Fifth Edition

SPEAKING CLEARLY
The Basics of Voice and Articulation
Noah Franklin Modisett James G. Luter

Los Angeles City College

service marks. All trademarks. must be arranged with the individual copyright holders noted. This copyright covers material written expressly for this volume by the editor/s as well as the compilation itself. Inc. 1979 by Burgess International Group. Boston. including photocopying and recording. electronic or mechanical. All rights reserved. It does not cover the individual selections herein that first appeared elsewhere.Cover Art: Pattern 6. 1988.pearsoncustom. or by any information storage or retrieval system. registered trademarks. and registered service marks are the property of their respective owners and are used herein for identification purposes only. Suite 300. 1984.com PEARSON CUSTOM PUBLISHING 75 Arlington Street. Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Custom Publishing Copyright © 1996. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 0-536-20224-9 2006560024 MT/HM Please visit our web site at www. MA 02116 A Pearson Education Company . Permission to reprint these has been obtained by Pearson Custom Publishing for this edition only. Further reproduction by any means.

Jr. Excerpt from Catch-22.H.” by Edwin Arlington Robinson. R.’ by E. Excerpt from Jaws. (1963). G. Auden. “Culture and Communication. Oliver. Doubleday. by John Knowles. (1897). (1963).” by Hugo L.” by Martin Luther King. Denes and Elliot N. Excerpt from The Female Eunuch. iii . 1963). reprinted by permission from Vital Speeches of the Day.’ by W. Doubleday. by Peter Benchley. by James Baldwin. “Richard Cory. A Christmas Oratorio. edited by Edward Mendelson. by permission of Scribner. reprinted by permission of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. Excerpt from ‘For the Time Being. (1959). (1957). (2001). by Germain Greer. Doubleday. Farrar. by Joseph Heller. reprinted from New York University Law Review 35. reprinted from The Speech Chain. Curtis Brown. Inc. by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Excerpt from Nineteen Eighty-Four. (September 15. Figure: ‘The vocal folds and glottis as seen through a laryngeal mirror in three actions. (April 1960). by arrangement with the Estate of Martin Luther King. by permission of Random House. Houghton Mifflin Co. (1949). Straus and Giroux. 1972). reprinted from Collected Poems. Black. Excerpt from A Separate Peace. (1974). by permission of New York University School of Law. reprinted from The Children of the Night. reprinted from Basic Voice Training for Speech. Inc. by permission of Harcourt. Excerpt from Jonathan Livingston Seagull. Second Edition. Lomas. (1944. by George Orwell.. (2000). Excerpt from Manhattan Transfer. by Richard Bach. c/o Writers House as agent for the proprietor. by John Dos Passos.Copyright Acknowledgments Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following sources for permission to reprint material copyrighted or controlled by them: Figures: ‘Structure of the larynx’ and ‘The larynx.’ by Peter B. Pinson. (1955). Hahn and C. “I Have a Dream. (1970). Ltd. front and side view. Excerpt from Go Tell It On the Mountain. Badger and Company. “The Bill of Rights. (1953). an imprint of Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group.” by Robert T.

“The Owl Who Was God. Houghton Mifflin Co. (1975).” by Maury Yeston. reprinted from Czeslaw Milosz: New and Collected Poems (19312001). reprinted from My Life and Hard Times. by permission of Viking Penguin. (1940).” by James Thurber. an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. University of Utah Press. a division of Penguin Group (USA). .” translated by Washington Matthews. “New Words. by John Steinbeck. Ecco Press.” by James Thurber. Inc.” by Czeslaw Milosz. “Meaning. reprinted from Sunday in the Park with George. reprinted from Fables for Our Time and Famous Poems. “Finishing the Hat.” by Thomas Lux. (1997). “Navajo Ceremonial Chant. (1939). reprinted from New & Selected Poems. Alfred Publishing. James Thurber Literary Properties. James Thurber Literary Properties. Cherry Lane Music Publishing.’ from The Grapes of Wrath. (1995). (1933). Inc.iv COPYRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ‘Chapter 5. reprinted from The Night Chant.” by Stephen Sondheim. “The Voice You Hear When You Read Silently. “University Days.

Contents Preface ix xi To the Student 1 Basics for Speaking Clearly Language. and Dialect 1 Dialects in the United States 2 Geographic Dialects 3 Socioeconomic Dialects 6 Ethnocultural Dialects 7 Voice and Articulation Analysis 10 Speech Production 11 Summary 13 1 2 Respiration Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration Respiration for Life 18 Respiration for Speech 18 Respiration Functions Compared 19 Breathing for Life 19 Breathing for Speech 19 Muscle Interaction in Respiration 19 Relaxation 20 Relaxation Exercises 21 Respiration Exercises 21 In-Class Exercises 21 Out-of-Class Exercises 23 Summary 24 15 15 v . Accent.

Balanced Focus.vi SPEAKING CLEARLY 3 Phonation 25 Anatomy of Phonation 25 Functions of the Larynx 28 The Process of Phonation 28 Characteristics of Phonation 29 Vocal Pitch 30 Vocal Loudness 32 Vocal Fold Mode 32 Vocal Tract Dimension 33 Vocal Fold Vibrance 33 Vocal Tract Focus 34 Vocal Fold Contact 34 Vocal Effort 34 The Ideal Voice 35 Phonation Exercises 35 Exercises to Improve Vocal Tract Dimension 36 Exercises to Achieve and Strengthen Balanced Vocal Focus 37 An Exercise to Improve Vocal Fold Vibrance 38 Exercises to Combine Openness. and Full Vibrancy Exercises to Improve Pitch 39 Exercises to Improve Loudness 41 Summary 43 38 4 Resonation Anatomy of Resonation 45 Amplification (in speech) 45 Denasality 45 Harmonics 47 Nasality 47 Overtones 47 Resonation (in speech) 47 Resonators (in speech) 47 Resonant Frequency (in speech) 47 The Process of Resonation 47 Resonant Frequency 47 Amplification and Reinforcement in Resonation Overtones in Resonation 48 Selection in Resonation 48 Resonance in the Vocal Tract 48 Throat Resonance 49 Mouth Resonation 49 Nasal Resonance 49 45 48 .

CONTENTS vii Resonance Problems 49 Jaw Closure 50 Tongue Retraction 50 Denasality 50 Nasality 50 Resonance Exercises 50 Exercises to Increase Oral Resonance Tongue Retraction Exercises 51 Denasality Exercises 52 General Nasality Exercises 54 Assimilation Nasality Exercises 56 Nasal Emission Exercises 58 Summary 58 50 5 Fundamentals of Articulation Classification of Sounds Vowels Anatomy of Articulation 61 Diacritic and Phonetic Symbols Clear Articulation 65 Accurate Formation 65 Sufficient Support 65 Complete Finish 65 Articulation Exercises 65 Lip Exercises 65 Tongue Exercises 66 Jaw Exercises 67 Soft Palate Exercises 67 Articulation Practice 67 Summary 68 60 62 59 6 Vowel Articulation Formation of Vowels 69 Characteristics of Vowels 72 Vowel Articulation Practice 73 Summary 104 69 7 Diphthong Articulation Characteristics of Diphthongs 105 Formation of Diphthongs 106 Diphthong Articulation Practice 106 Corrections 118 Summary 118 105 .

viii SPEAKING CLEARLY 8 9 Consonant Articulation Formation of Consonants 119 Articulation Practice 120 Summary 171 119 Pronunciation Types of Mispronunciation 174 Omission of Sounds 174 Addition of Sounds 175 Substitution of Sounds 176 Reversal of Sounds 176 Misplacement of Stress 177 Summary 178 173 10 Vocal Variety and Expression Pitch Variety 179 Inflection 179 Step Shifts 181 Time Variety 186 Rate Variety 186 Duration Variety 188 Pause Variety 189 Loudness Variety 191 Word Emphasis 191 Materials for Practicing Unstressed Words Vocal Integration 193 Summary 194 179 192 11 Reading Selections 239 195 Appendix A: Voice Analysis and Articulation Analysis Appendix B: Pronunciation Lists 245 261 279 Appendix C: Dialects and Accents for Actors Appendix D: From Other Languages to English Appendix E: Consonant Blends Appendix F: Letters and Sounds Glossary of Speech Terms Bibliography 331 327 299 315 .

as I pronounced it to you. In the articulation chapters. and loudness patterns. the process of respiration is described. Chapters 5 through 8. on vocal variety and expression.” or maybe even. ix . each sound is defined and described on a single page. New word pairs and word lists are introduced and arranged in consistent order. In Chapter 2. resonation. the organization of this fifth edition remains the same as the previous ones. articulation may be incomplete or indistinct. and a tongue twister). Chapter 9. Shakespeare. “Speak up. In the first chapter. Specifically. contains a wide selection of readings. . or too breathy. on pronunciation. The use of “stair step” sentences is particularly effective for the visualization of pitch changes.” we sometimes trip or stumble and fall over our words.Preface Speak the speech . Listeners may say. time. The artwork and charts have been completely redone and two new appendices have been added. . Word pairs for consonants emphasize the more troublesome contrasts and likely substitutions. present both diacritic and phonetic symbols for each of the sounds of Standard American English. Based on professional users’ reviews. Chapter 11. too rough. Unfortunately. some of us may need help to improve our speaking ability. on articulation. please. Vocal production is explained behaviorally. sentences. Hamlet How fortunate it would be if we were all able to follow easily Hamlet’s advice to the players. with emphasis on breathing for speech. Its facing page contains practice material (single words. Updated terminology is introduced in our discussions of phonation and resonation in Chapters 3 and 4. phonation. and articulation and their coordination in pronunciation and effective vocal expression. too loud. For many reasons. This discussion is followed by basic information about speech production. trippingly on the tongue.” “Repeat that. instead of speaking “trippingly. contrasting word pairs. This text is designed for just that purpose: to help you to understand how speech is produced and to guide you in the improvement of your speech production. as before. illustrates different pitch. it provides instruction in the processes of respiration. The International Phonetic System used is from the Longman Advanced American Dictionary. the dialects of American speech are presented. Chapter 10. demonstrates common pronunciation faults and gives exercises to correct them. “Huh?” Some of our voices are too soft.

Illinois State University. Jr. We would also like to give special thanks to the following reviewers: Dwight Freshly. as well as the complete pronunciation lists from Appendix B. The exercises throughout this text have been selected from those used successfully in a large college voice and articulation program (900 students per year). An Instructor’s Manual is available with this edition.x SPEAKING CLEARLY Appendix A provides worksheets for voice and articulation analysis. and Vietnamese. and Elaine Klein. Frequently mispronounced words are listed in Appendix B to provide pronunciation practice and vocabulary development in conjunction with Chapter 9. Appendix E describes consonant blends.D. Westchester Community College. March 2006 . prepared for easy duplication. University of Georgia. We are indebted to James E. for his review of the respiration chapter and to our students and colleagues at LACC for their insightful suggestions. Appendix D is written for students coming to English from other languages. particularly Spanish. and Appendix F presents the relationships between spelling and pronunciation. Korean. Luter. Noah Franklin Modisett James G. It contains diagnostic tests for vowels and selected consonants and sample test questions. Especially useful is the transparency master section which contains eighteen anatomical line drawings. Chinese. The Appendix C provides instruction and practice for students wishing to learn different dialects and accents for acting. Douglas Harris. M. Tagalog. Japanese. Hansen.

To the Student You are unique. original. vocabulary. hardly moving your lips. you heard some characteristics in your speech that you did not like. Conversely. friends. environment. you spoke in a controlled manner. too loud or too soft. like your fingerprints. you do so in your own personal way. If you have a good self-image and are generally an outgoing person. Maybe your voice sounded too high. your self-confidence will improve and your self-image will strengthen. Of course. xi . your speech will reflect these characteristics. Your thoughts may have come so fast that you interrupted yourself in the middle of one thought and jumped to another. In any case your speech now reveals you as you are at this moment. will show gains. Perhaps your speech came out in a rush. you also may have heard no problems in your speech. Your speech abilities are closely related to your personality. Perhaps you mumbled or ran words together. More than likely. Unlike the nonhuman inhabitants of our planet. Nevertheless. your speech. These two human attributes are so interrelated that they mutually assist each other in the speech improvement process. Your speech has been influenced by those around you—your family. too low. As you learn and practice ways of improving your manner of speaking. you can speak. At some point you have probably heard yourself talk on an audio and/or video recording. and learning experiences. This uniqueness makes you special. Or. If your self-image is poor and you tend to be fearful in speaking situations. It is the product of your inheritance. this too will be expressed. and manner of speaking are. The close relationship between speech and personality provides an effective self-teaching tool. your voice. allowing only short bursts of words to come to the surface. pronunciation. You may have noticed errors in pronunciation and word choice. and teachers. as you improve your self-image. You may have found that you kept your mouth nearly closed while speaking. Like other humans.

too. that is. What Will a Course Like This One Do for You? You are probably enrolled in this course because it is required. the more effective you will be in meeting and influencing others. you will be able to control its volume to suit any speaking situation. you will develop a richer. With the guidance of your professor. For these reasons you are smart to be enrolled in this course-even if it may be required. you may be planning a career that will involve social and professional contact with others. Your speech. you can have both. This does not necessarily mean that you must give up your present dialect. anyway. more than likely. therefore. social. You have probably seen help-wanted ads that say. The better you can be understood. No more mumbling or garbling for you. Your future friends likely will. Your current friends probably speak the same way you do. should be as clear as possible. Taking this course will improve your chances of reaching your personal. What Will Happen in This Course? First you will need to learn how speech is produced. you will develop the skill of pronouncing each word exactly. “good communication skills required. Acquire the sounds and stress patterns of the Standard American English dialect. and professional goals. Your professional success and advancement may depend on your speaking skills. studies indicate a direct relationship between the size of an individual’s vocabulary and probable lifetime earnings. you will accomplish the following: 1.xii SPEAKING CLEARLY As a college student. you will analyze your own speaking habits and. Improve the resonance of your voice. understandable speech. One way a person becomes accepted by a particular group of people is by possessing and using the speech of that group. . that is. As you learn to articulate each sound accurately and completely. Many jobs require clear. 3. but we believe there are excellent reasons for you to be here.” This phrase can be translated as: “applicant must speak clearly and accurately and have an appropriate vocabulary. you will accomplish the purpose of this course.” In fact. 2. if you wish. fuller tone quality. When you have devoted enough time and effort to study and practice. 4. articulate speech. discover one or more that need improvement. You will master breathing skills to reduce fatigue when talking for long periods. You will be speaking clearly. the most easily understood dialect in the United States. Increase the strength of your voice. Develop clear. As you integrate these talents with vocal expression based on your thoughts and inner feelings.

is what makes perfect. Record a minute of each practice period. words. but you are the one who needs to do it. To succeed. man. you should try to practice aloud each day at least a page of exercises of sounds. Practice. Learn to recognize your errors and your correct production.TO THE STUDENT xiii What Will You Need to Do to Make All These Changes? A puzzled tourist standing on a street comer in Manhattan stopped a New York pedestrian carrying a violin case and asked. “Practice. re-record and listen again. Practice in front of a mirror and observe your movements. and sentences. “How do I get to Carnegie Hall?” The musician replied. but do not expect lectures and books to improve your speech skills. . How do I improve my speaking skills? Practice. This book and your professor will show you what you need to do. they say. practice. Listen to your recording. Ask your professor for advice and instruction on any exercise you do not understand. practice!” A similar answer might be given to the question. and more practice.

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