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Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material are accelerated in an electrical field and impacted into

a solid. This process is used to change the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the solid. Ion implantation is used in semiconductor device fabrication and in metal finishing, as well as various applications in materials science research. The ions alter the elemental composition of the target, if the ions differ in composition from the target, stop in the target and stay there. They also cause much chemical and physical change in the target by transferring their energy and momentum to the electrons and atomic nuclei of the target material. This causes a structural change, in that the crystal structure of the target can be damaged or even destroyed by the energetic collision cascades. Because the ions have masses comparable to those of the target atoms, they knock the target atoms out of place more than electron beams do. If the ion energy is sufficiently high (usually tens of MeV) to overcome the coulomb barrier, there can even be a small amount of nuclear transmutation. General principle Ion implantation equipment typically consists of an ion source, where ions of the desired element are produced, an accelerator, where the ions are electrostatically accelerated to a high energy, and a target chamber, where the ions impinge on a target, which is the material to be implanted. Thus ion implantation is a special case of particle radiation. Each ion is typically a single atom or molecule, and thus the actual amount of material implanted in the target is the integral over time of the ion current. This amount is called the dose. The currents supplied by implanters are typically small (microamperes), and thus the dose which can be implanted in a reasonable amount of time is small. Therefore, ion implantation finds application in cases where the amount of chemical change required is small. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce highpurity, high-performance solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films. In a typical CVD process, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. Frequently, volatile by-products are also produced, which are removed by gas flow through the reaction chamber. Reference: http://seminarprojects.com/showthread.php? mode=linear&tid=51555#ixzz2LouLKYIe

Ion implantation
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stop in the target and stay there.An ion implantation system at LAAStechnological facility in Toulouse. or electrical properties of the solid.2 Silicon on insulator . Ion implantation is used in semiconductor device fabrication and in metal finishing. Because the ions have masses comparable to those of the target atoms. in that the crystal structure of the target can be damaged or even destroyed by the energetic collision cascades. This process is used to change the physical. they knock the target atoms out of place more than electron beams do. chemical. if the ions differ in composition from the target. there can even be a small amount of nuclear transmutation. France. They also cause much chemical and physical change in the target by transferring their energy and momentum to the electrons and atomic nuclei of the target material. This causes a structural change. as well as various applications in materials science research. If the ion energy is sufficiently high (usually tens of MeV) to overcome the coulomb barrier.1 Doping 2. Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material are accelerated in an electrical field and impacted into a solid. Contents [hide] • • o o 1 General principle 2 Application in semiconductor device fabrication 2. The ions alter the elemental composition of the target.

1 High Voltage Safety 7 Manufacturers of Ion Implantation Equipment 8 References 9 External links [edit]General principle Ion implantation setup with mass separator Major ion implantation beamline components .2 Damage recovery 5.1 Tool steel toughening 3.2 Surface finishing 4 Other applications 4.5 Ion channelling 6 Hazardous Materials Note 6.1 Ion beam mixing 5 Problems with ion implantation 5.o • o o • o • o o o o o • o • • • 2.4 Sputtering 5.3 Amorphization 5.3 Mesotaxy 3 Application in metal finishing 3.1 Crystallographic damage 5.

High energy — ion energies above 200 keV and up to 10 MeV.000 aJ) are common. The first major segment of an ion beamline includes a device known as an ion source to generate the ion species. Higher energies can also be used: accelerators capable of 5 MeV (800. The loss of ion energy in the target is called stopping and can be simulated with the binary collision approximation method. both from occasional collisions with target atoms (which cause abrupt energy transfers) and from a mild drag from overlap of electron orbitals. Ions gradually lose their energy as they travel through the solid. an accelerator. as well as the ion species and the composition of the target determine the depth of penetration of the ions in the solid: A monoenergetic ion beam will generally have a broad depth distribution. ion implantation is especially useful in cases where the chemical or structural change is desired to be near the surface of the target.600 aJ) can be used.000 aJ). where the ions are electrostatically accelerated to a high energy. and because the depth distribution is broad (Bragg peak). where ions of the desired element are produced. The energy of the ions. The "mass" selection is often accompanied by passage of the extracted ion beam through a magnetic field region with an exit path restricted by blocking apertures. but result in a penetration of only a few nanometers or less. Therefore. Energies lower than this result in very little damage to the target. which is a continuous process.Ion implantation equipment typically consists of an ion source. This amount is called the dose. The average penetration depth is called the range of the ions. and thus the dose which can be implanted in a reasonable amount of time is small. there is often great structural damage to the target. Accelerator systems for ion implantation are generally classified into • • • • Medium current — ion beam currents between 10 μA and ~2 mA. Very high dose — efficient implant of dose greater than 1016 ions/cm2. High current — ion beam currents up to ~30 mA. Under typical circumstances ion ranges will be between 10 nanometers and 1 micrometer. Thus. that allow only ions with a specific value of the product of mass and velocity/charge to continue . Typical ion energies are in the range of 10 to 500 keV (1. ion implantation finds application in cases where the amount of chemical change required is small. and a target chamber. The source is closely coupled to biased electrodes for extraction of the ions into the beamline and most often to some means of selecting a particular ion species for transport into the main accelerator section. which is the material to be implanted. However. and thus the actual amount of material implanted in the target is the integral over time of the ion current. or "slits". the net composition change at any point in the target will be small. and fall under the designation ion beam deposition. All varieties of ion implantation beamline designs contain certain general groups of functional components (see image).600 to 80. Each ion is typically a single atom or molecule. Thus ion implantation is a special case of particle radiation. The currents supplied by implanters are typically small (microamperes). Energies in the range 1 to 10 keV (160 to 1. where the ions impinge on a target.

This modifies the conductivity of the semiconductor in its vicinity. after the implantation of nickel ions into a silicon wafer. [edit]Application [edit]Tool in metal finishing steel toughening Nitrogen or other ions can be implanted into a tool steel target (drill bits. each dopant atom can create a charge carrier in the semiconductor after annealing. so that the purity of the source can be very high. then some combination of beam scanning and wafer motion is used. which is the growth of the matching phase on the surface of a substrate). Dopant ions such as boron. Finally. [edit]Mesotaxy Mesotaxy is the term for the growth of a crystallographically matching phase underneath the surface of the host crystal (compare to epitaxy. wherein a buried high dose oxygen implant is converted to silicon oxide by a high temperature annealing process. for adjusting the threshold of a MOSFET. even though the exact crystal structure and lattice constant may be very different. ions are implanted at a high enough energy and dose into a material to create a layer of a second phase. For example.[1] [edit]Application [edit]Doping in semiconductor device fabrication The introduction of dopants in a semiconductor is the most common application of ion implantation. and an electron for an n-type dopant. for example. These gases tend to be very hazardous. which prevents crack . for example). phosphorus or arsenic are generally created from a gas source. [edit]Silicon on insulator One prominent method for preparing silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates from conventional silicon substrates is the SIMOX (Separation by IMplantation of OXygen) process.[2] along with the use of pulsed-electron beam for rapid annealing. The structural change caused by the implantation produces a surface compression in the steel. a layer of nickel silicide can be grown in which the crystal orientation of the silicide matches that of the silicon. When implanted in a semiconductor.[3] although it has not to date been used for commercial production. and the temperature is controlled so that the crystal structure of the target is not destroyed. A hole can be created for a p-type dopant. If the target surface is larger than the ion beam diameter and a uniform distribution of implanted dose is desired over the target surface. The crystal orientation of the layer can be engineered to match that of the target.down the beamline. In this process. The technique is used. Ion implantation was developed as a method of producing the p-n junction of photovoltaic devices in the late 1970s and early 1980s. the implanted surface is coupled with some method for collecting the accumulated charge of the implanted ions so that the delivered dose can be measured in a continuous fashion and the implant process stopped at the desired dose level.

it is desired to have surfaces very resistant to both chemical corrosion and wear due to friction. As in the case of tool steels.propagation and thus makes the material more resistant to fracture.e.e. [edit]Other [edit]Ion applications beam mixing Ion implantation can be used to achieve ion beam mixing. This target atom then itself becomes a projectile in the solid. resulting in transfer of a significant amount of energy to the target atom such that it leaves its crystal site. it can become an amorphous solid (such a solid produced from a melt is called aglass). and can cause successive collision events. complete amorphization of a target is preferable to a highly defective crystal: An amorphized film can be regrown at a lower temperature than required to anneal a highly damaged crystal. Interstitials result when such atoms (or the original ion itself) come to rest in the solid. This can be referred to as damage recovery. . The chemical change can also make the tool more resistant to corrosion. Vacancies are crystal lattice points unoccupied by an atom: in this case the ion collides with a target atom. [edit]Amorphization The amount of crystallographic damage can be enough to completely amorphize the surface of the target: i. This may be useful for achieving graded interfaces or strengthening adhesion between layers of immiscible materials. [edit]Damage recovery Because ion implantation causes damage to the crystal structure of the target which is often unwanted. i. Ion implantation is used in such cases to engineer the surfaces of such devices for more reliable performance. the surface modification caused by ion implantation includes both a surface compression which prevents crack propagation and an alloying of the surface to make it more chemically resistant to corrosion. In some cases. ion implantation processing is often followed by a thermal annealing. mixing up atoms of different elements at an interface. These point defects can migrate and cluster with each other. resulting in dislocation loops and other defects. for example prosthetic devices such as artificial joints. but find no vacant space in the lattice to reside. [edit]Problems with ion implantation damage [edit]Crystallographic Each individual ion produces many point defects in the target crystal on impact such as vacancies and interstitials. [edit]Surface finishing In some applications.

like all the channelling effects. [edit]High Voltage Safety High voltage power supplies in ion implantation equipment can pose a risk of electrocution. This effect is called ion channelling. is highly nonlinear. The result is that the range of an ion can be much longer if the ion travels exactly along a particular direction. . Such hazardous elements. Ion channelling can be used directly in Rutherford backscattering and related techniques as an analytical method to determine the amount and depth profile of damage in crystalline thin film materials. particular crystallographic directions offer much lower stopping than other directions. and boron. [edit]Hazardous Materials Note In the ion implantation semiconductor fabrication process of wafers. Many overlapping safety protocols must be used when handling these deadly compounds. For this reason. [edit]Ion channelling A diamond cubic crystal viewed from the <110>direction. for example the <110> direction in silicon and other diamond cubic materials[citation needed] . most implantation is carried out a few degrees off-axis. For this reason. such as arsine and phosphine. where tiny alignment errors will have more predictable effects. in some cases. and can also be accumulated and found concentrated in the vacuum pumps hardware. solid source and gasses are used. corrosive. The effect is only appreciable for very large doses. high-energy atomic collisions can generate X-rays and.[edit]Sputtering Some of the collision events result in atoms being ejected (sputtered) from the surface. It is important not to expose yourself to these carcinogenic. Prior to entry to high voltage area. arsenic. it is important for the workers to minimize their exposure to the toxic materials are used in the ion implanter process. In addition. Operators and maintenance personnel should learn and follow the safety advice of the manufacturer and/or the institution responsible for the equipment. and especially in semiconductor substrates where the crystal structure is more open. and thus ion implantation will slowly etch away a surface. and. Other elements may include antimony. with small variations from perfect orientation resulting in extreme differences in implantation depth. phosphorus. and readMSDSs. If there is a crystallographic structure to the target. flammable. the semiconductor fabrication facilities are highly automated. and toxic elements. other ionizing radiation and radionuclides. showing hexagonal ion channels. and may feature negative pressure gas bottles safe delivery system (SDS). Residue of these elements show up when the machine is opened to atmosphere. Use safety.

such as radio frequency linear particle accelerators and laser wakefield plasma accelerators have their own hazards. 895-899. B. J. Armini. ^ Hamm. Bunker and M. 15th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf. N. Marianne E.terminal components must be grounded using a grounding stick. "Apparatus and Technique for Pulsed Electron Beam Annealing for Solar Cell Production. . pp. San Diego California. 3. ISBN 978-981-4307-04-8.. 976-980 (1981). World Scientific. R&D equipment and Service Ion Beam Services Nissin Ion Equipment SemEquip SEN Corporation Tokyo Electron Limited Ulvac Technologies Varian Semiconductor Equipment [edit]References 1. Next." Proc. "Non-mass-analyzed Ion Implantation Equipment for high Volume Solar Cell Production. Orlando FL." Proc. 2. power supplies should be locked in the off state and tagged to prevent unauthorized energizing. Hamm. S. Industrial Accelerators and Their Applications. Robert W. [edit]Manufacturers • • • • • • • • • • • • of Ion Implantation Equipment Advanced Ion Beam Technology Axcelis Technologies Complete Ions Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies Global Technologies.. Landis et al. Other types of particle accelerator. ^ A.. 27-30 Sep 1982. (2012). 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Spitzer. ^ G.