Child Care

Congenital

Heart Defects

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I . ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT (ASD):
Abnormal opening between the atria allowing the blood to flow from the left atrium to right atrium, according to pressure differences. Then a mixing between oxygenated and nonoxygenated blood happened.

Clinical manifestations : • Murmur during auscultation • Cardiac arrhythmias • Risk of emboli formation • Atrial enlargement • Difficulty in breathing • CHF (congestive heart failure )

II . VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT (VSD):

Abnormal opening between the ventricles allowing the blood to flow from left ventricle to right ventricle, according to pressure differences. Then a mixing between oxygenated and nonoxygenated blood happened.

Clinical manifestations : • Murmur during auscultation • Risk of respiratory infections • Cardiomegaly • Difficulty in breathing • CHF (congestive heart failure )

III . PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA) :

Ductus arteriosus is an artery connecting the aorta and the pulmonary artery. And this defect results from failure of this duct to close after delivery, causing the blood to flow from aorta to pulmonary artery according to pressure.

Clinical manifestations : • Hypoxemia • Wide pulse pressure • Risk of respiratory infections • Difficulty in breathing • Paleness of the skin • CHF (congestive heart failure )

IV . AORTIC STENOSIS ( AS ) : Narrowing of the aortic valve, causing resistance to blood flow in the left ventricle and decrease cardiac output.

Clinical manifestations: • Hypotension • Tachycardia • Chest pain • Dizziness when standing • Murmur

TREATMENT : They are treated by surgical repair of the opening before school age.

ALL THESE DEFECTS MAY LEAD TO
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

(CHF).

V . CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF):

Inability of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the systemic circulation to meet the demands of the body.

Clinical manifestations :
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Tachycardia Sweating Decreased urine output Fatigue Weakness Anorexia Chest pain Weak pulses Cardiomegaly Edema in lower limps Weight gain Tachypnea Hypotension

TREATMENT AND NURSING CARE  Improve cardiac function by medications as digitalis  Remove accumulated fluids by diuretics  Decrease cardiac demand by bed rest  Improve tissue oxygenated by O2 therapy  Decrease pain by analgesics

VI . HYPERTENSION ( HTN ) :
It is the elevation of blood pressure due to increase cardiac output or increase resistance in the peripheral arteries or gland disorders.

Clinical manifestations: • Headache • Dizziness • Sweating • Drowsiness of eyes

TREATMENT AND NURSING CARE:

 Bed rest  Monitoring of blood pressure B.P  Medications - antihypertensive drugs  Suitable diet ( low salt diet )

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