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Culture and Religion

Islam Hinduism

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1 :
(from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning
"to cultivate")generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
structures that give such activities significance and importance.
Cultures can be "understood as systems of symbols and meanings that
even their creators contest, that lack fixed boundaries, that are
constantly in flux, and that interact and compete with one another".
Culture can be defined as all the ways of life including arts, beliefs and
institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to
generation.
Culture has been called "the way of life for an entire society." As such, it
includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, games, norms
of behavior such as law and morality, and systems of belief as well as the art.
According to a psychologist Ralph Linton culture means.

“Overall behaviour of any society”.


All styles of our life are included in this behaviour. Our language, dress,
food, living, habits, customs, beliefs and traditions and all those matters
which we come across being a member of society.
Another sociologist has given a comprehensive definition of culture.
According to him culture is an element produced by behaviour and as a
result of it, it keeps on changing and becomes a part of fashion among the
individuals and a society. It includes all kinds of human behaviour, values,
sciences and material things.
In every culture, some peculiar aspects of behaviour flourish in specific
geographical environment. Every culture has its own particular area and
temperament. In some countries diverse values come into use with the
passage of time. Before the creation of Pakistan, two big cultures based on
different values were present in the sub-continent, one was the Muslim
culture and the other was Hindu culture.

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2 Islamic culture:
culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural
practices common to historically Islamic peoples. As the religion of Islam
originated in 6th century Arabia, the early forms of aconism culture were
predominantly Arab. However, with the rapid expansion of the Islamic
empires, Muslims came into contact with, and assimilated much from the
Persian, Turkish, Mongol, Indian, Malay, Berber and Indonesian cultures.

2.1 Terminological disagreement:


Muslim culture is itself a contentious term. Muslims live in many different
countries and communities, and it can be difficult to isolate much that
unifies them other than the religion of Islam. However, secular academia
does not acknowledge this distinction, since it views religion as one aspect
of cultural anthropology and history.

The noted historian of Islam, Marshall Hodgson, noted the above difficulty
of religious versus secular academic usage of the words "Islamic" and
"Muslim" in his three-volume work, The Venture Of Islam. He proposed to
resolve it by only using these terms for purely religious phenomena, and
invented the term "Islamicate" to denote all cultural aspects of historically
Muslim peoples. However, his distinction has not been widely used, and
confusion remains in common usage of these words.

2.2 Religious practices and beliefs

Islamic culture generally includes all the practices which have developed
around the religion of Islam, including Qu'ranic ones such as salah and non-
Qu'ranic such as divisions of the world in Islam. It includes as the Baul
tradition of Bengal, and facilitated the peaceful conversion of most of
Bengal. ega

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3 Language and literature :
Arabic literature (Arabic: Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced,
both prose and poetry, by speakers (not necessarily native speakers) of
the Arabic language. It does not usually include works written using the
Arabic alphabet but not in the Arabic language such as Persian literature
and Urdu literature. The Arabic word used for literature is adab which is
derived from a word meaning "to invite someone for a meal" and implies
politeness, culture and enrichment.

Arabic literature emerged in the 6th century with only fragments of the
written language appearing before then. It was the Qur'an in the 7th
century which would have the greatest lasting effect on Arabic culture
and its literature. Arabic literature flourished during the Islamic Golden
Age and continues to the present day.

4 Festivals :
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha,

Ashurah (see also Hosay and Tabuik), Mawlid, Lailat al Miraj and Shab-e-
baraat.

5 Marriage:
Marriage in Islam is considered to be of the utmost importance. The final
prophet of Islam, Muhammad, stated that "marriage is half of religion"; there
are numerous hadiths lauding the importance of marriage and family.

In Islam, marriage is a legal bond and social contract between a man and a
woman as prompted by the Shari'a. There are two types of marriages
mentioned in the Qur'an, the Nikah and the Nikah Mut'ah.

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6 Art:
Islamic art, a part of the Islamic studies, has throughout history been mainly
abstract and decorative, portraying geometric, floral, Arabesque, and
calligraphic designs. Unlike the strong tradition of portraying the human
figure in Christian art, Islamic art does not include depictions of human
beings. The lack of portraiture is due to the fact that early Islam forbade the
painting of human beings, including Muhammad, as Muslims believe this
tempts them to engage in idolatry. This prohibition against human beings or
icons is called aniconism. Over the past two centuries, especially given
increased contact with Western civilization, this prohibition has relaxed to
the point where only the most orthodox Muslims strongly oppose
portraiture.

Islamic art is centered usually around Allah, and since Allah cannot be
represented by imagery ["All you believe him to be, he is not"], geometric
patterns are used. The patterns are similar to the Arabesque style, which also
involves repeating geometric designs, but is not necessarily used to express
ideals of order and nature.

6.1 Calligraphy:

Forbidden to paint humans and taught to revere the Qur'an, Islamic artists
developed Arabic calligraphy into an art form. Calligraphers have long
drawn from the Qur'an or proverbs as art, using the flowing Arabic language
to express the beauty they perceive in the verses of Qur'an.

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7 Architecture:

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious


styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design
and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.

The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the
Palace and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic
architecture is derived and used for buildings of lesser importance such as
public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.

8 Elements of Islamic style:


Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements,
which were inherited from the first mosque built by Muhammad in Medina,
as well as from other pre-Islamic features adapted from churches and
synagogues.

• Large courtyards often merged with a central prayer hall (originally a


feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi).
• Minarets or towers (which were originally used as torch-lit
watchtowers for example in the Great Mosque of Damascus; hence
the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur, meaning "light").
• a mihrab or niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca.
This may have been derived from previous uses of niches for the
setting of the torah scrolls in Jewish synagogues or the haikal of
Coptic churches.
• Domes (the earliest Islamic use of which was in the eighth century
mosque of Medina).
• Use of iwans to intermediate between different sections.
• Use of geometric shapes and repetitive art (arabesque).
• Use of decorative Arabic calligraphy.

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• Use of symmetry.
• Ablution fountains.
• use of bright color.
• focus on the interior space of a building rather than the exterior.

9 Interpretation:
Common interpretations of Islamic architecture include the following:

• The concept of Allah's infinite power is evoked by designs with


repeating themes which suggest infinity.
• Human and animal forms are rarely depicted in decorative art as
Allah's work is matchless. Foliage is a frequent motif but typically
stylized or simplified for the same reason.
• Calligraphy is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing
quotations from the Qur'an.
• Islamic architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil"
because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms)
which are not visible from the outside (street view).
• Use of impressive forms such as large domes, towering minarets, and
large courtyards are intended to convey power.

10 Music:
Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public
services or private devotions. The classic heartland of Islam is Arabia and
the Middle East, North Africa and Egypt, Iran, Central Asia, and northern
India and Pakistan. Because Islam is a multicultural religion, the musical
expression of its adherents is diverse. The indigenous musical styles of these
areas have shaped the devotional music enjoyed by contemporary Muslims:

• Arab classical music


• Religious music in Iran
• North Indian classical music.

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The Seljuk Turks, a nomadic tribe that converted to Islam, conquered
Anatolia (now Turkey), and held the Caliphate as the Ottoman Empire, also
had a strong influence on Islamic music. See:

• Turkish classical music.

Sub-Saharan Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines also


have large Muslim populations, but these areas have had less influence than
the heartland on the various traditions of Islamic music.

11

- Founder of Hinduism
- What is Hinduism?
- Death and Dying
- Hindu Traditions
Hinduism is the third most popular religion in the world, and has about 900
million followers. People who follow this religion are known as Hindus.
Around 80 percent of the population in India call themselves as Hindus.
Hinduism is also called as the "Sanatana Dharma". In Sanskrit, the original
language of India, 'Sanatana' means Everlasting and 'Dharma', means
Religion.

11.1Basics of Hinduism:

Hinduism is more than 3000 years old; its elements of faith are even older.
 It has no single founder, teacher, or prophet.

 It is not a single unified religion.

 It had originated around the river Indus.

 It Believes in a universal soul or God.

 There are many deities like Krishna, Shiva, Rama and Durga.

 Hindus believe in the existence of a cycle of birth, death, and reincarnation,

which is based on the concept of karma

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11.2 Hinduism and varied beliefs:
Hinduism does not believe in a single set of belief or way of worship. Indeed
the word itself did not appear in English until 1829. Hinduism is the
conglomeration of a variety of different religious groups, which come out of
India.

11.3History of Hinduism:
Hinduism was formed from the practices of those who lived near the Indus
river, that is the modern day Pakistan. However Hinduism has been
influenced by the traditions, stories and practices of people from other parts
of India and beyond.

Hindu God or Gods:


Hinduism Believes in just One God. It gives us the opportunity to visualize
the various forms of god. This belief is often mixed with polytheism. It is
believed that the Hindus worship many gods, but in fact, many Hindus
would claim to believe in one eternal god (Brahman), which is indefinable,
whilst revering other deities. They recognize the other gods as different
aspects of the Brahman.

12 Caste system under Hinduism:

The caste system which was described in the Vedas, has been abused much
over the years, this was nothing but a representation of a society. The four
castes are - the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, and the Shudras. An
efficient human society is based on its educational system that is the
Brahmins, its defense and military system that is the Kshatriyas, its
economical system that is the Vaishyas, and a strong workforce called the
Shudras. This representation of the people in various Varna's was exploited
by many in the Indian society, leading to the formation of many thousands of
sub-castes, and also the so-called "upper" castes.

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13 Origin of the word ‘Hindu’
The word ‘Hindu’ is not a Sanskrit word or nor mentioned in any of the
ancient major texts of India. It is believed to be originated from the ancient
Persians. The Persians who were shared some common culture with the
people of Indian sub-continent used to call the Indus River as ‘Sindhu.’ Due
to some linguistic problems, they could not pronounce the letter ‘S’ in their
language and started mispronouncing it as ‘H’. Thus they started
pronouncing the word Sindhu as Hindu. The ancient Greeks, American and
the rest of the world followed the same word and started calling the Indus
river valley people as Hindus and gradually the word stuck.

14 Origin of the word ‘Hindustan’:


Even the word ‘Hindustan’ is not originated from the mouth of any Indian.
The Muslim travelers and rulers who came to India during the medieval
period called the Indian subcontinent as ‘Hindustan’ and its people as
‘Hindus.’ The British too followed the same words and later they used this
name religiously to distinguish Hindus from Muslims and Christians.

The Hinduism is well known for the multiplicity of the Gods. It doesn't
advocate the worship of any particular deity. In this context, the Hindu
concept of God can be misinterpreted. The fact is that, all these gods and
goddesses represent different aspects of the absolute supreme called
Brahman. One should understand the fact that each deity is a manifestation
of Brahman. It symbolizes one particular aspect of Brahman, or ultimately
Brahman itself.

15 Multiplicity of gods in Hinduism:


The Hinduism is well known for the multiplicity of the Gods. It doesn't
advocate the worship of any particular deity. In this context, the Hindu
concept of God can be misinterpreted. The fact is that, all these gods and
goddesses represent different aspects of the absolute supreme called
Brahman. One should understand the fact that each deity is a manifestation

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of Brahman. It symbolizes one particular aspect of Brahman, or ultimately
Brahman itself.

16 Attributes of Brahman
Brahman is the God in the highest sense: formless, infinite and eternal. As
being formless, God is neither nether male nor female. God is beyond space
and time, and it is changeless and it is the source of consciousness. Brahman
cannot exist, as it is the existence it self. Brahman is all knowing and it is
knowledge it self.

17 Understanding the Brahman


Despite having the abstract concept of Brahman, Hindus worship the God in
his personal forms every day. The ancient Vedas describes a number of
deities like Indra, Agni, Varuna, which are personified forms of forces of
nature. These Vedic gods are no longer worshipped. Today most of the
people worships deities like Vishnu, Shiva and Shakthi.
According to Bhagavata Purana, absolute Brahman can be realized in three
ways.
 Brahman it self ( the absolute reality)
 Paramatma (union of all individual souls)
 Bhagvan (as a personal God)

18 Isvara or Bhagvan
When we talk about God as a supreme powerful human being, we often use
the name Isvara or Bhagvan. Depending on the aspect of the Isvara which
we are referring to, different images are created. For example,
 Brahma - being referred to as creator
 Vishnu - being refereed to as preserver
 Shiva - being referred as the destroyer.

The ultimate aim


The goal of Hinduism is to wake up and realize our connection with the
absolute reality Brahman. That is why the essence of Vedas is considered to
be "aham brahmasmi" (I am the Brahman).

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19 Hindu Clothes:

Indian clothing is famous because it is colorful and also graceful. Outfits for
women are designed to be graceful. While men's clothes are for the warm
climate and comfort. Certain trends in clothing prevail even to date
throughout the country.

19.1 WOMEN'S CLOTHING:


The traditional Indian clothing for women is the Sari, which can be worn in
many different ways. A choli is worn over a sari, which is a blouse that ends
just below the bust. The Salwar Kameej is one of the most popular costumes.
The Salwar Kameez too has had many designs. One of the other traditional
dresses is the Lehangas.

19.2 MEN'S TRADITIONAL CLOTHING:


The traditional attire of men includes: Sherwani, Lungi, Dhoti and Kurta
Pajama.

20 Hindu festivals

An idol maker gives finishing touches to a Ganesha statue during the


Chaturthi festival]]The following is a list of Hindu festivals.

Batukamma festival

Festival Date of Date of Description


Observance Observance
(2008

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Gregorian
calendar)
Makar Sankranti (also known by
other various names) is the only
Hindu festival which is based on the
Makara Solar calendar rather than the Lunar
January 14 January 14
Sankranti calendar. The festival is celebrated
by taking dips in the Ganges river or
any river and offering water to the
Sun god.
Pongal (meaning "boiling over") is a
Hindu festival to give thanks for the
First day of Thai
Pongal January 15 harvest. The festival is celebrated all
(Tamil calendar)
over South India, but is highly
popular in the state of Tamil Nadu.
Vasant Panchami (also called
Fifth day of
Saraswati Puja by Bengalis) is
Vasant waxing moon of
January 22 – 23 celebrated for the blessing of
Panchami Magh (Hindu
Saraswati, goddess of wisdom and
Calendar)
fine arts.[1]
Thirteenth night of Maha Shivaratri is the great night of
the waning moon Shiva, followers of Shiva observe
Maha Shivaratri March 6
of Magh (Hindu religious fasting and the offering of
Calendar) Bael (Bilva) leaves to the Shiva.[2]
Holi or Phagwah is a popular spring
festival. Holi commemorates the
slaying of the demoness Holika by
Full moon of
Lord Vishnu's devotee Prahlad. Thus,
Holi Phalgun (Hindu March 21
the festival's name is derived from
Calendar)
the Sanskrit words "Holika
Dahanam", which literally mean
"Holika's slaying"
Navratri is the Hindu festival of
worship and dance. In Sanskrit the
Vasant Navratri April 12 term literally means "nine nights".
During this festival the forms of
Shakti are worshipped.
Rama Navami is the celebration of
Rama Navami April 13
the birth of Rama.
Gudi Padwa is celebrated on the first
First Day of day of the Chaitra month, and is
waxing moon of celebrated as New Years day by
Gudi Padwa April 6
Chaitra (Hindu Marathis. According to the Brahma
Calendar) Purana, this is the day on which
Brahma created the world.

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Ugadi (meaning "the start of an era"
in Kannada) is the New Years day for
Ugadi April 6
the Deccans. It takes place on the
same day as Gudi Padwa.[3]
Vishu is a hindu festival celebrated
in Kerala. The Tamil New Year
Vishu and
April 14 follows the nirayan vernal equinox.
Tamil New Year
These festivals falls around April 14
of the Gregorian year.
Shigmo is celebrated in Goa as one
February –
Shigmo of the prominent festivals of the
March
Konkani Hindu community there.
Hanuman Jayanti is the celebration
Hanuman
April 19 of the birth of Hanuman; Rama's
Jayanti
loyal devotee.
Vat Pournima is observed in
Full moon of Maharashtra. Pournima means "full
Vat Pournima Jyeshta (Hindu June 22 moon." Women pray for the
Calendar) prosperity of their husbands by tying
threads around a banyan tree.
Bonalu is a celebration of Mother
Bonalu August Goddess, and is celebrated in
Telangana Region.
Rath Yantra is the festival associated
Rath Yatra July 4
with Jagannath.
Guru Purnima is the day devotees
Full moon of
offer puja (worship) to their Guru.
Guru Purnima Ashadh (Hindu July 29
This was the day when Vyasa; author
Calendar)
of the Mahabharata was born.
Mahalakshmi Vrata is a puja
performed by married Hindu women
Mahalakshmi
August 11 to seek the blessings of
Vrata
Mahalakshmi, goddess of wealth and
prosperity.[4]
Onam is a harvest festival, celebrated
mainly in the Indian state of Kerala.
Onam September 12 Like many other religious festivals in
India, Onam is celebrated by people
across all castes and faiths.
Raksha Bandhan is a festival
Full moon of celebrated mainly in northern Indian
Raksha
Shravana (Hindu August 16 states. Rakhi is a special occasion to
Bandhan
Calendar) celebrate the chaste bond of love
between a brother and a sister.
Krishna Eighth day of August 24 Krishna Janmaashtami is the Hindu

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waning moon of
festival celebrating the birth of
Janmaashtami Shravana (Hindu
Krishna.[5]
Calendar)
Gowri Habba is celebrated in
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and
Tamil Nadu. Gowri is worshipped
for her ability to bestow courage to
Gowri Habba September 14
her devotees. Newly wed couples are
invited to the house of the groom's
parents and served with varieties of
food.
Fourth day of the
Ganesh waxing moon of Ganesh Chaturthi is the celebration
September 3
Chaturthi Bhadrapada of the birth of Ganesh.[6]
(Hindu Calendar)
Navratri is the Hindu festival of
First nine nights of worship and dance. In Sanskrit the
Navratri the waxing moon September 30 term literally means "nine nights".
of Ashwin During this festival the forms of
Shakti are worshiped.
Tenth day of
waxing moon of Vijayadashami is the Hindu
Vijayadashami October 9
Ashwin (Hindu celebration of good over evil.
Calendar)
Diwali is the abbreviation of the
Sanskrit word "Deepavwali", which
means "row of lights". The festival is
celebrated on the occasion of Lord
New moon of
Krishna and his wife Satyabhama
Deepavali Ashwin (Hindu October 28
killing a demon Narakasura. Another
Calendar)
story says the festival is celebrated
for the return of Rama and Sita to the
kingdom Ayodhya after fourteen
years of exile.[7]
Bhaubeej, also referred to as Bhai
dooj, is the ceremony performed by
Second day of the
Hindus, generally, on the second day
waxing moon of
Bhaubeej November 1 of Diwali. It is celebrated among
Kartik (Hindu
brothers and sisters and is similar to
Calendar)
Raksha Bandhan, except there is no
tying of rakhi involved.
15th of the Full A unique festival is celebrated in
moon day of Varanasi this day which is called Dev
Kartik
Kartik [November 13] Devali. The Kartik Purnima festival
Poornima
(November- also coincides with the Jain light
December) festival and Guru Nanak Jayanti

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Chhath is unique to Bihar and Terai,
but is also celebrated elsewhere. It is
Chhath November 4 a festival dedicated to the Sun God
for bestowing the bounties of life and
fulfilling wishes.[8]

21 Hindu wedding

ceremonies are traditionally conducted at least partially in Sanskrit, the


language in which most holy Hindu ceremonies are conducted. The local
language of the people involved is also used since most Hindus cannot
understand Sanskrit. They have many rituals that have evolved since
traditional times and differ in many ways from the modern western wedding
ceremony and also among the different regions, families, and castes such as
Rajput weddings and Iyer weddings. The Hindus attach a lot of importance
to marriages and the ceremonies are very colorful and extend for several
days.

22 Important of Language
Language is an important part of culture because it is the most important
medium of the expression of thought, feelings and emotions. Language is
important to identify a nation. This is the reason why every nation keeps its
language dear and takes suitable steps for its progress.
In many countries more than one language are spoken. All the languages
spoken in a country are part of its culture, but one of these languages is used
for interaction at national level. This is called national language.

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National language proves helpful in bringing the people of different regions
closer. Harmony develops to keep the national unity. The national language
is dominant over other regional languages of a country but this does not
mean that other languages are ignored. All these languages which continue
flourishing gradually in their respective regions, are collective cultural
treasure of a nation.

23 language in Pakistan
In Pakistan also many languages are spoken. The main languages Punjabi,
Sindhi, Pushto and Balochi are of special importance. They usually
represent their own respective regions or provinces. These are called
regional languages. They are a source of expression of the culture of

their own regions. Urdu is the national language of Pakistan, which is


spoken and understood in all parts of the country, with a slight difference of
pronunciation. Urdu has also been declared the national language in the
1973 Constitution of Pakistan.
Urdu is a developed language and its main quality is that it absorbs the
words of different languages easily. Other than the words of Arabic, Persian,
Turkish and local languages of South Asia, many words of the languages of
Europe (English) have also become part of it. For example, bangla, bus,
school, college, hospital, operation, laboratory. test, station, radio, TV etc.
Urdu has flourished a lot in Pakistan. Writers and poets have made great
efforts to spread it. It is not only a language of inter provincial unity but also
a medium of instruction. Modern sciences are being translated in Urdu. This
language is gradually being introduced in offices, The govt. has established a
center for this purpose (Muqtadra Quami Zaban) but some influential
members are not interested in adopting it. English is again being given
importance. Other than the national language four other regional languages
are being given importance. Some other languages are also spoken in the
provinces.
Punjabi is a language of the province of Punjab. This language is spoken
in the whole of the province, but the accent ofPunjabi is different in various
parts of the province, for example, the Potohari and Majhay, Punjabi is an
old language. The regular literacy tradition in this language began with the
arrival of Muslims in South Asia. Many religious scholars and saints used
this language for expression and preaching of their views. Baba Farid Ganj

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Shakar, Baba Nanak, Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Bulley Shah, Waris
Shah, Khawaja Farid and Fazal Shah made this language popular through
their poetry.
In the twentieth century novel, short story and plays were written in Punjabi
alongwith the books and articles on history, geography, linguistics and
medicine. After the creation of Pakistan, Punjabi prose and poetry made
great progress. Punjabi is being taught in colleges. The Punjab University
has a department of Punjabi where MA and Ph.D is done in Punjabi. Some
literary magazines are also published in Punjabi.
Like Puñjabi, Sindhi is also a very old language of South Asia. Afler the
arrival of Muslims, the words of Arabic became a part of it. Other than that,
the influence of Persian and Turkish language is also visible. Sindhi is
written in Arabic script. In the early era of Muslims in South Asia only
Sindhi was a language in which the Holy Quran was translated first.
The mystical poetry in Sindhi is immensely appreciated in Sindhi and other
provinces of Pakistan. The names of Shah Abdul Lateef Bhitai and Hazrat
Sachal Sar Mast excelled in metaphysical poetry. A great treasure of
literature is present in Sindhi,
Sindhi also differs in accent, The spoken Sindhi differs from place to place
in the province. The Sindh university Jamshoro has a department of Sindhi
where it is taught at advanced level. In schools and colleges the students are
allowed to take the examination of Board and University in Sindhi. It is also
a language of the lower courts in Sindh.
Pushto is spoken in the province of Sarhad and tribal areas from the
centuries. There is also an influence of Arabic and Persian on Pushto.
Though it is very old language yet the literature of it appeared much late.
First book of prose was wntten in the last decade of the 18 century. The
name of this book is Patah Khazana. Amir Crore is called the first poet
who passed away about a thousand years ago.
Like other languages of Pakistan the mystic element was also dominant on
Pushto. Later on, the other kinds of poetry and prose progressed very much.
Kazim Khan Shaida, Rehman Baba and Khushal Khtak are the great
poets of Pushto. Their poetry is read and heard with great zeal.
The literature has expanded in the present age. A work on various aspects of
poetry and prose is being done. Many magazines are published in it. An
institution named Pushto Academy is a part of Peshawar University. It serves
the language and literature. Facilities of higher education are provided

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alongwith the publication of the books of top level. Peshawar TV and Radio
are also playing a great role in the progress of Pushto.

In Balochistan, the language of Baloch tribes is Balochi. In this province,


Pushto and Brahavi languages are also spoken other than Balochi. Inspite of
the fact that Balochi is a very old language but its script was introduced
much late. The colour of folk tales is dominant in Balochi literature
alongwith epic and romance.
The first magazine of Balochi was published in 1960. Now a days, many
magazines are being published in it. Plays are also being written alongwith
poems, short stories and novels. The Balochistan University, Baloch
Academy, Quetta Radio and Television are playing important roles in its
progress.
The national language of Pakistan is Urdu and it is a source of
contact among the citizens. It reduces mutual alienation.
The language of Urdu is very closely associated with the freedom movement
of Pakistan. In 1867 the Urdu Hindi conflict gave a new turn to the Muslim
political thought. This incident made it clear to the Muslims that they
themselves have to strive for the safety of their rights and interests. In South
Asia, Urdu originated in the era of Muslim rule. Urdu became popular in the
masses due to the influences of Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Urdu is not
only a part of our culture but it is also a cause of our national identity.
National language is closely related to the regional languages. Almost the
similar are the topics in all these languages. Islamic touch and mystical
poetry are in all these languages. In all the works there is a uniform blend of
Arabic and Persian, and the vocabulary is similar and used with slight
changes. National and provincial languages make it easy to communicate. It
increases the chances of union and integrity. The mass media, press, radio
and TV also play important roles. The publicity of common cultural heritage
strengthens the national culture and refines the language. It brings the people
of different areas closer and creates uniformity. Books written in regional
languages are being translated in Urdu. Folk tales, plays essays, verses and
songs are being translated in Urdu so that majority of people can be
benefited from them and enhance their awareness and view point.
All the four provinces of Pakistan have their own regional languages. To
some extent cultural differences in the customs and traditions and lifestyle
are there, Even then

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cultural uniformities are flourishing with the passage of time. Inspite of
living in different regions, people have a feeling of association with one
another and have the awareness of mutual relationship, which glorify their
identity, and can be called inspiring. The growth of Islamic values in the
South Asia is the important feature of the cultural heritage of Pakistan.
Muslims introduced a new lifestyle to the people of the sub-continent, it is
based on equality. These new values greatly impressed the people entrapped
in caste system, and in a short period of time, Islam spread in all parts of
South Asia.
In the rule of Muslims science, literature, music painting, architecture,
calligraphy and linguistics flourished greatly. The excellent contributions of
Muslim artists are our cultural heritage and they have become our identity.
The feelings of brotherhood are found in the people of Pakistan inspite of
their cultural differences (Saraiki, Punj abi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baloch) the
common faith of them maintains an atmosphere ofunity.
The uniformity of our cultural heritage in our regional poetry and literature
is an expression of the values common the literature of all the regions. The
works of writers and poets of national and regional languages teach
mysticism, humanism, justice, love and mutual cooperation. Sultan Bahu,
Bulley Shah, Waris Shah from Punjab, Shah Abdul Lateef Bhitai, Sachal Sar
Mast from Sindh, Rehman Baba from Sarhad and Gui Naseer from
Balochistan gave the same lesson of love, affection and equality.
It seems as if the same message is given by only one person in different
languages. In this way the colour of uniformity of culture brightens. Our
local mass media projects the various forms of culture to create harmony
helpful for the progress of the uniformity of the cultural heritage.

The minds of children are trained on national lines for the consistency
of culture. The common cultural values are taught. Education system,
the subjects being taught and topics are also a source of focusing
attention on cultural uniformity. It promotes similar cultural values.
This is why the Federal Govt. has taken the responsibility of introducing
the important features of educational system. It will keep the ideology of
the national impact and the attachment of new generation with cultural
heritage.

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There is a variety in the lifestyle, dress, traditions and arts of the people
living in geographical and climatical regions of Pakistan. magnified our
culture which in its form and multidimensional and colourful. customs,
different
24 Weather conditions:
The weather conditions greatly affect the selection of dresses. The same kind
of dress cannot be used in regions of hot and cold climate. Generally, thick
clothes are used in northern areas where the climate is cold. In Punjab, thin
clothes are used in Summer and thick woolen clothes in Winter. In Sindh and
Balochistan, the choice of clothes is made according to weather and regional
requirements. The areas where it is extremely hot, loose dress is more
popular. Moreover head and neck is kept covered to save them from the hot
winds and the intensity of heat. The weather on the seashore generally
remains the same and thick clothes are rarely used.
25 Tradition:
Inmost of the districts of Punjab, there is a tradition of Tehmad and Kameez.
In NWFP, Balochistan and Sindh, Shaiwar Kameez is a common dress. The
dress of coat and pant is used in cities. On the whole the dress of men in
Pakistan is Shaiwar Kameez. The tradition of wearing a cap and turban is
also there. Black Achkan, Sherwani and black waistcoat are also worn. The
Jinnah cap is a part of our official national dress. The ladies mostly wear
Shaiwar Kameez with a dupatta or a Shawl. The women mostly use Tehmad
and Kameez in the rural areas. Sari is also popular in some sections of
Pakistan. On some festivals and occasions ofjoy, colourful, ancient
traditional dresses are used.

According to the Islamic point of view, the basic rule of selection of dresses
is simplicity and covering. Painting, calligraphy, architecture and music are
the branches of fine arts. Pakistan has made great progress in these fields.
The famous authors, poets, painters, researchers and writers have not only
kept the tradition of fine arts and literature safe, but they have also
contributed a great deal in the national capital. This is our invaluable cultural
heritage.
26 Fine arts after introduction of television:
The progress in fine arts has increased after the introduction of television.
Work on dresses is done with great refinement from generation to

Shariq-khan 21
generation. Mostly the work is done by women in the homes. Some fine
goods are made by men and women collectively. Very fine mirror work is
done on dresses in Sindh. Ajrak (colourful and beautiful shawl) is very
popular. It has many qualities.
In Karachi, the jewelry an decorative pieces arc made of sea shells.
Moreover, items of stone are also prepared. The great work of embroidery is
done in Balochistan and NWFP. Mirror Work is their specialty.
The industry of handicrafts in Punjab is also well— developed.
In Multan lamps are made of camel skin, and other things are of fine
quality. Bahawalpur and Multan are famous for carved utensils.
Chiniot is on the top of the list of these places where the work of carving on
wood is done. On the whole, the centers of handicrafts are found in various
big and small villages and cities of Pakistan where things of fine quality are
being made. This is promoting our material culture..

27 sExhibitions:
Products are also introduced in industrial exhibitions and these things are
sold on the factory rate. The facilities of eatables and recreation are also
provided. The young and old, men and women enjoy them equally.
In the rural areas, small fairs are arranged after the harvesting of every crop.
The people enjoy and shop in these fairs. All these festivals and fairs are an
expression of our culture and valuable heritage. The social and economic
activity is flourished and there is an increase in the cultural contacts. The
atmosphere of unity, coordination and love is strengthened in the society.

Conclusion
Culture is an overall behaviour of society. Different religion has different
culture such, it includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals,
games, norms of behavior such as law and morality, and systems of belief as
well as the art. National language of a country has great importance in a
country.. National language is a source of unity and integrity. There is an
expression of uniformity of culture. The cultural diversity of the country
shows the variety of culture, dress in accordance to climate and social
opportunities. Fine arts and sciences include handicrafts and skills. Eids,
festivals, fairs and exhibitions are also recreational.

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Reference list :
http://en.wikipedia.org
http:// www.unc.edu
http:// profile.myspace.com
http:// www.tishreen.shern.net
http:// www.festivalsinindia.net
http:// www.muslimheritage.com
National book of foundation

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