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Q. 1. What is a transducer? Ans.

The device which converts an energy from one form to another is known as transducer The input energy may be electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal or optical Q 2 Give classification of transducers Ans The transducers may be classified as (1) Electrical Transducers. These are the transducers which give electrical energy as output (voltage, current, frequency) etc. (2) Displacement Transducers. These transducers convert displacement (mechanical energy) into electrical energy (3) Optoelectronic Transducers These transducers convert light energy into electrical energy, For example photoconductive cell, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, etc Out of the above, electrical transducers are the most popular These transducers tire used for

measurement of non-electrical quantities (force, pressure, etc.) by changing them into electrical quantities. Q 3 Define electrical transducers Ans The transducers, which convert non electrical quantities (force, pressure, sound Ltd) into electrical quantities are called Electrical transducers, it then becomes easier to measure a non electrical quantity Q. 4. What are Inverse transducers? Ans The inverse transducers convert electrical quantities into non-electrical quantities, e g Piezo electrical transducers The recording devices which are used in feed-back measurement systems are also a type of Inverse transducers Q. 5. What are variable inductance type transducers?

Ans. These are analog passive transducers. They work on one of the following Principles: (i) Change of self inductance of a coil. (ii) Change of mutual inductance of a coil. (iii) Production of eddy currents. Q. 6. Differentiate between Transducers and Inverse transducers? Ans. Transducers are normally associated with a circuit which has non-electrical input and electrical output e.g. pressure gauge, strain gauge etc. An inverse transducer is a device that converts electrical quantities into non-electrical quantities e.g. piezo-electric crystal. Q. 7. What is a strain gauge? Ans. The strain gauge converts strain into a change of electrical resistance. Q. 8. What are the types of strain gauges?

Ans. There are four types of strain gauges namely: 1. Wire strain gauge 2. Foil strain gauge 3. Film strain gauge 4. Semiconductor strain gauge Q. 9. Give other classification of strain gauges. Ans. 1. Bonded 2.Unbonded Q. 10. What is a Resistance Strain Gauge? Ans. It is the most commonly used transducer for measurement of displacement. A resistance strain gauge consists of a grid of fine wire cemented to a thin paper or bakellite sheet and covered with a protective covering. Q. 11. What is a semiconductor strain gauge?

Ans. A semiconductor strain gauge employs a semiconductor material commonly silicon. As the resistively of semiconductor is higher than a conductor, it is possible to have a sensitive element as shorter, wider and simpler. Q. 12. What is a thermocouple? Ans. A thermocouple consists of dissimilar metals which when joined produce an e.m.f when their one junction is heated. Q. 13. What is thermocouple gauge used for detection of leaks in vacuum systems. Ans. The thermocouple gauge consists of an electrically heated wire operating at a temperature of approximately 320K mounted inside a glass or metal envelope. Q. 14. Write desired properties of thermocouple metals.

Ans. 1. They should not melt within the range of temperature requirements. 2. They should not corrode at their highest temperature. 3. The emf generated by the couple must remain constant for a given temperature throughout its life. Q. 15. What type of scale is used in thermocouple meters? Ans. In a thermocouple meter, there is a square law scale. Q. 16. What is the main application of thermocouple meter? Ans. It is mainly used to measure radio frequency currents having frequencies to thousands of megahertz. Q. 17. Can a thermocouple measure AC. Ans. Thermocouple is capable of measuring AC of high frequencies very accurately. It is based

on the principle of generation of heat due to current. Q. 18. What is Hall Effect transducers, how it can be used for measuring displacement? Ans A Hall Effect transducer is based on the effect of magnetic fields on moving charges. A Hail Effect transducer is located within a gap. The output voltage in this hafi effect transducer depends upon the strength of the magnetic field in the gap. Any displacement in the ferro-magnetic Structure changes the magnetic field and hence the output voltage. This method can be used to measure displacement down to 0.001 inch Q. 19. What are the possible applications of Hall Effect Transducers? Ans. 1. It can be used to measure strength of a magnetic field in terms of an electrical voltage..

2. It can also be used to measure current without cutting the conductor and without making any electrical connections between conductor circuit and the meter. 3. Hall effect transducer can be used as an analog multiplier. Q. 20. What are the points to be considered for selecting transducer? Ans. 1. Range . 2. Sensitivity 3. Electrical output characteristics - 4. Physical environment 5. Errors Q. 21. What are Pyrometers? Ans. Pyrometers are instruments, which are used for the measurement of very high temperatures. Q. 22. Name the types of Pyrometers.

Ans. 1. Resistance pyrometers. 2. Thermo-couple pyrometers 3. Radiation pyrometers 4. Optical pyrometers i Q. 23. What is LVDT? Ans. It is a Linear Voltage Differential Transformer. Q. 24. Define Gauge Factor of a strain gauge. Ans. Gauge factor is defined as the ratio of unit change in resistance to unit change in length. Gauge factor, K = AR/R AL IL where, R = Resistance of gauge wire AR = Change in resistance L Length of wire AL = Change in length

Q. 25. Give Gauge Factor for few materials. Ans. The table lists gauge factors for different commonly used wire materials. Table 1. Material nickel manganin nichrome Constanant platinum Carbon Soft iron Doped crystals Gauge factor 12.10 0.47 2.0 2.1 4.8 20.0 4.2 100 to 5000

Q 26 Mention applications of a resistance strain gauge for measurement of non electric quantities. Ans 1 Strain gauges are extensively used for analyzing dynamic strains in complex

structures such as in Bridges, Automobiles, Roads, etc. 2 Resistance wire strain gauges are very useful for measurement of Tension, Torque, Force and Stresses in structures. 3. Strain gauges are used in load cells and load rings to measure force producing strain. Q 27 Strain in a beam is being measured with the help of a strain gauge attached to the beam. The resistance of the strain gauge (having a gauge factor of 3) changes from 150 ohms to 151 ohms when strained. Determine the strain in the beam to which the gauge has been attached. I Ans. Strain (AL/L) = Change in resistande/ Unstrained resistance Gauge factor

= 1/150 3

= 0.0022 Ans Q. 28. What is a SYNCHRO TRANSDUCER? Ans. Synchro transducer is a POSITION MEASURING DEVICE. Q. 29. What are optical pyrometers? Ans. The optical pyrometers are used for higher temperature measurement up to 3500C such as temperature of furnaces, molten metals and other heated materials. Q. 30. Give advantages of Radiation Pyrometers. Ans. 1. They can measure very high temperature. 2. They can be kept away from hot body. 3. They can measure temperature of moving object. Q. 31. Give disadvantages of Radiation Pyrometers.

Ans. 1. They are costly. 2. High maintenance is required. 3. Each pyrometer has individual calibration. Q. 32. What are the different types of strain gauges ? Name four resistance materials used in wire and foil gauges. Ans. Nichrome, constantan, nickel, platinum. Q. 33. Name two light sensitive transducers. Ans. These are 1. Photo conductive cell 2. Photo voltaic cell Q. 34. What is an Eddy current tachometer? Ans. This meter can measure rotational speed of a shaft. This works on the principle of eddy currents. Q. 35. What is Tacho generator?

Ans. This. can measure rotational speed from a distance. Q. 36. What is stroboscope? Ans. This is an equipment which produces pulses of light at a controlled frequency. This, is used to measure rotational speeds of shaft with more accuracy. Q. 37. Mention major applications of L.V.D.T.s? Ans. 1. These are used for direct displacement measurement e.g., thickness measurement, gauging machine profile, surface roughness etc. 2. LVDTs have also been used for force and pressure measurement. Q. 38. Enlist advantages of LVDT. Ans. These are 1. Frictionless instruments. 2. Hence, long mechanical life

3. Infinite resolution. Q. 39. What is V.R.I.T. ? Ans. It stands for Variable Reluctance Inductive Transducer. It is used for measuring displacement. Q. 40. What are the essential components of a Thermocouple instrument that can be used for measurement of an unknown current or voltage? Ans. 1. The HEATER ELEMENT that carries the current to be measured. 2. The THERMQCOUPLE having its hot junction in contact with the heater and its cold junction at room temperature. 3. A sensitive PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL METER that operates on the thermal e.m.f generated in the thermocouple. Q. 41. What are, the various advantages of thermocouple instruments?

Ans. The thermocouple instruments have the following advantages: 1. The thermocouple instruments correctly indicate the R.M.S. value of current or voltage. 2. These instruments are not affected by stray magnetic fields. 3. These instruments can be used over a wide frequency range. 4. They can measure a.c. as well as d.c. Q. 42. Give disadvantages of thermocouple instruments. Ans. The thermocouple instruments have the following disadvantages: 1. The overload capacity of thermocouple instruments is small as compared to that of other instruments. 2. The fuses dont provide any protection as the heater wire may burn before the fuse blows off. Q. 43. Define : Thermoelectric Inversion and Neutral Temperature.

Ans. Thermoelectric inversion means reversal of polarity of thermoelectric e. m.f As the temperature of the hot junction is increased above the temperature of the cold junction, the thermoelectric e.m.f increases proportionally. After a certain temperature for the hot junction, the e.m.f starts decresing with increase in temperature. This transition temperatures is called the NEUTRAL TEMPERATURE. Q. 44. What is the principle of operation of a RESISTANCE THERMOMETER? Ans. The variation in resistance of a metal with temperature is the basis of temperature measurement in a resistance thermometer. Platinum or Tungsteri wire is wound on a former to give a resistance in the range of 10 ohms to 10 kilo-ohms. Q. 45. Give advantages and disadvantages of resistance thermometers. Ans. (a) Advantages : These provide the most accurate method for temperature

measurement. These have a simple installation and need only copper cables for long rims. (b) Disadvantages : These need energising current. These are large in size as compared to thermo couples. Q. 46. Give advantages and disadvantages of thermocouples. Ans. (a) Advantages These have a wide temperature range, are versatile and are simple in application. These are available in a variety of package configuration. They are available in an insulated cable housing or ultra fine wires. (b) Disadvantages : Thermocouples need a temperature reference for their operation. They need great attention where high accuracy is needed. They need extension cables for long runs. Q. 47. What are the advantages of semiconductor strain gauge?

Ans. 1. They are free from hysteresis and creep error. 2. They have good frequency response. 3. They are of small size. Q. 48. Give disadvantages of semiconductor strain gauge. Ans. These semiconductor gauges are expensive, brittle, highly sensitive to temperature variations and have poor linearity. Q. 49. Mention one disadvantage of LVDT. Ans The major disadvantage of LVDT is the hazard of induced noise in an Electro magnetically noisy environment: However, this can be overcome with proper shielding. Q. 50. Give some thermocouple materials and temperature range. Ans Table 2

Combination of Thermocouple materials Copper-Constantan Iron-Constantan Chromel-Alumel + 10% Rhodium Platinum-Platinum + 13% Rhodium

Temperature Range - 200C to 550C - 20C to 750C 300C to 1000C 700C to 1600C

Q. 51. Mention desirable characteristics of strain gauges. Ans. 1. Should have very good frequency response. 2. Should have high value of gauge factor. 3. Should not have hysteresis or creep effect. Q. 52. What are the following: Shaft encoder, Incremental encoder and Absolute encoder.

Ans. 1. Shaft encoders are ANGULAR MEASUREMENT devices that make use of optical or magnetic technique to measure the shaft angle in terms of a digital number. 2. Incremental encoders have simple ON and OFF coded pattern. The output is in the form of number of counts between start and end of displacement. 3. The absolute encoders have a coded pattern that gives a unique digital output for each discrete displacement increment. Different codes are practiced for this purpose such as Binary, Binary coded decimal and Gray code. Q. 53. What is the principle of operation of HOT WIRE GAUGES? Ans. HOT WIRE GAUGES depend for their operation on the thermal conductivity

of the heated wire due to change in pressure. These are normally used to measure pressure of gases and vapours. Q. 54. What is a Thermistor? Ans. A thermistor is a device whose resistance varies with temperature. These devices have a very high temperature co-efficient of rsistance. Q. 55. What are NTC and FTC thermistors. Ans. The NTC thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance i.e. their resistance decreases with increase in temperature. These are basically ceramic materials. PTC thermistors have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance i e their resistance increases with temperature Q 56 Define for thermistors 1 Dissipation constant 2. Time constant 3 Break point

Ans 1 DISSIPATION CONSTANT is the amount of power dissipated by the thermistors which will raise its temperature by I C. Typical value IOmW/C. 2 The TIME CONSTANT is the time taken b the thermistor to mdicate 63% of the newly impressed temperature input Agam it may be several seconds 3 The BREAK POINT of a FTC thermistor is a point of the rapidly rising portion of its resistance vs temperature characteristics after the Curie temperature, where its resistance is approximately five times its base resistance Q 57 Give basic requirements of a transducer Ans Following are the basic requirements of a transducer 1 Ruggedness It should be capable of withstanding overloads and some safety arrangement should be provided for over load protection

2. Linearity. Its input-output characteristics should be linear and it should produce these characteristic in symmetrical way. 3. No Hysterisis. It should be free from hysterisis while input signal is varied from its low value to high value and vice versa Q. 58. What are primary and secondary transducers? Ans. When the input signal is directly sensed by the transducer and is converted into electrical form directly, such a transducer is called primary transducer. When the input signal is first sensed by some detector or sensor and its output being of some form other than input signal is given as input to a transducer for conversion into electrical form, such transducer is called secondary transducer. Q. 59. What are the advantages of an electrical transducer? Ans. Following are the advantages of an electrical transducer

1; Frictional error will be less in electrical transducer. 2. Mass-inertia effects are reduced to the minimum possible. 3. Very small power is required for controlling electrical system. 4. The electrical output can be amplified to any desired value. Q. 60. What is a spring? Ans. A spring is a simplest transducer, which converts force into proportionate displacement. Q. 61. What is the basic principle of operation of INDUCTION TYPE transducers? Ans. Induction type transducers are based on the Faradays law of electromagnetic induction which talks about an e.m.f being induced in a conductor placed in a magnetic field whenever there is a rate of change of flux linking the conductor.

Q. 62. How capacitive transducers are superior to other transducers?

Ans. 1. Their power requirements is very small. 2. These have a very good dynamic response, as the capacitor plates themselves have very little mass. Q. 63. What are Active and Passive transducers? Ans. The transducers, which develop their output in the form of electrical voltage or current without any auxiliary source are called the active transducers. Transducers in which electrical parameters i.e. resistance, inductance or capacitance change with change in input signal are called the passive transducers. Q. 64. What are Analog and Digital transducers?

Ans. Analog transducers convert input signal into the output signal which is a continuous function of time, e.g. thermistor, strain gauge thermocouple etc. Digital transducer convert input signal into the output signal in the form of pulses. Q. 65. What is pulse counter? Ans. This is an electronic instrument used to count pulses. Q. 66. What is Float? Ans. This is a simple device of measuring displacement of liquid surface. In other words it is a water level Indicator. Q. 67. What is the use of spring as a transducer? Ans. The spring can measure force by converting it into displacement. Q. 68. What is Bourden Pressure Tube?

Ans. It is a transducer, which can measure pressure. Q. 69. What is a Piezeo electric transducer? Ans. It is used to measure pressure by converting into electrical energy. Q. 70. What are the factors to be kept in mind to select a transducer? Ans. (a) The quantity to be measured. (b) Accuracy required. Q. 71. Write advantages of Flow meters. Ans. (i) There is no obstruction in the velocity. (ii) The output is proportional to the velocity. (iii) They are not affected by the viscosity, density and change in temperature. (iv) There is no moving part. (v) They lend themselves to bidirectional flow.

But due to complexity and high costs, their use is limited. Q. 72. Enlist few mechanical transducers and modes of operatin. Ans. Few mechanical transducers and their mode of operation is given: Table 3. Mechanical transducers 1. Burden tube 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Mode of operation (conversion) Pressure to displacement bellow Pressure to displacement diaphram Pressure to displacement spring Force to displacement Pendulum Force to displacement manometer Pressure to displacement Thermocouple Temperature to current bimetal Temperature to displacement

9. 10. 11. 12.

Float hydrometer venturi vane

Fluid level Pressure to displacement Sp gravity to displacement Velocity to pressure Velocity to force

Q. 73. Write a note on selection of transducer. Ans The transducer are selected on the basics of following points (i) Range The transducer should have sufficient range of operation (ii) Sensitivity It should give sufficient output per unit of measured input (iii) Good electrical characteristics The electrical characteristics such as output impedence, frequency response, response time of transducers output signal should be compatible with the recording device (iv) Environment friendly. The transducer selected should be able to withstand the

environmental conditions such temperature, moisture, etc. (v) Errors. The errors produced by transducer and caused by environment should small. Q 74 What are the basic requirement of a transducer? Ans The basic requirements of a transducer are (i) Ruggedness It should be capable to withstand overloads (ii) Linanty Its input-output characteristic should be linear (iii) Repeatability It should give same output for the same input, if applied again and again (iv) High output quality The output should have high signal noise ratio (v) No hysterisis It should not give any hysterisis effect, when varied from low to high value or vice-versa Q 75 Enlist advantages of Electrical transducers

Ans Advantages of Electrical Transducers Usually, physical quantities before measurement are converted into electrical quantity It has the following advantages I Amplification Attenuation of an electrical quantity can be done easily 2 The effects of friction are minimized. 3 The electrical/ electronic system can be easily controlled and that too with little power 4 Telemetry used now-a-days in modem instrumentation This is possible only in electrical/electronic systems 5 The use of I C s has brought a revolution in the field of instrumentation 6 The electrical output can be easily used, transmitted and processed Note More Short Answer Questions are given at the end of the Chapter


Q 76 Describe elements and requirements of transducers Ans. (a) Elements. A transducer may be thought of consisting of two closely related elements (Fig. 1).

1. Sensing or Detecting Element. This element senses detects the physical quantity under measurement. 2. Transduction Element. This element transfers the output of the sensing element into, an electrical output. In addition, a transducer may have amplifiers, power supply, calibrated scale, etc. (b) Requirements. The transducers should have the following requirements: 1. Mechanical Ruggedness. The transducer should be mechanically rugged. It should be able to withstand the working conditions and mechanical strains. 2. Linear Output I Input Characteristic. The transducers should have linear output/input characteristic. 3. Reliability. The results of the transducers should be reliable. The result should also be stable and should not change with temperature and other changes. 4. Good Response. If the input to the transducer varies with time (in few cases, it does) the transducers should have good response to the variations.

5. Low Noise. The noise / signal ratio of the transducers should be low so that its output can be directly measured with sufficient accuracy. Q. 77. Give comparison between Active and Passive transducers. Ans. Table 4. Active transducers Passive transducers 1. They are self They are not self generating i.e. they generating i.e. they develop output need an external (voltage or current)power source to give without any. electrical output auxiliary device, (voltage, current). 2. They draw energy They need an external from the quantity energy source. under measurement. 3. They give very low They give sufficient output and output, which may amplification is not need any necessary. amplification. 4. Examples : Examples Inductive Thermocouples, and capacitive

Piezo- electric transducers etc.

transducers etc.

Q. 78. What are variable resistance type transducers? list few examples. Ans. In these transducers, resistance between the output terminals gets varied according to the quantity under output terminals.

where R = resistance of the conductor p = resistivity of the material of the conductor = length of conductor a = cross-section of the conductor. Resistance transducers are preferred as ac and dc both supplies are suitable fa resistance measurement. Examples of there transducers are (1) Potentiometer

(2) Strain gauge (3) Thermistor (4) Resistance hygrometer. Q. 79. Explain the following as transducers: (1) microphone and loudspeaker (2) Video cameras (3) Human ear (4) Human eye. Ans. (1) A microphone is a transducer, which converts sound into electrical energy. A loudspeaker is a transducer which converts electrical energy back to sound energy. The two constitute a public address (PA) system Fig. (2). This principle is used in radio transmission and reception.

(2) The video camera is a transducer which converts picture (light) into electrical energy. The picture tube is a transducer which converts the electrical energy back into light (picture). The principle is used in TV transmission and reception (Fig. 3).

(3) The human ear acts as a transducer which converts sound into electrical pulses which go to our brain; the brain also acts as a transducer and converts back the electrical pulses into the original sound and we feel the sound. (4) The human eye acts as a transducer which converts a picture into electrical pulses which go to our brain which, in turn also acts as a transducer and reconverts back the electrical pulses into the original picture and thus we can see the object. Our eye is like a camera which can take infinite photographs black and white as well as colour simultaneously and can send them to the

brain. Our eye can change focal length to see near and distant objects, while camera cannot. Q. 80. Explain the term Hysterisis effect found in transducers. Ans. The output of a transducer depends not only on the input quantity applied at present, but also depends on the input quantities applied previously. A different output

is obtained, when the same input quantity is applied repeatedly For decreasing values, a greater output is obtained than increasing value of the same quantity. This phenomenon is called as Hysterisis, all transducers suffer from this effect.