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z (standard normal) and t table

Confidence
z
100
75
50
40
0%
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
10%
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
20%
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.26
30%
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.39
40%
0.52
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
50%
0.67
0.68
0.68
0.68
0.68
60%
0.84
0.85
0.85
0.85
0.85
70%
1.04
1.04
1.04
1.05
1.05
80%
1.28
1.29
1.29
1.30
1.30
85%
1.44
1.45
1.45
1.46
1.47
90%
1.64
1.66
1.67
1.68
1.68
91%
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.73
1.74
92%
1.75
1.77
1.77
1.79
1.80
93%
1.81
1.83
1.84
1.85
1.86
94%
1.88
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.94
95%
1.96
1.98
1.99
2.01
2.02
96%
2.05
2.08
2.09
2.11
2.12
97%
2.17
2.20
2.21
2.23
2.25
98%
2.33
2.36
2.38
2.40
2.42
99%
2.58
2.63
2.64
2.68
2.70
99.9%
3.29
3.39
3.43
3.50
3.55
Note . Round your df to the nearest tabled value. For t

30
25
20
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.68
0.68
0.69
0.85
0.86
0.86
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.31
1.32
1.33
1.48
1.49
1.50
1.70
1.71
1.72
1.75
1.76
1.78
1.81
1.82
1.84
1.88
1.89
1.91
1.95
1.97
1.99
2.04
2.06
2.09
2.15
2.17
2.20
2.28
2.30
2.34
2.46
2.49
2.53
2.75
2.79
2.85
3.65
3.73
3.85
with df >>100, use z .

15
0.00
0.13
0.26
0.39
0.54
0.69
0.87
1.07
1.34
1.52
1.75
1.81
1.88
1.95
2.03
2.13
2.25
2.40
2.60
2.95
4.07

t
Degrees of freedom (df)
12
10
9
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.26
0.26
0.26
0.39
0.40
0.40
0.54
0.54
0.54
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.87
0.88
0.88
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.36
1.37
1.38
1.54
1.56
1.57
1.78
1.81
1.83
1.84
1.88
1.90
1.91
1.95
1.97
1.99
2.03
2.06
2.08
2.12
2.15
2.18
2.23
2.26
2.30
2.36
2.40
2.46
2.53
2.57
2.68
2.76
2.82
3.05
3.17
3.25
4.32
4.59
4.78

8
0.00
0.13
0.26
0.40
0.55
0.71
0.89
1.11
1.40
1.59
1.86
1.93
2.00
2.09
2.19
2.31
2.45
2.63
2.90
3.36
5.04

Adapted from Dawson, R.J.M. (1997). "Turning the tables: A t table for today." Journal of Statistics Education v.5, n.2.
Generated using Microsoft Excel.

7
0.00
0.13
0.26
0.40
0.55
0.71
0.90
1.12
1.41
1.62
1.89
1.97
2.05
2.14
2.24
2.36
2.52
2.71
3.00
3.50
5.41

6
0.00
0.13
0.26
0.40
0.55
0.72
0.91
1.13
1.44
1.65
1.94
2.02
2.10
2.20
2.31
2.45
2.61
2.83
3.14
3.71
5.96

5
0.00
0.13
0.27
0.41
0.56
0.73
0.92
1.16
1.48
1.70
2.02
2.10
2.19
2.30
2.42
2.57
2.76
3.00
3.36
4.03
6.87

4
0.00
0.13
0.27
0.41
0.57
0.74
0.94
1.19
1.53
1.78
2.13
2.23
2.33
2.46
2.60
2.78
3.00
3.30
3.75
4.60
8.61

3
0.00
0.14
0.28
0.42
0.58
0.76
0.98
1.25
1.64
1.92
2.35
2.47
2.61
2.76
2.95
3.18
3.48
3.90
4.54
5.84
12.92

2
0.00
0.14
0.29
0.44
0.62
0.82
1.06
1.39
1.89
2.28
2.92
3.10
3.32
3.58
3.90
4.30
4.85
5.64
6.96
9.92
31.60

1
0.00
0.16
0.32
0.51
0.73
1.00
1.38
1.96
3.08
4.17
6.31
7.03
7.92
9.06
10.58
12.71
15.89
21.20
31.82
63.66
636.6

p value
2-tailed
1.00
.90
.80
.70
.60
.50
.40
.30
.20
.15
.10
.09
.08
.07
.06
.05
.04
.03
.02
.01
.001

p value
1-tailed
.500
.450
.400
.350
.300
.250
.200
.150
.100
.075
.050
.045
.040
.035
.030
.025
.020
.015
.010
.005
.0005

Chi squared table

25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
11.52 10.86 10.20 9.54 8.90 8.26 7.63 7.01 6.41
16.47 15.66 14.85 14.04 13.24 12.44 11.65 10.86 10.09
18.94 18.06 17.19 16.31 15.44 14.58 13.72 12.86 12.00
20.87 19.94 19.02 18.10 17.18 16.27 15.35 14.44 13.53
22.62 21.65 20.69 19.73 18.77 17.81 16.85 15.89 14.94
24.34 23.34 22.34 21.34 20.34 19.34 18.34 17.34 16.34
26.14 25.11 24.07 23.03 21.99 20.95 19.91 18.87 17.82
28.17 27.10 26.02 24.94 23.86 22.77 21.69 20.60 19.51
30.68 29.55 28.43 27.30 26.17 25.04 23.90 22.76 21.61
32.28 31.13 29.98 28.82 27.66 26.50 25.33 24.16 22.98
34.38 33.20 32.01 30.81 29.62 28.41 27.20 25.99 24.77
34.90 33.71 32.51 31.31 30.10 28.89 27.67 26.45 25.21
35.47 34.27 33.06 31.85 30.63 29.41 28.18 26.95 25.71
36.11 34.89 33.68 32.45 31.22 29.99 28.75 27.50 26.25
36.82 35.60 34.37 33.13 31.89 30.65 29.40 28.14 26.87
37.65 36.42 35.17 33.92 32.67 31.41 30.14 28.87 27.59
38.64 37.39 36.13 34.87 33.60 32.32 31.04 29.75 28.44
39.88 38.61 37.33 36.05 34.76 33.46 32.16 30.84 29.52
41.57 40.27 38.97 37.66 36.34 35.02 33.69 32.35 31.00
44.31 42.98 41.64 40.29 38.93 37.57 36.19 34.81 33.41
52.62 51.18 49.73 48.27 46.80 45.31 43.82 42.31 40.79
Note . Problems with df>25 would rarely be worked by hand.

Generated using Microsoft Excel.

16
5.81
9.31
11.15
12.62
13.98
15.34
16.78
18.42
20.47
21.79
23.54
23.98
24.46
24.99
25.59
26.30
27.14
28.19
29.63
32.00
39.25

Chi squared
Degrees of freedom (df)
15
14
13
12
11
5.23 4.66 4.11 3.57 3.05
8.55 7.79 7.04 6.30 5.58
10.31 9.47 8.63 7.81 6.99
11.72 10.82 9.93 9.03 8.15
13.03 12.08 11.13 10.18 9.24
14.34 13.34 12.34 11.34 10.34
15.73 14.69 13.64 12.58 11.53
17.32 16.22 15.12 14.01 12.90
19.31 18.15 16.98 15.81 14.63
20.60 19.41 18.20 16.99 15.77
22.31 21.06 19.81 18.55 17.28
22.73 21.48 20.21 18.94 17.65
23.20 21.93 20.66 19.37 18.07
23.72 22.44 21.15 19.85 18.53
24.31 23.02 21.71 20.39 19.06
25.00 23.68 22.36 21.03 19.68
25.82 24.49 23.14 21.79 20.41
26.85 25.49 24.12 22.74 21.34
28.26 26.87 25.47 24.05 22.62
30.58 29.14 27.69 26.22 24.72
37.70 36.12 34.53 32.91 31.26

10
2.56
4.87
6.18
7.27
8.30
9.34
10.47
11.78
13.44
14.53
15.99
16.35
16.75
17.20
17.71
18.31
19.02
19.92
21.16
23.21
29.59

9
2.09
4.17
5.38
6.39
7.36
8.34
9.41
10.66
12.24
13.29
14.68
15.03
15.42
15.85
16.35
16.92
17.61
18.48
19.68
21.67
27.88

8
1.65
3.49
4.59
5.53
6.42
7.34
8.35
9.52
11.03
12.03
13.36
13.70
14.07
14.48
14.96
15.51
16.17
17.01
18.17
20.09
26.12

7
1.24
2.83
3.82
4.67
5.49
6.35
7.28
8.38
9.80
10.75
12.02
12.34
12.69
13.09
13.54
14.07
14.70
15.51
16.62
18.48
24.32

6
0.87
2.20
3.07
3.83
4.57
5.35
6.21
7.23
8.56
9.45
10.64
10.95
11.28
11.66
12.09
12.59
13.20
13.97
15.03
16.81
22.46

5
0.55
1.61
2.34
3.00
3.66
4.35
5.13
6.06
7.29
8.12
9.24
9.52
9.84
10.19
10.60
11.07
11.64
12.37
13.39
15.09
20.52

4
0.30
1.06
1.65
2.19
2.75
3.36
4.04
4.88
5.99
6.74
7.78
8.04
8.34
8.67
9.04
9.49
10.03
10.71
11.67
13.28
18.47

3
0.11
0.58
1.01
1.42
1.87
2.37
2.95
3.66
4.64
5.32
6.25
6.49
6.76
7.06
7.41
7.81
8.31
8.95
9.84
11.34
16.27

2
0.02
0.21
0.45
0.71
1.02
1.39
1.83
2.41
3.22
3.79
4.61
4.82
5.05
5.32
5.63
5.99
6.44
7.01
7.82
9.21
13.82

1
p value
0.00
.99
0.02
.90
0.06
.80
0.15
.70
0.27
.60
0.45
.50
0.71
.40
1.07
.30
1.64
.20
2.07
.15
2.71
.10
2.87
.09
3.06
.08
3.28
.07
3.54
.06
3.84
.05
4.22
.04
4.71
.03
5.41
.02
6.63
.01
10.83 .001

F tables

Degrees of freedom between groups


(dfb) = 1
F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
10,000 100
50
40
30
25
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
0.02
0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
0.06
0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07
0.15
0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.17
0.28
0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.31
0.45
0.46 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.51 0.53
0.71
0.71 0.72 0.72 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.82 0.85
1.07
1.09 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.21 1.23 1.25 1.29 1.34
1.64
1.66 1.69 1.70 1.72 1.73 1.76 1.80 1.84 1.88 1.91 1.95 2.00 2.07 2.18
2.07
2.10 2.14 2.15 2.18 2.21 2.24 2.30 2.37 2.43 2.48 2.54 2.61 2.72 2.89
2.71
2.76 2.81 2.84 2.88 2.92 2.97 3.07 3.18 3.29 3.36 3.46 3.59 3.78 4.06
2.87
2.93 2.99 3.02 3.07 3.11 3.17 3.28 3.40 3.52 3.61 3.72 3.87 4.08 4.40
3.07
3.13 3.19 3.23 3.28 3.33 3.40 3.53 3.66 3.80 3.89 4.02 4.19 4.43 4.80
3.28
3.35 3.43 3.47 3.53 3.58 3.66 3.81 3.96 4.11 4.22 4.37 4.56 4.84 5.28
3.54
3.62 3.70 3.75 3.82 3.88 3.97 4.14 4.31 4.50 4.62 4.79 5.02 5.35 5.86
3.84
3.94 4.03 4.08 4.17 4.24 4.35 4.54 4.75 4.96 5.12 5.32 5.59 5.99 6.61
4.22
4.33 4.45 4.51 4.61 4.69 4.83 5.06 5.30 5.57 5.75 6.00 6.33 6.82 7.60
4.71
4.85 4.99 5.06 5.19 5.30 5.46 5.75 6.06 6.39 6.62 6.94 7.37 8.00 9.02
5.41
5.59 5.78 5.87 6.04 6.18 6.39 6.77 7.19 7.64 7.96 8.39 8.99 9.88 11.32
6.64
6.90 7.17 7.31 7.56 7.77 8.10 8.68 9.33 10.04 10.56 11.26 12.25 13.75 16.26
10.83 11.50 12.22 12.61 13.29 13.88 14.82 16.59 18.64 21.04 22.86 25.41 29.25 35.51 47.18

4
0.02
0.07
0.17
0.32
0.55
0.89
1.42
2.35
3.16
4.54
4.96
5.44
6.03
6.76
7.71
8.99
10.87
14.04
21.20
74.14

3
0.02
0.08
0.18
0.34
0.59
0.96
1.56
2.68
3.70
5.54
6.10
6.79
7.63
8.71
10.13
12.12
15.18
20.62
34.12
167.0

2
1
p value
0.02 0.03
.90
0.08 0.11
.80
0.20 0.26
.70
0.38 0.53
.60
0.67 1.00
.50
1.13 1.89
.40
1.92 3.85
.30
3.56 9.47
.20
5.21 17.3
.15
8.53 39.9
.10
9.63 49.4
.09
11.02 62.7
.08
12.80 82.0
.07
15.18 112
.06
18.51 161
.05
23.51 253
.04
31.84 450
.03
48.51 1013
.02
98.50 4052
.01
998.5 4E+5 .001

dfb = 2

10,000
0.11
0.22
0.36
0.51
0.69
0.92
1.20
1.61
1.90
2.30
2.41
2.53
2.66
2.81
3.00
3.22
3.51
3.91
4.61
6.91

100
0.11
0.22
0.36
0.51
0.70
0.92
1.22
1.64
1.93
2.36
2.47
2.59
2.73
2.89
3.09
3.32
3.63
4.07
4.82
7.41

50
0.11
0.22
0.36
0.52
0.70
0.93
1.23
1.66
1.97
2.41
2.53
2.66
2.81
2.98
3.18
3.44
3.76
4.23
5.06
7.96

40
0.11
0.22
0.36
0.52
0.71
0.94
1.24
1.68
1.99
2.44
2.56
2.69
2.84
3.02
3.23
3.49
3.83
4.32
5.18
8.25

30
0.11
0.22
0.36
0.52
0.71
0.94
1.25
1.70
2.02
2.49
2.61
2.75
2.91
3.09
3.32
3.59
3.95
4.47
5.39
8.77

25
0.11
0.23
0.36
0.52
0.71
0.95
1.26
1.72
2.05
2.53
2.66
2.80
2.96
3.16
3.39
3.67
4.05
4.59
5.57
9.22

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11
0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.25
0.36 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.43
0.52 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.61 0.67
0.72 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.83 0.88 1.00
0.96 0.97 0.99 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.05 1.07 1.11 1.16 1.26 1.50
1.28 1.31 1.33 1.36 1.38 1.40 1.44 1.48 1.55 1.65 1.85 2.33
1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.93 1.98 2.04 2.13 2.26 2.47 2.89 4.00
2.09 2.16 2.23 2.31 2.36 2.43 2.52 2.65 2.84 3.16 3.81 5.67
2.59 2.70 2.81 2.92 3.01 3.11 3.26 3.46 3.78 4.32 5.46 9.00
2.72 2.84 2.96 3.09 3.18 3.30 3.46 3.69 4.05 4.67 5.97 10.11
2.87 3.00 3.14 3.29 3.39 3.52 3.70 3.96 4.37 5.07 6.58 11.50
3.05 3.19 3.35 3.51 3.63 3.78 3.98 4.28 4.74 5.56 7.33 13.29
3.25 3.41 3.59 3.78 3.91 4.08 4.32 4.66 5.20 6.16 8.29 15.67
3.49 3.68 3.89 4.10 4.26 4.46 4.74 5.14 5.79 6.94 9.55 19.00
3.80 4.02 4.26 4.52 4.70 4.94 5.28 5.77 6.56 8.00 11.32 24.00
4.20 4.47 4.76 5.08 5.31 5.61 6.03 6.65 7.66 9.55 14.04 32.33
4.79 5.14 5.52 5.93 6.23 6.64 7.20 8.05 9.45 12.14 18.86 49.00
5.85 6.36 6.93 7.56 8.02 8.65 9.55 10.92 13.27 18.00 30.82 99.00
9.95 11.34 12.97 14.91 16.39 18.49 21.69 27.00 37.12 61.25 148.5 999.0

1
p value
0.12
.90
0.28
.80
0.52
.70
0.89
.60
1.50
.50
2.63
.40
5.06
.30
12.00
.20
21.72
.15
49.50
.10
61.23
.09
77.63
.08
101.5
.07
138.4
.06
199.5
.05
312.0
.04
555.1
.03
1250
.02
5000
.01
5E+5 .001

dfb =

10,000
0.19
0.34
0.47
0.62
0.79
0.98
1.22
1.55
1.77
2.08
2.16
2.25
2.35
2.47
2.61
2.77
2.98
3.28
3.78
5.43

100
0.19
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.79
0.99
1.24
1.58
1.81
2.14
2.22
2.32
2.43
2.55
2.70
2.87
3.10
3.43
3.98
5.86

50
0.19
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.80
1.00
1.25
1.60
1.85
2.20
2.29
2.39
2.50
2.63
2.79
2.98
3.23
3.59
4.20
6.34

40
0.19
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.80
1.01
1.26
1.62
1.87
2.23
2.32
2.42
2.54
2.68
2.84
3.04
3.30
3.67
4.31
6.59

30
0.19
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.81
1.01
1.28
1.64
1.91
2.28
2.37
2.48
2.61
2.75
2.92
3.13
3.41
3.81
4.51
7.05

25
0.19
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.81
1.02
1.29
1.66
1.93
2.32
2.42
2.53
2.66
2.81
2.99
3.21
3.51
3.93
4.68
7.45

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19
0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34
0.48 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.50
0.64 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.70
0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.91 0.94
1.03 1.05 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.11 1.13 1.16 1.20 1.26
1.31 1.34 1.37 1.40 1.42 1.45 1.48 1.53 1.60 1.72
1.70 1.75 1.80 1.86 1.90 1.95 2.02 2.11 2.25 2.48
1.98 2.05 2.13 2.21 2.26 2.34 2.43 2.57 2.78 3.12
2.38 2.49 2.61 2.73 2.81 2.92 3.07 3.29 3.62 4.19
2.49 2.61 2.73 2.87 2.96 3.09 3.25 3.49 3.86 4.50
2.61 2.74 2.88 3.03 3.13 3.27 3.46 3.73 4.14 4.88
2.74 2.89 3.05 3.22 3.33 3.49 3.70 4.00 4.48 5.32
2.91 3.07 3.25 3.44 3.57 3.75 3.99 4.34 4.89 5.88
3.10 3.29 3.49 3.71 3.86 4.07 4.35 4.76 5.41 6.59
3.34 3.56 3.80 4.05 4.23 4.48 4.81 5.30 6.10 7.56
3.65 3.92 4.20 4.52 4.74 5.04 5.45 6.07 7.08 8.97
4.11 4.45 4.81 5.22 5.51 5.90 6.45 7.29 8.67 11.34
4.94 5.42 5.95 6.55 6.99 7.59 8.45 9.78 12.06 16.69
8.10 9.34 10.80 12.55 13.90 15.83 18.77 23.70 33.20 56.18

3
0.19
0.34
0.52
0.73
1.00
1.37
1.94
2.94
3.82
5.39
5.87
6.45
7.17
8.08
9.28
10.96
13.53
18.11
29.46
141.1

2
0.18
0.35
0.54
0.79
1.13
1.64
2.48
4.16
5.83
9.16
10.27
11.66
13.45
15.83
19.16
24.16
32.50
49.17
99.17
999.2

1
p value
0.18
.90
0.37
.80
0.64
.70
1.04
.60
1.71
.50
2.93
.40
5.56
.30
13.06
.20
23.6
.15
53.6
.10
66.3
.09
84.0
.08
109.8
.07
150
.06
216
.05
337
.04
600
.03
1351
.02
5403
.01
5E+5 .001

25
0.26
0.41
0.55
0.70
0.86
1.05
1.29
1.62
1.85
2.18
2.27
2.37
2.48
2.61
2.76
2.95
3.19
3.55
4.18
6.49

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.24
0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.40
0.55 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.57
0.70 0.71 0.71 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76
0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.93 0.94 0.96 1.00
1.06 1.08 1.10 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.20 1.24 1.31
1.31 1.34 1.37 1.41 1.43 1.46 1.50 1.55 1.63 1.75
1.65 1.71 1.77 1.83 1.87 1.92 1.99 2.09 2.24 2.48
1.90 1.98 2.06 2.14 2.20 2.27 2.37 2.52 2.73 3.09
2.25 2.36 2.48 2.61 2.69 2.81 2.96 3.18 3.52 4.11
2.34 2.46 2.59 2.73 2.83 2.95 3.12 3.37 3.75 4.41
2.44 2.58 2.72 2.87 2.98 3.12 3.31 3.58 4.01 4.76
2.56 2.71 2.87 3.04 3.16 3.32 3.53 3.84 4.32 5.18
2.70 2.87 3.05 3.24 3.37 3.55 3.79 4.15 4.71 5.71
2.87 3.06 3.26 3.48 3.63 3.84 4.12 4.53 5.19 6.39
3.07 3.29 3.53 3.78 3.97 4.21 4.54 5.04 5.83 7.31
3.34 3.60 3.89 4.20 4.42 4.71 5.13 5.74 6.75 8.65
3.73 4.06 4.42 4.82 5.10 5.49 6.03 6.86 8.23 10.90
4.43 4.89 5.41 5.99 6.42 7.01 7.85 9.15 11.39 15.98
7.10 8.25 9.63 11.28 12.56 14.39 17.20 21.92 31.09 53.44

3
0.24
0.40
0.58
0.79
1.06
1.43
1.98
2.96
3.82
5.34
5.81
6.37
7.07
7.95
9.12
10.75
13.25
17.69
28.71
137.1

2
0.23
0.40
0.61
0.86
1.21
1.72
2.56
4.24
5.91
9.24
10.36
11.74
13.53
15.91
19.25
24.25
32.58
49.25
99.25
999.2

1
p value
0.22
.90
0.43
.80
0.71
.70
1.13
.60
1.82
.50
3.09
.40
5.83
.30
13.64
.20
24.58
.15
55.83
.10
69.03
.09
87.47
.08
114.4
.07
155.8
.06
224.6
.05
351.1
.04
624.6
.03
1406
.02
5625
.01
6E+5 .001

dfb = 4

10,000
0.27
0.41
0.55
0.69
0.84
1.01
1.22
1.50
1.69
1.95
2.01
2.08
2.17
2.26
2.37
2.51
2.68
2.92
3.32
4.62

100
0.26
0.41
0.55
0.69
0.84
1.02
1.24
1.53
1.73
2.00
2.07
2.15
2.24
2.34
2.46
2.61
2.80
3.06
3.51
5.02

50
0.26
0.41
0.55
0.69
0.85
1.03
1.26
1.56
1.77
2.06
2.14
2.22
2.32
2.43
2.56
2.72
2.92
3.22
3.72
5.46

40
0.26
0.41
0.55
0.69
0.85
1.04
1.26
1.57
1.79
2.09
2.17
2.26
2.36
2.47
2.61
2.77
2.99
3.30
3.83
5.70

30
0.26
0.41
0.55
0.70
0.86
1.05
1.28
1.60
1.83
2.14
2.22
2.32
2.42
2.54
2.69
2.87
3.10
3.43
4.02
6.12

dfb =

10,000
0.32
0.47
0.60
0.73
0.87
1.03
1.21
1.46
1.62
1.85
1.90
1.97
2.04
2.12
2.21
2.33
2.48
2.68
3.02
4.11

100
0.32
0.47
0.60
0.73
0.88
1.04
1.23
1.49
1.67
1.91
1.97
2.04
2.11
2.20
2.31
2.43
2.59
2.82
3.21
4.48

50
0.32
0.47
0.60
0.74
0.88
1.05
1.25
1.52
1.71
1.97
2.03
2.11
2.19
2.29
2.40
2.54
2.72
2.97
3.41
4.90

40
0.32
0.46
0.60
0.74
0.89
1.05
1.26
1.54
1.73
2.00
2.07
2.14
2.23
2.33
2.45
2.60
2.78
3.05
3.51
5.13

30
0.32
0.46
0.60
0.74
0.89
1.06
1.28
1.57
1.77
2.05
2.12
2.20
2.30
2.41
2.53
2.69
2.90
3.19
3.70
5.53

25
0.31
0.46
0.60
0.74
0.89
1.07
1.29
1.59
1.80
2.09
2.17
2.26
2.35
2.47
2.60
2.77
2.99
3.30
3.85
5.89

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.29 0.28
0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
0.74 0.75 0.75 0.76 0.76 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80
0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00 1.04
1.08 1.10 1.12 1.14 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.22 1.27 1.34
1.31 1.34 1.38 1.41 1.44 1.47 1.51 1.56 1.64 1.77
1.62 1.68 1.74 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.97 2.08 2.23 2.48
1.84 1.92 2.01 2.09 2.15 2.23 2.33 2.48 2.70 3.07
2.16 2.27 2.39 2.52 2.61 2.73 2.88 3.11 3.45 4.05
2.24 2.37 2.50 2.64 2.74 2.86 3.04 3.28 3.67 4.34
2.33 2.47 2.62 2.77 2.88 3.02 3.21 3.49 3.92 4.68
2.44 2.59 2.75 2.92 3.04 3.20 3.42 3.73 4.22 5.09
2.56 2.73 2.91 3.10 3.24 3.42 3.67 4.02 4.59 5.60
2.71 2.90 3.11 3.33 3.48 3.69 3.97 4.39 5.05 6.26
2.89 3.11 3.35 3.61 3.79 4.03 4.37 4.86 5.66 7.14
3.13 3.39 3.68 3.99 4.21 4.50 4.91 5.53 6.54 8.44
3.48 3.81 4.16 4.55 4.84 5.22 5.76 6.58 7.95 10.62
4.10 4.56 5.06 5.64 6.06 6.63 7.46 8.75 10.97 15.52
6.46 7.57 8.89 10.48 11.71 13.48 16.21 20.80 29.75 51.71

3
0.28
0.44
0.62
0.83
1.10
1.47
2.01
2.97
3.81
5.31
5.77
6.32
7.00
7.87
9.01
10.62
13.07
17.43
28.24
134.6

2
0.26
0.44
0.65
0.90
1.25
1.76
2.61
4.28
5.96
9.29
10.40
11.79
13.58
15.96
19.30
24.30
32.63
49.30
99.30
999.3

1
p value
0.25
.90
0.46
.80
0.75
.70
1.18
.60
1.89
.50
3.20
.40
6.00
.30
14.01
.20
25.2
.15
57.2
.10
70.8
.09
89.7
.08
117.2
.07
160
.06
230
.05
360
.04
640
.03
1441
.02
5764
.01
6E+5 .001

25
0.36
0.50
0.64
0.77
0.92
1.08
1.28
1.56
1.75
2.02
2.09
2.17
2.26
2.37
2.49
2.64
2.84
3.13
3.63
5.46

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.35 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.31
0.50 0.50 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48
0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64
0.77 0.78 0.78 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83
0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 1.00 1.02 1.06
1.09 1.11 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.19 1.21 1.24 1.29 1.36
1.31 1.34 1.38 1.41 1.44 1.47 1.51 1.57 1.65 1.78
1.60 1.66 1.72 1.78 1.83 1.88 1.96 2.06 2.22 2.47
1.80 1.88 1.97 2.06 2.12 2.20 2.30 2.45 2.67 3.05
2.09 2.21 2.33 2.46 2.55 2.67 2.83 3.05 3.40 4.01
2.17 2.29 2.43 2.57 2.67 2.80 2.97 3.22 3.61 4.29
2.25 2.39 2.54 2.69 2.80 2.95 3.14 3.42 3.86 4.62
2.35 2.50 2.67 2.84 2.96 3.12 3.34 3.65 4.15 5.03
2.46 2.63 2.82 3.01 3.15 3.33 3.57 3.93 4.50 5.52
2.60 2.79 3.00 3.22 3.37 3.58 3.87 4.28 4.95 6.16
2.77 2.99 3.22 3.48 3.66 3.91 4.24 4.74 5.54 7.03
2.99 3.25 3.53 3.84 4.06 4.35 4.77 5.38 6.39 8.30
3.30 3.63 3.98 4.37 4.65 5.04 5.58 6.39 7.76 10.42
3.87 4.32 4.82 5.39 5.80 6.37 7.19 8.47 10.67 15.21
6.02 7.09 8.38 9.93 11.13 12.86 15.52 20.03 28.83 50.53

3
0.30
0.47
0.65
0.86
1.13
1.49
2.03
2.97
3.81
5.28
5.74
6.28
6.96
7.81
8.94
10.52
12.94
17.25
27.91
132.8

2
0.29
0.47
0.68
0.93
1.28
1.80
2.64
4.32
5.99
9.33
10.44
11.83
13.61
16.00
19.33
24.33
32.66
49.33
99.33
999.3

1
p value
0.26
.90
0.48
.80
0.78
.70
1.22
.60
1.94
.50
3.27
.40
6.12
.30
14.26
.20
25.65
.15
58.20
.10
71.95
.09
91.16
.08
119.2
.07
162.4
.06
234.0
.05
365.8
.04
650.7
.03
1464
.02
5859
.01
6E+5 .001

dfb = 6

10,000
0.37
0.51
0.64
0.76
0.89
1.04
1.21
1.43
1.57
1.77
1.83
1.88
1.94
2.02
2.10
2.20
2.33
2.51
2.80
3.75

100
0.36
0.51
0.64
0.76
0.90
1.05
1.22
1.46
1.62
1.83
1.89
1.95
2.02
2.10
2.19
2.30
2.45
2.65
2.99
4.11

50
0.36
0.51
0.64
0.77
0.90
1.06
1.24
1.49
1.66
1.90
1.96
2.02
2.10
2.18
2.29
2.41
2.57
2.80
3.19
4.51

40
0.36
0.51
0.64
0.77
0.91
1.06
1.25
1.51
1.68
1.93
1.99
2.06
2.14
2.23
2.34
2.47
2.64
2.88
3.29
4.73

30
0.36
0.50
0.64
0.77
0.91
1.07
1.27
1.54
1.72
1.98
2.05
2.12
2.21
2.30
2.42
2.56
2.75
3.01
3.47
5.12

dfb = 7

10,000
0.40
0.55
0.67
0.78
0.91
1.04
1.20
1.40
1.54
1.72
1.76
1.81
1.87
1.94
2.01
2.10
2.22
2.38
2.64
3.48

100
0.40
0.54
0.67
0.79
0.91
1.05
1.22
1.43
1.58
1.78
1.83
1.88
1.95
2.02
2.10
2.20
2.33
2.52
2.82
3.83

50
0.40
0.54
0.67
0.79
0.92
1.06
1.24
1.47
1.63
1.84
1.90
1.96
2.03
2.11
2.20
2.31
2.46
2.67
3.02
4.22

40
0.39
0.54
0.67
0.79
0.92
1.07
1.25
1.49
1.65
1.87
1.93
1.99
2.07
2.15
2.25
2.37
2.53
2.74
3.12
4.44

30
0.39
0.54
0.66
0.79
0.93
1.08
1.27
1.52
1.69
1.93
1.99
2.06
2.14
2.23
2.33
2.47
2.64
2.88
3.30
4.82

25
0.39
0.53
0.66
0.79
0.93
1.09
1.28
1.54
1.72
1.97
2.04
2.11
2.19
2.29
2.40
2.55
2.73
2.99
3.46
5.15

F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.39 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34
0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.50
0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.67
0.80 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.85
0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 1.02 1.04 1.08
1.10 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.20 1.22 1.25 1.30 1.37
1.30 1.34 1.37 1.41 1.44 1.47 1.51 1.57 1.65 1.79
1.58 1.64 1.70 1.77 1.81 1.87 1.94 2.05 2.21 2.47
1.77 1.85 1.94 2.03 2.09 2.17 2.28 2.43 2.65 3.04
2.04 2.16 2.28 2.41 2.51 2.62 2.78 3.01 3.37 3.98
2.11 2.24 2.38 2.52 2.62 2.75 2.93 3.18 3.57 4.26
2.19 2.33 2.48 2.64 2.75 2.89 3.09 3.37 3.81 4.58
2.28 2.44 2.60 2.77 2.90 3.06 3.28 3.60 4.09 4.98
2.39 2.56 2.74 2.94 3.08 3.26 3.51 3.87 4.44 5.47
2.51 2.71 2.91 3.14 3.29 3.50 3.79 4.21 4.88 6.09
2.67 2.89 3.13 3.39 3.57 3.81 4.15 4.65 5.45 6.94
2.88 3.13 3.42 3.73 3.95 4.24 4.65 5.27 6.28 8.19
3.17 3.49 3.85 4.23 4.52 4.90 5.44 6.25 7.61 10.27
3.70 4.14 4.64 5.20 5.61 6.18 6.99 8.26 10.46 14.98
5.69 6.74 8.00 9.52 10.70 12.40 15.02 19.46 28.16 49.66

3
0.33
0.50
0.67
0.88
1.15
1.51
2.04
2.97
3.80
5.27
5.72
6.26
6.92
7.77
8.89
10.45
12.85
17.11
27.67
131.6

2
0.31
0.49
0.70
0.95
1.30
1.82
2.66
4.34
6.01
9.35
10.46
11.85
13.64
16.02
19.35
24.35
32.69
49.36
99.36
999.4

1
p value
0.28
.90
0.50
.80
0.80
.70
1.25
.60
1.98
.50
3.32
.40
6.20
.30
14.44
.20
26.0
.15
58.9
.10
72.8
.09
92.3
.08
120.6
.07
164
.06
237
.05
370
.04
658
.03
1482
.02
5928
.01
6E+5 .001

3
0.34
0.51
0.69
0.90
1.16
1.52
2.05
2.98
3.80
5.25
5.70
6.23
6.90
7.73
8.85
10.40
12.78
17.01
27.49
130.6

2
0.32
0.50
0.71
0.97
1.32
1.84
2.68
4.36
6.03
9.37
10.48
11.87
13.66
16.04
19.37
24.37
32.71
49.37
99.37
999.4

1
p value
0.29
.90
0.51
.80
0.81
.70
1.27
.60
2.00
.50
3.36
.40
6.27
.30
14.58
.20
26.21
.15
59.44
.10
73.47
.09
93.08
.08
121.7
.07
165.8
.06
238.9
.05
373.5
.04
664.2
.03
1495
.02
5981
.01
6E+5 .001

dfb = 8
F
Degrees of freedom within groups (dfw)
10,000 100
50
40
30
25
20
15
12
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
0.44
0.43 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.36
0.57
0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52
0.69
0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68
0.80
0.80 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.84 0.85 0.87
0.92
0.92 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.05 1.09
1.04
1.06 1.07 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.11 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.18 1.20 1.23 1.26 1.31 1.38
1.19
1.21 1.23 1.24 1.26 1.28 1.30 1.33 1.37 1.41 1.43 1.47 1.51 1.57 1.66 1.79
1.38
1.41 1.45 1.47 1.50 1.52 1.56 1.62 1.69 1.75 1.80 1.86 1.93 2.04 2.20 2.47
1.50
1.55 1.60 1.62 1.66 1.69 1.74 1.83 1.91 2.00 2.07 2.15 2.26 2.41 2.64 3.02
1.67
1.73 1.80 1.83 1.88 1.93 2.00 2.12 2.24 2.38 2.47 2.59 2.75 2.98 3.34 3.95
1.71
1.78 1.85 1.88 1.94 1.99 2.07 2.20 2.33 2.48 2.58 2.71 2.89 3.14 3.54 4.23
1.76
1.83 1.90 1.94 2.01 2.06 2.14 2.28 2.43 2.59 2.70 2.85 3.05 3.33 3.77 4.55
1.81
1.89 1.97 2.01 2.08 2.14 2.23 2.38 2.55 2.72 2.85 3.01 3.23 3.55 4.05 4.94
1.87
1.95 2.04 2.09 2.17 2.23 2.33 2.50 2.68 2.88 3.02 3.20 3.45 3.82 4.39 5.42
1.94
2.03 2.13 2.18 2.27 2.34 2.45 2.64 2.85 3.07 3.23 3.44 3.73 4.15 4.82 6.04
2.02
2.13 2.24 2.29 2.39 2.47 2.59 2.82 3.06 3.31 3.50 3.74 4.08 4.58 5.39 6.88
2.13
2.25 2.37 2.44 2.55 2.64 2.79 3.05 3.33 3.64 3.86 4.16 4.57 5.19 6.19 8.11
2.27
2.41 2.56 2.64 2.78 2.89 3.07 3.39 3.74 4.13 4.41 4.79 5.33 6.14 7.50 10.16
2.51
2.69 2.89 2.99 3.17 3.32 3.56 4.00 4.50 5.06 5.47 6.03 6.84 8.10 10.29 14.80
3.27
3.61 4.00 4.21 4.58 4.91 5.44 6.47 7.71 9.20 10.37 12.05 14.63 19.03 27.65 49.00
Note . Round your dfw to the nearest tabled value.
Problems with dfb>8 would rarely be worked by hand.