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MEDIA

S. Abdobal1,2, M. Fourar2 , and R. Lenormand 1

1

Institut Français du Pétrole

1 et 4, avenue de Bois Préau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France

2

Ecole des Mines de Nancy

Laboratoire d’Energétique et de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée

Parc de Saurupt - 54042 Nancy Cedex, France

This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Symposium of the Society of Core

Analysts held in Pau, France, 21-24 September 2003

ABSTRACT

In some reservoirs, oil and water are produced at very high flow rate through zones of high

permeability (super K). For this type of flows, inertial effects and formation of emulsion can

limit the utility of standard models based on relative permeabilities. In order to study these

effects, we have performed several series of experiments into two kinds of sand packs: water

wet and of intermediate wettability (siliconate treatment). Velocities of oil and water were

varied in a large range. Pressures were measured along the core and the average saturation

were determined by weighting. The main results are the following:

1) inertial effects are observed for monophasic water flows, not for oil, due to its high

viscosity (30 cp),

2) for all the velocities of oil and water, an emulsion with small oil droplets is produced;

3) using a standard approach to interpret the experiments leads to a single Kr curve for water

but to a family of Kr curves of oil depending on velocities,

4) the effect of wettability on pressure drop is important, even if the capillary forces are

negligible.

It has been written that 75% of reservoirs are producing oil and water on the form of emulsion.

Our results show that flow of emulsion cannot be described by standard relative

permeabilities. The small size of the observed emulsion is favorable to an homogeneous fluid

approach. However, additional research concerning modeling of flow of emulsion in porous

media should be performed in order to predict the effective viscosity.

INTRODUCTION

It has been published that 75 % of oil and water is produced in reservoirs on the form of

emulsion [1]. The formation of emulsion results from the high flow rates in the vicinity of the

well and also of a decrease of the interfacial tension caused by the presence of natural

surfactants [2]. As a consequence of the effects of high flow rates and emulsion, the validity of

standard models based on relative permeability may be questionable. In order to study these

effects, we have performed several series of experiments into two sand packs of very high

permeability equivalent to "super K" zones and without any. Velocities of oil and water were

varied in a large range and the wettability of the medium has been modified. Even without

surfactants, we have observed the formation of an emulsion at all the flow rates. Experiments

were performed with two kinds of oil, Soltrol (viscosity 3 cp) and Marcol (30 cp). Results are

similar and only Marcol experiments are reported in this paper.

We first present the experimental device, then the experimental results for different flow rates

and the two kinds of sand packs (pressure drops, saturations and emulsion viscosity). Finally,

we present the interpretation in term of relative permeabilities.

PROCEDURES

In this section, we present the experimental device and the procedures used to study oil-water

two-phase flow in a porous media.

A sche matic overview of the experimental device is presented in Fig. 1. It consisted in two

volumetric pumps, a sand pack contained in a core-holder, and a separator. Several

experiments were performed with different flow rates of water and oil which were injected

separately through the sample held in a horizontal position. When a steady state is reached, the

pressures and the average saturations were measured. The pressure drop was measured by a

pressure transducer (Validyne) inside the core and the saturation in the sample was measured

by weighting the core-holder after disconnecting all the tubings. At the end of each

experiment, the oil-water mixture is separated by decantation in the separator.

At the outlet, the effective viscosity of the emulsion was characterized by measuring the

pressure drop through a tube of known diameter (around 1cm).

Marcol 82 28.8 843 30.1 32.8

The core-holder is a stainless steel cylinder, 6 cm diameter and 35 cm long, filled with quartz

sand of roughly 3 mm diameter. In order to study the effect of wettability, the quartz, which is

naturally water wet, was made partially oil wet using a siliconate treatment [3, 4]. In the two

cases, velocities of oil and water were varied in a large range. Physical properties of Marcol

are presented in Table 1.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In this section we present the experimental results concerning the flow of the single-phases

and the simultaneous flows of oil and water.

In single phase flow, the pressure gradients as functions of superficial velocity are presented in

Figs. 2 a,b for both water wet sand and treated sand. Results obtained with Marcol, which is

nearly 30 times more viscous than water, show linear relationships between the pressure drop

and the superficial velocity described by Darcy’s law:

∆P µ V

− = (1)

L k

where ∆P is the pressure drop, L is the length of the core, µ viscosity of the liquid, V is the

superficial velocity (flow rate per unit section area) and k is the intrinsic permeability. Fitting

the data with linear relationships leads to the values of the intrinsic permeability for each

media which are presented in Table 2 a,b. The permeability for the water wet sand is slightly

higher than the one obtained with the treated sand. A reduction of permeability is always

observed in this kind of chemical treatment and may be due to the clogging of some pores by

the polymerized siliconate.

The results obtained with water (Figs. 2 b) show quadratic relationships between the pressure

drop and the superficial velocity. It is well known that this behavior is due to inertial effects

which are not negligible compared to viscous effects at high flow rates. The Forchheimer

equation is generally used to account for inertial effects:

∆P µ V ρ V 2

− = + (2)

L k η

where ρ is the fluid density and η is called the passability factor. In petroleum engineering,

we prefer to use the coefficient β = 1/ η called the inertial factor or the non-Darcy flow

coefficient.

Fitting the data by quadratic relationships leads to values of k and η presented in Table 2 for

the different experiments. It can be seen that there are some discrepancies between the

permeability that may be due to experimental accuracy.

Table 2a. Experimental values of permeability and passability (water wet sand).

Water 19 4.56.103 8.30.10-05

Marcol 23 5.03.103 Not measured

Water 18 3.37.103 5.83.10-05

Marcol 23 3.64.103 Not measured

Observations at the outlet of the porous medium (before the capillary tube) show that oil and

water flow simultaneously as a milky emulsion. From observation during decantation, it seems

that the emulsion is formed of oil droplets into a continuous water phase. The type of emulsion

and the size of the droplets was not characterized in this study but the milky aspect implies a

size much smaller than the pore size. Since there is no surfactant, the emulsion is not stable

and oil and water separate after a few minutes.

Measured pressure drops and water saturations are presented in Figs 3a,b,c and 4a,b,c as

functions of water superficial velocity for different values of the oil superficial velocity.

Although the capillary pressure is negligible compared to viscous effects, the main feature of

these results is the strong effect of wettability on the pressure drop. Fig. 3c, shows the

comparison of the pressure drops for the treated and not treated sands for the same oil

superficial velocity. The main difference is the presence of a maximum at low water velocity

for the non treated sand. Therefore, there are two domains:

• At low water superficial velocity, the pressure drop in the water wet sand is higher than

the pressure drop in the treated.

• At high water superficial velocity, we observe the opposite behavior.

For saturation, the observed curve is similar to what is commonly observed for two-phase flow

in porous medium for both sands. For a given constant oil superficial velocity, the water

saturation increases when the water superficial velocity increases. In addition, as it is shown in

Fig. 4c, the wettability of the medium has no effect on saturation.

Emulsion viscosity

The flow structure was characterized by measuring the pressure drop of the simultaneous flow

of oil and water through the calibrated tube at the outlet of the sample. The "effective"

emulsion viscosity is determined assuming that emulsion is flowing as a single-phase

Newtonian fluid at the superficial velocity of the mixture and that it fo llows Poiseuille’s law.

This is a very crude measurement that does not account for the effect of shear stress on the

apparent viscosity. However, due to the low stability of the emulsion, it was impossible to use

a rheometer to better characterize the rheology of the emulsion.

The results are presented in Fig. 5 for Marcol oil as function of the water volume fraction for

the two kinds of sand packs. It can be seen that the wettability of the media has a strong effect

on the effective viscosity of the emulsion. Values obtained with the water wet sand are always

higher than those of the oil and water pure phases. On the other hand, the effective viscosity of

the emulsion for the treated sand is lower than the viscosity of the pure oil phase.

The approach commonly used to describe two-phase flow in porous media is based on the

generalized Darcy’s equations:

∆P µ V

− w = w w (3)

L k K rw

∆P µ V

− o = o o (4)

L k Kro

where w and o stand for water and oil respectively, P is the pressure (capillary pressure is

neglected), L is the sample length, V is the superficial velocity, k is the intrinsic

permeability, and Kr is the relative permeability.

For flows in porous media, it is well established that when inertial effects are negligible, the

relative permeability of each fluid is a unique function of saturation. This is not the case in our

experiments. The calculated Krw and Kro are presented in Figs. 6a,b as functions of measured

water saturation. It can be seen that Krw is effectively only function of water saturation, while

there are several curves of Kro depending on the oil superficial velocity for both treated and

non-treated sands.

DISCUSSION

This set of experiments show two main physical mechanisms:

1) effect of wettability on pressure drop and viscosity and not on saturation

2) effect of flow rate on oil relative permeability

The effect of wettability on the properties of the emulsion has been observed and related to the

emulsion morphology. Following Alvador [5], a water wet medium would lead to a

continuous water phase (oil- in-water emulsion), while an oil wet medium would lead to a

water-in-oil emulsion. However, in our experiments, the emulsion looks like an oil- in-water

emulsion for both kinds of sand. Nevertheless, experimental measurements of the dynamic

viscosity show clearly that there is a strong difference of the flow structure according to

whether the sand is perfectly or partially water wet. More investigations are therefore needed

in order to characterize more accurately the emulsion morphology.

For the effect of flow rate on oil relative permeability, the first explanation is related to inertial

effects like for liquid-gas flow [6]. For similar flow rates, inertial effects are observed in pure

water but not in oil which is much more viscous than water. However, in both kinds of sands,

the effective viscosity of the emulsion is higher than water viscosity, and inertial effects may

be negligible. In addition, the curves in Fig. 6a does not correspond to what is commonly

observed with liquid-gas flow in porous media. In particular, models developed for liquid and

gas flow are not appropriate to describe flow of emulsions through porous media [6]. The

other explanation is related to the effective viscosity of emulsion which depends on the flow

rate [7]. In order to model these flows, more experimental investigations are needed.

CONCLUSIONS

We have described several series of oil water injections into two kinds of sand packs of very

permeability: water wet and of intermediate wettability (siliconate treatment). There was no

added surfactant and velocities of oil and water were varied in a large range. Pressures were

measured along the core and the average saturation were determined by weighting. The main

results are the following:

• inertial effects are observed for monophasic water flows, not for oil, due to its high

viscosity (30 cp).

• for all the velocities of oil and water, an emulsion is produced;

• using a standard approach to interpret the experiments leads to a single Kr curve for water

but to a family of oil Kr curves, depending on velocities;

• the effect of wettability on pressure drop is important, even if the capillary forces are

negligible.

Our results show that flow of emulsion cannot be described by standard relative

permeabilities. The small size of the observed emulsion is favorable to an homogeneous fluid

approach. However, additional research concerning modeling of flow of emulsion in porous

media should be performed in order to predict the effective viscosity.

REFERENCES

1 Dalmazzone, C., Génération mécanique des émulsions, Oil and Gas Technology, Vol. 55, 3, pp.

281-305, 2000.

2 Abous-Kassem, J.H., and FarouqAli, S.M. Modeling of emulsion flow in Porous media. The

Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 34, n°6, 30-38, 1995.

3 Fleury, M. ; Lenormand, R. et Branlard, P. Procédé pour améliorer la récupération des

hydrocarbures dans un milieu poreux et produits permettant sa mise en oeuvre. France, FR

2744760, 1997.

4 Fleury, M. ; Lenormand, R. ; Branlard, P. et Zarcone, C. Intermediate Wettability by Chemical

Treatment. International Symposium on Evalution of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on oil

Recovery. Trondheim, Norway, 1998.

5 Alvarado, D.OA. The flow of macroemulsions through porous media : PH.D. Thesis, Dept. Of

Petroleum Engineering, Stanford Univ., Stanford, California, 1975.

6 Fourar, M. and Lenormand, R. Inertial effects in two phase flow through fracture. Oil &Gas

Science and Technology- Rev IFP , Vol. 55, 3, 259-268, 2000.

7 Janssen, P.H., and Harris, C.K. Emulsion characteristics of high water-cut oil wells. SPE Annual

Technical Conferences and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30 Sept. 405-414, 1998.

Water

Pressure transducer

Volumetric Réservoir de

pumps décantation

Separator

calibrated

tube

Porous media

Oil

300

Single-phase pressure gradient

250

treated sand

200

(kPa/m)

150

50

0

0 1 2 3 4

Soltrol superficial velocity (cm/s)

35

Single-phase Pressure gradient

30

treated wettability

25

(kPa/m)

20

15

water wet

10

0

0 1 2 3 4

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

Fig. 2b - Pressure drop during water single-phase flow. The solid line represent the fit by the

quadratic Forcheimer equation.

300

Two-phase pressure gradient water wet sand

250 Vo (cm/s)

200 0.25

(kPa/m)

0.49

150 0.78

0.99

100

1.47

1.97

50

0

0 1 2 3

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

Fig. 3a - Pressure drop during two-phase flow. Experiments performed with the water wet

sand.

250

treated sand

Two-phase pressure gradient

200

Vo (cm/s)

150 0.25

(kPa/m)

0.49

0.79

100 0.98

1.48

1.97

50

0

0 1 2 3

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

Fig. 3b - Pressure drop during two-phase flow. Experiments performed with the treated sand..

120

Two-phase pressure gradient

100

80

(kPa/m)

60

treated sand

40

20

Vo = 0.78 cm/s

0

0 1 2 3

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

Fig. 3c - Pressure drop during two-phase flow. Comparison between two experiments

performed at the same oil superficial velocity with treated and non-treated sand.

1

water wet and

0.8 Vo (cm/s)

Water saturation

0.25

0.6 0.49

0.78

0.4 0.99

1.47

0.2 1.97

0

0 1 2 3 4

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

1

treated sand

0.8

Vo (cm/s)

Water saturation

0.25

0.6 0.49

0.79

0.98

0.4

1.48

1.97

0.2

0

0 1 2 3 4

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

1

Vo = 0.99 cm/s

0.8

Water saturation

0.6

0.2

0

0 1 2 3

Water superficial velocity (cm/s)

Fig. 4c - Water saturation. Comparison between two experiments performed at the same oil

velocity.

120

Equivalent dynamic viscosity

100

80

(mPa.s)

60

treated sand

40

20

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Water volume fraction Qw/(Qw+Qo)

Fig. 5 - Effective viscosity of the emulsion at the outlet of the porous medium for treated and

non-treated sands.

1.2

Vo (cm/s)

water wet sand

0.25

1 Kro 0.49

Relative permeability

0.78

0.8 0.99

1.47

0.6 1.97

0.25

0.4 0.49

0.78

0.2 0.99

Krw 1.47

1.97

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Water saturation

Fig. 6a - Oil and water relative permeabilities for the water wet sand.

1

treated sand

0.8

Relative permeability

Vo (cm/s)

Kro 0.25

0.6 0.49

0.79

0.4 0.98

1.48

1.97

0.2

Krw

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Water saturation

Fig. 6b - Oil and water relative permeabilities for the treated sand.

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