At the end of the class, students should be able to: Identify types of superstructures Determine the properties of each types of superstructures Understand the construction method of each types of superstructures




A column in structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.  Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest.


National Capitol Columns at the United States National Arboretum in Washington, D.C.

Mosque of Uqba, city of Kairouan, Tunisia

In architecture "column" refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features.

Early columns were constructed of stone, some out of a single piece of stone, usually by turning on a lathe-like apparatus.  Single-piece columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture  Modern columns are constructed out of steel, poured or precast concrete, or brick.  They may then be clad in an architectural covering (or veneer), or left bare.


Beam are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements.  A beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own weight and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment.

Beams generally carry vertical gravitational forces but can also be used to carry horizontal loads (i.e., loads due to an earthquake or wind). The loads carried by a beam are transferred to columns, walls, or girders, which then transfer the force to adjacent structural compression members. Beams are characterized by their profile (the shape of their cross-section), length and material. In contemporary construction, beams are typically made of steel, reinforced concrete, or wood. One of the most common types of steel beam is the Ibeam or wide-flange beam (also known as a "universal beam" or, for stouter sections, a "universal column"). This is commonly used in steel-frame buildings and bridges. Other common beam profiles are the C-channel, the hollow structural section beam, the pipe, and the angle.

I Beam

Universal Beam

Hollow Beam


In architecture, a floor is generally the lower horizontal surface of a room, and/or the supporting structure underneath it.  A floor typically consists of a support structure called a sub-floor on top of which is laid a floor covering to provide a walking surface.

The work of installing a floor covering is called flooring. This term is also used to refer to any permanent floor covering and in particular to wood flooring.  The two major forms of floor construction are 'suspended' and 'solid'. Suspended floors are usually made out of quality or economical timber boards or waterproof chipboard sheets fixed on top of joists

Functional requirements
The main function is to provide support for the occupants, furniture and equipment of building.  These may be defined as the provision of adequate:

 Strength

and stability  Fire resistance  Sound insulation  Thermal insulation  Damp insulation



Solid floor
Plain or reinforced concrete.  In most building without basements the ground floors are solid of construction, of concrete on hardcore resting directly on the ground.  The thickness of the slab will vary according to the loading which the floor is to carry and the bearing capacity of the ground.

Suspended floor

These may be constructed in timber, reinforced concrete or steel and, as in the case of roof construction may be in the form of single, double or triple construction according to the loads and spans involved.

Timber floor
The timber floor has the advantages of light self-weight and of being a dry form of construction.  It is simple to construct and this, together with the saving effected in the supporting structure because of its light weight, make it economical particularly where the imposed loads are small.

Concrete floor
 

The concrete floor has the advantage of strength and good fire resistance. Its use in most of form of multi-storey building, particularly because of the requirements in respect of fire resistance which apply to such structures. The choice of a concrete floor can be made from a wide variety of types including in situ solid concrete floors, in situ hollow block floors and pre cast floors of numerous forms.



   

Roof: the entire covering assembly Roofing: that part of the roof which is exposed to the elements. Pitch: rise over run Substrate: the decking that carries the roofing material. Eaves: roof overhangs Ridge: the peak of two or more roof slopes Valley: an inverse ridge Ceiling: the finish material attached to the underside of the roof

Basic types of roof designs:

    

Flat: must have a slight slope for drainage Shed: a single slope Gable: two slopes meeting at a ridge. Two walls extend up to the ridge. Hip: two gables, a pyramid could be considered a hip roof. Gambrel: four slopes in one direction, the typical barn roof. Mansard: two gambrels. Basically is to the gambrel what the hip is to gable.







Shed Roof

Gable Roof

Hipped Roof

Mansard Roof

Gambrel Roof

Pitched roof design:
A roof is designated as pitch if its slope is more than ten degrees.  In areas of heavy rainfall a steeply pitched roof quickly throws off rain, while in areas oh heavy snowfall a less steeply pitch roof, not more than 35-40 degrees, preserves a useful ‘insulating blanket’ of snow during the cold season, but permits the water to run off freely.

Flat roof design
A roof is designated as flat if its slope is less than ten degrees  Flat roofs have traditionally been used in hot climates where water accumulation is not a problem  They were generally unkown in northern climated before the end of the last century.

Advantages of flat roof design
No space lost below roof, i.e. no dead space.  Less material is used than in a sloped roof.  The rooftop is potentially useful as a terrace, or sleeping porch.  Potentially pleasing appearance.  Easier to build than a sloped roof

Disadvantages of flat roof design
Roof elements can not overlap, hence waterproofing must be more complex, and more thorough  Drainage is not automatic  Support of snow load must be insured

Weatherproofing the flat roof
The flat roof relied on some kind of membrane for keeping moisture out. In dry climates this is done with clay tiles, but in Canada asphalt, or rubber is necessary.  Flat roofs are never actually flat, a subtle slope directs standing moisture to drains at edges, or inside

Polyurethane coating
Roof waterproofing film


Flashing is special material used to make sure that no moisture leaks in those areas of a roof that are particularly vulnerable to penetration. Areas where flashing is commonly used:
 Wherever

the roof is pierced by a chimney, skylight, air or plumbing vent  Where roofs meet walls  At the edges of flat roofs where they meet parapet walls (a wall that extends above the level of the roof)

Because hot air rises, roofs lose more heat than walls, and thus require greater degree of insulation.  There is a multitude of different locations for the insulation in a roof, some of which are listed here.

Sloped roofs insulation location
Resting above ceiling  Attached between rafters  Between the substrate and the roofing (a particularly useful method of the rafters are to be exposed, but may result in overheating in the summer)

Flat roofs insulation location
Between substrate and roofing  Resting above roofing material (with ballast provided to keep it from moving)

Factors to be considered


Weather Resistance

Adequate weather resistance is provided by the roof coverings and the nature of these will affect the form of some details of the roof structure.

Thermal Insulation

Is rarely a factor affecting the choice of the roof type since the normal methods of providing it are generally applicable to all form of roof.

Fire Resistance
The degrees of fire resistance which a roof should provide depends upon the proximity of other building which the roof cover.  Adequate fire resistance is necessary in order to give protection against the spread of fire from and to any adjacent buildings and to prevent early collapse of the roof.

Sound Insulation
Most form of roof construction provide for the insulation of building an adequate degree of insulation against sound from external sources.  Only in the case of building such as concert halls in noisy localities might special precautions be necessary and only in such cases it is likely to be a factor affecting the choice and design of the roof structure

Roof drainage

R.C gutter

Scupper drain

The vertical constructions of a building that enclosed, separate, and protect its interior spaces.  It is consist of: 1) Load bearing wall 2) Composite wall 3) Non-load bearing wall

A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area.  Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air.  There are three principal types of structural walls: building walls, exterior boundary walls, and retaining walls.

In addition to support vertical loads, exterior wall constructions must be able to withstand horizontal wind loading.  If rigid enough, they can serve as shear walls and transfer lateral wind and seismic forces to the ground foundation.  The wall construction should control the passage of heat, infiltrating air, sound, moisture and water vapour, durable and resistant to the weathering effects.

Internal Wall

The interior walls or partitions, which subdivide the space within a building, may be either structural or non load bearing. be able to support the desired finish materials, provide the required degree of acoustical separation, and accommodate the distribution and outlets of mechanical and electrical services. The primary function is to act as a vertical divider of floor space and in so doing form a storey height enclosing element.

Opening for doors and windows must be constructed so that any vertical loads from above are distributed around the openings and not transferred to the doors and windows.  The size and location are determined by the requirements for natural light, ventilation, view and physical access

Load Bearing Wall

   

A load-bearing wall or bearing wall, is one in which a wall of a structure bears the weight and force resting upon it, conducting the vertical load from the upper structure to the foundation. It gives a building structural integrity. It carries and distributes weight from the roof and top floors down to the foundation. Damage to a load bearing wall can cause floors to sag, finishes to crack and the entire structure to collapse The materials most often used to construct load-bearing walls in large buildings are concrete, block, or brick.

Application of Load Bearing Wall

Depending on the type of building and the number of stories, load-bearing walls are gauged to the appropriate thickness to carry the weight above it. Without doing so, it is possible that an outer wall could become unstable if the load exceeds the strength of the material used, potentially leading to the collapse of the structure.

Notre Dame de Paris

flying buttress

Non-Load Bearing Wall

A wall capable only of supporting its own weight and (if it is an exterior wall) capable of resisting the force of the wind blowing against it; it cannot support an imposed load

Composite Wall

A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units of different types of materials that are bonded together, one forming the facing of the wall and the other the backup.

Composite Wall

Retaining Wall
 

A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. Retaining walls prevent down slope movement or erosion and provide support for vertical or near-vertical grade changes. Cofferdams and bulkheads, structures that hold back water, are sometimes also considered retaining walls. Retaining walls are generally made of masonry, stone, brick, concrete, vinyl, steel or timber.

Retaining Wall

Retaining Wall

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