CT Scanning

Seminar Report ‘03

There are two main limitations of using conventional x-rays to examine internal structures of the body. Firstly superimpositions of the 3-dimensional information onto a single plane make diagnosis confusing and often difficult. Secondly the photographic film usually used for making radiographs has a limited dynamic range and therefore only object that have large variation in the x-ray absorption relative to their surroundings will cause sufficient contrast differences on the film to be distinguished by the eye. Thus the details of bony structures can be seen, it is difficult to discern the shape and composition of soft tissue organ accurately. CT uses special x-ray equipment to obtain image data from different angles around a body and then shows a cross section of body tissues and organs. i.e., it can show several types of tissue-lung,bone,soft tissue and blood vessel with great clarity. CT of the body is a patient friendly exam that involves little radiation exposure.

Dept. of EEE


MESCE Kuttippuram

CT Scanning

Seminar Report ‘03

In CT scanning, the image is reconstructed from a large number of absorption profiles taken at regular angular intervals around a slice, each profile being made up from a parallel set of absorption values through the object. ie, CT also passes x-rays through the body of the patient but the detection method is usually electronic in nature, and the data is converted from analog signal to digital impulses in an AD converter. This digital representation of the x-ray intensity is fed in to a computer, which then reconstruct an image. The method of doing of tomography uses an x-ray detector which translates which translates linearly on a track across the x-ray beam, and when the end of the scan is reached the x-ray tube and the detector are rotated to a new angle and the linear motion is repeated. The latest generation of CT machines use a ‘fan-beam’ geometry with an array of detectors which simultaneously detect x-rays on a number of different paths through the patient.

Dept. of EEE


MESCE Kuttippuram

With in the machine an X-ray tube on a rotating gantry moves around the patient’s body to produce the images. Dept. of EEE 3 MESCE Kuttippuram . a rotating gantry that has an X-ray tube mounted on one side an arc –shaped detector mounted on opposite side. Each profile is then reconstructed by a dedicated computer into two time. The patient lies still on a table that can move up/down and slide in to and out from the centre of hole. something like a doughnut. Inside the scanner. An X-ray beam is emitted in a fan beam as the rotating frame spins the X-ray tube and detector around the patient. During each rotation the detector records about 1000 images (profiles) of the expanded X-ray beam.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 CT SCANNER CT scanner is a large square machine with a hole in the centre. Each time the X-ray tube and detector make a 360 degree rotation and X-ray passes through the patient’s body the image of a thin section is acquired. PHOTOGRAPH OF CT-SCANNER PROCEDURE In CT the film is replaced by an array of detectors which measures X-ray profile.

of EEE 4 MESCE Kuttippuram .CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 X-ray image Abdomen cross -sections DIFFERENCE BETWEEN X-RAY IMAGE AND CT SCANNED IMAGE Head cross -sections X-ray image 3-D Head cross -section Abdomen crosssections - Head cross -sections 3-D Head crosssection - X-ray image Abdomen cross-sections X-ray image Abdomen cross-sections Head cross-sections 3-D Head cross-section Head cross-sections 3-D Head cross-section Dept.

Scattering has two components-coherent or Raleigh scattering in which the direction of the photon is changed . of EEE 5 MESCE Kuttippuram . A mono energetic beam with an input intensity of I0 photons passing through a length of material has an output intensity of I=I0℮(-µx) Dept.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 PHYSICS OF TOMOGRAPHY X-ray photons interact with material in there principal ways: pair production.but it does not change frequency. The combined effects of scattering and absorption results in an exponential attenuation of a beam of photons as it passes through a material. The other is that Compton or incoherent scattering. photoelectric absorption and scattering .Pair production only occurs if the photon energy is ›1.which is much higher than the energies used in medical tomography.022mev. Photoelectric absorption occurs when the photon is completely absorbed and transfers its energy to an electron . where the photon gives up some of its energy to an electron and continues on in a different directions at lower energy.The electron then passes through the material giving up its energy until it comes to rest.

usually at the edge of the beam and sampling this detector at the same time as the measurement of the beam transmitted through the patient is sampled. The intensity variations with time can be measured by putting a reference X-ray detector in a portion of beam which does not intersect the patient. The spatial fluctuations can be measured during an initial calibration run using a known object. such as a water filled cylinder in the place of patient. of EEE 6 MESCE Kuttippuram .CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 CALIBRATION The projection p(x) depends on measurements of both the transmitted X-ray intensity I(0) and the incident X-ray intensity I0(x). Dept.

This includes x-ray source and detectors. • Scanning System – takes suitable reading for a picture to be reconstructed. Dept.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 SYSTEM COMPONENTS All computed tomography system consists of four major subsystems. Viewing System – presents this information in visual form and includes other manipulative aids to assist diagnosis. • • Processing Unit – converts these readings into intelligible picture information. • Storage Unit – here picture is stored in digital form. of EEE 7 MESCE Kuttippuram .

which eliminates the problem of detector drift. There are three types of detectors commonly used in CT scanning. rotation machines have been designed in which only the x-ray source rotates within a full circle of stationary detectors arranged around a patient. They are xenon gas ionization detector. the highest image quality free from disturbing blurring effects is obtained with the aid of pulsed x-ray radiation. In basic scanning process. As the gantry rotates an electric signal is generated at certain positions of rotating system. The system permits calibration during scanning. A good detector is a pre-requisite to obtain Dept. Inorder to get a clear image. A grid tube prevents the electron current from striking the anode except when desired allowing the x-rays to be emitted in bursts. During rotation. high voltage is applied at all times. X-RAY SOURCE In CT scanners. scintillation crystal and photomultiplier and scintillarc. The tube and the detector moves in a straight line. DETECTORS For a good image quality.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 SCANNING SYSTEM The purpose of the scanning is to acquire enough information to reconstruct a picture for an accurate diagnosis. of EEE 8 MESCE Kuttippuram . a collimated x-ray beam passes through the body and its attenuation is detected by a sensor that moves on a gantry along with the x-ray tube. The individual detectors are lined up practically without gaps so that the radiation which has penetrated the patient is optimally used. it is important to have a stable system response and in that detectors play a significant role.

However the main part is of processing the profiles to convert the information which can be displayed as a picture and used for diagnosis. Iterative methods-which implement some form of algebraic solution. PROCESSING UNIT The information received by the computer from the scanning gantry needs processing for reconstructing the pictures. • Absorption information-the values of attenuation coefficient from the detectors. The data from the gantry contains information on the following parameters. Analytical methods-where an exact formula is used. Two of these are filtered back projection. of EEE 9 MESCE Kuttippuram . and two dimensional fourier reconstruction technique. • Reference information-obtained from the reference detector that monitors the tube. the measuring electronics must have a large dynamic range to backup the detector. • • • Back projection-which is analogous to graphic reconstruction. Dept. In general the reconstruction method can be classified in to three major techniques. The first stage of computation is to analyze and convert all the collected data in to a set of profiles.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 optimal image quality. X-ray • Calibration information-Obtained at the end of each traverse. • Positional information-such as which traverse is being performed and how far the scanning frame is along its traverse. which incoperates the convolution of the data and fourier filtering of the image.

This technique however tends require long computation time.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 The method of back projection without any further processing is simple and direct. VIEWING SYSTEM In most of the CT system the final picture is available on a television type picture tube. In This method each of the measured profiles is projected back over the image area at same angle from which it was taken. The method requires several steps to modify the original profiles in to a set of profiles which can be projected back to give an un blurred image. Current commercial scanners use a mathematical technique known as convolution of filtering. of EEE 10 MESCE Kuttippuram . The earlier scanners used iterative technique which took a succession of back projection correcting at each stage until an accurate reconstruction was achieved. This technique enables to have a much larger dynamic range than the eye can possibly have. At the same time each projection not only contributes to the point that originally formed the profile but also to all the other points in its paths. STORING AND DOCUMENTATION Dept. The technique in fact produces starred images and blurring and this makes it totally unsuitable for providing pictures of adequate clarity for medical diagnosis. This technique employes a spatial filter to remove the artifacts. The picture is constructed by a number of elements in a square matrix wherein each element has a value representative of the absorption value of the point in the body which it represents.

The picture is stored in the digital form so that the evaluation is convenient on a computer assisted program. various methods of storage are used.CT Scanning For subsequent processing or evaluation of Seminar Report ‘03 a CT picture. of EEE 11 MESCE Kuttippuram . Dept.magnetic tape and floppy disc. The magnetic disc normally hold a small number of pictures. For this purpose the data carries generally employed are magnetic disc . For long term storage magnetic tapes are performed. Most manufactures of CT units use magnetic tape and floppy disc and floppy disc provide medium storage range. So it cannot be employed as a long term storage medium.

In a modern CT scanner an X-ray fan beam and dector sweep around the patient obtaining thousands of projections at different angles . X-rays passing through an object can be absorbed or scattered and the resulting loss in intensity is given by I=Iexp(-µx) Where µ is the linear attenuation coefficient X is the distance the X-ray has traveled. of EEE 12 MESCE Kuttippuram .The average linear attenuation coefficient along the projected line through the object is given by µ=ln(I/I0)/-Nt(delta t) where µ is the average attenuation coefficient I/I0 is the normalized intensity Delta t is the product of step size Nt is the number of steps RECONSTRUCTION There have been many different algorithms developed to accomplish this task and while they have all been shown to be fundamentally identical the actual Dept.The CT scanner measures the intensity of the X-ray beam which pass through the object . The initial ground work for computed tomography was laid by Radon.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION Computed tomography scans are a very powerful tool in medicine. and he demonstracted that an object could be reconstructerd from an infinite number of projections through that object .

The image under reconstruction is not continuous . The projection lines will not pass perfectly through the centre of each pixels in their path and it is necessary to establish a method for describing the projection lines in terms of individual pixel with in a matrix.y)-where N is the number of translation pixels in the t axis. BACK PROJECTION Back projection is a relatively elementary process .One simply assigns the mean attenuation coefficient given by the equation ln(I/I0)/Nt(delta t) to each point along that line. of EEE 13 MESCE Kuttippuram . t=xcosθ+ysinθ This pixels in the N/N matrix can be assigned attenuation coefficient values from measurement G(x. This back projection is repeated for all angles .and filtering the image.θ) Dept.As its name implies this technique involves two parts. each of these points pixel .The attenuation coefficient for a particular point will be built up from all projection passing through that point .but is composed of discrete pixels. Back projecting along the projection lines used .this process is not quite trival . In reality . For a given angle in measurement space a value at can be calculated for each pixel in the N/N matrix as follows.y)=µ(t. By establishing an N/N matrix reconstruction matrix –g(x. One of the most popular algorithm is the filtered back projection technique .In imaging jargon.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 techniques appear quite different.that is an element of the final image or picture.

FILTERING Back projection alone results in a blurred reconstruction image . Filtering and back projections are both linear operations. which combines a sine function with ramp filter. G(ω)=F(ω)*H(ω) g(t)=f(t)*h(t) Dept. Hsl(ω)=π|ω|sine(ω/ωmax) This filter results in a small amount of blurring. Filtering is performed by multiplying the fourier transform of a wave form by the filter function . but is much less sensitive to noise.Filtering must be applied to correct for this and obtain an accurate image of the object.CT Scanning This process is repeated for each angle. Ie g(x. There are a number of choices in the type of filter to use .y)=(1/N)εg(x.the result is then inverse fourier transformed to produce the filtered waveform.The simplest and most rigorous one is the ramp filter. multiplication in Fourier space is equivalent to a convolution in normal space. H(ω)=π(ω) The most commonly used filter is the Shepp-Logan filter. of EEE 14 MESCE Kuttippuram .y) Seminar Report ‘03 And the matrices are summed and divided by the number of angles to obtain the final back projected image. In fourier transforms.

The convolution integral is defined by ζf(u)h(t-u)du.f(t) and h(t) respectively and * represents a convolution integral. The main problem with CT has been the potential danger it represents because of radiation exposure . The properties of wavelets are used to localize the radon transform and reconstruct a local region of the cross section of a body. of EEE 15 MESCE Kuttippuram . The method is based on an algorithm that reconstructs the wavelet coefficients of an image from the radon transform data.the result is a two dimensional array of attenuation coefficient. using almost completely local data.the radiation effects problem has not received the same degree. The new processing data method reduces the amount of radiation exposure needed while maintaining . An upper bound for the reconstruction error in terms of data used is also determined by the algorithm. CT Numbers Once both filtering and back projections have been performed .CT’s high resolution.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 where G(ω) and H(ω) are fourier transforms of g(t).The developments in CT imaging have made marked improvements in its technological capabilities . CT Number=1000(µ-µw)/µw Where μw is the attenuation coefficient for water. which for example requires 2% of full exposure data to reconstruct a local region 16 pixels in radius in a 256*256 pixel image. For historical reasons . Dept. The variance of the elements of the null space is negligible in the locally reconstructed image.the attenuation coefficients are converted into CT numbers in units of Houvsfield. This significantly reduces the radiation exposure and less computation time.

• Computes to high accuracy a small region of the image from measurements on line passing only through the region reducing computation time and radiation exposure. Local image reconstruction is achieved with superior definitions in shortest time and with less radiation exposure to the patient. • Reconstructs the density at a point using only line integral data on lines that pass through a small region containing that point .CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 After scanning the patient the operator can go straight to the wavelet transform without having to first reconstruct the image. of EEE 16 MESCE Kuttippuram . Dept. That is in summary • Reconstructs with high accuracy and with few computations the wavelet transform of an image directly from the tomographic measurements.achieving reduced radiation exposure. To obtain wavelet transform the algorithm can be applied to full data or local data.

including lungs. which is about the same as the average person receives from background radiation in 3 years. • • • CT scanning is painless . bones. • CT scanning can identify both normal and abnormal structures. soft tissues and blood vessels. but benefits of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risks . Dept. Diagnosis made with the assistance of CT scan eliminate the need for invasive exploratory surgery and surgical biopsy. RISKS • CT does involve exposure to radiation in the form of X-rays . noninvasive and accurate. • The risk of serious allergic reaction to iodine containing contrast material is rare and radiology departments are well equipped to deal them.The effective radiation does from this procedure is about 10mv . of EEE 17 MESCE Kuttippuram . CT examinations are fast and simple. • Special care is taken during X-ray examination to ensure maximum safety for the patient by shielding the abdomen and pelvis being imaged. • CT has been shown to be a cost-effective imaging tool for a wide range of clinical problems. making it a useful tool to guide radiotherapy .CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 BENEFITS AND RISKS BENEFITS • Unlike other imaging methods CT scanning offers detailed view of many types of tissues . needle biopsies and other minimally producers.

The exam is not generally indicated for pregnant women. Dept. In some situations soft tissues are may be unclear by near by bone structures.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 Limitations of CT scanning of the body Very fine soft tissues details in areas such as a shoulder or knee can be more readily and clearly seen with MRI. of EEE 18 MESCE Kuttippuram .

Two important potential applications are inspection of jet engines and machine parts such as blades and disks & inspection of rods in nuclear reactives. allowing radiologists to observe sequences of heat functioning throughout its cycle of operation. there is much interest in developing a real time heart tomography machine. Industrial tomography is another future direction in which tomography is heading. and to lower the cost with existing quality.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS The current trends in the industry appear to be improve picture quality primarily resedation improvement and artifact reduction. Dept. Tomography allows detailed inspection of complex and critical parts. of EEE 19 MESCE Kuttippuram . In the future.

Also the developments in CT imaging have made marked improvements in its technological capabilities the radiation effects problem has not received the same degree.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 CONCLUSION When CT scanners first appeared it used to take four minutes to scan a section. The properties of wavelets are used here. Special machines are being developed for heart scanning which completes scans in milliseconds. Dept. of EEE 20 MESCE Kuttippuram . This significantly reduces the radiation exposure and less computation time. But the machines of today can complete the scan in few seconds. thus making it impossible to image moving organs like the heart.

Tata Mc Graw Hill Medical Instrumentation – John G. Webster Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements. Khandpur.colorado.edu|physics|2000|index. of EEE 21 MESCE Kuttippuram .Lesliecromwell www.pl Dept.S.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 REFERENCES • • • • Hand book of biomedical instrumentation – R.


of EEE 23 MESCE Kuttippuram . lungs and blood vessels.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 ABSTRACT CT scanning – computed tomography is a mechanism of getting the internal details of a section. Dept. bone. CT is a fast patient friendly and has the unique ability to image a combination of soft tissue. It is a diagonostic imaging procedure in which anatomical information is digitally reconstructed from X-ray transmission data obtained by scanning an area from many directions in the same plane to visualize information in that plane.

P. Prof. Haseena. MES College of Engineering. Kuttippuram. Dept. Department of EEE). (Staff in-charge. Asst. I would also like to thank my seminar guide Mrs. Prof. Gracious gratitude to all the faculty of the department of EEE & friends for their valuable advice and encouragement. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Gylson Thomas. for his cooperation and encouragement. & Head.CT Scanning Seminar Report ‘03 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to Dr.Y (Lecturer. of EEE 24 MESCE Kuttippuram .Nambissan. Department of EEE) for their invaluable advice and wholehearted cooperation without which this seminar would not have seen the light of day.

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