You are on page 1of 8

Figure 2:Thermal power station schematic diagram ( Click on image to view full size image ) Stage 1: Coal &

Ash handling This stage is seen as the entrance and exit of fuel( coal )used. The initial handling treatment and storage of coal and the final handling and disposal of Ash. Coal & Ash Handling (key from figure 2) *Coal conveyor (14) *Coal hopper (15) *Pulverizer Mill (16) *Ash hopper (18)

Stage 2: Steam Generating Plant This stage is seen as the energy loss stage. The steam creation by heat accounts for the greater percentage of power station in-efficiency. Steam Generating (key from figure 2) *Boiler drum (17) *Superheater (19) *Reheater (21) *Preheater(24) *Economizer (23) *Forced d-fan(20) *Induced d-fan(26) *Chimney(27)

Stage 3 & 4: Steam turbine & Alternator/Generator This stage is seen as the energy conversion stage. The steam turbine converts steam energy to rotational mechanical energy, while the Alternator/Generator converts rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. Energy conversion (key from figure 2) *Pressure turbines (6; 9 & 11) *Steam governor (10) *Boiler feed pump (7) *Generator (5) *Transformer (4) *Pylon (3)

Stage 5: Feed water & Cooling This stage is seen as the recycling stage. Steam used in boiler chamber is condensed back to water for re-use. Feed water & Cooling (key from figure 2) *Cooling tower (1) *Water pump (2) *Condenser (8) *Precipitator (25) This schematic diagram must be properly understood. it is the basis upon which Steam power station designs are done. the individual power station complexity may differ slightly to the schematic and yet over and above that will use the same principle.

help | edit

Part 3: Wet cooling This is the conventional Cooling method used in most Steam power stations. Steam is cooled inside the condenser and is returned to the boiler(Rankine cycle). The condenser itself uses cold water and employs the principle of heat exchange. As the cool water is returned to the boiler, the hot water in the condensor is pumped to the cooling tower. Here water is sprayed and thus fall down to the water pond under the cooling tower. As the water falls it is cooled by the natural cold air. The cooled water is pumped back to the condenser, and the cycle is repeated. This method wastes a lot of water through evaporation.

Part 4: Dry cooling This is the more preffered Cooling method which is now being implemented in most new Steam power stations. Steam is circulated inside a radiator-like heat exchanger and is cooled by the natural cold air blown (naturally or using draught fans) between pipes of the heat exchanger. The cooled/condensed steam is returned to the boiler(Rankine cycyle). This method greatly decreases water wastages through evaporation by almost 84% of the wet cooling method. It is called Direct dry cooling since the condenser has been eliminated completely. This method is favored where water is scarce.

Water consumption 0.4lt / 1kWh help | edit

Water consumption 2.5lt / 1kWh help | edit Part 4B: Indirect Dry Cooling B The second Indirect Dry cooling method is called Jet cooled condenser. Here the exhaust steam leaving the low-pressure turbine condensed by a jet spray of cold water. the resulting hot water collected is through heat exchangers in the cooling tower. The cooled water is sent back to the boiler. Notice that water consumption is equal to the previous cooling method.

Water consumption 0.8lt / 1kWh help | edit

Part 4A: Indirect Dry Cooling A The first Indirect Dry cooling method is called Wet cooled condenser. Here the condenser is still used to cool steam that is pumped back to the boiler. The hot water from the condensor is then pumped to Heat exchangers in the cooling tower and natural ventilation is used to cool the water which can then be pumped back to the condenser. Notice

Part 6: Efficiency This type of power station has very high energy losses due to great heat loss in the boiler and condensor. the following equation is used to calculate power station efficiency:

Thermal efficiency the above can be re-written as follows:

that water consumption here is double that consumed in the direct dry cooling method.

Water consumption 0.8lt / 1kWh help | edit you can further calculate overall efficiency as follows: The above generally works out to 30% for steam power stations.

the above can be re-written as follows:

The above generally works out to 29% ( 1% loss at the generator ) for steam power stations. help | edit

Part 5: Location The following is a list of factors that influence the selection of site for constructing a Steam power station: 1. Supply of fuel:

Part 8: Example continued help | edit

The station must be located close to coal mines to reduce transportation cost of fuel.

2. Availability of water:

The station must be located near a river bank or canal for continous water supply.

3. Transportation facilities:

The station must be well connected to major transport routes eg Rail or Road.

4. Cost & type of land:

The land must have a good bearing capacity for heavy equipment and yet be cheap enough to purchase.

5. Distance from populated areas:

The station must be located as far away from populated areas as possible due to air pollution.

6. Nearness to load centers:

In order to reduce the transmission cost the plant should be located near load centers.

help | edit

Part 10: Completion list Once you finish your Exercises you can post your score here! To post your score just e-mail your course co-ordinator your name and score Click Here .

Part 7: Example Power Generation-Steam Power/Part7 help | edit

Part 9: Refferences & Exercise 2 Refferences:

1. 2.

This resource is prepared from Lecture notes by Thuvack. V.K Mehta & Rohit Mehta :- Principles of Power systems (1st ed.). S.CHAND .ISBN 81-219-2496-0

Execise 2:

1. 2.

Answers to Exercise 2