.04 Departures per 1.03c Specific tariffs.01 Irregular payments in exports and imports. 1–7 (best) 7.03 Quality of port infrastructure.* 0–12 (best) 3. 1–7 (best) 1.02 Customs services index. 1–7 (best) 7.07 GATS commitments in the transport sector.02 Internet users.02 Ease and affordability of shipment. 1–7 (best) Ground transport infrastructure (OBI pillar 6) 7.* number airports/million population 6.06 Documents to export.000 population Air transport infrastructure (OBI pillar 5) Efficiency of import-export procedures (OBI pillar 3) Quality of air transport infrastructure.* US$ per container 3.05 Airport density.04 Broadband Internet subscribers.* number 6. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 97 .

Source: International Trade Centre 1. Source: International Trade Centre 1. including preferential rates that the rest of the world applies to each country. Source: International Trade Centre Number of distinct tariffs Number of distinct tariffs for all sectors | 2009 or most recent year available This indicator reflects the number of distinct tariff rates applied by a country on imports. and use of reference prices or arbitrary uplifts to invoice values. Tariff data are from 2009 or most recent year available. 2008 or most recent year available This indicator is calculated as the average of the applied tariff rates. and number of distinct tariffs (see descriptions below).02 Non-tariff measures Index of non-tariff measures (NTMs) | 2009 or most recent year available This index is constructed as the average of two NTM-related variables.01 Tariff rate Trade-weighted average tariff rate | 2009. including preferential rates that a country applies to the rest of the world. 2009 Share of tariff lines with domestic peaks (percentage) | 2009 or most recent year available This indicator reflects the total share of tariff lines in the country’s most favored nation (MFN) tariff schedule for which the value is 3 times above the simple average tariff. for products with imports larger than 0. and the promptness of those inspections. 7 = extremely efficient) | 2008. appeal of customs decisions to a higher level or an independent tribunal. The trade pattern of the importing country’s reference group (2008 data) is used as a weighting. exemptions from full customs formalities for shipments of minimal value. 2. The maximum score an economy can obtain is 12. that is imported free of tariff duties. Source: International Trade Centre. 2008 or most recent year available Share of trade. It is calculated as the simple average of the absolute preference margin and the preference margin as share of MFN tariff rates.01 Burden of customs procedures Source: International Trade Centre How would you rate the level of efficiency of customs procedures (related to the entry and exit of merchandise) in your country? (1 = extremely inefficient. multiple inspections (inspections by agencies other than customs).03 Complexity of tariffs Index of the complexity of tariffs | 2009 or most recent year available This variable is calculated as the average of the tariff dispersion. The variables included are the percentage of trade affected by non-tariff measures (NTMs) and the average number of notifications for products affected by NTMs.10: Assessing the Openness of Borders Appendix B: Technical notes and sources for selected indicators from the Enabling Trade Index Pillar 1: Domestic and foreign market access 1. 98 1. automated risk assessment as primary basis for physical examination of shipments. inspection and release of goods arriving by air by the operator’s facility. exemptions from duties and taxes for shipments of minimal value. Source: International Trade Centre Specific tariffs Share of tariff lines with specific tariffs (percentage) | 2009 or most recent year available This indicator reflects the number of Harmonized Schedule (HS) tariff lines with at least one specific tariff as a percentage share of the total number of HS tariff lines. The services included are the following: clearance of shipments via electronic data interchange. such as embargos. clearance of shipments by a third party. customs working hours adapted to commercial needs. excluding petroleum. Executive Opinion Survey 2008. specific tariffs. tariff peaks. and imports data are from 2008.1. 2008 or most recent year available This indicator is constructed as the trade-weighted average difference between the most favored nation (MFN) tariff and the most advantageous preferential duty. taking into account most-favored nation tariffs and preferential agreements. Source: International Trade Centre 1.06 Margin of preference in destination markets Index of margin of preference in destination markets | 2009.04 Share of duty-free imports Duty-free imports as a share of total imports | 2009.05 Tariffs faced Trade-weighted average tariff faced in destination markets | 2009. Politically motivated NTMs. separation of physical release of goods from the fiscal control. full-time (24 hours / 7 days a week) automated processing. The score is expressed as a percentage of total tariff lines. 2009 Tariff peaks Source: World Economic Forum. 12 = maximum) | 2009 This variable is based on the 15 questions in the Global Express Association (GEA)’s survey that capture different aspects of the services offered by customs and related agencies. Source: International Trade Centre Pillar 2: Efficiency of customs administration Tariff dispersion Square root of the variance of tariff rates | 2009 or most recent year available The variance is calculated at the 6-digit level of the Harmonized Schedule. Source: International Trade Centre 2. Source: Global Express Association The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . have been excluded.02 Customs services index Extent of services provided by customs authorities and related agencies (0 = minimum. fee for services in normal service hours. authors’ calculations 1. 2008 or most recent year available This indicator is calculated as the average of the applied tariff rates.

All the fees associated with completing the procedures to export or import the goods are included. Doing Business 2010 1. Documents filed simultaneously are considered different documents but with the same time frame for completion. Respondents to the Logistics Performance Index survey were asked to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of clearance in the country in which they work. Procedures that can be completed in parallel are measured as simultaneous. Documents include bank documents. The cost measure does not include tariffs or trade taxes. Doing Business 2010 3. administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control.06 Documents to export goods Number of documents required to export goods | 2009 This variable takes into account all documents required to export goods. terminal handling charges.04 Cost to import goods Cost (US$ per container) associated with all the procedures required to import goods | 2009 This variable measures the fees levied on a 20-foot container in US dollars. 5 = very high) | 2010 This variable assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of the clearance process by customs and other border control agencies in the eight major trading partners of each country. Logistics Performance Index 2010 3. Source: Transparency International Pillar 6: Availability and quality of transport services 6.01 Irregular payments in exports and imports In your country. customs declaration and clearance documents. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control. import licenses. how common is it for firms to make undocumented extra payments or bribes connected with imports and exports? (1 = common. Source: The World Bank. Executive Opinion Survey 2008. Documents include bank documents. Source: The World Bank. and maximum ship size.) 3. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. liner companies.01 Efficiency of the clearance process Efficiency of the clearance process by customs and border control agencies (1 = very low.02 Time to import goods Number of days necessary to comply with all procedures required to import goods | 2009 The time calculation for a procedure starts from the moment it is initiated and runs until it is completed.10: Assessing the Openness of Borders Appendix B: Technical notes and sources for selected indicators from the Enabling Trade Index (cont’d.05 Time to export goods Number of days necessary to comply with all procedures required to export goods | 2009 The time calculation for a procedure starts from the moment it is initiated and runs until it is completed. Source: The World Bank. import licenses. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost. on a 1–5 scale (1 for the lowest score. twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) capacity. All the fees associated with completing the procedures to export or import the goods are included. and inland transport. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 99 . Trade Logistics Branch. The waiting time between procedures—for example. 10 = very low) | 2009 The Corruption Perceptions Index score relates to perceptions of the degree of public-sector corruption as seen by business people and country analysts and ranges between 0 (high) and 10 (low). and inland transport.03 Documents to import goods Number of all documents required to import goods | 2009 This variable takes into account all documents required to import the goods. during unloading of the cargo—is included in the measure. based on their experience in international logistics. Doing Business 2010 3. It is assumed that neither the exporter nor the importer wastes time and that each commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. based on indicators of service supply per country. and other official documents exchanged between the concerned parties. and other official documents exchanged between the concerned parties. Source: The World Bank. port filing documents. Source: The World Bank. Documents filed simultaneously are considered different documents but with the same time frame for completion. Doing Business 2010 Pillar 4: Transparency of border administration 4. 7 = never occurs) | 2008. The waiting time between procedures—for example. These include costs for documents. 2009 Source: World Economic Forum. 2009 4. Doing Business 2010 Cont’d. Only official costs are recorded. customs declaration and clearance documents. Only official costs are recorded.Pillar 3: Efficiency of import-export procedures 3. The index is comprised of a list of quantitative indicators for service parameters available in each country.02 Corruption Perceptions Index Index of the perceived level of public-sector corruption (0 = very high. The cost measure does not include tariffs or trade taxes. Transport Section. the fastest legal procedure is chosen. port filing documents. Doing Business 2010 3. terminal handling charges. 3. during loading of the cargo—is included in the measure. Procedures that can be completed in parallel are measured as simultaneous. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost.01 Liner Shipping Connectivity Index Quantity of services provided by liner companies | 2009 The Liner Shipping Connectivity Index is an indicator of liner shipping connectivity. It is assumed that neither the exporter nor the importer wastes time and that each commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. Source: The World Bank. These include costs for documents. 5 for the highest) compared with generally accepted industry standards or practices.07 Cost to export goods Cost (US$ per container) associated with all the procedures required to export goods | 2009 This variable measures the fees levied on a 20-foot container in US dollars. Source: The World Bank. Source: UNCTAD. liner services. The variables included in this index are: number of ships. the fastest legal procedure is chosen.

based on their experience in international logistics and in accordance with generally accepted industry standards or practices. 5 = very high) | 2010 This variable assesses the ability to track and trace international shipments (consignments). 5 = very high) | 2010 This variable evaluates the competence of the local logistics industry.1.04 Tracking and tracing ability 100 Ability to track and trace consignments (1 = very low. 5 for the highest). 2009 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum . Source: The World Bank. Performance was evaluated using a scale from 1 to 5 (1 for the lowest score. customs brokers) (1 = very low. road transport services. rail transport services. Logistics Performance Index 2010 6. Performance was evaluated using a scale from 1 to 5 (1 for the lowest score. and services auxiliary to all modes of transport. 7 = trust completely) | 2008. Source: The World Bank. Passenger transport has been excluded across all sectors. Logistics Performance Index 2010 6. based on their experience in international logistics and in accordance with generally accepted industry standards or practices. Logistics Perception Index 2010 6.) 6. Only subsectors where commitments to opening up completely have been taken into account and the results have been weighted by 2007 global trade data. transport operators. Respondents to the LPI survey were asked to evaluate the timeliness of shipments in reaching destination when arranging shipments to eight countries (major trading partners) with which they conduct business.07 GATS commitments in the transport sector Index of commitments in the transport sector under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) | 2009 The indicator measures the extent of commitments for traderelated services in the transportation sector under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).02 Ease and affordability of shipment Ease of arranging competitively priced international shipments (1 = very low. 5 for the highest). 5 = very high) | 2010 This variable assesses how often shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled delivery time. It covers the following sectors: air transport services. maritime transport services (only for non-landlocked countries). Executive Opinion Survey 2008.10: Assessing the Openness of Borders Appendix B: Technical notes and sources for selected indicators from the Enabling Trade Index (cont’d. based on their experience in international logistics and in accordance with generally accepted industry standards or practices. Source: International Trade Centre and authors’ calculations 6.03 Logistics competence Competence and quality of logistics services (e. Respondents to the LPI survey were asked to evaluate the competence of the local logistics industry in the eight countries (major trading partners) with which they conduct business.g..05 Timeliness of shipments in reaching destination Frequency of shipments reaching the consignee within the scheduled delivery (1 = very low. Performance was evaluated using a scale from 1 to 5 (1 for the lowest score. 5 = very high) | 2010 This variable assesses the ease and affordability associated with arranging international shipments. Source: The World Bank. 5 for the highest). Source: The World Bank. 2009 Source: World Economic Forum. based on their experience in international logistics and in accordance with generally accepted industry standards or practices. Performance was evaluated using a scale from 1 to 5 (1 for the lowest score.06 Postal services efficiency To what extent do you trust your country’s postal system to have a friend mail a small package worth US$100 to you? (1 = do not trust at all. Logistics Performance Index 2010 6. Respondents to the LPI survey were asked to evaluate the ease and affordability associated with arranging international shipments to or from eight countries (major trading partners) with which they conduct business. Respondents to the LPI survey were asked to evaluate the ability to track and trace international shipments (consignments) when shipping to or from eight countries (major trading partners) with which they conduct business. 5 for the highest).

Part 2 Country/Economy Profiles and Data Presentation The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

1 Country/Economy Profiles The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .2.

The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .

.......................................................................3 5.........000 1..............8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council......792.......... Travel & Tourism indicators The second section presents Travel & Tourism (T&T) indicators that aim to provide a measure of the past....................9 4......5............. the Tourism Satellite Accounting (TSA) framework is a statistical tool—including concepts.. The TSA also makes these estimates comparable with other internationally recognized macroeconomic aggregates and compilations...... 2009 ................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..... is the most common unit of measure used to quantify the volume of international tourism for statistical purposes........ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ........................................61 3.................................3 Natural resources ............ the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).....16................ expressed in thousands.............6 4.........2 4............................90 T&T regulatory framework ......... WTTC estimates the current and projected future economic contribution of Travel & Tourism in terms of an economy’s GDP and employment......... US$) per capita................4 3.............91 3........77 ICT infrastructure .....000 square kilometers) ..1...... and Eurostat.....4..................................................................... The graph shows all available data during this period for each economy.......... The T&T economy is a broader perspective of T&T economy...20...8 The first section presents several key indicators that give a sense of the size of the country and its economy. World Economic Forum This section presents two-page profiles for all the 139 economies included in The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011....... aggregates...... direct impact only)............................6......................................... 2009...........500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1....................0 3....209...........................90 Availability of qualified labor.....0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).............wttc.............46 Environmental sustainability......................44 Health and hygiene .......72 Safety and security ..000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .” Travel & Tourism that takes into consideration the direct as well as the indirect contributions by traditional travel service providers and industry suppliers within the resident economy.... Albania Key indicators Population (millions)........ The number of international tourist arrivals.........The Environmental Performance Index rankings are from YCELP................ and tables—that is compatible with international national accounting guidelines and allows for valid international comparisons.........94 2.169........................83 5............ data may be missing for particular years.... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ........1 3......................7 4...................3 Environmental Performance Index................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles. This section is in turn split into two parts: The first part presents data from the Tourism Satellite Accounting Research carried out annually by the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC)..........................9 Human resources ......org/eng/Tourism_Research/............................................................. National sources have been consulted where appropriate....23 Left-hand page Travel & Tourism indicators Key indicators Percent of total T&T industry.................................7 .............................................................................................. current................................ are available at http://www......66 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism................................................1.......5 5.....................3 4.................... and natural resources ............7 2........... WTTC defines the T&T industry as a narrow perspective of T&T activity that captures the production-side industry contribution (that is.................5 3.....5 ... along with details on the methodology and data.................................. More information regarding WTTC’s TSA Research.................. The data for these indicators were provided by the UNWTO..........5.....................................96 Ground transport infrastructure...........553......................................71 2009 Index.... and projected future activity of Travel & Tourism in each economy............71 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry........... Using the TSA approach............... Yale University and CIESIN................................................8 Policy rules and regulations.......3 T&T human........ However....0 Employment (1.....55 4....................................... definitions...... This latter perspective is used when one wants to understand the total impact of Travel & Tourism on the resident economy....................... cultural. 2009....113 Cultural resources...........................2.........4 2...............................2 Surface area (1...........How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ROBERTO CROTTI................ 2009 ........................... Population and surface area figures are from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators Online Database (December 2010)........ classifications..................................................... It includes The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum .... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).............815...12.........3...........97 Tourism infrastructure ........................ 2009..........1.........000 jobs)..9 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...................53 4..........000 jobs)...........1...........................8 ....................................................................................................7 6.........3........0 105 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.....7 T&T business environment and infrastructure .............................7 ..........................................8 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)....0 4...69.....................57 Education and training .....................841........ GDP numbers are from the International Monetary Fund (IMF)’s World Economic Outlook Database (October 2010 edition)......................................... Developed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)........................................ The second part of the T&T indicators presents data on international tourist arrivals and international tourism receipts over the period 1995 to 2009......... Columbia University.........3 Air transport infrastructure..........9 Employment (1........................................2 Gross domestic product (PPP................. 2009 ...................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .....................................7. depending on data availability.0 Real GDP growth (percent).....28.......3 2.....

.....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.................05 1........92 T&T government expenditure*..02 Access to improved sanitation* ..........22 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.104 Hotel price index*.......How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles exclusively overnight visitors—that is..............01 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.................................... individual indicators ranked from 1 through 10 are considered to be advantages.1 for the detailed structure of the TTCI.....01 5. for instance......02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .........01 10...03 6...... the Data Tables at the end of the Report provide detailed rankings and scores for each of the variables included in the TTCI....84 4..06 6.......................................................... entertainment.........................................02 Sports stadiums*.......95 Internet users* .15 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ............ For further details and explanation...... Right-hand page • For those economies with an overall rank on the TTCI lower than 50..... Time required to start a business.......78 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........03 2...............4 HIV prevalence*.................................69 Transparency of government policymaking ............................................................94 Extent of staff training ................................... are the receipts earned by a destination country from inbound tourism and cover all tourism receipts resulting from expenditures made by visitors from abroad on...........7 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.............115 Secondary education enrollment* .02 5...........07 1....04 11..............................05 6............................................... Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail This page presents the rank achieved by a country on each of the indicators entering the composition of the TTCI....... Same-day visitors are not included....................01 9.98 Quality of the educational system......... food and drink.......................01 6..........................04 6......... shopping...........75 13. its rank of 35th on indicator 1...............03 Quality of the natural environment.....85 GATS commitments restrictiveness* .........59 11th pillar: Human resources 11........06 11............. any individual indicators ranked higher than 51 are considered to be advantages......02 1....... and so on...........................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .04 1........02 11.................................04 5..............43 14... Receipts from same-day trips can be substantial.....01 Hotel rooms* ...000 population* .....54 Local availability of research and training services.............. ranked 99th overall..01.................................... ranked 36th overall...02 9................................................................ constitutes a competitive advantage for the country......... The ranks of those indicators that constitute a notable competitive advantage are highlighted in blue bold typeface............................01 Physician density* ..........73 12.. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter............03 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....................88 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...........39 4.......................103 Available seat kilometers..........53 Visa requirements*..04 Creative industries exports*.............. For example. Indicators are organized by pillar......................... The same person who makes several trips to a given country during a given period will be counted as a new arrival each time........101 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..124 Road density* ............................21 Ease of hiring foreign labor.............. indicator 1..............82 Airport density* ..........58 Available seat kilometers.........05 Quality of roads ..............06 2.55 Hiring and firing practices ........... Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 106 The third section of the page presents the economy’s performance on the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) and its various components..................... Visa requirements............... Albania The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..........1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ................... domestic* ..9 Cost to start a business*...................... In the case of Montenegro......................90 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7......... • For those economies ranked from 11th to 50th on the overall TTCI.........03 Business costs of crime and violence .......81 Quality of railroad infrastructure .................27 Extent and effect of taxation .......74 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...............................32 Environmental treaty ratification*...................02 7.........03 5.................................72 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.03 9.........................42 Particulate matter concentration* ........................04 10...........01 7...85 Threatened species* ........................04....... transport in the country.100 Quality of ground transport network ......................................................74 8...........................................................................05 2........ The number of arrivals does not necessarily correspond to the number of persons.....04 Road traffic accidents* ........02 6........................75 13........64 8......01 Business costs of terrorism.........................................07 11....08 11.... expressed in millions of current US dollars.05 11.......................83 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .....72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.......03 7..................................................53 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...........104 Number of operating airlines* ......................................... Competitive advantages are defined as follows: • For those economies ranked in the top 10 in the overall TTCI...................3 12.................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..03 10.........................................02 Protected areas*..........05 Extent of business Internet use .............................................02 10.........................04 2.......03 1. where Moldova ranks 40th.... Please refer to Appendix A of Chapter 1......... makes this indicator a competitive advantage.....................................97 International air transport network ..............56 3....120 14...............01 Tourism openness* ..... tourists who stay at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited........01 2.49 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..................................................39 Fuel price levels*..............03 11........................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .......... For Moldova..................................04 9.... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.49 Time required to start a business* .. making this indicator a competitive advantage..109 Quality of port infrastructure .......10 Primary education enrollment*.............133 Purchasing power parity* .............. international* ..................................................................132 Enforcement of environmental regulation ......... as in the case of countries where a lot of shopping for goods and services takes place by visitors from neighboring countries.......................65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.............. variables ranked higher than the economy’s overall rank are considered to be advantages............................................132 Sustainability of T&T industry development.......56 Telephone lines*.....01 1...........................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........02 Reliability of police services................57 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..52 12.........01 Number of World Heritage natural sites*........................ Germany—which is ranked 2nd overall—is ranked 3rd on indicator 6............. This measure includes receipts generated by overnight as well as by same-day trips........04 7.45 13th pillar: Natural resources 13......................04 Total known species* ......03 Access to improved drinking water*.............93 Carbon dioxide emissions*......... fuel...............08 1....................65 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..................01 11.........................07................73 14................................................110 Departures per 1..66 Property rights .......99 13........................2 Life expectancy*............... International tourism receipts.......................................................................04 Hospital beds* .............................51 3..57 3...57 4...............02 2.........................64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5........................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..03 Extension of business trips recommended..................................116 Business impact of rules on FDI ............................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum ....................09 11............. lodging.....06 1... Quality of air transport infrastructure.................... For further analysis...

Islamic Rep. Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea.List of Countries/Economies List of Countries/Economies Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Country/Economy Page Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Chad Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Finland 108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 France Gambia. Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia. The Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Guatemala Guyana Honduras Hong Kong SAR Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran. FYR Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan. Rep. China Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Timor-Leste 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304 306 308 310 312 314 316 318 320 322 324 326 328 330 332 334 336 338 340 342 344 346 348 350 352 354 356 358 Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe 360 362 364 366 368 370 372 374 376 378 380 382 384 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 107 .

..............................3 Natural resources ..................9 Human resources ........................815........................................66 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism................................4 3......55 4.....6 4.................9 Employment (1...553.....94 2...............................................0 Employment (1.................................................71 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry......................................... 2009.............................8 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)....1.................169..........................................000 jobs)......................8 T&T economy...............2 4..16.........77 ICT infrastructure ...........................................1 3..90 T&T regulatory framework ...................4....................................................1...3.91 3...........................................................................5 ....90 Availability of qualified labor..8 Policy rules and regulations........113 Cultural resources........................................................................................................................5 3.......209...........2.7........................3 4........... 2009 ..........................97 Tourism infrastructure ..........................................................4 2................................................. 2009.. cultural................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ....................................................................96 Ground transport infrastructure...20....5.................12......000 jobs)..........7 6...................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .................0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources......................8 ......841......................................................................................000 108 1......5...0 Real GDP growth (percent)...........................1: Country/Economy Profiles Albania Key indicators Population (millions)............792....500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1.......................................................................................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)...............3 2....3 5............................ 2009 ...... and natural resources .........7 T&T business environment and infrastructure ........2 Gross domestic product (PPP................................................................3 T&T human.................................................46 Environmental sustainability..........................61 3.....................................................................................23 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry............................. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.........72 Safety and security ...................................7 ........9 4.................................................................... 2009 ...........3 Air transport infrastructure............9 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...................................6...............0 4.........69....................................7 4.................3........................000 square kilometers) ..............1......0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)................................................................71 2009 Index.....................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................7 2...53 4................44 Health and hygiene ...... 2009.......................2......3 Environmental Performance Index...............................2 Surface area (1.........................1............. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.............................57 Education and training .....................5 5.7 .....0 3....................28.....83 5...8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council............................. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .............................. US$) per capita.

.........................90 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.........10 Primary education enrollment*...........1: Country/Economy Profiles Albania 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.....01 5..39 Access to improved drinking water*...58 Available seat kilometers.....................................................................65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.............05 1...94 Extent of staff training ....................................01 14.....109 Quality of port infrastructure .........01 9............................05 11................................57 Business costs of crime and violence ................116 Business impact of rules on FDI .................................101 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.................................................88 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...05 Extent of business Internet use ..........49 Time required to start a business* .............................. domestic* ........................................4 HIV prevalence*.........................................03 2.................01 Tourism openness* ...................97 International air transport network .......104 Number of operating airlines* ...............04 1........................................................................04 Business costs of terrorism.....64 8................................................. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum............03 4.....................01 13..............................93 Carbon dioxide emissions*............64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5................02 13.......................................99 Total known species* ....92 T&T government expenditure*..........85 GATS commitments restrictiveness* ........03 6........110 Departures per 1.............2 Life expectancy*......................7 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 109 ......04 5..........98 Quality of the educational system...........................................................04 Physician density* ..................74 2......85 Threatened species* ...................................................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .................................57 Effectiveness of marketing and branding................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..........................................65 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.........04 6.................................................................................75 Protected areas*.........05 2............08 1....................132 Enforcement of environmental regulation ......................103 Available seat kilometers.....................................................000 population* ..............................02 9.............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*...............................06 11........01 6....02 3......................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ........................04 11....53 Visa requirements*...73 Sports stadiums*..95 Internet users* .......132 Sustainability of T&T industry development...........04 7.....................120 Creative industries exports*.....04 9.....3 12................................02 11..03 9............................69 Transparency of government policymaking ..............................................21 Ease of hiring foreign labor..............03 Extension of business trips recommended.....06 2...........81 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...........01 4...........01 Hotel rooms* ..........78 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..............02 2.........57 Hospital beds* ...............82 Airport density* .....27 Extent and effect of taxation ...54 Local availability of research and training services....115 Secondary education enrollment* ........................................32 Environmental treaty ratification*........05 Quality of roads ..............55 Hiring and firing practices ..................................................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..........73 12.....03 5.............22 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.....................56 Road traffic accidents* ................02 6.........................................43 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....................05 6..............42 Particulate matter concentration* ....02 14.............................................104 Hotel price index*..133 Purchasing power parity* ...............39 Fuel price levels*............................. For further details and explanation..........04 2.....................51 Reliability of police services......01 3...........59 11th pillar: Human resources 11................................................................................01 10.............02 4......01 2..01 1...................................52 12........03 10....................84 Access to improved sanitation* ................72 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.......07 1......................56 Telephone lines*...........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1....................................................................06 1....02 1...........03 14...............................01 7...07 Stringency of environmental regulation......75 Quality of the natural environment......124 Road density* ....02 10............................03 7.....83 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .........03 1....................................................................................................03 11....................03 3..................................................................... international* ...............02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..........100 Quality of ground transport network .............................02 5............08 11..............................................45 13th pillar: Natural resources 13..04 10............07 11..........01 11....74 8.................15 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .........................................49 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.......03 13................72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..............................................................1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..............09 11..9 Cost to start a business*...06 6.........................................02 7............53 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..........................66 Property rights ............04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..................

..............34...6 4..........0 4.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Algeria Key indicators Population (millions).........................95 Health and hygiene ..3........................000 square kilometers) ........... US$) per capita...........0 2..3.......5 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..............................................................381......................................0 2...................000 jobs).....000 jobs)..000 110 1.........2...” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................................................500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1......................139..................................115 T&T regulatory framework .....90 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ......... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...................................................911.........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ....122 ICT infrastructure ........................................... 2009 ...................6 2..... cultural.................................72 4......4 Human resources ........2 3.....................................................................1 T&T business environment and infrastructure ........1.......0 T&T economy......................4 Environmental Performance Index................... 2009 ........................0 Employment (1.............2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources......................... and natural resources ............................5...................................9 Policy rules and regulations............9 Air transport infrastructure............................ 2009.....................5... 2009.......................................................118 Environmental sustainability............... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ............8 ................4 3..............................113 2009 Index...............498.......91 Education and training .............................................884...........................2..35 2......................................8 Gross domestic product (PPP......................8.....................4 3...........................103 Ground transport infrastructure........6......................................86 Availability of qualified labor...... 2009 .2....................1.............112 3...907......................99 Cultural resources..............9 Surface area (1..........................................................9 ..................9 4........... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..................................871.............................2.............................3 5.................................................7 4...7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...........4....................0 T&T human...330......107 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...................................................................116 3........8 Employment (1....9 ...............105 Tourism infrastructure ...5...........120 Safety and security ..................8 Real GDP growth (percent)..........................................1........7 2...............110 2............................................................................4 4........... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%......................................................................................................................................176............................................................................................................................84 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.................... 2009...........2 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..................3 3............130 3..........0 1.............129 Natural resources ..2 .....................................42 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry................................................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)....4 4.............................

.......................04 5....................................................................................02 3..............06 1......87 Quality of the natural environment..................02 9...65 Quality of port infrastructure .......01 11.81 Access to improved sanitation* ......................94 Creative industries exports*....02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..........................71 Departures per 1.....135 2..................74 Road traffic accidents* .................09 11...................000 population* ...........115 Quality of ground transport network .56 Fuel price levels*...................74 GATS commitments*........................................................05 2...........07 Stringency of environmental regulation.......... domestic* ....................................06 2.......116 HIV prevalence*.......03 2..............02 5....................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ................................................................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter......................................03 6..............................02 13............................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.............05 1......................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.........................82 International air transport network .04 10...................................................03 1...07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ......................................01 5................102 Hospital beds* ......02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..............................137 12.04 1................117 Local availability of research and training services.........05 Extent of business Internet use ..98 11th pillar: Human resources 11.............................04 11..............124 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted......................................................01 7.01 Tourism openness* .............8 Hotel price index*...........03 10................109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6......................................113 12...........105 Extent of staff training ...................................112 8...........91 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.....................................................94 Airport density* .56 Number of operating airlines* ...................... international* ......................................................108 Transparency of government policymaking ................................ For further details and explanation.....n/a RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.............01 13............................02 4......................02 2.92 Sustainability of T&T industry development........125 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ...03 9....05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ........79 Business costs of crime and violence ....109 T&T government expenditure* ............................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 111 ..............01 14...............78 Ease of hiring foreign labor..............66 Quality of railroad infrastructure .....................03 3.........1: Country/Economy Profiles Algeria 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9........03 4.............07 1..........................01 1..........................................................81 Quality of the educational system.....................108 13th pillar: Natural resources 13....................................104 8......................114 Carbon dioxide emissions* .......................85 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............................................125 Visa requirements*.........100 12..................................87 Cost to start a business* ...95 Telephone lines*.....07 11....03 5.............04 6.03 Extension of business trips recommended........01 Hotel rooms* .............................112 Road density* .....10 Primary education enrollment*............................................84 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.138 Internet users* .......................29 Sports stadiums*.................02 6...........115 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .............................................................................38 Extent and effect of taxation .............04 7....02 1.........................03 11......................82 Mobile telephone subscribers* ................................................81 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3........05 Quality of roads .....01 10..04 2.................03 7....01 2.........................................70 Secondary education enrollment* .........111 Threatened species* ...........03 13.........................................05 11..03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........43 Protected areas*.........01 3...............98 Available seat kilometers..42 Available seat kilometers.......................128 Reliability of police services......85 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...........................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership......01 6....05 6.63 Life expectancy*.......................02 14..50 Access to improved drinking water* .............71 Particulate matter concentration* ..........08 1...06 6..................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.................106 Business impact of rules on FDI ..............103 Hiring and firing practices .....08 11..............................................................................01 4...............................................................................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..01 9.02 11...........................................127 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*...04 Business costs of terrorism...................................93 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..04 9....................125 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.......................................................................................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...03 14..107 Total known species* ....................................123 Property rights ....97 Environmental treaty ratification* ............02 10..............................04 Physician density* ............101 Broadband Internet subscribers* ................................121 Time required to start a business* ...........63 Purchasing power parity* ................117 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...........06 11...........02 7.................n/a 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.......................................72 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2................

........6.....8 ............................0 2....8 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..........................136 2..........................137 Availability of qualified labor................................................. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ......0.....4 Real GDP growth (percent)......... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).....................................4.......9 3......................9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.........................................................................135 3..7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).....8 n/a 3.....7 Environmental Performance Index...........................................137 Environmental sustainability.......................119 Safety and security ............................0 4...111 Health and hygiene .......6 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...........26............................................139 Natural resources .......4 1...........................531...........10.. 2009........................428...............................................................n/a T&T regulatory framework .......121 2......................9 ..1: Country/Economy Profiles Angola Key indicators Population (millions).............................................534..................5 Surface area (1.................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.............................................1 2........................................................................126 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry......... cultural...................1..............................................129 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.............8 ........139 2.......8 4..8......6 Employment (1................0..138 2009 Index..............................................................................................................7....1 2.............................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ..............2......74.................... and natural resources ................................................................5 3.....................................387.............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) .............................6 .....13 2............................1 T&T economy.........000 square kilometers) ..................................18................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .........................139 Tourism infrastructure .....................................................................................................7 Air transport infrastructure................................... 2009 ....6 Human resources .................0 600 112 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 400 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 200 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .......................8 2.........0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.........................................131 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..............................58 Cultural resources............................0...7 2.4.................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....................0........................160 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry......................................................................103 ICT infrastructure ...................5 Gross domestic product (PPP...........................1 1........ 2009.....9 5..000 jobs)........138 Education and training ........................................ 2009 ......... 2009 ........................365.............................181............................ 2009........246........................126 Ground transport infrastructure...............8 Employment (1.....000 jobs)...................................................................................................... US$) per capita.....................................................................1.............................138 2........................1 Policy rules and regulations.......2 T&T human....3 1.....

...................................80 8.....................04 2.07 Stringency of environmental regulation............103 2............................137 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.......136 Number of operating airlines* .............04 6.......132 12....................................................139 Quality of the educational system..133 Extent of staff training .......................08 11...............107 Quality of port infrastructure ............................................................04 11.......................................................................................03 13......................................................................................122 Sports stadiums*.....................04 Physician density* ...........125 Telephone lines*......01 Hotel rooms* .........129 Cost to start a business* ......................120 Visa requirements*..................98 Road traffic accidents* ........................02 11.................................137 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*........01 3.....................03 11......138 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .........128 Available seat kilometers...03 14.........................02 10...............05 6.....03 7...........................................08 1...............................130 Hospital beds* ...03 4...........................06 2..........06 1................................132 Transparency of government policymaking ..............126 Life expectancy*..........01 2....87 Extent and effect of taxation .05 Extent of business Internet use .....106 Threatened species* .............05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ........................03 10.........03 1.................................................115 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...17 Reliability of police services................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1......02 1....................01 14..........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...54 Quality of the natural environment... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 113 ........................................05 11.............................01 11..................03 2.....81 Ease of hiring foreign labor.........05 1.....117 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..............02 4.............................02 9........106 Creative industries exports* ........ For further details and explanation............139 13th pillar: Natural resources 13..126 Effectiveness of marketing and branding......117 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....................................74 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .......................139 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..........................................136 Quality of ground transport network ..........116 12.........................118 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..................................................................104 International air transport network .................. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.....30 Fuel price levels*.........75 Protected areas*...............07 11..................................01 10........................................................................07 1.............................................................125 Total known species* .........................................000 population* .......04 5...n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11.......03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........03 5...................83 Business costs of crime and violence .... domestic* ....06 11.......................45 Particulate matter concentration* ........................................130 Business impact of rules on FDI ......01 6.................04 10.............................................................................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..127 Time required to start a business* ...............01 13.......04 1............................03 9....................................................133 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4....................................14 Hotel price index*......138 12................................02 3...........09 11......................................01 5..............................139 Local availability of research and training services................. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.....01 4......02 5.........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..............................04 Business costs of terrorism.........02 2......................96 Access to improved drinking water* ....02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..........................124 Access to improved sanitation* .......................................120 Broadband Internet subscribers* ....03 3............01 9.............127 Internet users* ...28 Purchasing power parity* ....121 8...................33 Environmental treaty ratification* ........99 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..................................136 HIV prevalence*.........................131 Sustainability of T&T industry development.................02 6..........02 7.....................05 Quality of roads ................01 1.................n/a Airport density* .......137 T&T government expenditure* ...139 Road density* ......01 Tourism openness* ......................138 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*....02 14.........04 7......83 Property rights ........114 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...................................03 Extension of business trips recommended................103 Available seat kilometers..133 GATS commitments* .........n/a Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..............04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*....02 13...19 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14....04 9....................120 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..................03 6..............79 Departures per 1..............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .......06 6...................05 2..................................n/a Secondary education enrollment* ....01 7....................10 Primary education enrollment*...................n/a 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7........................................... international* ...14 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Angola 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9....................................................39 Hiring and firing practices .................................109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............................................

.....65 T&T regulatory framework .................................7 Air transport infrastructure.............492............2 4.................9 Environmental Performance Index.................................780....000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..6 3.....................23..130 Safety and security ....................................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources....312......4 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)............................................................................................73 Ground transport infrastructure............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .......................6 .............................4........3......................... 2009 ........................................................................3 5.....2.............6 ....................72 Natural resources ..........60 2009 Index.........77 Health and hygiene ...........2........ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ........................................................................1 Gross domestic product (PPP..89 Environmental sustainability..........................40 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...........000 114 4...................................2....................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%...525..56 Availability of qualified labor.........................1... 2009..... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .................................70 2................... 2009 ..6 4.......................................................................................5 Employment (1.........4.......2 3...................3 3...... and natural resources ....000 square kilometers) ......9 2.................................................................3...........................................92 4....55 ICT infrastructure ..................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .1 4..0....5 T&T human..........3 ............................................................9 4......2.........................4 Human resources ..........0 Real GDP growth (percent)................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...............................................................53 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry...5 Policy rules and regulations.....................................916........ 2009 ....9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..0 Employment (1...........................................3 Surface area (1.....................6 4......6 T&T economy.................................2 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......8.................................................................................14......................72 4............000 jobs).38 4....................................................7 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..................61 Education and training ............................................. 2009................................35 4............................332............................................5.............107 Tourism infrastructure ........... cultural.......79 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .......................................................9 5....................................................8 4.....................70 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..............................................6 5.......7 4................................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..............................8.......310................ US$) per capita..40...9 4....20 Cultural resources..................6 .............................................................7.....................625.........................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Argentina Key indicators Population (millions)........2....000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 3...................................000 1............. 2009.................................................................70 3...000 jobs)....0 4.................291....................

..............04 1........................01 14...........................102 12...05 Quality of roads ..................65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.......................02 9........07 Stringency of environmental regulation.07 11.......................................82 Quality of port infrastructure ............................................06 6...................90 Local availability of research and training services....35 Departures per 1.121 Purchasing power parity* ...........04 10.......................50 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...................................................01 10...................................03 14........................04 7............................................................06 1........134 Ease of hiring foreign labor...........................03 10.03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.....................................................................................................03 9...........................000 population* ...........03 Extension of business trips recommended.....................72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..............02 5..................................02 2.95 Effectiveness of marketing and branding............................................................46 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....................................34 Reliability of police services...................04 11.............................06 2..........77 Airport density* .....................37 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.....................03 7................05 2....................56 Extent and effect of taxation ......................89 Cost to start a business* ........................42 Number of operating airlines* ...121 Business costs of crime and violence .............................57 Hospital beds* ..........................25 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.03 3.......100 T&T government expenditure* ......01 6..................117 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..........04 Physician density* ..........58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .....................80 GATS commitments* ................. international* ..10 Primary education enrollment*...............75 Quality of the educational system.......................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.........06 11.............67 Telephone lines*.....................57 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...................................88 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...........116 Road traffic accidents* .13 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...............03 13....................................129 Time required to start a business* .84 Internet users* ...............02 3.....05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .....................................................72 Life expectancy*......................01 13........01 2................................................................................41 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.....................04 6............................109 Environmental treaty ratification* ...05 1.78 Particulate matter concentration* ............................................................28 Access to improved sanitation* ....................04 2...................38 HIV prevalence*. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....................................................................01 3......49 International air transport network .......................08 11.........37 11th pillar: Human resources 11................1 8........... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 115 ..........100 Carbon dioxide emissions* ....71 2...................89 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ....02 14.....................................................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*............................1: Country/Economy Profiles Argentina 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9................................................................04 Business costs of terrorism....20 Available seat kilometers......134 Sustainability of T&T industry development....81 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*........81 Transparency of government policymaking ......................................01 Hotel rooms* ................21 Creative industries exports*........03 2...................102 Total known species* .. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership. For further details and explanation.................09 11........99 Road density* ............01 7.02 13.01 5........................................................... domestic* ....................03 4...............................134 Business impact of rules on FDI ................04 5.....119 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..................32 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............................05 Extent of business Internet use .......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .................01 1.........................17 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8............................01 11......32 Hotel price index*...............05 11................21 Secondary education enrollment* ..........33 Property rights ...........................54 8......137 Fuel price levels*.....105 12..115 Available seat kilometers....66 Access to improved drinking water* ...........................53 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..................112 12............134 Visa requirements*.....03 6............................02 11......................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ....................05 6.................38 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...113 Threatened species* .................03 1...02 4...........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..............02 10.............................02 7......01 4...............................................................01 9...........79 Hiring and firing practices ..................................02 1....02 6..........04 9...................14 13th pillar: Natural resources 13..........03 11...............03 5.....................................................................................................08 1...01 Tourism openness* ...............................................................42 Extent of staff training ................................93 Quality of the natural environment..................88 Quality of ground transport network ........10 Protected areas*...53 Sports stadiums*..........07 1....

...9 4............................97 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..................................................7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).........3 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)......... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%............76 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.......85 4.....................2 1.............1: Country/Economy Profiles Armenia Key indicators Population (millions)......92 Environmental sustainability................29..................................................................5 Real GDP growth (percent)...575..............000 square kilometers) ................7 4....38 Natural resources ...........4....8 3.............................61 2.........................................5 T&T economy............................................................................................................5 Human resources ..................................................95 Ground transport infrastructure.3......0 2............................................111 Safety and security ....... US$) per capita...........................5 Gross domestic product (PPP........................................................20.............1 Surface area (1..........................2.........1 4.....1 5...........................................................................................000 jobs)..............................95............................23 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ................2.........8 Policy rules and regulations.106 Tourism infrastructure ....2 Environmental Performance Index.....................................................................3 .........1......51 Health and hygiene .....8....................................................................................894...........6 T&T human.........982.....................7 ..................................... 2009 ............. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .......................98 Availability of qualified labor..................................................................................................................................–14..............5 4.58 3......0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.............9 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.......................................2............ cultural.....................9 2............90 2009 Index....... 2009........8...........................2 ......................334................................................................................................2 5.....1 5...... and natural resources ......8 2............................. 2009 ..................................................3................................10....................92 ICT infrastructure ........124 Cultural resources.................. 2009 ................. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...................1 600 116 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 400 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 200 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .................................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..........................................3 ...4 Employment (1....................................................8 4...................................................–1.........5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ....................6 3.... 2009...9 Employment (1............................37 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .....1 Air transport infrastructure.......................................................................................................4 4................–2..............................................................................107 3.............................. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..189......100 3............... 2009..........................81 Education and training .91 T&T regulatory framework ........................76 4........000 jobs).........

............04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..112 Business costs of crime and violence .....20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .............02 3................................................................................ international* .103 Available seat kilometers........113 Internet users* .56 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ......000 population* ........................33 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......03 5.......................116 Hiring and firing practices ..98 Departures per 1.............75 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.........01 5................33 12.08 11........01 4...........71 Number of operating airlines* .............72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............82 11th pillar: Human resources 11..............87 Quality of railroad infrastructure ..62 Sports stadiums*.01 1.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Armenia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..................................97 12...............................................................................06 11............102 Visa requirements*.........................52 Quality of the educational system.....................................................98 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*............10 Primary education enrollment*......15 Access to improved sanitation* .......................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..........80 8........................01 14........................................................02 10..................03 7..............................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ....126 Sustainability of T&T industry development......................04 2...........................................62 Hospital beds* ....................60 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*..................................04 5... For further details and explanation.....127 Total known species* ....................07 11........................................03 11.......03 14......116 Secondary education enrollment* ........................02 7.........01 Tourism openness* ..........41 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.........................................................32 Reliability of police services..............................76 Quality of the natural environment..112 Telephone lines*.........................66 Access to improved drinking water* .87 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5....53 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ....................111 Property rights ..................79 Quality of port infrastructure ...........................92 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7........108 Mobile telephone subscribers* .................................01 3.............................01 10.......03 1.......98 Business impact of rules on FDI ..05 2..............04 7..........................................04 6........................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ........................07 1.......................................128 Quality of ground transport network ..............................01 7......................101 Threatened species* ..................04 Business costs of terrorism........................61 13th pillar: Natural resources 13..................................32 GATS commitments* ..............66 T&T government expenditure* ...............04 10.01 9..........64 Broadband Internet subscribers* .......06 2....................53 Time required to start a business* .............................................115 Local availability of research and training services.............02 13................................06 6...126 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .....77 Available seat kilometers.....................75 Protected areas*..........................................03 4.....................02 9......................................................................91 Transparency of government policymaking .9 HIV prevalence*....................................03 3..................109 8..............................................102 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..02 11...........02 14.......03 Extension of business trips recommended.................59 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.............03 6..........03 10.............. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...........................04 Physician density* ....06 1.......... domestic* ..........124 Extent of staff training ......................................................02 1...........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...................02 5.........................05 Quality of roads .....04 11...........................................62 Extent and effect of taxation ....02 2........55 Life expectancy*..........................................08 1..........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..............................................82 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.....03 9........................................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 117 ....................04 9........01 2.....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...............................................................120 Creative industries exports*.............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .............................................09 11.72 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...........................74 Environmental treaty ratification* .................04 1....02 6........................03 2..108 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3........................................................75 Airport density* ........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......................01 6.........................................01 13......05 Extent of business Internet use ..............02 4............................31 Road traffic accidents* ................120 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..............105 Carbon dioxide emissions* ......05 11.69 International air transport network ..........................65 Hotel price index*...............51 Particulate matter concentration* ......81 Road density* ..................................01 Hotel rooms* .................67 Purchasing power parity* ......................78 12.......07 Stringency of environmental regulation......................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*......................................62 Cost to start a business* ...........01 11..........................................................05 1............................................................84 Fuel price levels*..80 2.......................03 13..........05 6..

......9 T&T regulatory framework ................8 5.17 Availability of qualified labor............4.....................................................12..372.......... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..........267......593................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ............................................................................55 Natural resources .....584................2 Gross domestic product (PPP.......2 T&T economy....................5.....4.......................1: Country/Economy Profiles Australia Key indicators Population (millions)..........1................0 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..... cultural.........2 Real GDP growth (percent).....6 .........4 5...3.....................2 Employment (1.3 .....21............37 4................................... and natural resources ... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)................................18 Health and hygiene .....................8 4.......................................5.......7 30.........000 jobs)...... 2009 .. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...........................................................51 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry........7........................................................................................0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)........................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 10........2 6..........6 5....1 Policy rules and regulations...................................................................................8 5....................5 5.....16 ICT infrastructure .................3 Human resources ......................................... US$) per capita...............................................................1 Air transport infrastructure.......4 Cultural resources..32 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..................38......50............................................................17 5................................. 2009..........................................................................994....................................20 Education and training .....561................... 2009 ...................000 square kilometers) ......3 4.............................................................................................8 5....................................2...............................3 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...5 ..................2....................663...2 5....................000 jobs).....58 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism .............................................................741.............2...............3 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources........25............................2 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ......................... 2009.... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...2 5..........9 Employment (1.......................................1............... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.....................1 T&T human.............................10........................................9 Surface area (1.................................................................................................113 5.....................30 Environmental sustainability...........000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...2 Environmental Performance Index...............................20 5.............7 5....13 2009 Index........ 2009 .......................................9 4.....36 5.........................................51 Tourism infrastructure .............................................................................1 ...........................056...............................................................................3 Ground transport infrastructure...................................123............... 2009.........................................1 5.........1 4....3 5...000 118 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 20......59 Safety and security ....24 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry....................

......................10 2...........................79 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......................6 Available seat kilometers............................03 5..........03 7.........................80 Reliability of police services..............12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..................................57 Visa requirements*.....................25 Hotel price index*.............................30 Available seat kilometers.........................01 2..03 14.............19 Time required to start a business* ..26 Quality of port infrastructure .............................15 Total known species* ....................................................38 Sports stadiums*.............................19 Property rights ............................................................7 GATS commitments* ...............................................................................01 4.........01 1...01 7..................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .116 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ................01 13....80 12...................................01 14.03 4....................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .............................................................02 13.........04 11...................09 11.07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..............26 8...................................01 3.........03 2........1 8.30 Quality of railroad infrastructure ....................07 Stringency of environmental regulation............02 11..02 14..................................24 International air transport network ......08 1.04 2.....14 Sustainability of T&T industry development............ domestic* .....31 Carbon dioxide emissions* .....05 6...02 3...............................45 Road traffic accidents* .......The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..........................................................................................................107 HIV prevalence*........................124 Extent and effect of taxation .............................................01 9............... For further details and explanation..........04 9..........20 Internet users* .................129 Particulate matter concentration* ...........05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..................01 6.........12 Local availability of research and training services..............................................................................45 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.........................42 Secondary education enrollment* .......................05 Quality of roads ..........21 Airport density* ..........................2 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5........................60 Effectiveness of marketing and branding............48 12..................................................03 10........................2 Cost to start a business* ...01 Hotel rooms* ..35 Road density* ........20 Extent of staff training .........................................17 Enforcement of environmental regulation ............05 1..........40 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..................................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...............04 6................91 Access to improved sanitation* .....21 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.03 1.44 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..............05 11...............04 5..........................02 10.........52 Quality of the natural environment.....................14 Business impact of rules on FDI .............................46 Quality of ground transport network ...............................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*..........01 Tourism openness* .....................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Australia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..............127 Purchasing power parity* .........................................................06 1..02 1................04 Physician density* ..9 Departures per 1.....................07 1..........................04 1......03 Extension of business trips recommended............................04 Business costs of terrorism.........21 Mobile telephone subscribers* .......01 11..08 11....75 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .............................03 3.107 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....................02 7...........15 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.......01 5..................................................27 12...02 6...19 Business costs of crime and violence .1 Access to improved drinking water* ........03 13............02 4........03 6..000 population* ..127 Environmental treaty ratification* ..02 2.................20 Hiring and firing practices ...............66 Fuel price levels*........................................02 9.....................05 Extent of business Internet use ...............04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...............1 Quality of the educational system....................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 119 ...20 Telephone lines*.................................01 10.07 11......................................................1 Hospital beds* .........................................................02 5................................................................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.....03 9.........................................05 2......................................33 T&T government expenditure* ...........14 Creative industries exports*....06 6......................04 7.........................................................37 13th pillar: Natural resources 13......71 11th pillar: Human resources 11..................................11 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...........................7 Number of operating airlines* .....24 Broadband Internet subscribers* .................................10 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.03 11.....04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.......................53 Life expectancy*......44 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............1 Protected areas*..................................04 10......................................................75 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..........................................78 Transparency of government policymaking ................................06 11.........................10 Primary education enrollment*............................ international* .........................10 Threatened species* ..........06 2................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter....02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ............

.............13........................10 Health and hygiene ............–3......................5 Safety and security ...................567............................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.............9 Policy rules and regulations............................355..........9 5......7 T&T business environment and infrastructure ........ and natural resources ........... 2009 ......................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..........4 T&T economy.......1: Country/Economy Profiles Austria Key indicators Population (millions)...................................... 2009................................................2 Air transport infrastructure..83.............0 5................21....................9 T&T human.......28 Environmental sustainability.......................4 5.....12 5..................................4 Surface area (1.... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ........................................................5 5..................0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.......................3......15 Natural resources .........000 120 20................................................................................................................8 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.........000 jobs).....10 5......................................................1 Human resources ............13 5............................0 Real GDP growth (percent).............4 5................72 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .4........................4 3...............................................................8............................................................ 2009 ...4 2009 Index.................15 Tourism infrastructure ........0 5.................................................................1 Employment (1...................25 Education and training ......4..3 5........................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....................1 ....3 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism ............................................................2 Employment (1......000 5................................. 2009..........1 5.............000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..............................................8 6........... 2009 .............................................................16 5.....................9 5..........404.........4..........” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .................................. cultural......................2 T&T regulatory framework .....000 jobs).................5 ...............................5 25................................ US$) per capita.......19...........25 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..8 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.............................559..........................4............17............52..................9 5...........................................................................382........1 ICT infrastructure ........................................38................................................................................000 square kilometers) ....074........................26 Ground transport infrastructure......5 5..........................159..............................000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 15..5 ................13 Availability of qualified labor..1 Gross domestic product (PPP............................................43 Cultural resources..................................2...1 6....................................4 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).........................................9 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).................0 3.......9 Environmental Performance Index..........121 4....................................6 7... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ............................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)...........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 10...................12................4 ....................3.....187.......................... 2009.....................................

........16 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.......26 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..............9 T&T government expenditure* ..........22 Road traffic accidents* ..01 14...................................................02 5...12 Creative industries exports*..03 1.........................30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.......................34 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....................................01 6...06 6........................................1 Hospital beds* .......02 14.......105 Hotel price index*..................58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...........................2 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......................15 Quality of port infrastructure .........................................................129 Extent and effect of taxation ..................................02 6...........................05 Extent of business Internet use .................................05 Quality of roads .........4 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.04 1.....................................................15 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5................................................................................01 9............7 Business impact of rules on FDI ................................................31 12....................28 Broadband Internet subscribers* .06 11.................................................................01 13............27 Environmental treaty ratification* ...............04 Business costs of terrorism..........03 6...............02 13.............04 7.................05 2...................................................................................09 11................29 Secondary education enrollment* .......10 Access to improved sanitation* ...The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....................02 10........................01 Tourism openness* ................................7 Quality of railroad infrastructure .07 11........................................6 Extent of staff training ...................1: Country/Economy Profiles Austria 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.......14 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7............................01 1.......................................................29 Sports stadiums*...........50 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..24 Local availability of research and training services......05 6............121 HIV prevalence*........................2 Total known species* ...........................5 2...04 6......1 8........................................01 3.................22 Airport density* ......................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .91 Purchasing power parity* .........08 1.03 9......04 11...42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .........................................................................................................34 Property rights .03 13....4 Sustainability of T&T industry development...53 Available seat kilometers..........................................................25 Available seat kilometers.14 Hiring and firing practices ......20 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.......................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..........................................01 11.................................7 Reliability of police services.....01 10..02 9..............47 Visa requirements*..............................105 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......................89 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.....12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...................................03 11.........04 10.............03 5....................................................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ................................3 8.............04 2..02 7...............000 population* ..................41 Effectiveness of marketing and branding....02 1..................................02 2...02 3.......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.................11 Road density* .02 11...............03 3.........04 Physician density* ........03 7........37 Departures per 1..................................9 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.............07 Stringency of environmental regulation.....06 1..............03 10............06 2............................21 Telephone lines*.17 Quality of the natural environment.................................................................... domestic* ...............................................................19 International air transport network ..............................................3 Enforcement of environmental regulation .........................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.............................................................................................63 Fuel price levels*.......................................16 12.............01 2.01 Hotel rooms* .................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .....................................28 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.45 11th pillar: Human resources 11.....46 GATS commitments* ...........................03 14.................10 12....60 Threatened species* .....................01 5........................................05 1...................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..............07 1............. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 121 ........04 5..................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum............08 11.......24 Internet users* ................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.................02 4.04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*........94 Cost to start a business* ...........................................03 2............................... For further details and explanation............................................75 Protected areas*................1 Access to improved drinking water* ........8 Life expectancy*...........55 Transparency of government policymaking .....................103 Particulate matter concentration* .........................23 Business costs of crime and violence .....68 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...........................................04 9.....................................65 Number of operating airlines* ..17 Time required to start a business* .......2 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..........27 Quality of the educational system..............................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .....01 7............03 4.....05 11............03 Extension of business trips recommended.......................01 4....... international* ....10 Primary education enrollment*.48 Quality of ground transport network ....................

..352.....................219.....................................5................................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ......... 2009........................7 Policy rules and regulations......................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)........8 1...8 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..........7 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council......................................................................43....8 3.....................................................................................................................................88 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.2..000 jobs)....................................9.......0............44..............0.........................6 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...................92 Safety and security ........................5 Employment (1......3 Air transport infrastructure............................. cultural.........................................................................................8 4.. US$) per capita.........................52 Availability of qualified labor........................... 2009 ..5 T&T human......84 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry....54 4....................................................................5 2...............................2 .......000 jobs)...................................74 Environmental sustainability...3 ...........................566.......................2 4.............1..............................................................................................................500 122 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1...98 Natural resources ............................1 Gross domestic product (PPP...........................................6 2........ 2009 .58 Tourism infrastructure .59 3...........................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Azerbaijan Key indicators Population (millions)..................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%................ and natural resources ..........................................5..........................................6.....................9.........................2..7 T&T business environment and infrastructure .............................................................4 Real GDP growth (percent)............................................................................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....7 4........................4 2.........................200 900 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 600 300 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..........................................................2 5.......429.................. 2009..........796......3 Environmental Performance Index.57 Health and hygiene ..1 4......................................1...........76 T&T regulatory framework .......2 4................4 ......54 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.000 square kilometers) .....................1..5 Human resources ...5 Employment (1..................4 4.............................................81 5........................8 Surface area (1.......................43 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ....................0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..................................................8 4.........................86............83 2009 Index........... 2009...............83 Ground transport infrastructure.............................................540....49 Education and training ..............0 ......... 2009 ..................................................9 5.........7 T&T economy....... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .8.......5.............1 2..105 3........................76 2.............................................................................96 ICT infrastructure ...................................87 3...........................109 Cultural resources..............1 5...” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................

...103 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.........................................................03 6..........01 3....01 4.76 Fuel price levels*................05 1..................................02 5.....................................................28 Cost to start a business* .............07 Stringency of environmental regulation........................................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 123 ................84 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..................80 Quality of the natural environment.......08 1......................................68 Hiring and firing practices .05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..63 12.......74 Sustainability of T&T industry development.........................03 11.03 10..................101 11th pillar: Human resources 11.............................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...........03 1.......1: Country/Economy Profiles Azerbaijan 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.......... domestic* .................102 Threatened species* .72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ............................100 Number of operating airlines* .........110 Internet users* ................44 Sports stadiums*.....44 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4......70 Quality of ground transport network ..34 Quality of port infrastructure ..............................................04 5.....48 Extent and effect of taxation .......................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...................................................100 Available seat kilometers....02 11............................................ An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum........72 Environmental treaty ratification* ......77 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.........25 Hotel price index*................50 Transparency of government policymaking ...................................70 Quality of railroad infrastructure ....01 14.....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*....11 Ease of hiring foreign labor............... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter................04 Physician density* ...........................................04 11..06 11...02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .........03 Extension of business trips recommended..................................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .........05 11..............................................................................................................................01 7.....................................................................67 Particulate matter concentration* .............44 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....................04 2................79 Telephone lines*..........01 Tourism openness* .......07 1....01 Hotel rooms* ..........................44 Road density* .......................09 11.01 13.............................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..04 9......67 12........02 2...............121 12....................06 1..................1 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...............03 14...................................................75 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...................................08 11................59 Available seat kilometers.................000 population* ..........................93 Property rights ........................................................01 2................02 14........02 4.............................................66 Extent of staff training .................................................................79 HIV prevalence*..........................10 Access to improved sanitation* ..................................................91 Enforcement of environmental regulation .104 Local availability of research and training services......100 Life expectancy*.......................................04 7.........................................................01 11..............................................................49 Secondary education enrollment* ...............................................76 2....................................................01 10...............58 Time required to start a business* ..........05 2...06 2.....04 Business costs of terrorism...........07 11.........61 International air transport network ..............05 6......02 13................02 3......46 Road traffic accidents* .........................80 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...................117 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*...03 4............................................54 T&T government expenditure* .....8 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...03 2.......................................01 5......................75 Protected areas*............................................................................................... For further details and explanation..119 Purchasing power parity* ............04 10...............01 9............112 Access to improved drinking water* .....................04 1..62 Reliability of police services...............107 Hospital beds* ..................78 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.03 9.....123 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .....................................02 1.......02 10............... international* ..........89 Departures per 1..n/a RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..........03 5......................................................03 3...........05 Quality of roads ........32 GATS commitments*.......................10 Primary education enrollment*....93 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........................90 Business impact of rules on FDI .......13 Quality of the educational system.........84 Airport density* ....02 9.........................02 7.........................................95 8......01 1......82 Visa requirements*...68 13th pillar: Natural resources 13....................03 13...............02 6................................................................96 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.06 6......92 8.........................95 Business costs of crime and violence .03 7..04 6.........................................85 Carbon dioxide emissions* .......114 Creative industries exports*.......................88 Total known species* .....................79 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.............................05 Extent of business Internet use .....................................01 6...................

935........................................................................................6 4................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles. and natural resources ............................2 4......................................62 4..1................8 Surface area (1.0 4..6..............8 5.37 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.......7 Human resources .....32 Health and hygiene ....5.26 ICT infrastructure ..............................................145 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...........................6 .............................. US$) per capita...............................................0.8 Employment (1......10......................6 ..............................20. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ...3............................................................................................................................3...................3 5........................................ 2009 ......000 jobs).....1 Environmental Performance Index..................................................................................................4 5..............1......000 jobs)................0.133 Cultural resources......... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..................................................11 Tourism infrastructure ............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ............000 square kilometers) ...........7 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..........................................................................................................28 Ground transport infrastructure.. 2010 (out of 163 economies) .............................29 Education and training ...................................4 5. 2009 .....................................................................40 2009 Index................................................................44 Natural resources .............................5 Employment (1.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Bahrain Key indicators Population (millions).......7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...........5 4............4 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...000 3..........27.............................4 T&T economy.....................................................................................................60 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism........................................................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..78 3............... 2007..................................0 5...........41 T&T regulatory framework ......1 Air transport infrastructure......21 4.......000 1...............4 4............................61 5............000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2.....5 5....................0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council......1 Real GDP growth (percent)..................................................... 2009 ........................000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .............................. 2009.................................7 Policy rules and regulations...58 Environmental sustainability...............20 5.......................................9 ............................................................123 Safety and security .....6 Gross domestic product (PPP.............................................................................0 5................................47............000 124 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 4.....2 T&T human......................................2.....................3.............. cultural....................3 5...........24.....0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...........84 4............214.....................................................................40 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..9 2..........2....................................908..0.................................3 ..29 Availability of qualified labor..................9 1................118.....................998...... 2009.....5 4....................4...........8.................

.............01 3................01 9..................01 1...05 2.....................04 9......................................02 3........03 13......102 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...40 Quality of the educational system........05 Extent of business Internet use ...............03 3...02 14.04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.....93 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ..........................................................................3 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...................000 population* ........................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .......39 Environmental treaty ratification* ............. international* .....05 1.03 9..........................................................................03 4........................07 1..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...............49 Road density* ...103 Available seat kilometers..52 Departures per 1...........108 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ........04 11..........01 2..................06 2...............07 Stringency of environmental regulation.........................................................................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership............03 2....14 Property rights ...........................................................02 9... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum................................95 Creative industries exports*............................................................................................................41 Broadband Internet subscribers* ................6 Airport density* ...................................03 11..........................................................02 1..............................02 5...............27 Internet users* ................................ For further details and explanation.....................06 6.....87 Reliability of police services............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*..1 Access to improved drinking water* ....The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.......81 Extent of staff training ............................01 5.................................................................01 4.......04 6...........20 12.5 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.......................05 Quality of roads .................29 HIV prevalence*..............05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .....................04 10...................................04 1...................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 125 ......42 T&T government expenditure* .......................................................................01 Hotel rooms* ...................03 7....02 2................38 12..................03 14............02 7..............02 11.........18 8....................46 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5............................................................................40 Telephone lines*...........38 Local availability of research and training services.......82 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..8 Purchasing power parity* ...129 Quality of the natural environment...............75 Protected areas*..............................25 Quality of railroad infrastructure ................04 Business costs of terrorism........................4 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.05 6.......... domestic* ............................11 GATS commitments* ......................01 6...134 Particulate matter concentration* .........21 Business impact of rules on FDI ........................................n/a Quality of port infrastructure .............1: Country/Economy Profiles Bahrain 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..............................................................36 Secondary education enrollment* .................37 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..................06 11...............48 Life expectancy*.............105 Extent and effect of taxation ........................................03 5....................03 1.......06 1.....................................................88 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...........02 6....05 11........................................04 5.......4 Hotel price index*..............03 6...............................................................................115 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8........................................54 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...........16 Hiring and firing practices .....01 7.................41 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...........03 Extension of business trips recommended.............................................................................................................48 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...............................................................134 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14................................109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...40 8..43 Time required to start a business* ...04 2..................................04 Physician density* .64 International air transport network ....08 1................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..........32 Business costs of crime and violence ..........29 Sustainability of T&T industry development..............................................09 11............48 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..112 11th pillar: Human resources 11....02 10..07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .....01 11................................................78 Total known species* .........................42 2...................01 Tourism openness* ...10 Primary education enrollment*..........59 Transparency of government policymaking ................34 Access to improved sanitation* .......95 Ease of hiring foreign labor....................08 11...03 10..........15 12.1 Fuel price levels*.................................................13 Quality of ground transport network .35 Cost to start a business* ...5 Visa requirements*............38 Road traffic accidents* ......37 Number of operating airlines* .02 13.............04 7...........07 11.....................20 Available seat kilometers...................01 10..........104 Sports stadiums*.........108 Threatened species* ..............................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..130 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3............01 13............................35 Carbon dioxide emissions* ......................n/a Hospital beds* .........................02 4....................33 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.....................01 14.......................................

......114 4..........139 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...............613..3..................................8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.....................................1....................0 500 126 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 400 300 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 200 100 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ........94.....................................................467........................ 2009 .............................................129 T&T regulatory framework ...............3 1.........7 4........3 Employment (1...............0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...9 ....162.................3.144..............................................................116 Education and training ................................93 Cultural resources.....................................................2 Surface area (1.........135 Safety and security ............................................9 2.......................1 ............................................................3 .........................1...4 Policy rules and regulations.............130 3.............................................................................1.................487.....................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bangladesh Key indicators Population (millions)...............................................7 3........................129 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry....” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ......2 2....................000 jobs)....................................373.......................786.... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..................984............................................................. 2010 (out of 163 economies) . 2008.............000 square kilometers) .133 Natural resources ............132 ICT infrastructure .....0 3...............105 Health and hygiene ...........................2 3.. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ........................................................... US$) per capita......5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources...124 Availability of qualified labor........................... 2009 ........1 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...7 ...9 1............................................................6 Environmental Performance Index..............113 2...................................8 3..............4 4................................... cultural..1 Human resources .........................120 Ground transport infrastructure.......................... 2009........................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.6 3.........................8 T&T human..........................116 Environmental sustainability.................000 jobs)...........6........................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)....................................2.......8 4.................8 Air transport infrastructure............2............ and natural resources ...............6............................................................131 3.............................................................................................6 T&T economy........................ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....... 2009.......................................1 3.......1..................................................................................................................0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)......................7 1.........3...................................5..2..62 Tourism infrastructure ....................129 2009 Index.3 Real GDP growth (percent).................................93 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..............................6 Gross domestic product (PPP.......................................114 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism....................... 2009 ..2.....................131 3................................69........................................................................4 Employment (1.......1 3..................50 2...

...............................................02 2......................05 2...................01 Tourism openness* ............04 Physician density* ........................118 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...............................................................03 3...19 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......................130 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10......01 1................................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .......................................04 7........108 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .......02 Presence of major car rental companies* ................16 Particulate matter concentration* ......138 12.....06 1..................138 8...........04 10.....107 Internet users* ........118 Property rights .73 Cost to start a business* ..000 population* ...........................04 Business costs of terrorism........................78 Hotel price index*..................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter........................................................102 Access to improved drinking water* ...................04 9.........01 2..............................96 12.......................................................113 Total known species* ................................03 7.........106 GATS commitments* ...................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation..................................01 11...................03 2...............................69 International air transport network ....................................................................07 11.............71 Quality of port infrastructure .......130 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*........................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...............................134 Threatened species* ............03 1....03 Extension of business trips recommended..................107 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....139 Number of operating airlines* .....73 Sports stadiums*..................................................................05 Quality of roads .107 Hospital beds* ......107 Quality of ground transport network ........106 12......................117 Quality of the educational system.............99 Creative industries exports*...........100 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...05 1.. domestic* .125 Carbon dioxide emissions* .01 5............127 Extent of staff training ..........124 2.....................07 1...........................03 4...........................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ......123 Business costs of crime and violence .....................................................109 Access to improved sanitation* ....................04 5...............10 Primary education enrollment*..................................................138 Telephone lines*.01 13.............112 Transparency of government policymaking .05 Extent of business Internet use ...................................103 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...........02 3.....113 Environmental treaty ratification* ............................65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....................38 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.........................1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....................................05 11....02 7.............57 Departures per 1...................................19 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted......03 9.....121 Airport density* ........03 11.........117 Available seat kilometers......02 4.................................................01 3...... international* ...08 1........................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.....04 1......................................57 Available seat kilometers.............................................01 10............................................................121 Road density* .......01 4.......01 Hotel rooms* ......................................................08 11.............02 6...........................123 T&T government expenditure* ...114 Secondary education enrollment* ............................................................118 Road traffic accidents* .....125 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..............67 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7......................05 6....................02 10........02 14......45 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14....01 6.......95 Purchasing power parity* ...................................................94 Local availability of research and training services...................43 Protected areas*......02 11.....03 13.................125 Sustainability of T&T industry development.............................................76 Life expectancy*.......01 7.........................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bangladesh 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9. For further details and explanation....................................................................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.................................02 13.......................123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..................129 Hiring and firing practices .....02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...........................124 Mobile telephone subscribers* .....................................................................01 14................................ An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.....03 6....................54 Fuel price levels*......09 11...................................................12 Extent and effect of taxation ............................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 127 .......04 2......................121 Quality of the natural environment...................................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.............02 9.....................04 11..124 Reliability of police services.06 11..........................02 5................128 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..06 2.............101 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...34 Visa requirements*.....104 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.02 1.............03 5...............126 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..........03 14...........................01 9.....................................42 11th pillar: Human resources 11..................04 6......03 10.........106 Time required to start a business* .126 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2...125 8.............................113 Business impact of rules on FDI ...........122 HIV prevalence*.06 6.........

3....................8 4..........1 5.................................................. 2009...271........ 2009 ..... and natural resources ..................73....................................................34 Health and hygiene ........28 2009 Index................................–5...........................74 4..........................................................................n/a Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry........................17................................. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ........................129 Cultural resources.................................................1.............................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)...........................1 ..............528...518...095....1........................................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...........................3 4..........................................................................20 4..........8 5.................................4 T&T business environment and infrastructure ....................1...6 Real GDP growth (percent)................0 6.............................................................................3................................. 2009 .......5 T&T human..............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .8 6.....................................................................24..4 5.....................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..............................9 5........................103 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.2 Natural resources ..28 ICT infrastructure ............................10 Tourism infrastructure ..................799..........................47 4....... US$) per capita......... 2009................25 Availability of qualified labor.................................... 2009..............000 jobs)..................................................................21 5................................................................................5 Environmental Performance Index..............5 T&T economy...........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 800 600 400 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ............................63 5.....30 T&T regulatory framework .......................5 6........................53...................................3 Employment (1.......2.5 Employment (1..........4 Policy rules and regulations.......30 Safety and security ...............................3 ...............................9 Gross domestic product (PPP.......................14......................4 4.............3 Surface area (1..27 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry....48...................3 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...............000 jobs).......2 5..............22.. 2009 ...........33 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...........1: Country/Economy Profiles Barbados Key indicators Population (millions).................7 1...............................................................1...............................................0 4..................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..........75 Environmental sustainability...........1 ...................................4 5.... cultural.............................................48 Education and training ....3.................................................0.0........................1 5..200 128 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1....................................6 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).............1 Human resources ..........0 Air transport infrastructure..................4 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).................................................................1 2..................................................................................5 2...........25 Ground transport infrastructure....................................000 square kilometers) .....................8 ..................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..............

....03 13.....................05 1..........2 T&T government expenditure* .................................................................07 1........04 6..............................................22 12....54 Sustainability of T&T industry development....................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1......................................................23 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2........06 6..........................24 Transparency of government policymaking ...............03 3..............................05 6.......50 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..........................................11 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..........03 6.01 Tourism openness* ....................................12 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...........07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ........01 5..........6 Carbon dioxide emissions* ................43 Hiring and firing practices ..............02 10...........5 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted......... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum...................94 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...........19 2..77 Threatened species* ...................................04 7................18 Business costs of crime and violence ...........95 Creative industries exports*...................03 1..02 6........... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...........02 11.........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.................04 10...............................03 4.......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.........................40 Visa requirements*.03 Extension of business trips recommended.....25 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........................75 Protected areas*.....02 14...............................21 Quality of ground transport network .............................................................................03 5..........................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..............n/a Airport density* .....................93 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.....................................................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.05 Extent of business Internet use ..1 Access to improved drinking water* .............5 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .............19 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...............................08 1...............................................03 9................................7 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...................01 7............ international* .......................................................................000 population* ..................................................................02 7.............................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*...7 8.................01 6...........................06 2............02 4...........................................................02 2.......133 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14........115 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...........05 11.........................40 Total known species* ............125 8.......................04 1.......85 Extent and effect of taxation ..............15 Road density* ...........07 Stringency of environmental regulation..112 Life expectancy*......................04 11.......02 3....07 11...........01 14......115 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Barbados 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.........01 4....17 Quality of the educational system.........13 Number of operating airlines* .......129 HIV prevalence*.............01 Hotel rooms* ........17 12...............51 Purchasing power parity* .................53 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5......................03 14..15 Local availability of research and training services.................................................01 10................................................................05 Quality of roads .................2 12................................44 Internet users* ..................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ............................................02 9................06 11........................10 Environmental treaty ratification* ............................................................02 13..............93 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ......................................n/a Quality of port infrastructure .............04 5............04 2..........................81 Access to improved sanitation* ..............................04 9.........139 Quality of the natural environment................................41 Secondary education enrollment* .......................05 2...........01 11.........05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...........................1 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...70 Extent of staff training .....05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......22 Business impact of rules on FDI ................................83 Departures per 1...............10 Primary education enrollment*................13 Available seat kilometers.................34 Quality of railroad infrastructure .. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 129 ... For further details and explanation......01 2..82 Ease of hiring foreign labor...................122 Sports stadiums*...........................................52 Property rights ........35 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.......03 7............104 International air transport network .....................................................................09 11...............03 2.03 10..6 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*...........01 1....103 Available seat kilometers.....68 Reliability of police services.............................59 Hotel price index*.............08 11.....01 9.............................02 1..82 Particulate matter concentration* ...............................01 3..............................02 5..............04 Business costs of terrorism................................................21 Time required to start a business* ...............06 1...............38 Telephone lines*................107 11th pillar: Human resources 11...................................................20 Fuel price levels*...............................89 Road traffic accidents* ............01 13........................................................... domestic* ..........03 11.................................................................04 Physician density* .................1 Hospital beds* ...........4 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.......n/a GATS commitments* .n/a Cost to start a business* ..........

..............................5 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)... 2009....................................................... 2009 ............9...........................3 Employment (1.15 Education and training ...........................................14 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.............................................833......................................................................................3 3.0 Employment (1...........1 ......................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................................................000 jobs)...47 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..................22 T&T regulatory framework ....... US$) per capita... cultural..................................125 Cultural resources......7 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)........ TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)....................................20 4.............0 5...................434...........6......................................35.......0 5.....42........000 square kilometers) .......................3 12......115...........................0 4..........................................................3 6......................35 4..........000 4.........................................................................63 Natural resources ..............6 ..........3 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.........................7 Air transport infrastructure...9 4....................... 2009 .................................8 T&T economy.....................................................60 ICT infrastructure .....................................................6 Human resources .....................................12........................5 T&T human................ 2009........813......–2........................................................9 ..................................7 Environmental Performance Index.................................................2 6.............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..........................................1.........5 5..163.....................1: Country/Economy Profiles Belgium Key indicators Population (millions).......... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...................................4 ...................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ............1.........8.................472......................................... 2009...........534.6 6........8 Availability of qualified labor...........6 4..................................................32 Ground transport infrastructure.000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...............2 4.............26 Environmental sustainability.9 5.............77 5..................8........393........................2....3...........................000 jobs).1 Gross domestic product (PPP...........000 130 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 10........4 T&T business environment and infrastructure .........................23 2009 Index................................................30......1 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources...13 Safety and security ...... and natural resources ......000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 8.........9 Tourism infrastructure ..................................................136 4...........................................7 5..............................2....................2............18 4................... 2009 .........................88 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..........7 2............................5 Policy rules and regulations...........9 6..................................3........................0 Real GDP growth (percent).......................16 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.............000 6..............10.............15 Health and hygiene ................................................8 Surface area (1..............2 5..................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ................................................................................ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%...................

.........................98 Available seat kilometers......................................01 11...89 Purchasing power parity* ..........01 5............................................................................................16 Sustainability of T&T industry development.............................89 Number of operating airlines* .......................04 Physician density* .........................28 Business costs of crime and violence ..........................................34 Transparency of government policymaking ..................................05 Quality of roads ..................119 Hotel price index*............15 Hiring and firing practices ...................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.....................................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..........................................03 Extension of business trips recommended.............05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .......01 10...........................15 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...........................06 11.02 10............78 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......................01 7....01 4...............02 2............01 14........03 9...........03 13.................... international* .42 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..........................................................................................02 14....................................................03 5................75 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ..................................26 Business impact of rules on FDI .....25 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....................07 1...............................................................9 Extent of staff training ...................................................1 Hospital beds* ...............8 Environmental treaty ratification* .23 12....64 Carbon dioxide emissions* .......................83 T&T government expenditure* .....68 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.07 11..77 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8............47 Reliability of police services...................................05 6....................... For further details and explanation.05 11....02 3..........03 4.............1 Access to improved drinking water* .....02 9........96 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.....03 14...25 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...................................................04 Business costs of terrorism........................18 Creative industries exports*.......02 6.................114 Particulate matter concentration* ..............................................................11 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...................................................................................127 Ease of hiring foreign labor.............13 Sports stadiums*........06 1.03 7.................................................................02 11..04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..........03 1...................02 1................24 Airport density* ..23 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..........05 Extent of business Internet use .........04 5..............................................03 3...........................53 12........................01 6...................4 Quality of ground transport network ......7 Local availability of research and training services..........54 Total known species* .............07 Stringency of environmental regulation.....130 Extent and effect of taxation .....000 population* ..17 Telephone lines*........................................................................................36 Threatened species* .....................16 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3........02 5................... domestic* .......05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..13 Mobile telephone subscribers* .........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ......................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ....................7 Cost to start a business* .........01 Tourism openness* ...................03 11..............02 7.................46 8.............01 13...................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....................13 Property rights ............01 2.......12 Enforcement of environmental regulation ................................................24 Quality of railroad infrastructure ............................................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Belgium 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.04 9.....................................................112 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.......01 Hotel rooms* ......06 2...............06 6....18 Life expectancy*.......................................04 1..............................09 11.....26 Road traffic accidents* .........................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ......20 International air transport network .....04 6...........04 2.....................48 GATS commitments* ............... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.16 Road density* ........34 Departures per 1...............128 Quality of the natural environment....................31 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10............. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 131 .10 Primary education enrollment*.....03 10...............2 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...46 12........................58 HIV prevalence*....40 8...................................................................03 6.............02 13.................75 Protected areas*............................................135 Fuel price levels*.............................04 7.66 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..76 11th pillar: Human resources 11.....................01 1......................................................................05 1...............................................01 9.02 4..........................42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............28 Internet users* ................08 1...03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*..........05 2......................................................................................03 2..14 Available seat kilometers..............01 3....04 11.............11 Quality of port infrastructure ......................12 Quality of the educational system.................................................56 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..32 Visa requirements*.4 Access to improved sanitation* ....................................08 11........62 Time required to start a business* ........24 Secondary education enrollment* .........04 10.......................66 2...............

......................................................................................................................0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..........000 jobs).............117 2.........................124 Ground transport infrastructure................................................................................................................7 4......439............................................ 2009...........9 3..1.....3 3...........99 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..........112. and natural resources .........................2...................................................... 2009 .....435.6.......................5 Human resources ...........4...........................104 Education and training ..........3...........................236.............................6 Employment (1........000 square kilometers) .........1 2........” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ................................................5........................0 ............................................................................................................5 ................................................5 T&T human..........61 Natural resources ..113 3........99 Tourism infrastructure ..........................3 Employment (1........119 3...................39 Safety and security ........9 Surface area (1.......................................................3 ...................62 Cultural resources...4........................ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..... 2009......................2.............2......101 Health and hygiene .......................................................................................................6 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).........112 ICT infrastructure .......................................................................0 4....................120 2009 Index......................................................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)....4 4.......................................................118 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.........................................................0 4..............68 2................5.......108 Availability of qualified labor.......................... US$) per capita.............................................................................5 Environmental Performance Index...............................................9 4...........................83.........39..............7 Gross domestic product (PPP..128 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism................................................4 1............................................106 3......8 4. 2008 ...................................7 3.......1: Country/Economy Profiles Benin Key indicators Population (millions).3 ........................................ cultural...........7 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council....154 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..2.............................................. 2009 ................7 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...................117 Environmental sustainability............0 250 132 200 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 150 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 100 50 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..................2 1......2 3............. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....2 3....120 T&T regulatory framework .......203.................7 Policy rules and regulations..................190........... 2009......... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..........................5......................4 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.................................................1 2.......8 Real GDP growth (percent).................................122 4.....................0 T&T economy...................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .8 Air transport infrastructure...................................................8................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .....................000 jobs).......................

...............120 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ....01 10....................60 Hotel price index*..................................................46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3..............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...02 6............114 Hospital beds* .............................................10 Primary education enrollment*... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 133 .........04 7....123 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....01 Hotel rooms* ........................02 7....108 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.76 Sustainability of T&T industry development......................108 Internet users* ........93 Visa requirements*.............129 Access to improved drinking water* .......01 11..04 9.........................................55 Business impact of rules on FDI .....................117 Airport density* .04 Business costs of terrorism.... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter....................................................................110 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .......03 10........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......05 Extent of business Internet use .......................03 13...............................................................127 Access to improved sanitation* ..........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*............................62 12........................92 International air transport network .........05 11....................89 Sports stadiums*...............116 Departures per 1.............126 Transparency of government policymaking ......03 6....97 8.................03 14.............................01 7.............124 Total known species* ..................................................06 11..... For further details and explanation................01 14..........03 3............107 Quality of railroad infrastructure .....................82 Extent of staff training ...........95 8...03 Extension of business trips recommended......................................133 Number of operating airlines* ..............05 6..........07 Stringency of environmental regulation..................................................................08 1.114 Creative industries exports*..........................................................04 10...........03 1...................01 9............................................................................132 GATS commitments* .......................................02 4....................................................04 1.........89 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.96 Available seat kilometers..........98 T&T government expenditure* ....................09 11......................................88 Quality of port infrastructure ................................91 Fuel price levels*.....20 Environmental treaty ratification* ...99 Road traffic accidents* ............................01 3........01 2........................................................n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11...................................01 Tourism openness* ...............................02 2..........................01 13.02 3.....................78 Reliability of police services...............04 2........90 Property rights ...........................................23 Particulate matter concentration* ...111 Life expectancy*..............02 14..................................................................................................................109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...........................76 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...01 1.......................94 Enforcement of environmental regulation ................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .......................................103 Available seat kilometers..02 5..........................06 1..........................................................75 Secondary education enrollment* ...................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*......89 Threatened species* .......08 11....................................................35 Ease of hiring foreign labor.06 2.................06 6.................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..........127 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.............76 12..............................03 11................................46 Road density* ...104 Hiring and firing practices ....121 Broadband Internet subscribers* ....113 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...........................................04 11................105 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ..................................124 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership................ domestic* ..45 Local availability of research and training services..................... international* . An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum......................000 population* ..............................04 6..........96 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.................05 1...................07 11..........9 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8........117 2....03 2....02 9........................07 1..128 Telephone lines*.................................04 Physician density* ..05 Quality of roads ........14 Quality of the natural environment..................................................03 4...................62 Carbon dioxide emissions* ......................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ................104 12..02 1...........01 4...........01 5.........21 HIV prevalence*.99 Cost to start a business* ....75 Protected areas*........52 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..............115 Purchasing power parity* ............02 13................................04 5..........................121 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...39 Extent and effect of taxation ..............................03 5................03 9..............44 Time required to start a business* .........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........01 6...................03 7.........................................................02 11......................50 13th pillar: Natural resources 13........................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Benin 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.........................................76 Quality of ground transport network ...05 2..............55 Business costs of crime and violence ...........87 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..............02 10..............123 Quality of the educational system...........................

.....................................103 Education and training ........................64....117 2009 Index.....9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...................................8 Human resources ................................................ 2009.........................2 4....................................4........ forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..............9 Air transport infrastructure.....67 3.1....................3 T&T business environment and infrastructure ....279....4 2..2 Employment (1...........128 Safety and security ...............................9 T&T economy.....................9............................3 3.............................................111 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..............................6 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).........................9 4.............................................96 Availability of qualified labor............... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%........4 ......................................24 Cultural resources...........0 T&T human......000 jobs)........ TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)................109 ICT infrastructure .......134 Natural resources ...............8 3.........1............. 2009 ........................................671.....................................1 2.....................................................8 .................................................043.....111 2..............................124 2..............5 .....4 Policy rules and regulations.......... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .....112 Health and hygiene .................................................................098..............................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bolivia Key indicators Population (millions)....4 5..........................................1................................2.................114 T&T regulatory framework ..........” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ............. 2009 ..........................1 Real GDP growth (percent)..........................000 jobs)................6 3..........347.....4....... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles............33 2.....................102 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry........2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)........0 800 134 600 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 400 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 200 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .....................................................................138 Environmental sustainability...4 Environmental Performance Index............................................... 2009 ........................................................1.......................................................................................2 Employment (1..... US$) per capita.............................. and natural resources .2............................................................. cultural..... 2009..............................451......................................110 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....4...000 square kilometers) ......................................................................100 Ground transport infrastructure........................194............5 2.........3.........3 3.......................................9 Surface area (1.17................................................................................................................................................. 2009.............................68 4............................4........................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...........4 4....133 3..5 Gross domestic product (PPP..............4 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.......................7 3.........................................................5 ....................................5.......................5 2................................................137 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry......134 Tourism infrastructure ...............2...............9 4..................0 2.

.........101 Departures per 1.126 13th pillar: Natural resources 13..............................03 13......09 11.76 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7............56 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...................121 Sustainability of T&T industry development...............90 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .03 1..........................04 5........................ For further details and explanation............07 11....................................................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..................................................................06 11.....05 Quality of roads ..........................................................100 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...........104 Reliability of police services...............................06 2.......69 Transparency of government policymaking ........................03 4.01 Hotel rooms* .............123 Threatened species* ..........................................................110 Road traffic accidents* .........01 4.........................................................71 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....94 Quality of port infrastructure ......01 6........................................................................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 135 ............................................124 Purchasing power parity* .....................03 5..............................................................99 Broadband Internet subscribers* .......23 Hotel price index*.......112 Extent of staff training ......................................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.......................03 10......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..94 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2...................................98 12....................111 Fuel price levels*........................05 6...80 Access to improved sanitation* ..................01 2...........137 Visa requirements*..................01 1..............121 Hiring and firing practices .......................60 Environmental treaty ratification* ......27 Quality of the natural environment......................................16 Extent and effect of taxation ......109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6....114 Ease of hiring foreign labor...............01 13..137 Business impact of rules on FDI ........95 Hospital beds* .......................................138 Business costs of crime and violence ...................... domestic* .........94 2........74 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter......................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..........08 1................................................................................111 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...............02 4......03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*................................................................................................................................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..110 Local availability of research and training services.........................89 Quality of the educational system....44 Particulate matter concentration* ............124 Access to improved drinking water* ..............43 Protected areas*.03 3.................10 Primary education enrollment*.....05 2.......02 10................02 5..04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..............02 Presence of major car rental companies* .......09 Prevalence of foreign ownership........112 8...............06 6............02 7........................................04 2.............................83 8..............................................05 11.04 6.127 Quality of ground transport network ............................................83 Secondary education enrollment* .......02 9......................................................06 1...........02 2..................02 3...121 Cost to start a business* .34 Number of operating airlines* ..........126 GATS commitments* ...132 Time required to start a business* ......03 14.122 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .......................................................01 7.........02 13...............................04 9......02 1...........99 HIV prevalence*...............03 2...........121 12...01 Tourism openness* .........29 Sports stadiums*...............................71 Airport density* ............................85 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8................... international* ...........08 11....03 Extension of business trips recommended..........................02 6.......05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .................04 7.........05 1....................03 6..........104 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...01 14......77 Creative industries exports*..................74 Total known species* .......................131 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.01 11.....................116 Internet users* ..131 12..............................65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...............07 1........03 11...................................................72 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4..........................04 Physician density* ..................................................01 10......................46 Available seat kilometers..........1: Country/Economy Profiles Bolivia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9................................103 Available seat kilometers..................................................................................131 Property rights .........................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...........................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1......01 9......................................02 14...04 1................................87 Life expectancy*...........................01 3.......................03 9..121 Quality of railroad infrastructure .000 population* ..................101 International air transport network ...........132 T&T government expenditure* .02 11.................04 10................................................3 11th pillar: Human resources 11.8 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...............04 Business costs of terrorism........05 Extent of business Internet use ................03 7...............129 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...................100 Telephone lines*.04 11.......01 5........................................129 Road density* .....................................79 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...............

............2......................7....................40 Health and hygiene ........................................ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...2 4.1 Air transport infrastructure................................................. 2009 .97 2009 Index...............108 Safety and security ........................................................................1...........................2 Policy rules and regulations...... 2009.............................................................................................000 jobs).9 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).............................................................................2........518........................25..................2....................70 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..103 Availability of qualified labor.....6 4....5 Human resources ...... cultural.........8.........................1 Environmental Performance Index............................107 T&T regulatory framework ..........................000 square kilometers) .......1.3 ........................................................ please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.............................................103 3.........................................................62 ICT infrastructure ............................0 Gross domestic product (PPP........................................0 Employment (1........129 Environmental sustainability.....3 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.....2 T&T human..............................................1 Employment (1.....................000 jobs).................................................2 2..............97 3........................................................................................................................ TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .........5 4.................................15 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ........................1 3..............134 Ground transport infrastructure...75 4.......0 3.................9 2...........8 4........................10.......................17..........................3 4.........................................98 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.................121 Cultural resources...............7 2....................................8 Surface area (1..103 1................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..6........................3 ..................................................................................................000 136 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 800 600 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 400 200 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..........58 Natural resources ............2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources...1 1...................................................................51..............4 5...........................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bosnia and Herzegovina Key indicators Population (millions).........................310.91.................137 Tourism infrastructure ......2 .......................................................6 3.......................128 3..........4 4.................................................................. US$) per capita.................1 5...........–3....................................... 2009...... 2009 ......... 2009............... 2009 .............................9 Real GDP growth (percent)........3........77 Education and training ...............1......................8 ... and natural resources ........................................1 T&T economy.................2 T&T business environment and infrastructure .6....633...........1 5..............................................677.......................................................855.....................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .92 3..........61 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....................2 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...................................

...............................04 6.............02 3.............102 Local availability of research and training services........07 Stringency of environmental regulation...............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .........................50 Access to improved drinking water* ...............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.......40 Hospital beds* .....138 Quality of ground transport network .........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.......................05 Extent of business Internet use ..........89 GATS commitments*......................................................03 1.....................................................59 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..... For further details and explanation............115 International air transport network .....136 Hiring and firing practices ..........83 12..........99 Particulate matter concentration* ............................03 4...........................44 Number of operating airlines* .............................................125 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.............................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .......86 Airport density* .....109 Secondary education enrollment* ................................117 Internet users* ..................1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .............01 2...........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...............................58 Mobile telephone subscribers* .....02 1........................................05 2.......................n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11.75 Protected areas*.........115 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ........................................01 3...08 1..........................................................89 Sports stadiums*........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.....45 Total known species* ............02 Presence of major car rental companies* ............138 Available seat kilometers..........04 9..........07 1.........................................132 Fuel price levels*....04 11....113 Purchasing power parity* ...131 Departures per 1.........136 Carbon dioxide emissions* ............................18 Reliability of police services.....01 1...............02 2.........75 Transparency of government policymaking .......................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bosnia and Herzegovina 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.04 10.......................06 11.....61 Extent and effect of taxation ..............................................01 11........38 Environmental treaty ratification* ................................139 Time required to start a business* .....................03 11..............................................................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..........122 Cost to start a business* ........128 Extent of staff training ...........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .....................130 Enforcement of environmental regulation ............................................................................................64 Road traffic accidents* .............................................46 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.............. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum...................................4 Life expectancy*............119 Sustainability of T&T industry development........103 Available seat kilometers...........................08 11............................................. domestic* ...... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter....The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....02 5...................49 Broadband Internet subscribers* .02 7........01 13..136 T&T government expenditure* .......60 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.........03 2........000 population* .....01 14..............07 11.........................03 3.........107 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.04 2................................04 5............01 Tourism openness* ..............09 11...............................03 10.............05 1.........03 6........95 Quality of port infrastructure ....01 9..03 13.....................................04 Business costs of terrorism............................................................06 6..................05 6..........01 10...............113 Visa requirements*.................1 8....................................................73 Access to improved sanitation* .132 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..06 2.....133 Business impact of rules on FDI ...72 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.04 7........... international* ............04 Physician density* .....................n/a RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8................................................127 Effectiveness of marketing and branding......................123 Road density* ........................01 4............................02 11.........03 14.............................................04 1..............61 Telephone lines*..............................02 13..........................28 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*............................................47 13th pillar: Natural resources 13........................................01 6...........02 9.......................................02 10.............01 5........139 12....137 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...........................................05 Quality of roads ....03 5..........................................................................................................73 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 137 ..02 4...................................................05 11.......................03 9............70 2......03 Extension of business trips recommended.........63 12......03 7.........................59 Quality of the educational system.02 6..............................10 Primary education enrollment*.02 14.10 Ease of hiring foreign labor.90 Creative industries exports*...............................................28 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.........................................................................................01 7.............46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..........72 Hotel price index*..01 Hotel rooms* .........................................57 HIV prevalence*.......25 Threatened species* ...70 8...................80 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2......................73 Business costs of crime and violence .............................................................133 Quality of the natural environment....................06 1.96 Property rights .............................

........... and natural resources ...............1............9 ....................... US$) per capita.......6 Human resources .11............ 2009 .........2...3 ... 2009.................................................3 Policy rules and regulations.......9 4..................0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council......... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.........................................................................................................................134 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ......................10....7 Environmental Performance Index.......................3..............5...............................91 2009 Index...............85 3.................................................................85 Natural resources .................................................................................................6......7 Real GDP growth (percent)..............6 3.............421....310......................54....................................................6 2............568.............9 2............................................................79 T&T regulatory framework ..........................000 jobs)...................14................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Botswana Key indicators Population (millions)..........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ....................5 3..........................80 Availability of qualified labor......1...............................................2 Employment (1...........0 Employment (1....................................33 Cultural resources..............7 4.................................. 2009...............98 3.............................7 Gross domestic product (PPP..................7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)............................5 ..6...........................–3.149 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.........581........... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .......................552....4...........................86 3...........................................................................73 Tourism infrastructure ........9 Surface area (1.................................................3 4..........................................4 4....................8 2....................58 Safety and security .6 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.....106 3..........87 Health and hygiene ..3 5.....................100 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.......................000 square kilometers) ......................3 Air transport infrastructure...7 .....1.. 2010 (out of 163 economies) .............................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure .........119 Education and training .......104 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..6 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).........................................................73 4.............. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..................................................2 1.........7 3........ 2009 .............500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1.........................64 Environmental sustainability......320... cultural........................................ TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).................91 Ground transport infrastructure............................................4 T&T human................4 2..2...........90 ICT infrastructure ..............................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .....8................... 2009 ..........................................5 3............................................................ 2009......................................................5 4................................26...................................................000 138 1...................................................5 4.............................6 T&T economy.......................000 jobs)..................................8 4..................

.01 11.....07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .........................95 Access to improved drinking water* ..............................................................04 9.....................................05 2................n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11..106 Creative industries exports*........02 6....75 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*................................................................................28 Extent and effect of taxation ......73 Available seat kilometers.............29 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..03 6.....................01 5...................57 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*..03 10..03 Extension of business trips recommended......04 6.....49 Hotel price index*.............................02 11.......06 1.06 11..........04 11.6 Quality of the natural environment..........48 Local availability of research and training services......................02 2.............02 Presence of major car rental companies* ............01 1.............................66 Hospital beds* .................................................10 Primary education enrollment*.......02 7................04 5............................................123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6......................................................................25 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.......................03 11.....128 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..............................83 Road traffic accidents* ........27 GATS commitments* ..27 Total known species* ...05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .........................................62 Airport density* ..................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1....................04 Business costs of terrorism.............02 4...........02 3..........43 Business costs of crime and violence ..........................54 Hiring and firing practices .....03 5............................04 Physician density* ...15 Environmental treaty ratification* ....................................35 Business impact of rules on FDI ..........................08 1..04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.......................................138 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .......................89 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............................131 International air transport network ........................05 11........................................................01 2..........................................................117 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.....................25 Visa requirements*............07 11......................135 Departures per 1...................................................................000 population* .........................79 8...............75 Protected areas*.....................01 6..39 T&T government expenditure* .............47 Quality of railroad infrastructure .123 HIV prevalence*.102 Mobile telephone subscribers* ............................ For further details and explanation.............116 12.....84 2......................................................03 2...........01 10.....87 Quality of the educational system........................................................................128 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7................02 1..67 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..............................................02 5... domestic* ............111 Secondary education enrollment* .............................01 14..............01 9..............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..03 3................06 6................................................................04 7..............................12 Purchasing power parity* .................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.............................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.67 Ease of hiring foreign labor....................05 Extent of business Internet use ....................114 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5............121 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.....................02 14..1: Country/Economy Profiles Botswana 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.... international* .........13 Fuel price levels*.......................................................................................................................02 9........................112 Internet users* ...........................................57 12...............03 14...................................................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation....................................94 Available seat kilometers.119 12..........104 Sports stadiums*...05 Quality of roads ......03 13.......08 11............................96 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8................29 Property rights .............03 7.95 Road density* ..............108 Extent of staff training ...................104 Broadband Internet subscribers* ......80 8.......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.................03 1....46 Reliability of police services..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .48 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.....85 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .......105 Transparency of government policymaking ....................01 7.......132 Life expectancy*.04 10......06 2..................................................02 10...................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.126 Cost to start a business* ......05 1...........................03 9.................................107 Threatened species* ........ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...........87 13th pillar: Natural resources 13................................................................62 Particulate matter concentration* ..114 Telephone lines*...............................................01 3................................................05 6.01 Hotel rooms* .................................21 Number of operating airlines* .09 11............28 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..............................................86 Quality of ground transport network .....26 Time required to start a business* ...............................105 Access to improved sanitation* .02 13.................45 Sustainability of T&T industry development..........01 Tourism openness* ...44 Quality of port infrastructure ......................................................03 4................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 139 .....................52 Enforcement of environmental regulation ............01 4.04 1..................04 2..................................07 1.01 13.......................

..5............7 5......................................9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council................................29 Safety and security .............................4 6....................75 Health and hygiene .....109....................52 2009 Index........................................................................................44 Availability of qualified labor.......................9 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources......574...........................................................................3 .........................906.............................6 ............................................................10..............................73 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...............8..........802........................4 Employment (1............................3...................................56 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.....304.......5........................................1.....42 Ground transport infrastructure..........................6 Employment (1...........................4 ..................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2....209..............000 square kilometers) .......................1: Country/Economy Profiles Brazil Key indicators Population (millions).....1 T&T human........4 Policy rules and regulations..80 4.................5.................................................000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...................................................3 4.................................9 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)......7 4.................2.................................................................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.........................................................................0 Gross domestic product (PPP................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%............000 jobs)..............2....9 T&T business environment and infrastructure ....................333.9 T&T economy...........................–0........... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..9 2......2....5...2......6 3..................000 jobs).....6 Air transport infrastructure... cultural.........................76 ICT infrastructure ..........................................62 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .......................................................9 5..............5 4..........................7 4...114 3............................................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ........7 Surface area (1............................................1 4......5.......................................................11 5..............4...........................................................................9 Real GDP growth (percent).................. 2009 ............... 2009...........2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..................................................................8 3.................000 140 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 4..114 Environmental sustainability.................514.....70 Education and training ....................................1 Human resources .108 3....... 2009.........................23 4....2 Environmental Performance Index................ 2009.......5 3. and natural resources .............................6 6...................................106 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..... 2009 ................................498..97 Natural resources ..........4 4.................4................. US$) per capita......... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...2......9 .......75 3.4 4.................................................................116 Tourism infrastructure ..........................0 4...... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ................44............................................739........ 2009 ........45 T&T regulatory framework ..193......................1 Cultural resources...................

....62 2......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ............................81 Access to improved drinking water* ....000 population* ........04 11.03 Extension of business trips recommended...05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .................94 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..........114 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...............61 Sustainability of T&T industry development..04 Business costs of terrorism..............64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...03 6..........89 Hotel price index*......25 12...........................................................81 Visa requirements*..........01 2..16 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...01 5....................104 Environmental treaty ratification* .................01 9...08 11....................................123 Quality of ground transport network .................10 Primary education enrollment*................................109 HIV prevalence*..72 Business impact of rules on FDI ........................................................01 14............................................................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 141 .......................................................................09 11...............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..................................87 Quality of port infrastructure .................02 11................123 Road traffic accidents* ...........................................02 3..........19 Sports stadiums*...........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.................02 6...........06 1...............31 International air transport network ........................53 Hiring and firing practices ...............................61 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.....02 7......58 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*................84 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.. international* ..................131 12...........77 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..............................................................................................05 11...........18 Departures per 1.......................61 Broadband Internet subscribers* .01 3............................................105 Quality of railroad infrastructure ..02 13......................................................................01 6................................................04 9...........74 Business costs of crime and violence ...02 2................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.05 6.............79 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4......................57 Hospital beds* ............................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Brazil 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...........................................59 Telephone lines*.........82 Number of operating airlines* .....................69 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.........................................104 Extent and effect of taxation ..............................38 Transparency of government policymaking ....03 7...............03 14.....91 8....44 Total known species* .............131 Ease of hiring foreign labor.............................01 7..........03 2.....04 7......74 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..........................03 13..................................03 9...95 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......................01 Hotel rooms* ...............59 GATS commitments* ................103 Local availability of research and training services...................11 Quality of the natural environment.....................02 10....................................06 11......................................04 1............................. For further details and explanation.................135 Cost to start a business* ...................................24 Quality of the educational system.........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...............................................................01 11..... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..03 4.04 2..................25 Internet users* .......6 Protected areas*.......................03 1.01 4................................01 Tourism openness* ..............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ......03 11....02 9..............01 13.................................................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........66 Secondary education enrollment* ...............................65 12.72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6......................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .............................97 Purchasing power parity* ...............................02 4....55 Particulate matter concentration* .........................................64 8..................03 10.............................8 Creative industries exports*.................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1....34 11th pillar: Human resources 11........02 14...........................08 1.....................07 11...............03 3..........07 1........01 10...............................................................02 5........93 Available seat kilometers......03 5................29 Enforcement of environmental regulation .............................................87 Time required to start a business* .........................................05 2...................................15 Reliability of police services......40 Threatened species* ..........................................04 Physician density* .........06 2........07 Stringency of environmental regulation............................................05 Quality of roads ........................36 Extent of staff training ................................................01 1..............68 Life expectancy*....119 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ............4 Available seat kilometers............................04 6..83 Effectiveness of marketing and branding................................................................93 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .......36 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7......................1 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...............139 Fuel price levels*................74 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..........104 T&T government expenditure* ................................... domestic* .......02 1..........................04 5.........06 6............................05 Extent of business Internet use ............76 Property rights ...65 Access to improved sanitation* ..60 Airport density* .................74 Road density* ................04 10..............05 1................

...........63 3....8 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..0 ..................0 4.6 5......1 Air transport infrastructure...................................000 jobs)....4 Gross domestic product (PPP............. 2009 .................................................. 2009..91 5........................9 5....................72 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry............47 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry...................................1..............................0..................................4................................................................................13......................23 Health and hygiene ...........8 3....................67 2009 Index............................3 4................................ please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...000 jobs)..................0 4............. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)................................................................................49 Tourism infrastructure .......47 Education and training ...................136 Safety and security .................1: Country/Economy Profiles Brunei Darussalam Key indicators Population (millions)........................38 Cultural resources............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..............8 T&T human.................................2 Policy rules and regulations..7 T&T economy..................................69 T&T regulatory framework ...........................................................................–0................. 2009............2 .....2...............................................3........1 4......................................464..........................................................................................................................47...................................2.............................0 1......50 4.............................7 4.........................................1 4.....................................................................................2.................................120 Environmental sustainability..000 square kilometers) ............ 2009........4 Surface area (1...............930................. US$) per capita....................................................7 3............................................6 Employment (1........0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..................................................................5 Employment (1...........258......................4.................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....9 Human resources .............11............................................... and natural resources ...........78 Natural resources ........................2 2..................5 Environmental Performance Index....................7 3..........96 4.........5 4........................ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...................2.......1 4.......... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%................................2 Real GDP growth (percent).................91 ICT infrastructure .................5...............................36 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...........5 ............................................. 2009 .................25......................0 300 142 250 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 150 100 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .....8 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.......................................127 3..............................................10...........................................254...70 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.......3 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ............................4 .........................6...........................9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council............. 2009 .......................... cultural..................157............................................41 Ground transport infrastructure......49 Availability of qualified labor.........9 5.................

....02 6....05 6.......01 5.........134 Cost to start a business* ..........................................................86 Access to improved sanitation* ........................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ....................02 1...01 3.............................................................05 2...........38 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...........................................07 1..............................133 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3......The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....................06 2..........14 Transparency of government policymaking ......14 Telephone lines*...................................15 Fuel price levels*..................59 Extent and effect of taxation ..01 7...........23 Reliability of police services.........................................18 Road traffic accidents* ..............................................................................02 11...................72 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.77 Life expectancy*.04 9...................24 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...........................................70 Visa requirements*....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership....................18 Number of operating airlines* ......01 Tourism openness* .......122 Sports stadiums*................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 143 ................................33 Quality of railroad infrastructure ........74 Secondary education enrollment* .03 9...............................1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..............................................................................................02 7........03 11....04 1..........................................120 Environmental treaty ratification* ............................ international* ...........02 9....................88 Time required to start a business* ........................................................02 2.06 11.....................................37 Ease of hiring foreign labor..............06 1....................112 8....03 2............................................................01 10................05 1......................76 GATS commitments* ....................43 8.04 11............02 4.......................01 2................02 10........................................03 1.............................................47 Enforcement of environmental regulation .......................................01 9..08 1......................129 International air transport network ...............57 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .............................................07 11......52 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.118 Road density* .........................................................31 Local availability of research and training services.........99 12..............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ........11 Hotel price index*.............03 5.......06 6................................01 4.......................................52 Business impact of rules on FDI ............04 10.............................................01 1...125 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ........1: Country/Economy Profiles Brunei Darussalam 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.....5 Purchasing power parity* ..39 Sustainability of T&T industry development.........96 Threatened species* .......................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....34 Quality of the educational system............................131 Particulate matter concentration* ...............................................................05 Extent of business Internet use ..................01 14...............9 Quality of the natural environment................................09 11...........03 4..........................................64 12.......03 13...................87 Departures per 1....79 T&T government expenditure* ............n/a Quality of port infrastructure ...02 14.............07 Stringency of environmental regulation......02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...................................132 Effectiveness of marketing and branding....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*............05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .................................03 3............60 Available seat kilometers....128 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..............36 Business costs of crime and violence ........................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter............115 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...........03 14.............................................62 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.......04 7.......................02 5..98 HIV prevalence*................................................114 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...75 Protected areas*..88 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ....................103 Available seat kilometers..........................................60 Hiring and firing practices .......05 11.........................66 Access to improved drinking water* .11 Airport density* ..... domestic* ........................03 10.............03 Extension of business trips recommended.........................115 Extent of staff training ..............01 Hotel rooms* .........04 6..04 Business costs of terrorism..10 Primary education enrollment*.................................03 6..................................39 Hospital beds* ..83 2......59 Internet users* ..........85 Property rights ................49 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.....67 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...........04 2...................04 5.........................................................................................................................20 Total known species* ...........................104 Creative industries exports*..........02 3.000 population* ............................................44 12..........61 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.01 11...........................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...05 Quality of roads ..................................03 7.......04 Physician density* .......01 6.....................123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..08 11................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....................n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11...................................................31 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*. For further details and explanation...66 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........02 13.............................58 Quality of ground transport network .....01 13..........

.......................................7 .....2 4..............................................9 4........47........................111.............................78 Availability of qualified labor.–2.............................000 jobs)...............................................6 ICT infrastructure ................ US$) per capita................1 4..........4 Real GDP growth (percent)................................................89 Ground transport infrastructure...................3 Employment (1..................................54 4......................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.50 T&T regulatory framework ................000 jobs)....44 4...................................... and natural resources .....................................................................738...2.................................................................................2 ..........................................................................0 3.......3......................................................8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.............7........................10 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism............... 2009 .....10..99 Safety and security ...5..43 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry................................................................0 Environmental Performance Index.............2..............................................3 4.....................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ........................7 4......7 3.......................................1 4..000 square kilometers) ..................8 3............... 2009....0 Human resources .................................94 Environmental sustainability..........9 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...........................3..............................727.......................1: Country/Economy Profiles Bulgaria Key indicators Population (millions)...........37 4.............................................. 2009 ........4 Employment (1.. 2009 .......................4...51 4.......................................................000 144 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 4....................................................8 T&T human................ 2009...........567.......... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...... cultural.........................71 Education and training .6 Surface area (1..................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..46 2...........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2..............5.......... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)............................–1...............................................................................................................................................81 Health and hygiene .11.............. 2009.......................................................................1 ...........1..........86....9 ......................8 6........78 Cultural resources.................000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..................................2 6.................65 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.........6 6.8 T&T economy.....1 Gross domestic product (PPP......–5.......51 Natural resources ............48 2009 Index.........................................951............................42 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .........................................90 Tourism infrastructure ..................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ..............................................8 Policy rules and regulations..............................4 4......883........................................5 5..............324......................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ................8 4................3..........................71 4.............0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..........................3 Air transport infrastructure..... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....11......................2 4...................

................03 11...........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.................64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.........117 Total known species* ...............22 2............01 4....................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ....................30 Purchasing power parity* ..........................000 population* ...72 HIV prevalence*...........85 Local availability of research and training services......................................118 Sustainability of T&T industry development....1: Country/Economy Profiles Bulgaria 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9........................04 2.....01 6..................03 4..........................102 Transparency of government policymaking ............15 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ........92 Reliability of police services.....................01 Tourism openness* .......................................................24 Protected areas*.....................95 12.........111 Business costs of crime and violence ...................123 Carbon dioxide emissions* ................21 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10........03 14...................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .......126 Visa requirements*..........................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .........02 3...19 GATS commitments* .....................10 Primary education enrollment*.................05 11................................61 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..07 11...................................................87 Quality of ground transport network ........108 T&T government expenditure* .........................................116 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.09 Prevalence of foreign ownership......17 12................................06 2..........04 Physician density* ...............................05 6...................121 Business impact of rules on FDI .................85 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..........08 11.......................58 Environmental treaty ratification* ........04 7... international* .02 6................................................................................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..........83 Number of operating airlines* ..........39 Internet users* ....42 Ease of hiring foreign labor..............................04 6.......71 Cost to start a business* .....................01 1...................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 145 ..............................45 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4....................01 14...55 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.....82 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.......................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..79 Road density* ..............................74 Airport density* ....03 5.............................................33 Extent and effect of taxation .05 1................16 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...02 10....................103 Road traffic accidents* .........................................................................03 1.........................47 International air transport network ..................................72 Quality of the natural environment...17 Access to improved sanitation* .........................................43 Broadband Internet subscribers* .......... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum......01 7.04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*....57 Creative industries exports*....09 11..........05 2...03 13....135 Hiring and firing practices ..........................................51 Secondary education enrollment* ................................................................................................01 11...19 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....90 Available seat kilometers.....................1 Hospital beds* ........................02 4................................06 1.01 2..54 Quality of port infrastructure ................................06 11........................................02 7....................................71 Life expectancy*.........6 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..............122 12...............................................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .......04 11.................92 Particulate matter concentration* .....................03 7....................01 10............02 14..................08 1...130 Time required to start a business* ............................42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ............02 5....93 Hotel price index*........................... domestic* ...................................................................................................05 Quality of roads .....................03 2...............04 1..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..............135 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...48 Telephone lines*.............................04 Business costs of terrorism................24 11th pillar: Human resources 11........................ For further details and explanation..04 9..03 Extension of business trips recommended.......................................07 1..................07 Stringency of environmental regulation....................................02 1...................1 8......25 Sports stadiums*............01 9.....04 10...............05 Extent of business Internet use ...................................66 Quality of the educational system............................70 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...................................01 Hotel rooms* .........03 3...............................................................02 9...............01 5.03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....06 6.............1 Access to improved drinking water* ..........04 5..........................80 Extent of staff training ...03 10...............................99 Threatened species* .......................................02 11...........................01 3............................................................................02 2...................110 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.03 9................03 6................69 Available seat kilometers...............02 13............................................102 Property rights ..................81 Departures per 1....................................16 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.........................83 Fuel price levels*................................01 13...................................................................125 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..........................43 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....13 8.....

.......0 300 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 250 146 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 150 100 50 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .................2......000 square kilometers) .117 3........................................5 4.... and natural resources .........62........................ 2009 ........1 3....................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ....0...................................6 Real GDP growth (percent)........................................................31........................5 Air transport infrastructure.......................4 2................2 Environmental Performance Index................128 3.........................................................8 Surface area (1.....................80 Safety and security ...........................110 Tourism infrastructure ............. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.....................93 Health and hygiene ........................133 Education and training ..................2..................1: Country/Economy Profiles Burkina Faso Key indicators Population (millions)..........000 jobs)................... cultural............................6....4 4.......9 ............................................ 2008 ....................................................135 Ground transport infrastructure................................4 Employment (1.....................7 4............................................120 ICT infrastructure .......132 2009 Index..........................................................................................................0 Human resources .....104 3.....................................................8 2.......................................................8............127 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism..104 Environmental sustainability............................2......1 Gross domestic product (PPP.................92................................................................................0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).......132 3................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....9 1.................5 2............................................91 Cultural resources........3................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .................................................................................................................2...... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .....128 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry....................... 2009...........7 1.........7 Policy rules and regulations...........135 2..........3........................................15..........4 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...................... 2009....................269.000 jobs)...................5.............................0 T&T business environment and infrastructure .............................................................................7 ..............122 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .302..........274................................2 ...................................................250..7 .............................8 4.......4 2......................2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)......................................................................4 4.....139 Availability of qualified labor.0.............3 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources................................................... 2009....................134 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry........... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)............................1 3........2 Employment (1.............126 T&T regulatory framework .... 2009 .........................................................................................0 4....................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) .....................1... US$) per capita....77 Natural resources ...........5 T&T economy.....................................................112 1........................9 1.......85....................................1 T&T human........................

..04 7.......110 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ............................ For further details and explanation............................101 Property rights ..02 7.................................................113 Life expectancy*..........................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.02 10....................................63 Road traffic accidents* ..............03 4.......45 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*........................................................................52 Reliability of police services..............................................52 Carbon dioxide emissions* .....................................133 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.....03 1.........127 Number of operating airlines* ............................03 14...............................05 Extent of business Internet use ..................86 Fuel price levels*.............................................04 9....120 Internet users* ....65 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.....01 13........................................................01 14................................................126 Access to improved sanitation* ......44 Quality of the natural environment.............................09 11.................03 5..............05 1..........................138 Quality of the educational system................................07 11......02 9.............03 Extension of business trips recommended.......01 9.....................................................................................................95 8................01 4.......42 HIV prevalence*.....108 Hotel price index*...........................131 Available seat kilometers..............02 11..............06 2..................................................80 Quality of ground transport network ...........131 Transparency of government policymaking ...120 International air transport network ............03 11...124 Departures per 1....116 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..1: Country/Economy Profiles Burkina Faso 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...............................................92 Available seat kilometers.....................n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11....................01 Tourism openness* .............03 13......02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...03 6......134 Hiring and firing practices .................................117 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .......97 Sustainability of T&T industry development...........52 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8....112 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4......06 1.................01 6.......................114 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..........................................22 Environmental treaty ratification* ................................................................02 5...............................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*............38 T&T government expenditure* .......119 Threatened species* ....112 Hospital beds* .......126 12.06 11.........02 13.............................................113 Road density* ......................................91 Extent of staff training ...68 Visa requirements*......04 11.............23 Extent and effect of taxation ..................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..........................................04 10...109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6....................................134 Secondary education enrollment* ...............................05 11........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ................................02 1..01 7....86 Time required to start a business* .....................57 Cost to start a business* ....126 12...02 14.....................129 8................................................94 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....01 11........................104 Sports stadiums*....61 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.......................................................05 2..............128 2.......................117 GATS commitments* ......................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.....................................04 6.04 Physician density* .......122 Quality of railroad infrastructure ......92 Quality of port infrastructure ..........................07 1........01 1............................................................................8 Particulate matter concentration* ..135 Telephone lines*........................104 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..16 12...101 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ......05 6..03 3...................04 Business costs of terrorism...............................................06 6............................................02 2.............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...................................129 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5......................112 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum...........85 Business costs of crime and violence .........08 11...............78 Business impact of rules on FDI ...........................118 Airport density* ............................................. domestic* ..............02 6.......................................................01 10..01 3............................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..............................03 10.....04 5.................................................................08 1........................01 5.03 2............04 1.........................01 2.........05 Quality of roads ........126 Broadband Internet subscribers* .....................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .......05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .........02 4...87 Creative industries exports*.......03 9..129 Local availability of research and training services....................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1............110 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.04 2.........01 Hotel rooms* .....................................75 Protected areas*.........000 population* .10 Primary education enrollment*....................... international* ..............55 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......................................03 7....................................................130 Purchasing power parity* ........131 Access to improved drinking water* ..55 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 147 ...................02 3........................................130 Total known species* ......110 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.

..................134 2...........4 2...130 Availability of qualified labor..............................137 2.............................................................000 jobs)..........................1....000 jobs)..................................................................1 3..........1: Country/Economy Profiles Burundi Key indicators Population (millions)......201... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ........3..135 2..53......8 3..................................................................5 Environmental Performance Index.............2 1...............................................3 1....23...................24............................ 2009 ........91 Safety and security ............2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).................................................................1..................138 3.......................9 Employment (1........................................3 Surface area (1.133 Environmental sustainability................................... 2009 ..........................................................................0 3.....1.......5 T&T human...............131 Education and training .....78 2........................1 4...............................................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..............5 Air transport infrastructure.......................................129 Ground transport infrastructure.................3 Gross domestic product (PPP..............................................................................120 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism........................... US$) per capita...8 Human resources ...............................................................132 Health and hygiene ........1....................................–0.............................................. 2009.........................3.....2 2..............137 2009 Index............................................127 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .............8 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...........4 ...........3 1...........3......................50............3 2.............................................5 250 148 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 200 150 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 100 50 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...........8 ..............9 T&T economy............140 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry....103 Natural resources ...................................................137 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry...................1 4....................................................................2......... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).................... 2006...............................................................................134 ICT infrastructure ...................................................... 2009. 2009 .. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....................131 T&T regulatory framework ... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.......................................118 Cultural resources.............................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .....................84 Tourism infrastructure .........7 Real GDP growth (percent)..................... and natural resources .............................–0....2...........................................................................3...0 .................8 ..............6 4.................27.....7 Employment (1..........................2 3........1 Policy rules and regulations.. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .......................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...1 4......0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.....................................2 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council............399............................................................. cultural.........................................................................8......000 square kilometers) .6 3.............138 3............................................................................................

.............86 Ease of hiring foreign labor...........................................................................................04 10.....02 6.........111 12..............135 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..................106 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.04 6..........3 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..............................47 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14....02 5............................................................103 Available seat kilometers..137 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........18 Extent and effect of taxation ...............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ...n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11........57 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.................................................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 149 ...............135 Carbon dioxide emissions* ....................1: Country/Economy Profiles Burundi 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.................04 7.........123 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....06 11...............05 Extent of business Internet use ......48 Environmental treaty ratification* .134 Local availability of research and training services.............131 Number of operating airlines* ..................................10 Primary education enrollment*................08 11.............................126 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...................................01 9.........................01 7..83 HIV prevalence*................01 6....................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....138 2..........................01 10...............................08 1...................................127 Business impact of rules on FDI ...................................05 1..01 11........................03 6.............01 Tourism openness* .......03 1...05 2...............58 Purchasing power parity* ......07 11....................13 Secondary education enrollment* ................03 11......................................................127 Fuel price levels*...................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .05 11.......03 4...........................50 Threatened species* .......02 11................135 Business costs of crime and violence ...................03 2.......09 11..................................................................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...03 10.....131 Internet users* .......................78 Road density* .05 Quality of roads ..................02 13....03 Extension of business trips recommended.............................03 13.................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ....01 14....131 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.01 Hotel rooms* ...............07 1....................................01 5. For further details and explanation...................04 9......03 9.........121 Available seat kilometers....................131 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..139 8...........................................138 Property rights ...........................................136 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...................................................................................130 GATS commitments* ................02 3...............................n/a Quality of port infrastructure ..133 Hiring and firing practices ...............................132 Creative industries exports*...93 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4........................03 5......................01 1......122 Sports stadiums*..............117 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...............02 1.........129 Road traffic accidents* ..................137 Quality of the educational system........................120 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.....127 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...000 population* ................02 9......136 Sustainability of T&T industry development...........130 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ......................116 Hospital beds* ........04 5...........99 Quality of the natural environment.............................120 12...................................................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...............04 2.........125 8.........01 3...137 Total known species* ........134 Time required to start a business* ....... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....04 Business costs of terrorism.....n/a Airport density* .......................................................126 T&T government expenditure* ........................120 Quality of ground transport network .................................................................05 6.................129 Life expectancy*...........131 International air transport network ..........138 Extent of staff training .04 Physician density* ..............................117 Transparency of government policymaking ................................................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...02 4..................................................................................02 14.130 Reliability of police services......................................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..06 1..........06 6..06 2.................................02 10.........04 11.......09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.......01 4.............................................. domestic* ...................131 Telephone lines*................75 Protected areas*........................138 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2............................................123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...........02 2.........................................................03 7............136 Departures per 1.................................136 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .........................................03 3..........................................................................1 Particulate matter concentration* ..........................01 13......111 Access to improved drinking water* ...120 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............07 Stringency of environmental regulation.........02 7...........03 14........102 Cost to start a business* .....133 Access to improved sanitation* ....................111 Hotel price index*.........04 1............117 Visa requirements*............135 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...............................01 2.................. international* ....................................69 12....

..........113 Ground transport infrastructure..........................................4 T&T economy. 2009..............133 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...8...89 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...........3 ......000 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ....................131 ICT infrastructure ...82 Safety and security ..9 5.........5 5....148 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry....... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..................................................................4 3..... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..8 Surface area (1................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .......31 2.....1 Real GDP growth (percent)..................................................069.............................000 square kilometers) .............0 Environmental Performance Index......................................................7 Air transport infrastructure.............181..........................6 2.......................118 Availability of qualified labor........ US$) per capita........2............................103 Tourism infrastructure ....................123 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.........184..................................4 3............ and natural resources ............................................................................................................................. 2009 ....................................................................................................................500 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 1.................................1....................9 Policy rules and regulations.....1...........1 Employment (1.............................7 4....500 150 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 2............................................................................79 Health and hygiene ...........................................................6 1......................................................1...................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Cambodia Key indicators Population (millions).509.................................111 4......0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..........................000 1.....................................18................................................ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...............................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .–2....................4 1.................... 2009..14.......................2.............1. 2009 ..........033................ 2009 ................13 3..9 5....109 2009 Index.............118 2...................................................000 jobs).......................9 .......................................................10...............................045...........53 Cultural resources..................................................109 Education and training .81 3...136............2................................................1........6....................................3 3.....................1 T&T human......................000 jobs)........21 Natural resources ...... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..............993..... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..............................................14.8 Employment (1.............................................4 .......................5 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council........3 4.................................7 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..................................... cultural.....8 ..4...................................................... 2009............3 3................132 Environmental sustainability.....9 Gross domestic product (PPP...........................0 1.....5 1...................4 4..8 T&T business environment and infrastructure ........6 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources...7 Human resources ...........................................1...............................3 3..................108 T&T regulatory framework ...................110 3..........5.....................

..............................137 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............................03 6................94 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.............The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.121 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2...........05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .......... international* ....02 14.......05 2.....06 1...........................................................................02 10...01 3...............120 Quality of the educational system...........................................109 Road density* ....................99 Creative industries exports*.........................................01 7.........................02 9...............96 Sustainability of T&T industry development..129 GATS commitments* .....03 1.....................04 9... domestic* .07 1..............................02 1......................55 Hotel price index*..................05 6...............65 12......................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum......................02 2.............3 Extent and effect of taxation .............99 Quality of port infrastructure ................... For further details and explanation...................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.............................01 Tourism openness* ........................03 11.................05 11.73 Quality of railroad infrastructure ..........................03 13.....................02 13......111 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5..04 1.........................03 Extension of business trips recommended.....................................09 11..............19 Quality of the natural environment....95 Road traffic accidents* ......01 4........................................................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 151 .....47 11th pillar: Human resources 11...................03 3....10 Primary education enrollment*.....................125 Number of operating airlines* ............02 7...........08 1...103 Secondary education enrollment* ............03 4.........03 7........................18 Particulate matter concentration* ..............................111 Extent of staff training ............................58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .............52 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*...........121 Access to improved drinking water* .......................................................05 Extent of business Internet use ........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .......................................124 Hospital beds* ..................113 Access to improved sanitation* .........125 Time required to start a business* ...........92 Hiring and firing practices .........................39 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8........................................................01 13..............122 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.......................................................82 Quality of ground transport network .03 2...........................................................62 Sports stadiums*....................04 5............03 5....................08 11......................................112 Airport density* .....................107 Reliability of police services..................................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation........01 14.01 11.........70 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ...10 Effectiveness of marketing and branding........88 Threatened species* ................03 14................50 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14........06 11...............04 11..04 Physician density* .............01 10.......04 7..............................02 3................03 9.......75 Protected areas*...................................132 Cost to start a business* .........................07 11...106 Enforcement of environmental regulation ....................................................................................93 Departures per 1.107 Mobile telephone subscribers* .......................15 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ....01 2.......80 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted............16 12.............................................................................................................................................................................................03 10....88 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...................02 6..........45 Ease of hiring foreign labor..02 5....91 Property rights ..............................116 Environmental treaty ratification* .....03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership............05 1.........................04 10.......................................34 T&T government expenditure* ..................04 Business costs of terrorism.........86 International air transport network .......04 2................01 1...............80 8.............33 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.............12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.............115 2.................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .........37 Visa requirements*.88 Internet users* .............85 Total known species* ......................................02 11...............01 Hotel rooms* ...110 Business impact of rules on FDI .06 6.............71 Available seat kilometers............................................62 Purchasing power parity* ...........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.........40 HIV prevalence*.......................................................60 Carbon dioxide emissions* .........133 8..........................................................................01 6........05 Quality of roads ...............................................................115 Business costs of crime and violence ..01 9...............................137 Telephone lines*.............................83 Available seat kilometers..........................04 6........................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...................100 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..............114 Life expectancy*..........................................................................06 2.............1: Country/Economy Profiles Cambodia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.............01 5.............................136 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..96 12....................61 Fuel price levels*.......................89 Transparency of government policymaking .......82 Local availability of research and training services....02 4.............000 population* ................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...

................................................99 Health and hygiene ......................................................................000 square kilometers) .....116 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.........129 2.................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...... cultural.................................000 jobs).......................430.........135 3...........................................................................0 300 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 250 152 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 150 100 50 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ......................1............9 2.......................................................2..........8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...1 3..................3 ..............................................0 Environmental Performance Index.............................................. 2006...................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)............22................................................... 2009..................56......................................................2....................................................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..................4.....121 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry............ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.6 .................. and natural resources ..............................0 2. US$) per capita.......................................6 Air transport infrastructure....................2..................7 T&T economy..................................................................42 Cultural resources......................................9 4....................4 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..........................................................................3........6.....130 Ground transport infrastructure...3........110 2......................................................131 4................................................133 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry........................ 2009....185...........5 2.......2 T&T human...........2 Gross domestic product (PPP..................................................1 2........1: Country/Economy Profiles Cameroon Key indicators Population (millions).......... 2009 ......0 4.................................000 jobs)...2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.................5 Policy rules and regulations........112 Education and training .........................................126 2009 Index.........................................................................................125 T&T regulatory framework ........................5 3...........................................111 Tourism infrastructure .......................................................5 Human resources ..............8 Real GDP growth (percent)...................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................................................................5 Surface area (1..................114 ICT infrastructure ..............6......82 Natural resources ....1..9 1.....3 2.................108 3..............................................................3 Employment (1........3..0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...................................................................................... 2009 ...................................140..............222.............6 4......113 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ....2 3............................2 3.................................19.079.96 Safety and security ...............................114 Availability of qualified labor................143...475............................................. 2009 ........................1............3 Employment (1.......3 .....2 4.............................125 Environmental sustainability........0 ... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ...........6 4........9 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..................127 3..................

....................60 12..126 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ............75 Quality of port infrastructure ...............04 Physician density* .43 Protected areas*..04 7..............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..05 6.................01 6...............01 7..............10 Primary education enrollment*...............02 4..............115 Broadband Internet subscribers* ........91 International air transport network ..........05 Extent of business Internet use ....................03 13...............01 Hotel rooms* ................................................................01 1...........................................................108 12.................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..............................05 1.......... domestic* ..........96 Extent of staff training ...15 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...04 Business costs of terrorism.....................04 11.........................................................................................103 Business costs of crime and violence .......1: Country/Economy Profiles Cameroon 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9........ An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..101 Internet users* .........................06 1............04 9........................................01 9.................................................03 10...83 Total known species* .......................04 2............. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 153 ........108 Enforcement of environmental regulation .............................................................................................01 5..03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.........123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.01 10.......07 Stringency of environmental regulation......124 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5....................... For further details and explanation.01 2...............100 Sustainability of T&T industry development...46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3..............122 Carbon dioxide emissions* ........................................03 4.................100 8...............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...............84 11th pillar: Human resources 11............112 Access to improved sanitation* .................................96 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.................09 11......75 Hotel price index*.....................115 Hospital beds* ...............03 7.....................134 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............03 Extension of business trips recommended.................102 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*............................................................................02 7.......................20 Particulate matter concentration* ..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...02 9....112 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.07 11..........................105 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.....16 Ease of hiring foreign labor.............130 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......03 6.....05 2...............02 2..........................................06 2.........................................104 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..............................122 Available seat kilometers..........03 2.....................02 10.....................................08 1................117 Time required to start a business* .................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..122 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..01 14..64 Transparency of government policymaking .....03 14.................110 Quality of ground transport network .....01 13.122 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..............93 Hiring and firing practices .............................79 Local availability of research and training services.......95 Available seat kilometers...........103 Threatened species* .....16 HIV prevalence*.........02 1............................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...........................01 11...116 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...................................................................07 1....................................110 Environmental treaty ratification* .....05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...........81 Road traffic accidents* ....The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.................................... international* ...........05 Quality of roads .......02 6.................66 Road density* ..................71 Quality of the natural environment..122 Telephone lines*..................95 8..................73 Cost to start a business* ............................45 Extent and effect of taxation .....................................03 9.................................117 Life expectancy*.......................................................02 13...................................................131 Purchasing power parity* .........04 5......106 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...08 11....................................................................................................................................103 Airport density* ...03 3..................................................................................02 3...............122 Sports stadiums*....118 GATS commitments* ..01 3.........................................100 Departures per 1.....02 14..................127 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .........81 Secondary education enrollment* ..................................06 6...............................................41 Property rights ...02 11...............01 Tourism openness* ......................................................04 1.........................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.108 Visa requirements*.....118 T&T government expenditure* ...............................120 Number of operating airlines* ..........129 2.62 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.................110 Access to improved drinking water* ......06 11................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..................................85 Creative industries exports*.......................118 Quality of the educational system..................119 Fuel price levels*.........................................111 12.....................................03 11...03 5..................70 Reliability of police services...................04 10.............01 4.......................................05 11....000 population* ........................................96 Business impact of rules on FDI ................135 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....03 1...........02 5....................04 6............

.......737...7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)........1: Country/Economy Profiles Canada Key indicators Population (millions)...........................................596....................5 5......5 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..9.................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...25 5...4 4...40 5................................7 Surface area (1....24 Health and hygiene .......................000 jobs)...............105 6..8 5.............................4 Environmental sustainability... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ........4 5...........14 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry....8 T&T economy..................................2 Employment (1....................4 Availability of qualified labor................................................9 5.................33............................................4........................8................................................................................. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....................................................2 T&T human.............. 2009 ............................................................................................................2.................. cultural...................6 ............................................................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)...............................2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).000 jobs)..................8 6..........................239....33 Tourism infrastructure ...............2.1.........5 Education and training ...............................................21 ICT infrastructure .................. and natural resources .081.............0 5......0 25..............................................11 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ......................7 ............................9 2009 Index............5.........................................000 5....000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ............ 2009 ........707...................................................................................................000 square kilometers) ...5 Environmental Performance Index.............35 Safety and security ...........................................5 ....................................10.....5 T&T regulatory framework ............... US$) per capita...................3 5.....1 Gross domestic product (PPP.....2.........................336.................. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ........3.................15....................4 4.................................................52 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...............................................13..................... 2009 .1....–2............... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..6 4.......................................................................................... 2009.......4 Air transport infrastructure..........................3 Policy rules and regulations..7 5.............4 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources................1 Ground transport infrastructure.........................................................812......................... 2009.....................000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 15..136.............................................000 154 20.........984........ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ................................. 2009.....................3 5....................................................................................9 5..........46 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..................................9 .52 Natural resources ...................947.....0 Real GDP growth (percent)....0 Employment (1....0 5.........................7 4...............1..................37........7 5..........18 5...................9 T&T business environment and infrastructure .............11 Cultural resources................................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 10.................................40...........................2 Human resources ..........8 4................

.46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...11 Telephone lines*.............................11 Property rights ..............10 Business impact of rules on FDI .95 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.............. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum........................23 Available seat kilometers.....................................................12 Broadband Internet subscribers* ....................................................................................................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 155 .04 9......02 6......................................9 Cost to start a business* ..............................................................................10 Mobile telephone subscribers* .........8 Total known species* ................12 Hiring and firing practices ..................04 10............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*..23 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...................10 Creative industries exports*........75 HIV prevalence*.................03 14......01 7..............................15 Ease of hiring foreign labor......................................................................04 7..........14 Quality of ground transport network ..................................................................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.........01 13..................................04 5...............30 Hotel price index*................. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter............48 Visa requirements*......06 2.........02 10.................03 7...................05 Extent of business Internet use .01 11.................................84 Quality of the natural environment....................................................................................................06 1......9 Secondary education enrollment* ..47 Environmental treaty ratification* .....................01 6........05 Quality of roads ...02 4...06 6...............................9 Airport density* ...............................10 Primary education enrollment*.53 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..........01 4............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.............03 10..........................................7 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...................40 8........................ For further details and explanation....96 Reliability of police services......8 Internet users* ..............6 12..08 1.....26 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...........................50 T&T government expenditure* .................................... international* ...................................02 2......03 9.......................................................05 6...17 Quality of railroad infrastructure ..10 Transparency of government policymaking ...................................................49 Effectiveness of marketing and branding......43 Carbon dioxide emissions* ........04 Business costs of terrorism.........103 12.7 Business costs of crime and violence ............................18 Sustainability of T&T industry development........11 Time required to start a business* .........01 3.....................1: Country/Economy Profiles Canada 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.4 Number of operating airlines* .02 14..02 9...............12 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.4 Protected areas*.......................5 Local availability of research and training services....1 Hospital beds* ..............................46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.................44 Sports stadiums*.......05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...03 11..03 1....04 11............................................03 2.......20 Road density* ..11 Extent of staff training ...............125 Purchasing power parity* .................03 3....68 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...........................03 5.03 13................123 Extent and effect of taxation ....05 11...........................................13 Departures per 1.......................01 14...............................15 Threatened species* ...05 2..........03 4.......................03 Extension of business trips recommended.............49 Road traffic accidents* ........................................................................07 1.......55 11th pillar: Human resources 11...................................................................03 6.........................................52 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...................000 population* ..8 Available seat kilometers....01 Tourism openness* ........................72 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .................3 GATS commitments* .........................................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership....04 Physician density* .........................................22 Quality of the educational system.......128 Particulate matter concentration* ..02 3.............The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1......02 13...............................05 1................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ............................................... domestic* ...........02 11...................................02 1......................39 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*..........................14 12....01 10.......1 Access to improved drinking water* .............................................................09 11.........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .21 8............................48 Fuel price levels*..........................................................96 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.07 Stringency of environmental regulation.....................04 2.....................60 Access to improved sanitation* ...............04 6...............................................24 2..........................................................85 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..................46 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..................................08 11...........01 5.....44 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14......01 9..............9 International air transport network ..............16 Quality of port infrastructure .......................01 2.............................................................01 Hotel rooms* ...............................25 Life expectancy*.02 7................................................06 11....................................04 1............................................01 1........07 11......18 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...........................................................02 5.

...........4 Human resources .....................................................7 4.......................... 2009 ........6 Gross domestic product (PPP..7 3..............................................7 T&T human.....7.......................................8 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......9 Employment (1.......1................1 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..........................................................8 4.....................0........................ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.6 4........................0 T&T economy.................000 jobs)................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).......................................4.................45 4.1: Country/Economy Profiles Cape Verde Key indicators Population (millions)..........................................455..........5 3...............19..............4 400 156 300 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 100 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ......126 3.................................0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions). 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..6.......................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .................291..............................89 2009 Index.................................136 Cultural resources..................98 Education and training ........................................10........................5 Employment (1.............1 6.....................................106 Availability of qualified labor............................ and natural resources ...................................................63 ICT infrastructure .... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles............... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...........3 Policy rules and regulations.................................8 1......................................133 4......................................................7 3..... 2009......10................................0 1.............................76 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .......90 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.............................................................0 .....................................................73 Environmental sustainability...............48 Ground transport infrastructure...............................1 2...........................................................2................................6 Air transport infrastructure.......................10................64 Tourism infrastructure ................................ 2009 .................................................. cultural....n/a T&T regulatory framework ............................................... 2009 ...................................73 3.........423...5.........................................0 Environmental Performance Index.....19........................3........................................................................ US$) per capita...............0 5................ 2009.............................0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)............2 Real GDP growth (percent).............................................114 3....................................................................56 Safety and security ......................000 square kilometers) ..9 ................................................................85 3......21......... 2009..................................................................000 jobs)......................105 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....3..........4 4......................8...............5 Surface area (1...................................5 Natural resources ..................................................................8 n/a 4..........................2 4.......210..............n/a Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...................................9 .......4 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...287........... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ............7 .................85 Health and hygiene ..

..................95 8............................................23 Effectiveness of marketing and branding................................................05 11.....................................04 6...............44 Cost to start a business* ............................02 10.....01 3.......86 Internet users* ...................115 Quality of the natural environment.....02 7......................................75 Protected areas*............01 2...................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Cape Verde 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..................................................63 Business costs of crime and violence ...............90 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..........05 Extent of business Internet use ............................03 6......................................02 3...........................01 11..........................102 Quality of ground transport network ....................10 Primary education enrollment*..................09 11.. domestic* ........79 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.........................................85 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..............................109 13th pillar: Natural resources 13......04 2..65 Local availability of research and training services.......01 Tourism openness* .92 Environmental treaty ratification* .108 Extent and effect of taxation ..........................................2 Number of operating airlines* .................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .......................04 Business costs of terrorism.........................132 Creative industries exports*.........04 7.......................................01 4.......61 12.................................................105 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ....16 Transparency of government policymaking ..............................06 1.......................................01 6...............104 Sports stadiums*...........05 6..........04 5...........................................138 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...............................03 9.....129 Extent of staff training ......02 13......................82 Available seat kilometers.............68 Quality of railroad infrastructure .......84 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...96 Road traffic accidents* .................................................. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter......106 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.......02 11...03 3.................000 population* ........................08 11.................97 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4........................................................98 Access to improved sanitation* .....99 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....02 1..................................................19 8..................................01 1................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership............n/a Quality of port infrastructure ..03 13.....03 14...........n/a Airport density* ..............................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.......50 Time required to start a business* ..............................79 12....................................03 2................................03 5.....n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11...... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....................................27 Particulate matter concentration* ................02 6....03 11................................85 Life expectancy*..92 Total known species* ....................01 Hotel rooms* ....................02 14.............................................07 1..........................................100 Access to improved drinking water* ...........04 Physician density* ....05 Quality of roads ........................02 5..........................01 7........68 2.....05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......................67 Property rights .......05 1..............................139 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*........................117 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............04 10.....35 T&T government expenditure* ........121 Secondary education enrollment* ........................102 Road density* .............................................4 12........04 1............ international* ..65 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.36 Purchasing power parity* .........05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...................02 4...................45 Threatened species* ...........04 9..............97 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......22 HIV prevalence*.....................100 Business impact of rules on FDI .........137 Hotel price index*..................................72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..................88 Quality of the educational system.....106 Departures per 1................................................................................................................03 1...................................................06 6...........................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*....79 Carbon dioxide emissions* .....................07 Stringency of environmental regulation............08 1..............05 2...............110 Sustainability of T&T industry development..01 14.........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..84 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...03 4.............94 Fuel price levels*...................................................n/a RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...............109 Ease of hiring foreign labor................01 13...........91 GATS commitments*...............06 2..............02 9..............................72 Visa requirements*..................03 10...........125 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...........06 11..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..07 11....................................................................................................................73 Telephone lines*...03 7..01 5.....03 Extension of business trips recommended...........120 Hiring and firing practices .............04 11...............01 9..124 International air transport network ..............72 Available seat kilometers...........................................01 10....02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...................................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .n/a Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.....................................101 Hospital beds* ..... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 157 ..............................02 2. For further details and explanation........................72 Reliability of police services..............

..................0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..284..........................................9 Gross domestic product (PPP.....................................132 Tourism infrastructure .... 2009..................................................80..5 1. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%...........................................................................................................2 Employment (1.... 2009....3 1....1................137 Ground transport infrastructure....105 Cultural resources............1 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..4......................................151 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...........10..... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles......2.........................................0......................................0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).................................................000 jobs)..7 Real GDP growth (percent)..................................................6..... US$) per capita................... 2002 ..............................7 4..................5 3...................................89 Safety and security ....... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)......–1.......................137 2....000 square kilometers) .......................4 1....6 T&T economy..1: Country/Economy Profiles Chad Key indicators Population (millions)...2 3... 2007......133 1.........458.....000 jobs)......................................................................................9 Policy rules and regulations..........................................................................................139 Environmental sustainability.................................2 2..129 2...........................................139 2...........25.......................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ..6 .61....136 Education and training ..........................136 Health and hygiene ......... and natural resources .................................................... cultural........0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)............... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..............................1 Air transport infrastructure.................................7 ...........................................................................0..............6 Environmental Performance Index....................................................3............................................609......................4..5 T&T human...........................9 ...............9 4.......................125 Natural resources ... 2009 ............9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...........7 Human resources .......................................0 2.139 2009 Index....8.....1 3...3................138 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.2 Surface area (1.......................................................................................2 60 158 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 50 40 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 30 20 10 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...........139 2............................................136 3.........................138 Availability of qualified labor...............................11..........................................................................................133 ICT infrastructure ..................................25................................5 ............................4 Employment (1.......6...... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .........................139 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..................8 2....5 2....................................5 3............................................................129 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .........1..................................................................................6 2.................................................................................3 1. 2009 ..133 T&T regulatory framework ....................................

05 Quality of roads .72 Transparency of government policymaking ........... domestic* ....................................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..............55 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...................68 Quality of the natural environment...........05 2.....97 Hotel price index*................44 Environmental treaty ratification* ............02 4.....56 Effectiveness of marketing and branding................126 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...............n/a Creative industries exports* ...................48 Sustainability of T&T industry development.............................02 13.....................................04 6............03 14..............2 Particulate matter concentration* .........................124 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ...............08 11........120 Airport density* .......................139 Internet users* ...02 10...........................138 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..01 2............................137 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5........................7 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..........................03 3..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.......................02 3......................03 11......................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.......................06 11....07 1.....07 11.......04 2........131 Access to improved sanitation* ............................................................04 1... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 159 ...............94 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...................01 13.....................................................................01 7................01 14.......03 5...............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.................................................................124 12....................03 10.............04 5.............06 2..103 Available seat kilometers..........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...........123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...03 13......n/a Quality of port infrastructure .........134 Property rights .................97 Local availability of research and training services..03 4.......................06 1................................01 Tourism openness* .............128 Departures per 1...................................133 Life expectancy*..72 11th pillar: Human resources 11...............138 Purchasing power parity* ........121 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ......................................................123 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..02 Presence of major car rental companies* .......01 6.......................................02 2..............64 12............122 Sports stadiums*..........05 11..69 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...............114 Reliability of police services..............02 9...08 1.................................................................................................................................01 Hotel rooms* ...............05 6...05 1......01 11.................................132 Number of international fairs and exhibitions* .......06 6...........119 12..........................134 Number of operating airlines* ...................04 Business costs of terrorism.137 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.............01 3...............1: Country/Economy Profiles Chad 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...........................................................121 T&T government expenditure* ..................03 2..................................01 9..04 9.........n/a 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7......09 11.........................................................................84 HIV prevalence*..................132 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted........129 Fuel price levels*..130 Road density* ..01 4...................................................02 6................................75 Protected areas*...131 Business costs of crime and violence ........132 Visa requirements*...........................................................130 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............................................04 11.......................72 Ease of hiring foreign labor........................................134 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...........................05 Extent of business Internet use ..........................000 population* ......09 Prevalence of foreign ownership............02 7.04 10........131 Extent of staff training ...135 Quality of the educational system..............................................................................130 Cost to start a business* ...........................03 7..............05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ............125 8....03 1..130 Hospital beds* .................128 Threatened species* ........................03 9.....................135 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2............................133 Quality of ground transport network ...........................01 1................138 Time required to start a business* ..................01 10... For further details and explanation...135 Total known species* .......04 Physician density* ..02 14...............114 Road traffic accidents* .......................................133 Access to improved drinking water* .........................134 Telephone lines*.................10 Primary education enrollment*.........................................136 Business impact of rules on FDI ..04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.......................... international* ......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ................134 International air transport network ................136 Secondary education enrollment* ............136 Available seat kilometers......................133 Broadband Internet subscribers* ....123 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ....03 Extension of business trips recommended....................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..............01 5......03 6..............02 1..............135 8.....................25 Extent and effect of taxation ..............04 7...........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...................02 5..........108 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..............134 2.....................................................136 GATS commitments* ....................................02 11.....................................125 Hiring and firing practices ...............................................................

.......................8 3.................2....41 Education and training ....................000 jobs).....16 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry........161............2............27 Health and hygiene ............ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%...........................0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.............000 jobs).......89 Natural resources ..12 Environmental sustainability..3....5 Employment (1....................5 5.....................9 T&T human.... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....................... cultural.....54 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.................................................................................................4 ...................................................7 4..... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .................1....5 Environmental Performance Index.......1...............................................6 ...................................3.....................567................76 Cultural resources...57 T&T regulatory framework .....” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...........................................................101...............6....................................66 5............................................................1 3....................34 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .......756............. US$) per capita...0 Air transport infrastructure.............................................246..........1....2 5.................................48 4...................................................500 2...............3 4....................... 2009 ............9 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)......0 5..................000 square kilometers) .................................................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).......5 4.........14.......3 4................................17.......................0 3............8 Real GDP growth (percent)........52 Ground transport infrastructure.......2 4...........485............................9 Policy rules and regulations......................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) .................................... 2009 ..............................................5 ..........749................5 3.........47 Availability of qualified labor.....................................................57 2009 Index.....................2 4.......................................9 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.............383.....................1: Country/Economy Profiles Chile Key indicators Population (millions)..............................56 4................ 2009 ................................... 2009........................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....68 ICT infrastructure ....................–1..................51 5........................9 Human resources ......................1.......................62 3...................3 Employment (1...............315.......3 T&T economy..............................1 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).......................................41 3....000 160 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 2.......... and natural resources .........................................8 3....................................................000 500 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...................55 Tourism infrastructure ................................... 2009........................... 2009...........500 1..........................5....................6 Gross domestic product (PPP..............................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......2............................73 Safety and security ...........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 1..........1..................6 4.....................................3 ..............................................................................7 4...........................................71 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism......................................................4.....................0 Surface area (1...........

............... international* ......03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..............79 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ........22 Road density* .............01 13....27 HIV prevalence*.................83 Cost to start a business* ....................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .01 14.34 Internet users* .......................88 Carbon dioxide emissions* .03 7.....5 Business costs of crime and violence ....01 Tourism openness* ................000 population* ...........................................................61 8......... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....24 Quality of ground transport network ..............06 1.......................................38 11th pillar: Human resources 11...............03 14........................92 Extent and effect of taxation ..08 1...............................50 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*......57 GATS commitments* ..........42 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..................9 Property rights .........08 11...31 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5............06 11...02 10.........05 Extent of business Internet use ..................37 Business impact of rules on FDI .49 Quality of the natural environment.............................................................................50 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.................02 1.................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.......19 12...........................................01 Hotel rooms* ...................77 Quality of port infrastructure ..28 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ..........................................................79 International air transport network .....03 10....................................................88 Access to improved sanitation* ..............................................................02 7........118 12..............................................................................75 Protected areas*............................................64 8......44 Sports stadiums*.......78 Road traffic accidents* .......................33 Hiring and firing practices ........................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.......................................04 10...............................................03 9...01 2...............02 3...............49 Departures per 1............................................01 11...............100 Local availability of research and training services.04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*....................02 14...46 Access to improved drinking water* ..................03 13...................75 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.....................07 1................................................................................02 2........38 Sustainability of T&T industry development..30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....123 Environmental treaty ratification* ...................34 13th pillar: Natural resources 13....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership............................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 161 ..............57 Secondary education enrollment* ..............................................................................................................................04 2.............03 2........................................12 Transparency of government policymaking ................................62 Hospital beds* .............................04 Physician density* ............................................10 Primary education enrollment*................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ........80 Total known species* .02 4......................44 Airport density* ............49 Mobile telephone subscribers* .......05 Quality of roads ............................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ................................04 11....01 9...............................73 Particulate matter concentration* ......06 6......17 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ......85 12.................................26 Available seat kilometers................................32 Life expectancy*....................04 9........04 Business costs of terrorism......................................05 6......................113 T&T government expenditure* .......01 6..........................................................................................66 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..03 1.......01 3.................................02 6...............31 Extent of staff training ..........................60 Quality of the educational system........................04 7..........111 Ease of hiring foreign labor.............1: Country/Economy Profiles Chile 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9........................09 11.02 9...............................04 6................54 Telephone lines*........02 13........05 1........12 Quality of railroad infrastructure .................................................................................................................................04 1.......................03 Extension of business trips recommended.............................07 11.........64 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7..............02 11.............05 2.....36 Creative industries exports*.... For further details and explanation...............56 Hotel price index*.......03 11............21 Reliability of police services........82 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...............94 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*...........03 4....01 1..01 4.06 2........................................................56 Purchasing power parity* ........................05 11........57 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.............................. domestic* .......05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...............................03 3..10 Time required to start a business* .26 Available seat kilometers...........04 5.......................................01 10...12 Visa requirements*.................48 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.........19 Fuel price levels*....................................................................03 6.............................59 2............01 7.......47 Number of operating airlines* ...................92 Threatened species* ...................01 5..........110 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...........02 5..........63 Broadband Internet subscribers* .............................03 5..

...............000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .......................5 Policy rules and regulations..............................................................000 jobs)....50..............................4 4.............................1 . 2009 ... and natural resources .......................96 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...............1 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...........................................................24 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .......................................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .................................35 4......1................................................50 Availability of qualified labor....... 2009 ............499..............................9 5.....1 Environmental Performance Index...............................39.17...........4.........................................................................124 Natural resources ......39 2009 Index.......................64 3..................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)........................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .................................................................................................1 Real GDP growth (percent).........984.....................................5 4.......................................95 Safety and security ...............................................................7 T&T economy................................................3 4................................................................................2 ............2...............................7...........000 square kilometers) .........9 5...............................................................675........80 Environmental sustainability..........................778................12 5.......................................598......................................7 ...................................331.......0 2....4 Employment (1.............................................................................. 2009...... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ............0 60.................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.....95 ICT infrastructure ......59 Tourism infrastructure ..............1: Country/Economy Profiles China Key indicators Population (millions).....875.............................................................3 4...400.................... US$) per capita.............................................0 Employment (1.............58 Health and hygiene ..000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 20.........................73 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry...4..113.........35 Ground transport infrastructure..................................................9..1 T&T business environment and infrastructure ................................2..... 2009....................... cultural....................................10.....................................5 Surface area (1...............5 Cultural resources......8 Air transport infrastructure.......1 5.......1 5..................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...............39 Education and training .............. 2009............9.....1 3...................2 5...0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..............4..9.....6..............941...................000 162 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 40.....7 Gross domestic product (PPP.............2.....................................47 T&T regulatory framework ...................123.............................102....60......2 4.........6 3.000 jobs)..1 Human resources ................71 4...24 4...........................9.....5 5................... 2009 ........16 5...........2 ............. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.121 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.2 4............................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..................................2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...............1 T&T human..................................................................

................................................56 Mobile telephone subscribers* .........................122 12.8 Departures per 1................................................50 Extent of staff training .............02 9...........04 5................1 Sports stadiums*...........01 11.33 Quality of the natural environment....75 T&T government expenditure* ...........56 Life expectancy*.........02 5..08 1................25 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..57 Enforcement of environmental regulation ...53 Internet users* ...............04 11................05 11..................04 7......116 Transparency of government policymaking ....103 Property rights ................................................................53 Local availability of research and training services..................................................................................................................... international* .......................................05 6.01 13................2 Available seat kilometers......................................................67 Quality of ground transport network .....02 7.....................01 9...........74 12..75 Telephone lines*.......................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership........... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter........................27 Quality of port infrastructure ................42 GATS commitments* ..................................07 1.........25 Carbon dioxide emissions* ..000 population* ...............................03 6................................01 14...........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .....................14 HIV prevalence*...................01 10..............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*......01 2.....90 2......132 Number of operating airlines* ....03 4.08 11...................80 8.......02 6................................02 11............................................79 Particulate matter concentration* .......98 Access to improved drinking water* ......05 2...............................105 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.................53 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...8 Creative industries exports*...................38 Time required to start a business* .... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum...........83 Airport density* ...............................06 11.........................................79 Available seat kilometers...................55 Broadband Internet subscribers* .................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation..124 Environmental treaty ratification* ...............................................06 1................................02 14.............................58 Hotel price index*.............................71 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...........03 13..........................02 2.........8 International air transport network ....................................................04 Physician density* .....................................................................04 2.........................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.................51 Business costs of crime and violence ..02 4............................................30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.....05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..............................................125 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*............................03 Extension of business trips recommended.. For further details and explanation..............................03 14....................03 1..............62 Ease of hiring foreign labor......................09 11.......................01 1...................................03 11..131 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .........01 7.................................04 Business costs of terrorism..................103 8.........................................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..........03 3...79 Reliability of police services...................................04 10.............................103 Total known species* ....02 Presence of major car rental companies* .....8 Secondary education enrollment* .....................62 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..................02 1......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .03 10.............112 Threatened species* ................................................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..........................94 Quality of the educational system.................01 5.................................................................02 3........73 Access to improved sanitation* ......03 9..............01 3.............111 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..05 Extent of business Internet use .... domestic* ...1 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7................55 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....111 Cost to start a business* ............... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 163 .........60 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10......6 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.............................................................24 Purchasing power parity* ...............................06 6........10 Primary education enrollment*.......38 Business impact of rules on FDI ........................53 Sustainability of T&T industry development................06 2........................43 Road density* ......................................04 9......37 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.........................................47 Road traffic accidents* ...01 Hotel rooms* ................................66 Extent and effect of taxation ..................................03 2.....02 10....29 Fuel price levels*........57 Hiring and firing practices .......53 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...........................................28 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .....................................18 Visa requirements*.86 Hospital beds* .....................................................03 7.....................01 6....................................04 1...................................................01 4...........1: Country/Economy Profiles China 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.......02 13....................110 12..........05 1.....03 5.................27 11th pillar: Human resources 11......3 Protected areas*...............07 11.......................................01 Tourism openness* ...1 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.................................................................04 6..................05 Quality of roads ..................

.......65 Education and training ..............126 Health and hygiene .70 Ground transport infrastructure.....................................................4...................................................147..........................9 4.................................12 Cultural resources..................102 3..........................500 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 1.................0................4 3...2.................39 4...........0 T&T economy...........9 4...9 3......4 4.... 2009........................ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .............................72 T&T regulatory framework ...................................................232... 2009........141.............7 Surface area (1..........................10 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.........93 Natural resources ..1..........................................43 4..................................473.............8 Environmental Performance Index............................................................................3.........83 ICT infrastructure ...89 4.... US$) per capita......................................7 ....................8 Employment (1........88 3........................ 2009 .............7 5....9...............................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ........000 jobs).................... 2009.................0 2...........................3 Employment (1.......3 4.........................................................7 3...............................999..................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.......... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...............................1....... cultural............3 2............................... and natural resources .........12..............................................5 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.....................................................000 500 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ......... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%........1 3... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)............................8 .........................2....................77 Safety and security ...... 2009 ...................987..............7 3.......3 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..................................4.................................000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1....2.......344...........................................120 Tourism infrastructure ..........................000 jobs).....55 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..........................................68 Availability of qualified labor......500 164 2................................................................0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...................................................................................................4 Gross domestic product (PPP...............................145............................4 T&T human........9 4...1.....................45.......64 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry........... 2009 ........................................5 Real GDP growth (percent)...3 .........77 2009 Index.046.........................................................3 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources....3 Air transport infrastructure.........................................................8 3.............1...........................000 square kilometers) ...............2..............4 Human resources .......................92 3...95 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism......60 Environmental sustainability.......................................8 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)................................................................................5 4.................4..................8 .......................2 Policy rules and regulations........................1: Country/Economy Profiles Colombia Key indicators Population (millions)....................5....................................................1 4..............................

.................................108 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................70 Ease of hiring foreign labor.....02 4..........94 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3..01 13.......................84 T&T government expenditure* .....77 Hospital beds* ..92 Property rights .............07 Stringency of environmental regulation........................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...........45 Telephone lines*............................................................60 Time required to start a business* ........................06 6................06 11....................000 population* ..................................75 Access to improved sanitation* ..01 9...........................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ................125 12...74 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2....64 Business costs of crime and violence ....01 14.......................72 12.............87 Access to improved drinking water* ............................................................................................................03 Extension of business trips recommended....88 Visa requirements*........... domestic* ........99 Secondary education enrollment* ............101 Life expectancy*...................139 Reliability of police services..........58 Internet users* .02 5..................................................................................109 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10........................................91 Business impact of rules on FDI ...........................46 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5..................................................57 Cost to start a business* ....................................88 HIV prevalence*.......85 Sustainability of T&T industry development.03 4..................02 11..........................................................03 2.........................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ........17 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ....................88 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ......................68 Mobile telephone subscribers* ......128 Fuel price levels*.........55 Airport density* ..............1: Country/Economy Profiles Colombia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9....01 5................04 10. For further details and explanation..................105 Quality of ground transport network ..................107 Effectiveness of marketing and branding......................04 6..............................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*............................................62 Hotel price index*......03 9..........80 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...71 Extent and effect of taxation ....................03 1.................44 11th pillar: Human resources 11..................38 Number of operating airlines* ............................................................................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 165 ..............................................38 Creative industries exports*............................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.....................................113 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ............. international* ..05 6.05 Quality of roads ..............122 Purchasing power parity* ........01 4.......35 Threatened species* .04 Physician density* .............................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..................01 10.....02 6.......126 Environmental treaty ratification* ...... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....65 International air transport network ..............30 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.............01 Hotel rooms* ........................02 13...47 Quality of the educational system.........03 14...........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....................................80 Local availability of research and training services......02 7............................................07 11.........................03 3.....89 Available seat kilometers...................02 1..........03 7........................79 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..102 Quality of port infrastructure .......................71 8............................56 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..03 11....................99 Hiring and firing practices ...................................................01 3..04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..................79 2...............81 GATS commitments* .............. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter......46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...................28 Available seat kilometers...........03 5.....67 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...................44 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.........................03 13................24 Sports stadiums*...............................02 14.................06 1..............................................04 9........04 2.56 12............................95 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....................................02 10.....................04 5.......50 Departures per 1......................08 1........................80 8................................................01 1.......02 3.........................05 Extent of business Internet use .....10 Primary education enrollment*................................08 11.........02 9.................................................................04 11.......................09 11.54 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.......07 1......04 Business costs of terrorism............................2 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...........05 1........................................01 Tourism openness* ...01 11.....................................42 Transparency of government policymaking ...................02 2.......91 Road density* ......05 11................04 1..03 6.........01 6................................05 2..................................89 Total known species* ...24 Quality of the natural environment....78 Broadband Internet subscribers* ................................................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..134 Road traffic accidents* ...............65 Extent of staff training ..................03 10....................04 7.......................................................................46 Particulate matter concentration* ............01 2.........73 Enforcement of environmental regulation .....................................................................................................06 2.............................24 Protected areas*...........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ..01 7.................

..........9 4....... 2009.............000 500 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...................1 Environmental Performance Index..... 2009 ...................4 4...............................................................................3 Real GDP growth (percent)................272...................................................... US$) per capita.........................................2........................................0 3............9 3...........6 T&T human.........................................................39 ICT infrastructure .........................25 Safety and security ..............................5 Employment (1....................................000 jobs).......................1...............................93 Tourism infrastructure ........................................................................26 Natural resources .............................................564...9 Air transport infrastructure..5 5.....5 5.......4........9 ............................... 2009 ............................................................62 3.............. 2009 ...............33 4............0 ..............500 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 1......................................5 Employment (1....... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).......... 2009..................7 ........6 Cultural resources............................51..66 Environmental sustainability..................................................................................................6 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).........................5.....19 4...............................................................................................7 ....................................44 Ground transport infrastructure....... 2009.....13...............9 Policy rules and regulations.....................................................47 4...............2 5..........0 2............5...815........42 T&T regulatory framework .......2 4...3 Gross domestic product (PPP........................4 5...................9 T&T economy......6 Surface area (1.20 Availability of qualified labor.....8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..............1: Country/Economy Profiles Costa Rica Key indicators Population (millions)........................1 4............................29.........................154.............. cultural.....90 5...........................10........................74 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.................. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .............. and natural resources ............................................................4 4.....1...................................000 square kilometers) ........4 5................–1..........................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ................3 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...........14......................................................................7 5..................72 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..............................................................................21 Education and training ...........................................................58 3..............922.................63 Health and hygiene ..............25 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ....................1............. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...........1 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)................................4........” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ..................2.....1 5................697. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%...............................000 jobs).............4 Human resources ...............2.................................. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..............000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1.................................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.117.............................................44 2009 Index...........4...........................4.1 1.............500 166 2................8 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources........

.....................46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.....24 Effectiveness of marketing and branding........................... international* ..................80 11th pillar: Human resources 11...........53 Particulate matter concentration* ............................03 6....................................... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum......................03 7.................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 167 ...........04 9...........19 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ....04 11.....................02 5..........................................01 1........17 Protected areas*......08 11.77 Access to improved sanitation* .........69 Telephone lines*...........03 2........................................39 Airport density* ........................................72 Extent and effect of taxation ...............07 11........................000 population* .....66 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4............01 7.............1 8............................................20 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...................14 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*......58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .....49 Business costs of crime and violence .............80 Available seat kilometers..02 11.................................................50 Road density* ...........04 10....................03 Extension of business trips recommended..22 Local availability of research and training services......................................01 10...........9 Transparency of government policymaking .................111 Quality of railroad infrastructure ..........................06 2........................60 Purchasing power parity* ...100 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..........05 1.........03 13............03 11..................04 1.............................................72 Mobile telephone subscribers* .09 11..................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ............................56 Time required to start a business* ..............................06 1.......115 Road traffic accidents* ...................... For further details and explanation.....71 Threatened species* ................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.....1 Secondary education enrollment* ................................01 13...................................................05 6.20 Property rights ..............................................................................100 Environmental treaty ratification* ...02 9...........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*......100 Quality of port infrastructure ...............57 Hospital beds* .................72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .......................................01 14............73 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7....................................................62 Creative industries exports*.............36 Visa requirements*.............................12 Number of operating airlines* ................................................37 12...........06 11..............08 1.................................................................................03 9....75 Available seat kilometers............................................67 Business impact of rules on FDI .....03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*..02 7.02 3........................................68 GATS commitments* ................................40 Reliability of police services.......07 1........36 Enforcement of environmental regulation .........................02 14....02 4.............................50 Access to improved drinking water* ........................................88 Hotel price index*.......................44 12.....02 10.....04 Business costs of terrorism........................104 Sports stadiums*.......05 11.....35 8...................55 12.............................01 11.................................................6 13th pillar: Natural resources 13....................................................61 2.....06 6...............01 4.........03 10....02 6....................68 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..........01 5.......05 Quality of roads .............................04 6..........28 Quality of the natural environment.....................................03 3...10 Primary education enrollment*.................................................48 Internet users* .........03 5......................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..............................................49 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...17 Carbon dioxide emissions* .......................1: Country/Economy Profiles Costa Rica 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.......................................04 Physician density* .........01 Hotel rooms* ...............................02 2.....125 Cost to start a business* .........04 7.....05 Extent of business Internet use ......01 9..66 HIV prevalence*...............32 Extent of staff training .......25 Total known species* ...........04 2.............01 Tourism openness* ..................................................................01 2.......07 Stringency of environmental regulation.........................76 International air transport network ......73 Departures per 1..43 Ease of hiring foreign labor........................41 Quality of the educational system................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..04 5...........03 4...................................43 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..........................22 Hiring and firing practices ............................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership....41 Fuel price levels*...........31 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5..................120 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2........45 Life expectancy*......36 Sustainability of T&T industry development......01 3........................................02 13...............36 Broadband Internet subscribers* ......02 1..........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.........................................................01 6.. domestic* ..................................................................03 1........................................................05 2................................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..................13 T&T government expenditure* ....03 14....132 Quality of ground transport network .......................109 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8............................................................

.....2 3...2 ...............80 Tourism infrastructure ............9 Real GDP growth (percent).....................115 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...................................1.............122 Environmental sustainability....6 ................................................................................6 T&T human.......................................6 Employment (1.....2....3...........322......32 Cultural resources........................................115 3........................106 ICT infrastructure ..113.....................2 2........................0 400 168 300 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 100 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index . 2009 .................................180.............0 3...........................................................5 Employment (1............3 2.......................143........................................................................0 3...... 2009.................................................................................21.................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ..0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).......................0... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....3....................127 Education and training ......................................... 2009........................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...........6 4.......8 Environmental Performance Index.........” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...........................124 2.......................7 2.................3 3.............................6 4..............................................000 square kilometers) .............2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).........9 4.......................4 Human resources ..............139 3.....................................................2 1.48....................3............................22........................................................................2............. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .............................................1.................................117 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.............. and natural resources .............130 T&T regulatory framework ......................................................................... 2009 ............................................3...... 2009 ....................................126 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism..........................................1...........................................................122 Health and hygiene .................. US$) per capita.................022........130 3.......1: Country/Economy Profiles Côte d’Ivoire Key indicators Population (millions).....................................................131 2.......5 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.....................................................................000 jobs).......................................0 2................................114 Natural resources ...135 Availability of qualified labor..........................000 jobs)..2 Policy rules and regulations....5 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)................................8 2...................102 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.............................................671..........................131 2009 Index........1....................................3 4.. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ............................................................................................0 ............7 Air transport infrastructure.......................... 2003.............. cultural...1 3............1.104 Safety and security ..................5 Gross domestic product (PPP....114 Ground transport infrastructure.......1 Surface area (1..........7 T&T economy................................................341........................0 .......................................135 3.....

........................137 Business costs of crime and violence .......103 Fuel price levels*....................02 1..................................08 1..........................................9 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.............01 10.......01 11............................................46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3................138 Sustainability of T&T industry development...........02 13........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...................................n/a 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...03 9................128 Road traffic accidents* .....04 6.........76 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted................................................52 HIV prevalence*........21 Quality of the natural environment......................................102 Hotel price index*...100 Transparency of government policymaking ................... domestic* .........................................03 1..19 Particulate matter concentration* ..........................................05 11.............32 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..........................................................26 Property rights ......................................54 Reliability of police services.139 Total known species* ..................................01 13............04 2...........................................120 2.............132 Quality of the educational system..............103 Available seat kilometers..............................................................01 9..........................05 6......................02 5...........93 Quality of railroad infrastructure ....126 Access to improved drinking water* .102 Departures per 1....................05 1...........................08 11......114 Creative industries exports*....05 Quality of roads ................01 1......................................................................................01 4............127 T&T government expenditure* ....03 2..............................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Côte d’Ivoire 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...............74 Threatened species* .............................................................03 5...........124 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ............05 Extent of business Internet use .120 Telephone lines*....42 Quality of ground transport network ........09 11.................................................02 7..05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..............................138 Enforcement of environmental regulation ............03 11.....................................03 4........... For further details and explanation........................................04 5............................................117 12..........................................123 Life expectancy*.....05 2..........................................130 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...138 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...n/a 11th pillar: Human resources 11..................75 Available seat kilometers.............17 Protected areas*............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*................04 Business costs of terrorism... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 169 .......27 Ease of hiring foreign labor.................86 12.....................04 9..........01 7......................................02 2......................122 Broadband Internet subscribers* ................................122 Mobile telephone subscribers* ....................117 Access to improved sanitation* .......02 4....125 8...........................03 Extension of business trips recommended................................123 Airport density* .......................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1....03 3.................................01 5.106 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ...........................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ....................................................115 Cost to start a business* .......77 Environmental treaty ratification* ....105 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2......................06 11....................03 13....02 9..........01 3................................131 GATS commitments* ...............106 Local availability of research and training services................44 Hiring and firing practices ...........................01 Hotel rooms* ....................................................... international* ...............117 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..........07 11......06 2.03 7...02 6............02 10...........01 6....84 12.80 Quality of port infrastructure ....................110 Time required to start a business* .........06 1..............92 International air transport network .................115 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*................04 1...........................................137 Carbon dioxide emissions* ......................122 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5......04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..............04 Physician density* ..........................................................02 11.03 6....03 10...............................................138 Number of operating airlines* ..............10 Primary education enrollment*...................................................07 1.......134 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.......107 Hospital beds* ..................02 14.......80 8.....09 Prevalence of foreign ownership....................01 14.................63 Extent of staff training ...........06 6........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .................02 3..............................67 Visa requirements*..............07 Stringency of environmental regulation..........104 Sports stadiums*.....................................000 population* ................................04 10............99 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7........................01 2...........02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .......04 7...... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum...................136 Purchasing power parity* ........126 Internet users* .98 Road density* .........................................114 Business impact of rules on FDI ...............03 14........86 Extent and effect of taxation ..............91 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...........137 Secondary education enrollment* ..04 11................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.........................123 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.......................................................01 Tourism openness* ...

....–5...............72 4................ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...... 2009........................................................13..........32 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .....000 square kilometers) .................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 .........................4 ICT infrastructure .........2.........2 T&T human........311......9.......8 .......................35 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.............................1 7..................8 .........6 4...........................1.................9 5............................................................2 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.5 T&T business environment and infrastructure .......1 4...............8 Environmental Performance Index..............6 4.....................................................0 3..............................................17...................................................6 Air transport infrastructure.............................................................. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ... 2009......................................5..........34 2009 Index...........................................0 4.................................................................................................................................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)................56...............................................2...........................................000 170 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 8...11.. cultural............917..................................149..............................6.....................................2 Human resources ..... 2009........000 jobs)................7 4....................................27.............. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles........42 4................3 3.43 4.................9 Real GDP growth (percent).................67.................................................................34 T&T regulatory framework ................ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ..6 Employment (1......66 Ground transport infrastructure...1: Country/Economy Profiles Croatia Key indicators Population (millions)............0 ............................................................706.............................................................. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..33 Health and hygiene .000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 4..................................... 2009 .......................................... US$) per capita...........................8.........3 4.101 3............. and natural resources ..6 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).....14........9 T&T economy..........0 4...........7 Gross domestic product (PPP................................................3 ............4 Surface area (1................................0 Policy rules and regulations.......20 Natural resources .....................83 Education and training ...............334........................................................................................................................... 2009 ...................000 jobs)..............481.......898........46 Safety and security .....77 Environmental sustainability.......54 Tourism infrastructure ........................5 6........................................35 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.........................................................4 12........5 5..................4.........8 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)..........9 Employment (1.............31 4.5........24...............................................................................................................9 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.................75 Cultural resources..................................................5 4...................... 2009 ..............................73 Availability of qualified labor.....................91 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .................9 5.......36 4....

.01 Tourism openness* .................................11 2...134 Fuel price levels*..............01 Hotel rooms* .......................................................25 Number of operating airlines* ............44 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ............02 13................1: Country/Economy Profiles Croatia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9......02 9.......91 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8................48 Quality of port infrastructure ....................................119 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.............................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..71 Time required to start a business* .............63 GATS commitments* .........07 1.............................................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .....04 Business costs of terrorism...........48 Airport density* ..128 Hiring and firing practices .....58 Business costs of crime and violence ........................37 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...................55 Threatened species* .....31 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...04 5...........................................32 11th pillar: Human resources 11...............................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*...............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ....106 Ease of hiring foreign labor...................38 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ................02 4....03 1...............40 Hospital beds* .... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 171 ........................................26 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.......................51 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..........01 2......13 12.01 3..................................................01 9.....................................36 Road density* .......131 Visa requirements*....................................90 Departures per 1....................14 Life expectancy*..............................03 Extension of business trips recommended...............61 Extent of staff training .....04 Physician density* ......02 5..110 Property rights ...........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...................................03 10.......62 Sustainability of T&T industry development............................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...................90 Purchasing power parity* ..............08 11..............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..................................................................................................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.....40 Road traffic accidents* ..........02 6...................................90 Hotel price index*.....19 Total known species* ....128 HIV prevalence*....02 7.09 11........04 10...............04 6............................06 11.......................................................... international* ........01 11.............................................03 11....................................01 6...........01 13.........................................................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .....................................................01 5. domestic* ..........................................................14 Reliability of police services.............02 14......94 Quality of the natural environment......05 11.................................05 2..................52 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.........54 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..........1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ............................................................................03 13.................25 Broadband Internet subscribers* ........................60 Available seat kilometers.....................68 Environmental treaty ratification* .............02 11........06 6...................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...............46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...............................04 7.....05 6........42 Access to improved sanitation* ..........................03 5......................04 2................47 Transparency of government policymaking ............02 1.05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .................79 Quality of ground transport network .....................16 Sports stadiums*..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .43 Protected areas*................42 12....79 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.............................1 8............01 10.........86 Particulate matter concentration* ..........................100 12........49 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.....85 Secondary education enrollment* ........................................................47 Internet users* .......87 Business impact of rules on FDI ................06 2........96 Extent and effect of taxation ............07 11..........04 1.............................01 4........03 2...........................30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...................49 Quality of the educational system...........................................01 7.....03 9.........................................................................21 Cost to start a business* ...............................................43 Telephone lines*.......05 Quality of roads ...................................................................40 T&T government expenditure* ...................01 1.......................06 1........87 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..10 Primary education enrollment*....03 7..05 Extent of business Internet use ...37 Access to improved drinking water* ................05 1............89 Local availability of research and training services.............41 Creative industries exports*......................119 13th pillar: Natural resources 13............03 3...............................03 6....................................03 4.................................................................................................31 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.................12 8.....................................................82 Carbon dioxide emissions* .....03 14.........................................08 1.60 International air transport network .......02 3........21 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..........72 Available seat kilometers.........04 9.........................02 2...............02 10......... For further details and explanation................000 population* ...........04 11.......................01 14.........38 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.....................................................................................

........47 5............................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) .6 4............................................................................000 square kilometers) ....7 5................................................................51 Safety and security ..................... and natural resources ..........503.....7 Real GDP growth (percent)..... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..........0...............................6 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council................................................................28...............43 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism....................14 5...........................................093...................................................5 5....................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..................................8 5..................5............0 4....8 ................................................2.......................2........500 1...........................21 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ..9....000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 1........................................77...1.... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .....................................................................................................................3 7..1 ICT infrastructure ..24 2009 Index..........3 4...........................2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)........................................................5....1 Air transport infrastructure.......0 Employment (1....................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.. 2009...............000 jobs)...........000 172 2......... cultural..........3 ..1 ...500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 2.........2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources....36......16......................... 2009 ............1: Country/Economy Profiles Cyprus Key indicators Population (millions)..............2 T&T business environment and infrastructure ....24 Education and training .–1......... 2009 ..........................................................................................................................2....................3.......................0 T&T economy.............6 4....................7 Environmental Performance Index........................109 4....000 jobs)......................162.......................6 Gross domestic product (PPP.....................19...................701........................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles............................................................................6 6.................................4 3....................24 Availability of qualified labor...........9 4..6 Employment (1............................................21 T&T regulatory framework ..... 2009.............3 Policy rules and regulations..9...........23 4......... US$) per capita.............26 Health and hygiene .........................20 Tourism infrastructure ...................................................... 2009 ..........4...............2 T&T human.............9 5....3 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)....................................21 Ground transport infrastructure............................117 Cultural resources..............................................31 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..6..............................44 4.................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...................................96 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.............7 ....................2..9 Surface area (1........................................................4 5............................................ 2009.....79 Environmental sustainability.....................................................5 5........................................7 5...............................3 3.....................7 2..............................2 Human resources ..11 Natural resources ............................................................141..........23...........000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ..........

............01 6...................................14 12.......02 5..............................000 population* ....... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 173 .....06 6..94 11th pillar: Human resources 11............51 Internet users* .07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ....03 Extension of business trips recommended...............04 2........................03 1......38 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*............................... domestic* ...........................................................................44 Telephone lines*..................................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.01 9............12 2.....................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...48 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....15 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.......115 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...................03 9.............113 Particulate matter concentration* ..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .77 Purchasing power parity* .......................................08 11........................ For further details and explanation..................................8 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...........12 Fuel price levels*..............................................................................93 Hotel price index*...................02 10.31 Mobile telephone subscribers* .......11 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..................................1 8......01 5......51 12.....36 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..........................18 T&T government expenditure* .................................02 6...........78 Property rights .01 Hotel rooms* ............24 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....................07 Stringency of environmental regulation................................................................................................05 6............03 2.02 7........01 11.........................................................03 3..........10 Primary education enrollment*.......125 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14......04 6..............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .....................................07 11..06 1...............01 7..............................................57 Carbon dioxide emissions* ............84 Threatened species* ..23 Quality of railroad infrastructure ............04 5..............01 2................................73 GATS commitments* .........1 Access to improved drinking water* ..................1 Hospital beds* ......................40 Business costs of crime and violence ....................03 10..............................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....................1: Country/Economy Profiles Cyprus 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...............48 Access to improved sanitation* ...............................................59 Creative industries exports*............................39 Quality of ground transport network .....58 Departures per 1...........31 Time required to start a business* ..............................03 4..................02 4............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership...02 14......04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*..........................08 1...........01 Tourism openness* ...............75 Protected areas*...........05 2.....1 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...........91 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...........02 1.........06 2..................02 13...27 Business impact of rules on FDI ........1 8.........01 4.42 Environmental treaty ratification* ...............................................62 Sports stadiums*.......................03 5.........03 7...............01 10.......03 11..................03 14...............60 Ease of hiring foreign labor...................................122 Extent and effect of taxation ..........37 International air transport network ..01 3.....................................................................................................................04 9.............................................03 6.35 Hiring and firing practices .....43 Extent of staff training ...42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .07 1...................................04 10......................04 11....56 Total known species* ...................87 Available seat kilometers...............................n/a Quality of port infrastructure .... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..............04 7.................................................04 Physician density* .05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ....9 Number of operating airlines* ......................................101 Quality of the natural environment.................................................................................53 Reliability of police services.33 Visa requirements*...13 Local availability of research and training services...............02 9...............................................28 Cost to start a business* ....09 11......33 Quality of the educational system.....03 13.............................. international* ......................................02 11......122 Transparency of government policymaking ...........02 3..................................................30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3........................................................................01 1..........................................04 1.25 Road traffic accidents* .........01 14.........................................................05 Quality of roads ................................43 Available seat kilometers..........................17 Secondary education enrollment* ................26 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.........04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...80 Road density* .........................67 HIV prevalence*........................29 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...............02 2.......05 11........18 Airport density* ......................43 Sustainability of T&T industry development..........21 Life expectancy*...............43 12..................................................05 Extent of business Internet use ............................................................................................06 11...15 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..01 13.........................49 Enforcement of environmental regulation .....04 Business costs of terrorism..........48 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.......02 Presence of major car rental companies* .................................................................................................05 1........................1 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..

............78.....5 Human resources ....000 jobs)......................4 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...28 Safety and security ..................... 2009 .....3.........1.50 Ground transport infrastructure......................................................................10........................................36 Education and training ...1 Environmental Performance Index...................5..........................40 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry........ US$) per capita...................... cultural............31 2009 Index.........................................................................................................................................................................8 5................6............6 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism...............................000 jobs)......................22 Tourism infrastructure .473...........3 Gross domestic product (PPP...............4 ....105 Natural resources .....3....35 Availability of qualified labor................................270...31 4......................1................................4 6..8 4.5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...............................................–4................ please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..................................................................8 ....... 2009 .......... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).........6 Air transport infrastructure.3 4.........................................3 Policy rules and regulations............................................................................9 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ....21........................................................................................................6........................................................................................................8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.......682...3 4........................................ forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..............2 5...............................................–0..478...........................8 4...........2...........26 4................................................................3 2...................427.......................................24............6 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.. 2009........................7 T&T economy...................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 4..........5 Surface area (1.........5 T&T human.. 2009.........................6 5.. and natural resources .......27 ICT infrastructure .....3 5.....1 5....................................26 T&T regulatory framework .............0....................000 square kilometers) ...9 ........... 2009............................. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ...........41 Health and hygiene ............................1 5......92.....7 Employment (1...77 3........4 8..........................................................1 4..000 174 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 6...........................................74 4..................................000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...............10........................................................62 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...................7 Real GDP growth (percent).........37 4..........6 5.............................000 2.................190.....4 Employment (1...............................................032.........15 5........................1: Country/Economy Profiles Czech Republic Key indicators Population (millions)................. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...................... 2009 ...........................8 ...........................................................................22 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.52 Environmental sustainability.............87 Cultural resources...........................................9 5...............9....................................................

........01 5........27 8..............04 11.................03 Extension of business trips recommended...........06 6..27 Sustainability of T&T industry development........................................................................ international* ....02 4..........80 Quality of railroad infrastructure .............................................................................................................01 2...........24 Reliability of police services............07 Stringency of environmental regulation..59 Departures per 1...........80 Cost to start a business* ...........02 2.............................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.....24 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ...................51 2.....................105 Hotel price index*.....................................................................10 Primary education enrollment*.....................................................07 1............01 3.........................................04 5.............................46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3........................08 11.................................03 2..........................01 13.....104 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14......... domestic* .............07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .......05 Quality of roads .29 Telephone lines*.....................40 Hiring and firing practices ........01 10.........................................06 11...........................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..................................05 Extent of business Internet use ...............02 11.22 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.....................42 Property rights ............................................08 1........................03 6...........03 14.............69 T&T government expenditure* ..1: Country/Economy Profiles Czech Republic 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..........................58 12......34 Local availability of research and training services..........06 2...................46 Quality of the educational system.........................04 10........................................................01 6..........................37 Quality of the natural environment........04 7..................75 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .......................................................................02 14......................33 Transparency of government policymaking ....................................................................20 Access to improved sanitation* ..................6 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.....01 11...............................01 1...76 Available seat kilometers........................100 Secondary education enrollment* ...................................................39 Access to improved drinking water* ......................................122 Particulate matter concentration* .......04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.........................04 9................34 International air transport network ...13 Environmental treaty ratification* ......................................................23 Internet users* ................................................03 13.........................................88 Number of operating airlines* ......130 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...........................................62 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.....................72 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6......97 Extent and effect of taxation ......93 12....................................................01 14.73 Total known species* ...05 2...............................04 Business costs of terrorism......................................03 1..........................................32 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...65 Business impact of rules on FDI ...........74 Purchasing power parity* .................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......................1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....................25 12..02 Presence of major car rental companies* ......02 3.49 Fuel price levels*...................30 Threatened species* ..85 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*....52 Life expectancy*..........54 Quality of ground transport network ...16 Sports stadiums*..............01 Tourism openness* ................................................ For further details and explanation.05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ................................05 11...............03 7.... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 175 ...... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum................49 HIV prevalence*......119 Ease of hiring foreign labor...........02 5....86 Business costs of crime and violence .......................................40 Mobile telephone subscribers* .............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .....................................04 6......35 Road traffic accidents* ....The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.................................01 Hotel rooms* ..01 7....................................................................................07 11....65 GATS commitments* .................................04 1....31 11th pillar: Human resources 11.....19 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2.........................................10 Road density* ........84 Carbon dioxide emissions* ....02 9.....17 Extent of staff training ..............02 7..................1 Hospital beds* .09 11..04 Physician density* ........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....................................65 Broadband Internet subscribers* ......03 5................................42 Airport density* ...02 13...02 10.....01 4...................................................................................................................84 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8............03 4......05 6..02 6....20 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted........................................................000 population* ..............75 Protected areas*........02 1........03 9.......................................06 1...................102 Time required to start a business* ..................38 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*....29 Creative industries exports*....22 Quality of port infrastructure ............................05 1..... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.........................................................................................04 2.....................................17 Available seat kilometers...03 3...............03 11....01 9.22 Visa requirements*....1 8...........37 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.03 10........................

.. US$) per capita....................960....000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 4....0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council....................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ....................1 5..5 Policy rules and regulations......................14 T&T regulatory framework .............15 5................ 2009 ......................9 .......0 5.......9 6.........1....................................................................5 Employment (1..................4 Education and training .............310.....821......................................2.......000 jobs)........81 5. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)........................................16 5..........................................................................38 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....................7 Tourism infrastructure .......0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).............................................1 Air transport infrastructure.............5 Surface area (1.........................26 4............................9.........................................................................10 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry......................1 5........................9 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources...........................................9 4......................................................16 2009 Index.................................35..........................................111 Natural resources .........9 Real GDP growth (percent)...3.............1..........................................................1 T&T human...2.......................................–4.....827..........................................................................................................................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Denmark Key indicators Population (millions)......7 T&T economy.............................................3 Safety and security ........32 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..1 Gross domestic product (PPP..............................7 5.........................................................................0 4.......7 ...................... and natural resources ...24 ICT infrastructure .........4.8............9 6....4....8 8.............1 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).503.............17 Ground transport infrastructure........................................ 2009 .............5............. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ....2 5.....7 Environmental Performance Index....................................7........................................................................4 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......7 3.2 5.. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.... 2009.............................................3..................................000 176 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 6...................................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles........................................5 Human resources ............000 square kilometers) .8 Health and hygiene .....................................6 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .................................84....000 2...........................................77 Cultural resources..9 4.................000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .................... 2008.........................................................227..................672...................5.......................0 Employment (1.........22 5........000 jobs).........................17 Environmental sustainability.........................0 5......43.........25........................................................ 2009..2 ............9 Availability of qualified labor............139 4...3 3.” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ......................................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ............. 2009 .....................................................0 ......9 6.............. cultural....................

........07 Stringency of environmental regulation........02 3.......65 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..................................................01 2. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter....02 5...................04 5...04 9.........44 Available seat kilometers....01 1...02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ........1 GATS commitments* ......02 11.........03 13..........02 7...................................15 Road traffic accidents* ..............................50 HIV prevalence*......01 7...................85 T&T government expenditure* .................01 13..........19 Transparency of government policymaking .............02 14.1 8....28 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5................................17 Internet users* ....57 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*....................8 Extent of staff training .......31 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2....03 1.......................................................................................................................88 11th pillar: Human resources 11.....04 Physician density* ..........1 Hospital beds* ............. For further details and explanation....02 10.........44 Property rights ...26 Life expectancy*...........07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ......04 6..........5 Sustainability of T&T industry development......................02 1..................................02 2..........................05 11................................03 3.........................01 10...........................97 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..............1: Country/Economy Profiles Denmark 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..... domestic* ..58 Secondary education enrollment* ..14 Road density* .....................................................110 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..........04 10......................................................29 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..................06 6...........11 Total known species* .............................................................50 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...............................02 6....56 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .....13 Airport density* ......08 1.............04 11................................................................................................................04 1.....................05 Extent of business Internet use ..10 Local availability of research and training services..07 11............05 1........................................04 2.....05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...................................................9 Time required to start a business* .........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...............44 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ..........02 9........1 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...............................000 population* ....01 3...........................27 Number of operating airlines* ..................06 11....................1 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...............................23 International air transport network ...................109 Particulate matter concentration* .....................................105 Quality of the natural environment...........................................22 Creative industries exports*...............10 Business costs of crime and violence .....38 Departures per 1............................................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 177 .78 Visa requirements*.02 13....43 Protected areas*....................01 Hotel rooms* ..........03 6...73 12...............................06 2..................................01 14...........................................................................08 11...........................9 Quality of railroad infrastructure .........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...20 Carbon dioxide emissions* ............7 Hiring and firing practices ..........03 7............121 Hotel price index*.........25 2............................24 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7......6 Available seat kilometers.........................................................................................................................................23 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.................09 11.......03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........................10 Quality of ground transport network ...................................................03 9...............13 Cost to start a business* ............................. international* ...............04 Business costs of terrorism...............42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............................03 2......n/a 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4................................................................................................................................04 7.01 Tourism openness* ...130 Fuel price levels*..07 1......98 Purchasing power parity* ......................22 Threatened species* ..............01 5................................02 4.......39 8...........3 Environmental treaty ratification* ....................36 Reliability of police services.................03 4...................................................................90 12.......18 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted......................................................................03 Extension of business trips recommended.....................01 9..1 Access to improved drinking water* ......................................88 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..........73 Sports stadiums*..10 Primary education enrollment*..........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1....................03 10......05 2..............................................05 Quality of roads .......28 Access to improved sanitation* ..............138 Extent and effect of taxation ........................06 1.......................................03 14....................11 Business impact of rules on FDI .................03 5.................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..01 6.02 Presence of major car rental companies* .12 Quality of port infrastructure ...........4 Quality of the educational system....................................03 11..................127 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.............18 12.........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.................................01 4.8 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..6 Telephone lines*.....05 6..................................3 Ease of hiring foreign labor............................................................ An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.........................01 11.........................

........................... 2009..........................2 3...............................................540......000 1.....2 3...................................8 Employment (1......” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ........................1 5........................................4......................89 3....................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..................................................................8 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources............7.................................63 4.........92 Education and training ............................................3...0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council........................2..................................5 Environmental Performance Index......................1 T&T economy........................................6 Human resources .......................49 Ground transport infrastructure................. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..10.. and natural resources ........8 Employment (1........ 2009 .............83 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry......79 Cultural resources... 2009... 2009 ................000 178 4.............4........................0 1.... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles................................................6 3..064..............................................................................000 jobs)..............................72 3..................5......15..1 5.........................................................................................................8 4..............................................................................................000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .................................................................4......28 Natural resources ........................... 2009.................................8 4. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .................36 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry....................................101 Availability of qualified labor........................................69 3...............1: Country/Economy Profiles Dominican Republic Key indicators Population (millions).........................3 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...................61 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ....................................................992..........0 4...........1 Surface area (1.9 4............48................................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2.268...............................................32 Environmental sustainability... 2009 ..............9 5.....2 ..........................6 4.................4...7 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).................................... US$) per capita......................371............................6 ......................................................2..............4..........................86 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism............................7 Policy rules and regulations........179.....................000 square kilometers) ..................................................9 .....67 T&T regulatory framework ............................6 Real GDP growth (percent)..........4..........5 T&T human................7 4..92 4.............46.....93 Safety and security ...3.116 Health and hygiene ................................................................ TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..........000 jobs)..000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 3...61 ICT infrastructure ..............2 T&T business environment and infrastructure ...........8...3 4....................81 Tourism infrastructure ..............................................................................................269.......8 ..................72 2009 Index.......7 Gross domestic product (PPP...............7 Air transport infrastructure.....................................................................................1 6.... cultural..................0 4...13.......1 2. 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%..............................................

........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...........................................133 Environmental treaty ratification* .................4 Transparency of government policymaking .........02 4...............05 1.04 1................03 11.............................01 3......................................03 Extension of business trips recommended....................................08 11...... For further details and explanation...........................................................................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Dominican Republic 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..................01 2........06 2........07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ......................................................1 8.............................................123 Total known species* ......................05 6...........87 Ease of hiring foreign labor........................................................12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6...02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ..................02 11..............03 9...................10 Primary education enrollment*...........................134 Business costs of crime and violence .... international* .02 2...........05 Quality of roads ............01 Hotel rooms* ............78 Extent of staff training .....................110 Secondary education enrollment* ....115 Fuel price levels*........86 Business impact of rules on FDI .....................06 6......61 Time required to start a business* ....................................40 International air transport network ........................78 Quality of railroad infrastructure .47 HIV prevalence*.............................95 GATS commitments* ...........................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...04 10...........9 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .....58 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...........................................01 5......73 Sports stadiums*................59 Visa requirements*.05 2...........................83 Quality of port infrastructure ..........74 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted..............03 14.......64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.............................................................................................................................23 T&T government expenditure* ..........................103 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ............................05 Extent of business Internet use .................57 Particulate matter concentration* .......................26 Threatened species* ............. domestic* ....................03 1.................1 Effectiveness of marketing and branding...............04 6.....................................................77 Access to improved drinking water* ........ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter...........................02 7...94 Hiring and firing practices ...........................23 12...................................01 14.01 9.............. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum................................45 8.......................08 1......................................06 1.........03 6..........................................44 Departures per 1.................................................................01 1...04 Physician density* ........................103 Life expectancy*.............02 10.......38 12.....01 7......................04 2............91 2............01 6........................................................81 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..................03 3..................................61 Access to improved sanitation* ....................29 12................................ The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 179 ......................................50 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7...........01 Tourism openness* .................09 11......................000 population* ..................118 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.80 Telephone lines*........97 Enforcement of environmental regulation .......................62 Hotel price index*.................73 Cost to start a business* ........88 Reliability of police services................................68 Creative industries exports*.......65 Quality of ground transport network ......34 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..........95 Hospital beds* .n/a Airport density* ......................................................02 3...........02 13....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.............................................................................65 Extent and effect of taxation .......................111 Sustainability of T&T industry development..........125 Road traffic accidents* .09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.........71 Mobile telephone subscribers* ........................................04 5..75 Protected areas*..........93 Quality of the educational system.......................81 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.............12 11th pillar: Human resources 11.........................82 Road density* ..............82 Internet users* ...........................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1...........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.................07 11........05 11..66 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...................02 6......01 13.........................03 4.....133 Local availability of research and training services..........96 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...39 Property rights ..............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.......01 4..........02 14...95 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.............................03 5.................109 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.....02 5.....................................................51 Available seat kilometers..............03 10......................02 1...........132 Purchasing power parity* ........07 1..04 7............04 11......05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ............................28 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .......................................................04 9...........................03 13......01 11............13 Quality of the natural environment...........................07 Stringency of environmental regulation.........................93 Available seat kilometers.......76 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4............74 Number of operating airlines* ...104 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8..03 2...................06 11......04 Business costs of terrorism............................01 10......03 7...............................................................................02 9...........

.................................................84 Availability of qualified labor............................................................................................ 2009.5 4.......................................................200 180 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 800 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 400 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .8 5...................................................................124 Environmental sustainability..4...................6............................. please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.................3 4................................................................................................. 2009 ...........................2...6 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.... 2009 ...................................2 Policy rules and regulations....7......................................55......................9 T&T economy....0.....93 3..000 square kilometers) ...............................................................................75 Safety and security ..............3 Air transport infrastructure...........000 jobs)....................4 Environmental Performance Index................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..................1: Country/Economy Profiles Ecuador Key indicators Population (millions).............................5 2.............283. 2009.........................13..................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.........6 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).........6 4................9 Real GDP growth (percent).........................................................................” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ........................955...............6 Surface area (1...........4......84...64 3.....................764...968............................................5 4...........................................................................36 2.............76 Ground transport infrastructure...................86 ICT infrastructure .9 Human resources .........670................................... 2009...........102 Education and training ............25 Cultural resources..9 2.............................................93 3........90 Health and hygiene ......................................................8 2.................2.......2....96 T&T regulatory framework ........................................8 2....................000 jobs).......2 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources........................................4........ 2009 ...............3 4.........6 ......................... US$) per capita.............................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)........................................................................... and natural resources ....................2 1.......82 3..... cultural...................4 4............................................................................................................87 2009 Index..................................................0 T&T human.................................73 4................6 Gross domestic product (PPP.......................1........82 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.............7 ................448....6 Employment (1.......................................5 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)....................................118 Tourism infrastructure .................6 4...................8 3.. forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....1...................................6 4.........378...5 .4 Employment (1.................117 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...............30 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry.............7.................... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .......7 ........................4 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......................................................109 Natural resources .......................................86 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.................................4 4......................

..........................110 Road density* .02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ............................02 1......02 13...30 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4......60 13th pillar: Natural resources 13...........................01 6..13 Hotel price index*..120 Business costs of crime and violence ...........36 Quality of the natural environment..05 Quality of roads ..................59 Particulate matter concentration* ......................................02 11.........................................74 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...39 Secondary education enrollment* .......................................03 1......................................................79 Enforcement of environmental regulation .123 Cost to start a business* .04 5..................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Ecuador 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9....02 7.........124 Fuel price levels*..................................04 7......................................113 Quality of port infrastructure ............ domestic* .....73 Sports stadiums*.....................94 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....................01 11............58 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..........71 Access to improved sanitation* ...................................................................06 11......................................02 3.......103 Extent of staff training ...109 Total known species* ...............................................07 1..........................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ..........96 T&T government expenditure* ..75 2.......40 Number of operating airlines* ....05 2.....90 Quality of the educational system.76 Departures per 1..........................82 International air transport network ...............................12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6..........59 Access to improved drinking water* ...........86 Mobile telephone subscribers* .............01 3.........................................92 Quality of ground transport network ............................38 Available seat kilometers...........................117 Road traffic accidents* ................................................02 9..........64 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5..........................................................01 Hotel rooms* .................75 12...........................................03 13.. please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.....................................31 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.............01 13..........05 6................................03 10......03 2..............5 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14......................23 11th pillar: Human resources 11..........................................63 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2......................35 Transparency of government policymaking ......03 9...............79 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..................41 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*..................47 Extent and effect of taxation .....77 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..104 GATS commitments* ...02 14.........138 Visa requirements*..................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...........123 Business impact of rules on FDI ...........................................................04 Physician density* ........02 6............05 1............08 11.....................62 8............................125 Environmental treaty ratification* .........................02 10...122 Local availability of research and training services........................03 11............112 Time required to start a business* .........46 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.................03 4.......................000 population* ..........04 11..02 Presence of major car rental companies* .........................83 Broadband Internet subscribers* ...............114 12.....................01 10.............85 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.... international* ...........................................54 Creative industries exports*.112 Purchasing power parity* ...03 6.....................122 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10........ An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.02 5.......06 2..........04 9..57 Airport density* .....01 1.................107 Hiring and firing practices .............86 Telephone lines*.........08 1...........................04 10......................01 Tourism openness* ...........................................................................95 8...................03 3.......................................126 HIV prevalence*........136 Ease of hiring foreign labor............ For further details and explanation..68 Hospital beds* ..................................41 Threatened species* ............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.....................05 Extent of business Internet use .....................................87 Sustainability of T&T industry development...............................04 2..................................................................06 6...........07 Stringency of environmental regulation.119 Property rights .............118 12..............................98 Reliability of police services.........The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1......01 9.............................................02 4..................03 Extension of business trips recommended.75 Life expectancy*..03 14..04 Business costs of terrorism....................................................06 1............................106 Internet users* .................................07 11.......02 2............119 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ......04 6......................................03 5........................24 Protected areas*..................................01 2...........................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ....................................04 1................................10 Primary education enrollment*........80 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ...............................................................09 11..........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...........................03 7.........................73 Available seat kilometers...83 Quality of railroad infrastructure ............05 11...........................01 4...................01 7..01 5......................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*.....................................................................................01 14................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 181 ......................................................

......114.....70 4....................1 3......13........64 T&T regulatory framework ..............................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..2...................6....3 5..9 ...................188.........88 ICT infrastructure .......... and natural resources .............6 4............5 3.........................................................3 4...................543........................................9 .......75 2009 Index.....................10.........................000 9......................................................... 2009 ........................................ 2009.....1 4.............2 5................................6 Air transport infrastructure...26.................................................................................... 2009................. 2009 .000 3........................10.............................6 4.............................................4 Real GDP growth (percent).............................................. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).0 ...1................5..........4 2..............................................672.....................6 Employment (1...................................7 Environmental Performance Index...9 5.7............49 Environmental sustainability..................9 2.............5 Policy rules and regulations........ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .........................................755.........93 Education and training .....0 Surface area (1.............................................................3 15.3......................................5 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)....... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles.................................913...............0 4...................................................................................................5 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...............2.........56 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism................................................11...........................................................74 3............................ US$) per capita............000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 6........................................................0 ..5.................76 Tourism infrastructure .68 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry......135 Health and hygiene .............................000 square kilometers) ................................................. 2009...............85 Cultural resources.........................93 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry.... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%....................87 Availability of qualified labor..............5 T&T business environment and infrastructure .......55 Ground transport infrastructure..........................000 182 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 12.................1 2.......................................29 Natural resources .......445...........................................6 T&T human....001.......113 Safety and security .4.......” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ....................000 jobs)..........8 Human resources ........................................... cultural...............0 Employment (1...................1: Country/Economy Profiles Egypt Key indicators Population (millions).......88 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ................ 2009 .........5 T&T economy..............................6............0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council..............000 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...............7 5............................5 3................9 2...........1.................22 4.................65 4.............................................................0 Gross domestic product (PPP...............2.................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ..14...............................................71 3......................................000 jobs)........ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ..385.....................83...............................................................................

.........................04 7..............76 Ease of hiring foreign labor.......................02 2............................06 11....39 Available seat kilometers..............05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .................................................................................................03 7.....01 9............................69 Quality of ground transport network .........28 Departures per 1..................38 Sports stadiums*......04 Business costs of terrorism..............78 8.................17 Extent and effect of taxation ...64 Extent of staff training ......................42 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..........36 12................01 Hotel rooms* ..........................................03 2.02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...43 Protected areas*......................01 7..........21 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.....84 Road density* .................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 183 ......................................87 Telephone lines*.........................................60 Particulate matter concentration* ......1 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..............................................................................21 Cost to start a business* ................................................54 GATS commitments* .....97 Road traffic accidents* ......68 Time required to start a business* .............112 Hiring and firing practices .............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership....01 14..........02 3...79 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10...................115 Enforcement of environmental regulation ........................................05 Quality of roads ..75 Quality of railroad infrastructure ....................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..........................131 Local availability of research and training services.05 2............................................................08 1................101 2...................................03 11...............29 Life expectancy*....66 12..................21 Effectiveness of marketing and branding..........................................01 10.........69 Transparency of government policymaking ..02 11..........88 Quality of the natural environment....................01 6...............................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .02 10............................. For further details and explanation.....................01 13......................01 4..000 population* ............................................................................................03 4..........03 9.......................................40 Hospital beds* ............................................114 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...01 2...........................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ....................92 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5......51 Creative industries exports*.........................................................................................109 Sustainability of T&T industry development..................77 Internet users* ................................................03 5...................56 Business impact of rules on FDI ..04 2..........12 Hotel price index*.101 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2...............07 11...........18 International air transport network ...................................56 Access to improved drinking water* ...........................................................45 Access to improved sanitation* ..........................05 Extent of business Internet use ...........71 Secondary education enrollment* .......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*....06 1..........................94 HIV prevalence*...108 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*..............................01 1....................84 Environmental treaty ratification* .......48 Carbon dioxide emissions* ......................................03 6..............................07 1..46 Quality of port infrastructure .135 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4................................02 7..............02 1................08 11.......10 Primary education enrollment*......................1: Country/Economy Profiles Egypt 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...............05 6......................75 Fuel price levels*..........................77 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............03 13.........................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1................................30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...................122 Number of operating airlines* ...55 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8............................05 11............................................01 11...................92 Quality of the educational system......02 13......................60 Total known species* .......43 12.02 4.......02 5.......02 14.................02 6..... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum................64 8................................03 14..........................98 Airport density* ............03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........................................ international* ....................04 1.....................................................................92 Mobile telephone subscribers* ........04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...........................................06 2...........45 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.....................04 Physician density* ........................39 Available seat kilometers...........04 6....132 Reliability of police services................46 T&T government expenditure* ...03 3........................02 9..............06 6...07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ...................09 11.............42 Purchasing power parity* .............100 Property rights ....................................................73 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...03 10......................4 11th pillar: Human resources 11......................40 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ...............03 1..07 Stringency of environmental regulation...............87 Broadband Internet subscribers* ................................75 Visa requirements*...............46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.03 Extension of business trips recommended.01 3.....01 5...............81 Business costs of crime and violence ............04 11.......04 5..........................05 1.............................. domestic* ............01 Tourism openness* .........................................04 9............................131 Threatened species* .................04 10...........

........................... 2009...........................115 Natural resources ...............–3.2.................. 2009............2 Human resources .................................9 5....................................................................................................................146..................................1 1.77 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..............8 3..........1........................................................................................6....2...........5 T&T economy....5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.......................................4..........................................1 Employment (1......................... cultural..63 Safety and security ........................................................0 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).......9 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).2 2............................................................2 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.....21..................................................................................................................5 Air transport infrastructure.................................................4 Policy rules and regulations.4 1....................................67 Education and training ....................................64........6 4.............5 Environmental Performance Index.......7 ................7 4..1 Gross domestic product (PPP.5 4....67 4...............................34 2................................3.........0 T&T human........................................................................3 5.......................................................................94 T&T regulatory framework ...........9 4.. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) . and natural resources ..7 3.....113 4............21................................................... 2009 .............................................................19 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...........39 Environmental sustainability..................84 3...319..1 2....... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles....................................355........................34 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry........1.......................................79 3........92 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....................................000 square kilometers) .............000 jobs)............1 ..........................................................676.............. TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).....................2 Surface area (1.....6.. 2009 .....................................................................................................91 Availability of qualified labor.............................................................................................573.........................5 3......6 3...500 184 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ........3..............................2 ............130 Cultural resources...................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) . US$) per capita...............................79 Ground transport infrastructure.........................................200 900 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 600 300 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .......090..........................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure ......................70 Tourism infrastructure ......4.....................................................1 .............................................3..............1: Country/Economy Profiles El Salvador Key indicators Population (millions).................9 4.........4 Employment (1.....124 3.000 jobs).............................................................79 ICT infrastructure ............... 2009 ........7................................................ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ......7.......................0 4............96 2009 Index..... 2009...4 Real GDP growth (percent)......118 Health and hygiene ..

.........104 Sports stadiums*.................................32 Hotel price index*....................02 10........72 Broadband Internet subscribers* ..104 Sustainability of T&T industry development...............................................101 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.........................01 2....................................03 1...72 Access to improved drinking water* ...05 2..........................02 1.........................94 Hospital beds* ................................71 Quality of ground transport network .......13 Ease of hiring foreign labor................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.....117 International air transport network ..............03 2.....97 Telephone lines*..................62 Threatened species* .........33 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2................................000 population* ............03 13........................38 Property rights .......92 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8......06 11.85 Departures per 1.............................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .......04 2...........75 Protected areas*.......................88 12.................05 1........................08 1......The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1..............37 Environmental treaty ratification* ..01 3.................................................................113 Reliability of police services..............................04 10...................................................02 11.. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum......26 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* .63 Extent and effect of taxation ....02 3......138 Road traffic accidents* ........................113 12..........................................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ................114 Purchasing power parity* ............02 9.......................04 7.......................................................92 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.............78 2...........09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..............06 2.....................................09 11............110 Quality of port infrastructure ......................................01 7..........03 14.....02 13.....................07 1.......................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.........91 T&T government expenditure* ..81 Creative industries exports*.....................89 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...03 6.......................................................................................................04 11...................................................82 Business impact of rules on FDI ............................................07 Stringency of environmental regulation....................................03 7.......113 GATS commitments* ............................................79 Access to improved sanitation* .......103 Available seat kilometers....35 Fuel price levels*..................................67 Secondary education enrollment* .............36 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .............................01 13.37 Particulate matter concentration* ...............05 11...............................................................................75 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.................................01 Hotel rooms* ............03 Extension of business trips recommended....................53 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14................................38 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...............07 11.....................74 Time required to start a business* ..59 Airport density* ......01 9............63 Hiring and firing practices .............58 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted.........02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...83 Extent of staff training ..................................................117 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..83 Internet users* .....03 11.....................................122 Quality of the natural environment...........05 6...................................................................................02 4............................119 Number of operating airlines* ..81 Mobile telephone subscribers* ...........01 14................................01 10...33 Available seat kilometers...04 Business costs of terrorism....05 Extent of business Internet use ..............10 Primary education enrollment*.......1: Country/Economy Profiles El Salvador 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9............02 6....................................108 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3....................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ....................................................................96 8........04 9.01 6.........................................................99 Business impact of HIV/AIDS .............................01 11.......121 Local availability of research and training services...........02 2...06 1..............25 HIV prevalence*........08 11.............................................03 4................03 9...03 3............... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 185 .......06 6.66 Visa requirements*....01 Tourism openness* ......................69 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*............... domestic* ........02 14.........1 Transparency of government policymaking ...... international* ....04 5.....99 Business costs of crime and violence .............................100 Enforcement of environmental regulation ............01 4........................................................01 5...............04 Physician density* ..........04 1..................................75 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.....................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...........90 Road density* .....01 1..................03 5.......02 7...................................42 12..................................................64 8............03 10.. For further details and explanation................................46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6................105 Quality of the educational system...............................04 6........17 11th pillar: Human resources 11..................................29 Quality of railroad infrastructure ......69 Cost to start a business* .........138 Total known species* ...............................................02 5...............73 Life expectancy*...............................05 Quality of roads ................................74 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5.03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*........

...19 5.............................................................................2 5..........091......000 jobs)......7 Employment (1......14.....................17........................5 Policy rules and regulations......9 T&T human...........................5 ................000 jobs)...................31 Availability of qualified labor....2...................17 4...............1 Human resources .........................970...............649..........1 3.....................45................... 2009..............” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ....................17...6 Employment (1.... 2010 (out of 163 economies) .......1....2 5............................................ 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ...................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)...................................................–13....................3 ....25 Health and hygiene ................7 6.......................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles...886.................2 5..................................................................27 T&T regulatory framework ........73..............................................................6 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.........................................1: Country/Economy Profiles Estonia Key indicators Population (millions)..........................................44 3.....................................................................................2.0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)...........000 square kilometers) ...................................................64 5.................................5 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources............3 5....................................3..........................................25 Environmental sustainability......25 2009 Index.................... 2009.....................................3 2..... cultural..1 Real GDP growth (percent)............................................................................................4 T&T business environment and infrastructure .....695...........................29 Tourism infrastructure ...24 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism..................................4 4..................9 .......................................1.0......8 5..................................0............................................ 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%............................0 5...........59 Cultural resources.......7 5.............1...000 186 1....................................................................................2 5............................1 Air transport infrastructure..............13 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry..11 ICT infrastructure ..........................................6 T&T economy...................500 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 1....... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ....2........................ 2008........... 2009 ...........................7 ...............9 Environmental Performance Index.......................................................19......5.........3 Surface area (1......................3 Gross domestic product (PPP.......................4 2.............54 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ......................................................57 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry...................................... and natural resources ..................50 4...................25 5............................................................................0 6.............2 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..................5......... 2009 ..........31 Natural resources .12..9 4.........000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 500 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ................ US$) per capita............................................................................. 2009 ..24 Safety and security ......................................................5 5...................................................54 Ground transport infrastructure.32 Education and training ...

...10 Primary education enrollment*..................................................................53 Sports stadiums*...02 7..............06 6.......................03 5.05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ...........000 population* ........................01 1.33 Business costs of crime and violence ...................51 Hospital beds* .......02 13.........42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..44 Creative industries exports*. international* ...03 1........89 Available seat kilometers.......22 Telephone lines*............................02 3...........07 1.........02 1.............................40 Purchasing power parity* ..................02 Presence of major car rental companies* ......14 Time required to start a business* ......................4 Threatened species* ..............................05 2.29 Quality of the educational system........................ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.....50 Access to improved drinking water* ...........................................................................03 13........................... The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 187 .......................... For further details and explanation.......................03 3...................46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6........................24 Total known species* ............06 2......................................................................................07 11.01 13....56 Ease of hiring foreign labor.30 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3..............................................20 Enforcement of environmental regulation ..................................................................110 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ............05 6..................................................33 Extent of staff training ................21 GATS commitments* ..................63 Secondary education enrollment* .........19 11th pillar: Human resources 11............04 9.........89 HIV prevalence*.05 Extent of business Internet use ..........01 9.....................02 14.......................34 Road density* ................04 5.........08 1......................59 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*.....03 2.................33 Business impact of rules on FDI ............................................03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*.............30 Road traffic accidents* .48 Hiring and firing practices .........18 Fuel price levels*...................03 4....48 Quality of railroad infrastructure ....02 9.............77 12.......................01 11. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum.....04 Physician density* .............................................06 11..04 10.....................................21 Cost to start a business* .......07 Stringency of environmental regulation......01 5......................................................................................................................................53 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...................24 Mobile telephone subscribers* .25 Access to improved sanitation* ..............02 6....100 Extent and effect of taxation ...58 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* .04 11....54 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7....03 9.........................................................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.............36 Quality of port infrastructure ....113 International air transport network ........03 14.14 8....28 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10........................................01 Hotel rooms* ...........05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* .....................05 1......05 Quality of roads .......01 6.........................23 2.............04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*...........................................07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ...................................23 Visa requirements*...17 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.........05 11.............................126 Particulate matter concentration* .................................................................................................................................48 Property rights ............................01 10...03 6..123 Departures per 1....................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership.. domestic* ......04 2..........80 Hotel price index*.......................................42 Local availability of research and training services.....................................................................03 10........01 Tourism openness* ...02 11.............................................27 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted......04 Business costs of terrorism.............................................................75 Protected areas*..........03 Extension of business trips recommended...................26 Sustainability of T&T industry development.61 Carbon dioxide emissions* .................................................01 2..................3 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2..............................2 Internet users* .............................04 1........92 12.........02 2....12 Reliability of police services.........................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .......71 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.........................................................26 12....................................................14 Number of operating airlines* ...................................................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*......................03 7......................57 Life expectancy*...........08 11.....................................20 Quality of the natural environment.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Estonia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9...09 11............06 1..38 Airport density* ................................128 Transparency of government policymaking ...03 11.......................................15 Effectiveness of marketing and branding....................................17 Quality of ground transport network ...................................31 Broadband Internet subscribers* ......................................42 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.......121 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14..................01 4............................59 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4...................01 14...........74 Available seat kilometers.................5 Environmental treaty ratification* ........01 3......01 7.............................04 7............................................04 6......62 T&T government expenditure* ................1 8.....................................02 4..........................02 5.......02 10.......

....... 2009..............98 Tourism infrastructure ........9......................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles......... 2009 ........82................................................................................................1 1.........4......... cultural..........................6.4 4.......................104......................................5 5.................1 2...0 400 188 300 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 200 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 100 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index ...........9 Environmental Performance Index..1.......................................................132 3.........0 3.......97 3...000 jobs)..............329...... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) .......220........................626................................................124 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .............87 Safety and security .......6 1.............................000 jobs)................................ US$) per capita..................................................3 Gross domestic product (PPP..........139 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism..........84 3.............................23 2...................8 Surface area (1...4 Policy rules and regulations.................3..122 2009 Index...........7 3..................3 ..............................114 2........4 4............................... 2009................3 4.....................6 Human resources ..........138 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry......1.......3 4.......... 2008........0....................125 Availability of qualified labor....................................................128 ICT infrastructure ...........1 4.................................................141 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry................................. 2010 (out of 163 economies) ....3 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)..............32....330...............1........................................................................................3 3..................123 T&T regulatory framework ..........................119 4...........0 Real GDP growth (percent)....................1 T&T human...... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).............2 1............................................8 T&T economy.......................................................37 Cultural resources..............510............3 ..............123 Education and training ........................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%............................ and natural resources ....................000 square kilometers) ....................................................................................................953.8...................................................................93 Environmental sustainability..............................9 .....2........................................................................ 2009 ..........................................107 Natural resources ....1 3......................1 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.......1...........5 T&T business environment and infrastructure .......775................2 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)........................................1 Employment (1...........................................4............................................... 2009 ................................102 Health and hygiene ..........87 Ground transport infrastructure........................8 Air transport infrastructure....1: Country/Economy Profiles Ethiopia Key indicators Population (millions)........................................................................................................................2......0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources.......” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...............................9 .....................................9 3.................................. 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ......................................................4 Employment (1.4............................

...........113 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7.................01 3...............01 Hotel rooms* ....01 13.........................................................60 Quality of railroad infrastructure ...............02 Presence of major car rental companies* ......89 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*..............122 Extent of staff training .....02 7..43 Protected areas*.119 Secondary education enrollment* ....................................................................04 2.......................................................133 8...........................77 Carbon dioxide emissions* .05 1............................................03 7............. For further details and explanation...................10 Primary education enrollment*......................................................124 Quality of the educational system..136 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.............01 6.02 3..........................000 population* ........02 2...................125 Property rights ... international* ..............50 12.....93 T&T government expenditure* .........03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*....05 11...........................6 Extent and effect of taxation .....54 Hotel price index*..134 Internet users* ..........................47 12....03 10..................136 Mobile telephone subscribers* ..........59 Available seat kilometers.................................03 Extension of business trips recommended.....................................115 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ..........................................................................................82 Creative industries exports*..............................57 Transparency of government policymaking ...........................77 Enforcement of environmental regulation .............................04 7.......124 Life expectancy*.07 11.136 2.....79 Total known species* ..................05 6..................................79 Visa requirements*...........03 11........................128 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4........04 Physician density* ..62 Fuel price levels*............60 Business impact of rules on FDI ..01 4........01 11..............................60 Quality of ground transport network ........25 Quality of the natural environment.................................................59 Business costs of crime and violence .....................................................04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*................. An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum....6 Particulate matter concentration* .................84 Ease of hiring foreign labor..................02 14...........................................135 Hospital beds* .........................04 Business costs of terrorism...................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership......06 11.....03 13..................................02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .06 1.....87 Environmental treaty ratification* ...............................................02 5.01 14................................................................136 Telephone lines*.....35 Cost to start a business* ..............05 Quality of roads ............................ domestic* ........136 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ..............98 Effectiveness of marketing and branding.....................01 1...01 Tourism openness* .............06 2..........03 6..........115 HIV prevalence*...................29 Purchasing power parity* ...................79 GATS commitments*...08 1..............02 13......38 Sports stadiums*.......05 Extent of business Internet use ...................04 11......................................................................................129 Access to improved drinking water* ....................................118 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5............54 Road traffic accidents* .............109 Threatened species* .48 Available seat kilometers............................................................................27 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14...03 2........................................................125 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3.06 6.......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure ..........04 10................01 2............................02 6................136 Access to improved sanitation* .........103 Quality of port infrastructure ....................04 1...............127 12.........................................................................05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry .....02 11.04 9..............................................................................70 Sustainability of T&T industry development.....1: Country/Economy Profiles Ethiopia 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9..........01 10....134 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*...07 Stringency of environmental regulation............................................................................................................09 11.....................67 Departures per 1. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 189 ..........................................................104 Airport density* .......01 9....46 11th pillar: Human resources 11..08 11......123 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ........07 1......86 Road density* ......................................................................................100 Time required to start a business* ......................................................139 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...........................108 International air transport network .......03 5...................The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.........01 7...02 10....132 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...............05 2............................03 14....03 1.......................03 3..........03 4............04 6..............125 Broadband Internet subscribers* .................................... please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter.............02 4.....112 8..05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ......02 1................122 Hiring and firing practices .........................60 Local availability of research and training services............117 Number of operating airlines* ............02 9.........03 9............................01 5.....................100 Reliability of police services..................................................................86 13th pillar: Natural resources 13............04 5.................109 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6.................n/a RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.........................

.............................7 6..........................8 5.......................... 2009...................0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions)....5..........65 5....................................3 4...........238......................................................5 4.....2 3........................000 square kilometers) .......1 5...........0 ................................000 1............12 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry......................................................... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands).................2 4...........7 6.......33.......................................... 2010 (out of 163 economies) ................6.......................25 4.15 T&T regulatory framework ............... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) .42 ICT infrastructure .............................2...........000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .........12 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism.....................3.................................60..2......................................................................................................5 Availability of qualified labor............................................................6 Gross domestic product (PPP.................................444... US$) per capita.................................................000 190 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 3..................................................4 Gross domestic product (US$ billions).21 Tourism infrastructure .......................6 Employment (1.....................2 4...............................................7 Education and training ................ please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..........................2.338...... 2009 .................166.................................................................................... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.1 Health and hygiene ............................................0 Environmental Performance Index..........631..................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ......17 2009 Index...............4 5.....................8 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council...............000 jobs)..820..........................................30 4................3.... 2009.......................9 5...............2........................83 Natural resources ...........................26 5...........5 Environmental sustainability.....” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...............7......................6 T&T human........6 ................................................6 4..................................17 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry...................0 5.............. and natural resources ..........................................5 T&T business environment and infrastructure .........................6 Human resources ...8 Employment (1............................. 2009 ...........................2..........128 4..................................... 2009................................................................3 T&T economy.......................7 Safety and security ..7 Real GDP growth (percent)....5 3............................3............423................................................5 5.....3.......7 Policy rules and regulations............0 5..................66 Cultural resources..6..............9 ...............................................................................000 jobs)..1: Country/Economy Profiles Finland Key indicators Population (millions)...........17.................18 Affinity for Travel & Tourism ...................................8 Air transport infrastructure............................7 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources..3 Surface area (1. cultural...763..–8...........................................5 6...................... 2009 ...................000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 2.......................................................................................5 ....................................16 Ground transport infrastructure...........

..02 11.......................................9 Hiring and firing practices .....................37 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7........03 7.02 9......26 Carbon dioxide emissions* .....01 4..........................................................11 Number of operating airlines* ..............02 Presence of major car rental companies* ...15 Available seat kilometers..............................10 Primary education enrollment*..15 Number of international fairs and exhibitions*......................07 1.................03 5...............................................................125 Hotel price index*.........04 Physician density* ...........03 2...........01 6.....57 Cost to start a business* .80 Effectiveness of marketing and branding......... An asterisk (*) indicates that data are from sources other than the World Economic Forum..........................06 11.................................................................01 10..04 Business costs of terrorism............01 7....................................................................................46 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6............2 Business impact of rules on FDI ...............01 Hotel rooms* .........8 Time required to start a business* .....02 14............................................................9 Quality of the educational system........ For further details and explanation.................4 Total known species* .........03 9.............................05 1.............06 1......02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors .....03 ATMs accepting Visa cards*...........................................102 T&T government expenditure* .................................38 Purchasing power parity* ...6 Quality of ground transport network ........................15 12th pillar: Affinity for Travel & Tourism 5th pillar: Prioritization of Travel & Tourism 5...........02 10.............000 population* .........07 11.......................08 11.................26 Access to improved sanitation* ...............44 Sports stadiums*................41 Visa requirements*..................................................6 Local availability of research and training services.........5 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8...........5 Enforcement of environmental regulation ........ please refer to the section "How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles" at the beginning of this chapter..13 Quality of railroad infrastructure .....04 11............................................05 6...................................04 2.......04 5......04 1............63 2....02 6.......07 Quality of air transport infrastructure .........................32 12...................................04 6......................02 4.............05 Government prioritization of the T&T industry ..................1: Country/Economy Profiles Finland 9th pillar: ICT infrastructure 9.............52 International air transport network .................................................................43 Protected areas*.....................................................................................15 2nd pillar: Environmental sustainability 2...................................................10 Road traffic accidents* ...............................86 Comprehensiveness of annual T&T data*.......................8 Road density* .....04 10.......................................................29 8.......................................02 7...........................48 Secondary education enrollment* .........03 11...8 Telephone lines*....15 GATS commitments* ..................7 Quality of port infrastructure ..................119 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.............................................36 Transparency of government policymaking ..................................19 Internet users* ...03 Extension of business trips recommended..............................01 3...........................1 Business costs of crime and violence .............09 11.............. international* ....................73 Ease of hiring foreign labor....04 9...............42 Departures per 1......01 13....1 Access to improved drinking water* ....20 Creative industries exports*........................02 5................................40 8.........................02 3...............7 Extent of staff training .........17 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10..........................................................06 2....07 Stringency of environmental regulation...........04 7.....................................1 Timeliness of providing monthly/quarterly T&T data* ........03 4....................01 14....................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*.......................................... domestic* ........................40 Available seat kilometers............15 Mobile telephone subscribers* .....8 Reliability of police services.................................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ........48 Broadband Internet subscribers* .........................................01 1..6 Life expectancy*....01 Tourism openness* .....................74 Quality of the natural environment........03 10..........08 1...................................135 Extent and effect of taxation ...........84 13th pillar: Natural resources 13.................23 Property rights .......................................................03 14.43 HIV prevalence*..................01 2............03 3....................42 Openness of bilateral Air Service Agreements* ................123 Particulate matter concentration* ...........01 11........................03 13..............................114 Fuel price levels*............02 2........03 1...........................01 9..................03 6............................20 Business impact of HIV/AIDS ....02 1.............................................15 Airport density* ............................9 Environmental treaty ratification* ......................18 Threatened species* ........................................................05 2....................................................15 12...05 Extent of business Internet use ..The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index in detail INDICATOR RANK/139 INDICATOR 1st pillar: Policy rules and regulations 1.............................. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 191 ...............09 Prevalence of foreign ownership..........101 12..6 Sustainability of T&T industry development.........60 11th pillar: Human resources 11..........................................06 6............10 3rd pillar: Safety and security 3...01 5..................................79 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted....05 11.......04 Number of World Heritage natural sites*..................02 13........................................................................13 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.....05 Quality of roads .....1 Hospital beds* ...........................

..” The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum 5 6 7 ...........1.................8 5.............847.000 192 80................7 ...................... cultural...9 Safety and security ..................4 Tourism infrastructure ...............................................................................584.....................0 5...0 International tourism receipts (US$ millions).....................2 T&T economy..000 International tourism receipts (US$ millions) 40............ 2009 ............................68 Affinity for Travel & Tourism .............. 2009.............................................................4 5...656....000 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: United Nations World Tourism Organization Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Rank (out of 139) Score (1–7 scale) 2011 Index .............9 5........................ 2010 (out of 163 economies) ................................31 Cultural resources.......................................... please refer to “How to the Read Country/Economy Profiles..............................5 6..............1 4.......................................................................000 20..........................107..........................................................................434...................138 5.......7 Travel & Tourism indicators Percent of total T&T industry..10 5..............................3...095..7 Policy rules and regulations....... 2010 estimates 2011–2020 annual growth (%.... 2009 .....398........................7 ..................284......................................................... US$) per capita.................................................2 .......................................................6 Surface area (1.200....2 5..............7 5............3 2009 Index................3 .5 Environmental Performance Index.........................................................................................3 Employment (1.....................4....22 Environmental sustainability.........................000 square kilometers) ...........4 5.........................................................................................................8 5..........000 International tourist arrivals (thousands) 60.............2....................26 Education and training .......000 jobs)......................8 6............2.....................549. 2009 ......................................................................................................................0 1 2 3 4 Note: For descriptions of variables and detailed sources... and natural resources ...................................2 100.....9.....................602......................20 Health and hygiene ............... 2009............2...................................9 4.........3 6....................3 5.3 Real GDP growth (percent)..................................11.62.......1..........................–2......................18 ICT infrastructure ............................. 2009...49.5 Prioritization of Travel & Tourism............40 Natural resources ...................................5 3.....1: Country/Economy Profiles France Key indicators Population (millions)....... TSA Research 2010 International tourist arrivals (thousands)..........................................................4 T&T regulatory framework .......................................................... forecast) GDP (US$ millions) ........74.......0 Source: World Travel & Tourism Council.................2 Human resources .......28 5....8 5..................2..................................................................4 Gross domestic product (PPP....................2..........................3 Employment (1..........14 Availability of qualified labor......2 Gross domestic product (US$ billions)...........................6 Ground transport infrastructure...3 T&T business environment and infrastructure ............................................2 T&T human.........................5 6.............000 jobs)...........................33...............................1...........7 5......... 2010 estimates GDP (US$ millions) ................12 Price competitiveness in the T&T industry....................3 Air transport infrastructure......................

..........................02 2........5 Threatened species* .............................................................21 Enforcement of environmental regulation .................................................12 Quality of ground transport network .......................03 Extension of business trips recommended...........................................................79 Effectiveness of marketing and branding........60 RANK/139 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure 8.....................................................12 6th pillar: Air transport infrastructure 6............08 1............03 11.........9 Available seat kilometers...................05 Ticket taxes and airport charges* ...32 8............................01 9............................06 2.....46 Environmental treaty ratification* ....................................16 Notes: Ranks of notable competitive advantages are highlighted...03 14...05 11..............................01 11...................................03 13......................................29 Local availability of research and training services.........03 9......01 Tourism openness* ....................................05 1.........................................................................................................................................02 4.........04 11...............................................08 11.........................................01 1.120 Hotel price index*............125 Ease of hiring foreign labor..17 T&T government expenditure* ....69 14th pillar: Cultural resources 14.....96 HIV prevalence*.....................................................................000 population* ...97 11th pillar: Human resources 11.................04 Number of World Heritage cultural sites*...................05 6..................04 6.........................15 10th pillar: Price competitiveness in the T&T industry 10.............................01 6..........................02 1..25 Sustainability of T&T industry development.................7 Quality of the educational system.01 13.................03 4...02 9..03 10..............................2 Quality of railroad infrastructure ......................01 2.......02 7.....04 7...01 5......06 6............................04 Physician density* .....14 4th pillar: Health and hygiene 4.......................................02 5..................02 13........01 Hotel rooms* ..10 Protected areas*..............07 11...................02 Presence of major car rental companies* .....................................................................09 Prevalence of foreign ownership........74 Reliability of police services...................................5 Road density* ..............................03 3....89 Particulate matter concentration* ...............02 Attitude of population toward foreign visitors ...............97 12........................................09 11........14 Carbon dioxide emissions* ...........04 1. international* ..................7 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure 7........................................................1 8............................13 GATS commitments* .21 Internet users* ..........................