Library guide on Harvard Referencing Note: Business students should use the RMIT Business style NOT the

general Harvard style
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................... CHOOSING A REFERENCE STYLE........................................................................................................................................ WHAT IS REFERENCING?................................................................................................................................................. WHY REFERENCE?........................................................................................................................................................ WHEN TO REFERENCE? (PLAGIARISM)...............................................................................................................................

RMIT University definition of plagiarism............................................................................................ What constitutes plagiarism?............................................................................................................. What is the penalty for plagiarism?....................................................................................................
IN-TEXT REFERENCES: EXAMPLES...................................................................................................................................... REFERENCE LIST........................................................................................................................................................... ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................................................................................................ AUTHORS: EXAMPLES..................................................................................................................................................... BOOKS: EXAMPLES........................................................................................................................................................

Book................................................................................................................................................... Book chapter...................................................................................................................................... e-book from a database..................................................................................................................... e-book from the Internet..................................................................................................................... Encyclopaedia or dictionary............................................................................................................... Secondary citation.............................................................................................................................. No date...............................................................................................................................................
JOURNAL ARTICLES: EXAMPLES........................................................................................................................................

Journal article..................................................................................................................................... e-journal article from a database....................................................................................................... e-journal article from the internet....................................................................................................... In press article.................................................................................................................................... Magazine article – no author..............................................................................................................
NEWSPAPER ARTICLES....................................................................................................................................................

Newspaper article.............................................................................................................................. Newspaper article from a database................................................................................................... Newspaper article from a website......................................................................................................
INTERNET SOURCES........................................................................................................................................................

Discussion list message..................................................................................................................... Newsgroup message......................................................................................................................... Blogs................................................................................................................................................... Website documents............................................................................................................................
COURSE READINGS........................................................................................................................................................

Course readings from RMIT University Library reserve.................................................................... Course readings from RMIT University Library e-reserve................................................................. Course readings from RMIT University Learning Hub......................................................................
REPORTS.....................................................................................................................................................................

Government publications................................................................................................................... Parliamentary debates....................................................................................................................... Australian Bureau of Statistics...........................................................................................................
LEGISLATION AND LEGAL CASES.......................................................................................................................................

Legislation.......................................................................................................................................... Legal cases........................................................................................................................................
OTHER SOURCES...........................................................................................................................................................

Conference paper.............................................................................................................................. Thesis................................................................................................................................................. Patent................................................................................................................................................. Standard............................................................................................................................................. CD-ROM.............................................................................................................................................
© RMIT University Library May 28, 2012 Page 1 of 18

..................................................................................................................................................... .......Film......... TV and radio program...................................... video................................. BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................................................................... Media release................................................................................................. Personal communication...........

and passing off as your own. whether published. etc. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. etc.. factual basis to show the research you've done to reach your conclusions to allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright law. editors and printers (2002). The information and examples are derived from the following source: Style manual for authors. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style. Many style guide producers have extended the system used for print resources and applied this to electronic resources. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited. You may be penalised for not conforming to your School’s requirements. using. 2012 Page 3 of 18 . must be referenced. or putting their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing) If you do not acknowledge these sources. The Harvard Style of referencing is widely accepted in scholarly circles. This document is meant only as a guide. Australia. editors and printers (2002) and so the principles of author-date citing have been applied in developing those examples. editors and printers 2002. Other author-date referencing styles include: Chicago. Further details and examples may be found in the Style manual for authors. Why reference? When writing a piece of academic work (ie. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list. and although they no longer produce a standard guide to referencing. The full details of the source must be given. When to reference? (Plagiarism) You must reference all sources used in a particular work whether you are:   directly copying the words of another author (quoting). thesis. APA and MLA.Introduction The author-date system originated at Harvard University. then you are plagiarising their work. All information used in your assignment. There are many different styles or ways of using the Harvard or author-date system. essay. Electronic resources are not adequately addressed in the Style manual for authors. 6th edn. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department. or unpublished. thesis. Plagiarism is defined as the taking. A date of access is very useful as Internet resources change rapidly. For this reason it is important to cite Internet references just as you would cite print references.e. the ideas or words of another. lecturer or supervisor. Choosing a reference style The style (i. John Wiley & Sons.) you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used:    to prove that your work has a substantial. sometimes with added information such as page numbers. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. It is a very serious academic © RMIT University Library May 28. a version of the author-date system is still commonly referred to as the Harvard style. What is referencing? Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source.

journals. What is the penalty for plagiarism? Plagiarism is not permitted in RMIT University. but not limited to books.       Enabling Plagiarism is the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise your own work (RMIT 2003a).pdf. Plagiarism may even occur unintentionally. course notes. What constitutes plagiarism? Under the charter. RMIT University definition of plagiarism RMIT has an assessment charter.edu. Submit work as your own that someone else has done for you.rmit. graphic and visual forms. theses. plagiarism and fair use (http://www. Plagiarism can take many forms . Copy designs or works of art and submit them as your original work. More detail on what constitutes plagiarism is found in the January 2003 Policy: Plagiarism (http://mams.offence.au/j4lb68xx36oj1. such as when the origin of the material used is not properly cited.edu. the author's name and year of publication of the work to which reference has been made.written. Copy or submit whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source. 5). reports. thoughts or ideas as though they are your own.1. you may be accused of plagiarism if you do any of the following:  Copy sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from any source.) Penalties for plagiarism (RMIT 2003c) include:     recording of a failure for the assignment or course cancellation of any or all results suspension from the program expulsion from the program Acknowledgement: The information in this section on Plagiarism has been supplied from the Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation (RMIT Business 2006. It is a serious academic offence and can lead to expulsion from RMIT. p. Closely paraphrase sentences. websites. There is more information on this subject in Copyright. and includes use of electronic data and material used in oral presentations. Plagiarism is defined (RMIT 2003a) as stealing somebody’s intellectual property (IP) by presenting their work. and may result in your work being failed automatically. In-text references: examples In the text of your essay or thesis you should identify your source by giving. It is cheating. From the textual reference. paragraphs. whether published or unpublished (including. There are two ways of referencing in-text: .au/1oavdg0bdd1. Piece together text from one or more sources and add only linking sentences without proper citation. in parentheses. conference papers. If you fail to do this.edu. you may be charged with academic misconduct and face a penalty under RMIT Regulations 6.) without proper citation.rmit. It is also a serious academic offence.rmit. Any use of another person’s work or ideas must be acknowledged.1 – Student Discipline (http://mams. ideas or themes without proper citation. Copy a whole or any part of another student’s work.au/library/info-trek/copyright). etc.pdf). which elaborates key responsibilities common to all staff and students in relation to assessment and defines the University’s policy on plagiarism. the reader can turn to the alphabetical list of references for full publication details.

Include the author’s name and date of publication by either: • • adding the citation at the end of the sentence using the author’s name as part of your sentence Statistical thinking can be defined as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding. Shannon defines statistical thinking as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding. Shannon (2003) describes the role of statistics in minimising product variability. p. Acknowledgement: The information in this section on In-text referencing has been supplied from the Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation (RMIT Business. 5). 5). When using direct quotes include the author’s name. Direct quotes should be kept to a minimum. Paraphrasing is used to indicate to the reader: • • your understanding of the content in the reference you are using your ability to relevantly and appropriately use ideas and information to support an argument or an opinion adding the citation at the end of the sentence using the author’s name as part of your sentence Include the author’s name and date of publication by either: • • Lack of variability in a product is an important measure of its quality (Shannon 2003). Direct quotes Paraphrasing When paraphrasing. with a semicolon to separate them. 5). date of publication and page number. the ideas of the author(s) are expressed in your own words. p. p. Other studies of globalization focus on its cultural and human implications (Bauman 1998. Tomlinson 1999). Multiple works If citing multiple works at one point in the text it is recommended that the authors’ names be ordered alphabetically inside the parentheses. 2007. Direct quotes When quoting. © RMIT University Library May 28. managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (2003. 2012 Page 5 of 18 . the exact words of the author(s) are used. If directly quoting from a work use single quotation marks around the text being quoted. managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (Shannon 2003. Paraphrasing 2.1.

In the Harvard Style sources that are not cited in the text but are relevant to the subject may be listed separately as a bibliography. In general the order of elements contained within each reference should include: author – date – title of work – title of larger work (if any) – publishing details – date of access (if electronic). The publication details of every item cited / used in your writing need to be included in the reference list at the end of your paper. This indicates that you have researched widely. then use as part of the in-text reference either: • a section heading. vols. books. ed. Abbreviations Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of books and other publications include: app. para. If quoting or paraphrasing from a website. pp.) edn. starting with the earliest date. no. in alphabetical order by author family name.g. • • • • • What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? • A reference list details in alphabetical order by author family name all the works and data sources you have cited in your written work. United Nations 2007. et al. United Nations 2007. ch. This enables the reader to locate the source if they wish. unless they are in PDF format. • A bibliography lists.d. para. (eds. Apart from the author and date. n.4) volumes (as in 4 volumes) . and thereafter chronologically. n. p.10) Reference List • • You must use a variety of sources in your written work e. suppl.e. pt. all the works and data sources you have used or accessed to create your written work. Each reference list entry requires a specific format depending on the reference type i. Any websites used must also be documented in full. article 1) • a paragraph number (eg.p. The Reference List is arranged alphabetically by author.Electronic sources Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. appendix circa chapter editor (Editors) edition and others no date no place number page/s paragraph part revised supplement volume (as in Vol. journal article. whether it is a book. each element is separated from the others with a comma and the citation finishes with a full stop. c. rev. that is NOT a PDF. (eg. vol.. website. journals and websites etc. book chapter. etc.

p. (Yarbro et al. John Wiley & Sons. In-text citation One author (Jones 1995) or Jones (1995) states…… Reference list Jones. Jones and Bartlett. Stein. Multiple works at one point in the text Authors’ names should be ordered alphabetically inside the parentheses. Frogge. DK 2001.Authors: examples Whatever type of work you are referencing. with a semicolon to separate them. ‘Immunonutrition in the critically ill patient: more harm than good?’. Several works by same first author and year Single author entries precede references with multiple authors beginning with the same name. 9. -----. CH. Sleepers. ’ meaning ‘and others. wake!: technology and the future of work. M & Groenwald. 2012 Page 7 of 18 (Heyland & Novak 2001) or Heyland and Novak (2001) reports…. Tomlinson 1999) Bauman. A 2-em rule can be used to replace the authors’ name(s) that are repeated. no. Globalization: the human consequences. Routledge. MH. whilst if the reference is part of the sentence you use the word ‘ and .& Novak. B 1995. (Bauman 1998. Oxford. JS 2000. Boston. Polity Press. New York. Cancer nursing. Tomlinson. Mechanical and electrical equipment for buildings. (Heyland 2001) or Heyland (2001) reports…. Melbourne. Heyland. J 1999. JPEN: Journal of parenteral and © RMIT University Library May 28. ‘In search of the magic nutraceutical: problems with current approaches’. (Stein & Reynolds 2000) or Stein and Reynolds (2000) argue…. the in-text citation in parentheses will use an ampersand (&) to join them.. B & Reynolds. 131. 5th edn.’ However the Reference List should include all authors.. (2000) have found…… Yarbro. 9th edn. Goodman. London. Globalization and culture. 2591S. Two or three authors Where there is more than one author. adding the words ‘ et al. vol. 2000) or Yarbro et al. 4th edn.’ Four or more authors If there are four or more authors only include the first author in your in-text citation. F 2001. Z 1998. SL 2000. . the way you list the authors’ names depends on the number of authors. Oxford University Press. Journal of nutrition..

Harvard Business Review. Muller. 56. Title of book. 4th edn. S51. . Page number(s). Cloete and Badat (2001) Style manual for authors. Publisher. editors and printers 2002. Cloete & Badat 2001) or edited by Muller. editors and printers (2002) or According to the Style manual for authors. [in] Author of book (if different).Eastern Edition.enteral nutrition. 3rd edn. RJ 1998. wake!: technology and the future of work. p. Wall Street Journal . vol. Oxford University Press. Initials Year. editors and printers (2002) … (eds. b. John Wiley & Sons. B 1995. Sage. or according to Porter (2001b) … Porter. Place of publication. 3. for multiple editors.2001b. for editor or eds. 6th edn. 133-154. Edition. Thousand Oaks. 'Plastics available to the designer'. (Porter 2001a) (Porter 2001b) or Porter (2001a) states…. No author given Where an item has no named author it is cited by its title. 79. CG 2000. vol. in Denzin NK & Lincoln YS Handbook of qualitative research. Australia. no. N & Badat. 25. 2. Several works by same author and year If you are referring to several works by the same author or group of authors from the same year. Edition. designate these a. 'Japan: what went wrong'. Book chapter Author’s surname. …. Melbourne. ME 2001a. Books: examples Book Author’s surname. Maskew Miller Longman. no. J.) 2001. 6-18. 2nd edn. Muller. Initials Year. in Plastics engineering. Sleepers. Style manual for authors. Place of publication. Jones. Cape Town. Crawford. A22. no. Oxford. 237. vol. Cloete. with the order of the listing based on the letter-by-letter alphabetical order of the title of the work. ‘Title of chapter’. p. p. c. ‘Ethics and politics in qualitative research’. Publisher. Challenges of globalisation: South African debates with Manuel Castells. HeinemannButterworth. Title of book. Pinelands. ---. CA. or Christians. pp. S (eds. Editor/s Use the abbreviation ed. 'Strategy and the Internet'. pp. 62.

NOT in the Reference List. it is recommended to choose page image format. you should cite the source you have used. NJ. This is a secondary source and in this case you © RMIT University Library May 28. as images.edu/~culture/Chen_Farruggia. or from a website. you should cite the source you have used. 2012 Page 9 of 18 . in Lonner. Initials Year of publication. etc. Bellingham. or if it is from the internet give the URL. Where the source is a library database give the database name. The following is a suggested procedure for referencing e-books. SH 2004. Chen. Center for Cross-Cultural Research. eg. eg. SA & Sattler. Initials Year of publication. WJ. in an Acrobat (PDF) file. eg.25) states…… The Macquarie dictionary (1997) defines it as…… Secondary citation While primary sources are essential. Prentice Hall. Title of book. Western Washington University. Washington USA. etc. Edition. viewed 5 August 2005. Chapter 2. Where alternative formats are available. SY. (Literacy in America: an encyclopedia 2001. as images. If an e-book is retrieved electronically from a library database in page image format. charts.wwu. Hayes. may have been removed. or from a website. eg. editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish between printed sources and those sourced electronically. <http://www. Edition. <URL>. [in] Author of book (if different). viewed day month year. database name. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Encyclopaedia or dictionary Encyclopaedias and dictionaries should be cited in the in-text reference only. page numbers. If an e-book is retrieved from a library database where it has been reformatted. may have been removed. as HTML or plain text. Biometric authentication: a machine learning approach. If an e-book is retrieved from a library database where it has been reformatted. charts. or if it is from the internet give the URL. Publisher. as HTML or plain text. Where alternative formats are available. If an e-book is retrieved electronically from a library database in page image format. Safari Tech Books Online. cite it the same as the original printed book. MW & Lin. it is recommended to choose page image format. editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish between printed sources and those sourced electronically. cite it the same as the original printed book. Author’s surname. ‘Culture and adolescent development’. DL. Place of publication. Author’s surname. in an Acrobat (PDF) file. Title of book.e-book from a database Note: Style manual for authors.ac.). sometimes the source you wish to refer to may be unavailable and you must refer to someone else's citation of that source.htm>. C & Farruggia. p. S 2002.. DN (eds. Upper Saddle River. Place of publication. viewed 15 September 2005. Publisher. viewed day month year. The following is a suggested procedure for referencing e-books. Unit 11. Kung. e-book from the Internet Note: Style manual for authors. Dinnel. Where the source is a library database give the database name. Mak. ‘Title of chapter’. page numbers.

Where alternative formats are available. In-text (Brown n. Sunshine Press. not the URL. P & Thornhill. cited in Saunders. 3rd edn.d.d. The Reference List example would include only the source you have seen. as HTML or plain text.d. London. e-journal article from a database Note: Style manual for authors. editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish between journal articles from printed sources and articles sourced electronically. Lewis & Thornhill 2003. vol. volume number. 70. Intext MacDonald (1993. for. M. no. S n. eg.1. B.) Reference List Brown. Bernard.surname and initials Year of publication. Journal name. Lewis. p. No date Works that do not have a publication date may be cited using the expression n. pp. p. Lewis & Thornhill 2003. I 2001. and. 48) Reference List Saunders. in. you should cite the source you have used. Research methods for business students. p. 51-61. cite it the same as the original printed article. Pearson Educational. cited in Saunders. page numbers. Journal articles: examples Note: Capitalise the first letter of the first word. Zivkovic. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy Journal article Author(s) of article .must include both names in the in-text reference. A 2003. B. etc may have been removed. as images. 'An analysis of isothermal phase change of phase change material within rectangular and cylindrical containers'. and each of the major words of the journal name.d. eg. it is recommended to choose page image format. The following is a suggested procedure for referencing electronic journal articles. charts. B & Fujii. Solar Energy. Where the source is a library database give the database name. If a journal article is retrieved from a library database where it has been reformatted. Do not use capital letters for words such as on. eg. page number(s). 48. (no date). ‘Title of article’. or from a website. If a journal article is retrieved electronically from a library database in page image format. as an Acrobat (PDF) file. 48) states … or (MacDonald 1993. .) or Brown (n. issue number. Essex.

Journal name. and not PDF. 68-75. Australian Journal of Primary Health. viewed 15 September © RMIT University Library May 28. Mundermann. ‘Title of article’. database name. AU. issue number. chest tightness. vol. coughing. 2. The following is a suggested procedure for referencing electronic journal articles. and shortness of breath” (Courtney 2005. URL. and persistent respiratory symptoms such as wheezing. ‘Title of article’. Humble. Wakeling. viewed 1 May 2008. Journal name. ‘Title of article’. Journal name. (eg. issue number. 10. no. and persistent respiratory symptoms such as wheezing. BM. airflow limitation. e-journal article from the internet Note: Style manual for authors. 71.html. database name (if applicable). 'Foot orthoses affect frequency components of muscle activity in the lower extremity '. McCarter. Reference list example: Courtney. http://www. Diagnosis section) → a paragraph number (eg. pp. vol. para. If a journal article is retrieved from the internet where it is available only in HTML. viewed day month year.org/afp/20050515/1959. JM. SM 2005. Australian Public Affairs Full Text. DF & Pollart. In-text citation example: It is stated that: “Asthma causes airway hyperresponsiveness. Courtney 2005. chest tightness. volume number. 4) In press article Author(s) of article .aafp. you should cite the source you used along with the viewed date and the URL. Easthope.Author(s) of article . 2012 Page 11 of 18 . viewed day month year. viewed 30 March 2005. para. Diagnosis section) or It is stated that: “Asthma causes airway hyperresponsiveness.4) Author(s) of article . American Family Physician. page number(s). DJ in press. 'Consuming health: the market for complementary and alternative medicine'. Gait and posture. and shortness of breath” (Courtney 2005. As page numbers are not available for HTML format then if quoting or paraphrasing from the internet use as part of the in-text reference either: → a section heading. Courtney 2005. volume number. RN & Stefanyshyn.surname and initials Year of publication.surname and initials Year of publication. editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish between journal articles from printed sources and articles sourced electronically. 10. coughing. Nigg. A. ‘Childhood asthma: treatment update’. airflow limitation.surname and initials in press. G 2004. no. viewed day month year.

viewed 12 June 2009. Newspaper name. Newspaper article from a database Note: Style manual for authors. and each of the major words of the newspaper name. 13 May. For example: Electronics Weekly (11 July 2007. Initials Year of publication.1) states…… Newspaper article Author’s surname.html>. The Age. charts. eg. eg. Where the source is a library database give the database name. p. ‘Title of article’. J 2002. K & Kerin. p. include the article’s URL at the end of the citation. For example: The Australian (10 July 2002. Author’s surname. viewed day month year. Newspaper name. ‘Hormone alert for cancer’. If a newspaper article is retrieved from a library database where it has been reformatted. page number(s). Newspaper name. it is recommended to choose page image format. 1. p. ‘Delay raises doubt in public sector’. day month. etc may have been removed. Initials Year of publication. ‘Title of article’. Initials Year of publication. you should cite the source you have used.com. Sparrow. The Australian. The following is a suggested procedure for referencing electronic newspaper articles. J 2009. <http://www. viewed 21 July 2005. Magazine article – no author Note: if the magazine article does NOT have an author then provide details as an in-text citation only. N 2005. or from a website. page numbers. cite it the same as the original printed article. day month. NOT in the Reference List. NOT in the Reference List. not the URL. as HTML or plain text. name of database. Financial Times. editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish between articles from printed sources and articles sourced electronically. Factiva. Newspaper article from a website If a newspaper article is found via the newspaper’s website in HTML or plain text. Tobler.2005. . Timmins. viewed day month year. 10 July. as images. Author’s surname. ScienceDirect.4) states…… Newspaper articles Note: Capitalise the first letter of the first word. as an Acrobat (PDF) file. ‘Title of article’. If a newspaper article is retrieved electronically from a library database in page image format. day month. 'Risking blood on his hands’.au/opinion/risking-blood-on-his-hands-20090512-b1xs. Where alternative formats are available.theage. Note: if the newspaper article does NOT have an author then provide details as an in-text citation only. 20 July. <URL>.

org/newslists/news. viewed 10 September 2006. <URL>. Stone 2004. In-text citation example: It is stated that: “this formula is about 85% targeting the symptoms of headache and stuffy nose. Usage and prognosis section) → a paragraph number (eg. Headaches due to wind cold. date and month of posting. ‘Title of posting’. viewed day month year. <URL>. Shively.indiana. name of newsgroup owner. 12 July. (eg. ‘Bird flu can we out-collaborate a pandemic?’ blog. News. Steffen. 1 July.com/headaches/wind-cold. Year of document.11) Author/editor.com/archives/003310. Chemical Information Sources Discussion List.edu/archives/chminfl. Reference list example: Stone. name of the sponsor of the source. para. < http://beyondwellbeing. Blogs Author <author’s email address> Year of posting. If quoting or paraphrasing from a website. date and month of posting. A 2004. description of posting. description of posting. name of list owner. while only 15% directly addresses the cold or allergies” (Stone 2004.eclipse. Website documents Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. viewed day month year. viewed 15 September 2005. description of posting. E <chminf-l@listserv. <URL>.shtml >. 2012 Page 13 of 18 . Stone 2004.html>. while © RMIT University Library May 28. viewed 3 July 2003. Usage and prognosis section) or It is stated that: “this formula is about 85% targeting the symptoms of headache and stuffy nose.technology/msg01045. newsgroup. date and month of posting. 15 September 2005. ‘Title of posting’. ‘Title of posting’.eclipse.edu> 1997. A 2005.html>.Internet sources Discussion list message Author <author’s email address> Year of posting. Newsgroup message Author <author’s email address> Year of posting. ‘CA pre-1967 information’. then use as part of the in-text reference either: → a section heading.Eclipse. <URL>.indiana. Al Stone Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines. <http://dev. ‘Oracle PL/SQL in Eclipse’. <http://listserv. unless they are in PDF format. Milinkovich. list server.html>. viewed day month year. <http://www. 15 August. that is NOT a PDF. Title of document. name of list owner. M 2005.worldchanging. World Changing: another world is here. date of viewing.Technology.

H 2005. Place of publication. RMIT University Library. RMIT University Library. Higher education policy series. Initials Year of publication. viewed day month year. Title of work. The following document appeared as a . Melbourne. Kogan. RMIT University Learning Hub. viewed day month year. RMIT University.lib. viewed 8 July 2005. Publisher. 11) Course readings Course readings from RMIT University Library reserve Author’s surname. course readings from ISYS6655. Initials Year of publication. course notes from (number). I & El-Khawas. Lecture notes 3: bulldozers and land clearing. Publisher. Initials Year of publication. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Place of publication. reports of commissions of inquiry. C 2002. course readings from CIVE1057. Reports Government publications These may include departmental reports. Title of work. OR Australia. Sponsoring body or body issuing report series.edu. para. Canberra. RMIT University Learning Hub. Title of work. Initials Year of publication. course notes from (number).rmit. Author’s surname.au/ereserve/notes02/cive1057/31259006935782. committees of review and committees of parliament. RMIT University Library <http://eresources. Staffing higher education : meeting new challenges : report of the IMHE project on policies for academic staffing in higher education. Metadata. Place of publication. Melbourne. London. EH 1994.pdf>. Holland. J 2004. viewed 22 July 2005. Publisher. Parliament 1976. viewed 22 July 2005. viewed day month year. Moses. Melbourne. RMIT University. RMIT University Library <URL>. course notes from (number). Publisher. Report series code and number. Course readings from RMIT University Library e-reserve Author’s surname. 27.only 15% directly addresses the cold or allergies” (Stone 2004. RMIT University. course readings fromMIET1068. Smith. Place of publication. Title of report. Mechanical design 2: project resource material. Course readings from RMIT University Learning Hub Author’s surname. Paper 142. Dixon. Parl. Department of Foreign Affairs annual report 1975. no. P. Many government publications are available on the Internet.

65. Place of publication. without changing the capitalisation or spelling.0. Publisher. but is also available from the relevant authority's website.Parliamentary paper. Subsequent references may refer to it by an undated. Fraud control arrangements in the Australian Customs Service. Parl. no.anao. Publisher. Year of publication.gov. Mental Health In Australia: A Snapshot. Legislation is usually numbered as well as dated. New Zealand. Year of publication. Parliament 2003. Canberra. For Australian State legislation. Debates.55. cat. Legislation and Legal cases Legislation When referring to Commonwealth Acts.gov. no.au/>. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005. Bills currently before Parliament are presented in roman type. the State must be included in roman type.0. Title of report.001.. viewed day month year.nsf/ Publications/2F8FE1D39613A8B8CA256CF300709A62>. AND Australian National Audit Office 2003. Australian social trends 2005. 4102. no. The number follows the date. <http://www. ABS. Paper 32. not italics. Australia. The way you access a document may affect your citation. An Act or Ordinance may be cited by the short title. Australian Bureau of Statistics Author’s name. <http://www.  Interstate Road Transport Act 1985 (Cwlth) © RMIT University Library May 28.. cat. Parliamentary debates For parliamentary debates and the official records of what has been said in parliament.au/WebSite. use roman type. Australia. viewed 18 August 2005. which is usually drafted into modern legislation. viewed August 4 2003. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004.abs. cat. The words Act and Bill are generally written with a capital letter. Place of publication. the title must be reproduced exactly. descriptive title in roman type. 4824. OR Author’s name. Canada and the United States. Acts of Parliaments of the United Kingdom. cat. Fraud control arrangements in the Australian Customs Service. p. Ordinances and Regulations. no. Vol S25. URL. 2012 Page 15 of 18 . The first reference must always include the short title in italics. Title of report. Canberra. Canberra. ABS. Senate 2000.

Greutner v. Kovacs. IEEE Computer Society Press. Place of publication. (date) or volume number. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals. US patent 7. 1994. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Los Alamitos. Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body. Patent title. pp.125. ‘Title of thesis’. page number(s). ‘Simulation-scheduling system using hybrid software technology’. Initials Year of preparation of thesis. October 10-12. Title of standard. California. ‘Structure and removal of non-cellulosic components of eucalypt woods’. or both. in Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Automation Technology: Proceedings of the 4th International conference. [in] Editor (if applicable). . Institution under whose auspices the study was taken.351356. Initials Year of publication. Publisher of standard. Place of publication. RG Sandia Corporation 2006. Everard (1960) 103 CLR 177 Other sources Conference paper Author’s surname. Tucker . abbreviated name of report series. 50) (Cwlth) Firearms Act 1936 (NSW) Badgers Act 1974 (UK) Legal cases To fully cite legal authorities’ list name of case. Troy. Patent number including country of issue. Name(s) of assignees Year of Patent.497. Award.    Interstate Road Transport Act Air Navigation Act 1920 (No. Standard Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication. Title of published proceeding which may include place held and date(s). New York. MD & Betty. Garland. Publisher. and beginning page. GL 1994. MApplSci thesis. ‘Title of paper’. CP 1986. Patent Name(s) of inventor. Thesis Author’s surname.

telephone call. also in italics. video recording. – should be provided as an in-text citation. 2012 Page 17 of 18 . CD-ROM. email. either – face-to-face interview or conversation. Title. Galaxy Leisure Corporation. Note: the in-text reference would be to the title of the program. day month. Or Smith. Personal communication Information gained through personal communication. Place released. Parliament House. Film. ISO 4948-1:1982. C 2000. date viewed. Or Swiss ball: exercises for performance and function 1999. publisher. Melbourne. Canberra. © RMIT University Library May 28. What are we going to do with the money? 1997. BHP enters new era. Coastwatch initiative bears fruit. Details of personal communications do not need to be included in the Reference List. CD-ROM.. media release. Media release Name of person who delivered media release Year released. media release. Name of organisation/professional body represented. BHP Limited. media release. letter. Watersmith. Publisher. facsimile. B & Heath. including day. Place of publication. Ms S Savieri confirmed…. International Organization for Standardization. 3 February. Title. 8 August. month and year. Steels .classification . CD-ROM Author/editor’s name. is provided in the text. Initials Year. television program. 1 March. Wheater's functional histology : a text and colour atlas.  When interviewed on 24 April 1999. Details of the organisation that the person represents may also be included. Young. Note that initials precede the family name. Edinburgh. The information. format. Sydney. 21 July. etc. SBS Television.part 1: classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition. Churchill Livingstone. 4th edn. J 2000. TV and radio program Title of program Date of recording.International Organization for Standardization 1982. Edition. video. A (Minister for Justice and Customs) 1999. Geneva. or parenthically. place of recording.

Style manual for authors. ... RMIT University. comm. John Wiley & Sons. Bibliography RMIT Business 2007. It has been confirmed that an outbreak occurred in Shepparton (S Savieri [Australian Institute of Criminology] 1999. 24 April). 6th edn. editors and printers 2002. Melbourne. Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation in RMIT Business. Australia.   Ms S Savieri (Australian Institute of Criminology) confirmed this by email on 24 April 1999. 24 April). pers. pers.  Ms S Savieri confirmed this by facsimile on 24 April 1999. It has been confirmed that an outbreak occurred in Shepparton (S Savieri 1999. comm.

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