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TENSES Guess it!

I do my homework every night

1. Simple Present Tense a. Present Tense and Adverb of frequency


Simple present tense sering juga digunakan
2. Present Continuous Tense dengan Adverb of frequency, yaitu:
- always - usually
3. Present Perfect Tense - never - generally
4. Simple Past Tense - often - ever
- sometimes - rarely, etc
5. Past Continuous Tense
Eg.
6. Past Perfect Tense -He sometimes comes late to class
-Do you ever eat Chinese food?
7. Future (Present Future) Tense

8. Future Continuous Tense


b. Perubahan Verb1  Verb1(s /es)
1. Kata kerja berakhiran huruf Y, didahului
9. Future Perfect Tense huruf mati, diubah menjadi I, lalu
ditambah es.
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense Eg.
study  studies carry  carries
11. Future Perfect Continuous Tense try  tries fly  flies
12. Past Future Tense
2. Kata kerja berakhiran S, CH, SH, X, O
13. Past Future Continuous Tense ditambah es.
Eg.
14. Past Future Perfect Tense miss  misses kiss  kisses
teach  teaches wish  wishes
15. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense box  boxes go  goes

3. Kata kerja yang berakhiran dengan huruf


GRAMMAR didahului oleh huruf hidup dan tidak
termasuk kedalam kelompok 1 dan 2
1. Noun Phrases hanya ditambah s.
Eg.
2. Conditional Sentence and The Fact play  plays say  says
3. Comparison visit  visits buy  buys
come  comes work  works
4. Adjective Clause
2. Present Continuous Tense
5. Direct and Indirect Speech Adalah kegiatan yang dilakukan sekarang

6. Passive Voice Bentuk:


P  S + Tobe1 + V1-ing + …
N  S + Tobe1-not + V1-ing + …
--ooOoo— Q  Tobe1 + S + V1-ing + … ?

Eg.
TENSES P  We are listening to the teacher at present
N  We are not listening to the teacher at
1. Simple Present Tense present
Adalah sebuah pola kalimat yang menunjukkan hal, Q  Are we listening to the teacher at present?
keadaan atau pernyataan tentang Suatu Kebiasaan
(habitual action) atau kejadian yang terjadi berulang – 3. Present Perfect Tense
ulang atau terus menerus. Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk
menyatakan hal atau perbuatan yang sudah selesai
Bentuk: pada waktu sekarang.
P  S + V1 (s/es) + O
N  S + (do/does)not +V1 + O Bentuk:
Q  Do/Does + S + V1 + O? P  S + have/has + V3 + …
N  S + (have/has)not + V3 + …
Eg. Q  Have / Has + S + V3 + … ?
P  I go to the movie every night
N  I don’t go to the movie every night Adverbs yang sering digunakan
- already- since
Q  Do I go to the movie every night?
- yet - for, etc
- just
P  The sun rises in the east
N  The sun does not (doesn’t) rise in the east Eg.
Q  Does the sun rise in the east? P  I have dropped the glass
N  I have not (haven’t) dropped the glass
Created by shobahul hoir ta. 1
Q  Have I dropped the glass? Adalah pola kalimat yang menunjukkan hal, kegiatan
atau keadaan yang akan terjadi atau yang akan
4. Simple Past Tense dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang.
Adalah pola kalimat yang menunjukkan hal, keadaan
atau kejadian yang telah lalu, (kemarin, tadi pagi, Bentuk1 (use shall or will):
minggu lalu,dsb). P  S + shall/will + V1 + O + …
N  S + (shall/will)not + V1 + O + …
Bentuk: Q  Shall/Will + S + V1 + O + … ?
P  S + V2 + O + …
N  S + did-not + V1 + O + … Shall hanya boleh
Q  Did + S + V1 + O + … ?
digunakan oleh subject
Eg.
I dan We
P  The boy passed their examination last
year P  I shall go to Semarang tomorrow
N  The boy did not(didn’t) pass their N  I shall not (Shan’t) go to Semarang tomorrow
examination Q  Shall I go to Semarang tomorrow?
Q  Did the boy pass their examination last
year? Bentuk2 (use to be going to):
P  S + tobe1 + going to + V1 + O + …
5. Past (Progressive) Continuous Tense N  S + tobe1-not + going to + V1 + O + …
Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk Q  tobe1 + + S + going to + V1 + O + … ?
mengungkapkan kajadian atau kegiatan yang sedang
berlangsung (dalam proses), yang terjadi pada saat Try! Who can give an example?
tertentu pada masa yang telah lewat.
Past Continuous bisa diartikan juga adanya dua 8. Future Continuous Tense
kejadian dalam waktu yang hampir bersamaan. Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk
Kejadian yang lebih dulu itulah past continuous mengungkapkan suatu hal yang sedang terjadi, pada
sedangkan kejadian berikutnya adalah Simple Past. waktu tertentu pada masa yang akan datang.
Bentuk:
S + Tobe2 + V1-ing + O + … Bentuk:
Or P  S + shall/will + be + V1-ing + O + …
When + Simple Past, Past Continuous N  S + (shall/will)not + be + V1-ing + O + …
While + Past Continuous, Simple Past Q  Shall/Will + S + be + V1-ing + O + … ?
Eg.
Eg. Tono will be studying English at the end of this year.
- At this time last Sunday Elki was sleeping. “ hal ini dapat dijelaskan bahwa: kegiatan atau
- When I came in, my father was talking to a friend peristiwa belajar bahasa inggris sedang akan terjadi
- While we were walking to school, it started to rain pada akhir tahun. Tidak menjadi soal, kapan mulai
belajar, dan berlangsung sampai kapan. Tapi yang
6. Past Perfect Tense jelas, bahwa kegiatan belajar bahasa inggris itu sedang
Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang.”
menyatakan perbuatan yang sudah selesai atau sesuatu
yang terjadi duluan dan simple past terjadi kemudian, P  They will be having a meeting soon
pada waktu lampau. Hal ini juga menekankan pada N  They will not (won’t) be having a meeting
“selesainya” pekerjaan itu. soon.
Q  Will they be having a meeting soon?
* Time signal (TS) yang sering digunakan:
- before - after - when - as soon as 9. Future Perfect Tense
- until / till - that - if - by the time, etc Adalah bentuk kata kerja yang dipakai untuk
meyatakan suatu kegiatan atau peristiwa yang akan
Bentuk: sudah selesai terjadi/berlangsung pada saat tertentu di
P  S + had + V3 + TS + S + V2 + … waktu yang akan datang.
N  S + had-not + V3 + TS + S + V2 + … or
S + had + V3 + TS + S + did-not + V1 + Bentuk:
… P  S + shall/will + have + V3 + …
Q  Had + S + V3 + TS + S + V2 + … or N  S + (shall/will)not + have + V3 + …
Did + S + V1 + TS + S + had + V3 Q  Shall/Will + S + have + V3 + … ?

Eg: Eg:
P  John had gone to the store before went P  You will have done your work by this
home time
N  After Susan had listened to Albert’s tomorrow
record, N  You won’t have done your home work by
she didn’t ask him to lend it to her this
Q  Did Rene catch a cold after she had been time tomorrow.
out Q  Will you have done your work by this
in the rain? time
tomorrow?
7. Future Tense
Created by shobahul hoir ta. 2
10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk Age
menyatakan hal atau perbuatan yang sudah terjadi
sejak lampau, yang sampai sekarang masih Temperature
berlangsung terus. Biasanya dinyatakan dalam jangka
waktu tertentu.
Shape
Bentuk:
P  S + have / has + been + V1-ing + … Color
N  S + have / has + not + been + V1-ing + …
Q  Have / has + S + been + V1-ing + … Original Country

Time Signal yang sering digunakan adalah: Material


- for - long
- since - this week Purpose
- lately - all the morning
- recently - the whole night

Eg.
Noun
P  He has been studying English for 3 years.
N  He has not been studying English for 3 Ikuti langkah – langkah diatas, jika
years tidak bisa ikuti flow chart di bawah ini:
Q  Has he been studying English for 3 years?

11. Future Perfect Continuous Tense


Adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk
menunjukkan hal atau perbuatan yang berlangsung,
dan akan memakan jangka waktu sampai saat tertentu Start
di masa akan dating.

Bentuk:
P  S + will/shall + have been + V1-ing + … Cari Determiner ( a , an , the, that)
N  S + will/shall + not + have been + V1-ing
+…
Q  Will/Shall + S + have been + V1-ing + …
Ya Beri
Eg. Ada
P: no urut
Mr. Hasan will have been working in that factory for
exactly three years next December.
Tidak
N:
Mr. Hasan will not (won’t) have been working in that
factory for exactly three years next December.
Lihat Adjective
Q: Cari Opinion (cute, beautiful, good)
Will Mr. Hasan have been working in that factory for
exactly three years next December?

--ooOoo—
Ya Beri no
Ada
urut
GRAMMAR

1. Noun Phrase Tidak

Adalah suatu frase yang memiliki


adjective (kata sifat) yang lebih dari Lihat Adjective
satu, sehingga perlu dilakukan Cari Shape (small, big )
penyusunan. Penyusunan Adjective
tersebut mengikuti aturan berikuit:

Determiner Ya Beri no
Ada
urut

Adjective Opininon
Tidak
Size
Created by shobahul hoir ta. Lihat Adjective
3
Cari Age (new, old)
Ya Beri no
Ada
Ya Beri no urut
Ada
urut
Tidak
Tidak
Lihat Adjective
Lihat Adjective Cari Original  Material
Cari Temperature (cool, cold,warm) (metallic, silk)

A B

A
B

Ya Beri no
Ada
urut Ya Beri no
Ada
urut
Tidak
Tidak
Lihat Adjective
Cari Shape (round, square) Lihat Adjective
Cari Purpose
(Present or Past Participle)

Ya Beri no
Ada
urut
Ya Beri no
Ada
urut
Tidak

Tidak
Lihat Adjective
Cari Color (red,blue)
Cari Noun
(car, creature, tree)

Ya Beri no
Ada
urut Ya Beri no
Ada
urut
Tidak
Tidak
Lihat Adjective
Cari Original  Country / City Susun sesuai angka
(Germany,
Created by shobahul Sundanese)
hoir ta.
urutan 4
2. You will spoil it if you aren’t careful
3. We would answer if we could
4. They will get wet if it rains
5. I should be pleased if you came
6. If I have known that, I should not
Finish / End have made a mistake
7. It would have been better if you had
waited
8. If I were you, I should go home
immediately
9. Will you help me if I need you?
10. He would told you if you had asked
him

The Fact:

If I had a naughty student, I would


punish him
It means: “I don’t have a naughty
student”

It would have been better, if they


hadn’t come
It means: “They came”

2. Conditional Sentence 3. Comparison


Adalah kalimat pengandaian(berandai- Adalah perbandingan kata sifat. Terdiri
andai). If-conditional terdiri dari tiga dari tiga bentuk yaitu:
bentu semakin kebawah tingkat
ketidak mungkinannya semakin tinggi.  Tingkat Biasa (Positive Degree)
 Tingkat Lebih (Comparative Degree)
Bentuk:  Tingkat Paling / Ter (Superlative
Degree)
Type1:
If – Present Tense, Present Future

Sub Clause Main Clause


 Positive Degree
The Fact:
Karena pada Type1 kemungkinan bisa Bentuk:
terjadi atau tidak untuk Type1 faktanya … + as + adjective +
adalah kemungkinan yang di andai-
as + …
andaikan terjadi.

Type2:
Eg.
If – Past Tense, Past Future
My brother is as big as your brother
The Fact:
Present Tense  Type1
Adjective Sesuai
bentuknya
Type3:
If – Past Perfect, Past Future Perfect
(kakakku sebesar (sama besarnya)
kakakmu)
The Fact:
Past Tense  Type 2
 Comparative Degree
Note: Bentuk:
Tobe2 yang digunakan pada If- … + adjective +er + than + …
conditional disarankan menggunkan
were. Jadi, was boleh tidak digunakan  1 – 2 S.kata
… + more + adjective + than +
Example: … ≥ 3 S.kata
1. If I come, I shall see you

Created by shobahul hoir ta. 5


Eg.
A mountain is higher than a hill
1 suku kata

Asal kata “higher”  High (Tinggi)


Karena ingin ditambah kata “lebih”
maka menjadi:

High  + er  higher
Dian Sastro is more beautiful than
Mpok Atiek
3 suku kata

Asal kata “Beautiful”  more +  More


Beautiful

 Superlative Degree 4. Adjective Clause (Relatives)


Bentuk Adalah sebuah kelompok kata yang
… + the + adjective + est + … mempunyai Subyek dan Predikat yang
 1 – 2 S.kata digunakan untuk memodifikasi sebuah
kata benda.
… + the + most + adjective + …
 ≥ 3 S.kata Defining Relatives

Mount Kelud = 1.458 km above sea Defining relative clauses (also called
level
identifying relative clauses or
Mount Jaya Wijaya = 2.598 km above
sea level restrictive relative clauses) give
Mount Merapi = 3.255 km above sea detailed information defining a general
level term or expression. Defining relative
Discuss these sentences! clauses are not put in commas.
Mount Merapi is the highest
Kholilur is the most diligent boy in Imagine, Tom is in a room with five
her class girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you
ask somebody whether he knows this
Note!!!
girl. Here the relative clause defines
• Jika terdiri dari 1 suku kata(one-
syllable) maka kita tambahkan –er / which of the five girls you mean.
-est.
Do you know the girl who is talking to
Cheap cheaper  cheapest
Tom?
• Jika terdiri dari 2 suku kata(two- Non-Defining Relative
syllable) maka kita tambahkan –er /
-est. Non-defining relative clauses (also
Clever cleverer  cleverest
called non-identifying relative clauses
• Jika terdiri dari 3 atau lebih suku or non-restrictive relative clauses) give
kata(three-syllable or more) maka additional information on something,
kita tambahkan more- / most- but do not define it. Non-defining
Interested  more interested
relative clauses are put in commas.
most interested
Imagine, Tom is in a room with only
• Huruf mati terakhir dari sebuah
one girl. The two are talking to each
adjectives berikut harus dirangkap.
Big, cruel, fat, fit, hot, sad, thin, wet other and you ask somebody whether
• Jika berakhiran huruf “Y”, maka he knows this girl. Here the relative
diganti “i” clause is non-defining because in this
Lazy  lazier  laziest
situation it is obvious which girl you
• Irreguler Comparison mean.

Created by shobahul hoir ta. 6


Do you know the girl, who is talking to lives near our school.
Tom?
2. We don’t know the old man.
Mr. Arwan greeted him just now.
Note: In non-defining relative clauses,
who/which may not be replaced with © Ikuti langkah – langkah pada
that. nomor satu. Jika benar, maka
jawaban Anda harus seperti di
Object pronouns in non-defining bawah ini:
relative clauses must be used.
We don’t know the old man
Jim, who we met yesterday, is very whom Mr.
nice. Arwan greeted just now.
PERHATIKAN! 3. The girl is very kind-hearted
Who  to replace person functioning He called her Anna
as subject © Ikuti langkah – langkah pada
Whom to replace person functioning nomor satu. Jika benar, maka
as object jawaban Anda harus seperti di
Whose  to replace person / bawah ini:
thing functioning
as possession The girl whose he called
Which  to replace thing functioning as Anna is very
subject or kind-hearted
object 4. Most of the students can do the test
That  to replace person / thing well
functioning as Mr. Ervan gave it last Tuesday
subject or object © Ikuti langkah – langkah pada
nomor satu. Jika benar, maka
jawaban Anda harus seperti di
Eg. bawah ini:
1. The woman lives near our school.
She helped you yesterday Most of the students can do the
test which
© Cari diantara dua kalimat diatas Mr. Ervan gave last Tuesday well.
yang sama / disebutkan dua kali.
The woman lives near our 5. Direct and Indirect Speech (Reported
school. Speech)
She helped you yesterday
Kalimat dalam Reported Speech,
© Lihat kalimat yang kedua, letak perhatikan penjelsan berikut:
pengulangan terletak pada
posisi? • Pronoun / Kata ganti
The woman lives near our
school. In reported speech, you often have
She helped you yesterday to change the pronoun depending
Posisi di Subyek on who says what.
(Subject) Example
She says, “My mum doesn’t have
© Tentukan penggabungnya time today.” She says that her
Karena kalimat kedua mum doesn’t have time today.
pengulangan berada pada posisi
Subject maka, kata hubung
yang digunakan adalah Who • No Backshift

© Gabungkan kalimat dua dengan Do not change the tense if the


kalimat satu, dengan cara introductory clause is in Simple
menghapus pengulangan pada Present (e. g. He says). Note,
kalimat dua dan however, that you might have to
menggatikannya dengan kata change the form of the present
hubung tersebut. tense verb (3rd person singular).

The woman who helped you Example


yesterday He says, “I speak English.”
Created by shobahul hoir ta. 7
He says that he speaks English. at the restaurant (but at home) and
a few days have passed since then.
• Backshift So you would say:

You must change the tense if the → James said that he had seen
introductory clause is in Simple Past Caroline at the
(e. g. He said). This is called restaurant on Friday.
backshift.
oder
Example
He said, “I am happy.” → I met James in a restaurant on
He said that he was happy. Friday and he
said that he had seen Caroline
there that day.

The verbs could, should, would,


might, must, needn’t, ought to, and # Question in Reported Speech
used to do not normally change.
Besides, note that instead of ‚that‘
Example:
He said, “She might be right.” you use the interrogative. If there is
He said that she might be right. no interrogative, use ‚whether‘ / ‚if‘.
Eg.
DS : He said: “She lives in London.“
• Place and Time Expression IS : He said that she lived in London
QI/DS : He asked, “Where does she live?”
It is Friday and you meet QI/IS : He asked where she lived
James at a restaurant. James tells QWI/DS: He asked, “Does she live in London?”
you that he saw Caroline in this QWI/IS : He asked whether she lived in London
restaurant today. (“I saw Caroline Or
here today.”) A few minutes later, He asked if she lived in London
Helen joins you and you want to Ket:
report what James has told you. DS  Direct Speech
IS  Indirect Speech
Place (here) and time (today) are
QI  Quest With Interrogative
the same and you can say: QWI  Question without Interrogative
→ James said that he had seen 6. Passive Voice
Caroline here Adalah bentuk pasif.

today. Bentuk:
One day later, you meet Mary
at the same restaurant. Again, you Subject + Tobe + V3
want to report to her what James
has told you. The place is the same, Eg.
but not the time (it happened Present Tense
yesterday). So you would say: A : She waters the flowers everyday
P : The flowers are watered (by her)
→ James said that he had seen everyday
Caroline here
yesterday. Present and Past Continuous
A : She is watering the flowers now
Still a few days later, Tom P : The flowers are being watered (by
rings you at home. Again, you want her) now
to report to him what James has
told you. However, now you are not
Created by shobahul hoir ta. 8
A : She was watering the flowers 3. Raymond. 2000. “Bimbingan Pemnatapan
P : The flowers were being watered Bahasa Inggris”. Yama Widya: Bandung
(by her)
4. Grace Eudia. 2005. “Look Ahead An English
Past Tense Course”. Erlangga: Jakarta
A : She watered the flowers yesterday
P : She was watered the flowers 5. www.ego4u.com
yesterday
6. Purnomo Wahyu. 2007. “Acces to English
Present and Past Perfect Competence”. Sanksekerta Inti Media: Surabaya
A : She has just watered the flowers
P : The flowers have just been
watered

A : She had watered the flowers


P : The flowers had been watered

Present Future and Modals 1


A : She will water the flowers
tomorrow
P : The flowers will be watered
tomorrow

A : She can water the flowers


P : The flowers can be watered (by
her)

Daftar Bacaan

1. Zumakhsin. 2007. “Progress A conceptual


Approach to Learn English”. Ganeca
Exact:Bandung

2. Allen W. Stannard. 1974. “Living in English


Structure”. Hazell Watson & VoineyLtd: Great
Britain

Created by shobahul hoir ta. 9