&
r
r
= + +
0 ) ) ( (
, 1
= +
=
k ki ki i k
n
i k i
k
J n n u u
r
r r
=
=
n
i
i
t d d
1
) (
2
x
1
x
3
x
p
x
r
i
k
ki
n
r
d
k
d
n
r
1
y
2
y
3
y
Spatial averaging
8
Definitions:
Volume average Intrinsic phasic average.
Volume phase fraction:
>= <
i
d
d t y x f
d
f
'
) , (
1 r r
= > <
k
d
k
k
d t y x f
d
f
'
) , (
1 r r
=
d
t x d
p k
k
) , (
r
1
1
=
=
n
k
k
k k
f f > < >= <
Space averaging: basic equations
9
For all kvolumes that are differentiables, (Gray and Lee (1977),
Howes and Whitaker (1985)).
Temporal derivative:
Spatial derivative:
Next, apply averaging to the conservation equations.
S d n u f
d
f
t t
f
ki
dS
ki
ki
'
1 r r
> <
>=
<
S d n f
d
f f
ki
dS
ki
'
1
>
< f
t t
f
> < > < f f
Space averaging: averaging theorems
10
k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k
F P u u u
t
> < + > < + > < = > < + > <
r r r
{ } S d n P u u u
d
ki
dS
k k k ki k k
ki
'
) (
1 r r r r
+
ki
dS
k ki k k k k k k k k k
S d n u u
d
u
t
'
) (
1 r r r r
Space averaging: conservation equations
Continuity equation:
Momentum equation:
mass transfer term
interaction term
11
Drag is caused by relative motion between phases.
Commonly used drag models (fluidfluid multiphase).
Schuh et al. (1989).
Schiller and Naumann (1935).
Morsi and Alexander (1972).
Schwarz and Turner (1988; for bubble columns).
Symmetric law.
Many researchers devise and implement their own drag models
for their specific systems.
, 0 ) (
1
=
=
n
i
k i ik
u u K
r r
ik
drag
k k ik
f
K
=
i
k
k
ik
d
18
2
=
Interphase forces
12
Interphase forces: drag force models
Fluidfluid drag functions
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Re
Cd
Schiller and
Naumann
Schuh et al.
Morsi et Alexander
( )
>
+
=
1000 Re 44 . 0
1000 Re Re 15 . 0 1 24
687 . 0
D
C
(Re) are , , where
Re Re
3 2 1
2
3 2
1
f a a a
a a
a C
D
+ + =
Schiller and Naumann
Schuh et al.
Morsi and Alexander
( )
( )
>
> +
< +
=
2500 Re 4008 . 0
2500 Re 200 Re / Re 0135 . 0 Re 914 . 0 24
200 Re 0 Re 15 . 0 1 24
282 . 0
687 . 0
D
C
13
Virtual mass effect: caused by relative acceleration between
phases Drew and Lahey (1990).
Virtual mass effect is significant when the second phase density is
much smaller than the primary phase density (i.e., bubble column).
Lift force: caused by the shearing effect of the fluid onto the
particle Drew and Lahey (1990).
Lift force usually insignificant compared to drag force except when
the phases separate quickly and near boundaries.

\

+
= ) ( ) (
, s s
s
f f
f
f s vm fs vm
u u
t
u
u u
t
u
C K
r r
r
r r
r
) ( ) (
, f s f f s L fs k
u u u C K
r r r
=
Interphase forces: virtual mass and lift
14
Modeling heat transfer
Conservation equation of phase enthalpy.
k k k k k
k
k k k k k k k k
R u S P u
t
P
h u h
t
+ + +
= +
r r r
: ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
ik k ki k i
n
k
ki k
h h m T T q + +
=
&
r
Viscous dissipation
term
Originates from
work term for
volume fraction
changes
Energy sources
e.g., radiation
15
k k k k k
k
k k k k k k k k
R u S P u
t
P
h u h
t
+ + +
= +
r r r
: ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
ik k ki k i
n
k
ki k
h h m T T q + +
=
&
r
Interphase heat
transfer term
Heat conduction
Energy transfer with
mass transfer
Modeling heat transfer
Conservation equation of phase enthalpy.
16
Assume Fouriers law:
For granular flows
k
is obtained from packed bed conductivity
expression, Kuipers, Prins and Swaaij (1992).
Near wall heat transfer is calculated as in single phase.
All standard boundary conditions for temperature can be
implemented for multiphase.
k k k
T q =
r
Heat conduction
17
The interphase heat transfer coefficient is given by.
Granular Model (Gunn, 1978).
Fluidfluid model.
2
6
i
i i k
ik
d
Nu
=
) Pr Re 7 . 0 1 )( 5 10 7 (
3
1
2 . 0 2
+ + =
f f s
Nu
3
1
7 . 0 2
Pr Re ) 2 . 1 4 . 2 33 . 1 (
f f
+ +
3 . 0 5 . 0
Pr Re 6 . 0 2 + =
i
Nu
k
i k i k k
d u u
= Re
k
k k p
C
,
Pr =
Interphase heat transfer
18
Conservation equation for the mass fraction of the species i
in the phase k:
Here is the diffusivity of the species in the mixture of the
respective phase, is the rate of production/destruction of the
species.
Thermodynamic relations an state equations for the phase k are
needed.
When calculating mass transfer the shadow technique from
Spalding is used to update diameter of the dispersed phase.
i
k
i
k
i
k k k
i
k k k k
i
k k k
m m D m u m
t
&
r
+ = +
) ( ) ( ) (
i
k
m
i
k
D
i
k
m&
Conservation of species
19
Evaporation and condensation:
For liquid temperatures saturation temperature, evaporation rate:
For vapor temperatures saturation temperature, condensation rate:
User specifies saturation temperature and, if desired, time relaxation
parameters r
l
and r
v
(Wen Ho Lee (1979)).
Unidirectional mass transfer, r is constant:
( )
sat
sat l l l v
v
T
T T r
m
=
&
( )
sat
v sat v v l
l
T
T T r
m
=
&
1 2 12
r m = &
Modeling mass transfer
20
Coupled solver algorithms (more coupling between phases).
Faster turn around and more stable numerics.
High order discretization schemes for all phases.
More accurate results.
Implicit/Full Elimination
Algorithm v4.5
TDMA Coupled
Algorithm v4.5
Multiphase Flow Solution
Algorithms
Only Eulerian/Eulerian
model
Solution algorithms for multiphase flows
21
Momentum equation for primary and secondary phase:
Elimination of secondary phase gives primary phase:
Secondary phase has similar form.
Applicable to N phases.
( )
s p p p nb p nb p eff p
s s nb s nb
s
p p nb p nb p s
s
p
b b u a u a
b u a
k a
k
b u a u a
k a
k
a
, , , ,
, , , ,
+ + =
+
+
+ + =


\

+
+
( )
( )
s s nb s nb s s p
p p nb p nb s p p
b u a u k a u k
b u a u k u k a
+ = + +
+ = +
, ,
, ,
Full elimination algorithm
22
Discretized equations of primary and secondary phase are in
matrix form:
Results in a tridiagonal matrix consisting of submatrices
Closer coupling in each iteration gives faster convergence
B U U
b
b
u
u
a
a
u
u
k a k
k k a
nb nb
s
p
s nb
p nb
s nb
p nb
s
p
s
p
r r r
+ =


\

+


\



\

=


\



\

+
+
A A
,
,
,
,
0
0





\

=





\






\

n n
nn
C
C
C
C
U
U
U
U
A
A A
A A A
A A
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
3
2
1
3
2
1
33 32
23 22 21
12 11
0 0 0
0 0
0
0 0
Coupled TDMAalgorithm
23
Solution algorithm for multiphase
Typical algorithm:
Get initial and boundary conditions.
Perform timestep iteration.
Calculate primary and secondary phase velocities.
Calculate pressure correction and correct phase velocities, pressure
and phase fluxes. Pressure is shared by all phases.
Calculate volume fraction.
Calculate other scalars. If not converged go to step three.
Advance time step and go to step two.
24
Solution guidelines
All multiphase calculations:
Start with a singlephase calculation to establish broad flow patterns.
Eulerian multiphase calculations:
Copy primary phase velocities to secondary phases.
Patch secondary volume fraction(s) as an initial condition.
Set normalizing density equal to physical density.
Compute a transient solution.
Use multigrid for pressure.
25
Summary
EulerianEulerian is the most general multiphase flow model.
Separate flow field for each phase.
Applicable to all particle relaxation time scales.
Includes heat/mass exchange between phases.
Available in both structured and unstructured formulations.