PROCESS MANUAL

SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance

PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006

PROCEDURE FOR MAINTENANCE OF EARTHING SYSTEM PROCEDURE NO.: P1-GIPL-006

Purpose This document gives instruction for carrying out Periodic Maintenance of the earthing system. 1100 – 1999. 2. Protection of Building & Allied structures against lightning 4. earth termination. Lightening earthing Air termination. 3. joints in earthing network a mechanical and/or electrical junction between two or more portions. recommended practice for powering & grounding Electronic equipment.1 National Head 2 . bonding between main grounding bus & equipment cabinet. earthing bonding backbone and interconnecting bonding conductor. IS 2309 – 1989. Scope This procedure will outline the maintenance routines and responsibilities for the earthing system. Indian Electricity Rules 1956 4. The scope includes all components like the lightning arrester mounted on the BTS tower used to protect a structure from effect of lightening. Responsibilities 4. IS 3043 – 1987 Code of practice for earthing 2. Reference Documents: 1. Down conductors which connects air termination with ground termination. grounding electrode conductor used to connect the grounding electrode to the equipment grounding conductor. earth electrode (Earth pit). IEEE std.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 1. The procedure covers earthing system in ITIL BTS sites. 3.

5 Maintenance Process 5.2 Circle Manager The Circle Manager or In-charge is responsible for ensuring that all activities related to this procedure are complied with and recorded as described in this document.1 Background The non-current carrying metallic parts in every electrical installation are connected to the underground earthing mesh at earth potential for safety of personnel. while earthing of non-current carrying metal work and conductor is essential to safety of human life. etc. fault current path for adequate current carrying and fault clearing capability & noise reduction.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 Based at Corporate office–New Delhi is responsible for the technical integrity of this procedure.2 General Earth is a good conductor except in the dry and rocky upper layers near the surface. animals and of property is generally known as equipment earthing. 4. proper system & equipment operation. Earthing associated with current carrying conductor is normally essential to the security of the system and is generally known as system earthing. The earthing system also ensures freedom from electromagnetic interference in communication and data processing equipment. The National Head or his nominated Deputy shall be authorised for any changes with this procedure. 5. The earthing system provides return path for discharging fault currents and discharge currents/voltages from the earthed points of lighting arrestors. The surface soil and internal geological layers are with different resistivity. surge arrestors. minimising potential difference between metallic frames & structures. The number of earth electrodes to be installed is depending on soil resistivity at that particular location to achieve the earth electrode system 3 .

The earth resistance of an electrode is depending on the diameter & length of electrode.0 Ohm but < 2. Star point of CT/PT secondary. Generator neutral earthing. A number of earth pits are driven along the perimeter and the electrodes are Inter-connected through GI flat. 4 . Star point of isolation transformer. 3.3 Maintenance Frequency and Records Format No. Name of Facility 1.0 Ohm. No. Equipment earthing: Metallic non-current carrying parts earthing connection. The effective resistance has to be as per the following table: Table 10. Neutral of circuit. Neutral Earthing: Transformer neutral earthing.0 Ohm is preferred 5.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 resistance of less than 5. OEM/0013 OEM/0011 Frequency Fortnightly Yearly Location BTS BTS Period to be maintained 3 Months 3 Years 5.1 Sr. BTS Sites Desired grounding resistance < 5. 2. Discharge earthing: Lightning arrestor for discharging electrical charges to earth.4 Safety Precautions The following safety precautions need to be followed for carrying out any work during earthing inspection. The earthing principle is three types: 1.

5.5 Tools Required Calibrated Earth Tester meter Fixed and Open spanner set Cloth.1 Purpose of Inspection The purpose of the fortnightly inspection is to assess the general condition of the earthing system. AVR/PIU/PMS. Copper conductor with crocodile clips on both ends.6 Fortnightly maintenance tasks 5. The fortnightly maintenance shall be primarily the inspection of earthing system includes visual check for earthing cabling. Earthing jumper wire of 16 sq. visual check for bonding between the equipment & main ground bus-bar.4. 5. ACDB & SMPS when system is in live condition. ensure that the bypass path is provided for maintaining the continuity of earthing connection.6. visual check for corrosion. LT panel connection. Bituminastic anti rust paint.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 5.1 Inspection of earthing system • Do not disconnect the earthing of any power equipment. This fortnightly inspection is intended to be a general quick check for the more conspicuous problems that can be encountered. Cotton rags Polish paper. • Before disconnection of any earthing joint. bonding of positive DC bus with main earth bus and correction in case of any abnormality noticed. earth pit interconnection. CRC 2-26 electrical contact cleaning spray. 5 . The fortnightly checks in the given procedure emphasises on inspection & correction of any abnormality in the earthing system. During fortnightly checks watering of earth pit shall be carried out to maintain dampness for better ground conductivity. mm.

metal battery stands.6. Ensure each equipment have two numbers of earth connection at EGB. • Measure the voltage between neutral & earth and record the value for ensuring the proper grounding of neutral • Check DG neutral earthing for tightness.4. • Check that the battery negative terminal of DG set is grounded & connected at engine body. Check the bonding between shield & main grounding bus-bar either directly or using a supplementary cable. • Visually ensure corrosion free metal-to-metal contact at bolted junction. 6 . • Visually check that the surge protection device that is provided for the GPS antenna between the antenna coaxial cable & jumper cable is grounded using copper conductor cable. Check for any corrosion and if required apply anti rust paint on bolted joints. • Inform to the concerned authorities.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 5. DG alternator & engine body earthing to main grounding bus-bar (EGB Electrical/External Grounding Bus).2 Inspection procedure The general steps for inspection are as outlined below: • Follow all safety precautions as mentioned in section 5. free from corrosion. • Ensure that the RF & GPS Antenna cable is shielded. • Check the bonding of DG fuel tank earthing. • Every equipment rack in BTS shall have earth bus with earthing cable connected to earthing EGB • Check that all the connections are tightened using flat & spring washers. • Visually check for bonding of all metal frame cabinets. DG canopy & AMF panel. steel structure with main earth bus-bar. If necessary apply anti rust painting at bolted connection. • Check visually the earthing bonding from lightning arrestor to air termination up to down conductor. cable racks.

inspection of bonding between equipment & main grounding bus-bar. Ensure that two distinct earthing are provided for it. Also ensure corrosion free metal. • Check the bonding between SMPS positive bus & main grounding bus-bar and the SPD to IGB ( internal/instruments Grounding Bus) • Check the earth connection of LT panel and ACDB for tightness. 5.1 Purpose of Inspection The yearly checks include the measurement of earth electrode resistance of individual earth pit & earthing network resistance. • Check the condition of earth pit cover.7.2 Inspection Procedure Refer format No. Pour some water to maintain the dampness in the earth pit for better conductivity during dry seasons. The following activities shall be carried out during the annual maintenance of the earthing system: • Inform the concerned authorities 7 . • Check that the earth electrode bus-bar bolted joints or welding joints are free from cracks & corrosion.7 Yearly Maintenance tasks 5. • Check that the funnel provided in earth pit for watering is not choked. earth pit wall and ensure that they are intact & in good condition. 5.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 • Visually check the earthing bonding between equipment cabinet & main grounding bus-bar. • Check the tightness of all riveted screwed & bolted joints.: OEM/0011 for annual maintenance of the earthing system. metal-to-metal contact at bolted junctions.to-metal contact at bolted junction. free from corrosion. • Check that two earth strips are connected to each earth pit. Inspect the bonding between earthing point to main ground bus. checking the connection tightness and correction in case of any abnormality found.7.

The ground resistance measurement instrument measures the current between rod 1 and 2 and potential difference between rod 1 and 3. In order to measure the resistance of earth electrode.4. Note that as rod 3 is moved away from rod 1 the resistance value increases but at a certain point the increase in the value becomes very small (nearly constant). As rod 3continues to be moved towards rod 2. The resistance value is determined by Ohm’s law: R = E/I. measure and record the resistance value of each individual earth pit. • Measure and record the resistance value of the earthing network.0 Measurement of Earth electrode resistance The procedure for measurement of earth pit resistance is called Fall of Potential Method. 6. Auxiliary electrodes usually consist of 12. The ground/Earth Resistance Meter is used for measurement of earth resistance.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 • Follow all the safety precautions mentioned in section 5. the resistance value increases again. two auxiliary earth electrodes are placed at suitable distance from test electrode (Ground electrode in earth pit) as shown in figure below. Rod 3 is placed between rod 1 and 2 and in a straight line.5 mm diameter mild steel rod drive 1 meter into the earth. The correct cell site resistance is when the resistance rate of increase is very small. • In addition to the above checks. and the distance between rods 1 and 3 is approximately 62% of total distance as shown in the Figure – 1. 8 . • Perform all the maintenance tasks mentioned in the guidelines for fortnightly inspection of earthing system. Series earth resistance readings for each rod 3 locations are obtained from the instrument readings.

• Measure earth resistance and note the value.2. (As shown in above figure) • Placed rod – 2 in the earth app.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 Figure – 1 3.2 and 3 are in straight line. 9 .10.7 Measurement of earth pit resistance Earth electrode is to be isolated by maintaining the continuity of earth ring. Confirm that rod 1. • Move rod 3 towards rod 2 in a straight line and measure the earth electrode resistance. 1M depth and at a distance of D (should be more than 3 Meter (Appropriate distance is given in the below table) • Place rod – 3 in between rod 2 and earth electrode under test (rod –1).

1 After completion of measurement take earth electrode back into earth ring/mesh. This is a guideline for homogeneous soil. Soil resistivity depends upon local condition. Diagonal Distance of Buried Ground ring or bounded fence 20 Feet (6 Meter) 40 Feet (12 Meter) 80 Feet (24 Meter) 100 Feet (30 Meter) 140 Feet (42 Meter) 160 Feet (48 Meter) Distance from Rod 1 to Rod 3 140 Feet (42 Meter) 200 Feet (60 Meter) 280 Feet (84 Meter) 310 Feet (93 Meter) 365 Feet (110 Meter) 400 Feet (120 Meter) Distance from Rod 1 to Rod 2 220 Feet (66 Meter) 320 Feet (96 Meter) 450 Feet (125 Meter) 500 Feet (150 Meter) 590 Feet (177 Meter) 640 Feet (192 Meter) Note: No definite distance between the electrodes can be given. • The resistance of value should be less than or equal to the values mentioned in table 10. The result of the fall of potential method is valid only if the rods are placed outside each other’s sphere of influence. 10 .PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 • Repeat this procedure till rate in rise of resistance is very small and distance of rod 3 and 1(earth pit rod) is approximately 62% of distance between rod 1 and 2.2. For measurement of individual earth-pit resistance refer the Figure . The earth electrode should be driven in the ground to sufficient depth so as to obtain lower value of earth resistance. Approximate Distance to Auxiliary Electrode using the fall of potential method.

PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 Earthing system and individual earth pit resistance measurement method FOR CONVENTIONAL EARTH PITS Figure-2 11 .

if the resistance value of earth electrode found more than above specified limits The probable reason for high resistance value of earth electrode is mainly because of • Improper bonding between earth electrode & measurement probe. Copper sulphate.PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 10.8 Corrective actions. • Wait at least for eight hours & then follow the above steps for measurement of earth electrode resistance. 12 . Actions to be taken for improper bonding between earth electrode & measurement probe: • Disconnect the measurement probe from earth electrode. Salt solution in the earthing electrode pit & through funnel. • The Earthing electrode bus should be thoroughly scraped with a stiff wire brush/emery paper till they are burnished to their original bright galvanized finish/Copper finish. • Pour more amount of water in earth pit & through funnel to maintain the dampness & for better conductivity. Charcoal. ensure the connection is tight & proper. After completion of measurement take earth electrode back into earth ring/mesh. • Reconnect measurement probe terminal at earthing bus. • Soil resistivity is more. • Again follow the above steps for measurement of earth electrode resistance. Sodium Carbonate. if the earth pit resistance is more than specified limit. • If after replanation of earth pit. Then addition of additional earth pit is the solution. Calcium Chloride. Actions to be taken if soil resistivity is high: • To reduce the soil resistivity add Sodium Chloride (Salt).

the high arcing current of welding may cause problem in operation network equipments.9 Procedure for making additional earth pit. In case rod electrode can’t be driven economically plate electrode can be used. the following options have to be carried out in consultation with NHQ core team: Increase the diameter & length of pipe type earth electrode or Use plate type earth electrode. The joints of earth mesh mat are welded/bolted. 13 .PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 • More number of earth pits in parallel will reduce the effective resistance of main grounding bus. These earth electrodes are connected to earth mesh.10 Procedure for reconnection of disconnected/break earthing conductor bonding The earth mat is a mesh of steel pipes/rod or GI strips laid at a depth of 0. if the resistance value of grounding bus is greater than specified limits • If the earth electrode network resistance measured is found more than required value of 5 Ohm then more number of electrodes has to be increased. plate electrode or 150 mm to 300 mm boring earth pit may be used. For rocky area. equipment body. While making the new earth pit ensure the distance between the two electrodes shall be equal to or more than the driven depth of electrode. but if the area is less than the separation gap of 2 Mtrs. may due to corrosion or mechanical stress or improper tightness at joints • To connect two separated earthing strips don’t make welding joints. neutral points. 10.5 m in the entire electrical installation area (excluding foundation). Between two electrodes shall be sufficient. surge arrester etc. • At places where rock or hard soil is encountered. 10. Risers are taken up from the earth mat to connect to various earthing points of structure.

• Both Earthing bus should be thoroughly scraped with a stiff wire brush/emery paper till they are burnished to their original bright galvanised finish/Copper finish. Records & Frequency Format No. Joint both bus-bars by using the fishplate & by tightening all four nut bolts. OEM/0013 OEM/0011 Frequency Fortnightly Yearly Location BTS BTS Period to be maintained 3 Months 3 Years 14 .PROCESS MANUAL SECTION GIPL-OEM Project and Operation & Maintenance PROCEDURE P1-GIPL-006 • The jointing of bus-bars should be with fishplates.11 Formats. 10. • Make two numbers drills on both bus-bars of 12 mm size.

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