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Conrad Health 1 Block 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder 29 December 2012
Autism. also known as “On the spectrum”. Ivar Lovaas developed behavioral treatments that showed children with ASDs could learn given a highly structured environment where rewards and punishments were given in a constant manner: speech improved and aggression tendencies diminished. The confusion between the two mental illnesses resulted in children that were once diagnosed with Autism later being re-diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Maryland. . He hypothesized that Autism is a neurologically based syndrome. But Kanner recognized that is was most likely physiological reasons for the unusual development. a child psychiatrist at John Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore. and ritualistic behaviors. Supposedly it was thought that children who found their world scary and hostile tended to have unusual behaviors. Kanner hypothesized that Autism was due to abnormalities in the brain. In the 1960s. So the children were removed from their homes and put into institutions. The separation of child and parent was no longer a choice in the 1970s. When a child did something that was deemed improper the punishments could become harsh. and “Retard”. Bernard Rimland promoted the idea that Autism was due to brain abnormalities. specialized school were built with staff trained for behavioral treatment. The word “Autism” came from a term that is used for describing people with Schizophrenia. but when they did something that was considered right the rewards were positive. was first discovered in the 1940s by Leo Kanner.extreme social isolation. “Mindblindnss”. others thought it was due to poor parenting. while studying a group of kids he noticed that they all had similar characteristics. O. communication difficulties. Mothers were the ones who were mostly blamed. they were accused of being cold and unfeeling.
If a mother births identical twins and one is affected by Autism it is most likely that both are affected. But most children with an ASD do not have an abnormal EEG reading. MRI studies have shown that there are often structural differences in the brain of people with Autism. but then show rapid head growth in the first year of life. Autopsies of people with ASDs have shown . the neurotransmitters may be able to function more on the MRIs of the brains belonging to children with an ASD. He presumed that rapid head growth in the first year makes learning difficult since the growth may cause an abnormally large amount amount of neural connections. Scientists have hypothesized that there may be extra or too little of neurotransmitters in some children with Autism. such as difficulty controlling body movements. When flaws occur many symptoms may form. Other studies show that small percentages have an uncharacteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) results. By controlling the amount of serotonin in the brain. The nervous system differences in children with Autism may directly affect their ability to communicate socially. Siblings of children with ASD have a 2-3% chance that they too have an ASD. The brain has approximately a hundred billion special cells called neurons that enable its various parts to communicate. Dr. Eric Courchesne reported that children with Autism have a smaller head circumference at birth. These children may have high levels of certain neurotransmitters called serotonin. meaning that Autism tends to run in families. Sometimes siblings do not show full symptoms of behavioral differences. Most professionals believe that children with ASD have abnormalities in the central nervous system. the differences contribute to the rituals and repetitive behaviors. and problems processing and apprehending information. Studies shows that there is a familial pattern or genetic input.No one knows the true cause if ASD. Serotonin can be controlled by a medication called Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRI.
5-15 in 10. In the 1960s. There are thoughts that immunization has caused this increase. psychologists and other evaluators that are now trained in recognizing symptoms of ASD. phenylketonuria. It is thought that Autism is four times more likely to develop in males.that their brains are heavier than usual. others believe it is due to more pediatricians. Children with Autism usually test in the mental retardation range on traditional intelligence tests. With an exception of childhood disintegrative disorder. behaviors affiliated with ASD must be present before the age of three. tuberous sclerosis. the loss of oxygen during birth. The vaccinations usually contain a mercury based preservative called Thimerosal. or anoxia. Diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have increased the number of children that fall into the spectrum range. Some people are concerned that the vaccinations that contain Thimerosal may be giving young people mercury poisoning. and vaccine manufacturers agreed to cease the usage of Thimerosal in vaccines for children. the American Academy of Pediatrics. It may be one of theses factors that lead to the development in a fetus that has already been predisposed to Autism in some form.000 births were diagnosed.S Public Health Service. Diagnosis of mental . maternal usage of cocaine during pregnancy. Recent studies have shown that as many as 1 in 88 have Autism. As a safety measure in 1999 the U. No medical conditions has been shown between people with an ASDs but there is a higher probability that they had a history of encephalitis. entailing that there may be an excess amount of nerves in the central nervous system. Most recent hypothesis involves immunization shots that are normally given to toddlers. The diagnosing rate has risen over the decades. Diagnosis can be made when a child is older but records of early development must be present to ensure that there were early signs.
Since there are no medical tests that can rule things in or out doctors must rely on observations. and a child’s medical history. bathing. and CDD or Childhood Disintegrative disorder. Rett’s disorder. dressing. and achievements with other people. participation in the community) and scores less than a 70 on an IQ test. interests. The other three spectrums. The diagnosis relies solely on the assessment of whether the person displays symptoms of a certain ASD. and gestures. body posture. and lack of social or emotional reciprocity towards others. Other impairments would be failure o develop peer relationships appropriate to age.e. Until the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV there were only two Autism Spectrum Disorders. Qualitative impairment in socialization is shown by marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze. lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment. facial expression. Asperger's disorder. These three disorders have complicated the diagnostic process since children with ASDs exhibit a wide range of characteristics and abilities. Qualitative impairments in communication include delay or total lack of the development of speaking. experience. There are many difficulties for there is lots room for interpretation when diagnosing ASDs. and at least one in the area of restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Some children use stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language. In order to be diagnosed a child must show all three of the “triad symptoms” with at least six symptoms in these categories: two or more in qualitative impairment in social skills. at least one in qualitative impairment of communication.retardation if necessary is an individual demonstrates difficulty with daily living skills (i. Communication may involve a series of . were rarely acknowledged during evaluation before 1994. In individuals with adequate language is the impairment to sustain a conversation with others.Infantile Autism and Atypical Autism.
TEARCHC ( Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children) uses picture schedules and other visual cues that help the child work independently and organize their environments. helping to improve adaptation skills and accept problems better. Since it is usually done at home this form of treatment is very expensive. can provide effective treatments. Symptoms of qualitative impairments in social skills. or continuously move his or her eyes and or head around while continuing to speak. . Repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests encompass the occupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that i abnormal either in intensity or focus. Signs may be disinterest in showing affection or absence of making eye contact or looking at another face. Research shows that starting treatment for Autism as young as possible greatly improves long-term outcomes. The child may stare at one thing. the floor. . A treatment called Applied Behavior Analysis uses one on one teaching approach that reinforces various skills. often requiring parents to seek financial help. responding to one’s name.gibberish used on the child's part with hand motions and lack of eye contact. as well as health providers. Common treatments for Autism involve behavioral and physical therapy. but there are many ways to help minimize the symptoms and maximize a person’s abilities. and express odd behavior that is repeated continuously. communication. There is no single treatment for ASD. and pointing. Symptoms must occur before the age of three. Others will have a complete lack of varied make-believe play or socially intimate play. and the presence of ritualistic behaviors a child will show uncommon behavior during socialization. Parents. uncharacteristic communication. and medication. Some may develop a small vocabulary then lose it for no seen reason. A child might also show apparent inflexibility to routine or schedule changes and stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. education.
Arizona.4 to $2. physical. In 2009. and tantrums. Connecticut. Arkansas. Colorado. Rhode Island. Alaska and Michigan . hyperactivity. child care. Connecticut. Divalproex Sodium. Florida. Virginia. Louisiana. anxiety attention problems. During the 2007-2008 legislative session. Florida. Louisiana. at least thirty-one states require insurers o cover treatments. physical therapy special education camps. nine states passed legislation laws related to Autism and insurance coverage. These states include. Some medications used to treat these problems are SSRI. and Texas made a bill requiring coverage for Autism. Illinois enacted a bill requiring insurance coverage for rehabilitative services for children with Autism.New Hampshire and Vermont required insurance coverage for Autism. Virginia. Pennsylvania. and speech-language therapy to improve socialization skills. mood stabilizers. In 2012. Kansas. Maine.3 million depending on the severity of the child’s Autism. The cost of annual financial aid in the United States is approximately $137 billion a year. and education. The yearly cost can add up to $76 thousand for those with severe disabilities and approximately $67 for a less severe case. California. island. Arkansas California. New Jersey. Nevada. and West Virginia passed a law requiring insurances to cover Autism Spectrum Disorders. Missouri. In 2010. Illinois Iowa. New Mexico. and Wyoming. Kentucky. For someone’s life span it will cost approximately $1. compulsions. New York. mood swings. Kansas. Kentucky. Texas. A total of thirty-seven states and the District of Columbia have laws related to Autism and its insurance coverage. In 2011. Arizona. sleep difficulty. Missouri. Maine. Iowa. Massachusetts. Massachusetts. South Carolina. Michigan. Other treatments involve occupational. and Methylphenidate. Colorado. speech. occupational. These costs include doctor visits. Vermont. Montana. West Virginia. medication. and Wisconsin passed a law requiring insurance coverage for Autism. South Carolina.Medications are used to treat aggression. Illinois.
Print. Mississippi: American University Press. Wolfe. Demystifying Autism Spectrum Disorders. December 2012. 2004. Carolyn. Web. Walencia Konrad. Print. Patricia and Pamela C.World. Works Cited Ainsworth. John and Pamela S.. The Autism Encyclopedia. 2005. Web. Maryland: Paul H. BBB Accredited Charity. Web. 28 December 2012. 2013. Bruey Thornaworth. Web. 26. NICHD. Maryland: Woodbine House. 2004. “Autism Spectrum Disorders”. “Dealing With the Financial Burden of Autism”. Autism Society. 29 December 2012. 29 December 2012. Mental Retardation. Web. 30 November 2012. Print. NCSL. National Conference of State Legislatures. Brooks. . The New York Times. 30 December 2012 Neisworht T. Autism World. Autism. 22 January 2010. Baker. 2012. 2006.created a bill requiring coverage and in the same year Alabama required insurance plans to offer coverage for ASDs.