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Ways of Expressing Concentration 1. Molarity: M i. 2. Percent Solutions a. Percent by volume i. b. Percent by mass i. i. 3. Molality (mol/kg): m i. 4. Mol fraction i.

XA = *ppm = 1g of solute for 106g solution x 100% x 100% c. Percent mass over volume x 100%

o

Ex. 930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mol of water

Intermolecular Forces 1. Dipole-Dipole Forces – attractive forces between polar molecules 2. Ion-Dipole Forces – attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule 3. Dispersion Forces – attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules; usually increase with molar mass a. Polarizability i. the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distorted ii. increases with greater number of electrons and more diffuse electron cloud 4. Hydrogen Bond – a special dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, F-H bond and an electronegative O, N, or F atom. 5. Ionic Bonding – attractive forces between ions 6. Dipole-Induced Dipole – attractive forces between polar and nonpolar molecules

Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids 1. Phase – a homogenous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary. o Solid phase – ice o Liquid phase – water 2. Intermolecular Forces – attractive forces between molecules. Generally much weaker than intramolecular forces o Ex. 41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water o Measured by:  Boiling point  Melting point  ΔHvap  ΔHfus  ΔHsub 3. Intramolecular Forces – hold atoms together in a molecule

Properties of Liquids 1. Surface Tension – amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area. (↑intermolecular forces = ↑surface tension) 2. Cohesion – the intermolecular attraction between like molecules 3. Adhesion – attraction between unlike molecules 4. Capillarity – rising of liquid through a narrow space against the pull of gravity 5. Viscosity – measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow
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Phase Changes  Equilibrium Vapor Pressure – the vapor pressure measured when a dynamic equilibrium exists between condensation and evaporation o Dynamic Equilibrium: Rate of condensation = rate of evaporation Molar heat of Evaporation (ΔHvap) – the energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid a. Clausius-Clapeyron Equation:

P=P = equilibrium vapor pressure T = temperature in K R = gas constant (8.314 J/K-mol) Boiling Point – the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure Normal Boiling Point – the temperature at which a liquid boils when the external pressure is 1 atm Critical Temperature (Tc) – the temperature above which gas cannot be made to liquefy, no matter how great the applied pressue Critical Pressure (PC) – the minimum pressure that must be applied to bring about the liquefaction at the critical temperature Melting/Freezing Point – the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases coexist in equilibrium Molar Heat of Fusion (ΔHfus) – the energy required to melt 1 mole of a solid substance Molar Heat of Sublimation (ΔHsub) – the energy required to sublime 1 mole of a solid Phase Diagram – summarizes the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas

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o Freezing Point Depression o Osmotic Pressure 1. Vapor Pressure Lowering o The vapor pressure of a solution of nonvolatile nonelectrolyte is always lower than the vapor pressure of pure solid.  *vapor pressure: pressure needed to evaporate o Raoult’s Law: the vapor pressure of solvent above solution (Psolvent) equals the mole fraction of solvent in the solution (Xsolvent) multiplied by the vapor pressure of the pure element (P°solvent) Psolvent = (Xsolvent) (P°solvent) ΔP = (Xsolute) (P°solvent) 2. Boiling Point Elevation o A solution boils at a higher temperature than the pure solvent o ↓vapor pressure = ↑higher external pressure ΔTb = (Kb)(m) ΔTb = Tb(solution) – Tb(solvent) Tb = boiling point Kb = molal boiling point elevation constant o H2O: 0.512 ⁄  m = molality 3. Freezing Point Depression ΔTf = (Kf)(m) ΔTf = Tf(solvent) – Tf(solution)   Tf = freezing point Kf = molal freezing point constant o H2O: 1.86 ⁄ m = molality π = MRT     π = osmotic pressure M = molarity R = 0.08206 T = temperature in K  

 4. Osmotic Pressure Colligative Properties of Solution Properties of solution which depends on the number of solute particles & not on their chemical identity o Vapor Pressure Lowering o Boiling Point Elevation

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Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions Van’t Hoff Factor (i ) - One way to measure the extent to which electrolytes dissolve - Count the number of ions in the compound (e.g. K2SO4: i = 3) i= *applied for electrolytes P, Tb, Tf

ENDOTHERMIC

final state

initial state

*y – axis: Energy

Thermochemistry Energy flow to and from the system A system can be: o Open  Change in mass  Exchange of heat o Closed  No change in mass  Exchange of heat o Isolated  No change in mass  No exchange of heat

Forms of Energy Transfer 1. Heat (q) – energy transferred as a result of temperature difference 2. Work (w) – other form of energy transfer Total charge in system’s internal energy is ΔE=q+w  Energy transfer as heat only o Heat flowing out of the system  q is negative  ΔE is negative o Heat flowing into the system  q is positive  ΔE is positive Energy transfer as work only o Work done by the system  w is negative  ΔE is negative o Work done on a system  w is positive  ΔE is positive

Internal Energy, E The sum of energies for all the particles in the system (Kinetic and Potential) Immeasurable Δ in internal energy is immeasurable ΔE = Efinal – Einitial = Eproducts- Ereactants Change in E of system is always accompanied by an opposite change in the energy of the surroundings Efinal < Einitial EXOTHERMIC 

Law of energy conversion - the total energy of the universe is constant (First Law of Thermodynamics) ΔEuniverse = ΔEsystem + ΔEsurroundings = 0 Units of energy  1 J = 1 kg m2/s2  1 cal = 4.184 J  1 J = 0.2390 cal

initial state

final state

Efinal > Einitial
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State Functions & the Path of Interdependence of Energy Change Some Important Types of Enthalpy Change  Energy is a state function, independent from the path o Dependent only on the current state of the system, not on the path the system took to reach the state o ΔE, ΔP, ΔV are state functions o q and w are not state functions 1. ΔHcomb = heat of combustion - when one mole of substance combines with O2 ΔHf = heat of formation ΔHfus = heat of fusion - when one mole of substance melts ΔHvap = heat of vaporization - when one mole of substance vaporizes

2. 3. 4.

Enthalpy Change ΔH, change in enthalpy – heat lost or gained during chemical change or physical change - ΔH: exothermic +ΔH: endothermic *qp: heat measured at constant pressure ΔE = q + w *w: chemical work 1. electrical work 2. work done by moving particles 3. PV work, expanding gas a. w = -PΔV For reactions at constant pressure H = E + PV ΔH = ΔE + PΔV ΔE = q + w = q - PΔV qp = ΔE + PΔV qp = ΔH *to get ΔH, get qp qreaction = -qsolution Calorimetry Specific Heat – amount of heat required to raise temperature of 1g of substance by 1°C Heat Capacity – amount of heat required to raise temperature of object by 1°C Specific Heat Capacity q = mcΔT Molar heat capacity (c) – the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1°C c= Calorimeter – used to measure the heat released or absorbed by a physical or chemical process - serves as the surrounding 1. Constant pressure calorimeter (coffee-cup) 2. Constant volume calorimeter (bomb calorimeter) 1. Constant Pressure Calorimeter a. Open to the atmosphere b. Determination of specific heat c. Determination of heat of reaction Constant Volume Calorimeter a. Given heat capacity of the entire calorimeter b. Designed to measure very precisely the heat released in a combustion reaction

Comparing ΔE & ΔH 2. - in most cases, ΔE ≈ ΔH for reactions with little change in PΔV Reactions that do not involve gases 1. Neutralization Reaction (ΔV = 0) 2. Reaction in which the amount (mol) of gas does not change 3. Qp is much larger than PΔV

Indirect Determination of ΔH: Hess’s Law
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1. ΔH is an extensive property 2. ΔH changes sign when a process is reversed 3. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation 4. BASTA YUNG CANCEL-CANCEL. =)) Easiest topic so…

Standard Enthalpies of Formation - standard state of solid of liquid substance is the pure element or compound at 1atm pressure & at temperature of interest Standard Enthalpy of Reaction, H°rxn - enthalpy change for reaction in which reactants & products are at standard states ΔH°f of formation of a pure element in its most stable form is zero + ΔH°f: formed by endothermic reaction ΔH° = ∑vpΔH°f (product) - ∑vpΔH°f (reactants)

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