2009年1月9日

生花 / Ikebana
Ikebana (生花, literally “arranged owers”) is the Japanese art of arranging owers. It is considered an entire art form in which humans and nature are brought together through the arrangement of the owers. Also unlike Western ower arrangements is the emphasis placed on parts of the plant besides the blooms, such as the stem and leaves. e container in which the owers are presented is also important in ikebana. Various kinds of pottery are used for holding ikebana arrangements. Ikebana has its origins at Rokkakudō Temple (六角堂), located in Kyōto (京 都). One priest there was considered to be so skilled in arranging the owers placed on the altar that all the other priests frequently turned to him for advice when they arranged owers. is priest lived by the side of a lake, called Ikenobō (池坊), from which the rst ikebana school takes its name. Even though ikebana is a creative expression, there are certain rules which must be followed. e most important of these is that every element of the design must be organic– plastic or silk owers, for instance, are a violation of this rule. Another general rule states that ikebana arrangements should be minimal in design– the large, extravagant arrangements one can nd in American orists would be considered far too loud and garish in Japan. It was once said that ikebana “has a main speaker and the rest [of the owers] are audiences, whereas [in] ower arrangements all owers are speaking and shining at the same time.” Typically, an ikebana arrangement is delineated by a scalene triangle (one Ikebana using daffodils with three sides of different lengths). e sides of the triangle symbolize heaven, earth, and man in some schools, or sun, moon, and earth in others. Asymmetrical gures and empty space are also appreciated in an ikebana arrangement. e spiritual aspects of ikebana are important to the art. While practicing ikebana, complete silence is maintained. e artist takes time to appreciate the beautiful things in nature that are often overlooked in everyday life. Harmony and closeness to nature is important to ikebana. e owers, container, and other materials used in an ikebana arrangement must be harmonious with each other and be balanced. e simultaneous balance and asymmetry in ikebana is integral to the art, and is part of its appeal. ere are also different styles of ikebana arrangement. One of the simplest styles is nageire (投入れ), roughly meaning “thrown-in owers”. In this style, there are usually three basic stems, with one or two more stems for depth and additional beauty. ere are several variations on nageire, including a cascading one where beautiful curves and lines are balanced with the other owers when one or two owers hang over the edge of the container. Another style is rikka (立花), which means “standing owers”. It is a seven-piece arrangement with each piece representing a different part of nature. ere is also moribana (盛り花), roughly “built-up owers”, which is considered the most basic style. In it, the owers are arranged in a shallow vase or basket. e many different styles of ikebana, combined with the beauty of owers and relaxing feeling provided by closeness to nature, make ikebana a highly appealing activity. Many Japanese practice ikebana today, and many more enjoy viewing and appreciating ikebana arrangements. Ikebana is also taught in schools and even shown on TV, re ecting the importance of nature in Japanese culture.

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