Unix Operating System

The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs.

The Kernel The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls. Shell and Kernel work together Example :%rm myfile Shell searches for file which containing program rm . Requests Kernel , through system call to execute rm on myfile. When finished control returns to shell prompt. Waiting for commands The Shell Shell is a interface between user and kernel. It is a CLI

Unix directory structure

/ (root) -- The / notes the "root" of the filesystem, where the entire system is contained. Unix holds the entire system in this single top-level directory, including each device and document. In Unix, "everything is a file. /bin -- Stands for "binaries"; Contains fundamental utilities needed by a system administrator. As a failsafe, these were placed in a separate directory so that they could be placed on a separate disk or disk partition in case the main drive failed. /etc -- Contains configuration files and some system databases.

/dev/null -. /var/log/ -. etc.short for "variable. /var/mail/ -. this is under /usr/home /mnt -.short for devices. log files (usually stored in /var/log). This is typically used to throw away unwanted data streams. /usr/include -. /usr/lib -. email stored on a server. /usr -. Many Unices clear this directory upon start up. its use has changed. The user can access his/her own mail only unless he/she has admin rights. and shared resources that are not system critical/usr/bin -. this virtual file discards all contents written to it. such as the storage to a database./dev -. /tmp -. /var/spool/ -.The required libraries for executables within /usr or elsewhere for that matter. .This is a virtual file which contains random numbers /home -.contains the home directories for the users. /var -. /lib -. pen drives etc.Also known as the "bit bucket" or "black hole". Contains file representations of every peripheral device attached to the system. such as log files.Storage for the system log files. waiting for some related task to finish. the contents of a database. and it now holds executables. live here. mail spools and various other tasks that have been queued ." A place for files that may change often./usr/include stores the development headers used throughout the system. libraries.originally the directory holding user home directories.This is the depository of all integral UNIX system libraries.This directory stores the executables that live in /usr. On some Unices.a place for temporary files.the home directory for the superuser root.contains print jobs.the place where all the incoming mails are stored. /root -. /dev/random -.This is the default location to mount external devices like hard disk drives.

OSTYPE Type of operating system. PATH Colon separated list of directories to search for binaries.Directory Files 3.Shutdown --Reboot . if available. MANPATH Colon separated list of directories to search for manual pages. PAGER The user's preferred text pager. Run Levels # init 0 #init 6 -. DISPLAY Network name of the X11 display to connect to. TERMCAP Database entry of the terminal escape codes to perform various terminal functions. SHELL The current shell. Used to determine the capabilities of the terminal. EDITOR The user's preferred text editor.Special Files Unix Shell Variables and Environments $env Variable Description HISTFILE The name of the file in which command history is saved HISTFILESIZE The maximum number of lines contained in the history file HOSTNAME The system's host name LD_LIBRARY_PATH It is a colon-separated set of directories where libraries should be searched for PS1 Your default (first) shell prompt USER Current logged in user's name. TERM The name of the user's terminal. MACHTYPE The CPU architecture that the system is running on.Ordinary Files 2.File Types 1.

General Purpose Commands # man command #whatis command #apropos “Search Pattern” #passwd #who #w #script #uname #date #cal #bc #echo #clear #which #history .Commands 1.

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