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II{STRIJCTOR'S

Special Forces

Demolitions
TRAINING HANDBOOK

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1 -IntroductiontoDemolitions CHAPTER 2 -CalculationandPlacementof Charges


CHAPTER3 CHAPTER4 CHAPTERb
CHAPTERG

....... ..... .....59 .......77

39

-BridgeDemolitions.... -AdvancedTechniques... -InsurgencyDemolitions.... -ExpedientDevices -SpecialTargets

....83 .....93 .....95 -... ..... ..... ....-..


99 107 111

CHAPTERT CHAPTERS

-IntroductiontoArson&Indendiarism. CHAPTER I -Field ExpedientDetonatororBlastingCap


CHAPTERl0

-AdvancedDemolitionTechniques&SpecialDevices

CHAPTERll -SpontaneousCombustionDevices

!27

I I

!L*_

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL

HCOMMEN H to H+

INTRODUCTION TO DEMOLITIONS

10

Many of you perhaps wonder why MATA bothers to teach importani ptace in counterguerrilla operation. This class is designed not only to
The use of demolitions has not been fully exploited by the Republic of viet-Nam chiefly due to: (1) lack of knowleage; (2') 19d due to fear generated by the lack of knowledge. - I would like to point out to you some methods by which
show you HOW but Why.

ffitt,f'#;#*n"ilit lJ1;"i;il,,Ti3,'lg,:i;#;:ffT"trJ:: etc. Dem6litions, nevertheless, has a very

'

demolitions may be of tremendous help. First, consider demolitions from the military point of view. Demolitions can be of gfeat assistance in the defenie of outposts and new life hamlets. Ambushes of varying kinds and sizei may be easily employed with no exposure of frGndly personnel. rujt political and military leaders of the Viet Cong may ne eliminated quite easily with some of the devices you will see demonstrated. Timber and stumps can be removed with more speed to clear for helipads, LZ's, and DZ-'s. .'Those all-important mbats surrounding villages, outposts, and military installations can be constructed with less manual labor with demolitions, second, it is often said that this is a war for the minds of men. And most certainly, "civic actionrr work is the most assured way of winning the mind of a man, Demolition is of great help to clear land for farms and to build roads in order trrJt ttre farmer may get to market. Demolitions have been used to clear land for new life hamlets. Construction of canals apd drainage ditches lends itself quite well to the use of explosives.
CHARACTERISTICS AND PROPERTIES OF MILITARY EXPI,OSIVES

COMMENT
H+ 10 to H+
15

There are certain characteristics that ail explosives must meet before they are accepted by the u.s. Army. of atl these characteristics, only one is of importance to the individual soldier, and it is "military exprosives are relatively insensitive to shock, heat, or fraction," This means they are noi li.bte to detonation by small arms fire.
DETONATING VELOCITY

COMMENT

H+

15

to H-20

At this time I will discuss detonating velocity. Detonating velocity is the speed at which the shock wave p"si"s through i column or block of explosive. It is always expr-essed in feet"per

second. This is the "yardstick" by which we choose from several explosives for a specific job. An explosive with a low detonating rate, such as ammonium nitrate, pushes and shoves. Therefore, it is more suitable for clearing land, cratering and ditching, quarrying rock, etc. An explosive with a high detonating rate, such as c-4, tears and shatters. This makes it more suitable for breaching concrete, cutting steel or timber, and sometimes as a propellent in the case of the claymore mine. In order to select one type of explosive from several different types, first decide if the explosive must tear and shatter or push and shove, and the choose, by detonating velocity, the explosive that best fits the job. Detonating velocities are listed in FM b-2b and FM b-94.
NOTE COMMENT

Demonstrate the push of explosives and effect with a glass jar and hamrner,
NON.ELECTRIC F'IRING SYSTEM
50

the shattering

H+ 20 to H+

can be detonated, it must first be equipped with some iort of device to produce detonation. The act of equipping the explosive with this device is called '3priming" and the finiJhed product is the "primer." Now, let,s look at the non-electric primer. A non-electric primer consists of (1) alengthof time fuze, (2) a nonelectric blasting cap, (3) a piece of explosive, and (4) any item necessary to join these components together as one unit. As you noticed, the means to ignite the time fuze is not a part of ttre primer. The attachment of a means of ignition of the time fuze constitutes the non-electric firing system.
NOTE COMMENT POST A1 AT THIS TIME AND COVER THE FOLLOWING:

At this time I will begin the real ,.meat,' of the subject and that is the non-electric firing system. Before any explosive

FUZE LIGHTERS
The first component to be covered is the fuze lighters. The U.S. Army issues two types of fuze lighters, the M-2 anO ttre M-60, and both may be found in Viet-Nam. L. M-2 Fuze Lighter: This is the M-2 fuze lighter. It is of all-metal construction, To use, you must first remove and discard the rubber shipping plug and insert the time iiize. ou insertion of the time fuze, some resistance will be met, but firm pressure will overcome the initial resistance and the time fuze will move about another quarter-inch. The fuze is now fully seated. The weatherproofing compound is compressed around the time fuze to weatherproof, not wateiproof, the device. An expe-

dient means instruction.

of waterproofing will be discussed in subsequent

NOTE COMMENT

PLACE CHART No. 1, J['{-2 FUZE LIGHTER, ON THE GTA STAND AND DEMONSTRATE THE FOLLOWING:

The initial res.istance met is due to a set of metal grippers that prevent the time fuze and fuse lighter from separating. When ready to ignite the time fuze, pull vigorously on the release pin. This releases a spring-driven striker which detonates a "shot' gun type" primer. The spurt of flame produced by this primer ignites the time fuze. As apointof interest on the M-2 fuze lighter, the base may be unscrewed from the body and the metal grippers removed with a nail which will allow the base to accommodate a .22 caliber round. The base is reinstalled in the body, thus producing an excellent "zip-gun." This surprise weapon is a oneshot affair, and you must be close to the target to a.ffect a hit.
PLACE CHART No 1A ON STAND AND EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWiNG: M-60

NOTE

a safety wire. To use the device, loosen but do not remove the base collar. Push in on the plastic shipping plug, remove, and discard. Insert the time fuze till fully seated and tighten the base collar. When ready to ignite the time fuze, remove the safety wire, take up slack on the release pin, and pull vigorously on the release ring to fire. The function of the M-60 is very similar to the M-2. If the device fails to fire, push Jhe release pin in as far as possible and refire.
NOTB COMMENT
USE INERT TRAINING AID TO DEMONSTRATE THE FOLLOWING:

2. M-60 Fuze Ligher: The remaining fuze lighter is the model. It is of metal and plastic construction and contains

An expedient method to waterproof the fuze lighter is to place it inside of a balloon and secure the balloon firmly around the time fuze with string. The balloon will easily stretch allowing the lighter to fire. When using this method with the M-60 lighter, remove the safety wire prior to placing it in the balloon. 3. Match Method: In the absence of the issued fuze lighters, time fuze may easily be ignited with a common match. To accomplish this, split the end of the time fuze about one-halL-inch--and insert the match allowing the head to p=otruda stigtrtty. To strike the ma*eh-draw the abrasive across the head of the match. Another method is to light a second match and light the match head in the ttme'4.rze,
TIME FUZE

Time fuze is a train of black powder surrounded by several layers uf waterp{qQJing rnaterial. It lrtay be-any color; however, the U.S. Army i-ssues dutl orange or gieqn* in color with green being predominant, It is completely watelproof except on the ' open ends and once ignited, will burn underwater.

NOTE COMMENT

DEMONSTRATE BURNING OF TIME FUZE UNDERWATER 4b seconds ^ Rurning rate of u.S. Army time fuze per foot. To properly use the time frrre, c.rt is 30 to discard ofiano the first 6 inches. -This is a precaution in the event moisture has seeped into and- damaged the train of brack powoer. Next, sure and cut off a l-foot length of the fuze. ^(Due to the factmeathat anyone seldom has a ruler with them, the crimp"", u"" ,"LJ i" the.fully opened position as a standard unit of *""iu"u. crimpers in this position equal approximately 1 foot. rrre-measuring device doesn't matter as as you use the same device ^10ng measure the time fuze.) This length of time fuze is to time and ignited and the burning rate estabrished for that rol of time fuze. DEMONSTRATE THE ABOVE

NOTE COMMENT

By knowing tltg burning rate for one crimper rength, it is a simple problem to figure the number of crimper-Gngtrrs required for a speeific length oi time, This operation must be repeated (1) when a new rot of ^ time fuze is opened, (2) when the lime fuze has remained unused for a period lz hours or longer, and (3) any time there is an "t extreme change in weather sincJthu n.r"rrirrg;;r;; i;"";# lished.

NOTE COMMENT

PLACE CHART No. 2, NON-BLECTRIC BLASTING CAP, oN


GTA STAND

At this time I wilr demonstrate the ,,heart', of any charge is the blasting cap. Nomenc_lature is, -ap, blasti"g, ;p-u_ cial non-electric .(type 1) (Jl PETN). tte nonjeiectric blasting cap consists.of a copper or aruminum shelr with speciar provided to receive the time fuze. This eavitv-p"lc"o"sa cavity a frash charge. The flame transmitted by the burnrng"timl fuze strikes this Jlash 9h*gu, causing it to ignite, Heat pro-duc"o ny the burnand that

qglhgd of using eommercial caps to detonatu riritu"y exprosives will be covered. The second item of importance is ihe sensitivity

which is very sensitive to shock, heat, and flame-. The"detonation of the primin-g charge is of sufficient strength to cause detonation base charge- This is a chain reacti"on_ttt"t io" urr practicalof the purposes is instantaneous. At this time, I want to impress you with two different points. First, this is an ordancu blasting cap and is far more powerful than the com*Lrcial caps "o"p"-"peciar that are used with the higruy sensitive commercial explosives. The ?qu:i{ blasting cap is required to obtain po"iti"" i"tonation with ALL.U.S. Army military ex}.'tosives. The *o"" powerfrf cap is required because of military explosives -being relatively "pu"fuf insensitive to shock. In subsequent insiruction u ii"Io expedient

ing flash gha"ee causes detonati-on o! the p"il;G;;arge

of blasting caps. All blasting caps must be protected from f1ame, shock, friction, and unnecessary rough handling. Wooden cap boxes are provided for safe handling and transporting of non-electric caps once they are reilroved from the shipping can. The cap box we have here will hold a total of 10 blasting caps. Cap boxes are available for 10 caps and 50 camps.
NOTE COMMENT

PLACE CHART No. 3, M-2 CAP CRIMPERS ON GTA STAND The next step that I will cover is crimping of a non-electric blasting cap to a length of time fuze. The purpose of crimping a non-electric blasting cap to a piece of time fuze is to provide contact between the black powder of the timefuze and the flash charge of the cap. This operation can be performed without crimping a blasting cap; however, it is the easiest method. This operation is one of the most important steps in preparing a non-electric primer. A tool designed for this operation is the M-2 cap erimpers. This device is manufactured from a non-sparking material but they do conduct electricity. One handle is a screwdriver blade and is used to remove the screws of the boxes of explosives and another which will be e:<plained during the period of instruction on electric firing systems. The other handle is a punch for making priming wells in explosives only. Near the pivot we see two pairs of jaws. The jaw nearest the pivot overlaps when the handles are compressed. these jaws are used for cutting time fuze and detonating cord. The cutter jaws do not close completely when the handles are compressed. This is due to a stop,6nd configuration of the jaws. A hole about t/+-inch. in diameter will be visible in the upper jaw when the jaws are closed. These jaws are used for crimping the blasting caps. Under no circumstances are the cutting jaws used to crimp caps as this action would cut the cap and possibly result in detonation and injury, The non-electric blasting cap is crimped in the following manner. First, insure that a squa.re cut exists across the diameter of the time fuze. Grasp the time fuze lqaving the index finger free. Place the blasting cap on the time fuze. The index finger is used to insure the blasting cap remains fully seated. Hold the blasting cap at eye level. The first jaws of the crimpers arce placed around the fuze cavity end of the blasting cap. The crimpers are never more than Y+ -inch from the end of the blasting cap. The wrists are rotated to the front still mainfaining the crimpers at eye level and the handles of the crimpers are sque-ezed {irryLy, then the crimpers are removed. Reason for rotating the wrists is to place the crimpers between the face and cap in the event of-arr--aeeidgnt causing the blasting cap to detonate. The crimping is necessai) (1) to prevent the separation of time fuze and cap, (2) for waterproofing the blasting cap. Additional waterproofing capatttity is obtained when a Seeon-d crimp is made 7a -inch above the original.

t
t

..AVIENT

pound blocks wrapped in heavy cardboard c-ontainers. one ends is provided with a threaded cap well. By removing the cardboard container of the l-pound block, two yz -pouno blocks will be disclosed. Because TNT is a hard, cast expfosive each block contains a cap well. Detonating velociiy is 21,0b0 feet per second. It is an excellent explosive that may be used for all types of demolition work. This detonating velocity of 21,000 feet per second would provide a l-second period of time to detonate a series of TNT blocks laid end to end for a distance of 4 miles. For the "nit-pickers," f'm 120 feet short.

At this time I will demonstrate priming of various military explosives. As each type of exprosive is prrmed, I wilr give yol some pertinent information on that particular explosive. 1. Priming of TNT: TNT is packaged irrl-pounds 7z_pound L/zayd

of the metar

NOTE COMMENT

Explain plastic priming adapter prior to priming TNT.

a. To prime the block with the plastic priming adapter, pass the capped time fuze through the adapter^maktn[ sure the threads d.th9 adapter arenearestthe btasting cap. Break the seal on the priming well with the punch end of Ihe 'c"i-pers and insert the blastingcap. Threadanotighten the priming adapter. b. To prime the block of TNT without th-e priming adapter, break the paper sear and insert the cap. secure^the cai and time fuze to the exprosive with tape or siring. If string is used, do not tie the knot too tight; otherwise the black'powder train - 2. Priming of comp. c-4: comp. c-4 is issued in 2lz-pound bloeks contained in a clear plastic covering. Detonating veiocity is 26,000 feet per second. It is a pliable exptosive wrriJrr may nL cut or molded to _fit an irregularly shaped taiget or object. vroroing should be held to a minimum as thic changes the density of the explosive and decreases the detonating veto-ity which has direct influence on the effectiveness of the explosive. a. To prime this explosive in the block form, fashi9n a priming well in either end of the block with the punch leg of the crimpers and insert the fuzed cap and secure with tape"o, string. Compress explosives firmly around the cap. b. \yl"r priming comp. C-4 in a molded form, first mold and secure the explosive to target, then fashion a priming well at any convenient location andinseittheblasting cap. ette-pi to maintain at least -l-inch of exlplosive at each end"of the blasting cap and L/z-inct' on all sides. 3. Priming of Dynamite: Military dynamite is issued iii sticks 172 by 8 inches long. Detonating rrutocity of military dynamite is 20,000 feet per second. The detonating velocity of commercial dynamite varies between 8,000 and 19,00-0 feet per second depending on the variety. FM b-2b lists the detonating velocities. Military dynamite differes from commerciar dynamite since it does not contain nitroglycerin, therefore safe stoiage and handling in combat areas is provided. The greatest use of dynamite is foi land clearing and quarry work.
may be damaged.

a, One method of priming dynamite is to provide a priming well in the end of the cartridge. Make the priming well in the end which has the "star-crimp" shape. If the well is made in the opposite end, several layers of paper must be penetrated. After producing the priming vrell, insert the blasting cap and secure with tape, string, small wire, etc. b. Another method is to open the crimped end of the cartridge and remove a small amount of the dynamite, then produce the priming well and insert the blasting cap. Next, close the cartridge around the time fuze and tie securely. This has the advantage of extra waterproofing. c. Side priming method: Punch a hole in the cartridge about Ltk - inches from one end. Point the hole so that the blasting cap when inserted will be nearly parallel with the side of the cartridge and the explosive end -of the cap will be at a point about half the length of the cartridge. Insert a fuzed blasting cap into the hole and wrap a string or piece of tape tightly around the fuze and then around the cartridge, making twoor three light turns before typing the string. 4. Priming of Tetrytol: Tetrytol is packaged in2% -pound blocks. Detonating velocity is 23,000 fet per second. It is a hard, brittle, cast explosive and is a very good substitute for TNT. a. To prime the individual M-2 block pass the time fuze through the plastic priming adapter. Then remove or puncture the paper seal, exposing the threaded cap well. Insert the blasting cap, thread, and tighten the adapter. In the absence of this priming adapter, once again substituting tape, string, wire, etc. to secure the blasting cap in the explosive.
NOTE COMMENT

Have satchel of tetrytol available.

b. The item before now is the M-l demolition chain. Tire M-1 chain consists of eight 2Yznound blocks of tetrytol with a length of detonating cord passing through the center of each block. This assembly was designed to give front-line troops a ready charge that is adaptable to many hasty demolition projects such as quick destruction of bridges, equipment, bunkers, etc. Priming is accomplished by attaching the blasting cap (with closed end of cap toward explosive) to the detonating cord with the detonating cord clip, tape, or string. In the absence of the mentioned items, the charge may be readily primed by tying a simple overhand knot, inserting the blasting cap into the knot. This method is positive as lgng -as_close contact exists between the closed end of the qgp and-the tietonlting cogd.
.-.---

NOTE COMMENT

Use inert

famlrlE:srdjqjemonstrate following:
=---_-

Dual Priming: To inrur{e positive detonation, it is recommended that atl charges be dualpqimed. Dual priming is two independent firing systems, both dqpabte of firing the same charge(s). Non-electric dual priming i--shown here in its simplest form. It consists of two independen:t-+i*rug systems, both inserted in the same charge. A11 combat charges chould be dual primed as a minimum.

L. Bxposed charge: To handle any explosed charge after the 30-minute waiting period requires onry a new primer to be inserted in the defective charge and fired. 2. Covered or tamped charge: When any charge is covered or tamped, the tamping must be removed to within a mininum of l-foot of the charge. This is done after the 30-minute waiting period. Are there any questions?
NOTB Students move to work tables
1H

commercial blasting caps may successfully be used to detonate military explosives by crimping one cap to the time fuze and then attaching another cap without time fuze to the original cap. This assembly is used to prime the charge. Misfires: The next item to be discussed is misfires. A misfire is a charge which failed to detonate when it was supposed to. A non-electric misfire exists anytime the blastitrg cap tras failed to detonate after the estimated time has elapsed. The most hazardous part of demolition work is the investigatlon of misfires. Remember, with a misfire, you are working with the unknown and the uncertain. Handling Misfires: Before any non-electric misfire is investigated, a waiting period of 30 minutes must be observed.

for practical exercise.

H+ 50 to

BREAK

COMMENT
1H to

lH+

40

During the next period of instruction we will treat electric firing systems. Electric firing systems offer two advantages over the non-electric firing systems. (1) we are able to detonate a multiple of charges simultaneously. (21 we retain complete control over the exact time of detonation, however, it requires more The electric primer differs very little from the non-elecit consists of a piece of explosive, an electric blasting cap, and the necessa.ry items to join these items together as one unit. when the electric power supply is connected to the primer, this constitutes the electric firing system.
equipment.

tric

as

NOTE COMMENT

PLACE CHART No.

4, ELECTRIC BLASTING CAP, oN GTA


STAND

Electric blasting cap: The first item of the electric firing system that I will discuss in detail is the electric blasting cap The electric blasting cap consists of a copper or aluminum itreti. This shell is fitted with two l2-foot lead wires. The lead wires pass through a filler material and an asphalt plug. The lead wires terminate inside o-fttrc---rgniling charge. As you noticed, the electric cap contains an interme-d:iate-harge. Immediately after the intermediate charge is the detonatin-g-c[a.:rge. A small ,,bridgsl of high resistance wire corurects the eridJ e{ the lead wireJtogether where they terminate inside of the igniting char'gs.

COMMENT

and holding them together. This device is the "short circuit shunt." Purpose of the "shuntt' is to produce a short-circuit, therefore preventing static electricity, induced radio frequency, high tension power lines, etc., from accidenta^lly cletonating the blasting cap. The premature detonation of electric blasting caps by induced radio frequency (RF) currents is possible. There is a table on page 46 of FM 5-25 dated October 1963 which shows the minimum safe distance versus transmitter power and indicates the distance beyond which it is sa.fe to conduct electrical blasting even under the most adverse conditions. Mobile-type transmitters are prohibited within 150 feet of any electrical blasting caps or electrical blasting system. Two alternative courses of action may be taken when blasting at distances less than those in the table is necessary. (1) The first alternative is a non-electric blasting system, as there is no danger whatsoever of a premature detonation by RF current. This method should be used if at all possi-

Function of the electric cap: The electric blasting cap will detonate when electric current is applied to the lead wires. This is accomplished by the resistance of the ('bridget, wire causing the "bridge" to heat to extreme temperatures instantaneously, This heat ignites the ignition charge, which in turn ignites the intermediate charge, which in turn detonates the detonating charge. A current of .2 to .5 amps is required to cause instantaneous detonation. Short circuit shunt: At the end of the lead wires you can see a small piece of lead material affixed to both of the lead wires

(21 The second alternative is an electrical blasting system constructed and operated under the following rules to minimize the possibility of premature detonation by induced RF currents. (a) Observe all electric blasting safety rules. (b) Cover all firing wires with dirt. (c) Use a regularly twisted wire like W-100/ B or W-ITT. (d) Twist the length of all cap lead wires when removing them from their original individual containers. preferably one.
NOTE

ble.

(e) Keep the number of caps


Yorr must be 6.50 Jeet from
a

to a minimu::a/

As fft

eXample;

mitter.

1,000 watt trans-

---staqlvice enough

This is an item Olextreme importancd ald mus1'T6a-'uler- aieremembered. I c-b'nqlgmphasize-the ne_ed for this de-

r
r
E

Different brasting caps: Another extremely important point about electric firing systems, the brasting caps ior ttre particular circuit, regardless of which kind, should-be^manufactured by the same company. Reason for this is that brasting caps of different manufacturers have different amounts of resistarice in ttre s,bridge', of the cap. Mixing of different caps could produce misfires. Misfires cannot be tolerated, nte^ctric ntastinj caps of different manufacturers should never be mixed. This Ts u""y important point. " cap identification: To herp prevent mixing of different caps the ordnance corps has provided three positive means of identification. 1. The cardboard shipping tube wil indicate the name of the manufacturer. z. In the event the tube is lost or defaced, the brasting caps are also color coded. They will be copper, brue, or red in color. 3. To be of aid in the dark, the shunt of the caps are different. It will be either round, square, or rectangurar; and, in the case of the r\{-6 military cap, there is no shunt; but the read wires are twisted together to act is a shunt. Electrie cap test and use of galvanometer: Before priming any expl0sive with the electric blasting cap, the blasting cap i3 tested first. To test an electric btas'ting *" use a device known as the galvanometer, The galvanort ei-e" c'onsists of an "up, elec_ tro-magnet, scale, indicator needle, and a battery; all contained in a plastic case. A reather carryingcase is provided for conveni_ ence and protection for the device, The battery is of utmost im_ portance as only one kind is used and it is BA zis 1u silver chloride battery. In order to detonate an erectric brasding cap, .2 to .5 amps are required. The BA 245 / u silver chroride produces only .9 volts. The .9 volts do not produce sufficient amps to detonate tlu el,ectric cap..- E ury othei type of battery is useo in this device, it may easily become a blasiing machine rather than a testing device. Never attempt to use any other type of battery, The battery contains a positive and negative post "and the REd wtRE of the garvanometer must be connected totlepositive post, marked with a plus (+ ) sign, or the device wilr attempt to operate in the opposite direction. when installing the battery, lu"uu it inside of the shipping tube. This prevents the battery f;; being loose and helps to absorb shock- Duling freezing wuaihu", the galvanometer _ should be carried inside of the shirt n&tto the n av t" prevent the battery from freezing, as this wilr cause an inopJrative galvanometer. Before ""*_S1hr_galvanometer, make sure the device functioning properly by grrtgsrng:-the terminals on top with is any object that will conduct electricity anct a* ttre same time observe

10

Inspect the lead wires to insure that the varnish on the wire ends have been removed. Next, place one of the leacl wires to either post of the galvanometer. The remaining lead wire is placed on the other post. The indicator needle is observed ancl a wide deflection of the indicator needle should be noticed. If no cleflection of the needle is noticeable, the btasting cap is assumed to be defective and is to be treated as a dud. The ends of the lead wires are twisted together to produce a short. A cap is then placed in a charge primed with another blasting cap, and this charge is detonated. A defective cap is never left unattended or cast aside. They are still dangerous and may, like any other ,,dud,,, be detonated if abused. If the cap is determined to be serviceable, then twist the ends of the lead wire together to take place of the shunt. Are there any questions?
NOTE COMMENT

the indicator needle. A wide deflection should be observed. If this indicator needle does not move or moves only slighily, inspect for loose connections and, or replace the BA 245 u situe" chloride battery. once it has been determined that the galvanometer is not defective, test the blasting cap in the following manner. First, remove the "short-circuit shuntD by grasping the lead wires in one hand and the shunt in the other and pull vigorously.

Use inert explosives and demonstrate priming of the following:

Electric priming: The instruction will continue by a demonstration of electric priming of various explosives. 1. Priming of TN'I: a. When priming the TNT block with the plastic priming adapter, insert the lead wires through the slot of the adapter insuring the threaded end is nearest the blasting cap, and insert the blasting cap into the cap well. Thread and tighten the adapter. The block of explosi.ve is now ready to use. b. When the adapter is not present, rner+y break or puncture the paper seal over the cap wcTl and insert the blasting cap. To prevent the seal of the cap from becoming cracked or the lead wires from being broken, take up a small amount of slack at the cap and tie two half-hitches or a girth hitch around the bloek of exploqive. 2. Pi'iming of composition C-4: a. When in the block form, C-4 is primed much like TNT by first producing a prturriaq well in either end of the bloc! and inserting t_he blasting -cap. Once again the half-hitch or Eiffn mtcn--methoo rs used to qe_qq"e the bllasting cap to the ex_______,____\_ plosive. b. To prlr^a c-4 in the morded fornrr;fF-oduce a nriming well at any convenienf \ation and insert the-++#+1ng> ^'. - ,15o.='-cap is secured to the explo\i.vejv an;t-fc-asible means. Try to maintain lz -ineh of explosive on afi--Bi-aes of the blasting cap and l-inch at both ends. This is n'd'cqisary to insure positive detonation,
_

--__-_-

11

COMMENT

priming well and securing with the priming-adapt6r or tratf-tritctr method in the same manner as TNT. b. The. r\{-1 chain is primed by attaching the blasting cap to the detonating cord in the same manner as non-electric priming. 4. Priming of dynamite: Dynamite is primed by producing a priming well in the 6'star-crimped,, end of the stick, insert th6 blasting cap and secure with half-hitches or a girth hitch. Remember to maintain slack in the lead wires beiween the ,,harfhitches" and the blasting cap. Firing wire: Now that we have seen how to prime the various explosives with the electric blasting cap, I will discuss the next portion of the electric firing system"anaiirat is the firing wire. The,firing wire allows individuals to be at a safe distanc6 from any charge or charges that are to be detonated electrically.
following:

3. Priming of tetrytol: a. The M-2 ,block is primed by pracing the cap in the

NOTE COMMENT

At-this time produce the issued-type firing wire

and explain the

ators position, it is,phecked for continuity. To accdmplish this we qse the galvanometer and it is performed in the following manner. Twist both wires of one end together. place the wires or tne other end to the posts of the galvanometer. A wide deflection of the indicator needle should be noticed, If no mcvement is noticed, a break exists in the wire. The second step consists of openin! trre end of the wire and repeating the galvanometer test. This Iime no movement of the indicator needle should be visible, If movement is present, an opening exists in the insulation allowing the two conductors to make contact and producing a short circuit. In both cases on-the-spot corrections must be mioe. Next, the firing wire is laid from the charges to the firing or operator's positionT once again the continuity test is madg. Reason ?or performing the original test is to discover any defect prior to laying the riire. Reason for the second test is to detect any defecl that was not noticed during the first test.
NOTE COMMENT

foot rolls. It is a simple two conductor No. 1g AwG copper wire with rutrber insulation, Reels . a.re supplied for recovery and storage wire. Before the firing wire is laid from the charges to tie of the oper-

The issued firing wires come in b00 and 1,000

Demonstrate arm and hand signals used during second test,

one end of theTirrng:-r{Ue is always twisted together when the wire is not in use. This ]?o-ni.oes a-short circuilwhich prevents static electricity, induced radio frequonsy, etc., from aqgidentally detonating any charges that may be attbbne-a-io tr**-riring wire. Firing circuits: When any multiple of charges are to be fired simultaneously, the various charges must be wired together in some sort of system. The various applications of this aie referred to as electric circuits. Today we will discuss only two circuits.
t2

NOTB COMMENT

Place chart No. 6, common series, on GTA stand Common series: The first circuit that I will explain is the common series circuit. When all charges have been emplaced, the circuit is wired in the following manner. Take one lead wire from one of the charges, preferably onenearestthe firing wire and splice it to a lead wire of the next charge. The remaining lead liiire from the second charge is spliced to a lead wire from the next charge. This process iS carried out until all charges are joined togetfrer leaving only two charges with one lead wire apiece. These leid wires are joined to the firing wire, a continuity test is made of the circuit. At any time the lead wires are not of su-fficient length to reach the other lead wire on the firing wire, use annunciator wire for extensions. (Produce annunciator wire and demonstrate the following.) The annunciator wire is a single copper conductor No. 20 AWG and is issued in 200-foot rolls. In the absence of annunciator wire, WDl and other wires may be used but should be kept to a minimum. Wire of different types and gauges may pre' sent abnormal resistance to the electric curuent which may result in misfires. Place chart No. 6,{, leapfrog, on GTA stand

NOTE COMMENT

lead wires of every other charge then returning through the circuit and splicing the remaining wires together. The big advantage in this circuit over the common series is that the leapfrog circuit conserves wire.
NOTB COMMENT

"Leapfrog" circuit: The remaining circuit I will e>cplain is the "leapfrog" circuit. This circuit is wired by joining the until the last charge is reached,

Place chart No. 7, Western Union pigtail splice, on the GTA Stand and explain the following

\ .---...

Western Union "Pigtail" Splice: During the explanation of the two electric firing circuits, I have mentioned splicing on severaI different occasions. This is a very important point as only on?-,-type of splice is used. And it is the Western Uniorr tfuWa*{ sptice. Thig_ splice is made by removing the insu-1a1i6n from the --e;ds-oTtn-e-wire for a distance of about 3 to 4 inches. The ends of lhe exposed wire are brought together and twisted about them' setvds fhf-eE--o*--four times. The ends are then bent to 90 degrees times of the wire and Ti{fstc+q5out themselves three or four[ne n:...----.--------.--.---again, Then the entire splicb-t*oenlessed together. -s or is irig circuit is to be in plice for any-exten"'" y."i rocr of time to be used durin$ wet weather, the s!tice-<$;t be protectgd PI type and/_ql waterlroofing compound. When theltriag circuit will sliort time and the weatlie" t1_9v: t}i: the , ;;;;;-;""k is urhe*q;ee*.y!_ The paper shipping carton for "": to hold it off the may be trippeu over the splice "I"6iiic"-"p shipping carfon is crushed flat to prevent wind, etc,, ground. The f"rom blowing it oif the splice. A11 splices should be made by one

ilJl"--nr;;r"J{";t

13

NOTE COMMENT

Alternate power suppries: teries, BA 80,s, e19., may n"-u""0vehicle batteries, radio batas substitute power

individual 0n1y. This has two sound reasons: (1) It prevents any charges being omitted from the circuit . at; ari trr" sprices wilr be almost identical, therefore presenting about the same amount of resistance in the circuit. trris rras u oi"u"t o' the amount of misfires. "rru"t Blasting Machines: The U.S. Army issues four t5rpes of blasting machines: (1) The len-cap mabhine; (2) The 30_cap machine; (3) The 50-cap *"-hirre; The name indicates the' maximumanO (+) The 100_cap machine. machine w'r safery detonate. Thenumber of blasting caps the 10-cry -.Jii"u is the most widery used and is the only type that *iri n" here today. "rrlwn Produce the 10-cap machine and demonstrate the following: This blasting machine is an impulse detonating ten erectiic caps. It isoperatedby generator capable of a 6.T, handle crank. Two terminals are rocatLd on top to fore the blasting machine is uied, corrrru6t irre riring wire. Beit operating the crank severar times prior shoura- n" **r-ud up by to wire' Also, before the machine is connectedconnecting the firing t";h" firing wire, a continuity check is made of the entire circuit *itr, trr" garvano_ meter. A word of caution on the urasting m"c'hine; when working with electric circuits, the blasting machine is kept on the person of the demorition chief or u-"u"porr"ibre persoi he designates. This prevents some irresponsibre person frbm firing the charges prematurely which may result in d^eath i;j"d;o individ_ ual. ""

"o*"

Duat Eiectric priming: The electric misfires is to insu"6 trrat at best method of preventing splicesl""L"a" the same plus duar priming. Erectric duar priming is tric since it consists of two inoepeiroe"t fi"i;gsimilar to non-erecs;il-r, both cap_ able of firing the s.le charge(s). e"e tt8#Ir,lr - '^ v !'vr s cug questions on " '-'' electric firing systems

il?',?H;"

Misfires: Electric misfires are handred in the same manner as non-electric with one is not tamped or covered, the misfire *"t #;;;;stigated charge "*""ptr". If the immeis tamp"o-* buried, tr,L io--inrtes waiting

in the absence of a blastirrg macfri.re.

supplies

Electric

nHJ"llge

NOTE

Students move to work tables

for p.E.

1H+ 49 to 2H
COMMENT

Coffee Break

2H to 2H+ 59

Detonating Firing^ System: This period will be de_ voted to the detonating coro Jiring system. irri" "?lO greater flexibility in detonation of severat "irl#.ft$', charges simultaneousry_ since the detonating cord firing system;-tG;;ri.Lo utuctricar_ ly or non'electrica[y. conseivation oJ bra"tirr?;;;s is possible --'o as only one cap is needed to fire several ch""gesl

74

NOTE COMMENT

Show detonating cord at. this time

Detondting cord is issued in 50, 100, 500, and 1000-foot spools. It may be white or yellow and black. White is seen most often but an O.D. color is being developed. It consists of a seamless tube of waterproofing material containing an explosive train of PETN. This material does detonate and it is an explosive item. A special blasting cap, electric or non-electric, is required for detonation. Being a military explosive item, it is insensitive to shock, heat, or friction, and is not liable to detonation by small arms fire. The detonating velocity of this material is 21,000 feet per second, the same as TNT. Keep in mind that a blasting cap is needed to detonate this material.

NOTE COMMENT

Fire detonating cord for demonstration

firing system, I will first cover the methods of priming

various types of explosives with a length of detonating cord. The length of detonating cord used to prime the various pieces of explosives is referred to as the branch line. Required length of the branch line will be clear later in the instruction.
Produce branch line and demonstrate the following:

In demonstrating the manner to construct a detonating cord

NOTE COMMENT

1, Priming of TNT: TNT is primed by tying a "clove' hitcht' plus two extra turns around the block of explosive with the branch line. The knot must be dressed out until it is very tight and so1id. A minimum of four wraps is required around the block to insure positive detonation. An extension of 6-inches must protrude past the knot.

like TNT or lace primed such as will be explained in the priming of dynamite; however, these two methods are not a means of positive detonation. These two methods may merely break the explosive and throw it through the air without 100 per cent detonation. The best method for priming C-4 with detonating cord is as follows: b. When in the molded form, C-4 is primed by opening the mold. Next, tie a simple overhand knot after taking about a 10-inch bight in the detonating cord. Insert the knot into the mo1d, close and compress the explosive firmly around the knot. Attempt to maintain 7z -inch of explosive on all sides of the knot and f-inch
method

2. Priming of Composition C-4: a. When in the block form, C-4 is primed t'clove-hitch"

with the

3. Priming of DynamiJe: Dynamite is primed by making four holes through the diamete-i-'of-+he-=tich,The-detonating cord is-tnteaOed through the holes. A knot is tied wher-b-tne detonating A 6-inch extension should pfo-__ cord paFS@-hofe;
trude past the knbt. 4, Priming of Tetrytol:

on either end of the knot.

knot must be plaeed within l-inch of the end of the block. The reason for this is that tetrytol contains a booster of tetryl surrounding the cap well on either end of the block. The knot must be placed directly over the booster to insure positive detonation.
15

a. The individual M'2 blocks are primed with the "clove-hitch" plus two extra turns. But with this explosive the

:l::ii:;

b. The M-1 chain is,,primed by attaching the branch rine to the detonating J *t9 square knot. "o"J Now that we hive seen how to"h";*[v;;?;g use various exprosives, I w'l demonstrate tfr.i nr*"f,"Iine to prime lines together in order to iit" severarhow to join these branch ctra"ges-simurtaneousry.
NOTE COMMENT

Place chart No. 9, main line, on GTA stand Main Line System: The simplest lines into one system is the main line form of joining the branch system.- i;" sists of a tength of,detonating co;o ,g"i;;1;oug; main line con,r," area where the demorition to ,is orbe peri8"*uo...This lengtrr Si-o"tonating cord may be straiEht crirved, thu*" * ,%-rr*itation as to the length. The irim"o "rro emplaced and ;" the branch rines are connected to the "rr".g":-oi at u"y main line poirrtlilng the rength and from either side. ruetrroos -ttrln in subsequent instruetion. irruutta"rrLii;";ilil" demonstrated primed from _m"i., trne is either end, erectricarly or nonltectri""riv,--nri't*o important points must be observed. (ri--rrre blasting cap must be attached at least 6-inches from the'ind of the detonating cora. Q) The closed end of tl:. *uri p"irt toward the cha?ges. The main line has one disadnu"t"g;.- Ifth; main "uq tine snouif,become broken or cut any place i1s. fengtfr, al,t char*" O*, this point are isolated and wirl "J:?g oetona-t'eoThe simpresi way to overcome 1ot b"e itf ,$'i;i; Tlxff ,f"J u's urarrl rlne ls *a very goodi " -o' " r e, i abl e, vrtce :r :1," system to use in rear areas.

:rn

*r

:: ii*

"

NOTE COMMENT

NOTE COMMENT

Place chart No. 10, ring main, on GTA stand Ring Main:. ThG. brings us to tfru system which is the ring main. The ring main out very "u*t similar to the main rine except the running end circles "i"-"t"around and is atLcrreo back to the standing end' rf-gn tfre aftached primed' The ring main is trre-molt "t;;;";;e reliable;1i;; ring main is "no*trrutwo systems.

3fiHTiffJ:1?iitJ%rii-1ff, ""*
tn",

main svstem using training

;nlT:':r'i'j,tffiJ:
charges.

are used with the detonating cord system. 1. The square knot. 2. Three round turns 3. Modified girth hitchand half_hitch. The described knoti the only knots that shoulO t",""0]r vvDrurvE uctonaf,lol """u""-u" of positive detonation. Theseare several precautions should be exercised with any detonating insure detonation .i"ri the charges.

lf;|iellts "3J?"

6;iti'"

Closed end of blasting cap is always polnted toward the 2. The detonating cord is never allowed to kink, eloss, or touch itself. use only the knots demonstrated and insure that the L""t----a"e tigii. 4' Angle between ring main or main line and branch rine should be at least 90 degreesT
L6

1.

COMMENT

Dual Priming: Duat priming a detonatingcordfiring system consists of attaching two independent firing systems to the ring main or main line. Detonating Assembly: Next, I will demonstrate an item of utmost importance; the detonating assembly. This item is constructed by the dual priming of a 2-f.oot length of detonating cord. When the detonating cord is dual primed non-electrically, make sure the blasting cap nearest the end contains the shortest length of time fuze and during use the same fuze is ignited first. The reason for this is so this cap will detonate first and, if defective and only cutting the detonating cord without producing detonation, the "back-up" cap is still effective. If the situation was reversed, you readily see that the second or "back-up" cap would be isolated from the charges resulting in a malfunction. Reason for constructing the detonating assembly is to provide speed and control. I want to discuss this matter of speed and control. First, should we be concerned with speed? The assembly could be constructed in a rear area, therefore saving time on the target as there is no need to crimp caps, etc., also, to attach the detonating assembly to the ring main or main line requires only one square knot. This saves considerable time on target which is very important on any raid-type mission. Being constructed in a rear area and carried by one responsible individual prevents the system frombeing detonated accidentally or prematurely by some incompetent or "nervoustt t5rpe individual, I want to impress you with the advantages of speed and control provided by the detonating assembly.

NOTE COMMENT

Place chart No, L0, dual non-electric firing system on GTA stand. Dual Non-Electric Firing System: This chart indicates how we may dual prime a multiple of charges non-electrically. The method demonstrated before limits us to one charge only.
Plbce chart No. 11, dual combination

NOTE COMMENT

firing system,

on GTA stand.

This chart shows the dual combinationfiringsystem. It consists of an independent non-electric firing system and an independ' ent electric firing system. In this case the time fuze is ignited first and in the event that there is a misfire or for some reason there is a necessity to fire the system prior to detonation by the non-electric means, the electric system is used to detonate the

---

tions ? =^==== items:

Gentlemen, this concludes the instruction on non'electric, electric, and detonating cord firing systems. Are there any ques'

charges,

A@

to

re-emphasize a couple of

important _
-F

1, Burning rate of time fuZe;2. CrimPing caps. 3. Misfires. 4. Testing electric bld'sbi+g'eaps- 5. Don't mix eaps of different compan'ies-- 6. One man to do all sqlicing. \ Proper knots of detonating co-rd systems' \. t,. 5i^-,*,ii#'X*."*ing cord kink oriouctr itself

----\'

and

attidF

ment of caps, 9. Use of detonating assemblY.

L7

NOTE

Students move to tables


3H

for p.E.

2H+ 59 to

BREAK

COMMENT 3H to 4H

Class, may I have your attention. ,I am the principre insiructor fJr irru*rr"*t r"it .rir"tr*rir"*-o*t"s this time we will be concer""J *itt, the mine, anti-personnel, Mlg and M1gAl (claymore). Reference materiar for the mine is TC 7-3 dated 10 October tbAZ. possibly many of you are wondering how became attached toitris *"upon. "contrar-y;; the name craymore ;;;;.n belief, it is not named in honor of a manf - irr" oi"tiol?ry defines claymore as "a two-handed scottisrr nroao"*.io through massed enemies.,, Wiit- "up"nt""oi;;;l;.g a wide path this in closer look at the U.S. Army ,,broadsword.,, mind, shall we take a In viet-Na-m, at the- presettt time, the craymore mine is issued in rarge amou-nts to tnd comn"t ,"'?""ry effective ""*1.-i; y"",ffff, and many of you shall encounter tt wrrire serving in that The M18AL is packed one complete weapon to a bandolier. Six of these bandotiers ;;;1";; rn a wooden
box.

NOTE

ffiJ3:
COMMENT

following is demonstrated, place items on table in view of

NOTE

lier witl be marked *i;h ;';een tag test set. This bando_ on the carryi.rg strap.
Use large mock-up to e>rplain each component.

Examination of the bandolier will produce one weapon, one detonator assembly, on" ri"i"fourri9". trr*" i" ine exception; one of the six nanobiiers *iir-"""iuin ""0 an M-40

COMMENT

of an electric blasting cap.


D_evlce,^

u''#:,i,ll"3i#;.?F:i:3l l##=ffi " " ;Trjlr,:1"^,::0",T: isfiq"v.er on the other. rr,Joust cover is a shorting prug also. rhis acts i.'tr'"'J*;
th
10

mor

it in a 1. Mine, anti;ner19nnel, MlgAl: The mine tangular box of plasti'c. TG;;;;;;sidecontai", is a curved rec_ trr- 200 sphericar steel balls and the eoncave side contains c-a *ni"r, is the properlent' The weapon is camcuflage. Tw1.scjss91+ypu i"gs dull g"uu'ii;;; material for "orrurJir-iih a are provided. Two priming wells are located- on the" i;t-;ith. the sight 2. Detonator as,sembry: 'irru o"tonator resting between.
rittre
and explain

*tr"rt5J;r:"

r wilt return to each item

an

0 r"_"-1.i i'1

assemhlrr ie nnl',.-_

i^iu

ffi;#;$lij ffiffi:
*'r

This purse 9: lllits -..,^^ generator. o{l top is an actuator is a one hand operated imrranoG;-t"lt rear and be_ is the ri"i;;'d;iti" produce nX":TJr"juator

M-bZ:

";*"tt;i.*tr,i"

18

and
NOTE COMMENT

4, M-40 Test Set: The test set consists of a transformer a small indicator lamp. A window is provided to view the

lamp.

Use charts to explain the following effects of the M18A1 and M18; cover safety factors also,

Before we can successfully employ the weapon, we must understand the effects of the mine, When fired, the M18A1 projects the 700 steel fragments forward in afan-shaped, beaten zone, 2-meters high and 50-meters wide at adistanceof S0-meters. This area is known as the killing zone. Within this area any of the steel fragments are capable of penetrating the U.S. Army armored vest. It is moderately effective to a range of 250-meters. The latter area covers an arc 90 degrees to the right and left of the center of the killing zone. Safety Factor: This weapon has a danger area to the rear. This danger area exists from the concussion of the C-4 filler used to propel the fragments and missiles that are picked up by this concussion. This fact must be fully understood in order to safely employ the weapon.
Use chart and give safety factors as follows:

NOTE COMMENT

section of the danger area is a 180 degree semia radius of 16-meters. A11 friendly personnel are prohibited in this area when the mine is detonated. The other section has a radius of lO0-meters. A11 friendly troops within 1O0-meters must take cover when the weapon is detonated.

circle with

The

first

NOTE COMMENT

Use chart M-18 to demonstrate the following:

The M18 is less effective than the M18A1. The killing zone of the M18 is 2-meters high, 3O-meters wide at a distance of 30meters. It is moderately effective to a range of 4O-meters. It

From a distance of 0 to 8-meters to the rear and sides all personnel are prohibited. Everyone from 8 to 42-meters must take cover, Between the range of 42-100-meters exposed personnel need only to shield their face. Employment of the claymore is placed in two -brclad riercts;-:----'As a controlled weapon and the role of an uncontrolled mine. The rdle-as.a controlled weapon will be discussed first. r-Eep-une- killing ione and danger areas in mind when seiecting the point of dQ[q4ation. Once the location has been chosen, remove the -mind from--un-c Qolier and spread the legs. Bury the le$s'ab6-ut hatfvray-in the groti dface the weapon toward tlle5 weapon may be deterrn creoireil field of fire. The front of the \r/oqnrrn rnqrr tre deterrntfi5d one of three ways: , _L. Letters on the face read "fro-Iu-towaid enemy..," 2. The front is convex which is help{ril at night. 3, An arrow located on each top cornir. Start in front of the weapon and pace off a dist6idoef 50-meters for-the MISA1 and 30-meters for the M18. At this point drfuze a stake .l-meter high into the ground. Return to the we-apon and with

can be dangerous to a range of 205-meters.

19

of these systems.

the eye about 6-inches from the_-sight, lay sight on the aiming stake. ir,u "rr""ti;;r the cross hairs of the ;;; hair must pass through the center or-tne stake *itr, trr" rro"irorrt"r cross hair rest_ ing on top of the stake. ceuirom: The tains two crear plastic faces ano eactr sight of the M1BA' con_ r"""ii"" u separate cross hair. These must ne srrperi*Ogg"O so_-they ;pp""" as one object at alt times during-aiming ope;ation, rir";p; is now sighted. lhe Insure ,lu_, ".lolti"g p_fug and Remove assembry are instarted ai uit ti-ur. dust corrJ" ot the detonator either priming werl plug and insert tl? bl.Tr.i"g rn.ert the eruci"ic cap in the we' and the wires in the ,,V,, ;tit it "up.--trr" p"i.irg*"iip-rrg, thread, and tighten the plug- Tie the firing wire. to some object to prevent the wire from being puted check aim and "to oi"iu"bing the r"v "'i*r" weapon. Re_ _cam^o{fpe, position. Insure safety niit i"f,uy,tfr" ii"irrg#i"" to tt" operator,s in ttru wire to the firing device, The weapon"Ju p%"itiJ' tt *r, join firing is ready for At any time a^.continuity test is o""i"to, use. uither tiar employment or_afterwaror, ti is accompiiril"J'in during inimanner' Remove firing device f10m the firingwire the following ano reinstarl shorting plug of the firiig wi"e. bonnect tu"i firing device. The dust cover on the "test set "-ui'io window and onerate the handle. must be instJrei. observe the A brief visible in the *inao*. attacii trre firingwirena"r, ot'right shourd be to the test set and re_ peat the operation. The weapon will-not oetonate as tong as the test set is instailed in the appear, use the process of eriminatio" "ii"rit. el u"v=fi*uJie ftash fails to 6v either the firing device or teit settor*ututr,"i*ur'"q"ri#""i. "uprultrrg continuity A be made perioorca'v-u"o urt"" nl:*i^""irs or bombardonce the test,has been completed, Temove the test set from the circuit and tF I;;;_ _"r.*e""ure the safety 1enla.9: bail is in the safe position before installation. _q"yj6:. Th". weapon may be fired non_electricallv ats a non'erectric bap to rengthor'ietonating -ii,:t,:t$Tts prime the weanon. Lay the ietonaiing "."i. co"o"nacrolo a position near the operator. Here another firing device and then tapeol ""n r""ucrimpJ-i.""i ,r-r pu'-type iil5 iJ The firing device is atLched to some"il-of t;; iiior"r'g cord. steady object. A wire or stout string is tt^"9 p trre puii rinq run to the operator,s posiyo tion. To fire the we.1go1 only pull The firing device w'i oetonate-ire "u!.ri"u" a strongiio of the wire. causing the weapon to fire. It is recommended $gtonatinf irr"i-irr""*"lpon be primed electric and non-erectric. irr"-"i"v-ore atso b-e dual electrically by using the commil'seriesmay ,,l""pirog' primed o" system. Also, several cravmores may be ri""i-"i*.,ii"";',is#

liilrf"'

by using one

20

NOTE COMMENT

Use charts and Demonstrate how weapon is employed in a clefense and in an ambush-type role.

The claymore is an excellent weapon for an ambush-type role. On this chart we see one claymore placed in a curve of a jungle trail. When the enemy is within the killing zone, the weapon is detonated. Another version is two claymores placed on opposite sides of a trail or road. The long axis of the killing zone runs parallel to the trail. The mines are wired separately and
when the enemy approaches one of the weapons detonated. The other is saved in the event that the group fired on was only a lead element or they apply immediate action and attack. At this time the second weapon is fired, causing several more changes to the Viet Cong morning report. Due to the fact that this weapon is a one-shot directionaltype weapon, fire discipline assumes a pararnount importance. Control of the weapon must always be in the hands of a competent individual.

NOTE COMMENT

Use chart to show proper time of detonation when a group is approaching abreast, in file, or in a group.

to hamLets or units in camp. Employment to reinforce wire entanglements and to cover dead spaces is extremely worthwhile. When the weapon is emplaced in this manner as a booby-trap, it is wired with the same device as was used to fire the weapon nonelectrically except the pull wire of the firing device becomes a trip wire.
Use chart to demonstrate two methods of employing the claymore as a booby-trap or land mine.
Any time the weapon is employed in theuncontrolled role as a land mine, it must be marked, located, and reported the same as any mine field.

The claymore may be used in a defensive role as protection

NOTE COMMENT

NOTE
COL{-\,{IJNT

Using GTA, explain mass employment of the claymore, To obtain maximum coverage of alargefront, thg claymores when placed on line separat+ela--ekt--\ --!gelprs. The weapons that are placed inwit'le a must be separate depth by a *rsrallcE-vf-tha backblast area, This is 8-meters for the M18 and 16-meters for 1841. Also, the front row of weapons must be fired first. It-m-ay\.desirable to provide means to detonaJb'+large segment of the I easily with a cornmon series or ain detonating cord firing system.

are more effective

2l

COMMENT

Gentlemen, as you see, the claymore is a very effective and versatile weapon. The employment of the claymore can be a deciding factor in this very simple war. Our advice to these people may have direct influence on its employment. Are there any questions?

ARVN Mine Poliey: As preparatory background the mine policy of ARVN will be discussed at this time. When a mine field is desired, the company commander draws up a request showing the desired location of the mine field. The request is forwarded to the district headquarters, The district chief inspects the location of the mine field to insure that it will not endanger cattle, wells, or the farming area, etc. After this inspection, the request is sent forward to the province chief. In the event the district chief is not a military officer, his aide who is an officer will handle the requests. The province chief must approve the requests. Then the engineers install the mine field. The engineers perform all work involving the actual mines, but the occupying unit must maintain all the fences, markers, etc. Are there any
questions

Munroe Theory: While observing the demonstrations this afternoon, you shall hear mention of the '.MunroeTheory" several times in reference to the mechanics of several charges. At this time I will explain the theory and how this theory led to the invention of the shape eharge. A chemist by the narne of Munroe used three theories to develop these charges: 1. A force will cancel or repel an exact opposite force. 2. Force takes the path of least resistance. 3. The shock waves leave a detonating e:<plosive at a 90 degree angle to the surface of the explosive. The latter is the Munroe Theory.
NOTE

Use GTA to explain the following:

COMMENT

per second. When any charge involving the Munroe Theory is used to penetrate concrete or steel, another element comes into effect; this effeet-ils-known as standoff. Standoff has a direct bearing on the effectiveness of-thq-charge. The minimum standoff for maximum effectiveness is fou--h'*1o be at 90 degree measure from the side of the cone using the lohe\ as a pivot. A measurement is taken from the opposite corner an{_the distance at whieh these lines intersect is the minimum standoff-* In order to fully-tnderstand severaf of the charges that will be demonstrgted this afternoon, you must first understand this principle.

By placing two equal pieces of explosives together in such manner to form an inverted V and detonating them at the apex of the V, the detonating waves on the inside of the V will strike each other at the center of the V-shaped cone. Being of almost exact likeness, they tend to repel each other and travel at a downward angle, hence, the first portion of the theory comes to view, This action happens all the way down the cone simultaneously; a reinforcing effect results. A small jet of energ} is forryCd,andj.s_Urorjected downward at tremendous speed. Velocity of the "j"t" stream formed by the M-3 40-pound shaped charge is 73,000 feet

22

LUNCH BREAK
COMMBNT

Expedient Use of 3.5,' Rocket Round: The 3.5'' rocket pro. vides an excellent weapon for ambushes, defense of hamiets, to

4H to

411

+ 40

coverdeadspaces'areacoverage'andtoreinforcebarbedwire will entanglements. tl'ts easity fire-d without the launcher. You discoier that the 3.5t' rocket is a very versatile weapon. As each type of improvised launcher is explained' place in
of the students.

NOTE COMMENT

is shipped in, The cardboard container has package that the "oEt"t rain-and moisture will cause separation one disadvantage in that of the paper. For this reason, we will move on to the second type of taunctrer which is not readily a'ffected by moisture'

l.Averygoodlauncherfortherocketisthecardboard

2.Themeta]containerwhichsurroundsthecardboardtube is a fine tauncrrer provided that both ends are removed. Both of posts, these launchers may ne readily attached to trees, stakes, etc., for firing. 3. Impiovised launchers may be constructed from boards

i
t'j

.#

'

andplanks.Thecratethattheroundsareshippedinmaybedis. buildassembled and used quite readily. construction consists of may long as the rocket' Legs t;-;-"V-shaped" trough twlce as sight' be attached to the frontiftn"launcherto aid in elevating and
ing.

Sighting equipment may be fabricated from the cardboard cut four container and a length of siring. To fashion the sight,the tube. g0 "degrees apart around the end of notches spaced Lengths oi string u"" il""uO itrru the notches, forming a set.of ,,cr6ss hairs." ffaffway netween the horizontal cross hair and the cross Iower outside edge of ttte container, a second horizontalcenter hole in the ftai" is ptaced. TY5e wooden plug with the small on the launcher is left in the container. 1'o useltre sight, place it cross hairs are with the cross hairs forward. The two horizontal

ilil
iffi
'jft .H
rl
j

nearesttheground.Sightthroughthesmallholeinthewooden "hairs of the target.

pG-u"o aim"nrc eross

the The middle cross hair ls for sighting 4l r-eag:s of 50-yards,edge the bottom fowlr cross hair is for_siEhrirtg affiOU-Jyards, and between will be fsl.sighting at 200-yards. Any range ?lJh"-tun".ir windage and "Tennessee" elevation. Launching rocKentuctcy" kets iy this meani is not effective for ranges of more than 200-

on ihe center of mass

NOTB COMMBNT

yards;\\the wAG system. I wil)-nery explain the means of firing the rocket by impro----''1'-11by tw9 vised methods.--- Irnprovised firing may-bJ will exptain th methods, etectric\ir and non-electrically. I ""qa*pfisH electric method of firs* firSe- .-\ Use a rocket to demonstr\
Insure that the safety \o it in place' Remcve the wires found i;-i;" rear of the rocket\otor. (f,d*reen, blue, ?"q

clear.)Useanon-Sparkingtool,refrIQ\<Qttre-}uqlconethat -.-\
23

croses the venturi of the rocket, prastic cone will see a grate inside the After the orirre-rocket.is removed venturi heads from matc"hes cut some cut a piece of time u'd;o;" irr"- into the r"rr1,r"i onto the grate. ruze uno iup" of it so that the heads *;;;;:ed g" tie a few matches to one end to trre tire i;;- the fuze' To fire the roundi*5irt" rockei;;;r;i".ncherend of the bore-riding pi" iJp""Jseo; insert lr,u-ti-" fuze with the with the matches on "t'gt{ -the it into fuze, and take cover out of the tackniast a rureiigrrter, ignite the "e"tu"i.- Attach The burning time fuze w'r igni6 r""" J trre rocket. thu"rrr"u;les when the fire reaches the end oitrre powoer l"ain]tni" i, ir"" i'grites the match heads previousrv ptaceo i"irrr"o"kJ. ;h;;;il#. the propelrent to burn and the.roc^t et is p"opuf i"O toward the tarset.

you

pends only on the imagination'of

inOiuiAual using The fragmentation area of ttte s.b,r-i;;k"rTs iL; rvvAeL rD io-yaros wide I and 2o-yards long.

Several rockets may be fired them in series. Emplace irt"-io"r.ut simultaneously by wiring Prepare the rockets ror etectriiar. r"unc-rrer;;# sight them in. firing launchers. The ""; ;;" them on the _method ot *iring trrem-i5 rn"-"I#" as a common series circuit. Launchers sttoui.i feet. connect one,of,trre_riring liiJeteaos be placed croser than 10_ lever of the nearest rocket. Corrrre8t ifre otfrer t" I"" .itr,e clear wires clear wire, using a short length of wire to the ui; in the same manner, and so on down this roctet to the next """onJrl"t "orrn"ct nected' The last^rocket will have one the ii"1 uJ' a' are concrear wire ,emaining to be connected to the firing wire if ttre in the correct manner, thus estabii:lilg lr"" i"* accomplished .wiring *-"o**Ji se"ies circuit. wires-"r'."r0 ,rlX?.tt"tng ":i""v"-L? "i.rt"o to p"e*,e'i .The 3.5,, rocket may be use.d the defense or to add effectiu"nl"" to to supplement fires when in also be used as a booby t""p. -irreir an u*,tir"r"-"ii" .o"t"t may utilization is_.varied and
_

over non-electric firing in that it.is.quick"";;;;"ier advantages "r""i"i""ri/'o'rr#"* two to emplace, and we have contror 6ver u*""t "#eparation rocket consists of_ identifyi"g th" ri"irrg t-ir"". of the wirers in tire sembrv' The BLUE wrnb i-" oir"u-gr"o"o;;;;v of the fin as_ "ua"be cut off thrown away to prevent a mistake. and Further examination w'l disclose two crear wires. o";;;;o"nected is connected to a red wire. itu_"" two to a green wire and one near the support ring. rhe insuration corore?iri""" are cut off oi-i;;;";, wires is then removed for a length of auoul ryr -i""rrus:-" ;;" wires are shorted together, ttre then in the same menner astaunctre" i, ttur, "q,,r""". and is sighted the non-electri" r",i""rr"i rocket. sure that the bore'riding sareiy pin Make that it is in the ogprgssg--o;;ition- is praceo-"i trru launcher so A firing wire is raid from the proposed firing site to ttre site where trru'.plru'tor witt be under cover. The firing wire is attached t" ing twist. cauiroN, D;-;; use irr" "r"I"'#ilu", with a rolrthe ,,western union pig-tail splice." one and one-hali uort"" of electricity are required as a minimum to fire one rocket.

Firing the B.b" rbctft

f$*to*

ttu

de_

24

The rocket head may be used as a shaped charge by unscrewing the motor and fuze assembly from the rocket head. Stand the rocket on its nose and prime the fuze end of the head by placing a piece of C-4 about the size of a golf ball into the cavity which is left when the head is unscrewed from the fuze portion of the rocket, Insert a non-electric or electric blasting cap approximately 7a -inch into the C-4 and detonate. The shapeO freaObi ttre 3.5" rocket may also be detonated by placing a primed % -pound block of TNT on the fuze end of the head. Use in this manner does not detract in the penetration of the round of upwards of 10.5inches of armor plate. U.S. Landmines: Description of arming and laying of the M-14 and M-16 antipersonnel mine is demonstrated. The first mine that will be explained is the antipersonnel,
non-magnetic M-14.
NOTE
COM]VI]INT

As the following is explained, use an inert M-14 mine and chart to point out nomenclature.
The M-14 mine is a simple device of plastic construction except for the firing mechanism which is metal and for all purposes is non-detectable by magnetic detector systems. The firing mechanism is an integral part of the mine. The cylindrical body contains a plastic rotating pressure plate which is marked with an arrow. The body is labeled with an A and S indicating armed and safe positions. Color of the entire mine is an olive drab. The M-14 contains three sa.feties, The first is the safety cl.ip whicir prevents depressing of the pressure plate, The second is the safe position of the pressure plate, Third is the delonator removed. Total weight of the mine is 372 -ounces. The tetrytol explosive filler weighs l-ounce. It is designed to inflict a non-lethal wound. The only detonator well is located in the bottom cf the mine. No secondary fuze wells or means of booby trapping have been provided. Use an inert M-14 ancl explain the following:

NOTE COMMENT

Arming and Laying: 1. Remove the mine from its cardboard shippingcontainer and remove the white shipping plug. 2. Insure the safety clip is properly installed, then rotate the pressure plate to the "At' position. 3. While observing Lhrough the detonator well, slowly remove the safety clip. If the ftring-A!{rtemains in the unfired position, the mine may be considered satisfactory-lor use. If the firing -----pin does lot remain in the unfired position, dd-non-uselElnind; treat--ar,- a dud and destroy the mine as outlined in TM 9-1900. +. -ln pecfenn-orme ;hiBplng plug for anydistortion as this is evidence of )n abnormal firing pin, This is a dangerous condition if the detonator is forced against thefiring pin during installation and detonation of the mine is highly possible.

25

but separated from the mine. "t 6. prace the mine in a small hole with the pressure plate slightly alove ground revel. If the ground i" un.i"ire, prace metallic object beneath the mine to provideahard bearing a nonsurface, Anchor the mine in prace with the carrying cord. This prevents the mine from froating above the surfac; heavy rainfall. "ith" frouno in case of 7 ' Hold the. mine firmty without pressure prate, rotate_the pressure platecausing pressure on the in a cToitwise direction till the arrow moves from ,,S' to ,,A, position. The M_22 mine and fuze wrench is used for this purpose. 8' Slowly and carefuty remove the safety clip for possible disarming in the" future; carefurly cover and save and camouflage the mine. The M-14 mine can be used for protection around your camp at night and it can arso be used at night ,rr"r, you are on patrois. you can put them out at light ao pr-Jthl- up the next morning and move They may als6 be used hamrets for protection from the 9L. Viet-Cong. ""ouno The next mine I wit explain is the M-16 antipersonnel bounding-type mine.
NOTE COMMENT

5. Remove the detonator from its damage. The red end must be visible. holder and inspect for into the detonator.well, and tighten. ttre rrrrlaJtnis, assemble fuze and M-22 is used for this. The dJtonator is ippeJi' mine wrench the same box

use inert M-16 mine and chart to demonstrate the folrowing:


Generar description: The M-16 is a highry effective boundmine. The entire mine is orive drab with yellow markings, rne u-re is housed in a she' of cast iron. and. is completely waterproof, Because "orri"in", of the metar used in construction, it is highly oetectanle by magnetic-oeilction devices. only one fuze werl iJprovided and it ii croJed *itrr Total weight of the " pressureplug. ,M.16 is 8-pounds. Th; M:a'; "r,tpping pull fuze is used to activate the minei
ing- fragmentation-type

--\

----.\

26

Installing and Arming: 1. Remove shipping plug (use M-25 mine and fuze wrench) inspect the fuze well and flash tube. and 2, Examine the M'605 pressure pul1 fuze insuring that the safety pins are installed. Then install fuze in the mine and tighten. 3. Dig a hole where the mine is to be instalied. The hole should be about 6-inches deep and 5-inches wide. Place the mine into the hole and insure that the prongs of the M-605 fuze protrude above ground level. 4. FiIl the cavity around the mine with the spoil removed from the hole and pack firmly around the mine. Continue filling and packing till tevel with the bottom of release firing pin ring. This mine may be installed for pressure activation or trip wire activation or a combination of both. For the purpose of today's instruction, we will discuss both. 5. Next, drive two anchor stakes at a distance of about 30 to 35-feet from the mine and in such fashion as to form a wide and attach '.V." Secure separate trip wires to the anchor stakes install trip to the release pin ring of the fuze. CAUTION: Never wire taut enough to exert pull on the release ring pin. 6. The next step is to remove the interlocking safety pin' place the pull cords in a position for easy removal. Camouflage the mine ind its location. By use of pull cords, remove the locking safety pin. CAUTION: If thepositive safety is hard to remove, this indicates that the striker is partially activated, and complete removal of the positive safety will allow the striker to continue its downward travel and detonate the mine. Functioning: When the M-605 fuze is activated by pressure on the prongs or by the trip wire, a delay fuze begins to burn. This allows the person that activated the mine a brief moment to move a couple of steps in order that the mine may bound into the air. The fuze is set so that a pressure of 8 pounds and no more than 20 pounds is needed to activate the f.uze. Pull pressure on the trip wire is set from no less than 3 pounds and no greater than 8 pounds for activation. After the fuze delay burns for a brief period, an expelling charge projects the cast iron shell and its -bursting charge into the air. When the cast iron container reaches a-trerytt-Of2_tOq:eeT-Zbove gTOUnCl' its l13re-l< rlo+^"+orl hv h@ delay6d detonators and the area is covered with shrapnel. The effective casualty radius is 35 yards. The M'16 may be dangerous to a range of 200 Yards.
COMMENT

TIMBBR CUTTING, STUMPING, AND DITCHING The following instruction consists of timber cutting, stumping, and ditching. This will better enable you to advise the Vietnamese how to employ demolitions to clear fields,for farms, LZ's and DZ, s, and roiAs, It can be of great help in Suilding villages also, The ditching principle taught here will enable you to assist these people in construction of canals and the moats that surround the strategic hamlets.

4H+40tobH
...-:

27

NOTE

cutting involves ternal charge and the"oth"; f;; two basic formula; one for an inan_externar crr""ge'. The internar charge conserves_ on explosives. you encounter resupply p"o-brems tn o"" i"'iLi;;;";* demorit-""-""i'drilts wilr not quired to prace are re11]itblnur crra"g;, the externally placed ctrarge ;;l;.' we wilr "on"""r, ourserves with Use timber cutting formula to explain the
following:
The externaL untamped planation of the formula ;-;r formula is_p equals D2 over 40. Ex_ i;ii;*r, p stanos ror trre TNT which is the trr"l *" desire to obtain. DZ pounds of -unknown is the diameter of the timber, u*p""""LiL .nurnuu;. --u"trr];;;;Ji#, i.rches, ."itipl"o by itself order to square ttre in number that appears each time in the formura. I wit *o"k;h;formura using the arbitrary nutler or-ri-i;;;" oiameter. H;;;, p equats to 12 times 12 0ver 40- tn the rhis witt reduce to B 84 /40, "u*t riup, p will equal to 7440ver 40. time the answer is a fractit.,;hl;;"is "ou'oeo;;i;; ? pounos. Any ,""r0:fjto tfr" The answer is always in pounds ( ""_iiLnu" lzpound. of TNT.

Timber

COMMENT

28

NOTE COMMENT

Use G'IA 5-14, demolition card, to explain relative effectiveness factors,


Once the amount of explosives needed is computed, it must next be attached to the timber. For best results, the explosive should completely encircle the timber when practical. When it is desired for a timber to fall in a particular direction, the center of the charge is always placed on the same side as the desired direction of fall. The detonating wave of the charge will prrsh the butt of the tree in the opposite direction, causing the tree to lean and fall toward the desired direction. This charge may be used to cut any shape timber (square, rectangular, round, etc.). Are there

Experience has taught many advisors that this timber cutting does not always succeed on teakwood and mahogany. Experience has also taught that the besf method on these trees is to remove tree, stump, and roots in one operation. With this in mind, we will go into stumping methods, The first step in stumping operation is to determjne the amount of explosive needed, To accomplish this, we use a rule-ofthumb as follows: 1. Dead stump--1 pound per foot of diameter. 2, Green stump--2 pounds per foot of diameter. 3. For a tree and stump--use 3 pounds perfoot of diameter. This witl yield the amount of explosives for a test shot. If it is found to be over or under eharged, adjustments are made.
NOTE
COMJyI]]NT

any questions?

Use charts to explain the following:

In the next step we must decide on placement of charges. Placement of the charges will depend on the root strueture. There are two basic root structures: (1) tap root, and (2) lateral root.
Use charts to explain the placement of charges,

NOTE

COMl{EN'I

On lateral root-type trees, the charge is placed as near to the center of the stump as possible and at a depth at least equal to the radius of the stump base. On the tap root stumD, it is necessary to drill a hole in the tap root and place the charge below ground level. AIl the cbglg_e! are tamped with earth in both eases. Are there any-questions-?-The ditching principle taught here today is only one of several, FM 5-25 4qq_IM 5-34 give more elaborate information on ditching. This particulaunethod was chosen because it will be sufficient to construct tbe prbrective moats that you may adviseuEd..\dur illg-yottrus si gnm ent. ===-- -===Use ditchinq chart to demonstrate the follow{qg:

=--'-----.

NOTE

COMIVIENT

The ditchiig method is as follows: Lay off a row of boreholes in line wtre{e t!: center of the moat is desired. The boreholes are 4-feet debp ai*oe 5-foot centers. They are loaded with 40 pounds of prirned explosives. The earth is replaced for tamping and the charges are fired.

29

;r:r:T
5H to 5H+ 29
COM \,1ENT

The resulting ditch will wide. It is recomrnended that thebe about 6-feet deep and 2'-feet ghTges ting cord in orde_r to place irru nr""ttig be primed with detonalever. The number of ctrarges *rat mav ";;r";;ve grounddepend ne fir"eo w'l proximity of troops, buiidings, "i "r"li-e aiu there

"t,

any ques_

COFFEE BREAK

5H+ 29 1o 6H+ 13

viet cong use capturedoF ARTILLE-RY SHELLS AS M]NES: The andl;;il rss-mm-aJ^i;;_** art'rery shells as land mines. They are usuattv,r""o and are empraced in roads ana "" ,r#u"hicle mines aelonatedelectricalryfrom ambush. To use an artilrery- shet performed: - ------------ as r ;i;;, certain modifications must be L. The fuze of the sh!\n-g,st be removed. 2. The fuze weil must p a block of explosive must be put in c.lose p"o*iilrflto li]ie.;tiil.un.u*plosive, or the nose of ent expto s i ve f or trre purpose oi"ri rj iilr# ?;; ll,i ii""tl -, i'l f-?:tl 3. The e>cplosive charge is primed electricalr, iir detonated
USE

p.ii"L up these empty boxes and use trrum as- anti-personner and anti-vehicurar mines. ma'ke an anti-personner min'e, To 2-inches oi in the bottom of the box. rrrL-"est of "nout the spacel*p'ro"ive is placed in'ihe box is filled with shrapner. The_anti-put"o""ur mine can be detonated eleciricar_ 'T;;;; or non'electrically. in the 'y is filred with exprosive burieil ; roac u"ti-u"rrl"L role, the box nated from ambush. ro oetonate_the at a selected site and detocong must usuarly oo it electr-ilJrv, anti-;;h;;i;"*ine, the viet rr"*"r--,'ji'Ju' be detonated by a pull-type firing device. MORTAR SHELL CON,TATNER: .Same as ammunition r"" i.1#i
THE

available wherever combat t"oop" are them wiren thev are empty. fne viet -operate. They usua,y discarrr Cgng

-inu-i"'*,a.de rvork. It can be de_tonate. etectrica_lly stric'y for anti-personner o" ,rorr_"i""i"i"rff'. AMMUNITION BOX Uiwp: e**""ition boxes

Improvised viet cong m.ines: some by which the Viet cong rorcz improvised materials and methods I;J;i;es Explanation of vi-et cong u.u u double-boilu, to is discussed. _how melt and ex_ tract exprosives from bombs inJ art're"y curement of blasting caps is discussed "h;ir"; covered. pro_ and tfre imagination of the gueruillas is stressed at all tirnes. viet cong -mines: Gentlemen, at this time somc of the improvised *tnu",:lrl^"-yi:!.gg"s will 6e i"t";d*;;. rhe method of procuring blasting ca.os will be"demonstrated. rtwirr be very crear viet cong a resourcetur n?l"f"orJiu"'*iro'rru" great imugiCONCRETE MINE: low cavity for an expl0sive ritter, -trr"'""r"""r" with a hal-A cast concrete mine is mixed and poured into a mord' -The srrraprret is imbeddJ;;;" concrete just before pouring. This

ii

from ambush.

30

The Viet Cong prefer to use fixed ammunition, that is, ammunition which has the propellent inside a shell case and to which the shell has been permanently fixed, as to separate loading components or semi-fixed ammunition, Theyusethefuzes, propellents, and the shell casings for other uses such as manuJacturing booby traps and mines.
NIfTE
COMMENT

Use

artillery shell to demonstrate conversion to mine.

SKY HORSE ROCKET: The sky horse rocket is an aimed, direct fire, anti-personnel device. This device is constructed from a cylindrical container closed at one end, i.e., large size pipe, heavy caliber artillery shell case, etc. One end of the container is closed and a hole drilled in for the ignition device, Propellents (match heads, black powder, etc.) is in base of cylinder and a wad is placed in front of the propellent, usually the joint of a piece of bamboo. Amount of propellent depends on the strength of the case and requires a test shot. Next, the shot Ioad, usually rocks, glass, rusty nails, nuts, bolts, or shrapnel picked up from an impact area is placed in the remainder of the cylinder, The open end is sealed with another wad and wax. Bi-pods and sometimes tripods are then added. In the hole drilled at the rear of the weapon' an ignition device is inserted. This is usually a percussion-type device, activated by a trip wire, brrt occasionally it will be fired eleetrically as a command mine. It can also be fired witlr time fuze. The ignition device can be a friction t1pe, i.e', match heads and a nail, oi the perCussion primer from ir small arms round and
a

striker.

^-l - used roads. trails and -^^J^ This weapon is ---^r on t-^:l^

rnl^^

range is The o^-^n ia

rri

'i

usually about 75-yards.

--_Iuy

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING CAPL BY THE VIET CONG: Many of you have wondered whereJhe vlet --Cong obtain their e>cplosives-and blasting caps; you know that rigid contlol of these items is being exercised by the government of the Republic of Viet-Nam to keep these explosives out of the hands of ttre Viet Cong. Explosives are procured in the following ways: (1) ey raids and amlu_shes, (2) stolen from government amrnunition dumps, (3) trrought down the Ho Chi Minh trail through Laosand Cambodia,-ana {{Imadq lggatly. 1, RaidS and ambuSheBl---*D J6ta lrnoW. the srr-*. illa nevef lets arms and ammunition lay on the field of battle. When the Viet Cong amhushes a column of troops or makes a raid on a village Or hamtet, they nevCr leave any arms, explosives' Or amlUunitiqn- behind. 2. Stolen from government ammunition dumps: Tf rlsiqccntrol and inspection iJ not enforcedupon personnel entering and dumps, quantities of explosirfts will find their leaving "**.,rrition h""q9-:: the Viet Cong' out and into the
PROCUREMIIN',T

oF

31

H:T".|ffi""tH" ffit"olo"*

caps. To make electrica-l leads and bridges for etectricaf caps, the viet teiephone t*'te a,r? a bridge graphite from ,"""#rii;i:"to "r'irri" EX'EDIENT BOOB' TRApS: Gentlemen, at this time we are going to introduce you to soq.e of the that are used in Viet-Nam i'orJer t.11y+.._ilJiol"r, booby traps ""f"&iu"t recognize, and, if you are so- inclined, advise use of them. fuu". attempt to disarm expedient devices; 'd;J;;y in place witir irtmed charge. rHE sprKE BoARD: rne" spirie;;;;],a fy ru. the mosr used device of ttrg v.iej c?ng guerriita rorce. riri, device is constructed from materiars tnaT the country; these materials ?re readily availabll in any part of betng a large size (16 pelny or larger) nails, piece of prank, a handfur of a haminer, and a file. The nails are driven^lligush trrJ pfant ano trren i-r#l,iuo, sharpened, and barbed. These-trips u""'"*ptov"o urt"e-;;;;il, paddy dikes; in the paddies and fields; at tfre-'approaches-to military camps, and outposts. to inut" thesl villages, hamlets, t"up" more effec_ tive, the viet cong w'r^often "orrt*-ioitJ'r;;riliirine or feces. wili--leave i";"';neousry ruzed

3' Brought down the Ho .chi Minh cambodia: AfTer trre oemarrn-Ition tine trair through Laos and northern border-of the Repubri"-ti viet *;;-;:t"brished, and the NamlliJo, with the aid of their pathei Lao counterparts the viet cong. in trail down the length of r,"o" into cambioi""""r Laos, built a into the delta area of south viet-Nam. Manv supplies *""u brought into vietNam by human labor over this iraif, 1' Mede locaily: Most of the brack powder cong use is made by-the particutar guerrill-a-n*o that the viet to which they berong. Black powder expiosive is not the only thing that the viel Cong make tocatty. Btasiing by any other way, are *o"ur?"iJre.d b.v ttey"carrnot be procured "upr,.yh"! guerrillas. the one blasting cap is manufactured ty powOering tetryl, putting it into a small container, pracing u it""t, charge ouu, ttii, and inserting a fuze and searinf it wrii. **. -urrd errothe-r methoo is to cut or break the caps from grenade fuzes ,r"u thern i-o-r-Uiasting

grenade is used mosily in rainy season of tf_g ano atways in a tocation wrrere there the lear is a good chance of someone being pr6sent gu{ bitlets, radio rooms, etc. rt iJ ionstry:t:o -o" ,righi,'",r"h as troop bt ;;ili.g mud around a hand grenade anproximatery f-inch thict up"to;ffi; l_inch berow the fuze mechanism and allowing it to haroei in the sun. rt is utiliz.erl by. placiG il i; ;'h";;;;J, "rJo",i'tt oroughry o" ,;J, ,n"r"n,r,* other place wrrere it wiit b" to water in quantity. The pin-.-r=is pulled when the "*p-o"Ld .grenade is ptaceo. The watef softens the mtrd --and the handle is released, activating the gru.r"Au.

MUD GRENADE: The mud

-\

32

NOTE

Device is demonstrated.
GRENADE TRIP: This device isusedontrails, in buildings, on roads; in fact, almost anywhere. It is constructed by simply fastening a can or the container that the grenade comes into any object. The trip wire is then tied around the fuze assembly of the grenade (leaving the safety handle clear) and stretched across the trail, road, doorway, etc., and fastened at the other end. The pin is then pulled on the grenade; the can, bamboo, or other container prevents the release of the safety handle. When the wire is triggered, the grenade is pulled from the container releasing the safety handle and activating the grenade.

COMMENT

NOTE COMMBNT

Device is demonstrated on site, Demonstrate use of open loop splice to booby-trap devices and to fire charges.

Most of the devices are excellent means for denying use of an area to the Viet Cong and to booby-trap trails on the withdrawal. They can add a great degree of security rrqhen patrols,
etc., stop overnight while on the move.
Issued charges: Priming, effects, and intended use of the various charges are covered, Use of the charges in the anti'personnel role is emphasized to the class'

NOTE

COMMENT

CHARGES: Now we will discuss some of the stan' dard issued charges of the United States Army. We will di'scuss their use as anti'p.-ersonnel weapons. Manyof these issued charges are very effective casualty-producing charges when properly em'
ISSUED

ployed.
NOTE COMMENT Use inert charges to demonstrate,

you received in the bieachers on the Munroe Theory. The Munroe Theory is used in all issued shaped charges to make them effective. The purpose of the shaped charge is to penetra!-e steel of -SO-ittel-es of reinconcrete tai'gels. The M2A3 will pe"netrate see here' forced eoncrete with the standard fiber stand'effthatyou
NOTE -

The first charge we will discuss is the M2A3 shaped charge. This charge weighs l5'pounds of which 1172'pounds is explosive. I would like to call your attentionto the class which

--

--.COMMENT-

As the following is e>epl4ined, use the actual item and demonstrate the proper methoo of The shaped charge may be primed in oni-drsEiOla-ways: UbX=*sqC'rni^inf, VfniHOO. This method consists of crimping a cap to deEiled Gnfurof time fuze installing afuzp lightealqthe fuze in the s-ame manner that you were tauglot@ring practical *""r. uo1l"" 16liAv. The cappeo eno oi trr" fuze: isJhdnfrierteo in ge. tliis well theltrarEe. thiswell is located on top of the charge the can wellof the cap

-' -

'

33

+
ELECTRI.AL METHoD: To prime this charge erectricarly, check the cap with a galvanom-eter. rhe cap is inserted into the cap well of the charge and secured. The lead wires of the cap are then spliced_into,tlg L4"gwireandthe charge is ready to fire'. DUAL PRIMING METHOD: To dual prim-e this charge, take a piece of detonating cord and crimp a n^on-electric blast"irr! to one end, Insert the capped end oi ttre detonating cora int"o cup trri cap well of the charge and secure. Dual prime the other end of the det-onating cord el.ectrically or non-erectrically and the charge is ready to fire, Are there any questions? The M-B shape charge is armost identicar to the M2AB except that it is somewhat larger, The M-3 weighs 40-pounds and contains about 30-pounds of explosive. It will pe"netrate 60_inches of reinfoiced conciete. The diameter of the ho^le made by the M-3 will be about b-inches. The method of priming the wt-g strapea charge is identicar to.that us-edinprimingthe M2A5 shaped ch;ge. Both of the .shape charges provide any group-of with an excellent anti-personnefweapon. Laid on-its side, soldie"rs will clear an area of 3O-feet by 100-feet of jungle vegetationthe M-3 minus large trees, Filling o.f the cavity with fragmurit"tiorr'-aterial pro, duces dust of these items rather than ilirowing the fragment's so don't put metal in the cone for an anti-personner-charge. you place concertina or barbed wire 10 to 12 yards in front ofmay the charge which the.hot. jet of energrwillpick,.rp on its way and throw fragments throughout the area. we will now fire the M-B for you to show this jet of energy which moves at 28,000-feet per second. The cone oi tt i" srrap& charge is made and upon firing, inverts andprece^des .of .gopper the jet of energr in the form of a ilug.

at direct rear center, and is threaded to accommodate a priming adaptor._ [t1!ngs_or_ta_p-emaybeusedas a substitute for * io"pto"]

first

NOTE COMMBNT

Show M-3 carrot.

we carl this slug a "carrot,, since its


camot.

configuration is that of Watch the jet of energr ,,move-outD straight up.

NOTE

charge.
COMMENT

use GTA and demonstrate method o{ employing severar shaped charges to effect a demolition ambush. netonate"40-pounrl shaped

. The next issue charge that we will be concerned with is the M-1A? bangalore torpedo. one section of the bantarore to'pedo is _5-feet long and weighs about l3-pounds, and contiin. , priming well at each end. Ten of these assemhliei atong wiih sleeves are ghippgd.in-a large box called a kit. The nose ileeue enables the torpedo to be slid over irregular groundquiteeasily. The primary uses of the bangarore torpedo is to breach barbei wire entangle'ments and mine fields. This is accomplished bSrttre walls of the container breaking into numerous small fragmenis when detonated

34

--by-fhfs

the bangalore torpedo is an excellent anti-personnel weapon. Atl that is required is a little imagination during employment. Priming the bangalore is accomplished in the same manner as for the shiped chafges with one exception. It may be primdd with detonating cord by making at least six turns and tying them around the end directly over the booster. The detonating cord is then primed with electrical or non-electrical caps' Another issued charge is the 4O-pound cratering charge. This charge utilizes ammonium nitrate and TNT for explosives' This prepired charge is contained in a metal case with a cap well anO Oetonating cord tunnel for priming located on the side of the container. A tN'f booster is located inside the charge and to the immediate rear of the cap well and detonating cord tunnel. A ring is provided on top for lowering the charge into a bore hole. The demolition card GTA 5-14 and FM 5-25, Explosives and Demolitions, gives the pertinent information on uses of the charge for cratering work. eii.ming of the cratering charge may be accomplished electrically oi non-electrically. To prime the charge electyically' insert the Llectricalcapintothecapwell. Secure the cap by making at least three turns wtttr ttre lead wires around the cleat provided for that purpose. The charge is then ready to be emplaced and used. T'b prime non-electrically, insert the cap into the cap well and secure the time fuze to the cleat with string or tape. when priming with detonating cord, the longest tururel is used. To ac-comptiEfr detonating cord priming, pass the detonatingcordthrough the tunnel and tie an overhand knot 6'inches from the end, maintaining the 6-inch pig-tail when finished. The detonatifg cord is oJ suffici-ent length to runfromthechargetothe surface of the ground, The blasttng cap is attaihed to the detonattng cord above ground. This is the most pre{erred method, If a mtsfire occurs' a new cap can be attached more easily and with a greater degree of si'ety, Furthermore, there is no need to dig up the charge to correct the malfunction. Due to the high rate of misfires among cratering charges' it is recommended that the charge be dual primed by placing an additional primed L-pound hlock of explosive on top of the eharge. The ammonium nitrate sratering charge is an excellent are aff ixc asu alty-pr oduc ing device when I argqp i 9c9i9l9!tf"e""l railr-oad slIkes are excellent ed to ifr-e outsiOd. Pine knote and material for th-is pttfpose;--The tremendous conoussion produced
Iinprovised crateri-ng charge: Ammonium nitrate fertilizer able in many Pafts of the-'torld. is a material that is readill simPle dient we have-*bsability tWith AN and one other Eny size ol con' charges to "tailor make" cratering for the const of an improvised figuration. A rule of ttrqq! anunonrum ciatering charge is as follows; to each 25 be prilled or pelleted variety, add nitrate f-ertilizer, which must approximately l-quart of diesel fuel, motor oil, 9r gasoline' The o[6to" oil may be drained from a crankcase, which will notlmpair 1 the effectiveness of the charge. Allow the charge to soak foi in or its equivalent, tamp well il;;"; frime with l-pound of tNt, ur uppiopriate borehole, and detonate. The resultsobtainable with
0h drge- l.s-a-uenus- eff

and cutting the

wire. Duetothehigh velocity of these small pieces'

',i
,.,i

,iil
,iH

iit

i$t

I}II

iH!

Iffi

lltl
:tti

lil
':t.

.i
;'

ect,

, - -

35

r
E

this charge compare very favorably with the manufacturedvarietv. The pr''ed ammoniu* nit"ut" re"tiririr'J;;r'idl" o! trpe having at least s3'B per-cent nitrogen content, to see that tire t""t'iru" ";;;;;; Lu", be exercised reft for extended times """ri i, ;;i4"-r."ii-of.riou"ry cannot be uor"pr",L effectiveness of trre ctrargel w'r reduce the \irhen.oiffi",rrty i, lrr"ourrtered ducing a borehole oiu*"i-u" in irr"at is-cap;i'" ; l""o*odatingprobulk of the manufactu"LJ^+o.pounO the ciate"iri?n* ge, 8r/+W tT_ inches, excellent -"""uii, "# uu obtained by f,ot the impro"t':r-1T tamnins -f-"*r.'#f The charges oiscuss8J,g"? into th6 "r,""gu various mannerJ witrr- imagination.being o" employed in irrriilriting factor. The bangarore torpedo raio inr?r'n".1*i"" Lit*'*r"#'".rs offers excel"^:tx,ru orners in*,,*n 1 iurg in their T can gru"i?y aid you in you'r mission. use BX'EDIENT cHARGES: Gentlemen, this is tointroducevou to some verv effectir" a";i;";. These devices are similar to devices""li,irty-producing v"- *iir'rirra used bv both frienov t"otp"'rig.lt in v-iJloo";: They are beinE

ii"i

;;;,

;";;"il;

;#rt?"Ti

n* Ti*

og'

*f;

;i:l#l,Jn ::l*

#l'ff f lffi:"l:
NOTE COMMENT

l:k

:tl#inea

so

Viei.cong. This instrucrioi ioi ;"";:; no t ne ed ;*;; :

"

Use inert training devices to demonstrate the following:

,*" rJli"li";*t,*l^'ce

is the s?-e^:llot,or improvised claymore-

it proouc-ei'a ff t?ffi:d consistet*'';;;i.lr'ing, T3t@; rong rasting


NOTE COMMENT and burn a

or shrapnel. Next, prace trr" ti""il"ntainer ;#;*" is filled with iirr-ilu i'r""ond container upside down. a fay"" ;i;dil;: is then ;il;"J; the rear bowr or runnelor the get the amount or exptoslrT'r#0"o. ii'",0"0 by rour to ^ir'u-*"irti"Ji"iry at the direct rear center. iiru _d"l.r,*;;:r arways primed is rac&- tJwaro or his expected "rr""gu il;;ili"rln"n the enem' of approact is within "uu:.u9 the enemv "*".: - lht" il#;tay "io Keep in mind tiu.".ngu of this?evi"u be eneciive'up to bo-yards. aup"ri;;"il construction. Improvised napalm: *t; gasoli-ne *Jnorr-outergent are ava'able. an excellent nuo"r*-"",, soan nu p"oou""i. This is bv bringins tite donl ouu" is added in a shived or po*JuiJo_r?rm "-Jr."ltil*". rhe soao

fi?r?;:srilTT{jl"tl-,rytf *;"6:*Fr:".-'11f[1,:*']*l -r,irrnet. -iiu container such as_ a uowt

*;;ffi;J

g""oiiJ;'rfiii

At this tiine

c.h*eu n i:?,#i'"d;lTii'J plastic explosive and thermd";i;


be used, always insuring tt

,e H;:::"J,,; il;;ffii";:"#

"-ou'i-io Soap dish, 4n excellent


or

smal

demonstrate the consistency of improvised napalm *'prL f;;;;

tr,e-llJss.

charge for both ruptu:qing --briffa and igni_ stanaard cr "or-utii"-r"J ""-rtrin"rr.

"i

are placed in the container to trru-lrcendiary mix is praced against

*ffi,f*:Tr

the target. The incendiary mix can be composed of a number of compounds among which are three parts of potassium chlorate and two parts of sugar, or two parts aluminum powder to three parts ferric oxide, or ordinary match heads. Inlieu of these improvised incendiary mixes, the contents from thermate grenade's can be used. As a rule of thumb, a thin cigar box (from l-% -inches to 1%-inches thick), loaded as specified above with one half C-4 to one half incendiary mix, will reliably rupture anC ignite volatile fuel containers of up to 1,000 galloncapacity. A charge of approximately twice that size will successfully attack containers of up to 5,000 gallon capacity. To prime these charges, always insure that the cap is inserted into the C-4, and not the incendiary mix. Holding the charge in place maybe accomplishedby the use of magtlets, tape, or adhesive. Always insure thatthecharge is p!-aced BELOW the fuel level in the ccntainer.
NOTE

Fire soap dish against 55 gallon drum of diesel oil,


Walk thro.rgh demonslration area and return class back to

6H+ 10 to 6H+ 50

During w'.alk through the below-listed charges will be explained and shown to the students. The charges will be emplaced for employment against targets.

bleachers.

1. Bangalore torpedo. 2, Grape shot. 3. W. P. ambush. 4. Timber charge. 5. 3.5" rockets. 6, Detonating cord in ditch. 7. Cratering charge.
B. Demolition
amhush,

6H+ 50 to 7H+ 10 N{fTE

At this time a 20-question spot quiz is conducted. The quiz will


be handed in to the OiC.

Fire demonstration charges,

7H+ 10 to 7H+ 40

NO'IE 7H+ 40 to
8H

el,ols;1l$:_ In closing' emphasize that demolitions can play a role in this simple war in Viet-Nam or anywhere in the -rrrrioi and that explosrves can be of great aid in civic aOfios--WQrk world --=-Xo. Summarize main toptes=*a-pass out summaries, then-re' - Ieese*-Slass to inspect targets and -depart the- <iemoilfto}-rangE. -\-

37

38

U}IITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL CALCULATION AND PLACEMENT Otr CHARGES
LESSON PLAN

1. CONCBP'r: This subject is designed to give the student a working knowledge of the procedures involved in calculating and emplacing explosive charges to iccomplis-h a wide variety of demolition tasks. Emphasis is placed on the techniques of problem solving, as opposed to extensive exercises in the mathematics of calculation. tiris subject incl"u'cles the followi.ng: . a, Gaining an appreciation of the need for accurate calculation and placement of charges, and the dangers of estimation. b. Formulas for steel cutting, timber cutting, pressure charge calculation, road cratering and abutment destruction, and the calculatiof of breaching clarges. placement of each o,o the foregoing charges is also discussed. c. Target reconnaissance and reporting procedures.

a. This subject is presented i;o the Special Forces Officer Course. The instructor must be familiar with subject U3.TZ50B, Introduction to Demolitions, b. In the homework assignment, the student will study selected paragraphs from FM 5-25, Explosives and Demolitions, that deal with each of the general sunSecls mentioned in paragraph 1b, above. He solves the first requirement. c. Suggested time schedule:
H to H+

2.

COURSE SCHEDULE:

10 25
50

Introduction to the subject of calculation ancplacementof charges, and the dangers of estimation.

H+ 10 to H+
H+ 25 to H+

Familiarize the student with the rounding-off-rule and with procedures for using the Demo Card, GTA b-14.
Acquaint the student with the three types of steel and the two types of steel cutting formulas. Rqle of thumb for rail cutting, placement of charges for shearing, and devices for securing charges to steei targets. BREAK

H+ 50 to 1H

lH to lH+

25

Acquaint the student with timber cutting formrilas, both external and internal, and with placement of charges t_o-eontrol the--direction of fall when cutting trees.

lH + 25 to

lH+ 49

Acquaint the student with the techniques of road cratering, both and \___.\ deliberate. BREAK

lH+ 46 to 2H

-:--__.\

Ac_quaint

pl ac ing-p+egsure char

the sfudclD-urith the


ge

s.

knowledge of'eekd-et1a *nd em- ^

_'ts-

2H+ 20 ta 2H+ 50

the student with {ormulas and lrlacement techniques for


breaching charges, usr$.g loo*<eltional breaching tech-

niques.

2H+ 59 to 3H

BRE-AK

\
39

--

1t
I

t
I
E

3H to 3H+ 19

Acquaint the student with ERDL ,.Square Charge,,, for breaching reinforced concrete.
20

3H+ 10 to 3H+ 3H+ 29 to 3H+ 3H+ 25 to 3H+

Acquaint the student wi.th advanced tamping concepts and the brrbble charge,
vanced techniques,

2b

Acquaint the student wi.th the advantages and limitations of

ad-

45

(1) Prior to class: Advance sheet with Target Reconnaissance Report Guide and GTA 5-14, Demolition Card. Section I, lsi Raluirement. (2) During class: Section II, Sumrnar!, e" Conduct of Lesson (1) prior to class: (a) Instructor. Develop- a thorough the litiorrs' and concentrate on each olirre formuLs understan,ling oftonLbroad field of demoano tectrniq.r"u" covered,luringthis specific subject. (b) Student. Develop a working knowledge of the subject material by studying the homework assignment. (2) During class: (a) First hour: Instructor lectures on lation and placemqnt and the dangers of estimation,the requirement for accurate calcuthe roinning-oii rute and the use of the Demo card, and on the types oflteel and steel cutting formulas] biuoents work sample steel cutting problems (b) second hour: Instructor lectures on timber cutting formulas and their placement' Students work timber cutting problems, Instructor lectrires on hasty and deliberate road cratering techniques. (c) Third hour: Instructor lectures on- calculating charges and breaching charges. Students *o"ro-ptoulems in trrZ and emplacing pressure catcurahon oibreaching charges.
Fourth hour: Inslructor lectures on ERDL square charge, advanced tamping concepts, the bubble charge, acvantages and limitations'oi-aovancedtechniques, and target recbnnaissance proceduies. sumniary is issued and instructor answers questions-

3H+ +s to 3H+ d. Issue plan

50 ffir*".,''.fftffiJJ,l"fLT:ii:ffiJi ffiffi;""",""H"'"sance.

Familiarize the student with the use of the target reconnaissance

(d)

40

UNITED STATBS ARMY SPECIAL WARF'ARE SCHOOL CALCULATION ,\ND PLACEMENT OF CHARGES
COMMENT

HtoH+10

Good morning, gentlemen. This morning we have a 4-hour unit oo, as you can see, Calculation and Placement. I am quite familiar with the general feeling of letdown that is experienced when demclitions is brought from the range into the classroom, and Ir11 admit that it,s understandable. I think most of us like the big bang associated with demo work, but we have in reality no mc,re than just scratched the surface of demolitions when we have just learned how bo construct and detonate the various charges.. The real meat of the subject lies in knowing how to use your demo like a surgeon's scalpel, so that you can skillfully dismemiler a target. Let's consider the two key words in our subject title. f'or all practical purposes they are inseparable. You mttst know WHERE a charge is to be put before you can calculate the amount of e:<plosive to be used. The objective of this inslruction is to

familiarize you with the principles that govern calculation and placement. In this regardr let's consider what we will and will not

do during our class. we wlr.r, be concerned withtheprinciples of cutting, breaching, cratering or destroying certain types of targets. we will NoT become involved in detailed problem solving or long exercises in bnsic mathematics. We will work a few problems using various formulas, but our reason for workingthemrvillbe to gain an under' standing of the formulas. The subject of calculation and placement is not an exact science; rather, it is a guide for our demo work, an effective stalting point. Inthis subject, aS in many others in Armir schools, there will often be more than one solution to a given problem. The importance cf knowing WHERE to place charges on a target can hirrdly be over'emphasized. NOTE

Draw sketch of stepped steel shaft.

COMir.{llNI

when we co[,sider the many different types of bridges, the different materials used in bridge construction, and the f act that bridges ---re just one type of-t-argeqout of dozens, the problem of_learning Ib\n-.io inflict a-desired 1-eve-I-ut-s*..truction on all of ttrgG targofs -complex becoffix--a and demanding one.' Tht'--Knowledge is-n-o! gained in---<{O noqlc, or-days' OR 'wqeks

It is a fairly simple matter to teach an incividual how to cut steei; this is no great problem at all. But teaching this in-dir'iddal.'how lo effectivel| cuti+re t<ey members of a steel:brirlgt'o tn{ 1 specific desired_-result is obtained, ts qu-ife another matter. And one kind of a^qt_,u *"=were-o"tv going to have to operate against ffuet bridge, the piontem rvould still be relatively simple. But

_-

4l

r
r 8,.
E

NO'iE COMMI]N

Show Chart

demo man in mos-t cases will necessary knowiedge to effectively attack ano probably have the o,Jstroy a given iar_ get' guirr"" information .YouR responsibitity is to plan, study, about the targel slgtgms tn your operationaf "no area. If you are charged with interdictinq -highways an,l have decided to concelrtrate on bridges, yoU will halve to decide your demo ma'wilr help pran How best to which bridges to attack: ilil; a fine weapon' iust poini him in-the rightattact itre;,- ilhe,rl di;;;;i"" anc get the job done, but the responsibility foi p"iJi"g'rrim youRs. in This morning's inslruction w'r u^e nrotEn dow' into the following distinct su-bjects: steer cutting, tim,ter cratering, pressure charges, breaching, and so,,'-u tew aovanced ",ritirrg,techniques, Before we proceed, it is n""5r"""y that we oiseuss- a-od un,lerstand tamping.
OI{ VGT

your

NOTE

1 Shows effect of tamping.

COMl'{E.$'I

Unless you have- recenily been exposed to struction, you may think you unierstand the factorsdemolitions inaffecting tamp_ ing, but some of the ord ,:oncepts have ti;;J"r, p"ou"d to be in error' Earrier, we taught, for instance, tL"{ "";"t against a bridge pier underwater benefitte,l fi.om lf* icharge praced tumlring of the water. This is not true. Arso, e*ceprio" Jirapec effect charges, we taught that almost every charge w'uld bL made more effective by the addition ,of tamping. se'vera-l of our charges gain nothing by being tamped; this advance,t technique wilr be pcinted out as we discuss these charges. Another deveropment is the im'ortance attached to theplacement of the cap in a charge. Formeriy, onry in-p"i*i"g detonating cord did we pay close ittention to tire directiin irru N'w this is a criticar factor in the co.rstruclioo of "up pointed. many of our adyanced charges. Before we proceed, are --' *-v there 4.rJ q,restion;s at ary Y!_r\rDLrurl;r a[ this point? A poor alternative to the ',carcuration and placement,, approach to demo work is esrim.ating trte needed. An experienced demo man's zsti.nate-riiy of exprosive "*oo"t accurate, but the system is always open to error, otte'be quite volving demolitions in a combrt sttuation may havg_i,ny mtstake inq_e_rlqlrs_consequences for a number of reasons. ovEREsfrrvrafmcin;ffim-------=== of explosive results in the wasteoiboththe required to transport it, neither of wrrich u*pro"iur. and the effort ;il;;'J,ltor,r to waste. Remember that the explosives wilr armost arw"ys t packed. Also, it may resurt in trre concentritio'arre to be ma', or too rarge a group of people illtre target area, wfth its attenaant possibilities of disaster. UNDER-estiriating resutts in the r"ilu"e of task, and, quite often, the failur? oi trr*t entire missior. the demo A second chance is a ruxury seldom *r".a.o u g"";11;'f;;. of the two
\-.:-

42

better than underestimating, butwith and placement, we can avoid both of them. Improper placement, of course, is equally as bad as improper calculation, which brings us back to the concept stated eailier, that the two words in our title are equally impcrtant.

evils, overestimating is

mr-rch

a proper knowledge of calculation

NOTB
COM}1TI]N'T

ON VGT

Rounding-off Rule

H+ 10 to H+

25

the explosive will not be wasted. At this time take out your Demolition Card, GTA 5-14. This card is a fine reaCy reference for ihe demolitionist, and properly used in the field can be agreattime saver. It contains much of the information that we need in rlemolitions work, and aS you wi.ll note, it has been treated to be moisture resistant. Its sides have been numbered from 1 through 6. Let us begin by examining the informa.tion contained on side 1. Remomber that I made a point of stat' ing that TNT is our 6'standard" explosive, and that the effective' ness of the others is measured against it. In the "relative effectivenesst' chart we See that TN'f is rated aS ilaving an effectiveness of 1.00. c-4, which some of you may rernember has a detonating velocity of 26,000-feet per second (as against 21,000 fps for TNT), is more powerful than TNT, andthusrequires less explosive to accomplish the same task. Its value is 1.3.1, and we DIVIDE the pouNDS of TN'I required by 1.34 to determine the amount of c-4 (or C-3 or C-5) that would be required. It is important to read the note below the chart, and see that ALL formttlas on the chart yield an answer in PoUNDS OF TrvI. Next we see the penefration figures for shaped charges against reinformced concrete and armcr p}ate. An iminediately below t;hat dnart are listed some often-used iules of thumb and conversion factors for all tables. At the very bottom of the car'l take note of a valuable aid, a ruler scaled to inches on this side and centimeters on the other. A the top of side 2 we seethe-chart for calculatinqpressg!e--e[4rges; note ihat a!J@-!g]=.r ilhe chart ls t'he P.relsuje-AFT*." -AiGg-ar..{n Fer-e trre question often ariseB,-rttr{b.tbis forrlriira. -diG rr*i"g all this inlbrsqqien, why should a demolitionist bother"i"a to learn the formtrlas?" Thele..are Seve'ral answers. One, he may fifrC lhe card. for a va<iety of reasons. Two, working the -1"=t--t-t gives him a feeling for ihL---qr-u*s-otexplosive-rqaired'.' -=-io"rn,rlas an,l rl knowledge of his subject that simply refcling ready-made - ---amswers will never do, And third, the-gharts only go So far, and to comprrte the pressure charge, for instanoq. of a beam that is

The rounding-off rule shown here is an inexact rule that requires two things of its user. One is a knowledge of how the ex' plosives are packaged, and the second element is simply common iense. If the answer to a problem worked with a formula is, for instance, a shade over 2lz- pounds of. C4, the rule States that the next higher packaged unit be used. Abetter solution, and certainly a more sensible one, would be to use one-fourth or one'eighth of the second block, th-ereby insuring that the job will be done, but

\.

43

t a
I
E

f
P

L.

higher than 5-feet and thicker than 3-feet, the formrrLa will have to bJused, The botlom pcrtion of side 2 contains timber cutting data' Remember, all you have to do is take the measurements and get the necessary $imensions, anrl then read the answer in pounds of TNI directly off these charts. -3 Side ccntains steel cutting information, It gives formrrlas and 1n example ptoblem at the top, and instructions telling how to use the table at the bottom" The table is used much the same as the one discussed on sidr) 2. an,1 you'lI nole that the rounding-off rule is brought into play on almost every answer. Side 4 has bieaching charges for reinforced ccncrete, side 5, breaching charges for masonry items ,:ther thanreinforced concrete, and ltde O tras cratering and bridge abutment information. sides 4, 5, and 6 appear at first glance to be complicated, but on closer inspection ana ny READING THE PR6BLEM they are found to be, in ieality, quite simple. We will refer to the cards again frorn time to time this morning, but for now please put them irside.
COMMBN'I

H+ 25 to H+

50

For the remilinder of this period we will discuss steel cutting, using standard techniques. It shoutd be quite obvious that tar"gets -iAe of sieel will often be primirry objectives in g'"lerrilla opeiations. At this point I would like to remind you of the desira-ttttty of tamping steel cutting charges, among others, to obtain maximum effect of ttre explosive. And yet we should remember that quite often our time in the target area will be sc limited that tamping wi.Il be precluded, Thus our answers using steel cutting

formulas are all for untamped charges. Let,s examine the three general classifications of steel,and see how they affect our formulas'

NOTE

ot{ vGT 3 Grade of steel --L) structural Steel; 2) 3) High Carbon Steel)

Steel Alloys;

COMMENT

structural steel or mild steel is the grade of steel which we will mcst frequently encounter, because it is the material from which buildingJ, bridges, and most steel structures arebuilt. High ca1bol steel and the alloys, all being extremely hard, are grouped together for the purpose of our steel cutting formuLas.
OFF VGT 3
P= 3/a

N()TB COM]{tsNT

member to be cut.
NOTE
COMh{EN'T

The standard formula for cutting structural steel is: A. "P," .remember, equals pound of TNT required, while .6At' equals the Cross Sectional aTea, in square inches, of the

ON VGT 4 Steel Cutting Formula

To determine the cross-sectional area in sqlare inches of a steel memher, break it down into rectangular secti'6ns;.multiply the length of each section by its width, and add the sums to$ether.

44

N()TB

OFF VGT
ON VG't

Problem on example steel

"I"

beam

COM}1IEN'I

Discuss answer to Problem'

NOTE

OF}'VGT

COMIltilN'f

o'f TN'I; does The answer to this problem is 21-pounds this answer? Now let's at everyone understand how we arrived and determine how many ;;" step further' carry this prob;; dynamite pouNDS of c-3.urro ,rro how many pounds of mrlitaryycur table Refer to would be requir"J io cut this ,"*"Imember.

demo card. of relative etrectivenlss on page 1 of the

NOTE

Classtaketimetoworkbothofthesesimpleproblems.Call (Insiructor's note: C-3 on a differerrt inOivia''J to" each,answer' military dynir.miie reqrires requires L5.7*d;;;;;" seven blocks;
23'pounds.)

COMM]]NT

of tetrytot requireo toge' ""t


untamPed external char

Now using this same formuta'

compute.!l:.nu*h"rof blocks thi.s structGal "T" girder, using an

N()TE

Ot\VG'I6(Insi;ructor'snote:Callonstudentforsolution'An' or 10 blocks')
swer is 2$prlunrls of tetrytol'
Ol?!- VGT
6

COM]VIEN'T

*" .tt"
NOTE

Forcuttingsteelwlrereclosecontactbetweentheexplosive andthetargetisdifficult,duetoitssmallsizeorirregularshape' z' the formula P= D


ON VG'T
7

COMiVI:NT

Youwillnotethattocutthischainweneedtwol-pound point A' a1d the other opposite charges, one to il" pf""*A here at 5 of your card again' you at- page .d"*1 it at B. If you will glanceholds irue toi chains, rods, cables, and -A will see ttrat ttris-ilimuta di' DIAME'IEO Oq 2 INCHES' AbEVC thiS bArS ONLY d. TO 3/e L' a.meter we can revert to P:
O,TF VGT

NOTE COMMT'N'I

- __ --will be rarilroad obviously' a very comE'-rr-r-+atget for us rule of tfrnh for computing charges and we have a "tLpr" rc;i;"pL""*tf" rails'

45

NOTE

ON VGT 8

coMlwll_{1.

For this reascn we carefully select rocations where_.our ".rt ch.arge wrll inflict maxi_ mum damage such as those ou this slide.
NOTE

thumb on is true that l-pound of TNT w'r cut side 1 0f demo rr:r.rd. while it ra's l*g";'il"n is arso true that a. simpre Ir uu"ity repai?Lc. 80-pounds, it

Refer to rures of

OF}- VGI

oN

l/,j.f

otrl- vcT I
COMII{El'Jt'
VO'f E

As we conclude this sider the proper methods otdiscussion of steer cutting, ret,s conpruli"g
ON VGT 10

"h;"gu;;g;.r"t

the targets.

COM}TD

V.].'

effec-t, close is required. t"l?1 cutting-irregura"_srrapescontact with the target o"1i.i"',.o=sses, more expiosive should be.placei ug"i;"t_tt" irti"r.* ioitior,r, Hording erieetivery"po"", a very reat problem for th6 ;3f,:iffi"ll"rlru"u

To achieve maximtrm

NOlf E

OF}- VGT

10

coMlIIitJl.

NO'f E

o'e of the best devices we have rivet-punciring, powaer_ actu aieJ o"ir""-i'n" for this purpose is the ; ;";il "",*ect many of these to be avait"bl," u^v a jrerritta force. riris stioe shows l:" ,u"u sorne expedient methods of s"ecuring its targer.
O!\ VGT
under
11

" "t""g"''to

COMMEy-t'

Jl$;;?";|;lr1;*1r, wiu be required

to sotve this problem

NO'IE
COMMENT

OF},- VGT 11

to d;ttetre H+ 50 to lH
COMMENT

there any questions regarding anything we

have covererl

BREAK

lH io lH+

25

:"ff lH"-T.1"'i?:v*itr^':{:i.:ii"";;#"dffi:T:il-3ff ':::*3 l:;::"1",""ff 'i;_1r";-l5_*_T,gF*;"#'";o;ii,i.ii.il,*""#"l1?,ll?i u;T3;1,|}{,.IIT: *C jF.Jo int of our pr o bl us statement em- _we, re in the DEstruction busines", H" ;. }:"^ :
f
t

FJ"jT

Y:"*jlt.gg1,.,,1T

ffJj

n"^rl

:*j::,x:::

" "AJ

I1!n a discussion of cutting *{"' ffi#iHT;l:lfi?g" timber TH";

"oi

cb\#trlj":t$"r"i;ffi-:i ;?#

46

of the reasons wc have for wanting to cut wood. We may want to destroy bridges or other structures built of wood; we may want to fell trees across a road and create an abatis; or we may w:rnt to cut trees quickly for the purpose of creatingaDZ; or, to get back io our frustrated forest ranger's hypothesis, we might ccnceivably even want to feII trees quickly to use them in constructing fortifications. one thing we should do before deciding to use demolitions for timber cutting is to be sure that this is the best way of getting the job done. For instance, if our target is a wooden bridge, if time permits and materials are available and theweather is favorable, their

struction. Some frivolous types in past classes have even men'

fire would undoubtedly

do the most complete job of de-

tioned using termites.

The formulas for cutting timber with explosive charges are designed to cut mosi wcods; but tropical hardwoods and such fibrous woods as conconut will require experimentation to deter' mine correct charges, Please refer to the timiler cutting cha.rges on page 2 of your demo cards. Those of you wiro have had contact wi.th d,:molitions before will at once recognize the two formulas shown here. The external cutting mcthod uses the formttla:
P=Dz.

tir

fi

iti
it$

tu$

-{
Since we will seldom have either the time or equipment to bore a hole in wood so that we can use an internal charge, this formula is the one we will most often use. ('P!' in this formula, remember equals pounds of TNT; while '(D" is the LEAST DIMENSION in inches. (Give demonstration of breaking a board, and show how comrnon sense dictates that we break it at its thinnest point.) Work the problem shown here and be prepared to present your answer to the class.
N(fTE

iffi

iflil

iffit

lli
il

ilr

l,j

ll

ON VGT

12 (Call on a student for his answer, and insure that


it before
proceeding,)

everyone understands
O,TF VGT 12 COMVII]N'T

will not), the e>cplosive must completely encir-cle the target. Divid'-ir*-en{packaging the explosive to permit such encirclement can
be a tiniEpqgsltmitrgchore;andaswithmost of our combat charges, effort shodiA'-b--h'J to prepare themrtheadof time. When cutting trees to form an obstborq-ttte-explosive should be concentrated as much as possible on one JiUe oi -tFO-t""e-:this. togethst-416 16. proper formtrla. witl leavd lhe felled tree attac-hEd to tts Eitrnp-

A knowledg Jiptace-ent of cfrarges is imlrortant in timber cutting as- it is in the rest of our demo work. When you desire to completely Sever the timber (and thclg=n1y,@

--

47

t
& g
B

There may be times when we will want to control the direction of fall of a tree, such as to create a temporary roa,lblock as a part of a vehicular ambush. Any one or all three of the following factors wjll affect the direction of fall: The location of the charg5
on the tree (it will fall TOWARDS the side where the charge is); the natura"l lean of the tree; anrl the wind. only consideradie experience, and perhairs even a degree of luck, will enable a demolitionist to consistently fell trees in a predetermined direction. small kicker charges placed well up on the tree may also pusir it in the desired directionAnother very effective way to cut timber is by using an interna-l charge, The internal formula is: P: D2.

-2
wrile I don't intend to work any problems using this formula, there are some important things to know ab,:ut plicement of the charge. The hole is bored approximalely two-thirds of the way through the target, and the charge is placed as close as possible to the exact center. If the charge is too large to effectively go in one borehole, bore the second as close as possibj.e i,r the first, and prime the charges for simultaneous detonation, If the targei is other than round or square, i.., a long oval or a rectangle, t-he hole should be bored parallel to thelongaxis. All internal charges m'"rst be tightly tamped if maximum effeci is to be rearize,l. If we have the time and equipment, the trse of internal charges permits great savings in e.xplosives. onelastpoint, although we w-ould seldom use an internal charge operationally, it does possess one advantage which might lead to its use; once in place, it can be so effectively concealed that only a careful search would reveal it. we have now covered the two formulas on your demo card, but there are a few more that you should know about. one is the formula for felling trees to create an obstacle, when we want the tree down BUT Nor SEVERED FROM'tHE sruMp. The formula
P=D2. -T'0-

"P" in this formula yields an answer in pounds of TN'f, and is calculated to give us the amcunt of explosive to use in g.les!hot, we should 'remember that different test shcts will be re,luiredfor varying types of wood; in other words this formuta may work without further adjustment on most oak trees in a given stand, but it may be too heavy for elm in the same area. It shourd be noted that this information is contained in c-1 to FM b-zb, and the information given on paqe- 119 is in error and has been superseded by the change. Work thG-simpte problem rend be prepared to present your answer to the class,-----.\_..\._

48

NOTE

oNVGT]-3(Discussanswer,insuringeveryoneunderstandsit.)
OFF VGT
13

COMMENT

formula' and a Here is one more relatively new-9{e1nalcase is c-4, and ..Ptt in this very convenient ;";. It is p.c.target in FEET' This formula c(C" is the circumference of the t" i% -teet in cilcumference. Although this holds true for t";;p formrrlaisonethathasbeensupercededbychangeloftheman. of interest' udl, it is, ,t"rr""ii"r"t", a wort<i'ble one' As a point thisformutarrasneenusedbyspecial_forcesdemolitionistsin a cord, knotted Laos with a fair amount of succe-ss. They used faced with the device wh3^n at l-foot intervals, for the measuring cut trees' C-4 task of teachingliiitertte indigenous f"oop" how !ov.erv simple in' quantity' ind yilh was present in the country in of blocks of C-4 from structions on t o* to comilute the tt"mber r'ere able to get their our people the number of t<nots in the cord, particular point across u"tiry. As I mentioned i minute ago' this mention it it DOBS work' I formula HAS b;;' superseOeO, but solved primarily to ilGrat6 how the teaching problem can be problems' in sprte of lite""cy and language timber One poini'*""tt r5rrr"-"*te"ing in connection with if you point or a formulas is ittat they are a 9"109

.starting cutting By ever become invorved in 1arge scare-iimber cuttingoperations. at the beginning of the oper' exferiments conducting "o*" "u"eful exilosiv_es so that just the right amount adiustG id ation, and is used, yo" *iii-f?on"nrv ne 1!re to effect considerable savings. Are there any questions at this time? Beforeweleaveourdiscussionoftimbercuttingcomplete. makes re' -cutting Iy, there is onJ *o"" important poin! that the manuatit is an imcharges-' and garding the ptacement of iimber in all of our wclrk with c-4' In Change portant one to ,,The c-4 should be cut carefully so ""**-r,"" 1, paragraph lig; it-states, thatkneadingwillnotbenecessary.Ift|eexplosiveisrolledor The soft exprosive is worked with the hands, it wil become soft. explosive block'" I considerably tess effective than the pressed our advanced techwhen w-e discrss will refer back to trri,

"o"""pt niques..nememrrerthatthedensityoftheexplosiveisdireetly related to its effectiveness'

coM_UENT 1H+ 25 to

--

1H+ 40

--rrrusr--rc-too _*iO" to" te "* 11" -by through trieQq'I""" u"o io-*steep-sided for vehicles to passoperations very G11eroften, iirji"-r*,v "Jt-,*l-";1 to engage in cratefing must be an effeettve -*tt"" itrey oohq it nedessary, the crater i*t

Theremeunderc,tthis-hourwillbedevotedtoalrriefdis. luig, Ro ad -oraterLr'-+e-beiff ect ive ob st agles' *.,""joi -ffi." track tay-iug Y-eEiC-tes spanned

one, rn other w"rosiq"ton"tu"i" is mede more-9ff9"1P]l*^Tot by fire, ana'guEriliu" trrny well not-ba ab+ tdT6E "1: """"""0 and Provide such\Ys". itt" """tt"

49
<

5""p method entails the expenditure of ccnsiderabre til;; ;ffo"t, .rra explosrve. The main difference between ilre two types oi c""te"" ries first in the amount of work involved; the hasty'm"ifroJ neing quicker and easier to put in. But the hasty crater is not as effective an obstacle as the deliberate Breaching concrete or other hard surface often be a problem that m'st be sorved b"fo;;;;;r roadway may norehores can be sunk. whether this is done with demo o, *rlrr-tools, in either case it doesn't add up to a s'ent clandesti";';;" of operation.
NOTE COMMENT ON VGT

Refer again to your demo cards, page 6. you there are two types ol craters listed;'tire?efinerate will see that road crater and the hasty method. in mind that either cratering

14 (Charges for

Road Cratering)

primed.
NOTE

are bored !-fget apart, center-to-""rrt"", in rine; end holes are z-feet deep, and the oiil""r alternating t ano use ammonium nitrate 40-pound,cratering ctr"argl; z-feet deep. two eharges in the 7-foot hores, one in the s-foothores. frote ld; here we carne out with an even number, and the rure of "i,rr ter holes the zjoot, 80'pound charge thumb-is to make the cen_ are primed for simultaneous dbtonation, are ";;l;;v:"rrr"g"s welr tamped, and are dual
14

a road with to create a deliberate crater is similar to thecharges empraced one in your demo card' Hores

This cross-sectiona-l view of

OFF VGT

ON VGT 15 COMMENT

Here we see the hasty crater charge of equat depth, from 2L/z to s-reet. egull tf+ set-up. All hores are ;Ji-tuut apart, and be sure to start at the shourder oT tne roJ. il' pounos of explosive per foot of of the borehotes: C;;;u" shourd be _depth and b !'4 times- deeper16-j"^"t times wider ttran trre J"ptr, of the boreholes' and about longer than the rine of borehores, The sides have a slope of 30 to 6O degrees, depending on the type soil' And speaking.of_soil types, remember that ai effective of crater cannot be blown in loose llnO.
OFF VGT
15

NOTE COMMENT

that to a rule of thumb. Simply st it requires t-pounO of TNT for "-b,rrri" each 2- inches of pavement, c twice as much (or in this instance, 4-inches) tamping. This csugsg clandestine way to breach the pavement; witr,is anything but a i1 v.j, . silence but gain speed. Are there any questions"ttlti" ""Eritt"" ti_uz
1H+ 49 to 2H BREAK

?::"119,:Tf::ilq the p:oblems of road cratering, we shoutd pl.le w6 c a,,'.r.i g u"" ;hoi ;n ' ;#:::: : :f ?:?:: lryl jli':sl i llro su"racl;;;"ffi;.;,i; J ul,"lTl_ i"" l:y"1""^ttft_9"*. ;""::;::1? ;P,:".H^gE j:tli"gttretromeiior;il;;;"*"ffi to class, there is a this type of breaching

;;iil;;

ff;

50

COMMENT 2H to 2H+ 20

This hour, gentlemen, is designed to familiarize you with the formulas and principles employed in the use of pressure and breaching charges. We will begin with pressure charges, because I want to follow our discussion of breaching charges with information on an advanced breaching technique. It is necessary to pay careful attention to the nomenclature of these two completely dif' ferent charges. Pressure charges are used against simple sP-?!r reinforced concrete, T-beam bridges. So a pressure charge has its place in the relatively narrow field of bridge destruction, and we'11 be re' ferring to this technique again in our bridge demc class. The effect of exploding plessure charges is to partially breach and overload the span; thiJ causes the bridge to break in mid-span and pull free from the abutments or pie1s. The formttla we use to compute the pressure charge is: P=3HzT. P equals pounds of TNT for EACH beam, alt charges tamped' H is the height of the beam in FEET' and T is the thickness of the beam in feet. Using the dimensions given on this slide, and referring to side 2 of your demo card, what size charge (using TNT) will be required?
ON VGT 16 Be prepared to present your answer to the class.

'r,]

ti],ii

i1:i'i

NCTE COMMENT NOTE

itfii

iiliil

fl{t

iHfl

!$t

Discuss answer thoroughly. OFF VGT


16

ffi
lffi'

lirl

COMMENT NOTE COMMENT

Now put your demo cards aside for a moment, and look at this next problem. Or\ VGT
17

l,ii
.'; il!l

You will note that in this problem the center T-beam is smaller than the outside beams, so you will have to compute two different sized charges. Work the problem using the formula.-and be prepared to present your answer. Now you'll:rotice-in'our &nswei tttat the total charge to overload and break one span is 360pounds; and to be really effective, we wouldusually want to cut two ipans. The total forllvo is ?20-pounds,which I think is a very sig-

l\

nificant figure. Too ofterrte-tendtooverlook the massive amounts of explosive and other-rndQliEf (reroember all of these charges must be tamped) that-are needed to accompli'str reJStively_ sjmple lauhs. nnd even if we break two-spans oAtblF bridge, we temporary damage that would pose n6-great have on challenge to a gotd engineer unit. To completely demolish this bridge and make i\ebuilding a major problem, we would have to destroy its abutmen\ee1ing, dam--an{ intermQdiate supports-Depending on the size, s\-e;-a'a compoBi{ion of these components, the amount of explosive-requiredcoul.lqasilyreach the neighborhood of two tons. Of couxqle, a guerrilla-ru.<e will seldom be
----l'---

1-

--51

-^-t't\

-.\

ccncerned with COMPLETE destruction fortunate because ttrey woutJ seldom of a target, which is be aute to carry it out.
NOTE COMMENT

OFF VGT

1?

This formula is not effective for span concrete bridges because the ends use against continuous of ttre sians are not free at the piers o" anutme't" i"r'J" ?1"r"" or the span l: fslj::se

iil

NOTE COMMENT

Or\ VGT 18

il:1"ff#fr":'""*r,
NOTE COMMENT 2H+ 29 1o 2H+ 59

charges are empraced ne# ttre pier, ano not-Jmidspan. All of the work that went into carcurating *o pr"pJ"g these charges would probably wasted, o" ui r"u"rt .rii-il* _be alstruction would Are there anv questions on p'u""u"" charges
1B

This slide is interesting illustrates a mistake, a glaring error.. cq uttyonzbecause it trre spot it? .rr"wer is that the

OF}- VGT

The remainder of this hour w'' be of breaching charges. The most important devoted to a discussion u"u oiil"uaching charg_ es is in the destruction of bridge. pi;;;,-;;i;d abutments, and field fortifications. Th"y *ut;ro be used to nrLcrr wats and to blow hores in concrete stans atro. provide us with. possibly our most"oaow"tr.- ;;;aching charges reason this subject gets complicateo "o*pii"ut"JfJr*ura, and the is ables. The thickn^esi,o.f trre.t'arget to ne becau." oitt" many vari-is the materiar from which the 1?rget is nreacrrlJl" orr" variable, maJe anotrrer, and the tamping factor, which dep"na" -""_ the roca-tion LJ tr*ping of the charge, is another. Theiormuta-ro";;;;-ii;ini"r"r,i'g charges is: p: Rs K(1.. of TNT required. R is the | "q;;;;*d" ' I i"breaching radius -in feet. the strength and hardness ot itr" " materiar factor, which reflects -ateriar to ie oeLorished. c is the tamping factor, which, ur i ut"""dy mentioned, depends on the location and tam-ping of tri" This is one iormula that obviously will Nor need to ue"rt*g". by trre oemoritionist, beit can onry be used in metlo"i.led *itr, tm"s of conjunctio" values for we wilr examine the probrem ing the conventior4,_3ld p"""iffy of breaching byfirst eo,'sider--Turn to page r2T of rvr s-'is. -ar * *gs_t complicated, approach. of reading the fine print, ,'oti"" irru indication oi irru importance io*r, the page. Now direct your att&tion t" i"ul" X, and notice how the varues of materiar factor, K, change r"om concrete. Now turn the page andorditt*y uu"trr- "p to reinforced examine figure dg, which gives the values of c. There ir that chart; note for instance trre *Lparity intoimation contained in "3*"--r"ruabre between the varue of the tamped internat r.o, anotrrafro_r rydffi;j'"n*gu ptaced at ground level,"|Tg", n.U:. ."o"-1i,1, pu*po"u", fia would ALwAys consider K to be'reinforcea ".ilfrut situation, we if we were unsure of its exact composition.

irffi

r"t"-;f;Ji

"."lr"te

52

cards to see hor Now let's look at sides 4 andSof our 9"-9 charges. Note that it has helped "i-piitl.calculation of breaching only, but that all we the chart on sioeTis for reinforced concrete

havetoooismeasureotrrtarget,determi.nehowthechargeisgoof TNT directly off the ing to be emplac"d, il,".o"the^amount be required to breach chart. r.or instan"J,;;"-"untof rNTwilI charge halfway up the rrntamped a wall 3r/z -feet thick, using an
wall?
No'ultolcetter gain an The answer is 83-pounds of explosive'. task' look appreciation of tr,L amctrits of explosiverequireclforthis an untampwatl with t; breach an 8-footthick at the amount "";;"d i"r.i- \ine hunclred and ninety-one pounds is erl charge ut gTo;;i simply -9I1"g the charge up 8' certainly a rarge ;cont, and by figuie to ?71-pounds' But think feet off the pround' we can cut that the of the problem l? secrrri,,g ?7l-poinds of explosive against target ror material &;f;"i;lt-'".9, TrTlt'e of conversion ractors card' Now 5 of the demo other than reinforced concrete on side ior r19^r1g.this table' As let's read tog"th"" """n of the fiYe steps youcansee,the-democardhasgreatlysimplifiedourtaskwhen Now put the card aside we are faced *ttt u breaching op"eration. simple breaching probtrtisone again for a *o*""t, *o Gt'" io"t
1em.

NCTE

ON VGT 18

I j

COM}IENT

UseTableXinthemanualtodeterminethevalueofK,and to present your answer figure 83 for thl value of C' Be preparedrememfer in connection potnt to to class. tfre Jea::V important riethods is the large amounts of ;;;6r,rr-uifiorrut with breacr,irg
explosive required'

NOTE

Fully discuss answer.


OFF VGT
18

COMMENT

Atthistimewewillconsideroneofouradvancedtechniques "";;;G in oelgutions' Now remembering that that offers great to 94-pounds of c'4) we needed rza-pouna, oT rur (which converts justrvorked, here is-a to brEacb the 4-;;;i wall in the probt^em figuie. First though, let's method that will- arastically_rear*ee-'tlat an internal charge consiber tt ,*o,ifi-;;q;#"4 if we would employ card we see " in this reinforced'".n"""tu watl; gtanetel4{tre.$emoof placing the pio6tEm that it is only g-fo""O" of rUf nutTfi-e lrtar se ilt""r,uily siouldn' t -nee d an-v :l?::"1?:"1.,.,.'^r;1,,,- r., anrl Ltrler''rrJ '01e' ruie of thur4b--and DisAtB-s-the-opposed charge prrncrl,-,^--^t r,{.,1+i;rrr *^-amount necessarY to
in e, r
i

*.h;""#" 4'fbot target'- -Multiplv ta1ffi#*A-^s the numberh Peunds of


r.o s

.f =*p glu ffi "ru JT";:' ";; ilT;;J' "*;;J Place diametrically d n alf opposite ioentical charges. two
r
e

and construct

53

each other (a problem in having both ible), and prime each charge rr"om sides of the target access_ ;";;t;#" simurtaneous detonatio" oi -oott and insure can rvilr use onrv 8-pounds of pr"strc "t "rgu*. d. ;;" ""ur, see that we have to take some pains intrr"ft""umentof t#i iy*"1, and wh'e we "-;i;;i"; the charges, we achieve the same effect with, relatiuiiv. speaking, ttre-sJme smalr of e4prosive. During *t" amount vanced technique. Are there """i"tor" *"-i"iii"il.rne another ad_ any questions? 2H+ 56 to 3H
COMMENT 3H to 3H+ 19

BREAK
Now we have seen durins the 124-pounds of expro"i"" to'nre?ch- past hour how it would require concrete. And we then discusseo. a^4-footai;wrr, of reinforced a tecrrniquJ iir"""ny the could be reduced charEe trre *"y oo*" to s-po,rnos. 'ai {f. tni" time l to acquaint

wait vou with stiir-"arJtiier. nreacrrlng'tu""trrrq,ru. does not offer savinss as while it by the opposed charge, it does. offe? s""i lurrirrg" over th-e conventional tech_ nique' In addition, trris"new lJ"nrriqr* i" qri"r.* and sim'ler to emplace than rhe 99 muff, requiring-.";"f;;;; one face of the

;;"q111filf:si;;;

titel "Hasty demolition_or_no ";;;;t will ca^ll it the ERDL ,q""r" "o.r"""iJ'"i"u"tu"u",,
NOTE COMMENT

bv the Research and Deverop-men1 l"ir"uioies*rat po"t Belvoir. \rirginia, as a resurt ot i""i"'conaucteo i, r-giti 19b9, and 1960. -nutThe technique has

itr'%i;#lJ.'ru,ii"Til'i:?-,m"lgil;:;;ii'o"""ious,vmens nr v l-;; ; o" n erre t i,, "f"fJ#-i,; IJ'-"_1"'',rt?: j: " The following breaching -t-ecrr_nique- .*; " " ;x,x'.: if,vetopeo Engineer
rr a o e

i'

ii"i" referred to as trr" ilnor, study. we

O.\ VGT

"hl"S".

20

while no formula that is this table shows tr,u u*o*r;i usable by troops has been evorved, ptastic

w'r

br e ach in g

governing

..1"1i,, acquaint you- with

lil*13:Xf

First, the c-4 should be piacea a distanceequar to the thickness of the target above its nas6-io be most errectil (in the charges placed at the uuse oi study, a smaller than those-placed auo"u rlu p"ooul;;;;;;" 28 per cent lrre grouno. so we-are with the probrem of'holding ;;;""h""g"s still faced inptacl. 'tiyou wilr notice the amount or c-4 calred r& you'll see that it iy. 20 bl*il,-oi 4-foot war, "" so-poorra", i,ilr"i"rr"ru u'appreciable saving over the l2;;;;; t"-tp discussed awhite ago. ro r'eturn figure fo"'g+_p"unds of C_4) we a square charge yierds best resutts. d;-9;1J"":l employment, rezrr center nriming, or initiatiil. B;t effe;ts aie gaineo from ju*ing does not increase the effectivenlss _*; il;"*:: indicated is required, and charge thicknel-s Close.coit*.ii,itr, the target ^",t ; td not "i*t muste ch. ;u e s t io ns ." ach rng t i,?T;

"C;;i"" required for ""fi'i"il" ", expl an at on .."i"i*pJ"tunt principles the employment"o-"-ot' churrges. of tfrese 111
w ar l s

r tr, *" gn"' s -r*i

ri i

td"fr*;i;;;"fJyr

l:#;;; ff "t
54

tht;;;

NOTE COMMENT

OFF VGT
20

20

3H+ 10 to 3H+
NOTE COTIMENT

priate

Before we continue the discussion, this seems an approtime to briefly discuss an advanced tamping concept.

ON VGT 21

At the top of this slide you will notice a charge taml-'ed using the conventionil method, with tamping material surrounding the charge. And here at the bottom we have the advanced concept. Note that the charge is primed on the side away from the target' with the cap directeA tfrrougtr the bocly of the explosive towards the target. The tamping mateiial is wet sandbags, or we'1l assume it is iT it is tobeeff-ective, Note that the shock waves travel diagonal' Iy out and down through the tamping and into the tTget. Thus in the advanced concept we're not trying to confine the force of the blast; we are channeling it into the target,
OFF VGT
21

NOTE COMMENT

some members of the class may have been somewhat startled back during the first hour when I made a statement regarding underwater charges and tamping. specifically, what I said was this: That a cha*rge placed against a bridge pier underwater does not benefit from t[e iamping effect of the water. This statement is in direct contradiction of demolition concepts taught only 4 or 5 y"*r ugo. when the Engineer Research and Development T,abor' atory emftoyeO a large staff of scientists to investigate all phases of demolitions activity, this grcup began, appropriately enough, by taking nothing for granted. They agreed that water is certainly a fine lamping agent, under the correct circumstances, but that it does not AIWAVS increase the effectiveness of explosives. Let me show you by means of this simple sketch how water may hinder rather than help an underwater charge,

NOTE COMMENT

Draw simp!.e sketch of pier underwater, with a charge in place.

this charge at '.x,t pounds of pressure per squa{e ineh-it true that It is pushing tn on thq entire-cireu-dference of the pier at the same pressure, water has an absorbing or midfling effect on

while

it is true that the water pressure is pushing against is also

\.-NOTE

an explosiorr, so that when the charge detonates,.the water absorbs the effect of the blast at the same time that it helps actually to compress _or strengthen the pier. In contrast to this effect, we have the f ollowing:e:ragp1e.

Draw simple s-f<efcT\*-q side view of a dam, with a liigh 'wsf,et level o1 otre side only, and'* charge placed behind the dam, on the water side.

55

COMMENT

NOTE COMMENT

In this case the receive fulr tamping from the r"i"i-""0";"" charEe I and the ffi:f,: J{!" -f wei gf, t o u* ugujh: * utui' *"ir i ir'i., oou bte dlybenefit u; ;;1' ot proportion to that t ".f c au s e rh;;;;;# pected from u t,-pj ; s ; J, ;' T llj|n",Xilff # ;r * 1#:', ::;S $il" H ;f; ,."" " "1

ON VGT 22

sarne effect

The technique illustrated h

u* trt"t it""J"i";1:i" is one whereb

ffi ili":",:l'Jn":fl

ii;il,*fl H*'#jr-irelt*#''.}""J,H'"q,ffi$:"trEqf,*ii
(This is thJ
eas

i*'*r*ffi;h,r{ln'}ff"il"j$I,t'";,fr rs, it is a lt}


.

;*lh4"::Xt,*li;nTi*fffi :,a"llffi=; -;!f;,;if

to exert force th gt' -p-i "#." tr, u u; tf;: fi o.pp o s i t e. r h i, iT :f +:'""1:? ;trol
-

if!:#:i1",:1H,*,: detonates "uiJ'li:"lli., ff:'trxi,l:a:';"J first, ll1"i"l,or u J""o|o"ffHoiff;r"",X.T:..1*"is"l# ilrure of the ex_ I ""o.1 second g, gas roi*Jo. one_thirty-

"l'''

,#;; d;i#

j'"liJd;

NOTE COMMENT

l"r";::',HinJTT# ffi ll.l,fu ;x;;T,1;'ffi,"f rd the disadvantag" mcre time ind eno"t to oi emlrlace.
OFF VGT 22

lf :#":.iff

";qu;"i;;

3H+ 29 1o 3H+ 25

ng thlf the variou :*ry".;^ i; ;"#5"ffi J ""#Hftf ?1 -::l:. tnink demolition r."-"i],s and techniques" onsotete, advanced tecrrniques;j; ;;;r,;#""entional """,I"*iTi. jlT: ljmlting factors.
i

Before

an

M;;

,il;id;#iy1",ltirui::'jg?il"T'jfi .ii'#iffi:",'iH:',""f ;;
COMMBNT

*-it+t[r:n*sTi"*1]iTjr*i:lt*,."rv?l';;,Nll:T

ffi*b:d"*1ilHiltrr*:r:1l'lru ;.:"'*l;Htff
,,","ru,*L'lT.l'rT.I
would

3H+ 25 1o 3H+ 45

rite

vo1.1?

,l*:'' i ffi .i;;*'*T"ff ;Tl'{:i":H";,""fuffih,1+i"t'jtrff


.-'--____..__-........-

ctrss the Tj; :iT"';[' various elements {:}:'.I -*:crla-lnoer of this hour ;",#ff diswe will "ir,# wor d he r e i s c ur o p, J dT:"r"Hx?, rTff "n inti-"s lil l;i'J'" imp*i*' ?lpu"t or dembr ;tH'"" Tllffi "v will find it necer the format i,i ,*l T.1Lb: lhat.vou

# td:#

l*:.ort

your target recon-

lnsr*lm i;"r

1r:

fr:r##; *r

56

as a systematic procedure is followed, and the necessary information obtained, the format employed could hardly be of less importNOTE

Discuss each element of the form with the class, stressing the problems involved. The requirement for accuracy and completeness of information will often have to be balanced against accessibility of the target and security requirements. Sketches of the suuounding terrain are extremely important, inasmuch as the report form will usually serve as the basis for developing the tactical plan in connection with the demolitiontask. Overlooking a small ditch or a few strands of wire could easily spe}l the difference between Success and failure in a night raid, where split-second timing and coordination a-re required.

ance.

NOTE

At the conclusion of the discussion, a completed form is issued to the students, This form will contain the result of a comprehensive target reconnaissance and will reflect close attention
to detail.
ON VGT 23

COM]VIENT

By way of a brief summary, let's examine the four considerations shown on this slide. We mrrst consider all of thede things, and a few others not listed, in determining exactly how we will ('Extent of damage deattack any given target. The second point, sired," is one that I have so far mentioned only briefly, if at all. If, for instance, we are chargedwithinterdictinga highway system' and it is possible that friendty forces will soon be in the area, our instructions might be to inflict only partial damage on key bridges. This way enemy troop movements will be hindered, but friendly rebuilding of the bridges will be facilitated. And we must not forget to consider all means of destruction at our disposal. If fire or some other type of sabotage will suit our needs, then by all means we should save our explosives and adopt the alternate method. Efficient and effective destruction of a target often requires studying the target system until you gain almost as much knowledge of it as the engineers who built it. In other words a knowledge of calculation and placement_gtit+-isn-t the whole answer to our demolitions problems. Nex* c-oines target selection, and on some target systems this poses no great probIem. On others-,-trigNy technical knowledge will be required to enable you to atack t<Ey points.

A'ree

fhere-any q-ttes#ions? Dismissed.

-^

57

58

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL BRIDGE DBMOLITIONS


LESSON PLAN

CONCEp,I. this subject is designedtogivethe student a working knowledge of bridge destruction through the use of explolives. The subject includes the following: to include a. Considerartion and planning for partial or complete bridge clestruction, intelligence sources. b. Nomenclature of fixed bridges, and the major bridge types. Abutment destructton, pier destruction, and destruction of superstructures' destruction, c. prshlem requirements are that the-students plan specifieda levels of bridge. plan their placement against specific curcuiate tfitcn*udq required, and

1.

2,

COURSE SCHEDULE.

litions subject in the cburse,

a. This subject is presented

to the Special ForcesOfficer Course as the final demoInstructoi must be thoroughly familiar with all previous

demolitions subjects. appropriate b. In the homework assignment the students will study the material selections, per' previously pre5-25. They review taining to bridge destructionl in FM requirements prior to com'ing to class' .sented"during 751, and solve problem

,la.

.lil

!l

it[!i

fi$i

c. Suggested

time schedule:

iHff] tfrt!l iftHl

HtoH+5 H+5toH+10
11+ 10 16

Introduction to bridge demolitions, with emphasis on the special problems facing guerrillas in this field.
Discuss the nomenclature of fixed bridges.

,fi{t

i|li
ir:iil

fl+

2b

Discuss the problems of abutment destruction


employed.

and the methods

,i,i ,l
1,

iil

H+ 2516 fl+
H+ 35 16 fl+

35
50

Discuss the problems of pier destruction and the methods employed.

Familiarize the students with the eight basic bridge types, with the locations for emplacing charges to destroy each'
BREAK Continuaiion of 4LoY'e;

and

H+ 50 to lH
1H to LH+ 25

the general lH+ 2-b-to 1H+ 50 Introduce the specific bridge problem by distributingan{- the first -- :"--i'l questions pertaining to it, tit""ti"t. answering any Discuss solution to first requirement.
____._r

-==-=----_

="di"ement. BREAITT\ lH+ 50 to 2H \\ Students woN<-out answers to second:equirement' and student 2H to 2H+ 25 worrn group.s G1"; o" ro" solutions whicilarcJii scus sed bef ore "D n\ requtfement are distributed' the solution and \ thiro ?qq-uirement, and solutions are tr)"""""t"F*a Students solve 2H+ 25 16 2fi+ b0
discussed.
59

2H+ 53 to 3H
3H to 3H-25

BREAK

:*Ti$"Jr""Te
3H+ ZS to

fourth requirement and solutions are presented


covered t"
and d.

BH_b0

fumlarV is distributed ize all materiar

d.

Issue plan

o#;T;Sby

the

instructor. Summar-

$i fflH*t:;*,t'
(a) (e) section

Advance sheet and

first requirement, section


I

vr, (f) Section Vtt, soruiion_-rrrt""niir, ;;r:11,'#ft?:, e. Conduct of Lesson ,,r**."y. (l) prior to class:

xlil'",n, *,tll :: it section ii'i ;;iili:l tqi;"." ;""T":":T:FT a,,o-lrre'rou.tr,o requirement. nt. (d) iffii# ^tj i: ,"'#f?i:T:Tu,,t,,
"

F"iion II, general situation and se

r.

r eq u i r em

and the

rirth;;d;;;ffil.

assignmenr and reviewing subject (2) During class: (a) First hour: guenilla force. 1' Instructor lectures on the problems cf bridge demolitions for a

'"oi?"riXX1l!"1?!",.ff:'"%,lilo,lJu'tou" 7b6, he o"""rfJr?'?1i1t;" ffi',:lt'J-"m:lf,""Urk

thorough

demolitions instruction and gain

ffi l:ff

H|."J:Ti;'H"JnT,;:,["TH";ifil:;,",tr1if":ffi ,H:?:ilf,",.fj"ff ,"?l#,;


(c) f.ni10
"StuOe-nts

hour: solve two m different level'or oestruction. tri.L'u"to" summarizurto"u,requirements.each involving l and answers
quesrrons.

l?: IT'o*u '.31.ry;|i,.!iff: fJis?fj ffi;:i.Hils.:,:oncerning,n,ul1is"T"esources struction against a typicaii"i6J|i"gut. ment t" pi"r'isieciric revel of dea

60

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL


BRIDGE DEMOLITIONS COMMENT
Good afternoon, gentlemen. To date in our demolitions training we have used the broad brush approach, often mentioning the specialized demo tasks which occupy the special forces demolitionist, but seldom coming to grips with any of them, During the next 2 hours we will delve a bit deeper into one specific field of demo work, bridge demolitions. A question that might well arise, and one that deserves an answer, is why select this speOialty over the others? The reason is simply that aprime mission of a guerrilla force is to interdict enemy rail and highway systems; and there are no more lucrative targets in a transporation system than its bridges. During the next 2 hours we will first become familiar with the various types of bridges, and then discuss the simplest and surest ways to render them itnusable. Virtually everything that we have studied so far is applicable to bridge demolitions. We have learned how to cut steel and tiniber,how to breach reinforced concrete, and how to use pressure charges and cratering charges. So we already possess the essential tools for bridge destruct,lon, and now only have to learn how to apply them against the different types of targets, While I say "only,t' this is really a far from

H toH+5

simple task. We use demolitions to destroy bridges to delay the enemy. Obviously the most completely destroyed bridges can be rebuilt IN 'IIME by a determined enem)r. The factors which effect bridge demolitions by convdntional forces hre of necessity somewhat different than those affecting bridge demc by a guerrilla force. Disregarding the conventional approach to the problem, letts think of some considerations that will govern the EXTENT of destruction that a guerrilla force will plan for.

NOTE

Call on several students for opinions, and guide the discussion so that most or all of the following points are included: tactical, strategical, and even the local political situations; Iength of time desired to delay the enem'\/; bypasses available; time available on the target; compare rg_sults to be obtained with other possible attacks elsewhere; gte*lltt m$poffer, equipment, and
vxploUry,e s _ av ail abl
e i and,-Mpo s s ibi I ity thElf ri enrll y f or c e s rsoccup'-t!'--".rer aniliequire the bridge, --F .

m ay
+'-

COMMENT
.---'-'----..--\

As I mentioned Et*rie*-during our claBs=rrri-ca-r-colation ai-'d Placement, COMPLETE DEQTRUCTION of a bridge will seldom selqualify tirut strtement. ho t.onrriredr.- I will oualifv t)rat i;tatement and add that it will sel' be required;imagine rrnrn he reouired of a conventiona)force It is difficult to imaglne convention\orge.- iq dom be required

ffqlDN complete destruction would\Vnif be iequireed sf a guerrilla--Torce;and we can dismiss the problem as one of little concern to us, We can make a generdl-stdement to the effect that

61

H+5toH+
NOTB

COMMENT

10

"in guerrilla operations we will-usuauy seek ar ways to destrov bridges.', yg-;;'ri#i; the most economicinterested in econ_ omy of time and orpro;ve, and for this -.G" such techniques abutment destruction will "ur"o' ne attempiei-ny fr"rlii?if. Be8rlnln_g on page 1b2 and.cqrying over to the end of pase 1bs in FM s-2b, there-are ten points ristEo trrat;ffj;;;;,i"rtered when planning a bridge demolition. All you read in vgrl reading as_signment, are oiirr""u points, which ventionar demolitionist, bit trrei may nJ important to the conthe guerrilla's considerations.^- The one p";;;thatequar weight in "u""i"e is equarly important to both groups is the first one:- rarr'inaividuar in bridge design and construction G -nu"i^'qualified quarified to plan the demolition of bridges. particularry tn tt* of large comprex structures, such a person shourd ou ""ie in planning, demoliiions.,, "oughiliflo pt"n, or to assist very convenienty, the nomencrature of fixed bridges is divided into two main ireadings, each of which breaks down into four separate parts.

;;

ON VGT

COMI{BNT

NOTE COMMENT

The SUBSTRUCTURE _.u09 up .-robtrN,; ground supports at the end of,r:. uriogli of ABUTMENTS, the ilr"is that part , of a bridge support which rests direcil-y -on tiu g"ound; it distributes the load. END DAM is retaining wa' -a. sonry at the en-d of a bridge which_suppo?t"Ti"of concrete or mabank; it keeps the approach cavin[ in. rNrnnunora-rn suppoRT is "ouq.from a support beneath a bridge between the abutmerrt"; u pier or bent. ThC SUPERSTRUCTURE iS the rower *uplu-Ir in a paner of a "O*PO"UJO'-',OWNN CHORDS, tr"";;il; run paralrel to the deck. uppER CHORDS incrude. the upper-*-"-u""* in the panel. -b-r S T R N G E RS g,-tud i n a' v w rl lonuno rnBabr i t h t he i a g; ;; d i r e c * y supp o rt the deck. DE.K the deck bridge with the tread being the top surface iJtrre-actuar froor of the material. OFF VGT 1
T _

wh'e you don't necessariJv.lravg to memorize these terms, vou shourd become familiar with the f;;i;;';i each eomponcnr in a bridge. Much effort and many rives have;; wasted because "oio people charged with the demorition .i nriog" ,rot know where to place the charges. Destroying the " deckfia u"ioee while leav_ ing the road bearingmembersintlct *,,Jn"iogi destruction; it,s a minor annoyance.
20

COMMENT

H+ 10 to H+

As I have already mentioned, we wil not ed in bridge abutment-destruction, Hoyeveri become too involv_ we wil minutes in familiarizing you with trre uAJe r-,ir"Jto" spend afew abutment destruction. Abutments by-their ;i" iitticurt targets to destroy, requiring large amounts of"uiu"" "u"y exptosive Jo m,ict effort for emplacing the charges. frr"v i* f" St*wlt time and by either internal or externar achin[ charge s, or by pi#ud_;";" _bre fill behind them. whatever riethod is used, the entire width of the "rr*g" " abutment must destroyed if the demolitio" i, to be effective. -be Demolition of abutments is especiarly effective

*rru""

the topog_

62

raphy forces the enemy to use theexistingsite for a new abutment. This is an important consideration, one that might well dictate that abutment destruction be attempted. charges in the fill behind an abutment offers the advantages of economical use of explosives, and at times permits concealment of the charges. The principal disadvantage is the difficulty of emplacing the charges. If the fill behind the abutment contains large rocks, this method may be almost impossible for guerrillas to lttempt. One technique that might be considered for rapidly sinking bbreholes in this situation is the use of shaped charges. T'he M-3 or 40-pound variety would be best suited for this task. of course the pro6lems of securing the charges, transporting them to the target, and the noise associated with their use will have to be considered.
NOTE COMMENT
ON VGT 2

Abutments 5'feet or less in thickness are demolished by a line of 4Q-pound cratering charges, 5-feet deep,5-feet apart (center to center), and 5-feet behind the FACEof the abutment. To add one more five to the undertaking the first hole is placed 5-feet in from the side of the road. ff the wing walls are strong enough to support a bridge in rebuilding, they should be destroyed in the same man'
ner.

i: l:ill

.i

ri

:ii,lii

11 ,,1

i$il

the abutment thickness as the radius, R. Remembering the amounts of explosive required to breach walls in this category, over 5'feet thick, it's easy to see why guerrillas will not be able to attempt abutment destruction very often.
NOTE COMMENT

Abutments more than 5-feet thick are destroyed by breaching charges placed in contact with the rear face of the abutment. -are-calculated by the breaching formula, P: Rg KC, using Cliarges

lrtril

i.ffli

ilii
llt'

,,,i

OFF VGT

Abutment s mor o th an 2 0 -f eet h. gh-r-Cquhed;-rraddrTi6nTo tne breaching charges behind the abutmeut, a similar line of charges placed against the bottom front faceof the abutment, and primed to detonate at the same time. This results in an overturning of the abutment, and its complete destruction.

COMMENT

H+ 20 to H+

30

think we have adequately covered the fact that we won't often attack abutments, but there is another concrete target that we may be required to destroy regardless of the difficulties or large amounts of explosive req*iled. I@struq tionof intermediate supports, the piers or bents. Dest"ueqion of one or more piers on multispan bridges is usually the mo-St-effective method of demolitior -Tbe destruction of one support will-Corfepqe the spans on each Sde of tt-, so that destroying every other piE>-qf r'esult in all spans comiig-dqwn. Internal charges are best, but )sr guerrillas are impossible (forall practical purposes) unless demolition chambers exist' As a iefresher in the use ot-*he' breaching formula' work this problem and be prepared to presen{ your answer to the class'

63

NOTE

ON VGT

COMME.{T

The nier is constructed of reinforced concrete; comoute the amount or rm;i ;a;;;;;"i.".n"eu"r,ii;. ",o; that we have the answer for one charge, ret's briefiv the total "o""%"l"rro* *u determine ""-]l:-" "f :d"g"J"==T,"d.to completety demotish rhe rememtrer we don,il.r"i*.r,t to knock u-r,Jr" in it. The il:r: for_
N:W
The N is the breachin!;;,_t1,?"i":1."n?"fii:'xH,""":.f ll#Il?: jil j;"ji,X j: than %, it is disregardeo; 'fut or greater, uoo :! ll: ;;is;;lo;ir-'oarues nJt*""n i and a whole numiff;rltJ,""J;ifi.T' 2; then z+ is

NOTE COMMENT

OFF VGT

COMMENT

H+ 30 to H+
NOTE COMMENT

S0

so far in this hour we have ,ciscussed the destruction of bridge substructure" onryl^erloge what complicated when "i; ;;;;"" oestruction begins to get somesuperstructuies. During the next hour we w'r see slides .i"istt,oiir*""itypi" some combination types bridges and the best locations ior tfre *"ii. we wut-l;,;;_ "r familiar with "" a few pronrems ir"t;"*".", to destroy each type, and we "tr,Ji" #1tr#1* questions "ii*r"tior,. are "nv whi're this- rather bewildering array of bridge types might give the impression thai u"iog" i".tiucti#

*r.l3"f;J."-#,tt
ON VGT 4

reallv

t";L;;"ned

with

i* .ri"i"r-compticated

;"u'ril

most cominon

some of the unusuar and serdom encountered bridges are ll3?fifl?-;#"i"f;l; n't tr,"i"-,iery rarity marls-them worth no
OFF VGT
4

NOTE COMMENT

The stringer !ri-dse, in which the stringers are the loadbearing members- and th6 noor'i" tvpe of fixed bridse i" *""i1""t" o""o road, iJthe most cornmon th;;;;ki "iiri.,gu" bridges further divide into-two .Fryp'"",'"i.npru "r *J,lJ"t*""us spans. In simple span strinqer support to the n-"*: lridg;q-;il stringers -*i""J"rry frcm one cut Etring"r";1t":r"_e;"ii";rgths to hinder sllvage' This point" up u.p"in"'i!leoroe"t"ucTffi ;;;l has universal applicability; destroy ui or one type system' For instance, in o""t".vi"g il:q ir, *v l."gu, or target ^i""vehicres ili ,ioro" pool in a limited time, destroy ar s2r4rrrlrrel to nibalizing and reconsiructfugl---vY \4D an examlrre| Eo prevent can"tt "rgir"!

64

To destroy continous span bridges, those that have beams which extenri over more than two spans, we often have to cut EACH memlrcr in TWO places BETWEBN SUPPORTS. In other words, such bridges cut only once between supports may not fal], due to the rigidity and strength of the stringers. Continuous concrete

T-beam or continuous concrete slab bridges can be recognized by the absence of construction or expansion joints over the supports. As you will recall, pressure cirarges on continuous beams give unsatisfactory results and should not beused. Such bridges should be attacked by demotishing the piers, by demolishing the junction between span and pier, or by removing all spans by cutting them at approximately one quarter of their lengths fromeachend. Breaching charges are used in all cases. A T-beam bridge is essentially a concrete stringer bridge, with the floor and stringer being one piece, ild the floor adding strength to the beam. This type may appear as a simple span, as a continuous span, or as a cantilever span.
ON VGT
5

NOTE COMMENT

This si.mple span T'beam bridge is easily identified by the expansion joints over the piers; they can be destroyed by either pressure or breaching charges.
OFF VGT
5

NOTE COMMENT NOTE COMMENT NOTE

In this next slide, we see a continuous sparl T-beam bridge.


ON VGT
6

,rn this bridge.

This slide shows how a charge would normally be emplaced


6

OFF VGT
ON VGT
7

COMMENT

Remember that this is a breaching charge, that it must be pla,:ed to breach the T-beam, that it is only one of five charges that would probably be employed against this particular bridge, and that -the-problems of holding these charges in place may prevga!_ttreir use in guerri,lla operations. OFF VGT
7

NOTE

COMMI!NT
NOTB COMM}.:NT

Having now seen a simple span and "orrthoo.'*spen " blidge, let's look at a type of concrete cantilever bridge.
ON VGT
8

If you will please look closely at the picture, you will be =--able to see the joints and note their placement. This particular tvpb of bridse is called a "cantilever slab bridge with suspended rp*) *oie the charge placement that is designed to cut the - overbalance the supporting spans. Particularly note fiiAge and
65

how the suspended spans drop free, ancl we demorish five with onrv two cuts. spans Il"tru"tion appears to be relatively determine the junctii;;iil; "i,'ptu, "i"rr-bridg_es must f;e clretury studied to ____ members, so ^'v'rvvrD, that maximum rnat can be

Aifi;;il;*:t_-;;;1&

inflicted.
8

damage

NOTE

COI,{MBNT

OFF VG.r

A truss is a jointed frame members' either st6er or tr,ine",structure consisting of straight tnat "";;;;;J r;"; i"ir' i'il ?*.Ti""!"", the truss is l""xTfJJjn-f;h?5;* deck-typ

"L

NOTE
COMI\,IENT

"

",

ON VGIf

NOTE

In addition to this "iln"truction. simple or continuous 0""*::Il,_,truss bridges mty be either tfri_" slide is a good example of a deck truss^brioge. "pun Charges *o"fo.i"
OFF VGT
placed on both
9

ON VGT 10 COMMENT and any diagonar members interfere with complete o"Ltru"tion. that might the bridge srro.rlf! t:;;irJ,rr'Ji.tr,"' ilrrg'Tii" ,o"o-otive on a""i;#i,rn'"f time our demolition";;-;; iJ u"t'tru trr- ir"*"r,i"r" attemq.rting to train to assist in the o"ri"r"tTi:t.:t weight of trr* nrrJg".-in" fact that the -':: the n I" 3l ;i :::'J", T:' L 3n?, T *' r u no o u bt e dl y "'"

the upper and rowc;r chor'1s,

;n**;:.j''

NOTE

OFF VGT

11

ON VGT 12 COMMT'NT

As an u*11rplu of a combjnation of types, this bridgc, is a combination b;fi trre pony"tl-ti#?,io,n"ough zrs vou ,"ril"":.u", truss "i
OF}- VGT
12

NOTE COMMENT

m?"'lJJl,il#il,*ffi 1d:y."i;3nT,,;l_ffi ";;"#anddiagona,


NOTE COMMENT ON VGT 13

of complete destructioi we are not concerned withf tnere Le twomain ing truss bridEes. one is'to -*tr,oo" of destroyboth ends of "one truss in c;;;" end posts ;;;r;*., chords at caus** trr. bridge to roll over, thereby twisting ihJ;;il" """rr""p"n. rrris its tryss.-off support. A trick - tof the trade in itris *"tfioJ'"ir"ii the cuts ori tr,u upstream side of the bridge so that, ^rr.u twisting action an$- mate iipo""iilr",ttu "urrliiriitt assist in the o"-Jt*"ii"n more comprete. The method is to cut au mrrjor;;;;" other in midspan. This means cut-

Short of bringing a truss to cut it up into"--utt"""g;*i",'11".tmedown and then proceedinE rTtogu

placement with these charges shown on this continuous span th"rough truss bridge.

Now contrast that charge

NOTE

OITF VGT 13

ON VGT 14

OFF VGT
COMMENT

14

secn, there is one more type that we might encounter--cantilever truss bridges. O,\ VGT
15

In addition to the types of truss bridges that you have just

NOTE COMMENT

Cantilever truss bridges are really a modification or refinement of continuous truss or continuous beam bridges, and the prlnciples for the destruction of those t3,pes of bridge also apply to cantilever bridges. OFF VGT 15 cantilever truss bridges are found either withor without suspended
spans.

NOTE COMMENT

To further complicate this already complicated situation,

NOTE COMMENT

ON VGT 16

of despan cantilever truss bridge. By merely stroying the suspended placing the charges on the hangers we are able to drop the span. (These are major bridges.) OFF VG'.T 16
ON VGT 17

In this slide we see the relatively simpie problem

NOTE

coI/If{liNT

On a cantilever through truss without a suspended span, we place charges to destroy the connection and, as you se here, to further cut this long truss near the pier. OFF VGT
17

NOTE COMMENT

We have one more set of terms to qludy to urdersteraa----------6rch type. common another major classiircati@ go, that-ttre best place to attach arch sense tells us, u*d ]]g$]y_
bridges is ai\thq-crown where the arch--iq ttriruresf, -Whrte citarge-s. are 6asily ptacedit_tpe crown, repairs are frso-e+sily rUade across the narrow gap produled- So the second meihod of plactm-ent of chafges, at tire haunches,-while more demanding in terms of time and explosive, is also more destructive.

NOTE

67

NOTE

OFF VGT

18

ON VGT 19 COMMENT contr ast to thi s sol:.h::"" id tvpe tvpe' rhe next two sriies destrov this tvpe. n.iog".-

This slide

a typicat solid masonrv j*",

.fili

i,["-il-"Ji;n,{;$*::""r'-3r'"'gl"
NOTE

.of

il;;'r ;?;ii" llJ"Hl:??r"T "rr.*i;; Ji-fte;;;'ii'lini"utty rhe -;;,;;i'irl",rrg charges to


"u.,
uu

"".J'v

see' by compar-

of

em_

OFF VG'I

19

ON VGT 20

OFF VGT

20

ON VGT 21

OFF VGT
COMMENT

21

final major class of bridge_-that we will discuss this afternoon is the suspension bridge. sent no major probiem'r il;;;H;"tior,, ,.s.frarr-"u"olrri"" bridges prerno c,itii"*in" cabres usually be the quickest w;n ,y:ri ilid;, .i"? action. wilr But bridges, "s;;f;" shown ";; ;;;;,;" ", another quite ffffijrrpension
The
oN VG.r
22

NOTE

COMMENT

i:f, ff A1!i";#:i:*14:i,"1,,tr?J"Tl'olo,l'Jo"u,,"arprob,n

The cables are often the towers are so massive too l*ry to cut with explosives, and to destrov them. so wh.e trrai ions Ji.*pro"irr" l""rio be required r*#q" n"iJg""';";;fr" an interest-

NOTE

", ""

X??i.l?:l
22

i'"ffir:

:'s

n":::r":m*:"
in sequence,

of thr e e m o r e br i d ge s

OFF VGT

SHOW VGT,s 2g,24, and 2b

COMMENT

capabilities of grrerriila units :HTilil;ilS During the past e nours-'wre ,i"ol" _p"p"ir41 conaitions. """_"qt learned Jo'rii"n"ioge nomenacquainted with various tvpes"Jr iriages. 3l,Xil,l?i"t|iffiS
toubneo

l'ry:ylJ*;jfiJ,&,i:",f '$:!.ii,l'""}:"iilff

Each of th

with ;;;"ff ffi ::f;ffi1',1""J:"Hff9 j?j;lillffi ", ..\\:

68

operations class you

will be given the opportunity-to apply some of this very genLral knowledge, along with specific cutting and ureacrting tLciniques to destroy a bridge with all necessary information being suPPlied. Rememblr iirat we are not thinking of bridge destruction be conducted in a vacuum. Bridge demolitions should be planned critical time' so that the enemy is denied the use of the briclge at a coordinated destruction, or destruction that is directed by the sponsoring power to coincide with an action having tactical or sirategical importance will do the most damage to the enemy' Are there any questions?

asanacademicproblem;orputanotherway'ourplanningwillnot

COMMENT
1H

to IH+

25

The situation and requirement now being handed out to the class is to be used in conjunction with the charts placed at your tables. Take a few minutes to read the material and I will answer questtons regarding it before you begin to consider an answer to
the

first requirement.

NOTE

IH+ 25 to 1H+

50

Students are to gence sources anC igencies- Individual students are called on the instructor attempts to insure that Iuppty their *"*""r1 and ari _ajor points contained in the solution are covered. BREAK

given about 15 minutes to consider the

intelli-

iff
,,,

lii

riui

iiifr

lH+

50 to 2H

rii{

NOTE
2H

to 2H+

25

section III is issued and the students are told to work out be pretheir solution to the second requirement so that they can insures 15 minutes. The instructor sented by study groups aJter that the key poinTs oi ttte solution are developed in the course of monitoring the student discussions. section IV is issued and the procedure outlined above is repeated.

l:i

ilt

]lit

NOTE 2H+ 25 to 2H+ 50

2H+ 50 to 3H
NOTE 3H to 3H+ 25 NOTE
-

BREAK

Section
ed.

v is issued

and the same procedure

is

again follow-

glr{z5-Lo 3H+ 50
COMMENT

section vI and vII are issued. The solution to the fourth requirement is briefly reviewed by the instruction andth students told to glance bver the summaly--a'd feel free to ask any

""" questions they desire regarding-If'_-

An important point to remember in,,!!]Setion with,,il-l tl thisliBb..ct;n is that such demolition problems 3re more tla1ra p tittle diffic-u-*X..lo1- a good U.S. team. Thi.s f act i,9,'\sit^-'.i11gpt to m *s'nisGks-tn***i; ;A-filf f t" " r' "r"s " e s ations ior pl aceulei*' me when I find\ai b- --"i;;;io. p] "rur loc ffi1;#u"; J" if a speciur ror-ces'Jetachinent finds -the technical :-^^ ^ trLn -i-^ #;ect3' Ei i" iae" o" "t1" "ti9n I pr 9bt :T: ltj."^ ::-?Y^:".:T ?fl Y:":f ;;;;"i;""J i" irying to train guerrillas for the task.

uiiiJ"rrr",

69

The difficulties are increased if the guerr'las happen erate, a not unusuar situation. If you, the personnel-of to be ilritthe detachmugt be 3?nt' tasks, present to-actively superviseandperform the demolitio' the p?telliar of yo,i" force wilr be severelv limited. you could find you"rsetfgrurri[apositi;";i-;it;;;;d6 in the -il'"*rficant gue*illas that could only carry ou-t orr" o" raids simr'iltaneousry, involving the use of demoritions. tfirren consider_ ing the problems,.of tra*ining the guerrilras, remember that you will.not-be operating in a and pleasanl environmc't. The time availabre for the training may"r.""toom "iL* be rimited. will atmost certainry be a ranguage nariil-rl*o'ir""ticarThere work may be ruled out for securiti, ,"u"on" (demo is noisy). Then rvhen your guerrirlas arrive at"ttreir oblective at night, and d,rmo work is greaily complicated by ou"t"*'""," il fi#-.re subjected to the strain cf 9n9ml action, it is not difficuriio see how they might fait. YOUR;ot wltt be to'see that they O"

".ii"if.

70

UNITEDSTATESARMYSPECIALWARFARESCHooL
ADVANCED TECHNIQUES
the 9f 1. CONCEPT. This subject is designed to give the student a working-knowle.dgechargemployment of demolition and
LESSON PLAN

procedures and techniques used in the construction developments in es in the advanced technique category. In addition, unclassified new includes: demclitions are presented ano discuised. This subject a. The value and limitations of advanced techniques the sacldle, diamond' ribbon' b. Advanced techniques ro" "t""r cutting to include and linear shaPed charges. the opposed and square charges' c. Advanced breaching techniques to include volatile fuel containers, to include d. Advanced technique charges for destroying the platter charge.

2.
be

COURSE SCHEDULE.

b. In the homework assignment, the student reviews of Charges' to Demolitions, u"JUg. T77O{, Calculation and Placement c. Suggested time schedule: Introduction including familiarization with advantages 11 1s fl+ 15
tions of advanced techniques.
11+ 15

a.ThissubjectispresentedtotheSpecialForcesofficerCourse.Instructormust familiar with all prevlous demolitions instruction, subjectu3' T7508' Introduction
and

],f

lli$

,rili

limita'

rli#

to H+

55

DiscuSS and demonstrate construction cf


amined bY the students. BREAK

tfr{

saddle and diamond their results can be excharges, which will be detonated so that

lril

H+ 55 to lH+

5 1H+ 5 1s 1fl+ 45
lH + 45 to 2H+

Discrss and demonstrate tbe construction of riln9ryan4.]tn9ar results can


shaped charges, which will be detonated so-that-their be examined bY the students' BREAK

5 2H+ s 16 2fl+ 2b

_fisi"G and demonstrate

construction of the opposed charge and the ERDL square charge, which will be detonated so that their results can-be examined by the students,

which 2H+ 25 to Zft+='u+-. Discuss-and'Jenonqlraid"FltT"t"l,"f-Ihe platter charge, its elfeerrvct*bo' --ui-i-Il5e detonated to demonstrate -

2H+ 50 to 3H
3H to 3H+ 4b

BREAK

Discuss and demonstrate new developments in demolitioryle+$ efflosive' equipment \techniques, to includ]e tsHo-6r-ebeet
Issue summary aru\answer questions regarding

--

3H+ 45 to 4H

it'

\.--

d.

Issue Plan:
(1) (2)

Prior to class: Advance sheet' During class: SummarY'


71

e.

Conduct of lesson:

(1) prior to class:


,""(flr"rT;i:";'""fr fl#";fl#.ateriar
from ERDL and review au past demolition instructional materiar.

demorition

vanced tech'ique charges and u"o ouitnnstrates trre-constru^"tiorr-unJ,i"" limitations of admond charges. .r saddre and dia_ (b) Second hour: Instructor lectures.on demonstrates the construction difficulties of steel cutting and anduse oJ ribbon'"nJ-rirruo shaped (c) rhird hour: crra"ges. an opposed charge, the ERDL rnstructor u'o construction of charge, uoO tf*-pf (d) Fourth hour: Instructo""r""tr"u""on atter charge. "qu""" n"* deverJp-ments in demolitions,

",*;?s"il (2) $lr"tifSiJj;, Review all p""ui*" (a) First hour: Instructor lectures on.capabilities

d";;;;;;t"r,

-fr1ii;h"

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL ADVANCED .IECHNIQUES


COMMENT

HtoH+15

to accompri"n that task. preparing the charge" ,." d;;;;-"J{";#ffi5; area is even entered, will often provide the answer. -\__

nor automatica'y disd;";f;;;. The o"*"riti"iist in the spe_ cial forces detachment wiii f"*iio*ougruy with these advanced techniqu.es.- F*cgg with a speciiic demo tast, qualified to seiect the chaigc-r"uiruit"d "o.rrr"""urrt he is well
carded because oJ their

lo rememb;; ;;;" is tf,at rt'""" ally used because of their utiuJirr"rress, "r,ii;=:ffiT:,fil3fti:'

be aiscussing various rot destroying votatite fu"t ;;;;;r"J"_. - "o.r"""t" ir*"ning, and for "t"ui "uiiing, Most .f til -charges wilt be covered by means,of explan;i;; struction' fo'owed uv u a!*"r"i""tior, dr:mc^t"Jio" of their con.and specific targets, and you *ilr -;u "r irr"i" ""p"nrrrrr"" against Before getting into a oiscussion .;t:. i"""ur"## their results. Jr trr"lir"t #J""rr"'"g"s, I briefry remind you of want to oi t"rr. an,l limitations of charges classed as advanceo licirnique -itttough "o*" "arantages chaige". may be other t:::"" aCvantage, there i' tfr" .mpfoyment of advanced techniques, the two primary a-driantages are: (1) they armost inc onvent ion ar' cha," ge s, and (2) ,'tr??tit#J Jffi i, "??i:"r'J The two primary disadvantages encountered are: (1) ad_ vanced technique charges place, and (2) the charft" trr!il""i, ""quid.nore time to prepare and emadvanced techniques-

welcome back tocolemanDemorition Range. r ld;J;;;;;il be niffi"ili"i",, any ranse day failed to start with a b;;, is designed to prevent suih"rr'Trr" attention charge just detonated oisappointment. It siourd once again to remind you that arso serve we will litions on this- range and that you be working with rive demcshould be-safety conscious throughout

Good morning,

gen'emen.

the day.

irr*-L.""irg

we wilr

A;

#:Lx?iI

72

It should be remembered that information concerning the target, in that case, must be fairly exact. Also the problems of transporting a fragile charge over difficult terrain during a night combat operation may prohibit its use. In guerrilla demolitions operations, probably more than any other, the charges selected will be a compromise.
COMMENT

H+ 15 to H+

55

As indicated during previous instruction, cutting steel by the use of explosives is not an easy task. Aside from the obvious strength and hardness of the metal, there is another complicating factor that adds to the difficulty and that is the wide variety of contigurations that might be encountered. Cutting irregularly shaped steel sections (and don't forget the requirement that the explosive must make maximum close contact with the target) is a problem more difficult than any other in demolitions work. Because of the requirement for close contact between the steel and explosive, TNT and tetrytol will always have to be a poor second choice if a composition explosive is availabie. C-4, with its plasticity and high detonating velocity, is by far the best standard military explosive for the job. To cut a steel target like this typical l-beam is no great problem regardless of which high explosive is used.

NOTE COMMBNT

A short length of steel


table,

l-beam

is Cisplayed

on the instructor's

----\\

--.-

As you will remember from our discussion of steel cutting and placement class (U3,T7704), we would use the formula P= % A, find the cross sectional area of the beam in square inches and the resulting answer would be the number of pounds of TNT required to cut this target. TNT, with its flat surfaces, can easily be emplaced to get good contact with this target, as you can see here. Traditionally, the most difficult steel targets have been those that are round, Round targets, such as turbine shafts, are not only difficult in terms of their shape, but the metal employed in their construction is exceptionally hard, To cut a round turbine shaft just 1-foot in diameterrequires a large amount bf explosive, using conventional techniquesl and, even with a substantial overcharge, the results cannot be assured. There are two advanced charges that have been designed specifically to cope with this problem, and they are the- saddle and the diamond charge. While these charges are similar to teacn other. there are enougtt differences in construction, functioning, and purpose to clearly set thtim -apart-{-e will begiq }:-disgussing the saddle cha1g1-Uaen completed, the c-ha:*ge, ideally, should look like-this;- -'

in the calculation

NOTE

-.\

Show a mockup of a-Saadie charge prepared and emplaced on short length of steel about 6 do 8 inches in diameter.

COMMENT

To arrive at the point *i"-Uq:inished product is ready \ be detonated requires some knowl-bdge of how to prepare the charge and a great deal of patience and skill to actually construct
The dimensions of the charge, when completed, has the shape , of an isolcelqs triangle, as follows: The short axts, or base, is
73

it.

approximately one-half the circumference of the target. The long equar to the circumference of the target. The thickness of the charge is 1/3 block of c-J or c-4 on ta"g;ts up to 6,, in diaTe.ter. on targets 6" to g" in diamcter, use % brock of c-3 or c'4. Functioning of t^hg-charge is as follows: the charge primed at the apex of the triangle,-_with the cap pointiig must be straight down the shaft toward the base. wrren oetonateol the shock moves toward the base of the charge; and when it arrives wave at the 9."ru' th_e target is cut at that exact point by an action known as "cross fracture.t' loro techniques that can be used to prepare the charge are simple lut hetpfut aids in what is a oifficutt tast<. A piece of string or cord shouldbeused to determine the measure_ ments of the charge,- A rarge piece of cardboard, or similar materiar, shourd then be used and simpre ouiline of the crrarle ,a drawn. Remembe" !o carefurly srice thl so disturb the density of the pressed blocks. a""-*G the c_4 on to "*pro"i"" as notthe teurplate so that it is uniformly solid to a trricrdess of one-third or one-half thickness of a block of c-3 or c-4 Throughout its en_ tire length and width. Transferring the charg; onto the without disturbing it or having it breal up is a oitiicutt task target under the best conditions. In either extremeiy coto or'extremely hot .tem.n9rg.tures, preparation time wilr be greatly increaseo. A terial like aluminum foil mirkes a fin6 prot""ii* coveringmafor wrapping and moving these charges. when foil is not availibre, some substitute such as parachute cloth if the chargg is not going to be detonatedshould befound, especially right u*"y. care shourd be exercised in priming t-he apex of trre "charle and alr normar. safety precautions for steel cutting must be observed. Due missile hazard and the highly tethat nature of those missiles,to the steel is probably the most dangerous target in demolitions. Before proceeding to the diamond charge, take note of some _peculiarities of the saddre. one, itis a rong crrarge, and at times the entire rength of the target available to be "o*puiuttvery worked ol r*y not permit meeting these specifications. secondry, its single point of detonation contributes to its rerative ease of construction and employment WHEN coMpARED To rHE DIAMOND CHARGE. And rast, the only materials absoluteiy required to prepare this charge .qu C.-.4, a _cap, either electric or non_electric, and a means of detonating the -cap. Now we will turn to the diamond charge, and in the course of discussing it, we wilr point up similarities and differences. To begin with, the target for the diamond charge wilr again be a round one; and again iican be a turbine shaft of the hardest grade of steel. The first difference worth noting is that the total length. of the t-arget that is exposed may not ne c-apante of accommodating the rong axis of a s-adole charge. es vou will moment, the diamond occupies far ress rinleq ,pu6" on thesee in a target. Aga]n uging a cord to meisure the target, findhe circumference of the shaft. The circumference of the"shaft and irrl rengtrr of the long axis of the diamond will be identical, u" yo" see it here emplaced on this mockr-rp, "1"

axis is

74

NOTB COMMENT

Show a mockup of a cliamond charge on a round cardboard or wood shaft.

one-half of this clistance, the circumference, will be the measurement of the short axis of the diamond. Thickness of the is one-third thickness of a block of C-3 or C-4 for the hard' "tru"g" est steel, regardless of its size. Again, the technique of making u-t"*pr"i" "ia forming the charge in a convenient working location should be usecl. 6ttce made, and experience will dictate the amount of extra length needed to circumscribe the target so that the ends MEET on the far sicle, difficulties can be expected in transferring the charge to the target. Somo_Jorm of wrapping should be used, and a gooci grade of tape will be quite helpful. Another difference between the diamond and saddle charges is the requirement to prime the diamond at each point of the short lengths of axis. ttris should bb accomplished by using EQUALto one end. a non-electric cap crimped detonating cord, each with Cap well! are carefully macle in the points of the diamond, preferably with the awl end of the crimpers, and the caps are inserted. the two free ends of detonating cord are then joined and exactly

rii

:l,i

matched; and a capisplacedbetweenthem,point toward the charge. This meeting point ol ttte cap and two lengths of detonating cord the is ca.refully 1aped, and, given a methocl of detonating the cap, two When the cap detonates, the charge is iead]' to be deionated. piecJs of detonating cord carry the detonating wave to the short u*t" of the dramoiA simultaneously. The shock waves proceed through the body of the explosive until they meet at the exact line here fn the center of the long axis. At that point they are deflected downward, providing a cletn cut through thetarget. So, in addition to the aaoeo time required to make a diamond charge as opposed to the saddle, we have one more difference; the requirement for some additional items of equipment. specifically, we will need a minimum of three caps, two of which mttst be nonelectric; and we will need detonating cord. Both charges are extremely effective; and if time and material are available, thelr construction will pay dividends through their positive functioning. Are there any qne"tions before we move to the firing area to observe two charges in place and ready to be fired' ?

iiil

IH

iffi

idt ltlt

t[fi

il,ll

itl
it

--.\
t\

75

NOTE

The crass is moved to the vicinity thev can see the targets with the."rt""geJ of the charges, where i;^pi;;". The students then move back to ,ie safety bunker ,"i'rai," iire the charges. When the all been grven, the student" ur" "t."?.,11:: to move to the firing a"ea io examine trre resuits again permitted euestions are answered in the firing ;;; ou il" of the charges. instructor and assistant instructors, and the class th-en move. n*tto the vicinity of the bleachers where tfrey are given a break.
b

H+ 55 to lH+
CON,IN{ENT

BREAK

1H+ 5 to 1H+ 4b

Rearizing that the saddle and diamond charges are highry specia-lized charges applicable to,onl.y one type oisteer target, we will discuss two more advanced tectniques'iffir" of beingused against sheet steel. To go back to our I_beam example,

NOTE

f#:
COMMENT

display the sam,-' short section of I-beam used in the first

conttd

tt. irr""" but they present some problems in sticingi; "h";;;;;iJ1,"", effective, J*ito"iu" to a uniform thickness, especially in either temperature extreme. Also they present some-probrems, ." do atmosi.rr in holding them in place againit a. targei. h" "rrrrg"s, does lit*e i#J,"* to increase their effectiven6"r, unott*-;;;;;#"1r" "Jriii;" "f advanced technique charges. one rast o"awnact i, trr"i-"inton " are usually fragfle; and if otherchargesaretoue aetonated "turgus in the area, they shourd be wrapped in som,Jiype of proteliiuJ there any questions before we go on-to o.," "oo"ri'g. Are nexr This next charge is one-for wrticr, trrlre crrarge z i"'?i"," of thumb; but it is stated in on{' u""y g"""ral terms, unit"ii and error is -u"y absolutery necessary to o[tii" kind This charge is the linear sfrapeJ chu-1g". of predictabre results.
NOTE
_

the price we pay to effect savings of explosirrei i" -""" ti-" in preparation. The first methodw"wir oisculs the dimensions of the ribbon G the ribbon-;{i:g". very simply, are as fotows: the THtcKNESS of the charge is the "tr""gu trri-"kness ;; ;il;;"get, but never iess than lz'inc.'. ttrict<. *te wiotrr "u-" gf the ness of the target, and the length of the charge is twice the thickthe tength of the cut desired. All 0f these dimznsion"..r" "rr""gz-i" rute of thumb. "pi""*i*"te, using this lhl" :.hl"ge is f"imeo rrori-'Llir,""."r,o; and if the "u dimensions are :ur,h. the charge, it should Ful "up-"*not be inserted into the end of be laid ;;;p and a smail aooitio.rar amount of explosive used to cover

There is a way to cut a different technique ltom trre this beam, using less explosive, but nutt pruce-uniive-lentioned in the last hour; in fact, there are t*o way". One employs even less ex_ plosive than the other; true oi many advanced cfr"urg"",

Several types of charges, prepared in the instructor's demonstraiion' i"nt"; advance.'-,\d{be placed on is discussed during the course of the crass, tfre ""J;-;";;h-aqe charge is apprlfriate shown, and its specific characteristics *u poilri"J-*t.

76

COMMENT

The easiest dimension to come by, of course, is the length of the charge, which again is simply the length of the fracture de' sired. Several methods can be used to construct linear charges. One is very similar to the rule of thumb used in the construction of improvised shaped charges in our last range class. AII we do in this case is cut a cavity in a block of C-4, with the angle of the cavity between 30 and 60 degrees, and anangle of about 45 degrees preferred. The height of the explosive should be twice the height of ttre cavity, measured from its base. Linear stand-off distance should be from one to two times the width of the cavity. For best results a metal liner should be formed from a thin soft metal, Freferably copper. Prime the charge from one end, and it gives excellent results against sheet steel up to 2'inches thick. By excellent results, I mean that the cut will be clean along its entire
tength,

Another simple linear charge can be constructed by merely laying out an undersized ribbon charge (with a width no mcre than the thickness of the target) and forming the cavity by using a piece of smooth cord or rope pressed firmly into the bottom center of the charge. No stand-off distance is necessary and, on relatively thin targets of up to about 3/q'inch, a clean cut is produced directly below the cavity's location in the charge. A last expedient linear shaped charge that is worth mentioning is the flexible variety. To make this one, a piece of pliable rubber or plastic hose is required, at least f-inch in diameter. First, a stiip of the hose, from L/ 3 to I / 4 of the hose circumference. is cut away and discarded. The space thus revealed is then filled with C-4, packed in as tightly as possible. The best method of forming the cavity is to cut a wooden wedge and press it firmly and uniformly along the tength of the charge. The flexible, linear-shaped charge is then capable of being directly aJfixed to a circular steel target of relatively large circumference, but of thin metal (no more thans/s-incir). The charges primedfrom one end should result in a clean cut. While the flexibility of this charge is quite limited, actually, it can be handled and transported into a target area much more easily than the other charges we have discussed so far this morning.

',i'
r'lii

ri[
iln

ffi

:ffi

'i,1fr

ttil

lfr

;lrl

rlr

l,,i i

NOTB

targets down-range and detonated by AI's, Everyone on the range will take cover in the safety bunker during firing,
5

At this timc the ribbon and linear shaped charges are placed

on

1H+ 45 to 2H+
COMMENT

BREAK

2H+ 5 to 2H+ 25

questions about anything we have covered? r During this hour };e-rqill be coneerned withseveral different types of charges and three irrain types of targets, none of which are steel. First, I would like to-bqiQly refresh your memory with a _quick review of the main points-irrvolved in construction the opposed charge and the ERDL square charge, both of which are

-Duling the paqt 2 hours-rve -ttave discussetf, adVanced techniques for steef-xwting ffid, before' proceeding, are there any

77

placed exacrv oiglltricallv oppos-ite of the target- Thes_e ctrarges ?re not each ;G;: on opposite sides tion of tamping. once thle ch-arges -in any way aided by the addi, posite each other, no mean feal_-rnh.ave"beJ ot*". exactly opitseu,-trrei'i"" primed with equal lengths of, detonating cord, upon beirg nated, the resulting shock- waves meet in tfr"e "iri.,rt"rr"cusly deto_ which almost riterarly exprodes from within.center of the target, you wilr see one of these charges emplaced against a concrete target in the firing area; and, in the meantime, ire there anyquestions about the technique? Now we will review the other advanced breaching the ERDL square charge. The amounts of plastic technique, exprosive required for various target thicknesses are contained in detail in the summary to u3.77704, the class on carculation and pracement. A decided advantage of charge is that otryorrl or the target need be available. se The "ioe -chaige, naturally, must be as close to exactly square as possible; .iA' tfru m'st be either 2 0r 4 inches, AND N.THING ELSE."near "fr""!" tfri"trrur" priming center or priming one corner is equaily acceptable, an,1 mrlxim*m close contact of the exprosive to the -target is required. one of these charges wilr also be demonstrated In the fi;i"g"#uu, discussing the next charge, arethereanyquestioniabout but bBfore the square charge?
COMMBNT

,reaching charges.. To begin with, the two' the opposed charge (ear muff - or most dramatic one of the more limitations than advantages. while ctassea probabry has "ou"tu"toil"l as charge, the opposed charge cin onty n" uru-Juguinst a breaching rectangular (almost square) targets and not against linear ?oncrete targets. Exami.rles of the targets that can.6e oestroye_o nitrri".charge are bridge piers, drag-on ieeth, or similar square supports found in various industria_l "orr"rlt"odstactesand other limitation, of course, is that these char_ges "o-pi"""", rrru r."v targets up to 4-feet square, RELIABi'. *re-iute used agairst """Lrri'ne of thumb for computing the charge is: the thickness of trru l""glt, measured in -g?"s feet (round off fractions to higher t""ti, the TorAL number of pounds of pLA,sTlc "e"t efirosive requireo. rrri" amount is equally divided and the two charges obtained by this divisioir arei

2H+ 25 to 2H+

S0

The next charge is cated the platter charge for reasons that will be obvious in a moment. Ii is effective'against either transformers or .poT, storage tanks. rt ir-""rtigrrly directionar charge that is unique becausi it is able to both gets and simurtaneously cope with the proble* ae'slroy such tar_,mesh protective ""i""a by a crose !9nce.. Briefly, the platter "rru"g*-i, constructed as folrows: A pratter is.requi"eo, or material, from a watch crystarano it can ue oi armost any size to_a_dinne"praG. while grass or ceramic used_ (a{! headlight lens"" u"" good), steel ""tr -!u, platters are the best. rrre 6<iitrtsuration can be either flat or concave, but again concave gives trre ulsr<e;ilr.- r""it" plastic explosive the foll-owing rule .itx.alb'"ppii"r; amount of the of the e4plosive shourd equaitte weight .TiiJirJitu". rfweight aval-

78

able, use a cylindrical container of approximately the same diameter as the platter; place it on theplatter so that the concave open' ing points OUt. Tlghtly pack the explosive behind the platter. If a ca.r or other cylinder is not available, simply pack the explosive behind the platter in a uniform manner. Exact rear center priming is extremely important in theconstructionof this charge. Once pr-epared, the charge is then aimed in approximately the same miln,rer- as the 3.b ro&et round when fired by expedient means. The unique capability of this charge is that it can be fired THROUGH a chain linhfence and intoitstargetwithoutany loss of effectiveness. So rather than having to first breach the fence and then attack the target, the platter charge permits the accomplishmentof both tasks simtrttaneously. Its primar-ry limitation is a rather limited range of only S0-feet. Witiin this range it can be used with great effect againsl pOL storage tanks, transformers, vehicles, and other soft tirgets. It requires a fair amount of experience and practice to hit poiit targets; and remember, the platter charge is designed to destroy dOf, ta''t s of 1,000-ga11on capacity and up, not the 55-gallon drlm we will demonstrJte for you today. The functioning of this charge is different from what you might imtrgine. upon detonation, the platter is projected forward at tremendous velocity (for some r6ason in excess of the 26,000-feet per second that is C-4,sdetonating velocity). The air in front of the platter is compressed and becomes Superheated. It is this mass of air, moving extremely high velocity, that first penetrates the fence, then "t penetrates tire tint<, and finally ignites the PoL. The platter folio*s and may indeed strike the target, but research has shown that the primtrry destructive effect is created by the compacted high velocity air mass. Are there any questions at this time?
2H+ 50 to 3H
COMMENT 3H to 3H+ 45

ll

Li !

li,l

,rt ll tis n

illl

lffil

lffit

ffil
ri[

'i.

BREAK

ll

NOTE COMMENT

---)--.-to

Before we begin this last hour this morning, are there any questions from any member of the class regarding any of the material that we have covered so far? For the remilinder of the morning we will be concerned with some new developments in demolitions. Although there are meny new developmenti in this field, many of which are classified, the one that we in special forces are most enthusiastic about is thi s new u:T"1'fi o!t_ !_it: Show- the new sheetEgfosive ftlf , and as each of its componglrts are mentioned, show them to the class; _-L...-

date,rve have been together for almost 16 hours of demolitions\nstruciion;- and-pe.Xidqically throu ghout that time we have emphaSized the requirement fgr nbt disturbing the density of the ptaitic d*Irlosive. By now it shoqlO 5e obvious that while we TRY not to affec>the density, we seldom-Bueceed' especially when constructing such *it$icult chare;es as the Bi{Qle ahd-ci'amond' Tl" exptosiv"e that yori sq frcrel--lverc-ohsider to-'be the big[est *"4' tftiougtt since irte a"ni:6ropment of TNT. Ds Pont is the comrse\ cial- agency responsible fbr EL 506, which is their trade name for sheet explosive.
79

Its potential was immediately seen by the people at ERDL; and, with a few small refinements, it is being adapted for military use. To begin with, the explosive loading consists of PETN. In the manufacturing process, the PETN is uniformJ.y distributed throughout the flexible sheets so that uniform density is assured. It is pliable, as you see here, and it takes exceptional temperature extremes to affect it adversely. Itcanbe cut to any desired shape, close contact with the target is easily obtained, and it can be built up in layers to cope with varyingtargetthicknesses, To date there are no formulas or rules of thumb for using sheet explosive, but tentative results indicate that it is almost twice as effective as C-4. This adhesive backing, similar to the principle of the ,,Bandaid," is an especially valuable advance. Remembering that it could easily take two trained demo men more than B0 minutes to construct a saddle charge from C-4 (over anhour in cold weather), it is interesting to note that one man could construct a mcre efficient charge from sheet explosive in no mcre than 10 minutes. And with the addition of this glue, the explosive can be securely affixed to metal UNDER WATER If there is an ideal explosive for steel cutting, this is it. Included in the kit is an improved package of. C-4. As you can see, it is conveniently sized; that is, it is precut to a f-inch thickness; and, for easy computation, it is a l-pound block, The adhesive idea has proven so effective that it has been incorporated into the plastic covering for the c-4. It can be used or not at the discretion of the demolitionist, We have one more requirement that is presentlywellon itswaytoward being satisfied, and that is for an improved detonating cord. The improvements we are seeking are simple. One is that we w'mt a fabric ccvering, like that found on the old detonating cord, that will be easier to knot. And second, we want the cord to be camouflaged, The dead white color of our present pliofilm rvrapped cord presents certain problems in setting up ambushes that the manufacturer says he can solve easily. For general armv-wide use in normal blasting operations, the present standard cord is completelyacceptable; but, for special warfare applications, a camouflaged cord is a definite requirement. One last item of equipment that is under development is one that is not at all dramatic, buf it is nevertheless one that we think has great possibilities. Verysimply,itis an all purpose cap. It is a single cap that can be fired either electrically or non-erectrically, with only one simple manual adjustment. These caps, prototypes of which have already been built, are very similar in appearance to our present non-electric caps. The addition of an electric squib into its base would transform it into an electric cap. The price would be about 50 cents each which, for our limited special warfare us%js-qgite reasonable. It would permit more flexibility in both the plannTrrg-and{ae of explosives in the field. One additional small advantage is thatlrrsauee-s_by one the number of items in the supply system. At a time wherr'il/-e-e{e constantly getting more and mcre gadgets, this is a refreshing trentl. Another development, and this one is in the dramatic category, is AEREX. Except for nitroglycerine and, under certain conditions, gasoline, we don't have a liquid explosive available. It doesn't require any great amount of imagination to see that nitro is impractical. AEREX, which was developed by the Aerojet Corp of Azusa,
80

california, is a liquid explosivethatis safeto transport and handle' and yet it has a &etonating velocity in the 20,000-feet-per-secondavailable re' .reighbo"tooo. The exploli.rte consists of a widely foi' instance, than, ug"?t which, by itself, is no more dangerous
naptha,

Tothisre.agentasm,gllamount,abouttheequivalentof6 per cent of the wh51e, of sensitizing agent is added.. At that time The only AEREX becomes nnr,erIVELY inlensitive explosive. " interestshowninAEREXtodatehasbeenbyUDT'andoneprofor blasting corafals-mall shaped charge would make p"tLA use is explosives the borehole into whichift* eBnOX is introduced. Solid greatly iimit have to be tamped into the hole, and any obstructions hand the amount ot expiosive used' The liquidAEREX 91 lhu other soon if detonated seeps into every crevice in the borehole; and' thereafterwhileitsconcentrationremainshigh,theresultsare excellent.Itcanbetransportedinflexiblehoses,cans'drums' it just before using, and so on. By not adding the sensitizer until i" ,r"ty safe expfosive to ha1{le' One type of employment'-for be " what admittedly #oufa be a highly specialized example, would an vehicle for to introduce the AEREX into the cooling system of a ;#";;;n--mtssion. From there il is a short and logical :!"p toima.ginewaysandmeansforintroducingitintotheplumlrilg svstemorsteamt'e"ti"gsystem(duringwarmweather)ofabuild. -'nnt;;;| or pip_,"e detonating simultaneouslv in lt iiJ. ";;;t "r, *uil be"imagineO. htrele are a few simple uses that a building

your imagi' "ur, ccme to mind after a mtnute or two of deliberation, and nation should suggest mtmy more' both Another oa?Lropr"unt is paste explosive wtriclr has been is essentially a developed and tested'by ERDi. Paste explosive 19piastic extrllosive to whibh has been added a binding agent. Thewlth sultant paste is e"iremely sticky and when usedin conjunction the a special type oi calking gon, it_cun be squeezed directly fonto of target where it sti"f.t v?i' weff. Colurnns thicker than inch pu"T" explosive rrurr" u tendency to fall apart, and tests are under'way to ttrts--prontem. The paste ipplied to steel and left in at the end "ot,re the weather for several months detonatea successfully have some of the testing period, and paste explosive seems to briefly to potential for ip-"cia1iied demolitions tasks. To return ideal use our discussion oi sheet explosive, I want to show you one he19for it in preparing an expedient_charge' , As you can see
Show different types of

NOTE

linear shaped cEdrget

--.--

cOMMENT-

---ft

;;ff
NOTB
T

is id-edr tur hffi;-fGtfJrm

-. rnrelciri$linear shaped chargds.- The best technique the cavilyfrom some soft metal and the-q of EL 506' we,will 1:-Y-T:L"-::: 't *ttr'-"*-6ffiir-v."" the placemglt of several linear to obsqrie -g"fo"" into the firing area *u-l"qlu ot'i, u"" Jliere anv Questions? shaped charges.
e f i r e d and the i r rlrb***n v t 11 e-d "" The class is then after the range fru" L""" determineO toleclear, reassembled in the bleachers' he
ch

ar ge

ar

b;li-c-I-aE=

--: -:

81

COMMENT

3H+ 45 to 4H

The sumrnary for this crass has just been distributed, and would like you to take a minute to discuss it with you. Feer free l9 ask any questions you mtry have about the lmorniirg,s) material. This whole field of advanced techniques and the new'developments that have already gmgrged onry point up how far we stil have to go. It is a fertile field, and one ftrat is wide ope., to tion. single agency has a monoporyon creat'ing ""pu"i-o"tu_ and _No I would like to urge you to continue to thin]knew t-echniques, about im1-rrovements and new methods.

----

82

UNITEDSTATESARMYSPBCIALWARFARESCHooL
INSURGENCY DEMOLITIONS
LESSON PLAN

l.CONCEPT.Thissubjectispresentedasa4-hourclassonthedemolitionrange.It charges' most of is designed to famil.iarize ttre stuoenrwith a variety by casualty producing forces' The or against insurgent of which are equally capable of nerrri e-proyed eithe.i incenliaries, firing clevices, and the necessstudent will be familiarized with .ipio"i""", their construction is ity for denying the insurgerrt u"c""I-lo tn" materials necessary for
emphasized.

2.
11

COUR,SE SCHEDULE.

b.
16

a'.ThissubjectispresentedtoallcounterinsuTgencystudents. Suggested time schedule:

fl+

10 50

Introduction and administrative announcements' Incendiaries--the following are mixed, explained and demonstrated in view of the students. 1. Potassium, chlorate, and sugar' 2, Potassium, permanganate, and sugar' 3. Iodine crystals and aluminum powder'

11+ 10

to H+

4. Sawdust and wax. 5. NaPalm, soap, and gasoline' 6, Flower Pot incendiarY. 7. Molded incendiarY. 8, SoaP dish.

H+ 50 to
1H

1H
50

BREAK

to lH+

Pipe bomb, satchel charge, and firing devices' 1, Standard firing devices and detonators: a. M10 universal high explosive destructor' b. M1 detaY firing device c. Ml PuIl' d, MlAl Pressure e, M5 pressure-release. f. M3 combination. g. 8- and 15-second delay detonators' 2, ImProvised firing devices:

a. b. c. d. e.

OPen looP. Water can.

Clock.

Electrical screen.
ClothesPin

lH+

50 to

2H

-----ApU<
--.\

2H to 211+ b0

Improvised firing of E5-inch rocket' Issued and imProvised oratering chargps. Bangalore torpedo in antipersonnel role.
M2A3 and M3 shape-d charges in antipersonnel role'

2H+ 50 to

3H

BRE.A,K

3H to 3H+

ZO

YIU through of demonstration area lng: 1. Detonating cord in ditch. 2. Grape-shot. ?. White phosphorous 4. Demolition amlrush.ambush.
30

and explanation of the follow-

3H+ 29 to 3H+

Conduct spot quiz,

3H+ 39 to JH+ 45
3H+ 45 to 4H

Fire demonstration charges.


Issue sumrnaries; closing statement and target inspection. UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL INSURGENCY DEMTf LIT TONS
INTRODUCTION

NOTE COMMENT

Fire attention charge.

HtoH+10

--genilemen, tion Range. rhe atte"nti;;;;;g" Welcome to Coleman Demoli_ that was just detonated downrange should serve to remind voulr,ut *" *iir ill"*i"Li.,g with live exprosives ihi;"ghout This "" ln:-r""s" a"y-ither, trre';;";'of instruction. is r1r.e ano, ii 1 "Tgu gerous than mcst-- ny way ot more danintrtoucti;; #;"rge and the pro"n"i)irrirg, cedures to be foilowed *h'i;;;;, bunker, latrine. an,r tne ii"i"s""i.".^ tr," i;;;t";" or the safety "otu bleachers, but not forwara-of?r,Ji, smoking is permitted in the smokingin iirl vicinity of my -'iou podium rrnd this work table i"
propriate. A teaching point Jr_*""y T:I_l_" **iti"g ft1;,;;#;;;;id be more apwill bE dislributed during wilT io"i"r"J'r'L sarient points'lrrat you
are e>i breachers, you
"l-"-rctrv 19t91$urins thi"'i"..i*"ti"r,'iJ In addition to the ouricuiiv'"r'luri"g
aged not to take

Good

prorriuiieJ.

are encoursiverar reasons. "fi;i;;^*;es wh'e in the

velop a class that wourd n" rBti-*eaningrut in attempting to deurro inlu"usting for a group that is primerilv with-coini;;;;;;ur"y. Before proceeding r want to acquaint "on"u*d *ith;;";;;#t vou to this prob_
dis-tinguished enemies, ^m:st "the first duty of a.guerrila, Ts to_survive.,, I Mao, has said that coniider that it is completely loeicar td pu.upti,"""iti" that stavins ilive "*"utt"rrt-iru'"r* and state .is. ur"o'irr" li"ut ooty or irru

;::r:Tl"t"H.that I encountered something of a problem

One

of

ou1

Another chinese militarv trrinr."" "o,irrt""guerr'ra. sun Tzu, advises us to ,.know y_our enemy.r,fT-;;;""ii"ii"", gV oo* "to". friu" tu*d enough Vo,, about the necessity dih;"ing u"",rate, comprehensive and timety intelligence in. ordel tp efil-ctiv"rv aspect of getting to ,,know ""?ri#'fiLrrirtas. one v*" i"#iiffi"n*

"nu-v;;"i"

weapons

84

he employs, how he employs them, where he employs them, and when he employs them; in short, his tactics and techniques. Explosives, properly employed, can be extremely effective weapons in the guerriitas' arsenal. A prime purpose of this instruction is to acquaint you with typical charges and devices that you ca"n expect guerrilias to employ against you. If you knorl-your enemy to -ttre eitent that you know what to expect by way of offensive actions from him, you will be better prepared to defeat him. It is obvious that practically all of the casualty prod,rr:ing charges that we will explain today are equally capable of being used both by and against guerrillas. Too often the use of demoIitions by a countergUeruilla force lacks imtrgination and is restricted to conventional mine employment. A secondary purpose of today's instruction is to provide you with information that will make corrnterguerrilla operations more effective. our Speciar Forces doctrine for guerrilla warfare takes into account the fact that resupply of guemillas will often be difficuLt, and occasionally impossible. Our doctrine states that when guerrillas we are Sponsoring are cut off from cutside sources of iupply, they have two alternatives for obtaining the required exptosives. The first and most obvious solution is to obtain what is needed from a well-known loca[ source, the enemy; however, if we cannot obtain explosives by local purchase, combat operations, or various clandestine means, then we have the ability to fabricate explosives, incendiaries, and delay devices from rnaterials that are loca|ly available. It seems safe to assume that most glerrilla forces that we are apt to encounter will have this same capability. The necessity for safeguarding all stocks of explosives, ammunition, bombs, and mines needs no elaboration but, the vast multitude of materials that can be used to manu,facture imirrovised munitions poses a tremendous problem for security forces, instituting controls over the hundreds of items involvedcan Severely tax the lesources of any counterguerrilla force. We teach that a guerrilla force should stockpile significant amounts of the mater' ials required before beginning operations with improvised mtrni' tions. We feel that it is safe to assume that enemy Srerrillas will operate along similar lines. If security forces do not begin to contiol the mat-eriats until after the first attacks, they may well finC themselves lacking an emPtY barn.

, ,li ,.,i

iii

iIEl

HfrI

lfmt

rtml
t)itl

rl'lll

|;tl

ii
..'i.,

H+

10

to H*

INCBNDIARIES

NOTE

-=\-----

CAUTION: ---ories are much mor-e dangerous

As a general ru1e, improvised explosives artd incendito handle than conventional explotfie-c[Iorate-sugar mix mentioned bel6\r s}e"- Such mixjurgs as -a-=iagte spark, t y:I"?"",ive heat, can nb-tg[tteilor det--onete,f ny generated nyrn-<iqgingredients together, or merelyly the friction The danger in handling these iterns cannot-be overemphasized' Care shJuld be taken tJsee that this informahon-idoes not become available to childfen'

85

(
I I

COMMENT

1. Chrorate-sugar mixture can be either an explosive' sugar is the common granulated an incendiary or while the chlorate may be either potassium household variety, chlorate; potassium is preferred. proportions c'orate or so,lium carv n"equal paris by volume, or B parts of chrorat e p*t. Li which .to2 ferred' Mix in or on a non-sparkingsurface- urrS.nrirrud. is pre"Gur, this mix is a fast burning incendiary, bften cattecafirst-firl m:x. confined in a tighttv cagl-ea rength- of pipe, it.w'r introduced. su.ch a pipe nomf a"tinit"ry exptJe-wtren a spark is but it will not be suiiabre for breaching;" "ri. pr.orce casuarties, trated surfuric. acid wil ig'ite 1or dJtona6i a-" tasks. concen_ ";if;;; chlorate_sugar mixture. pracing the acid -in a geratin or other suitable c,cntaine.r will provioe i oelay. The ""p",ir"l-natoon, the delay i"ngtr, of depends on the time it takes the acid td u"t trrrffi the ccntainer, wirich in turn depends to a great.*qgu g" ttre przva'ing t,ernpsrature. In very hot weather tf,e acio,iitt utt."ro iliu ly, and in very cord weather, the reaction will belontainer rapidgreaty srowed. once ignited.
this mixture burns ;t
Demonstrate ig'ition of the chlorate-sugar mix using a match, sulphuric acid, anrl time fuze.

NOTE COMMENT

"p;;;;;;,;;y

8200 degrees.

2. Another.fast-burning, first-fire mix is obtained by mixits.9-parts potassium- p"t*,.n"ganate to r part;;;". It is somewhat hotter than the chiorate-sigar mir. and fiu ignited by the addition of a few,drops of glycer"ine. This "* the same temperature as trr"e ctrtorate_sugar mixture burns at about ;;;.Demonstrate ignition- of the permanganate sugar mix using grycerine and explain that sulphuric a-cio anoipart wiTi arso-ignite this mix. 3. Another mixture which brrrns slower, but hotter thanthe two previously me-ntioned, is iodine crystars which ismixedhalf andhalf. Thismixture is and aruminum powder ignited by only a smarl drop of water,

NOTE
COM \4ENT

NOTE

CAU'rION: Be sure that mixing utensils are crea:r an,1 thoroughly ignited 9"v: o-1cepoison.the mixturg n"ut"otta n"ightil;^.,; smoke which is deadly This mixturu mry be uJed to ira"r. drop or tanding zones in the absence ot iJ"uuJil;'ffe'aaes. zones one way to emproy this mixture as an incendiary is to nlace some of the mixture on the roof of t"irJi"sffiffi the day when th.e. roof is dry and. as night fatls the" deposited will cause combustion thJreby setting dew nuiroing on the mixture trre uri"". Demonstrate ignition of iodine and aruminum powder with of water' cAurIoN: prace down-range and down-wind a drop -'--o- ----q sv'r! frcm the students.

COMMENT

4' -A simple combination that is effective, and ing incendiary, can^be produced by merely_adding a rong burnmclten tar to sawdust. . .on9*- ignited, tiri" ince.rai""fr*qouceswax or a rong lasting ftame. This incendiarybe ignited dy nu*" or by -y:t placing a smalr amount of oneoitrrefirst-fir6 " the sawdust and ignite this mixture with time fuze, acid, or ^i*u""o., a' erectrical squib.
86

NOTE

Demonstrate burning a small amount of wax and sawdust mixture by ignition with first-fire mix as previously described. Napalm--soap and gasoline, Napalm is an excellent casualty producing agent, but the mrrnufactured napalmpowdermay obviously not alweys be available. An expedient napalm is easily ma.de aS follows: To either gasoline or kerosene add finely cut soap chips. (Pure SOAP must be used, not detergents.) woRKlNG IN THE OPEN and exercising reasonable care, heat the fuel so that it comes to a boil and then simmers. Stir constantly until the desired consistency is reached, remembering that it will continue to thicken as it cools. An improvised double boiler gives the best results for heating the gas, and however this is done, you mtlst be careful not to ignite the fuel. A carefully controlled bed of coals generally works well. Again, extensive trial and error experimentation will be required to determine the best consistency and mixing methods. This mixture can easily be ignited by a small flame or electrical squib.

COMMEN'f

5.

l,ii

NOTE

Demonstate burning a small amount by igniting with a match.

ii

iil!t

COMMBN'f

Flowerpot incendiary: This is a device to be used on steel targets such aS maghines, motors, orPOLcontainers. Using a alay flowerpot of any size, fill to within l-lnch of the top with a thermite mixture of 3 parts iron oxide (Fe02 ) and 2 parti aluminum powder (AL). These proportions are by volume. A paper or cardboard tube (the size of the hole in the flowerpot) should be placed in the hole of the flowerpot and extend to the top of the pot. thts tutre should be filled with a first-fire mix aJter the hole at the bottom has been taped. Aclay,mud,or plaster cap sho.lld be poured or molded over the thermite to the top of the pot. After afuze cr acid delay has been affixed to the top end of the tube and firstfire mix the device is ready to be emplaced on target. A spark from the fuze or the acid ignites the first-fire mix which in tuln ignites the thermite. Asthe thermite burns, the mud cap contains most of the molten mass inside the pot and allows it to rtin out the hole at the bottom of the pot onto the target. This molten mix burns at betweer: 4000 and 5000 degrees Fahrenheit which is sufficient heat to weld maehinery or motors together or render them rrseless; also sufficient he*tto-bgr+t4rough POL conand ignite the petroleu4q4rodugt -inside. = tr-as Gi'.fr=pGA ;;i; i' " i *p "b" is en -in c ern t-arv- th afpro' burning propelties very simi.lar to thermite can be readily duced Trb--cabam.-Qterials. With the simplest of equipment, the material can be molhed into various ccrnrnon objects such as ashtrays, bookends, bust5, small figurines, and bricks. The ma'-- terials used are relative\y-easy to obtain, and no special skills are required of the operator--x.qe atte-to nrepargllite molded-in' cendiaries.

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a' More than one formula can be used, butthe o'e that follows is by far thesimprest: 3parts of aruminum nowder,5 parts of plaster of paris-, and 4 parts cord water, di ;t votume. As the aluminum powder has the greatest influence on the performance of the finished incen,liary, it is necessary to keep crose to the specified size, which is grained or atomized powder of mesh or finer. The mixing process is as forlows: frre ptaster100 paris of is placed in a suitabre container, such as an enamet pan, and the aluminurn powder is added. They are then thoroughiy gether by stirring, All the cold water is then added andmixed tothe mixture stirred until completery mi.xed. when this is conrprete, the material will start to harden immediately. Thematerial is poured slowly into the morduntil it is withinanout an inch of mold. It should then be agitated for about 5 minutesthe toli-oitrru a sm;lll stick to dislodge any trapped air. The remrr.inder of withmateriar the can then be added, No attempt should be made to remoye the mold from,Iarge objects until a haif hour has elapsea, or rs minutes for smaller objects,
OAUTION: Do not use containers which cannot be opened shorily after the mix has begun to harden. once initial setting takes place, remcve the bottoms from tin cans or break glass away from the incendiary when cans or jars areusedasmotdsl As the incendiary sets, tremendous amounts of heat and pressure are deveroped anb mrrst have some means to escape or the mold wil &prode. During the molding process, it is necessary werl i" j-h9 incendiary similar to the capwell in a blockto make a This of TNT. well is filled with a first-fire mix (when ready for use) and ignited as a booster for the molded incendiary. Tire mctded incen",liary burns at approximately 4b00 degrees Fahrenheit. b. It is essential that the cast articles be thoroughly dried before use. From r to 2 weeks of air drying seems to be adequate, and is much ress trouble than trying io in an oven. A freshry cast articre wilr be dart o"y the bricks grey in color, while one that is thoroughly dry will bewhitish and somewhat more brittle.
ed

c. To camouflage the finished product, it can be paintcolored to match the item it was modeled afier. In the case oJ incendiary bricks, brown or red iron oxide may be ad,le,l during the mixing process to give the incendiary the of different style bricks. As a starting point, add, 6%- parts of iron oxide "pplr"".rce (by volume) to the initial mix. B. Soap Dish: An excellent charge for both rupturing and igniting the contents of voratile fuel containers is tnL soap"aisrr which _must be placed directly on the target. using a standard GI soap dish, containers up to l00-gallons can be reliably attacked. charge proportions a*e as follows: Equar parts by volume of plastic explosive and thermite mix are placedin the container to be used. always insuring that-he-inqqndiiry mix is placed against the target. The mix can be composed'of a number bf compiunds, among which are: 3 parts potassiumchlo*q(> and" 2 parts of srrgar, or 2 parts aluminum powder to 3 parts ofle*ic oitoe. In lie-u oi
or

88

these improvised incendiary mixes, the ccntents from thermite grenades can be used, or military dynamite may be used as the explosive, and matchheads aS the incendiary. As a rule of tumb, a ltrin cigar box, (from an inch and a half to an inch and threequarters tfrict<; loaded as specified above with one-half incendiary mix, will reliably rupture and ignite volatile fuel containers of up to 1,000-gallon capacity. A charge of ap-proximately twice that size will succe'ssfully attack containers of up to 5,000-ga11on capacity. Always insure that they are placed below the level of the iuel in the container. Thischargemaybe primed either electrical|y, non-electrically, or with any type of delay detonator as long as the explosive side of the charge is primed. Not only is this an excellent charge for destroying POL storage ta.nks, but is alsoexcellentongasolinetanks of automobiles
and airplanes.

H+ 50 to

1H

BREAK

COMMENT

lH to 1H+

50

Pipe Bomb: A pipe bomb can be made from a piece of iron pipe. The filler can be improvised explosives or improvised propellants such as black powder, thermi.te, matchheads, or powder from shotgun shells and small arms ammunition. The size of the bomb depends on the material available. A length of pipe threaded on both ends and 2 pipe caps are used for the body ot-ttre bcmb. If the caps cannot be obtained, the ends of the pipe are flattened or mashed together to close off the open ends of the pipe. Fill the pipe with one of the above mentioned charges then dr1li a hole through one of the caps before placing it on the pipe. This hole should be just large enough to permit the passage bt- a tength of time fuze. Insert the time fuze into the charge then slide the cap over the time fuze and screw it onto the pipe, check to be sure there is no filler material on the threads of the pipe or the cap. Tighten the cap securely. The pipe bomb is now complete. Notice that this charge re' quires no blasting cap. To use you only have to ignite the fuze and throw or leave in place. 10. Satchel Charge: Satchel charges can be made in a can or box using ammonium nitrate fertilizer (33 L / 3 per cent nitrogen content) anC wax. To make this charge melt ordinary paraffin and stir in the fertilizer pellets, insuring that the wax is thoroughly mi.xed with the fertilizer while still hot. Before the mixture hard-----==Ea\add a one-half pound block of TNT, or its equivalent, as a primen=+hqaddibion of suitable shrapnel material and a handle to the exterior o-}-the charge, makes an excellent expedient satcftSlcharge that is not easily affecbed{y-41oisture.. Itjuct' thic chargg-cafi be stored ffor 6 store d or ext'cr*st*'ner io d J wiDtnraf-fegard-ts-Joq6tdi+y-dd c an
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FIRING DEVICES:

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Standard Firing Devices and Detonators.

89

amprrle filled with a corrosive solution, rhrJaos on the base of the tube fit the threads on standard cap wells. A hole through the tube permits inspection to see wirether or not the striker has been released prernaturely. when the ampule is crushed, the corrosive solution dissolves a portion of the retaining wire, releasing striker. A cclored identification and safety"strip iit" througt the the sides of the tube andpreventsprematurefiring. A'table is includerl in each box with the firing devices which gi;s the delay time for fuzes of each color at diffeient temperatures, The M1 firing device is prepared for use as forlows: (1) serect a- firing device wittr safety strip of tab color giving the proper time delay. (21 Insert a nail through the inspection hote or by visual inspection make certain that the striker iras not been released. (3) Crimp a non-electric military blasting cap to the base of the

a. M1.0.y."t""_"sal High Bxplosive Destructor__is ahigh explosive device initiated by meins oi blasting caps or mine activators with standard firing devices. The desltru6to" has booster cups c_ontaining tetryl pellets. The chief function of the destructor is in the conversion of loaded projectites and bombs to improvised demolition charges and in the destruction of abandoned amrnunition. b, M1 pelay Firing Device_-com,nonly known as a pencil" this device has a time delayranging i"om g mi;1"; "time to 23 days, depending on the moder .no the irJvailing temperatures. As the time delay intervar may not be dxact, the M1 should not be used if accur.ate timeing is demanded, The Mt oetay firing device consists of a tube containing a percussiontype of cap, a springloaded strike, held cocked by a retaiiingii"u, and a glass

only by and intended for"use with improvised antipersonnel weapons or mines, for booby trapping of antitank mines, and for setting up booby traps. A direct pulr of 3-to g-pounds on the trip-wire causes the device to fire. A non-electric biasting cap m*st Le crimped to the device. The Ml pull Device has the standar,l base to fit alr exp;: sives and mines fitted with the threaded cap well. when instariing the device always remove the positive safety pin iast. d. M1Al pressure Device-- is- d^esigned fo* aotudti=on by pressure and intenrled for use in setting up n"oony traps. A pressure of 2O-pounds on the pressu"^e cap the device to fire. A non-electric blasting cap must be crimped to the "*.r""" device. The M1A1 pressure DevicJ trai ttre standard base to fit all explosives and mineq fitted with the threaded capwell. when installing the device always remove the positive safiety pin last. e- Mb pressure-Rblea-se Device--may be nseaiobooby trap antitank mines equipped with secondary flze wells anc for general booby trap installations with cliaige+ having a threaded well. when restraining load of at least $pounds is displaeed more than five-eights of an inch, the release plate releases tile firing-pin

a pull on a trip- wire

c. Ml pull device-- is designed for actuation

firing device,

90

causing the device to fire. A non-electric blasting cap must be crimped to the device. when installing slip a nail or length of strong wire through interceptor holes. With sufficient weight on the device, remove the safety pin gently by pulling the attached cord. The pin should come out easily, then remove the nail or wire from the interceptor holes. f. M3 Combination Device'-this device may be used advantageously in a booby trap when use of a trip-wire, having both pull an,l tension'release firi.ng actions, is desired. with pu1l of Gto-10 pounds on trip-wire, the release-pin assembly ts putteO out until shoulder of striker passes constriction in bariel. tfrus released, the four jaws of striker spring open and the release pin pulls out of striker. Jaws of striker then spring back togethei enabling end of striker to pass through constriction, Released striker, driven by its spring, sets offthe percussion cap. Release of tension, such as detaching wire or cord at anchor end or cutting of trip-wire, permits release-pin assembly to move forward undei influence of striker spring until striker clears the construction in barrel and release-pin is stopped by head of firing device. As spring continues to force striker forward its four jaws are spread and pulled free of release-pin knob. Released striker, driven by striker spring, sets off the percussion cap. A non-electric blasting cap mnst be crimped to this device. The charge and the trip-wire stakes must be anchored sufficiently to withstind a pu11 of at least 2gpounds. Insert cap in charge or, if detonating coid is used, tapeoneendof cord to cap and run other end to charge. Anchor booby trap or firing device firmly with anchor cord, Attach loose end of trip-wire so that it will not slip, using hole in winch spindle. Drawuptrip-wire, Take up remaining slac[ by winding it on winch until locking safety pin is pulled into wide portion of its hole. Remove small cotter key from locking safety pin, and gently withdraw locking safety pin. If pin does not slide out easily, adjust winch winding. Using attached cord, pull out positive safety pin slowly and carefully. This pin should fall out easily. If it resists a gentle pull, replace locking safety pin, remove trip-wire by pressing down knurled knob and stripping off wirer+'emove base, and check mechanism. Discard defeCtive firing

---

EigTrt: an:d I'i{teen--second Delay Detonators--time with *emperature changeS and accurste tinrirg is not def{varies possible. Changes may vary from mi.nus 1 to plus 4-seconds frotn established standards. (1) Fifteen-second Delay Detonator: This detonator may be used with any booby trap e>cplosive charge having a threaded capwellr-vfhe4ever a delay of approximately lsseconds is -desired. tt consists of-a+ut-l-type fuze lighter, a 15-secortd length of fube, and-. blasting cap. It is water resistant and may be fired under water. fcap protector fits over the cap fo"1 protection during tra4sit. Used in a booby trap, this delay detonator requires a pull o! the pull-ring similar to that obtained by use of a trip-wire. The cliarge must be secured in place, --=-(2) Eight-seconcl Delay Detqnator: This device is like't\e one iust described excepfth.qt it is shorter and eonstructed ". contains a shortdr )nogtft of time fuze to cut delay-town to ap!ra{J: mately 8-seconds, AGb, the pull-wire has a wire T-shapecl handle
91

device.

'- g,

instead of a pull-ring. Method of use with booby traps is the same as that described for the lS-second delay detonator.

2.

IMPROVISED FIRING DEVICES.

tric screen,

a. Open Loop Device: Used toboobytraptrails, equipment, and as a warning device. The open loop is formed by taking two insulated wires and stripping the insulation from the ends of these wires. One end of both wires are form.ed in a loop. One wire is passed through the loop in the other wire which allows the sliding of the wire through the loop brrt will not allow the loops to slide through each other, The other ends of the wires (straight ends) are connected as follows: one is placed as a power source lead, the other is attached to one end of the firing wire. The other firing wire is ccnnected to the other firing source read. The only break in the circuit is the loops when placed apart resting on the insulated portion of the wire, As the wire is pu[ed the loops sJ.id,: dcwn the wire until theloopscometogetherproviding the necessary completion of the circuit, This device can be used along trails as a trip wire if positioned ankle-high. other applications are innumerable and depend on the imagination of the individual. (Demonstrate entire sequence,) b. Explain and demonstrate the water can, clock, elecand clothespin

firing devices.

92

UNITEDSTATESARMYSPECIALWARFARESCHQOL
EXPEDIENT DEVICES
LESSON PLAN

1,

coleman Range' In the intervening time Good a.fternoon gentlemen, welcome back to have gotten alongway away from our since our last class, calculatio., *Jpt"rut11""t, we wo"io be disappointed if any range subiect. I know theie would n" *i.T**q.yoT.*ho eharge that was iust cletonated down class failerl to start with u n"ng,*uiro ttte altiention And-once again' that charge should range is designed to f :rest{1 any ",rJOi"uppointment' be working with live demoLitions we will serve to remintl you throughout the afternoon that is our most im;;ortant produr:t' on this range. At Colemirrr- O"*n nung;, safety
why we do

2.Atthispointlwtllbrieflyexplainwhatwewillbedoingheretoday,andthenexplain but some it. During ourlast"urrg"'"I;r" yo" saw.13f only standard demolitions, variety of with a become familiarized expedient and aavan-ced techniquu".- foaJl.you will so-e of these items are manufactured' some are incendiary, explosive and delay-devi""* mtrterials locally available' Again improvised, and- some are constr,r"t"o completely of that will rotate between five stathe class will be divided into fivslo"ghrv 6Au{ groups explained and demonstrated for ne tions out in the firing area wher" too"yr" *.tl1i'"itititi of the "county f-air" phase you will see a deyou, And once again also, ^at trre clnci"sion charges down rm9' aJter which you will be firing of several of these
mcnstration of the invited to examine their results' jrrat you know why we Now that I have explained what we will be doing, !t'-s fmnol!$ Special Forces demo' cJpabilitieJof the do it. If you,ll ttfrrf.t"itto ffre cfrart listingthehas a that-he "Thorough knowledge of homemade litionist, you will remember that we said q""tti9" .m'1{- arise' "Why bother to explosives, incendiaries and Oef ai J"*""1;1^'- -:1" And the answer of course is learn these things? Is it really necessary or imporiant?" "roll our own"' The first and yes, we do have two important-reasons for knowing how to we sim'oly may be cut off from area by the far most important i" t" fact that in a denied the first time we are faced with this to say that outside sources of supply. That- is not to work' In a variety of ways we will situation that we find a mortar *o'p"ttr" ano startlocal source, the enemJ/' But when we attem;ct to get what we need from 6ne well known knowledge and ability to m'ake absolutely cannot get what *" n""d, wehave the-necessary theitemsfrommaterialslocally-availanle.Andthatbringsmetgthesecondreasonthat n-ot disclose the national identity I mentioned a moment ago, ruateriJs rocarly availabre oowe may not want to use us manuof the user. There may quite conceivably ne times when few such occasions' factured items, and it takes ,to gtu"t imagination to visualize a

3.

showing-you the many items Before we break the class down to yourstations and begin discuss 1, the three basic com' we have out trere,Today, t will first tate a few minutes to of an incendiary' ponents of any infernai m.echine, "nd 2, the desirable characteristics anyond-lvtrw4-+res to think Before proceedilg however, I have two annourlcements' while o"". of destructlE-ar+ei-----.the attention to our about the subjecl-at31l could easily d9$uc9 tnat-qdot"S"-i" nevtrrtheles" ao "or desire to draw highly prized by s;;ti Til;;; and you interest in sabotage. . For--tXrr" """rii, toauvt class is c1a-siritg-g,oIIIDENTIAL' regardyou rvill see, devices--tttat are cautioned against discussing "rry;t theiechniquesorbe explained in detail on an Alfred they may less of how basic they may be ol the fact that to my se-cond announcement' which is Hitchcock tetevision-;;;gi;. And this brings me the key points that are important will merely a request thaf noies not be i"r."" here Ioday, will present no problems' note taking be presented again in the classroom *rt"t"

4,

93

5' Arson as a fine art will

desirable characteristics is important. Show Chart_-J:-_

be dealt with in some-detail inyour Special But since you will see several incendiary devic"" rargets rr""" i"o"].]l"iiro""standingofclass.
DBSIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INCBNDIARY

their

1. 2. 3. 4.
(Briefly

EASILY IGNITED BURN WITH INTENSE HEAT DIFFICULT TO EXTINGUISH LEAVES NO EVIDENCE

elaborate on each point, and emphasize that extremely few incendiaries will possess all 0f these characteristics; mcst compromise) The important point to remember in is an extremely effeciive toot oi sabotage.all of our work with incendiaries is that arson with a minimirm amount of effort, equipment rt pu"*tt" a maximu- u-ount of destruction and risk.

"* "

station # r' Manufactured Devices., Time pe,ncils, miniature shaped charges, magnetic rimpets, coal, " 2' Improvised brick and other nicroeJ-incendiaries. # station incendiaries mr:lded figures, phosphorou" "*plo-"i*". Thermite grenades, improvised "rro Station # 3' Delay devlce-s. 'rilpnrvised u"i-*"i"". cartass anE ntact< powder bomb. devices clock used both non'electricalty *Jror initiating either fires or explosions. ur""t"i;;ifi.--w;;, string and candle delays. Acid, balloon and magnifyil;;iu"". station # 4' uS siandalg i1"*s Jeuice" urro imp"-ov-ised devices. The six devices. used erectrrcitiv ."0 non-erectricalrv. standard firing .crothespin Station # 5' ;;ii^iriproviseo. e"i' New breaching ?J;,,Xi11"1";"

-,iri.";;"#;fii*

After student groups

have rotated between the five stations, they withdraw to the safety bunker while the caltass, DI and ear mrrff charges are detonated.

94

SCHOOL UNITED STATBS ARMY SPECIAL WARPARE

SPECIAL TARGETS
LESSON PLAN

l.coNCEpr.Thissubjectistofamiliarizethestudentwiththeprinciplesofsabotage' planning and historical exarnples' Incendiarto include target selection, mettroOJ, tooi", di""utsed in considerable detail' ism and ratt interJflation are aevetoied u"d targets and recognition; fire 2, SCOPE' Principles; operational techniques; in,dustrial systems to include waterways' for destruction; electrical power ;i";;|;ansportatton

(c); FM 31.20; The Sabotage Manual, REFERENCES: AFM 200.?(C); oRo.T.344 Volumes I & II u3'T7804; U3'T7904; 4. cooRDINATIoN REQUIRED: u3.T?b08; u3.T??04; u3.T8001; 3.
u3.T8104.

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98

HBADQUARTERS 10TH SPECTAL FORCES GROUP (AIRBRONE) US FORCES APO 108


LESSON PLAN

INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT: TYPE OF INSTRUCTION: TIME ALI,OTTED:


CLASS PRBSENTED TO: INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: REFERENCBS: STUDY ASSIGNMENT: STUDENT UNIFORM & EQUIPMENT: TROOP REQUIRMENTS: TRANSPORATION REQUIREMENTS :

Introduction to Arson & Incendiarism


Conference

None

SF 6.4 222 USASWS (UW Dept) Same as References

Dutyw notebook&pencil
None None

1.

INTRODUCTION:

a. Objective: To give the students a broad, general background of the subject of Arson & Incendiarism as it pertains to sabotage in a SF operational area. b" Reason: Incendiarism may be the ideal sabotage wr:apon for a particular mission or target complex. c. Standard: To make each student conscious of the destructive results of fire; how
equipment), etc.

to insure successful arson, the principles of combustion, associated targets (fire-fighti.ng

2.

EXPLANATION:

a. General: Importance of Incendiarism; Fire is ahazard against which all industries are on guard, Large sums of money are expended each year for preventing, reporting and fighting fires. Fire prevention includes educating employees in fire hazards,

m,rking them safety conscious, and inspecting the plant periodically. Included in fire reporting are automatic and hand-operated alarm systems, night watchmen, and sprinkler systems, Fire fighting includes the cost of stationary and movable equipment anqjlq sa-laries of firemen. Even though so much money and time has been spent- the-Uhited States loses about 350 million dollars worth of property and over 10,000 lives in the million and one-half fires reporte4 each year. For example, the Coconut Grove fire in Boston cost about a milliqn dollars in damage and 468 lives. The Bar Harbor, Maine fire cost about one and one-hilfE-imon dol1arJ=I-nr-fomputing the cost of a fire, one must consider direct loss by burning and damage by smoke, wEtef and fire-fighting equipment. Indirect losses include loss of production, medical expenses of'injure4 employees, and cost of rebuitding the physical plant. Sihee-fire can be devastating and go={ey tools are ne-9494 to start a-fire, it is an ideal sabotage w-eapon. The saboteur can choosE tlre+ime-the place, and the mesns to start a fire. In the annual report put out by the International Asqociation of Chiefs of.Police for 1951, it was reported that one in eight fires were staried by ae.qen-captufeU. The reason for this is t*rat the guilty perists, yet very-few guilty persons are select the time w-ttictr seems to him best suited for the commission of the offense

--

"on-cln

99

and the absence of any witnesses. In most arson cases, from circumstantial evidence. The conference estimates proof of guilt must be deduced tire loss alu" to fires started by arsonists to be Z0 million'dollars ayeat, Fire also has a. psychologicat glt-gct_on the general public. After . a series of fires are reported in a certain industry, ABSEN'IEEISM firougrrout that industry is noted. In sumtnttrizing, we can state: Fire is a natural hazard, (b) it may alter or destroy good sabotage weapon because (a) it is a lvidence, and (c) it is very destructive.

b.

Causes of Fire:

(1) Spontaneouscombustion. (2) Carelessness or accident. (3) Lightning or electric short circuit. (4) Chemical reaction. (5) Defectiveequipment. (6) Those started by arsonists or saboteurs. c,
Subtle Arson or Subile Sabotage: sabotage by fire can either be subtle or direct, A saboteur must be familiar the techniques of each. with this in mino, til;;;; y"r"#"i""tif* firm entitred with 6.rncendiarism'" This film is approximately 12 minutes in duration ano clearly depicts the major principles involved in employils. irris type weaporr. I ciarly note the recommended placementftechniquls of ignition, should tike for you to espeuno lt" need for a comprehensive plan of action. upon bonclusion of this iitrrr, ue"prepar"J io-Ji""uss these factors. In subtle sabotage we must make the fire as though it were due causes' To do this we may have to sacrifice some appear sutefi"e-il"rrnlquu" to natural oi-trre

of the direct method' Subtle sabotage requires very careful planning and operating techniques. In planning an operation, we mrrst first analyietrre pianior?arget to see where a fire would naturally start- Most industries have areas that are fire hazards. Next, we must start this fire with material that is NATIVE to that section orirre plant. This means that we can't bring in material that is not used in that plant or material iy found in that part of the plant. The materiar th;t we use to stari that is not normalltre IGNITER' A good igniter is a material that burns at a high t"*p*utrrre fire is called the so that it can ignite the target or wick. Matches, cigarettes, ete"i"lc sparks or^oth"" sources of external heat may be used to start a"subtiefiie," ir we can make-them from normal use of the area. certainly a manufactured item appear to have gotten there c'outo not be used except in cases where we were sure no evidence would be left. After picking out our igniter we must look at our target and see if the igniter will be sufficienttostartitburning.-tfyourtargettsgasolineorotherveryinflamm@ that is all you may need,nutinmost a target' This materiar is called thecases you will need is material"r"l*1""'irffigrrit* -ro wick. tts purpose to hold, increase, and distribute the flame' wood .9lralrinss, rags' newspapers, and oily equipment may be used. The material we choose will depena onlrre target.^ro crroose a good wickproperly, we must.know how mttch heat it t4ul to get the target nurning.--Cr,i" is called tt" -ri-e'sg';,;id:*d. technical definition of flash point is th5_temp;;#;"" at a yl-i"l can be ignited by a spark or flame'. rrre lash which ofsubstance gives off vapors point a number three fuel oil is 125 degrees.

*The term FLASH pOINT is used when dealing with liquid substances.
100

ify

suchas paper' wood' coal, we classWhen dealing with substancesotherthanliquids, them as either iind"", kindling or bulk combustibles'

sq cms per classes are:


(1)

TINDERistheteChniCalrruttt"forcomt"tstibleswithaspecificsurfaceofover20 Four different gram. (28 grams is anout L oz,) A match will ignite tinder'
(2) (3) (4)

wood shavings wood chips sawdust cotton waste oily rags dry undergrowth Ioose straw or hay crumpled Paper

gasoline
bensene

celluloid pyroxylin
match-heads

kerosene, etc., (hard to ignite)

combustible dusts up to 1000 sq cms per gram

Note that paper must be crumpled;

flat sheets of paper burn only with great difficul-

ty.

with- a KINDLING is the technical name for combustibles which burn like dry wood are by Tlt"I are not ignited by a match, but p""glam.. specific surface of over 1.7 sq turn the chemical ignitors, and in "*. seitire to bulk combustibles. Drywood shavings or L/z'inc]:r. or less in splinters, small pieces of wood with jagged edges, woodenpartitions thickness, and thin, Iight furniture can be used as kindling. square BULK COMBUSTIBLES: Combustibles having a surface of less than 1.7 floors, wooden structures, wooden cms. per gram require burning kindling toi-gnitethem. bulk coal, baled r-.rbb"" or coltorr, heivy f-urniture,_ books, all require prolonged heating' have venOnce the igniter has igniteO the wibkandthe wick the target, then we must of oxygen' To get ventilation we should tilation, because no fire can burn without a source air to in' open a window, trol to get a draft that will blow out the flame, but to get enough sure a sufficient supply of oxygen. you pick out In order to do maximum damage in subtle sabotage it is im,portant that be discover' it will not likely the right place to start your fire ano Jet it off at a time when ed until it has reached its FLASH OVER point. This is the point when all the combustible tested incenmaterial burst inio flame, This term e-o*into use durin&wwll when they an incendiary from the setting off of diary material to determine the length o{.Hrari#a.kes to the point at wtrich ttt" matg:!is'+n1he. room.bursts into flame:. It i: l"li:l:* tll,ll: "tt following takes p-tu"", carntusfible materials, when heat is applied, are constantly giving or reach the spark-theyrvill ignite. off v4po1s.*lraqlhr@oom

101

producing) chemical action to proceeds, withouterposuretoexternal sources or abnormal heat. The process is known as ,,spontaneous heatingrl and as of fire, spark ,,spontaneous ignition" or spontaneous combustion,r if ignition occurs, As an example, a pile of oily rags or amcwof moist hay slowly unites with oxygen of the air (burns). If the lieat of the combustion cannot !e easity conducted away (the rags and the hay being poor conductors) the pile heats hisher ano trigrrer -up until the kindling point of the combustibleJ is reached. at"ttris point, Trr" from day to day, fire' This is called spontaneous combustion. Notice that ii is f-avored by or hay catch ""g" two factors: (a) poor conduction of heat away from the combustibles and (b) a piles are not able to get rid of the heat which is generated by'theirrow kindling.point. The oxidation, particularly if they are packed too tighfly for air to circulate iapidly through them. To start a fire in this fashion_we might put oity to the direct rays of the sun, or in the cas6 of'grains, "-1sg o1t-" hot pipe, expose oily rags diiturb trre ve'ntitation member again, it must took like an accident that the ventilation was shut off system. Reor not workino

The growth of the fire involves two factors: Convection of heat and radiation of the beginning of the fire 85 per cent of heat is convected upwards, and 1b per cent of the heat is radiated in atl directions. As the wood heats ,rp it t"u"hes temperature (between 300 and 575 degrees c., depending on the bulkincendiary) a critical where carbon, hydrogen and oxygen materials in the wood o-r other combustibte sudoenry the to"* gaseo'rs products (Co); at this instant the bulk combustibles become self-supp"rti"g a"o the fire blazes on. Beyond this point, the fire is out of control It may be possible to start your fire by spontaneous combustion. spontaneous combustion is defined- as: heating and ignition inn^olvi.tg a combustible material or comSination of materials if the inherent characteristicsof the materials cause an exothermic (heat

heat' At

Lloyds Register records over 100 cases of spontaneous combustion each year, 6b per cent of them due to external heating from the boiler room, steam iripes, funnel casing or climatic conditions,

d.
A

Direct Sabotage by Fire:

Direct sabotage by fire may do por_e damage and be more effective than explosives. warehouse and its contents may be destroyjd by fire that would require hundreds of pounds of explosives. Fire has its limitations and depends many times on chance for maximum effectiveness. As we mentioned before, fire is a natural hazaxd and hundreds dollars are spent to prevent and fight it. Also, the enemy is on the alert for attacks of of sabotage by fire, (1) Placement: In picking a place to start a fire, we are interested in area that will enable the fire to spread rapidly and engulf the whole warehousefinding an and surrounding area, our main purpose-is not to hide the fact that the plant or taiget *u, taged, but to do maximum damage. ""fio(a) Arranging combustibles to favor convection: An ample supply of air is required for the combustion. Air supply can loe increase.d in two *uv"r (1) by increasing ventilation and 1q,) by arranging the combustibles so as to get a,,ctiimney efiect,,, *ti"r, will be explained below. 1. Increasing ventilation: Open windows and doors: High side (the side away Jrom the point from which the wind blows) and low on the on the lee windward side (the side from which the wind is coming). This supplies a draft for sweeping the fire forwards and upwards. Remember that duringthe early^stages of the fire, too strong draft will hasten the burning of bulk combustibles. If the wirio is blowing too rt"o"gd op"r, windows only in an adjacent room.

t02

that the air can get to them' closely packed combustibles must be loosened up sonot Lrurn until they have been paper will Baled cotton, rubber, or fabrics, or bundles of broken up mechanically or by high explosive' ^. ^Once a fire starts in an area where combustible maZ. Cfri*rrey" eff6ct: column creates a sobegins terials are plentiful, a column of intense heatcenter. to arise' Thisbe increased by buildIts effect can called ,,chimney effect" in drawing air to the pipes and stairways leading ing the fire near airshafts, elevator shafts, ducts,-conveyors,fastened in an open position)' to upper floors, (but be suretheooo""o" trte t ppe"'rloors-are Some ways to favor this chimney effect follows: effects if one a. Vertical ""rfu"Lti They will provide chimney on the spur of has the can be made partitions upright, 2-inches o" f"tt "pu"t. Sucttpartitibns a.tabie on edge close to a wall -a moment by moving packing boxes'Ji"" iog"thei,.tipping in the angle between the door or by swinging u do^o" bac[ on its tti"ges ant stariing iire
and the wall.

holes Horizontal surfaces: They will burn fastest wherethere are provide- dra'ft' Fires started cut in the floor 11or passage or ptp"s, Lo.,uuyott, etc.) which -before being discovered' start 3t in between partitions of ftoo"" ,rraiielt ",i1"iderabie the story below, it is usually suffiirr.ougr, noi6s-in the floor from the hot air sweef" "p "set curuent of fire to kindlingplaced aroundthe hole. (This death' with cienly heated ,6-ii'-*o,rld often burned to very hot air is a phenomerror, -Atead"O ny the ffr:eman, who isa door into a room which is no externd sfgns u:t lt" cause' by breathing it in upon opening

b.

on

The chimney effect is also obtained the chief importance of this wtth another arrangement, ttre a[tic-""uu"" effect, although section. combustibles placed arrangement is its ieflection of heat, discussed in the next reflect heat and ignite very in the angular d;; where the attic roof meets the floor will start, a fire since, although quickly. However, the attic f " ,roi-uo especially good place to gainheadway, the fire may it may go urrnoticua lor many *i""l"s iivingifrJttre-tlme tothe other hand, the operator upwards. not spread to lower floors since heat sweepsparts of theon house, as for example beneath in other can make an attic eave arrarrg"*o;i here, the fire will the stairway leading up from trre ground fl.o&...If kindling is ignitedseco'd floor simulspread quickly up the stairway, rp""-"ai"gto bo.ththe groundJtoorand in the corner of a starting a.fire taneously. Similar arrangements c"rrie achieved-byboards against the wall and start* nV leaning doors oi closet with the closet door open, ing a fire beneath them, d, Arranging combustibles to favor radiation: Asthefire progresses'

fire')

c. Attic eaves arrangement:

thespreadofheatbyradiationprocessesbecomesincreasinglyimportant.Radiationis parallel horizontal favored by the thre! items lusf discussed: Parallel vertical walls, surfaces is called heat from these w.:11s, and attic eaves arrangement. The reflection of ,,baffle effect" and is of grJatest importance in starting fires quickly' a heat rises-andfdum Generally a fire should be started on the nottonifloor since progresses. But if the uppdr lloors contain inset fire to the upper floors as the fire forming burning flammable liquids of rubber, tt might be^betTer, to start the fire there, the dry' wooden floors' Or liquids which would riin down "td tgtii;comhuAqbles on lower fire to stores on the ground ar-!-Uovrn-qqt set roof on a shed might be ignited, iiitio"lO
below.

each other, and spread the fire ""piarv start one large fire in the area'

ItiswelltostartanumberoffiresattheSametimesothattheymuhrallyassist to in arl the area. This is far better than trying

in other words' in ruqlking shop, the paint stores,.the packinq-"9oT, oily wastes;not protected against spread is inflirfrrsrable portion of the factor-yf f"oniA"O that section of fire from il to tfre rest of the plant'

L, --- L^ r1^^ ,,rrnra ro 'choosethesiteoftheinitialfireinrelationtothewtroletarget:nearthewood' the most

103

actors to avoid: Painted surfaces: These burn poorly. This may surprise you when you recall how inflamlnable a paint may be. But a lacquer or paint is inflammable because of the oils and solvents in it, and these evaporate or change during the drying process and their inflammability ceases. Unpainted surfaces are always preferable; and if a baffle is being made with a painted chest of drawers pushed against the wall, face the unpainted back of the bureau against an unpainted wall, or use the unpainted bottoms of the drawers. 2, Wallpapered surfaces: These burn poorly since dry paste is not especially infl amrnable, 3. Wet wood: Before the wood will burn the mcisture must be expelled and this uses up heat, slows the rapid spread of the fire. For this reason, do not attempt to set fire to a lumber yard or other outdoor stores a few days after a rain spell. 4. Charred wood: The burned wood or charcoal does not ignite very readily unless it is heated quite hot. (21 Techniques of starting the fire: (a) Analyze the plant for the ideal place to start the fire. Also consider the value of starting more than one fire. (b) Knowing the target, decide what you are going to use for an igniter. Here we don't care if itisnativetothe target or not. What we are interested in is getting a good fire started. The Agencv has afew mimufactured items such as the PTI, wfrictr iwitt go into in detail a little later. The igniter may be activated by mechanical, electrical 6r chemical means. Examples of these means are: mechanical - booby trap and clock; electrical - a switch, short circuit; chemical - time pencil, two incompatible acids, and acid and sugar chlorate mixture, etc. During this course we will handle a great mimy items that can be used here. A igniter generally gives you a time delay. (c) Use of awicktohold, increase anddistribute the flame. We may use paper, wood shavings, oily rags, etc. (d) Accelerant should be used when material has a relatively high flash point or if you want to get the fire to the flash over stage faster, (e) After having a fire going, we wanttobe sure there is trouble putting it out, so we neutralize fire fighting equipment. It may be possible to caruy out this parl of the operation before being discovered by the watchman. Attack the fire fighting equipment which is nearest to the point of the intended fire. Some points of attack follow: 1. Hydrants: Shut off, smash or jam the valves. Or shut the main valve and secure it with lock and chain, 2. Hose: Slash this with a sharp knife. Or put a few drops of concentrated sulfuric or nitric acid a number of places on the hose, in positions where it will not normally be detected, a day before the attack. The acid will etch weak spots in the hose which will fail under water pressure. 3. Nozzles: Throw these away or damage. 4. Fire-doors: These usually have a link of fusible alloy (melts about 68 degrees C.). Reinforce with a stout wire. Place a brick on the floor, or a wedge, to keep the firedoor from closing. Immobilize the firedoors on the upper floors so that the fire will be free to sweep upwards. Or lock these doors in an open position and throw the keys away. 5. Fire alarm: Disconnect all electrical alarm systems, 6. Automatic sprinklers: Place high explosives in several places on the sprinkler system. 7. Fire extinguishers: The bicarbonate-sulfuric acid type of extinguisher can be unscrewed at the'top, and the acid bottle removed and thrown away. Or the contents of the extinguishers can be emptied. Pump extinguishers (such aS the carbon tetrachloride type) can be einptied and then filled with gasoline. Buckets of sand or of water can be filled with gasoline, although the latter should be done immediately before starting the fire, since the odor of gasoline might 6lert the enemy to the intended attack.

(b)

L,

to4

111 placing bombs: To discourage fire fighters, the operators should place a number of hand grenades with their levers tied down with cord; when the cord burns, the gtenades explodel Or any of a number of bombs activated by booby-traps set off by the Iirefighters canbe employed. placefogor smoke bombs up-windof the fire so as to make approach difficult. (g) Overpowering the guards: The operators should know where the watchmen are on patrol, and assign men to overpower the guards while the other operators are neutralizing ifte fire fighting equipment and placing nuisance bombs. Since there arJ so many points to consider in starting a fire, it is imperative that a detailed plan be made. A11 eq-uipment should be tested on a similar target.

a hole with, an explosive charge, opening a valve or otherwise. If the mat6riat is then itloweO to spread, it not only would be mttch easier to ignite, but will spread the flame to adjoining tanks. Gaso1ine, kerosene, and alcohol can be ignited by any delay action device. Gasoline can often be fired within storage tanks by an explosive charge placed in contact with the container plate, but to insure fire mix magnesium ano aftrlninum with the explosive. Diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oils require heating before ignition takes place. Thiscanbe accomplished by pouring gasoline or kerosene over the m-ore viscous petroleum,. For example, the explosion resulting from a small charge placed in contact witli a small gasoline can would scatter the flaming contents over a wide afea; alternatively, a large incendiary parcel would be employed. Kerosene is superior to fasoline for general incendiary purposes. It evaporates at a slower rate, hence it burns longer. (2) Pitch and tar stocks: If stored in wells, use an incendiary parcel. Float in tanks' it on the surface of the tar, on a piece of wood if necessary. If the tar is stored heated to material is use an incendiary parcel ti*ea witrt an explosive charge. once the the necessary tempLrature ignition takes place. The burning is intense and is accompanied bv dense smoke. (g) paint stores: The contents of a drum of paint or a few cans could be poured on the floor and then set ablaze with an incendiary. If this is impossible, the incendiary in conjunction with a small breaking charge should be used. Where paint is stored on w6oden shelves, it will usually be sufficfunt to set fire to the shelves; for best results feed the flame with paint (4) paper stocks: Open and spread out as many packages as possible. A considerable amo-unt of kindling material will be required to get a large stock aJire. Small explosive charges placed amongpackages, rolls, etc., will help considerably to spread the fir:e. paper inbales, ro1ls, etc., is not likely to burn completely.-plants: Start the fire *9"q raw material - --:6t__Rr*bbe(_"t9""" and 'processing stores, providing ttrese rcfnr-*-paqt of the main building. If the rubber is in compressed bales,- rptit o.rJ open and add as-hue[-kindling as possible. Semi-processed-rubber is often stored on wooden shelves and this mbf\a good point at which to start a fire. Rub' ,--r ber is difficult to ignite and an incendiary off.'rqAuration is required, Sponge tubber------\ ==---= crumpled up is u""y iloflummable. (6) Textile factories: The most damaging attaek can probably be made on the carding machines, as there shops contain large quantities of q)ssamer*and loose fiber on are it" -uZnm"". Stacks and balesof partlyprocessed material in loose eondition heapanother of this plaqe where a fire can be started. The fire should be built in the center of a m-atiriaf with a thermite or magnesium incendiary.

e. Methods of Dealing With Certain Targets: (1) Oil stores: It is necessary to release the oil from its container by blowing

105

era-l containers should be opened, the contents spread around,

(7) Flour mills: Flour mills contain -eievator", ber, which is usgd for enclosing the conveyors, a considerable amount of light, dry timcrt,rte", cendiaries such as magnesium shouldbeplacedata well ve.riilated verticalLong burning in"t". surface. Grain itself burns well once the fire is well itarted, and with free access of air soon very difficult to extinguish. Gasoline and kerosene may be used to initiate becomes the fire, (8) sugar refineries: crystarlized would be an ideal target for incendi^sggar ary attack. This may be initiated by means of th-ermit" o" -ugnu"iu- i"ce-"oia.i";. Arf.
Sabotage by Water:

This form of attack will be most effective where delicate milchine tools and precision instrument and finished steel parts are to be found; woodworking plants, bearing factories, warehouses, texttte mills, grain elevators, all ";;;i;"; forms of documents. Machinery attacked by water must be disman"tled in or,ler tilt rust may sprinkler systems are widely used in mcst countries as a means of be removed. extinguishing fires at their source, in factories, stores, warehouses, or wherever inflaminable goods are in process of fabrication or storage. They function automaticalty rise of temperature above a predetermined limit (usually 155 degrees ^on. by the- fusion or aspeciar soldering alloy or the bursting of a -F.) glass tube, thereby releasing a valve seating ano attowing jet of pressure pipe system. This iet of- water impinges on aasmall water to issue from the circular deflector which creates a spray over the area below the sprinkler. " The release of water from a sprinkler actuates an alarm. If steps are taken to prevent the alarm from functioning, and if/ number of sprinkler heads quantity of water will be released silently; serious flootling should are actuated, a large occur before the attack is discovered. The wet Pipe system is instalted where there is no danger of freezing; the piping is filled with water under pressure. The Dry Pipe Assembly is used where freeziag is Finland, sweden, etc. Here the pip.es are chargedrvitt ai" likely to occur; i,e., Russia, at a"p"i""u"u high enough to keep the valve in place, on the op-ening of the spr"inkler head, trre ieo,rced air pressure is overcome by water pressure which opens the valv-e and permits the piping to fill with water. Ail sprinkler systems are provided with a mitn stop varve'*rri"t is accessible at ground level. Large buildings have miltiple circuits, each cbntrolled by it own valve. The handwheel of thestopvalveisfixedin the wide ^spriikrer or chain' It is turned off if emergency arisesi i.e., ifopen position by means of a strap iunctions Attack: see that main stop valve is in normal positibrr, close aLarm accidentally. ing quarter turn clockwise dir-ection. This shuts off water to the ,l""rn clock by turnmotor, Treat every circuit in the same manner. To attack individual sprinkler heads: use time pencil ana--nrabeb@)riar fusion of soldering alloy or to burst glass tube. To counteract the oevicFffilrlto effect "q';; or chain on the Pail stop valve; close the valve; replace chain with padlock. S;;'ih" threaded valve shaft off.

in certain industries considerably more ucL'r'LBe is .rur s damage caused by the water used for extinguishing than by the fire. A sm'a]l fire,.in a workshop, store]or offile, started by ,,accident,, during working hours, could be extinguished iminediately by amount of water, thus creating great damage, "r, "*Lu."ive

when small fires take place

106

1OTH

APO

TO8

SPBCIAL trORCES GROUP AIRBORNI]


LBSSON PLAN

HEADQUARTBRS

US FORCES

INSTRUCTIONAL UNTT:

Field Expedient Detonator or Blasting CaP


Demonstration See attached tng aids list Train' l.rg ttl"*orandum#5 ttqs 10thSFG, dta 2? Feb 62, Annex D, Destructive T echnique s Same as reference Duty w /crimPers, knife, friction tape, pencil & notebook.
None None

TYPE OF INSTRUCTION: TIMJ] ALLOTTED:


CLASS PRBSENTED TO: INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS: REFERENCES:

STUDY ASSIGJ'JMIlNTS: STUDENT UNIFO]I.M liND EQUIPMEN'I TROOP REQUIREMENTS: TRANSPOR,TATION:

1,

INTRifDUCTION

construction and methods of detonation' use expedieff" deto' b" Reason: Demolition sp"crJists must know how to make and nators.Onemaynotalwaysr'u'"-**"facturedblastingcapstofulfillthemission. teaching construction, c. standards: To have all demolitionists capable of- both as being able to perform an as well theory and em'lovment of field e*peoi"rrt detonatorJ, neces sary' detonators when opl-"utio" mission, emirloying expedlent

a.objective:Todemonstratefieldexpedientdetonatorsorblastingcapstoinclude

2,

EXPLANATION AND DEMONSTRATION

a.

Construction:

card them')
the

into. :*"!1i9q".:iYlTl:nt1:** i*" T"fii#Jt?Ju""o the cartridge case to the detonating cord wrrlcrr leads t5 trre charges. 9tl*p underwater use is an' and insert or wate-rproof it if the detonating cord, and tape it "i-irti"-Junction,

emptvr;*riii"ri3'i'"t*

(1)Remcrveprojectileandpowder(propellant)fromariflecartridgeanddis. cord to almost completely fill Remove enough pE,fN from some detonating
the

ticipated.

b.

Methodiof_Petonation:

diameter

largest (1) First Metlodi Tape a cardboard sleeve, ta"ger than tKefill this container down its-Ibngtu'-apd of the cartridge case to the case u[o"i rtuu-way fuzelnto tttit cJntainelfiom the opposite with an-acc-eptable first fii+.m:x." i""""t time the base of the cartridge' Seal the confrom end, uitil ttre timi i""" i" withln-ano;;l "; required) as in step 3 above' The numtainer to the time fuze, again *ui""ti-*oti1q tit i" iititit"o only by the amount of detober of charges that may be fired "Jdil;-Gtonatof cord that is available'
nating
107

(2) Second Method: Run the free end of the detonation cord down a until there is no slack, and then chamber the cartridge. Connect branch lines rifle barrel to the main line which emanates from the barret. t9 att chargesl secure trre weapon in place, and tie apiece 9f r9Pe, wire, or stringtothe trigger'. ThG cord should be noiess than 20 meters in length if the -operator is unprotected. Fire the weapon by means of the cord, This method destroys the weapon, but it atso will detonate the (3) Third Method: Mold a piece of plastic "tr."g"". around the base expl6sive c.artridge, until you have 2 cm around lhe case. Light the plastic, and seek cover. of the the percussion cap is detonated by the heat, the FgrNI wu ne detonated, which inWhen turn will fire any charges attached to the detonating cord.

3.

PRACTICAL WORK

Form students into working groups of 3 or 4 men. Provide necessary explosives with components, tape, etc. Direct each group to construct and detonate at least one detonator. Insure that personnel take cover during flring,
TRAINING AIDS LIST Blackboard Chalk

Crimpers Friction Tape Knife


Detonating Cord Plastic Explosive E4pendable Rifle and Cartridges Cardboard Tubes

Pliersi
Waterproof ing Compound Twine First Fire Mixture

108

Container

filled with FF mix

Waterproof
Seal

Crimp and waterproof seal De(onating Cord ,o "h"*91_.--.-_

\ffi
Detonating Cord to charges
109

110

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL ADVANCED DEMOLITION TECHNIQUES AND SPECIAL DEVICES ADVANCE SHEET
PURPOSE

ting and emplacing advanced technique charges, and to familiarize you with issued expedient firing devices, improvised incendiaries, and an introduction to new devices
developments and future contingency plans,
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

The purpose of this subject is to provide you with a working knowledge of construcand and

1. Study 2.

advanced technique charges covered on Demolition Card, GTA 5-10-9.

Review material covered drrring the fourth hour of 756 and all material in 750.
BRIEF

D,rring this instruction each student will be required to perform practical work in construction of at least one of the advanced technique charges. A walk-around will be conducted to enable each student to view each of the advanced technique charges emplaced on target, Afterwards, a demonstration firing and viewing of the effects will be conducted. A demongtration of issued and expedient firing devices will be shown. Mixing and employing of improvised incendiaries will be demonstrated. A demonstration of new developments and devices will be shown and future contingency plans will be discussed.

--

111

UNITED STATES ARMY SPECIAL WARFARE SCHOOL

ADVANCED DEMOLITION TECIINIQUES AND SPECIAL DEViCES


SECTION I SUMMARY

Special Charges

1, The primilry advantages of advance techniqrre charges are that they invariably require less explosive; they achieve results that are more positive than those produced by conventional charges; and tamping is not required. 2. The primary disadvantages of the advanced technique charges are that they usually require a great deal of time to construct; once constructed, they are usually mcre fragile than conventional charges. A11 of the charges should be wrapped or packaged but excessive wrapping material between charge and target miist not exist. Most of the charges require C-4 or C-3 explosive, which is a limiting factor, as it may not alweys be available in the field. 3. SADDLE CHARGE: The saddle charge is used to cut cylindrical, mild steel targets up to 8-inches in diameter. Dimensions of the charge are as follows (refer to figure 1): Short base of the target is equal to half the circumference of the target. The height or long axis of the charge is equal to the circumference of the target. The thickness of the charge is one-third the thickness of a block of C-3 or C-4 for targets up to 6inches in diameter. Thickness of the charge will be one-half the thickness of a block of C'4 or C-3 for targets from 6- inches to 8- inches in diameter. Prime the charge at the apex of the iriangle. On detonation, the target will be cut directly under the short base,

Equal to circumference of target

Target

Equal to

r/z

circumference of target

(max. 8" diameter)


Figure

1.

Saddle Charge

Do not use saddie charge on targets of non-solid construction steel alloys, or targets measuring greater than 8" in diamter.
112

(gun

tlarrels),

steel cylindrical targets of any srze-itat would conceiivably that mcasured 17" in diam-u"-loffo*": The long axis this charge w"s ,rs"-d to cut u p"op"il"r-shaft of ,a destroyer of the c-large must be erlual eter.) Dimensions (figure 2\ are m"ust be one-half the circumference to the circumference of the targei. The short axis be one-third the thickness of a block of the target. The thickness of the charge will alllvsshort axis must be primed for simulth-e of c-3 or C-4. Toprimethecharge, Lottri-oi"ts of
taneous detonation.

4.DIAMONDCHARGE:Thediamondchargeisusedtocuteithermildoralloy be encountered' (For instance

i'
I

I i
i

t: I
l:
il

Prime here

Short a:ris % of circumference

Target

Thickness one third

blockofC-3orC'4

Equal lengths of det. cord

Long axis equal to circumference

w/blasting cap attached to the ends.

Figure

2.

Diamond Charge

-=\.

figuie 2 o.t--may be Primed with tw,JLtectr'ic fo" simultaneous detonation' ",iit

detonator assembly-T^:l:y:,:i The diamond charge may be primed iiittt " wired in a comrnon senes clrblasting caps

113

5, RIBBON CHARGE: The ribbon charge is used to cut non-cylindrical steel targets, i.e., "I" beams, angle irons, etc.,upto 2-inehes thick. Excellent results are produced with a considerable savings of explosives. The dimensions (figure 3) of the charge are as follows: Thickness of the charge is equal to the thickness'of1ne target but nevEr less than Yz'inch. Width of the charge is twice the thickness of the target. Length of the charge is equal to the length of the desired cut. Prime the charge from either end. Build up the corners of the charge if it is designed to cut such itemg aJ ,,I" beams.

Thickness equal to target thickness never less thanr/2,,

Width twice the thickness of target.

Figure

3.

Ribbon Charge

6- PLATTER CHARGE: The platter charge is used to attack po1, containers, transformers and switchboar,ls, and other electricil equipment similar to switchboards. Construction (figure 4) requires a "platter,t' explosives, and a blasting cap. A container that the platter will fit into tightly is desirable as well as tape or string. The platter may be a- dinner plate, seal-beam headlight, flat steel, ceramic plate, terials. A round, concave, steel plate is best. The largest ,,piatter"or other various rnaused thus far was a railroa'd fishplate. Plastic (C'3 or C-4) explosive is best; however, hard cast explosive, i.",: TNT may be melted and used to load the charge. A continer ior the ,,plattbrl and explosive is desirable but not necessary as longas the explosive is hetd firmly against ihe "platter." An electric or non-electric blasting cap may be used to prime trre iharge at exact rear center.
114

The "platter" is placed in the container (if one is used) ancl the explosive is placed behind the platter. Weight of the explosive should be equal to the weight of the platter. The explosive must be uniform and solid. If the explosive is relatively thin, an area is built up in the center to accommodate the blasting cap.

Target

Prime here

Platter

Figure

4.

Platter Charge

7. SOAP DISH CHARGE: 'oSoap dish" is a nickname given to a chai*ge designed to destroy POL and POl,-etoragetanks, Any container about the size of a soap dish isused-and one-half the volume of ttre container is filted with explosive (figure 5). The remaining portion of the container is filled with thermite. The thermite may be taken from a thermite hA,4d grenade or be any one of the following mixes: a. b. c.
Three parts potassium chlorate and two parts sugar. Two parts aluminum powder and three parts ferric oxide. Any shavings from a metal turning lath.
115

The explosive is primed, electric or non-electric, and the charge is placed on target, ensuring ittat ttte th-ermite side is next to the target. A charge the size of a soap dish may be useO to attack POL containers up to 100-gallon capacity, A charge the size of a cigar box may be used on containers up io 1,000-gallon capacity. A charge twice the size of a cigar bbx may be used on containers up to 5,000-gallon capacity, dep-ending upon the tank cJnfiguration,- Always ensure that the charge is placed BELow the fuel leve1 in the container.

Prime here

Target (PoL)

Explosive

Figure

5.

Soap Dish Charge

116

S.OPPOSBDCHARGB:Theopposedchargeisusedtoattackconcreteormasonry referred to as the ear-muff and counter' targets -feet or less in thiCkne"".-'it is also in the fact that at least two sides of the *u force charge. The opposed charge niu" "ii*ltation savings in explosive is achieved' The be exposed; rro*"o.",'u, ir-emet'dous eact foot of target thickness' up to a target m'st follo*"' For rule-of-thumb for c,rnstruction is next higher Round fractions of a foot off to the maximum of A-feet, use one pounrl; of the charge on each r'ari',piacing one-half foot. Divide the toial amount of C;;;"try-i" oppotiti''-t' other' Prime the two charges side of the target (figure 6), diarne;;;;;i; "aclishock waves meet in the center as the 1e1 simirltaneous detonation. The t""g"!i;;lstroyeo reinrorcement bars will not be cut by otner. ttre of the target and attempt to refleet e?-J target by themselves' to the
the shock waves but offer no support

Charge

Equal lengths of det. cord w/non-electric blasting caP attached to end Priming the

Blasting
cap

charge.

Figure

6.

OPPosed Charge

caps wired aboveorbY the two electric blasting Charges maY be Primed as shown NOTE: in a common series circuit'
t1.7
.-------ad

9. DUST INITIATOR: The dust initiator is an economical means of destroying targets such as box cars,wa-rehouses, andanyother relatively windowless structures. The dust initiator consists of two separate charges, the base chaige and the cover or sumound
charge.

methods:

a.

Base Charge: The base charge can be constructed by any of the following

Crush one-half pound of TNT into a very fine powder. To this add the contents of a thermite _hand grenade. In the absence of an issubo thermite grenade use onehalf .pound of any of the foliowing items: two parts of aluminu- po*J"" three parts of ferric oxide; two parts magnesium powder toihree parts of ferric oxide;tothree p'arts potassium chlorate to two parts aluminum powder. the base charge i" trr".r placed suitable container, i.e., paper bag, sock, wiapped in tin foil, etc. Tie base charge in any may be detonated by a non-electric orelectricblastin^g-cap. in the absence of TNT, Tetrytol, Comp B, or Penolite explosive mtry be substituteA. rfrey would be crushed the same as the TNT.

b. Cover Charge: The cover charge is a "surround', of any fine, material such as Jtne coal dust, cocoa, powdered coffee, confectioners sugar,dust-type tapioca, flour, cornstarch, hard rubber dust, aluminum powder, magnesium powder, and powdered
soap.

c. The base charge is constructed and then placed inside of the cover charge. Use 3-to 5-pounds.of cover.charge per 1,000 cubic feet -of building space. A l-pound base charge will deton_a'te up to 40-pounds of_cover charge, The dust initiator is thenplaced in the building, warehouse, box car, etc., that is to be-destroyed. d. on detonation the base charge ignites the thermite mix and scatters the cover out into a cloud of dust. The burning urermite is projected through the dust, causing
detonation.

e. Any volatile fuel may be used as a cover charge or ,,surround." However never use more than 3-gallons of fuel for a l-pound base chaige. This size of charge wili destroy buildings with upto3,000 cubicfeetof space. use addiiional charges for any"turg"t over 3,000 cubic feet. When using seveial charges, detonate them simrrltaneouJly, 10' SQUARE cHARGE: The square charge is used targets 7'feet or less in thickness. Thickness oitrre chargeto attack reinforced concrete will always be 2-inches or 4 inches and the charge must be approximately square. Refer"to trte nngineer Research and Development Laboratory chart frbtowl tor trrictness and number of bto"ct<s of c-4 or c-3 to be used in the charcre

118

Engineer Research and Development Laboratory Chart Concrete Thickness


1

Charge Size

Charge Thickness

ft.

2 C-4 Blocks

Oneblock-2in. Oneblock-2in. Oneblock-2in. Oneblock-2in.


One M-37

2
3

ft.
ft.

4 C-4 Blocks
7 C-4 Blocks

4 ft.
5

20 C-4 Blocks 6 M-37 Kits (20 lb packet) 8 M-37 Kits (20 lb packet)
12 M-37 Kits (20 lb packet)

ft.

Kit - 4 in.

6 ft.

One M-37 Kit - 4 in.

ft.

One M-37 Kit - 4 in.

NCTE: This charge may be primed direct rear center or at any one of the four corners. If employ2R

ing a number of charges on a given target, you may use the formula N-.$L

N: No. of charges W: Width of target


2P'= 2 x breaching radius

119

Improvised Paste Explosive.

explosive, It is a partial report of the early tentative results of a proiect conducted at the Engineer Research and Development Laboratory by Mr. Richard Kinsler, project
engineer,

The following information concerns the preparation and use of improvised paste

The "present paste explosive" alluded to in the first paragraph is a developmental item that might become standard at some time in the future for Army-wide use. The expedient preparation of past explosive using C-4 and comrnonly available materia-ls is more valuable for our operations.
EXTRACT

Project

8F 0

7-10-002-02

Summary of Past Explosive Work

Since the present paste explosive has several undesirable characteristics, such as: exudation of oil upon standing, lack of adhesive qualities, and the attacking of common plastics, there is a probability that the present paste will not be standardized for military use. In addition to the above mentioned detriments, there is also the probability that even if the paste were standardized, in its present form, it would not always be available to Special Forces units in the field. It is for these reasons that this preliminary investigation has been primirrily concerned with finding a method of modifying C-4 to a paste consistency, not exude oil, not attack plastics, and have desirable qualitites of adhesion and
cohesion.

Several different types of commonly available substances have been added to C-4 an effort to produce an acceptable paste mix. The most promising of these mixes is listed in Apendix A. In general, it seems safe to say that C-4 will give a sticky, cohesive mix when mixed with most petroleum hydrocarbons, To the average soldier in the field this means that almost any product from the average POL dump is an acceptable agent to mix with C-4 to obtain a sticky paste mix. A very good agent is clear mineral oil such as may be found in any drug store. By the same token, C-4 will NOT give a good mix when using most water-soluble substances such as ethylene-glycol (permanent-type antifreeze), alcohol, surgical lubricant, glycerine, etc. The reason that water-soluble substances do not produce such good mixes is that the C-4 tends to exude the water-soluble agent, and rhe agent itself tends to give a smooth, creamy mix which has almost no adhesive qualities.

in

An attemirt was made to produce an acceptable paste by mixing C-4 with some of the more common vegetable oils such as soy bean oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, and peanut oil. When vegetable oils are used, the C-4 tends to lose its cohesive qualitites and gains absolutely no adhesive qualities. The resulting mix is a crumbly, non-cohesive mass wirich has a reiatively low rate of defgnation. Animal fats, such as butter, grease from from the vegetable oils, with the exception of lanolin. Lanolin produces a mix which is
not unlike the mix produced when petrolatum (vaseline) is used.

cooked meat and lanolin were

tried.

The results were identical to the results obtained

120

use have begun' An extruder' Preliminary tests to put these mixes to a practical to fill polyethylene tubes one used and which works by compressed air, hr; b;; designed e1"n", t"ctr"as this' would be- easily carried' by simply inch in diameter with the paste. waisi' When the target was reached' the wrapping a length of the tub" uto,rrrA L man's attacned to the target. The tube could easily necessary rength of tube could u" "oiotr,-anJ lengthwise andpatting it flat a'fter it is be made into a ribbon charge "idiy;; Jrttitrg,it of t?sts usingthis exprosive filled tube stuck to the target. see Appenaix'e ior resu-rts structural members. against some or trie more cornmonly encountered in this summary which It is to be remembered that the conclusions may neare mentioned modified as more data are obare valid in the light of present iJ "u""tts, but tained. APPENDIX A
By Weight DensitY Range Rateof Detonation
23,L48

Mix 1 2

Vehicle
SAE 10 Motor Oil
Paraff in Oil (Kerosene)

Remarks Appears to be a good mix. Is both adhesive and cohesive. Adhesive and cohesive. EasilY mixed.
Good fibrous and

19 1s 6
10

1.30

'1.40 L.45 I.g4 L,54

I.4O -

23,045

Oil (kerosene)
16

Paraffin

1.26 -

23,5L4

sticky mix. Not as fluid as mix No. 2.


Generally a good mix and tends to drY rather quickly, should be used within 24 hrs of the time it is mixed.
Good

Varsol

L,4o -

23,390

L7

Fuel Oil
Gasoline

7.5

1.40

1.50

23,288

mix, verY co'

hesive and adhesive.


The gasoline evaPorates raPidlY, leaving the C-4 quite a bit drier than it was originallY. Should be used onlY as a last resort.
Does not mix well with the C-4. The C.4 tends to rePel the vehicle and
abIY.

19

10

1.?0 - 1.80

Not determined

20

Ethylene

20

1.34

1.60

Clycol 20 (perm anti'


freeze)

Not determined.

therefore the mix exudes quite noticeA good mix, on a par with fuel oil.

2L

Diesel Oil

1.39

1.50

23,987

tzr

27

Lanolin

15

1.20

1.55

2L,492

A good sticky, fibrous, cohesive mix.


A very good mix, Adhesive and cohesive to a great

34

Gilol (Minerat OiI)

14

L.32

L.40

22,577

degree. Should stick to al.most


anything.

35

Petrolatum
(Vaseline)

10.3

1.35 - 1.41

22,594

A very good mix also.


Adhesive and cohesive enougb to adhere to almost any surface which might be attacked.

57

Soy Bean Oil

Fl_

L.49 - L.51

23,474

Oz

Block c-4

Poor mix, marginally cohesive, no adhesion. Had to be primed w 2 caps before it would f.ire 2 misfires out of 3. A typical vegetable oil mix.

122

a ruler.

Theabovementionedmixescanbeduplicated.wit'hnomeasuringdevicesotherthan in is a standard size' thus can be used 1'fre pfa"iic ,i""uu whtcfr C-a is strippeA iy' -inches up the sleeve contains one fluid as a measurirrg J",ri"e. e cotumi tili"ia of column height to the original 172 -inches' ounce. For two fluid ounces, aAO i%.irr"h"" fluid o'nde allows ior the 7+ -inch dead The extra y+ -inch of column t eigii* t"- ttt"-tt""tof a fluid ounce may be determined by a C-a ste#e. r"t"it""t space at the eno of "u""y simple proPortion. described' To duplicate the following mixes use the ratios
Mix Vehicle Fuel Oil
C-4 Inches of column height ZL/ztbs' Block

I7 34

4
?

% %

-inches -inches

Gilol

measurements can be made'

to illustrate how simple the mix These two mixes are listed onlY as examples
APPENDIX B

explostve was placed o-n a standard 16 WF In the fotlowing tests the tube of pasteone inctr in diarneter. In all shots on a wF 36 beam. The plasticlube which *u. '"Lo'*as ft""g", dowu the web' and across the opposite beam, the explosive was taia across if'" oi lhe web' a strip was placed on each flange in the shape of a "C". On tt" other "iOu flange.

The beam was cut excepf in the upper

ShotNo.l.5?4gmspasteplacedasdescribed.Initiatedwiththreeelectriccaps. fillets'

ShotNo,2,4Lggmspasteplacedasdescribed.Thestripalongthewebwas caps. Beam severed exyz diameter of the exprosive trnu." tt"tiiri"oilitrritt""u electric cept in fillets. bar.
Center Primed. ComPlete cut'

ShotNo.5.l,,x3,,steelbarused.llsgmsofpastelaidacrossthewidthofthe
ShotNo.16.4,,x6,,oaktimlrer.ll8gmsofpasteused.Completecut.

the head of the

ShotNo.22.g0lbyard.Railroadrailused.TwoLL/z.inchchargesplacedunder usea, Rail completely severed'

rail.

g0 gms totaf exprostve

of P

Asamatterofinterest,itshouldbenotedthatbythepresentsteel.cuttingformula to the actual amounts used' A the following amounts u"" ""q"ired and co"i"usteO

3/uA

Actually Used

L23

of

P= %

A tfre following amounts are required

and contrasted to the actual amounts used.


P--3/a A

Actually Used

Shot 1 Shot 2 Shot 5 Shot 22

16 WF 36 16 WF 36 1x3 steel bar 90 lb/ yard rail


Can be used

L347,2 gms 5?4. gms L347.2 gms 419 gms 382.8 gms 115 gms 562.46 gms 80 gms

Materials That

to Improvise Explosive Incendiaries, and some Delay Devices.

1. The following is a partial list of some chemicals and other material. The sources will differ from country to country but most of them can be found throughout the wor1d. This will be an aid in securing chemicals. Also, a large quantity should be stored by the guerrillas prior to any large-scale use, The complexity of the problem confronting security forces attempting to control such items can readily be seen,
Coal dust Comrnon match heads t'Duco" model cement

Liquid floor wax


Photoflash powder

Fuel oil

Kerosene Rosin Sawdust Powdered coffee Tapioca Powdered rice Hard rubber dust Powdered soap Turpentine

Paraffin Petroleum Pitch


Commr:n sugar Cocoa Confectioners sugar

Flour Cornstareh Cork dust

Fertilizer

Gasoline Plaster of paris Aluminum metal flakes


Catechol

Amrnonium nitrate Ammonium perchlorate Charcoal Calcium carbide Lead dioxide Lead tetraethyl Manganese dioxide Aluminum (powdered) Magnesium (shavings or powdered) Zinc (powdered) Sulfur Sulfuric acid Stearic acid Nitric acid Nitrocellulose (pyroxylin) White phosphorous Calcium hypochloride Sodium peroxide Carbon dissulfide Barium peroxide Naptha Hydrogen peroxide (10 volume or higher)

Dinitrobenzine Glycerin Limed rosin


Phenol Potassium permanganate

Potassium nitrate Potassium chlorate Recorcinol


Red phosphorous Sodium nitrate Mercury salts Nitrobenzine Nitromethane Sodium chlorate Red lead Potassium dichromate Copper sulfate Ferric oxide Aluminum sulfate Silver nitrate powder

t24

Fast-Burning Primers: "Fast-burning primer" is a term applied to a flame' type ignitor used in conjunction with incendiaries. The primer mjx is ignited and in turn ignites the incendiary. The fast-burning primer mix may be used as an incendiary. The following is a list of several of these mixes: a, C6orate-Sugar Mix. This mix consists of potassium or sodium chlorate and common sugar blended together. Proportions can be equal parts by volume or three parts chlorate tJtwo parts sugar. The chlorate-sugar mix'can be ignited by flame, spark, br acid. If unconfin"O tttu maferial will burn; if confined, detonation will result. A length of pipe filled with the mix, tightly capped and primed by any spark-producing item (i.e.' time fuze, firing device) will produce a fine casualty charge.

2"

potassium Permanganate-Sugar. Another excellent primer is o'btained by parts potassium permanganate with one part sugar. This mixture may be igmixing nine nited -ny a spark oi ny glycerine. It is used the same as the chlorate'sugar mtxture.

b. c.

Iodine Crystals and Aluminum Powder. This mix is obtained by blending equal volumes of iodine crystals and aluminum powder together. The product is slow in iginition but it burns much hotter than the chlorate-sugar or permanganate-sugar mixture. t[nition can be obtained by a spark or by introducing water. As the iodine burns a purple srnoke is released. The smoke may be used for mterking DZ's or signalling. However, the smoke is POISONOUS.
Flowerpot Incendiary. This incendiary device is referred to as a "flowerpot" incendiary, as a Ctay or ceramic container is required and the flowerpot is the most common such item found around the world, Tape the hole in the bottom of the flowerpot. Run a cardboard tube from the hole to the top of the pot. Fill the pot (not the tube) to within l-inch of the top with a mixture of three parts iron oxide and two parts aluminum powder. The tube and remainder of the pot are filled with any of the first fire mixes. The means of ignition is attached, This item can be used to attack machinery, generators, trans' formers, and any inflammable materials,

3.

parts plaster of paris and four parts water mixed by volume.

4. Molded Incendiary: a. The formula for the mclded incendiary is three parts alumi.num powder, b. c. d.

five

place the three parts aluminum powder and five parts plaster in a suitable
Add four parts water and stir together
Remove the mold

container and blend together.

well. After mtxing, place in a mold.

after about 30 minutes has elapsed. The incendiary must be air-dried for a period of 2 weeks or baked in an oven for a period of 6 to 8 hours at
350 degrees

F.

before

it is employed,

125

e. Ignition is best obtained byproducingaprimingwell, filling the well with magnesium shavings, and igniting the shavings with a fast-burning primer." [.
Pipe Bomb:

a. A hand grenade can easily be improvised by confining any of the fast-burning primers in a strongcontainer, i.e.,length of pipe, ceramic container, etc., andproviding
a means of ignition.

b. When the primer ignites and begins the container producing a small explosion. 6.
sawdust, Sawdust and Tar or Wax:

to burn, the expanding

gas

will rupture

a. An excellent incendiary may be im;:rovised by

adding mclten wex or tar to

b. The wax or tar is mixed with the sawdust at a ratio of about b0-b0. c. Any fast-burning primer will ignite the mixes quite readily. 7. Improvised Napalm: a. Napalm may be improvised from gasoline and soap. b. First, cut the soap into fine chips; next, boil the gasoline. c., The gas may best be boiled by placing about one gallon of fuel tainer. The gas is ignited and as it burns it wilt generate Jnough heat toin an open concause itself to
boil.

d. After the gas is boiling rapidly, slowly substance is obtained.


disht' charge.

stir in the soap chips until a jelly-like

e- This material is readily

ignited with a match, WP grenade, or the ,,soap

126

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130

C.

AlR""tlfIR5i"U",IONS
COMBUSTION DEVICE.

FOR PREPARATION OF A RELIABLE SPONTANEOUS

l.Measurethecombustiblematerialbytightly,P*.I'lF].t-T:^'othetopoftheone ^.-"rr"-*aterii tt'""ia p'fi o* of the measuring jar when firm hand pint measuring ir'".

i"""".r"" is removed.
container.

2.Transferthecombustiblematerialfromthemeasuringjartotheconfinement
jar to one-third 3. pour the vegetable oil into the one pint measuring jar volume'

4.Usingateaspoon,add-thespecifiedqu3lt.ityofCobaltDriertothevegetableoil ory-Jtta add the specifiedquantity of Lead in the one pint measurlng :"1.- ryip"ir'" tpoo" ;;i"" to ttre-Vegetable Oil-'Cobalt Drier mixture' and driers by stirring with the 5. Thoroughly mix the combination of vegetable oil teaspoon for approximartely one minute' container for one be mixed and stored in an air.tight Nrf.f B: Vegetable oil and drier can is not recomrnended' week before ,r"".--Lo"g"r storage jar over the combustible mater6, pour oil mixture from the one pint measuring materiat bv kneading, pulling saturate trre comtrustTnte iat in the confinement container.can be accomplished either in or outside of the confine-trre trands. rnis and balling *ttr,
ment container,

131

---*----",.

--

"r

ment container rvith a knife.

7. Remove saturatecl combustible material from the confinement container, 8, Cut a hoie one to two inches in diameter in the center-bottom of the confine-

9, Place confinement container on a frat surface, hord the Llz -inch diameter stick vertically over the hole in the bottom cf the confinement container and pack the saturated combustible material around the stick compressing it so that it fills 7/ B to I/ 2 of the confinement container volume after hand p"esirrre is removed.

L32

i
I
..r

10' Remove the stick. This leaves a ventilation hole up through the combustible material, The spontaneous combustion clevice is now reacly center of the for application unless the following optional st-ep is used: 11' This step is optional. Take a piece of Fire Fuclge (0202) about the size of a warnut and crush it into pieces about the size of peas. sprinklJthe pieces of crushed Fire trudge on top of the combustible material.
OR

Cut a piece of Fuze Cord (0101) to a length of about four in:hes. Since safety fuze burns inside $e wrapping, it is sliced in half to expose the black powcler. (Lacquer coated fuze (non-safety type) burns completely and may be usecl without slicing.) Insert one or more pieces of fuze vertically in the combustible material hole leaving about one inch extending out of the top surface of the near the center vent combustible material.

133

D,

INSTRLTCTIONS FOR PREPARATION Otr IMPROVISED DRIERS:

1. If the commercial driers (Cobatt-6 %and Lead-24 %) specified under Material aud Equipment are not available, the following improvised drieis can be made starting lvith flashtiglrt batteries and powdered lead oxide (Ph3 0a). These improvised driers are used in the same m?.nner as the commercial driers. a.
IIANGANESE DRIER:

(1). Break open three flashlight batteries (size D) and collect the pastl' material surrounding the central carbon rod.
(2)-, Put this m;lterial in a one pint wide mcuth jar
contents to
and

fill jar

with rvater.
and allou

(3). Slo'wly stir contents of jar for approximately two minutes settle. The contents will usually setile in one-half hour.

(4).
to dry,

Pour off water standing on top of settled contents.


Remove wet contents from

(5). (6).

jar,

spread

it

on a paper towel and allow

Dry the jar.

volume.

(7), Pour raw linseed oil into the one pint measuring jar to one-third jar

(8). Combine the measured quantity of raw linseed oil and the dried battery contents from step 5 in a pot and boil for one-half hour. (9). Shut off heat, remove pot from the heat source and allow the mixture to cool to room temrerature.
(10): Separate the liquid from the solid material settled on the bottom by carefully pouring the liquid into a storage bottte-discard the solid mrrterial. The liquid is the drier, (11).
The manganese

drier is ready for

use.

(72). If manganese dioxide pow'der is available, flashlight batteries need not be used. Place one heaping teaspoonful of manganese dioxide powder into the raw linseed oil and boil the mixture in a pot for one-ha-lf hour. Thenfoilow steps 9, 10 and 11.

134

b.
volumt:.

LBAD OXIDE DRIER:

(1). pour raw linseed oil into the one pint

measuring jar to one-third jar

(2),Combinethemeasuredquantityofrawlinseedoilandtwoheaping of lead oxide in a pot and boil g"ttiy foi one-half hour. The mixture mitst be teaspoonfuls
stirred constantly to avoid foaming over'
Shut off heat, remcve pot from the heat source anl a-llow the mi'xture to cocl to room temPerature.

(3),

(4\.Pourtheliquidintoastoragebottleandcapthebottle.

(5). E, 1.

The lead oxide drier is ready for use'

APPLICATION::

wjth The spontaneous combustion device is placed at thetarget on a flat surface impregnated com'rrustible material' one edge propped up to allow ventilation through the

confinement container' Since flames normally shoot up from the open top oi the. thiee to five inches directly over combustible target materiar should-be positione^d.from Do N(l'r CovER OPEN ToP the top of the device for satisfactory ilrition of the target'

OF DEVICE.
135

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