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Zubair Khan,
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Arun Gangwar
1
Department of Computer Science ana Engineering. Invertis Universitv. Bareillv (U.P). Inaia
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M.Tech Stuaent of Computer Science ana Engineering. Invertis Universitv. Bareillv (U.P). Inaia
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zubair.k(invertis.org
2
gangwar.arun88(gmail.com
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I. INTRODUCTION
The well-known technology, cloud computing, attracts the
attention Irom both academy and industry across the world.
Cloud computing has oIten been used with synonymous terms
such as soItware as a service (SaaS),grid computing, cluster
computing , autonomic computing, and utility computing|1|,
which is capable oI transIorming service provision models
over the entirely current IT industry. The aggrandization oI
'cloud computing¨ model requires more on how to obtain
mass storage and powerIul computing capacity, how to
provide services more economically on the Internet and how
to make internet services more convenient.|2||3||4|.
In the cloud computing system we have to address
diIIerent Iundamentals and architectural concepts, like
Virtualizations Management, Service, Fault Tolerance,
Security, Load Balancing, Scalable Data Storage, and
Interoperability. AIter discovering the cloud, the companies
can concentrate on their main work and they don`t have to
worry about the availability, scalability Iault-tolerance,
storage capacity and CPU cycles, these things are handled by
cloud providers. Some oI the companies (eg Amazon) are able
to Iurnish raw resources (eg storage capacity, CPU cycles)
which are superIluous Ior their own needs, and thus become
cloud providers. Some oI the other companies rent their raw
resources, say becoming the cloud consumers, and built
systems or applications upon them which Iurther dedicate to
end users, say becoming the service providers |5|. ThereIore
companies are beneIited and are capable in avoiding the cost
in inIrastructure investment and Ilexible in adjusting service
capacity in terms oI their consumer scales. This new service,
which reside on the cloud inIrastructure have disadvantage
also End users are anxious about using their services Ior
security issues since they have to store their private data
outside oI their scope and get services at the other side oI the
internet.
In this paper we have made a survey about some oI the
popular cloud OS most oI them are open source soItware
|6|.Their cloud OS is a system soItware that runs in web
browser: Users are allowed to log into the data storage centers
in the cloud Irom multiple computers throughout the world
having internet connection and access the saved data on the
cloud OS.
In this paper we have made an analytical study oI cloud
computing in the current scenario. Rest oI the paper is divided
into 8 sections. Section-2 is about the models oI cloud
computing while section-3 is about the cloud services.
Section-4 is a virtualization management, then section-5 is the
cloud security Iurther section-6 gives a basic idea oI load
balancing in cloud computing, section-7 discuss issues oI
cloud computing, section-8 is cloud OS and Iinally section-9
is the conclusion.
II. MODEL OF CLOUD COMPUTING
PUBLIC CLOUD
It describes the cloud computing in the traditional
mainstream sense, whereby resources are
dynamically provisioned on Iine-grained, selI-
service basics over the internet, via web
applications/web services, Irom an oII-site third
party provider who shares resources. The customer
has no visibility over the location oI the cloud
computing inIrastructure. |7||8|.
PRIVATE CLOUD
Computing architecture is dedicated to the customer
and is not shared with other organizations. They are
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expensive and are considered more secured than
public cloud |7| |8|.
Fig1. Types oI Cloud Computing |47|
HYBRID CLOUD
The environment is consists oI multiple internal and
external providers. Organizations host some critical,
secure applications in private clouds, and not
critical applications are hosted in the public cloud.
Cloud bursting is the term used to deIine a system
where the organization uses its own inIrastructure
Ior normal usage, but cloud is used Ior peak loads.
|7||8|.
III. Service
a.INFRASTRUCTURE AS-A SERVICE (IaaS)
InIrastructure means a set oI hardware components
here, including storage capacity, CPU cycles,
memory capacity, and network bandwidth and so
on. These components are delivered as services
over the internet on-demand oI customer usage and
changes are applied on usage oI services.
Eg. Companies provide the inIrastructure as-a
service. Amazon web services with its EC2 (Elastic
Compute Cloud) |9| Ior processing and S3 (Simple
Storage Service) Ior storage |10| |11| more
examples are GoGrid, Skytap, Sun network.
SOFTWARE AS-A SERVICE (SaaS)
SaaS is where a user no longer owns the soItware
that is utilized but instead uses it when required via
cloud computing. The soItware remains the
property oI the service provider and the user pays
Ior access either by annual subscription or on pay-
per usage basics, in these ways business
applications are an operational expenditure cost |8|.
Eg - SalesIorce.com and Google Apps such as
Google Mail and Google Docs and Spreadsheets.
PLATFORM AS-A SERVICE (PaaS)
PaaS is a paradigm Ior delivering operating system
and associated services over the Internet without
downloading or installations. An ample oI leading
companies is providing cloud platIorms such as
MicrosoIt, Azure and Engine Yard.
NETWORK AS-A SERVICE (NaaS)
There are many services that Iall into network as-a
service category, such as Internet services Irom
carriers including wired or wireless network
services, they mainly Iocus on providing broadband
bandwidth-on-demand in the cloud computing.
Some call it rubber bandwidth because the capacity
in bandwidth can be increased or decreased on
demand. Eg- Verizon, At&T, VodaIone |12|
IDENTITY AND POLICY MANAGEMENT AS-
A SERVICE (IPMaaS)
IPMaaS is a service provided to manage user`s
identity and service policy leading companies Ping
Identity |13|, TriCipher|14|, TriCipher provides a
uniIied authentication inIrastructure which helps to
protect web applications and enterprise portals Irom
the attack, on demand. All the data Ilow will go
through TriCiper and provides by services against
Iraud and theIt identities. |5|.
IV. Virtualization management
It is the technology that abstracts the coupling
between the hardware and operating system. Cloud
inIrastructure oIten employs a virtualization layer to
ensure resource isolation and abstraction.
Virtualization allows one to have two or more
computers, running in two or more completely
diIIerent environments, on one piece oI hardware.
Example with virtualization, one can have both a
Linux operating system and MicrosoIt Windows
operating system on one server |15|. It improves the
computing capacity with load, reduces the overall
cost by maximizing the hardware utilization rates.
Basically, virtualizations in cloud are oI two types,
server virtualization and storage virtualization |15|.
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In virtualized environment, computing environment
can be dynamically created, expanded, shrunked or
moved as demand varies. Virtualization technology
provides an eIIective solution to the management oI
dynamic resources on cloud computing platIorm.
What is more, virtualization technology is able to
carry out remapping between virtual machine (VM)
and physical resources according to the load change
so as to achieve the load balance oI the whole
system in a dynamic manner |16|. ThereIore,
virtualization technology is being comprehensively
used in cloud computing |17|.
V. Security
Cloud computing can be made secure but ensuring
the security oI cloud computing data is a major
Iactor in the cloud computing environment, as users
oIten store conIidential inIormation with cloud
storage provider but these providers may be
untrusted.
SINGLE CLOUD
In the single cloud the consumer may rely on only
single cloud and also cloud providers, have a risk
point Iailure. Consumers and providers both have
the risk oI service availability, Iailure and the
possibility oI malicious activity, insiders in a single
cloud.
MULTI CLOUD |18|
Most oI the organizations are bewildered between
the 'public cloud¨ and 'a private cloud¨ in terms oI
security. Most oI the organizations have chosen to
use 'a private cloud¨ because the inIormation could
not be disclosed without any restriction. There
could be a problem regarding service eIIiciency
such as private cloud lacks the capacity or resource
Ior security. In order to solve their diIIiculties, the
concept oI 'multi cloud¨ is needed to co-operate
between simple 'single clouds¨ providing
accessible resources. Data is stored in the encrypted
Iorm and the secret sharing algorithm |19| is used
Ior storing the data in multi cloud.
TWIN CLOUD
Secure computing oI arbitrary Iunctions on
conIidential data can be achieved based on Iull
homomorphic encryption |20| and Garbled Circuits
|21|, but the cryptography is not suIIicient and
additional assumptions have to be made and
measures have to be taken such as Temper-prooI
hardware |22|.
In twin cloud, two clouds a Trusted Cloud and a
Commodity Cloud are used to provide more
security. The Trusted Cloud is used mostly in the
Setup Phase to encrypt the outsourced data and
programs using (improved version oI) Yan`s
garbled circuit |21|.Trusted Cloud is reIerred to be
a private cloud. The untrusted Commodity Cloud
provides a large amount oI storage and is used in
the time-critical Query Phase to process encrypted
queries in parallel with minimum latency. In the
Query Phase, the computations on the encrypted
data are perIormed in parallel by the Iast but
untrusted commodity cloud, and Iinally veriIied by
the Trusted Cloud. |23|.
Fig2. Trusted Cloud and Commodity Cloud |23|
VI. Load Balancing
Nowadays, cloud computing load balancing has
become one oI the hot issues that need to resolve. In
a complex and large system, there is a tremendous
need Ior load balancing. The goal oI load balancing
is to improve the perIormance by balancing the load
among their various resources to achieve optimal
resource utilization, maximum throughput,
maximum response time, and avoiding overload
|40|. Various types oI literatures, |41| |42|
Iocusing on homogeneous environment load
balancing but under the cloud computing
environment, the system oI homogeneous server is
less. Example Amazon Elastic Cloud (EC2) |9|.
To manage the load balancing in the homogeneous
environment is easy but in the heterogeneous
environment the load is dynamic and varies Irom
time to time, apply the dynamic load balancing in
the heterogeneous environment is a issue oI
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concern. ThereIore we discuss over here ant colony
algorithm on load balancing.
Ant Colony Algorithm
Individual ants in some ways are naïve insects. But
group oI ants manage to perIorm a variety oI
complicated tasks with great reliability and
consistency. Montresor et al has developed an
inverse artiIicial ants system, where artiIicial ants
systems disperse a group oI tasks evenly on idle
nodes |43|. In the SearchMax process an ant
wanders across the network to look Ior an
overloaded node, then, in the SearchMin process,
the ant wanders across the network to look Ior an
under loaded node. Finally, the ant transIers a task
Irom the most overloaded node to the most under
loaded one |44|. Many more literatures are
proposed one oI them is 'ArtiIicial Bee Algorithm¨
by J.Yao, Ju.hou He |45| etc. Example oI load
balancing system GeDNS|40| etc.
VII. Other Issues
FAULT TOLERANCE
In case any oI the servers break down, system
should automatically redirect user requests to the
backup server. Fault tolerance is one oI the key
issues oI cloud computing Ior example Gmail and
Google Apps Engine |24| had an outage that lasted
2.5 hours in Feb-24, 2009. Every year, thousands oI
websites struggle with unexpected outage. So the
major problem Ior cloud computing is how to
minimize such kind oI outage/Iailover to provide
the reliable services |7|.
Fault tolerance policies can typically be listed into
two sets: reactive Iault tolerance policies and
proactive Iault tolerance policies. While reactive
Iault tolerance policies reduces the eIIect oI Iailures
on application execution when the Iailure
eIIectively occurs: proactive Iault tolerance policies
keep application alive by avoiding Iailures by
predicting them and replace the suspected
components and load oI suspected one is distributed
among the other correctly working component. To
preserve the system`s availability during Iaults, a
number oI approaches are proposed Ior tolerating
and recovering Irom soItware Iailures. These
approaches, are Micro Reboot Techniques |25|,
Filtering Malicious Input |26|. Tools used Ior Iault
tolerances Assure |27| system is proposed Ior better
address Iaults by introducing rescue point and error
virtualization, SHelp |28|, HAProxy stand Ior high
availability proxy and it is used Ior load balancing
and server Iail over in the cloud|29|.
SYSTEM SURVIVABILITY |30|
System survivability is the ability oI the system to
continue to work and provide critical services when
it is in or has been aIIected by natural or manmade
disruption. Three complementary strategies Ior
system survivability are attack resistance, attack
identiIication and system recovery. When the
system is inIected or attacked, it can continue to
supply vital services, cut oII any connection with
such compromised region, and inIorm the related
providers and consumers, then redirect to new
request Ior substitute services.
'Credit Rating¨ policy is used when certain point
Iail to supply quality services or provide malicious
services, the consumer put the provider into the
blacklist and downgrade its credit rating. And such
'tainted¨ points will be rejected in the Iuture
interactions by other points. When one agent Iails,
the consumer could choose another provider.
SCALABILITY
Scalability is a desirable property oI a system,
which indicates its ability to either handle growing
amount oI work in a graceIul manner or its ability
to improve throughput when additional resources
are added |31|. There are two ways in which a
system can scale by adding hardware resource.
Scale vertically (scale up) means adding resources
to a single node in a system Ior example adding
memory and processors. Scale horizontally (scale
out) means add more nodes to a system, Ior
example, adding servers to provide services.
INTEROPERABILITY AND
STANDARDIZATION
The issue oI interoperability is needed to all
applications to be ported between clouds, or to be
multiple cloud inIrastructures beIore critical
business application are delivered Irom the cloud.
To increase the beneIits in an eIIicient and eIIective
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manner, customers may opt to use diIIerent cloud
types, cloud providers depending on the best
oIIering.
Nowadays, due to lack oI cloud standard, every
cloud uses diIIerent API (Application programming
interIace), and consequently any change in the
cloud environment may lead to application
reIactoring. For this reason, need oI well deIined
standards play an cardinal role towards
interoperability and manageability inside and
between clouds with possible impact in the
economic aspect as well|32|. Hence, the customers
can integrate the best Ieatures oI the each cloud
providers and achieve the goal eIIiciently and
economically.
VIII. Cloud OS (Operating System)
A cloud OS is a simpliIied operating system that
runs in web browser, providing access to a variety
oI web based applications that allow the user to
perIorm many simple tasks without booting a Iull
scale operating system. Cloud Brower is a web
browser within a browser that allows users to log
into the user`s platIorm Irom multiple computers
which saves the state oI their interIace to their data
storage centers in the cloud. A cloud OS is system
soItware that run in a web browser |6|.
The open source Linux operating system is the
dominant guest OS in the cloud with 83° oI IT
proIessional planning to deploy Linux as a guest
operating system, 66° will be deploying windows
OS in the cloud open source usage is pervasive
among cloud computing users with 69° using open
source soItware whenever possible |34|.
ZeroPC (CLOUD OS)
ZeroPC (www.zeropc.com) provides proIound
incorporation with popular web services to deliver
an absolute incorporated 'Social Desktop¨
experience |33|. The ZeroPC webs desktop oIIers
the user a Iully Iunctional, Ieature rich, desktop
experience that is not constrained to any speciIic
computer or hardware. Everything a user expects to
Iind in a desktop, including Iiles, applications,
personal and shared inIormation, is stored on
centralized server. The user only need a web
browser to access their ZeroPC desktop Irom any
device, anywhere, anytime |35|. ZeroPC is one
such online desktop that aims to replace computer
desktop. It comes with a variety oI (web)
applications which help in staying productive and
allowing to connect to one`s social accounts (such
as Dropbox, box.net, Sugarsync etc) so all online
Iiles are readily available.

Familiar User-interIace
Once a user has created an account and logged in,
he will be greeted with a Windows-style interIace.
Doesn`t matter whether he is Irom a Windows, Mac
or Linux background, the user-interIace will be too
Iamiliar to him, and that is good because he can
start using it instantly.
Fig3. InterIace |46|
There is a Dashboard icon at the right bottom
corner oI the screen which when clicked, give an
overview oI ZeroPC desktop.
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Fig4.Dashboard |46|
There are a couple oI useIul apps available in the
desktop Ior your usage. A music player with the
ability to stream music Irom social accounts, a
messenger app Ior IM needs, ThinkFree OIIice Ior
document editing, a video player, a universal Inbox
to check emails Irom various accounts. It doesn`t
come with an image editor. Though. It also has a
series oI bookmarks to popular web apps like
Angry Bird, Ted.com, Wikipedia, LinkedIn etc.
Clicking on the bookmark launches the web link in
its own window, making it looks like a native app
rather than a website. The best part about ZeroPC is
the ability to connect all social accounts in one
place. The social accounts that are currently
supported by ZeroPC includes Iacebook, twitter etc.
ZeroPC comes in both Ireemium and premium
model |46|.
JOLICLOUD
Jolicloud brings all the beneIits oI cloud computing
making the Netbook, the natural extension oI all
other computer and mobile devices. Joli OS is a
Iree and easy way to turn any computer into a cool
new cloud device, get on the Web and instantly,
connect to all Web apps, Iiles and services using
already own. AIter download Joli OS installation
needs around Iraction oI time |36|.
Many other cloud OS available in tne current
market gives the best and amazing services on the
internet and access the Iiles, shared anyone,
anywhere, any place Ior example Cloudo |37|,
ZimDeskOS |38|, Apple iCloud |39| etc.
IX. Conclusion
Cloud computing is the promising paradigm Ior
delivery oI IT services as computing utilities which
have been widely studied in recent years.
Now there are ample oI cloud platIorms both in
industrial and academics circles. Understanding and
using these platIorms are the major issues. In this
paper, we have described the basic concept,
application and technical advancement in cloud
computing and cloud computing services.
Though each cloud computing has its own
advantages but as every coin has two Iaces,
similarly there some unsolved problems associated
with each platIorm too. Various topics like
continuously high availability, perIormance data
conIidentiality, synchronization in diIIerent clusters
in cloud platIorm, interoperability and
standardization are the research hotspots.
We have also Iocused upon the vital topics like
brieI introduction oI virtualizations management
and how to maintain the load balancing to
maximize the utilization.
Cloud OS is a very lucrative and bright subject Ior
research having great signiIicance Irom Iuture`s
advanced technologies` point oI view. This
technology, today, is in its inIant stage which
Iocuses upon deploying Linux as a guest OS in the
cloud. It Iurnishes the availability oI user`s own
interIace anywhere, anytime without any hassles
and installation issues.
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