Wessex Archaeology

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440
Strategic Desk-based Assessment

Ref: 84130.01

January 2013

EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS (PREHISTORY TO 1840) EH 6440 STRATEGIC DESK-BASED ASSESSMENT

Prepared by: Wessex Archaeology Portway House Old Sarum Park Salisbury WILTSHIRE SP4 6EB

Prepared for: English Heritage

Ref: 84130.01

January 2013
© Wessex Archaeology Limited 2013 Wessex Archaeology Ltd is a company limited by guarantee registered in England, company number 1712772. It is also a Charity registered in England and Wales, number 287786; and in Scotland, Scottish Charity number SC042630. Our registered office is at Portway House, Old Sarum Park, Salisbury, Wilts SP4 6EB.

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS (PREHISTORY TO 1840) EH 6440 STRATEGIC DESK-BASED ASSESSMENT
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Title: Principal Author(s): Managed by: Origination date: Date of last revision: Version: Wessex Archaeology QA: Status: Summary of changes: Associated reports: Client Approval:

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) Strategic Desk-based Assessment Victoria Cooper Nikki Cook January 2013 November 2012 .01 Nikki Cook Final Updated draft to incorporate comments from English Heritage

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EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS (PREHISTORY TO 1840) EH 6440 STRATEGIC DESK-BASED ASSESSMENT
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Summary The Early Ships and Boats project comprises a strategic desk-based assessment of known and dated vessels from the Prehistoric period up to 1840. At present, very few boats and ships are offered statutory protection in England in comparison to the large numbers of known and dated wrecks and even greater numbers of recorded losses of boats and ships in English waters. This project is part of a national programme of planned designation to ensure that current or future threats are addressed through the full weight of statutory protection in relation to the National Heritage Protection Plan. Data was acquired from primary and secondary sources, audited and entered into a Microsoft Access database linked to ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 mapping software. The data was assessed and characterised within the project database and selected records were enhanced. The dataset was considered alongside the non-statutory criteria for designation and the English Heritage wreck selection guide to identify sites for selective investigation. The final Early Boats and Ship database comprises 384 records of pre-1840 vessels including 47 designated wrecks, 133 records of undesignated wrecks, six boat burials, 28 historic vessels, 132 logboats and 38 findspots of craft or timbers. Following assessment, 88 of these were identified as candidates for selective investigation.

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EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS (PREHISTORY TO 1840) EH 6440 STRATEGIC DESK-BASED ASSESSMENT
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Acknowledgements This assessment was commissioned by English Heritage. The assistance provided by Helen Keeley, English Heritage Project Assurance Officer, is gratefully acknowledged. Further thanks go to the Heritage Data Collection Team of the National Monuments Record, Swindon and to the Historic Environment Officers and other regional staff that participated in this project. Wessex Archaeology would also like to thank the following people and organisations: • • • • George Hogg, Collections Development (National Maritime Museum, Cornwall) and National Small Boats Register Peter Rowe, Tees Archaeology Ben Whittaker, Curator Merseyside Maritime Museum Martin Woodward, Isle of Wight Shipwreck Museum

Data acquisition and audit was carried out by Diana Donohue with assistance from Stuart Churchley. Victoria Cooper carried out record enhancement and data assessment and compiled this report. Thomas Dommett designed and built the project database with edits to the database and project GIS maintained by Richard Milwain. Kitty Brandon prepared the illustrations and the project manager was Nikki Cook.

Data Licences Copyright restrictions may apply to data obtained from the National Record for the Historic Environment, the Historic Environment Records and the internet and bibliographic sources on which the archaeological site data is based. Wreck and obstruction data were supplied by SeaZone Solutions Limited under the PanGovernment Agreement. © British Crown SeaZone Solutions Limited. All rights reserved. Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright and database right 2012.

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Contents 1.  2.  3.  3.1.  3.2.  INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................1  METHODOLOGY SUMMARY ........................................................................................2  STAGE 1: DATA ACQUISITION, AUDITING AND MAPPING ......................................3  DATABASE .......................................................................................................................3  DATA ACQUISITION AND AUDITING ....................................................................................7  National Record for the Historic Environment .................................................................7  Local Authority Historic Environment Records................................................................7  United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (SeaZone)............................................................8  National Historic Ships and National Small Boats Registers ..........................................9  Wessex Archaeology, Goodwin Sands and Downs Archaeological Investigations ........9  Museum of London Archaeology Hulk Assemblage Project .........................................10  Museum Collections......................................................................................................11  MAPPING ........................................................................................................................12  STAGE 2: DATA ASSESSMENT AND CHARACTERISATION..................................13  DATA ASSESSMENT ........................................................................................................13  Deleting Records...........................................................................................................13  NRHE dataset ...............................................................................................................13  Date of Build..................................................................................................................14  Additional Records from Alternative Sources................................................................16  Record Enhancement ...................................................................................................16  RECORD CHARACTERISATION .........................................................................................18  Build ..............................................................................................................................18  Use................................................................................................................................19  Loss...............................................................................................................................20  Survival .........................................................................................................................21  Investigation ..................................................................................................................21  STAGE 3: IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR SELECTIVE INVESTIGATION ............22  NON-STATUTORY CRITERIA AND WRECK SELECTION GUIDES ..........................................22  ASSESSMENT BY TYPE....................................................................................................25  Designated Wrecks .......................................................................................................25  Undesignated Wrecks ...................................................................................................25  Boat Burials...................................................................................................................30  Historic Vessels.............................................................................................................30  Logboats .......................................................................................................................31  Findspots.......................................................................................................................32  ASSESSMENT BY PERIOD ................................................................................................33  Early Prehistoric (500,000 – 4000 BC)..........................................................................33 

3.3.  4.  4.1. 

4.2. 

5.  5.1.  5.2. 

5.3. 

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Late Prehistoric (4000 – 54 BC)....................................................................................33  Roman (54 BC – AD 410) .............................................................................................34  Post-Roman to Norman Conquest (410 AD – 1066).....................................................34  Medieval and Early Tudor (1066 – 1540)......................................................................34  Mid to Late Tudor (1540 – 1603)...................................................................................35  Stuart (1603 – 1714) .....................................................................................................36  Hanoverian (1714-1837) ...............................................................................................38  Unknown .......................................................................................................................41  5.4.  SUMMARY.......................................................................................................................41  6.  STAGE 4: RECOMMENDATIONS ...............................................................................44  Skiff ...............................................................................................................................44  Guardship......................................................................................................................45  Ice Boat .........................................................................................................................45  7.  STAGE 5: PREPARATION OF PROJECT PRODUCTS AND ARCHIVING ...............46  8.  REFERENCES..............................................................................................................47  Bibliographic References ..............................................................................................47  Key Websites ................................................................................................................48  APPENDIX I: HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT RECORD DATA SUMMARY .............................49  APPENDIX II: EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS PREHISTORY TO 1840 ..................................54  Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Categories (Northern England) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Categories (South-east England) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Categories (South-west England) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Early Prehistoric (500,000 to 4000 BC) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Late Prehistoric (4000 to 54 BC) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Roman (54 BC to AD 410) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Post-Roman to Norman Conquest (410 AD to 1066) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Medieval and Early Tudor (1066 to 1540) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Mid to Late Tudor (1540 to 1603) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Stuart (1603 to 1714) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Hanoverian (1714 to 1837) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Unknown (pre-1840) Early Ships and Boats Database Records: Records Identified for Selective Investigation Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: ESB database fields and ‘BULSI’ relationships Record categories Ships and Boats Identified for Selective Investigation

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1. 1.1.1.

INTRODUCTION Wessex Archaeology was commissioned by English Heritage and funded through the National Heritage Protection Commissions Programme (NHPCP) to undertake a desk-based assessment of Early Ships and Boats encompassing vessels dated from the Prehistoric period up to 1840. At present, very few boats and ships are offered statutory protection in England in comparison to the large numbers of known and dated wrecks and even greater numbers of recorded losses of boats and ships in English waters. The National Record of the Historic Environment (NRHE) database contains over 46,000 maritime records, of which just 7% comprise known and located wrecks (English Heritage, 2011). Currently, there are just 47 wrecks in England designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) Strategic Desk-based Assessment (ESB) is part of a national programme of planned designation to ensure that current or future threats are addressed through the full weight of statutory protection in relation to the National Heritage Protection Plan (NHPP). Previously Wessex Archaeology has undertaken a project entitled Assessing Boats and Ships for English Heritage and funded through the Aggregate Levy Sustainability Fund (ALSF no.5693) (Wessex Archaeology 2011 a-d). The study comprised a national ‘stock-take’ of known and located wrecks in the waters off England dating from 1860 to 1950. The project reviewed the resource with the aim of providing supplementary guidance on the key themes and interests represented by these most commonly encountered wrecks, in order to inform decisions regarding importance and mitigation. The aim of ESB is to undertake a desk-based assessment of the records of known and dated remains of early ships and boats (i.e. those dating from the earliest times to about 1840) to inform a policy on future designation priorities. The desk-based study is focussed on the resource within England, including English inshore waters up to the 12nm limit, notwithstanding other contextual locations where relevant. The assessment does not cover the resource beyond the 12nm limit, nor makes an assessment of areas where potential sites might be located. The objectives are to: • audit, assess, characterise and map relevant data, following the periods set out in the relevant Introduction to Heritage Assets (English Heritage 2012a), held by National and Local Historic Environment Records (HERs);

1.1.2.

1.1.3.

1.1.4.

1.1.5.

1.1.6.

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• • 2. 2.1.1.

identify sites for selective investigation; and provide recommendations for expansion of the Maritime Craft Thesaurus and NRHE.

METHODOLOGY SUMMARY ESB comprises a desk-based assessment of known and located maritime sites (pre1840) across England which may be assessed with a strategic Designation programme. These known and located maritime sites comprise all early ships and boats within England, across all environmental boundaries, including both archaeological examples and extant historic vessels but excluding those beyond the 12nm limit of English territorial waters. The project comprises five stages: • • • • • Stage 1: Data acquisition, auditing and mapping; Stage 2: Data assessment and characterisation; Stage 3: Identification of sites for selective investigation; Stage 4: Recommendations for expansion of the Maritime Craft Thesaurus and NRHE; and Stage 5: Preparation of Project Products and archiving.

2.1.2.

2.1.3.

Acquired data was audited and entered into a Microsoft Access database, modified from the database developed for the previous Wessex Archaeology project Assessing Boats and Ships (Wessex Archaeology, 2011e). This database was linked to ESRI ArcGIS to map the sites across England. The data was assessed and characterised within the project database and selected records were enhanced to facilitate Stages 3 and 4, the identification of sites for selective investigation and recommendations for the NRHE. In practice, the execution of Stages 1 and 2 overlapped to a large extent. This was primarily due to delays with receiving data and due to a number of errors and omissions that became clear during the enhancement of the dataset. These issues, and the methodology employed to resolve significant problems with data acquisition, are discussed further in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. The periods followed correspond to those set out in the Introduction to Heritage Assets Ships and Boats: Prehistory to 1840 (English Heritage 2012a): • • • • • • • • Early Prehistoric (500,000 – 4000 BC); Late Prehistoric (4000 – 54 BC); Roman (54 BC – AD 410); Post-Roman to Norman Conquest (410 AD – 1066); Medieval and Early Tudor (1066 – 1540); Mid to Late Tudor (1540 – 1603); Stuart (1603 – 1714); and Hanoverian (1714 – 1837).

2.1.4.

2.1.5.

2.1.6.

In addition, inherent uncertainties associated with dating early ships and boats has led to the inclusion of several sites for which precise dating is unknown, but for which a pre-1840 date is attributable beyond reasonable doubt. Such categories of site include logboats that have not been scientifically or stratigraphically dated, but for which a Prehistoric or Medieval date is considered most likely and unidentified shipwrecks attributed broad typographic date ranges.

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2.1.7.

The following sources were accessed during the course of the project: • • • • • • NRHE; Local Authority Historic Environment Records (HERs) or Sites and Monuments Records (SMRs); United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) through SeaZone; National Register of Historic Vessels (NRHV); National Small Boat Register (NSBR); and Additional published and unpublished primary and secondary data.

2.1.8.

Key additional sources included: • • • • • Wessex Archaeology The Goodwin Sands and the Downs Archaeological Investigations (2010 to 2011) (and associated geophysical survey data); Museum of London Archaeology Hulks Assemblage Project (2011); Archaeological Diving Unit (ADU) undesignated site assessments; Wessex Archaeology undesignated site assessments; and Underwater World Publications Diver Guides.

2.1.9.

All these additional sources are fully referenced within the ESB database.

2.1.10. Internet resources formed a central role throughout the project, particularly during Stage 2. Commonly accessed sites included: • • • • • • • PastScape (http://www.pastscape.org.uk/); Heritage Gateway (http://www.heritagegateway.org.uk/gateway/); Archaeology Data Service (http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/); Scillydivers (http://scillydivers.blogspot.co.uk/); UK Grid Reference Finder (http://gridreferencefinder.com/); English Heritage (http://www.english-heritage.org.uk); and The Wreck Site (http://www.wrecksite.eu/).

2.1.11. Data from these, and further sources, are referenced in the database and in this report where relevant. 2.1.12. Following the acquisition and audit (Stage 1), and the assessment and characterisation (Stage 2) of data, the ESB dataset was considered alongside the non-statutory criteria for designation and the wreck selection guide published by English Heritage (2010, 2012b) and with regard to the selection guide for boats and ships in archaeological contexts developed by Wessex Archaeology (2008b). These criteria are discussed in Section 5.1 below. Through this process 88 sites were identified as qualifying for further investigation. 2.1.13. Detailed methodologies are presented below alongside the results for each stage. 3. 3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. STAGE 1: DATA ACQUISITION, AUDITING AND MAPPING DATABASE The ESB database was informed by both the Project Design and the database used by Wessex Archaeology for Assessing Boats and Ships 1860 to 1950. The design of the Microsoft Access database is based on Wessex Archaeology’s ‘BULSI’ system to assess the ‘career’ or ‘life cycle’ of a wrecked vessel, from its

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building through its use and loss and then through its subsequent history as a wreck. The system has been proved on a wide variety of projects, including regional environmental characterisations and the assessment of individual wrecks. 3.1.3. The system breaks the description of any wreck down into the following consistent categories: B – Build: This category provides information concerning the building of the vessel, including the date of construction, the place of construction and the companies and individuals involved. It also includes information concerning the design of the vessel, including the dimensions and tonnage, the materials used, and propulsion and other engineering details. U – Use: This category provides information on what the vessel was used for, including changes of use during its career. Registration and nationality information is recorded here, together with details of companies and individuals associated with the vessel, such as owners, managers and the crew. For merchant ships, details of the type of cargo can be recorded, together with information about ports of call and therefore routes. L – Loss: This category records information about how the vessel came to be lost, including date and circumstances of loss, location and associated vessels and people. Fatalities can be recorded as well as commemorative monuments subsequently erected. S – Survival: This category describes the evidence for the history and survival of the vessel as a wreck and can include information from a wide variety of source including diver descriptions and geophysical and hydrographical surveys. I – Investigation: This category describes the history of investigation of the wreck and can include interventions by archaeologists, salvors and others. 3.1.4. The purpose of the database is to allow the user to query the dataset in both simple and complex ways. The main function of this is to inform Stage 3 of the ESB project, to identify sites for selective investigation in line with the criteria for designation. These criteria are discussed as part of Stage 3 below. Table 1 outlines the basic elements of the ESB database and shows how the database fields interrelate with the ‘BULSI’ terms.
ESB function Database Field WAID Name Record Type Primary Source Primary Source UID Monument Type Notes Unique identifier (auto number) Name of vessel, site or descriptive label Maritime, Findspot, Monument Original source of data (preenhancement) From Monument Thesaurus (Monument Types). Can include as many types as relevant. Comprehensive location information relevant to identification and project mapping

3.1.5.

Identification

Location

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ESB function

Database Field Associated sources Associated Finds

Documentation

Associated Monuments Evidence Summary Associated Events Build Date Craft Type Propulsion Construction Materials Port of Registration Nationality Associated People Date Archaeological Period (ESB) Crew Passengers Craft type Departure Destination Cargo Associated People Associated Monuments Lives Lost Loss Date Manner of Loss Departure Destination Cargo Associated People Assessment of Survival Associated Monuments Designation Associated Sources Associated Finds

Build

Use

Notes External database reference numbers Referenced sources (enhanced records) Site components from primary data sources Identification of current and historical associations Vessel Remains, Finds, Documentary Evidence or Geophysical survey, for example. Identification of current associations Date of build in dd/mm/yyyy format From Monument Thesaurus (Maritime Craft Types) Oar, Paddle, Sail, Steam, Towed From Monument Thesaurus (Building Materials) From Monument Thesaurus (Maritime Place Names) Pre-selected list Builder From/To (specific or general dates) Period as defined in Introduction to Heritage Assets Numeric value Numeric value Key indicator of vessel use Details of final voyage at time of loss as key indicator of vessel use During use life of vessel Identification of historic associations Numeric value or descriptive (e.g. All, Some, Many) Date of loss in dd/mm/yyyy format Pre-selected list At time of loss (final voyage)

Narrative Loss

Pre-selected list Identification of current associations Any formal designations (pre-selected list) Investigation reports and additional data Site components from primary data sources Identification of current associations Vessel Remains, Finds, Documentary Evidence or Geophysical survey, for example. Identification of current associations

Survival

Investigation

Associated Monuments Evidence Summary Associated Events

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ESB function All

Database Field Description

Notes Free text relevant to identification, documentation and narrative

Table 1: ESB database fields and ‘BULSI’ relationships

3.1.6.

The database is presented as a form with separate tabs for documentation, narrative and for queries. The basic structure comprises interconnected tables and look up tables with the WAID acting as the UID. Using the form the user can go to a specific record by using a keyword filter that searches the name field or by going directly to the WAID if known. A separate “Query” tab is included in the form allowing the user to filter the records by specific attributes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Name (keyword); Period (from/to and ESB period); Departure, Destination and Cargo (at time of loss); Date of Loss (from/to); Cause of Loss; Passengers (yes/no); Lives lost (yes/no) Monument type; Craft Type; Construction Material; Propulsion; Date built (from/to); Nationality; Survival; Evidence; and Designation.

3.1.7.

3.1.8.

Using the query form the user can filter the dataset using any of the above, or any combination of the above to identify individual records, and groups of records, which may assist with the interrogation of the database. For example, a query to look for boats and ships from the Stuart period which are partially intact returns 14 records. By returning to the query form and adding the filter for cause of loss we can see that four of these 14 were lost through stranding. It is important to remember, however, that it is only possible to query data that is recorded and that has been input into the database. For early ships and boats such as these, specific details of the BULSI narrative are often missing, particularly for Prehistoric and Roman vessels for which no contemporary documents exist and only material evidence is known. A filter by loss of life for example returns 63 records. However, in real terms far more of the 384 records are likely to be associated with the loss of life although this is not recorded.

3.1.9.

3.1.10. Through a consideration of the data, however, the use of these filters facilitated the identification of records that may be considered to qualify for selective investigation as discussed in Sections 5.2 and 5.3.

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3.2.

DATA ACQUISITION AND AUDITING National Record for the Historic Environment The NRHE manages the national historic environment database of England, including its territorial waters. Maritime records in the NRHE database include both known and located submerged sites and finds as well as records of casualties for which a historic record of the loss exists although physical remains have not been located. The systematic compilation of records was begun in 1992 by the National Monuments Record (NRHE) and continues today through English Heritage’s NRHE. Data was provided to Wessex Archaeology from the NRHE as the primary dataset from English Heritage. The dataset comprised 193 records and included records of logboats as well as known and dated maritime sites. The data was entered into the ESB database automatically from supplied tables although errors associated with the input of data for associated people, lives lost and events had to be corrected manually. As further data was added to the database, and as Stage 2 data assessment commenced, it subsequently became clear that a number of sites and finds were missing from the original NRHE dataset which could nonetheless be located within the online version of the NRHE using PastScape. A new search was requested from the NRHE and a new set of data was received. However, this new dataset included reported losses as well as known records of early ships and boats, comprising 15,396 records in total. This amount of data precluded the provision of long monument reports and thus the inclusion of data such as the long descriptive text and additional sources. As the number of missing records was comparatively small the decision was made to enter data for these records manually using English Heritage’s online database PastScape as part of the record enhancement process. This aspect of the data assessment is discussed further in Section 4. Local Authority Historic Environment Records All HERs, 82 in total, were approached for data and responses were received from 73 of those contacted. The data was provided to Wessex Archaeology in various formats and it was necessary to filter each dataset before it could be entered into the ESB database. The first step was to delete all records from the datasets with an associated NRHE reference. There was significant crossover between the NRHE and the individual HERs and this proved an efficient means of eliminating duplicates before they were entered into the database. The remaining records in each dataset was then checked for relevance and uploaded to the database.

3.2.1.

3.2.2.

3.2.3.

3.2.4.

3.2.5.

3.2.6.

3.2.7.

3.2.8.

3.2.9.

3.2.10. A summary of this data and the filtering process is presented in Appendix I. 3.2.11. Further attempts were made to contact those that did not respond but ultimately contact was not achieved with nine of the HERs. 3.2.12. The Dartmoor National Park Authority HER shares its database with Devon County Council HER, from which data was received, and the Merseyside HER is closed. For the remaining seven, a basic internet search using Heritage Gateway was

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carried out. A simple search for the terms ‘boat’, ‘ship’ and ‘craft’ were carried out for each individual HER. 3.2.13. Buckingham HER returned one record corresponding to an existing entry in the ESB database input from the NRHE (WA35). 3.2.14. Cambridgeshire HER returned six records, four corresponding to existing entries in the ESB database input from the NRHE (WA46, WA47, WA48, WA409) and 2 records that had not been input from other sources (WA429, WA430). 3.2.15. The City of York HER returned no records. 3.2.16. The North Somerset HER does not form part of the Heritage Gateway and the online database is solely map based and does include the facility to search by record or monument type. However, the Somerset HER, which covers both north and south Somerset, has returned data. 3.2.17. The Portsmouth City HER does not form part of the Heritage Gateway and is not searchable online through its own websites. However, the Hampshire Archaeology and Historic Buildings Record, which includes the city of Portsmouth, has returned data. 3.2.18. The Sandwell SMR does not form part of the Heritage Gateway and has no current online information pages. However, responses were received from HERs in the surrounding area (e.g. Birmingham City HER, Black Country SMR, Dudley HER) and none of these had data relevant to the ESB project. 3.2.19. The Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority HER does not form part of the Heritage Gateway although a searchable database is provided through the Archaeology Data Service. A search using the same terms ‘craft’, ‘boat’ and ‘ship’ returned one record corresponding to an existing entry in the ESB database input from the NRHE (WA14). United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (SeaZone) 3.2.20. Data on charted wrecks from the UKHO was provided to Wessex Archaeology as a SeaZone Hydrospatial dataset. This dataset included records of 20,379 charted wrecks and obstructions of which 107 were recorded as lost pre-1840. An additional 6 “undated” records were also included as they were known to project staff as predating 1840. 3.2.21. Of the 113 records, 75 had already been entered into the ESB database from the NRHE data. The remaining 38 records comprised: • • • • • • • • • • Not relevant to ESB: 5 considered to fall under Welsh rather than English territorial waters; 1 considered to fall under Isle of Man rather than English territorial waters; 16 DEAD records of losses rather than physical remains on the seabed; 2 LIVE records of losses rather than physical remains on the seabed; Relevant to ESB: 3 DEAD records at locations at which physical remains have previously been identified; 8 LIVE wrecks located after 1992/1993 and post-dating the accession of UKHO data into the NRHE; 1 LIVE record of a loss reported as salvaged at time; and 2 further LIVE wrecks.
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3.2.22. The fourteen records that were considered relevant to the ESB project (i.e. those considered to represent physical remains on the seabed within the study area) were checked against the HER data already in the database and two further duplicates were found. This left 12 records that were entered into the database (WA323 to WA331 and WA333 to WA335). National Historic Ships and National Small Boats Registers 3.2.23. National Historic Ships UK is a government funded, yet independent, advisory organisation, successor to the advisory committee on National Historic Ships (2006), itself successor to the National Historic Ships Committee (1991). They maintain the National Register of Historic Vessels (NRHV), incorporating the National Historic Fleet (NHF) (which may also include vessels on the small boats register), and the National Archive of Historic Vessels (NAHV). These registers include extant historic vessels over 33ft in length with demonstrable and significant associations with the UK, many of which are in private ownership. There are 13 vessels recorded as having a pre-1840 build date. Two of these are currently located outside England (HMS Unicorn in Dundee and Peggy in the Isle of Man) leaving eleven that were added to the ESB database (WA355, WA356, WA358 to WA360 and WA365 to WA370). 3.2.24. The National Small Boats Register (NSBR) is maintained by the National Maritime Museum Cornwall. The NSBR is a register of historic boats under 33ft in length regarded as worthy of preservation and details of 25 vessels were supplied by the National Maritime Museum. Four of these were already in the database from the NRHV (Zetland, WA360; Boadicea, WA365; Royal Oak, WA366; and Oxford Boat, WA367). With further examination, two vessels were found to have been built post1840 (Lord St.Levan’s New Barge and RCHME 279) and three were found to be located outside England at the present time: • • • a West Greenland Inuit sealskin kayak in McManus Galleries and Museum in Dundee; the birch bark ‘Enys Canoe’ in the Canadian Canoe Museum; and the clinker-built working boat Peggy in Isle of Man Nautical Museum at Castletown.

3.2.25. This left 16 historic vessels that were added to the ESB database. The current location of one of the vessels, Katie (WA364), could not be determined from the available sources although the record was kept in the ESB database for reference. 3.2.26. A further record, The Green Boat (WA435), details of which were supplied by the Merseyside Maritime Museum, discussed below, was also found to be included in the NSBR database. Wessex Archaeology, Goodwin Sands and Downs Archaeological Investigations 3.2.27. Wessex Archaeology has carried out a review of historical geophysical datasets held by English Heritage over designated wreck sites off the south east coast of England (Wessex Archaeology, 2009). This data was supplemented by the acquisition and assessment of new geophysical data over designated wreck sites in the Goodwin Sands and Eastbourne areas. During survey sessions the opportunity was taken to acquire data over additional sites and five further sites were examined, four of which were confirmed as 20th century and a new, wooden wreck of possible earlier date in the Kellett Gut (GAD 11).

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3.2.28. Subsequent to the South East of England Designated Wrecks project Wessex Archaeology undertook the East of England Designated Wrecks project (Wessex Archaeology, 2010a) to acquire and assess geophysical data in the Goodwin Sands, Thames Estuary and off the coast of Suffolk. In addition to the designated wrecks in all three areas, the five additional sites on the Goodwin Sands were resurveyed as well as three further prospection areas. A large number of new anomalies and additional sites were identified within the Goodwin Sands and Wessex Archaeology was commissioned by English Heritage to undertake initial diving investigations on a prioritised selection of these sites (Wessex Archaeology, 2010b). 3.2.29. In 2011, further diving investigations were carried out to assess sites within the Goodwin Sands and the Downs identified from the Wessex Archaeology surveys (2009, 2010a), a professional survey by Advanced Underwater Survey Ltd, an amateur survey by Robert Peacock (licensee of the Stirling Castle, Northumberland, Restoration and Mary) and, most recently, a survey of the near inshore element of the Downs by the Channel Coast Observatory (CCO) (Wessex Archaeology, 2012). 3.2.30. Of 118 identified sites, 32 were further assessed by Wessex Archaeology (2012). Nine of these (GAD 1, GAD 2, GAD 3, GAD 4, GAD 5, GAD 6, GAD 7 and GAD 8) are already designated, or lay within the boundary of a designated area (GAD 60), and were not examined further during ESB. Five of the sites (GAD 105, GAD 100, GAD 116, GAD 117 and GAD 118) were identified as wrecks of unknown date and were not included within the ESB database. Ten were considered to be of probable post-1840 date (GAD 11, GAD 15, GAD 17, GAD 23, GAD 57, GAD 104, GAD 106, GAD 107, GAD 112, GAD 113). This included the Kellet Gut wreck (GAD 11) which was assessed to be of later date than originally thought. The remaining eight wrecks were considered to be of possible pre-1840 date and were entered into the ESB database (GAD 9/WA420, GAD 10/WA421, GAD 12/WA422, GAD 13/WA423, GAD 14/WA424, GAD 16/WA425, GAD 58/WA344, GAD 108/WA345). Museum of London Archaeology Hulk Assemblage Project 3.2.31. The Hulk Assemblages Project (2011) was undertaken by Museum of London Archaeology (MOLA), with input from the Thames Discovery Programme and the Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS). The aim of the project was to create a method for quantifying known hulk assemblages in England, and to create a nationwide database of hulk assemblages that could be used to identify thematic, geographic and temporal gaps in the known data. The project design for ESB indicated potential for this study to build on this work by MOLA and to incorporate an assessment of early hulked vessels as a specific category within the desk-based assessment. 3.2.32. The data providers contacted by MOLA (2011) mirrored that accessed during ESB with the addition of available data from regional Rapid Coastal Zone Assessments carried out in England and data from stakeholders. MOLA report that, in general, the RCZAs did not add a great deal of information to the hulk assemblage project. None of the stakeholders responded with data although maritime and nautical archaeology organisations and museums provided useful information about regional hulk surveys and reports, all in the south of England. 3.2.33. An assessment of the results of the MOLA project (Museum of London Archaeology, 2011) revealed that only three assemblages were found to contain hulks that predated the 19th century:

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• • •

a late 18th century hulk located at The Saltings, Bexley, Greater London; a Mersey Flat, Daresbury, built in 1772, now located at Sutton Locks in Cheshire; and the Grace Dieu, a Protected Wreck Site, Henry V’s flag ship launched in 1418 now located in the River Hamble, Hampshire.

3.2.34. The Grace Dieu was already in the ESB database as a designated vessel (WA134). The Mersey Flat Daresbury and the hulk at The Saltings had not been included in the data provided for the ESB assessment from the NRHE or HERs. For both assemblages the NRHE records the monument types as 20th century. These two hulks were added to the ESB database (WA427 and WA428). 3.2.35. The lack of dated pre-1840 records of hulks means that further assessment of hulks as a specific resource does not form part of the ESB study. Museum Collections 3.2.36. During the course of acquisition and auditing data from the NRHE and HERs it was apparent that many of the recorded vessels that were not preserved in situ were preserved in museums or other collections. 3.2.37. To indicate if any additional pre-1840 vessels may present in collections and exhibits, that had not already been included in the ESB database, basic online searches were carried out relating to the following: • Charlestown Shipwreck and Heritage Centre: • artefacts from over 150 shipwrecks; • 57 shipwrecks listed on website, • 19 pre-1840 shipwrecks in English territorial waters, all in ESB database. World of Boats (The EISCA) Collection (Eyemouth): • c. 400 boats in collection; • 187 vessels listed online, none pre-1840. The RNLI Historic Lifeboat Collection, Chatham: • 17 lifeboats in collection. Hastings Shipwreck Museum: • artefacts from the Anne (1690) at Pett Level and Amsterdam (1749) at Bulverhythe, both in ESB database. Merseyside Maritime Museum (Liverpool): • over 70 boats in collection; • 10 on website, none pre-1840.

• • • •

3.2.38. The collections of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich are published online although the search facilities were not suitable for searching by date which meant the utility of the web based searches were insufficient for the means of this project. The museum was contacted by email to ask for details of any boats in the collections that may not have been included in the database. However, no response had been received at time of writing. 3.2.39. The Isle of Wight Shipwreck Centre and Maritime Museum displays a huge collection of artefacts recovered from wrecks by professional diver Martin Woodward. There is no comprehensive list of the wrecks represented within the museum and no database online. When contacted Mr Woodward responded that most of the wrecks post-date 1840 (pers. comm. 16/10/2012).

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3.2.40. The collection at the Merseyside Maritime Museum primarily dates to the late 19th century although Ben Whittaker, curator of the ship and boat collection at the museum, provided details of a single pre-1840 date in the collection, ‘The Green Boat’ (WA435) (pers. comm. 29/10/2012). 3.2.41. The World of Boats (The EISCA) Collection, Hull Maritime Museum and the National Waterways Museum in Ellesmere Port were also contacted to enquire about the existence of any further boats within their collections that had not been identified from other sources. No response had been received at time of writing. 3.2.42. The Historic Lifeboat Collection of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution is housed at Chatham Dockyard and includes 17 lifeboats, the largest collection in the UK. The RNLI Heritage Trust were contacted on 11th December 2012 and they were able to confirm that none of the boats in the collection pre-dated 1840, the earliest dating to 1897. Three pre-1840 lifeboats, the Grace Darling (WA375), Zetland (WA360) and Tyne (WA361), were included in the ESB database from the NRHS and NSBR. These are located in the Grace Darling Museum in Bamburgh, Northumberland, the Zetland Museum in Redcar, and at South Shields, respectively. 3.3. 3.3.1. MAPPING Each record within the ESB database includes positional data identifying the location of each site or findspot and allowing each record to be mapped within the project GIS. Each record includes the British National Grid reference and Eastings and Northings (OSGB 36) as well as the latitude and longitude (WGS 84, decimal degrees). It was considered important to include both within the ESB database to retain relevance to other NRHE and HER GIS datasets, based upon the OSGB 36 datum, and relevance to other offshore datasets, using WGS 84. British National Grid co-ordinates have been taken directly from the NRHE or HER, or other sources as relevant. If a corresponding WGS 84 co-ordinate was available from the UKHO, or other source, this was input into the latitude and longitude fields, even if the position was different to that given in the primary source. As only British National Grid Eastings and Northings would be used for the project GIS, these differences were retained where they occurred for reference. If corresponding WGS 84 co-ordinates were not available, latitude and longitude values were converted from the British National Grid reference. If only WGS84 co-ordinates were available (i.e. when a wreck was recorded only by the UKHO) the British National Grid reference was converted from the WGS 84 latitude and longitude. The origin of each co-ordinate is clearly recorded. For historic vessels an approximate location has been input corresponding to the current location of that vessel using the website gridreferencefinder.com. This allows the user to zoom in to an aerial view of a location chosen on a map and then pinpoint a position on the ground for which both OSGB 36 and WGS 84 positions are generated. This approach, unsuitable for locating wrecks or findspots requiring specific locations, was deemed to be sufficiently accurate for locations described as ‘within Portsmouth Historic Dockyard’ or ‘kept in West Mersea’, for example. Only one record was lacking positional data, the historic vessel Katie (WA364) for which the current location is unknown. The ESB database was linked to a GIS workspace to provide a means for analysing and presenting the data spatially. The link allows both the full dataset and for the results of queries to be presented spatially.

3.3.2.

3.3.3.

3.3.4. 3.3.5.

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4. 4.1. 4.1.1.

STAGE 2: DATA ASSESSMENT AND CHARACTERISATION DATA ASSESSMENT Once all primary data had been acquisitioned, audited and entered into the ESB database the process of data assessment commenced. In practice the two processes overlapped to a large extent as new lines of enquiry emerged and new data sources were located. The primary purpose of the data assessment was to ensure, as far as possible, the inclusion of every known pre-1840 boat or ship known in England and English territorial waters. These records could then be enhanced by the collation and addition of further data from various sources. Once the assessment and enhancement was complete each record could then be characterised, using the BULSI system, to facilitate the identification of sites for selective investigation (Stage 3). The processes followed during the course of this assessment and enhancement are outlined below. Deleting Records During the Stage 2 data assessment several records that had been entered into the database during Stage 1 were deleted. With closer examination of the individual records 79 of the HER records were identified as duplicates of records entered from the NRHE, 2 as post-1840 in date, 25 as recorded losses and 2 records found to refer to non-wreck (one cannonball and the location of a light vessel). Further records were deleted on an individual basis during the course of the enhancement process as further data demonstrated that wrecks were recorded losses or that vessels were outside scope of the project in terms of location or age. Following the first set of deletions the WAIDs in the database were reissued to achieve a consecutive numbering system. As records were deleted one by one and more connections were made between monuments that had been cross referenced, this renumbering ceased. Thus, in some cases the WAIDs issued in Stage 1 were re-used for new records created during Stage 2. This primarily affected individual records in the original NRHE dataset although all WAID numbers in this report correlate to those in the final database. NRHE dataset As discussed in Section 3.2, during data assessment it became apparent that a number of sites and finds could be identified within the NRHE using PastScape but were missing from the original NRHE dataset provided to Wessex Archaeology for ESB. Following the receipt of a further dataset from the NRHE, it was decided to use PastScape to enter data manually to enhance existing records or to create new records where appropriate. Some of the missing records were omitted from the first dataset but were included in the second, more extensive dataset received from the NRHE, such as the East Indiaman Hindostan (NRHE 1249342). The wreck had been included in the ESB database (WA225) from the Kent HER (MWX17707). However, as the long monument reports were not included in the second dataset, due to the large number of records, a fuller and more detailed record for Hindostan could be found on

4.1.2.

4.1.3.

4.1.4. 4.1.5.

4.1.6.

4.1.7.

4.1.8.

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PastScape. Consequently, data was added to the ESB database directly from the internet page. 4.1.9. Other missing records not included in either of the two NRHE datasets could also be found on PastScape, such as the medieval ‘Axe Boat’ (NRHE 1392650) which had been included in data from Devon HER (69888) and thus included in the ESB database (WA256).

4.1.10. During the Stage 2 data assessment, 20 new records were created from NRHE records located on PastScape (WA332, WA336, WA337, WA348 to WA350 and WA405 to WA418). Data from PastScape records was also used to enhance further records that had been entered into the database from sources other than the NRHE. Date of Build 4.1.11. Following the entry of data during Stage 1 it became clear that there was a disparity between wrecks included within the ESB database as lost prior to 1840 and historic vessels included as built before 1840. Consequently a further search of the SeaZone data was carried out to include any additional wrecks that could be identified as having been built prior to 1840. 4.1.12. Although there is no data field for ‘date of build’ in the SeaZone dataset, wrecks often include additional information within the “circumstances of loss” or “surveying details” field. A number of basic “find” searches were carried out within the data set for text indicating a pre-1840 date of build. 4.1.13. Twenty one records were identified. Three were recorded losses without evidence for physical remains on the seabed, three were found to lie outside English territorial waters and one was included erroneously due to an error in the record and was actually built after 1840. The remaining 14 were entered into the ESB database (WA388 to WA391, WA393, WA394, WA396, WA398 to WA404). 4.1.14. One wreck was identified from the Dorset HER, that of Heroine (WA376), which was also in the NRHE, and was found to have been lost in 1862 but built in 1838. 4.1.15. The SeaZone data was then further assessed to see if it was possible to identify pre-1840 vessels from other data fields such as vessel type. A series of manual filters were applied to the whole SeaZone dataset looking for boats and ships lost post-1840 which may have been built pre-1840. This process involved: • • • • • • removal of records outside English territorial waters; removal of all records not charted as ‘Live’ by the UKHO; removal of all unidentified (unnamed) wrecks; removal of records previously identified as lost/built pre-1840; removal of records with “built in” post-1840 (or variations) in circumstances of loss/surveying details; removal of records with text indicating construction post-1840 in the field ‘types of obstruction’. For example: • aircraft, helicopters; • bombs, mines, torpedoes; • modern vessel types (cruiser, submarine, battleship, cabin, car, hovercraft); • wartime defence structures (Mulberry Unit, Phoenix Units, bombardons) • motor vessels (although motors could be added to older vessels this appeared unlikely for pre-1840 boats and ships); and • made of modern (post-1840) materials (concrete, fibreglass, plastic, steel);

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• •

removal of records with text indicating non-wreck in the field ‘types of obstruction’. For example: • natural features (boulder, rock, seabed features, non-sub contacts); • modern debris (containers, beacons, piles, pipes, cables, well heads); • fishing gear and nets; and • pontoons and jetties. removal of vessels built by shipbuilders established after 1840: • Earle’s Shipbuilding Hull (1845); • Cook, Welton and Gemmell Hull (1883); • Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company Jarrow (1852); • Craig, Taylor and Co Stockton-on-Tees (1884); • Workman Clark and Co, Belfast (1880); • Richardson, Duck and Co Stockton-on-Tees (1854); and • London and Glasgow Shipbuilding Co (1864). removal of records relating to cargos lost post-1840; and removal of vessels recorded as launched post-1840.

4.1.16. Records of vessels fitted with a compound engine were not removed as the time lapse between 1840 and their introduction in 1854 was insufficient to preclude the refitting or pre-1840 vessels with the later compound engines. Requisitioned vessels and vessels with steel fittings were also left in for this reason. 4.1.17. Once these filters had been applied, 657 records remained. These ranged in date from the steamship Gilmore sunk in 1856 to the yacht Blu Argent lost in 2010. 4.1.18. PastScape and the website The Wreck Site (www.wrecksite.eu) were used to identify five of the wrecks with the earliest loss dates to see if there was any additional information regarding the date of build: • • • • • Gilmore (UKHO 21885, barque) lost 1856, date of build not recorded (NRHE 858260/ 1392864 records the date of loss as 1866); Dunaskin (UKHO 16238, steamship), lost 1857, date of build 1854 (NRHE 922096); Rising Sun (UKHO 5632, 5798, snow/barque), lost 1860, date of build not recorded (NRHE 908867). The record NRHE 996825 records an English snow lost in 1861 in County Durham and built in 1859, possibly the same vessel; John W Elliot (UKHO 7624, steamship) lost 1863, date of build not recorded (NRHE 906817, W Elliot possibly the name of the master); and Sportsman (UKHO 7839, sailing vessel) lost 1863, date of build not recorded (NRHE 906942).

4.1.19. Although it is possible that any of the 657 records may have been built before 1840, albeit some more likely than others, it was subsequently decided not to pursue this any further. The remaining dataset remained too large to examine each record for date of build individually and as the sample had only revealed a single record with a date of build, post-1840, it was not considered cost effective in consideration of the potential outcome. While it is unlikely that the Blu Argent yacht, lost in 2010, was built before 1840, boats described as ‘yachts’ were used by Charles II in England and earlier by the Dutch navy, and there is nothing in the record to confirm that the Blu Argent was modern. 4.1.20. The experimental filtering process applied, as described above, is limited by the experience and skills of the researcher rather than an objective exercise, with regard to the types of record to delete, for example. Also, the use of the UKHO status of

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the charted vessel as a filter is flawed in that not only ‘Live’ vessels may relate to archaeological remains. For example, wrecks recorded as ‘Dead’ by the UKHO are those which no longer present a chartable hazard to navigation but there is still potential for archaeological material to be present. Likewise, salvaged vessels recorded as ‘Lift’ by the UKHO may not have been wholly salvaged and material may still be present at the loss location. 4.1.21. The process was more successful in demonstrating the limitations of available wreck data, which is often insufficient to gain a full understanding of the biography of a boat or ship, and failed to reveal any further records for inclusion into the ESB database. Additional Records from Alternative Sources 4.1.22. As the data assessment progressed further vessels that had not been included in the database during Stage 1 were identified from alternative sources. 4.1.23. Information available on the website of Todd Stevens’ Islands Maritime Archaeological Group (IMAG) in the Isles of Scilly accounted for four of these additional records: • • • • WA109 Unknown Wreck at Crim Rocks (UKHO 21834, NRHE 881000 ); WA145 The Nancy Packet (NRHE 880215); WA150 Ocean (NRHE 878639); and WA434 Royal Oak (NRHE 880089).

4.1.24. A significant amount of additional information was available on the IMAG web pages which formed the main part of these database entries although the UKHO or NRHE reference was used as the primary source reference. 4.1.25. A further group of records added during Stage 2 were the Blackfriars ships. While Blackfriars Ship I had been included in the original NRHE data set no other vessels excavated as part of this group had been incorporated and records were therefore created for Blackfriars II (WA188), III (WA110) and IV (WA114) using data found on PastScape and from the Greater London Sites and Monuments Record through Heritage Gateway. 4.1.26. Additional records located from other sources include HMS Nautilus (WA338) and the Spittals Wreck (WA339) entered from Wessex Archaeology project reports and the Meols ‘Viking’ Ship (WA346), Must Farm Logboats (WA347), the unknown wreck at North Gare (WA353) and HMS Namur from project staff personal knowledge of recently discovered sites. Record Enhancement 4.1.27. During the data assessment it became clear that there were distinct categories of boats and ships within the database and it was considered useful to define these categories both within the database and to aid characterisation. 4.1.28. Each record was attributed one of three record types: maritime, monument or findspot. This was a clear way of distinguishing between wrecks (maritime), boats and ships associated with terrestrial environments (monuments) and finds of vessels, or parts of vessels that had been recovered from specific locations (findspots). Each record type was then subdivided into categories as outlined in Table 2 and illustrated in Figures 1 to 3.

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Record Type

ESB Category Designated Wreck Undesignated Wrecks Boat Burial

Summary Wrecks designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 or as Scheduled Ancient Monuments Named and unidentified wrecks Terrestrial discoveries of boats within human burials Extant vessels listed on the NRHV or NSBR Discoveries of logboats, or parts of logboats, that have been recovered from, or excavated at, a specific location Discoveries of vessels (other than logboats) or parts of vessels that have been recovered from, or excavated at, a specific location

No of Records 47 133 6 28 4 132 128 38

Maritime

Monument

Historic Vessel Logboat

Findspot Findspot Table 2: Record categories

4.1.29. All records were checked for missing references, dates, monument types and location information, etc., to ensure that all basic information was present. The exception was the designated wrecks category. As they are already protected by law, and as a comparatively large amount of data is available for each of the sites, records for these sites were not enhanced. These wrecks would not be considered further during Stage 3 to identify sites for selective investigation. 4.1.30. Each record was named according to the ESB category (i.e. Designated Wreck: Mary Rose, Boat Burial: Sutton Hoo). Records that were unnamed in the primary data sources were given a name based on its location or on a commonly (publically) used label (i.e. Logboat: River Nene, Findspot: Blackfriars Ship IV). Undesignated wrecks were recorded by the vessel name or commonly used label without a prefix or with the prefix Unknown Wreck (i.e. Hindostan, Princes Channel Wreck, Unknown Wreck: GAD 58). 4.1.31. During the enhancement process, project staff used the internet and books kept in the Wessex Archaeology library to carry out high level searches for new data to add to each individual record. A basic search of the internet was carried out for each site and in many cases a large number of websites were found. A key bibliographic source used for enhancement was the regional Diver Guides published by Underwater World Publications, although further dive books and maritime books were also useful. Relevant data was added to the ESB database as additional descriptive text if it was regarded as useful by project staff. All data was referenced within the ESB record. 4.1.32. Using this high level approach there was an obvious disparity between known and heavily dived wrecks for which a significant amount of data was available and other wrecks for which very little further data was available. This disparity, however, was seen as a benefit to the ESB process as a key indicator of which sites may be in most need of selective investigation. 4.1.33. Individual records were often revisited on a number of occasions as searches for other sites revealed new information. In many ways the process was remarkably cyclical and the database evolved as a whole as individual records fed back into each other. This also was apparent through the characterisation of sites.

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4.2. 4.2.1. 4.2.2.

RECORD CHARACTERISATION In practice, the characterisation of each site occurred alongside the enhancement process as each record was assessed. For some categories the BULSI narrative was limited for all records, such as logboats for which no data on the build, use or loss of the boat was available, with the exception of craft type and propulsion by paddle. For other categories the BULSI narrative varied widely from site to site. Within the undesignated wrecks, for example, a large amount of narrative data was available for some wrecks, such as East Indiamen and military ships, but was incredibly limited for others, such as unnamed wrecks or boats operating in local or regional fishing or transport networks. A summary of how the BULSI system applied in practice to the characterisation process is included below. Build In addition to the free text description, fields for characterising the build of the vessel comprised: • • • • • • • Build Date; Craft Type; Propulsion; Construction Materials; Port of Registration; Nationality; and Associated People, builder.

4.2.3.

4.2.4.

4.2.5.

4.2.6.

A date of build was entered for 104 of the records including both specific year and general year indicating century of build. The date format of the field meant that a day/month/year (dd/mm/yyyy) needed to be input. In all cases only the year of build was known and in each record the date was recorded as 01/01/year. The recorded date of build ranged from 1400 (WA126) to 1840 (WA355 and WA403). The craft type field was based upon the NRHE monument thesaurus for craft types. Additional types could be added if required and these were input using lower case letters to distinguish from the thesaurus terms in capital letters. Following the characterisation of a number of records the decision was made to standardise the use of thesaurus terms for craft type as far as possible within categories. For example, where craft types, within the logboat category, were recorded as “craft” or “canoe” these were all changed to logboat. This does not change the meaning of the record but simplifies the identification of all logboats within the database. All fields with the craft type “wreck” were deleted as not all ‘wrecks’ were attributed this craft type and it would not prove a useful searchable term within the dataset. The propulsion field could be either paddle (138 records), oar (22 records), sail (155 records), steam (5 records) or tow (one record). No other propulsion type (i.e. engine) would have been applicable prior to 1840. This list is by no means definitive. A logboat, for example, recorded as propelled by paddles, may also have been fitted with a sail, although no evidence of this now remains. The low number of steam propelled vessels, however, is likely to be fairly representative: this period saw the

4.2.7.

4.2.8.

4.2.9.

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early development of steam power, and thus few vessels were powered by steam prior to 1840. During the characterisation ‘pole’ was also added for a single record. 4.2.10. For construction materials, 95% of records were associated with types of wood and only 5% with metals. Over half of the recorded metals are copper or copper alloy. This division in materials is as expected for pre-1840 vessels. 4.2.11. Associated with the use of the vessel, the nationality (133) and port of registration (21) of vessels was recorded for relatively few of the records. Of the 133 for which the nationality was recorded 75 were British, 27 as English, 11 as Dutch, five as Spanish, four as Italian, three as Danish, two as Irish, two as Swedish, one as Canadian, one as Portuguese, one as Scandinavian and one as French. 4.2.12. Likewise, the builder of the vessel was recorded for only 59 of the records. Use 4.2.13. The primary means for recording key details of the use of the vessel was within the free text description field. Fields for characterising the build of the vessel comprised the date and period of use, as defined for the ESB project, and the following: • • • • • • Crew; Passengers; Departure; Destination; Cargo; and Associated People.

4.2.14. The period of use, from build to loss, of a vessel is recorded in the ESB database in terms of a ‘from’ and ‘to’ date for the whole record and the opportunity to record multiple monument types or periods/date ranges within the each record. The ‘from’ date of each record will be either the year of build, if known, or the earliest expected year if only an approximate period is given in the data. For example, a vessel described as Prehistoric will have a ‘from’ date of -500,000. The ‘to’ date will be either the year of loss, if known, or the latest expected year if only an approximate period is known. For example, a vessel decided as Roman will have a ‘to’ date of c. 410AD depending on the source. For all records within the historic vessel category a ‘to’ date of 2012 was entered to indicate that these are still extant at the time of the ESB project. 4.2.15. The ‘from’ and ‘to’ date of each record is input as stated in (or estimated from) the primary source. This date is then translated to input the ESB specific archaeological period(s) corresponding to those set out in the Introduction to Heritage Assets Ships and Boats: Prehistory to 1840 (English Heritage 2012a): • • • • • • • • Early Prehistoric (500,000 – 4000 BC); Late Prehistoric (4000 – 54 BC); Roman (54 BC – AD 410); Post-Roman to Norman Conquest (410 AD – 1066); Medieval and Early Tudor (1066 – 1540); Mid to Late Tudor (1540 – 1603); Stuart (1603 – 1714); and Hanoverian (1714-1837).

4.2.16. The ESB periods are discussed further as part of Stage 3 (Section 5).

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4.2.17. As stated above, the port of registration and nationality of the vessel as built will also be indicative of the use of the vessel. In the same way, the number of crew and passengers and the departure, destination and cargo carried by the vessel during its final journey are demonstrative of both the loss and use narrative for the vessel. Likewise, in most cases the captain, master, owner or passenger of a vessel as recorded in the “Associated People” file are those on board at time of loss. Nevertheless, the recorded of details of the final voyage of a vessel will also act as a key indicator of aspects of its use. 4.2.18. Unfortunately, these details are recorded for only a few of the records. For example, for cargo there are 233 database entries associated with only 93 of the records, the number of crew is recorded for only 64 records while only 23 records have the number of passengers recorded. 4.2.19. With regard to associated people, the ESB database includes provision to record captain, crew, first mate, master (former and current), owner (former and current) and passenger(s). 4.2.20. During characterisation the ‘former’ and ‘current’ options were dropped as the distinction was unclear and had not been recorded systematically. In most cases the ‘current’ owner had been assumed to be the owner at time of loss but this ‘current’ owner may equally relate to ownership of the wreck today. It was decided that any distinction between owners or masters during the life of the vessel could be elucidated from the free text description as required. 4.2.21. The captain of the vessel was recorded for 34 of the records, including titles such as Commander in Chief or Commanding Officer, and the master for 53. Of 58 recorded owners, 10 are the English East India Company and seven the Dutch East India Company. Fifteen of the wrecks are recorded as owned by the Royal Navy at time of loss and one to the Dutch navy. The remaining record owners such as Kings, merchants or institutions such as Trinity House. There were no entries for crew or first mate. Key association with people carried as passengers, or for ‘other’ reason, were recorded for just sixteen of the vessels. However, other associations are expected to exist that were not included in the primary datasets, or that were not picked up during the high level enhancement. 4.2.22. Where vessels were associated with others during their use, for example as part of a convoy or battle, there is provision within the database to record this association as an associated monument if it also occurs within the ESB database. There are 136 connections between records within the database. Loss 4.2.23. In addition to details of the final voyage, associated with the use of the vessel as described above, the loss narrative also includes provision to record the date of loss, the manner of loss and whether or not lives were lost and how many. Lives are known to have been lost for 62 of the records, although the number is expected to be much higher in reality. For seven of these the number of crew lost is recorded as ‘all’ with the number recorded for 53, ranging from 1 to 717. 4.2.24. A date of loss was entered for 116 of the records including both specific year and general year indicating century of build. The date format of the field meant that a day/month/year needed to be input. Where the day or month was unknown 01 was entered. The recorded date of loss ranged from 01/01/200 (WA173) to 27/12/1940 (WA391).

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4.2.25. Manner of loss was identified for 136 records. The most recorded manner of loss is ‘foundered’ (55 records) with ‘stranded’ (50 records) and ‘grounded’ (28 records) the next most common. This indicates that accidental or weather related causes were the primary means of loss of documented vessels within the ESB database. Survival 4.2.26. The assessment of survival can be recorded using one of the following options: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Destroyed (7 records); Broken-up (39 records); Buried (13 records); Dispersed (4 records); Flattened (1 records); Mainly intact (2 records); Partially buried (10 records); Partially intact (36 records); Poor (12 records); Unknown (113 records); Removed (in curation) (71 records); Removed (unknown) (48 records); and Extant (28 records).

4.2.27. The appropriate descriptive term was attributed by project staff based upon information in the primary source, if available, or from the most recent report of the survival on the seabed. If there was judged to be insufficient, current information concerning the nature of survival the record was classed as ‘unknown’. 4.2.28. The use of the term ‘dispersed’ was included to refer to the remains of vessels which have been intentionally dispersed by use of explosives or by salvage operations. The use of the term ‘broken-up’ was included to refer to wreckage spread across an area by natural processes. The distinction between natural and intentional dispersal was often not clear in the sources and many wrecks have been subject to processes associated with both natural and human agency. The decision on which term to attribute to a record was made by project staff based upon the available data. 4.2.29. Boats and fragments of boats recovered from archaeological contexts are recorded as removed. If the current location of excavated boat remains (i.e. in a museum) was recorded in the sources the survival was assessed as ‘removed (in curation)’. If the current location was not recorded the survival was assessed as ‘removed (unknown)’. 4.2.30. The use of the term ‘extant’ refers to historic examples of vessels that survive in museums or in private collections, many of which are still in regular use. 4.2.31. The survival of the vessel is a primary consideration in the identification of sites for selective investigations in Stage 3. Investigation 4.2.32. The investigation of the vessel was characterised using the following information: • • • Designation; Associated Sources; Associated Finds;

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• • •

Associated Monuments; Evidence Summary; and Associated Events.

4.2.33. Just 59 of the records are recorded in the ESB database with a designation and 48 of these are within designated areas established under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. Six records, HMS Pomone (Alum Bay Wreck) (WA66), Portland Stone Sailing Barge (WA76), Halsewell (WA91), Earl of Abergavenny (WA92), the wreck at Crim Rocks (WA109) and the Antler Wreck (WA380), have been adopted under the Nautical Archaeology Society’s Adopt a Wreck scheme. The locations of three of the records, Curdridge Creek (WA34), New Guy’s House (WA173) and Sutton Hoo (WA318), have been designated as Scheduled Monuments while the logboat WA25 comes from Ironbridge, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. Two of the logboats (WA64 and WA88) come from areas designated as Heritage Coasts and one (WA212) is from an area recorded as a Historic Environment Character Area, although this affords no statutory protection. 4.2.34. There are a large number of associated sources (3296 in total) but associated finds (209 entries), and events (137 entries) were only included when entered from the primary data source and may be limited in their contribution at this high level stage. 5. 5.1. 5.1.1. STAGE 3: IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR SELECTIVE INVESTIGATION NON-STATUTORY CRITERIA AND WRECK SELECTION GUIDES Wrecks or wreck sites may be considered to merit designation if they contribute, or appear likely to contribute, significantly to the understanding of the past on account of their historical, archaeological, or artistic importance in a national context (English Heritage, 2010). This significance is assessed on the basis of the following criteria: Period: In identifying sites to be protected, regard will be had to the currency of any particular wreck/vessel type and its representativeness. Rarity: There are some wreck categories which, in certain periods are so scarce that all surviving examples which still retain some archaeological potential should be preserved. Documentation: The significance of a wreck may be enhanced by close historic association with documented important historical events or people, or by the supporting evidence of contemporary records or representations. Group value: The value of a single wreck may be greatly enhanced by its colocation with other similar vessels (for example at the site of a battle) or by its association with other contemporary features such as port facilities or defensive sites. Survival/Condition: Assessments of survival should consider the degree of intactness of a wreck, the likelihood of the preservation of constructional and technological detail and the current condition of the remains. Fragility/Vulnerability: Some vessel types are likely to be more fragile than others and the presence of commercially valuable objects within a wreck may make it particularly vulnerable. Vulnerable sites of this type would particularly benefit from protective designation.

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Diversity: Consideration should be given both to the diversity of forms in which a particular vessel type may survive and to the diversity of surviving features. Potential: On occasion, the nature of archaeological remains cannot be specified precisely but it still may be possible to document reasons anticipating their existence and importance and so to demonstrate their suitability for consideration for designation. 5.1.2. English Heritage has recently published the designation selection guide Ships and Boats: Prehistory to Present (English Heritage, 2012b) which sets out in more detail the approach to designating wrecks in England. This includes reference to specific criteria, as listed above, and to the process of statutory assessment of heritage assets for designation. The selection guide applies to all vessels irrespective of the original environment they navigated or their current location, either buried underground or no longer afloat and permanently settled, on land, in an inter-tidal location or within English territorial waters. It does not include vessels which are still mobile. In addition to the above, Wessex Archaeology (2008a, 2008b) has developed guidance for the selection of boats and ships with special interest through the project Marine Class Descriptions and Principles of Selection. For a boat or ship to be of special interest in respect of its build, use and/or loss, it must be capable of making a distinctive contribution in terms of the following: Narrative. A boat or ship will be of special interest where it makes a distinct contribution to understanding overall historical processes relating to England or to the globe or – where the boat or ship is related to another country – to processes identified as historically significant by people in that country. The special interest of a boat or ship may arise from its relation to a turning point in history, or to an overall situation or trend that is important. The narrative within which a boat or vessel is of special interest may be social, economic, political, cultural or technological; the vessel’s special interest in relation to theses narratives may arise from its build, use or loss. Associations. A boat or ship will be of special interest where it presents a distinct, tangible link to a person or event. Such special interest will be all the greater where the boat or ship had a distinct role in shaping the person or event, rather than serving merely as a platform. Although associations may seem strongest in respect of known, named historical people and events, special interest may arise where the remains of the boat or ship impart a tangible association with anonymous individuals or an unrecorded event. Respect. A boat or ship will be of special interest where it was the site of major or otherwise tragic loss of life. Many shipwrecks involved some loss of life, and although a degree of awareness and respect should attend all decisions taken about their investigation or management, loss of life in itself will not normally generate special interest. Special interest may arise where large numbers of people were killed, or where the circumstances are otherwise distinct. Significant loss of life in a shipwreck may give rise to special interest even if no human remains are present; special interest may, however, also arise directly from the presence of small amounts of human remains (either by virtue of the respect they are due, or their possible contribution to understanding the past). The presence of the personal effects of people who lost their lives may also give rise to special interest.

5.1.3.

5.1.4.

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Aesthetic. A boat or ship will be of special interest where it made a distinct cultural contribution either directly through its build, or indirectly through being represented in other artistic media, such as painting, sculpture, design, storytelling or song. Boats and ships have often been highly decorated or have otherwise involved design or artistic craft in their structure. Equally, boats and ships have often inspired creativity through their build, use or loss. In order for aesthetics to give rise to special interest, the surviving remains should be expected to provide a tangible, evidential link between the boat or ship and the artistry. Current Relevance. A boat or ship will be of special interest on account of its current relevance if it embodies distinctive attributes that are also practiced or applied today. Current relevance is likely to give rise to special interest in relation to technological innovations in the past that are being developed or re-examined for current use, though there may be other distinct parallels between past and present that warrant consideration. 5.1.5. Age is also considered as an additional source of special interest, particular in terms of narrative of earlier periods for which material remains are the only evidence and for which material remains are rare (Wessex Archaeology, 2008b). The following generalisations are provided in conjunction with the broad chronology of shipbuilding and use: Pre-1500 AD So little is known and remains are so rare from this period that all examples are likely to be of special interest. 1500-1815 Remains of boats and ships dating to this period are also rare; the majority of boats and ships dating from this period can be expected to be of special interest. 1815-1914 There are more examples of boats and ships from this period so greater discrimination is warranted in determining which ones are of special interest. However, this period is also a time of massive change in how vessels were built and used; boats and ships that make a distinct contribution to understanding and appreciating this century should readily be regarded as having special interest. 1914-1945 The highest volumes of known boats and ships lost in UK waters were casualties of WWI and WWII, with lesser numbers lost in the inter-war years. Greater discrimination will be required. Nonetheless, technological changes, the magnitude of events and the consequences locally and globally of activities in these years will clearly give rise to some boats and ships having special interest. Post-1945 The volume of boats and ships lost to archaeological contexts falls dramatically. A strong case will need to be made for boats and ships lost after 1945 to have special interest. 5.1.6. From these generalisations it is clear that the majority of boats and ships from prehistory to 1840 are likely to be considered of special interest solely due to the rarity of discoveries from these early periods. However, the age of each vessel cannot be considered sufficient on its own to identify sites for the purposes of designation. The dataset, therefore, was interrogated using the available query filters and searches of the input data to identify individual sites and groups of sites that may be considered for selective investigation.

5.1.7.

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5.1.8.

The dataset is discussed below, first in terms of monument category and then according to the chronological periods as set out in English Heritage’s introduction to pre-1840 ships and boats (2012a) and as adopted for the ESB project. The factors which have guided the process of identifying sites for selective investigation are also discussed. ASSESSMENT BY TYPE Designated Wrecks As the designated wrecks are already protected by law, none of the wrecks in this category have been selected as suitable for selective investigation. This comprises 46 records relating to pre-1840 wrecks in England and English territorial waters designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act and the New Guys House boat protected as a Scheduled Ancient Monument (WA173). Undesignated Wrecks There are 133 records of undesignated wrecks and it is this category from which the majority of sites for selective investigation have been identified. Following assessment, 46 of the undesignated wrecks have been rejected as candidates for selective investigation. Two of the wrecks (WA179 and WA180) are unidentified and lie in the Goodwin Sands within the designated areas of the Stirling Castle (WA129). One (Dream WA332) lies within the designated area of the Needles Site (WA121, WA122). As such, these vessels are already protected by law and are not considered to qualify for selective investigation. Six of the wrecks have been adopted through the Adopt a Wreck scheme which encourages people to actively record the sites they are visiting and to submit their work to the Nautical Archaeology Society: • • • • • • WA66, HMS Pomone (Alum Bay Wreck), adopted by The Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology; WA76, Portland Stone Sailing Barge, adopted by Weymouth Lunar Society; WA91, Halsewell, adopted by Halsewell Archaeological Group; WA92, Earl of Abergavenny, adopted by Weymouth Underwater Archaeological Group; WA109, Unknown Wreck at Crim Rocks, adopted by Isles of Scilly Maritime Archaeology Group; and WA380, Antler Wreck, adopted by the Nautical Archaeology Society.

5.2.

5.2.1.

5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4.

5.2.5.

5.2.6.

By virtue of their inclusion in this scheme these vessels are regularly surveyed and monitored by volunteers. The Halsewell has also been subject to an Undesignated Site Assessment by the Archaeological Diving Unit through the contract for archaeological services in the Relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act. The conclusion was that, as it was not under threat, the site would not necessarily benefit from designation. Due to the current extent of monitoring and investigation already in place for these six sites they are not recommended for selective investigation at this time. The wrecks are well known, well studied and are each subject to informal stewardship through the Nautical Archaeology Society. However, each of these wrecks may be

5.2.7.

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reconsidered for designation in the light of new evidence that may come to light through the Adopt a Wreck scheme. 5.2.8. Likewise other wrecks that have already been well recorded and are under guardianship sufficient to support their preservation and long term monitoring include: • • • • • WA86, HMS Firebrand, surveyed 2006-2009 by Bristol University and Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Maritime Archaeology Society, protected through informal local guardianship (Mark Groves); WA169, HMS Impregnable, investigated by Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology and monitored through Eastern Solent Marine Archaeological Project; WA264, Purbeck Marble Wreck, investigated by Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology with volunteers in 2004; WA260; Holigost, recorded as part of the Hamble River Project (Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology) and adjacent to designated Grace Dieu within country park; and WA388, Thomas Lawrence, recorded by Wessex Archaeology 2007, owned by Peter Marsden on behalf of Nautical Museums Trust.

5.2.9.

Four of the records recorded as wrecks do not correspond to actual remains: • • • • WA116, Jenny, wreck reported in ‘Jenny’s Cove’, suspected reported loss; WA222, Sheerness, scuttled ships shown on chart; WA224, Old Smack, shown on charts; and WA418, HMS Lenox, sunk as a breakwater at Sheerness.

5.2.10. The specificity of the wrecks/losses indicates a very high likelihood that wreckage may be present at these sites, thus they have been included within the ESB database for reference. However, until remains are located it is not possible to offer protection to these sites and they are currently unsuitable for selective investigation. 5.2.11. Similarly, six records contain evidence that is not corroborated by other sources and may be considered insufficient to confirm without doubt the presence of remains at the provided locations: • • • • • • WA194, Unknown Wreck: Farndon, record of oral report indicating excavated timbers in private possession; WA220, Unknown Wrecks: Nayland Rock, unpublished report indicating Tudor wrecks and cannon reported from the area of Nayland rock; WA221, Charles V, reported in 1929 regional report on the River Medway; WA252, Iona, personal communication, not corroborated in any other source; WA262, Unknown Wreck Southampton, not seen since 1848; and WA394, Triton, located in 1949 but not found in 1968 or since and not corroborated in any other source.

5.2.12. Three records are described as wrecks although each is represented by the recovery of artefacts which may represent a findspot rather than a wreck: • • WA182, Unknown Wreck: Gimble Point, suspected anchorage debris rather than wreck; WA190, Pudding Pan Wreck, large assemblage of Roman pottery dredged from this area over a number of areas; and

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WA192, Scarborough, single cannon raised.

5.2.13. In each case there is no evidence for associated structural remains on the seabed. 5.2.14. Nine of the records have been subject to investigations as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act that have concluded them to be unsuitable for designation following assessment against the non-statutory criteria. • • • • • • • • • WA74, Kingswear Castle Cannon Site (assessed 1989 by Archaeological Diving Unit); WA95, Gun Rocks Wreck (assessed 1995 by Archaeological Diving Unit); WA164, Low Lee Ledges (assessed 1998 by Archaeological Diving Unit); WA175, Unknown Wreck: Mewstone (assessed 1991 by Archaeological Diving Unit); WA183, Pendrathen Wreck (assessed 2012 by Wessex Archaeology); WA187, Royal James (assessed 2009 by Wessex Archaeology); WA225, Hindostan (assessed 2012 by Wessex Archaeology); WA337, Innisidgen (assessed 2006 by Wessex Archaeology); and WA339, Spittals Wreck (assessed 2003 by Wessex Archaeology).

5.2.15. Stage 2 of the ESB project showed that the status of the above sites has not changed since the original assessments were made, i.e. no new discoveries have been made or new data come to light. Hence, the above sites are not considered to warrant designation. 5.2.16. The remaining ten records demonstrate that, for each of the following, any remains on the seabed survive to a level insufficient to warrant designation: • • • • • • • • WA67, Campen, recorded and salvaged, very limited potential for survival; WA69, HMS Royal George, dispersed with explosives 1820 to 1842, only minimal survival; WA111, WA104, Santo Christo de Castello, recorded and salvaged, only cannon remain in inhospitable environment; WA217, Princes Channel Wreck, removed by mechanical grab prior to dredging, timbers preserved in Stoney Cove (WA263); WA391, HMS Cornwall, broken up and salvaged, recorded as Lift by UKHO; WA393, Fanny, salvaged 1938, recorded as Lift by UKHO; and WA402, HMS Clarence, dispersed 1899 to 1900, only minimal survival, if any; WA403, Robert, divers report that the site comprises only slates, mainly broken.

5.2.17. Following the discrimination of the database, 87 of the undesignated wrecks have been identified as potential sites for selective investigation and are listed within Appendix II. 5.2.18. Eighteen of these have been subject to investigations as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act: • • • WA100, Eagle (assessed 1992 by Archaeological Diving Unit, identity not confirmed); WA101, Royal James (assessed 2008 by Wessex Archaeology, identity not confirmed); WA167, Dollar Wreck (assessed 2007 by Wessex Archaeology, identity not confirmed);

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

WA176, HMS Venerable (assessed 1993 by Archaeological Diving Unit but not located during diver investigation); WA178, Seaford Guns Site (assessed 2001 by Archaeological Diving Unit but not located during diver investigation); WA181, Bellona (assessed 1999 by Archaeological Diving Unit, identity not confirmed); WA184, Quadrant Wreck, (assessed 2007 by Wessex Archaeology, strong case to designate if part of Royal Anne); WA 185, Knock Deep (assessed 1993 by Archaeological Diving Unit, further investigation recommended); WA324, Albion (assessed 2011 by Wessex Archaeology, sufficient evidence to warrant designation); WA338, HMS Nautilus (assessed 2003 by Wessex Archaeology, not located due to raised sand levels); WA344, Unknown Wreck: GAD 58 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2011); WA345, Unknown Wreck: Gad 108 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2011); WA420, Unknown Wreck: GAD 9 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010); WA421, Unknown Wreck: GAD 10 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010); WA422, Unknown Wreck: GAD 12 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010); WA423, Unknown Wreck: GAD 13 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010); WA424, Unknown Wreck: GAD 14 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010); and WA425, Unknown Wreck: GAD 16 (investigated by Wessex Archaeology 2010).

5.2.19. In each case, the work demonstrated that further investigations would be required before a full assessment in relation to the non-statutory criteria could be carried out. 5.2.20. Data for 22 of the records indicate that the wrecks have been subject to significant salvage so as to have impacted the quality of their survival. Of these 22, just three are reported to retain parts of the vessel structure (WA82, Prinses Maria; WA155, Fanny; WA376, Heroine) and nine are reported as broken-up: • • • • • • • • • WA71, HMS Crocodile; WA73, HMS Ramillies; WA84, HMS Association; WA85, HMS Romney; WA107, HMS Primrose; WA108, HMS Anson; WA171, Minerva; WA399, Thames; and WA400, Douro.

5.2.21. One is reported with poor survival (WA93, Fanny) and the remaining nine lack sufficiently recent data to assess the current survival although this is expected to be poor: • • • • • • • WA75, HMS Weazle; WA80, Juno; WA83, Unknown Wreck Gilstone Rock; WA87, Hollandia; WA94, Britannia; WA170, Brielle; WA177, HMS Savage;

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• •

WA261, Henry Addington; and WA325, Prince Royal.

5.2.22. It is possible that the extent of salvage at these locations has been such that they would not qualify for designation although the current data indicates that selective investigation would be required to conclude this with certainty. 5.2.23. One of the wrecks is reported as completely smashed but has sufficient historic associations to warrant further investigations. Forfarshire (WA191) was a paddle steamer lost in 1838 after stranding on Big Harcar Rock and is the wreck to which Grace Darling and her father, the Longstone lighthouse keeper, rowed out to rescue some of the survivors. On 7 September 1838 the 22 year old Grace Darling rowed over a mile in raging seas to help her father rescue nine survivors from Forfarshire and, for her part in the rescue, Grace was awarded the RNLI silver medal. The boat is preserved in a purpose built museum in Bamburgh, Northumberland and is also recorded in the ESB database (WA191). 5.2.24. Of the remaining 46, six are reportedly broken up yet retain sufficient remains to warrant further investigation: • • • • • • WA103, Ospra; WA113, Diana; WA145, The Nancy Packet; WA389, Black Prince; WA401, John; and WA434, Royal Oak.

5.2.25. One wreck (HMS Boyne, WA215) was dispersed with explosives in 1838, 43 years after its loss. Despite this, reports indicate that a large amount of the ship may remain beneath a mound of shingle. 5.2.26. Eight of the wrecks are buried or partially buried and are expected to demonstrate a level of survival that may warrant designation: • • • • • • • • WA70, Britannia; WA151, Hope; WA174, Le Kateryn van Arnude; WA253, Unknown Wreck: Westward Ho!; WA254, Unknown Wreck: Northam; WA309, Unknown Wreck: Woolston Riverside; WA346, Unknown Wreck: Meols ‘Viking’ Ship; and WA353, Unknown Wreck: North Gare.

5.2.27. Eight are recorded as mainly or partially intact and retain a level of survival that may warrant designation: • • • • • • • WA154, Catharina von Flensburg; WA255/WA256, Axe Boat; WA308, Unknown Wreck: River Itchen; WA333, Queen; WA335, Padstow; WA427, Unknown Wreck Bexley, The Saltings; WA428, Daresbury.

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5.2.28. The remaining 23 wrecks lack current data for the survival of the wreck although the available data indicates that a good level of survival may be expected. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • WA10, Unknown Wreck: Walney Island; WA72, Dragon; WA90, Grantham; WA105, Unknown Wreck: British Storage Hulk; WA115, Lamb; WA150, Ocean; WA160, Unknown Wreck: Roman Tiles; WA162, Pearle; WA172, Unknown Wreck: Santaspery Neck; WA247, de Boot; WA257, Unknown Wreck Lydney Docks; WA259, Unknown Wreck: Hayling Island; WA315, Unknown Wreck Herd Sand; WA323, George and Mary; WA328, Bremen Packet; WA329, Prosperity; WA330, Aurora; WA331, Dispatch; WA343, The Woolwich Ship; WA390, Robert Seymour; WA396, James and Sarah; WA398, Devon; and WA417, Unknown Wreck: Western Rocks.

5.2.29. Summary details of all the wrecks are recorded in Appendix II and are discussed further below according to date. Full details can be found in the ESB database. Boat Burials 5.2.30. All six of the records categorised as boat burials were eliminated as a category as these sites have already been recorded, excavated and any archaeological material removed.
Historic Vessels

5.2.31. Each of the 28 historic vessels recorded within the ESB data base have been identified as worthy of inclusion on a national database and are all in either public curation or private ownership. 5.2.32. Those vessels included within the National Historic Fleet are not included within the ESB recommendations for selective investigation as these are already recognised as being of pre-eminent national or regional significance and as meriting a higher priority for long term conservation. These comprise: • • • • • • • WA355, Light vessel 16 Inner Dowsing (Borstal, River Medway); WA356, HMS Trincomalee (Hartlepool's Maritime Experience); WA358, HMS Victory (Portsmouth Historic Dockyard); WA369, Mary Rose (Portsmouth Historic Dockyard); WA359, Prince Frederick’s Barge (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich); WA368, Queen Mary’s Shallop (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich); and WA360, Zetland (Zetland Lifeboat Museum, Redcar).

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5.2.33. Likewise, all those currently in curation in museums are also omitted from the sites for selective investigation: • • • • • • • • • • • WA361, Tyne (Grade II Listed, Pier Parade, South Shields); WA366, Royal Oak (River and Rowing Museum, Henley-in-Thames); WA367, Oxford Boat (River and Rowing Museum, Henley-in-Thames); WA372, Charles II’s State Barge (Portsmouth Historic Dockyard); WA375, Grace Darling (Grace Darling Museum, Bamburgh, Northumberland); WA378, Margaret (Windemere Steamboat Museum, Cumbria); WA379, Maria (Museum of the Broads, Norfolk); WA381, West Greenland Kayak (Hull Maritime Museum); WA382, Eastern Canada Kayak (Hull Maritime Museum); WA383, West Greenland Kayak (Hull Maritime Museum); and WA435, The Green Boat (Merseyside Maritime Museum).

5.2.34. All those historic vessels in private ownership, however, may be considered for additional assessment to establish current condition and means for long-term protection. • • • • • • • • • • WA363, Laplander (restored and in use as an icebreaker, Blue Lias, Grand Union); WA364, Katie (current use and location unknown); WA365, Boadicea CK 213 (restored and in private use, West Mersea); WA370, William and Emily (restored and in use as charter, East Mersea); WA371, Bonnet (restored and in use for racing, St. Mary's Gig Club); WA373, Dove (restored and in use for racing, Newquay Rowing Club); WA377, Lord St.Levan's Old Ceremonial Barge (restored and in private use, St Michaels Mount); WA384, Newquay (restored and in use for racing, Newquay Rowing Club); WA386, Slippen (restored and in use for racing, St. Mary's Gig Club); and WA387, Treffry (restored and in use for racing, Newquay Rowing Club).

5.2.35. With regard to the non-statutory criteria, as extant vessels of pre-1840 date the rarity and survival of each of these is sufficient to warrant further investigation. However, as the designation selection guide does not cover vessels which are mobile, none of these qualify for selective investigation. Logboats 5.2.36. Eighty-five of the 132 logboats are recorded as destroyed or removed and are thus no longer of relevance to the process. Four of the logboats are recorded as buried: • • • • WA341, the Shardlow Quarry boat was reburied in situ following excavation in 2003 and the long-term preservation of the site is being monitored; WA219, St.Mildred’s Bay is recorded on the foreshore exposed at neap tides; WA410, River Nene is believed to have been left in situ as there is no evidence that the vessel was removed; and WA49, Burpham is believed to have been left in situ in 1862 and there is no further information after this date.

5.2.37. Although it is possible that remains may be present at WA410 and WA49 this is uncertain and it may be more appropriate to consider the survival to be unknown. The survival of the remaining 43 of the logboats is also unknown. Twenty-one of these were discovered in the 17th, 18th or 19th centuries and the records are

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insufficient to determine the current location of the craft. It is considered likely that these are no longer in existence either in situ or in curation. Two of the records (WA279 and WA280) are possibly the same as two logboats described as in curation in record WA13. One record (WA79) suggests that the craft has subsequently been destroyed. 5.2.38. There is no evidence within the remaining records to suggest that the craft survive in situ or in curation with the exception of the Must Farm logboats (WA341). These have only recently been excavated and details of the long term preservation of the sites and its finds are yet to be finalised by curators. The Must Farm logboats, therefore, are not suggested as for selective investigation as the long term preservation and care of these logboats is already being addressed. Due to the lack of data, and the high probability that the rest of these “unknowns” are no longer extant, none of these are considered further for selective investigation. 5.2.39. WA341 and WA219, as examples preserved in situ, are the only two logboats that may be suitable for selective investigation. However, as the long term preservation and monitoring of WA341 is already in place this logboat is not considered to be under threat and designation is perhaps unlikely to be considered. The long term curation of this boat, however, should be periodically checked to monitor its success and continuing application. 5.2.40. Only WA219, the logboat in St.Mildred’s Bay, is therefore recommended for selective investigation. Findspots 5.2.41. Twenty-eight of the 38 findspots are recorded as relating to remains that have been destroyed or removed and are thus no longer of relevance to the process. A single record relates to timbers from HMS Namur discovered beneath the floorboards of a workshop at Chatham dockyard (WA354). These are being preserved and displayed in situ as part of a new museum gallery to tell the story of the history of ship building at Chatham and the long term curation of the timbers is in place. 5.2.42. The survival of the remaining 9 is recorded as unknown. Three of these are reported as excavated so it is likely they were also removed (WA60, WA110, WA158). The Blackfriars IV ship (WA114) was rapidly recorded, but not excavated due to time constraints, when it was uncovered by a mechanical grab and presumably destroyed. It is not clear if anything remains at the location of discovery. 5.2.43. Two of the records relate to vessel timbers reused in other structures including a revetment or wharf formed of fragments of a clinker built boat (WA283) and repairs using vessel timbers at a quay at Alexandra Dock, Grimsby (WA322). The current status of these timbers is unclear although both have been investigated and recorded and an assessment alongside the non-statutory criteria is not expected to demonstrate the benefit of additional investigation and protection. 5.2.44. Three of the records have insufficient data to determine what happened to the discoveries once they were found. One is a report of an "ancient" wooden boat in a regional archaeological survey of 1958 (WA271), the second is a ship found in 1830 (WA320). It is considered likely that these are no longer in existence either in situ or in curation. The third is the Caldecotte Boat (WA296) which was excavated in 1982. The record does not state what happened to the vessel timbers after excavation although the nature of the discovery, in a machine trench, and the subsequent development indicates that they do not remain in situ.

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5.2.45. None of the 38 findspots, therefore, were considered suitable for selective investigation. 5.3. 5.3.1. ASSESSMENT BY PERIOD As identified above, the majority of boats and ships from prehistory to 1840 are likely to be considered of special interest solely due to the rarity of discoveries from these early periods. The selection guide for boats and ships developed by Wessex Archaeology (2008b) suggests that for all boats pre-1500 AD, so little is known, and remains are so rare, that all examples are likely to be of special interest. This covers the first five of the ESB periods, Early Prehistoric, Late Prehistoric, Roman, post-Roman to Norman conquest and Medieval and early Tudor. Remains of boats and ships from the period 1500 to 1815 are also rare and the majority of boats and ships dating from this period can be expected to be of special interest. This covers the remaining ESB periods mid to late Tudor, Stuart and Hanoverian. The later part of the Hanoverian period falls within the 1815 to 1914 group of vessels, identified in the selection guide as comprising far more examples of boats and ships warranting greater discrimination in terms of the distinct contribution that a site can make to understanding the massive change in how vessels were built and used during this period. Early Prehistoric (500,000 – 4000 BC) Boats from the Early Prehistoric period are so rare that all examples will be considered of special interest, particularly those from periods prior the last, Devensian, glacial phase. There are 19 records with a date range that falls within the Early Prehistoric period, 18 logboats and one findspot (Figure 4). However, none of these have been scientifically dated and are recorded as of possible Early Prehistoric date only. Moreover, none of these have been identified as surviving in archaeological contexts. There are no Early Prehistoric sites identified for selective investigation. Late Prehistoric (4000 – 54 BC) Boats from the Late Prehistoric period are sufficiently rare that all examples will be considered of special interest.

5.3.2.

5.3.3.

5.3.4.

5.3.5.

5.3.6. 5.3.7.

5.3.8.

5.3.9.

5.3.10. There are 97 records with a date range that falls within the Late Prehistoric period: two boat burials, three designated wrecks, 84 logboats and eight findspots (Figure 5). 5.3.11. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the boat burials, designated wrecks or findspots were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.12. Of the 84 logboats, only two were identified as surviving in an archaeological context and, as WA341 was already subject to long term curation, only the logboat reported in St.Mildred’s Bay (WA219) was selected for further investigation (Figure 5).

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Roman (54 BC – AD 410) 5.3.13. Boats and ships from the Roman period are sufficiently rare that all examples will be considered of special interest. 5.3.14. There are 34 records with a date range that falls within the Roman period: two designated wrecks, 23 logboats, five findspots and four undesignated wrecks (Figure 6). 5.3.15. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the designated wrecks or findspots were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.16. None of the 23 logboats were identified as surviving in an archaeological context. 5.3.17. Of the four undesignated wrecks two are recommended for further investigation: WA160, rows of Roman tiles believed to be a villa or shipwreck, and WA259, a wooden hull off the coast of Hayling Island loosely interpreted as a possible Roman shipwreck (Figure 6). Post-Roman to Norman Conquest (410 AD – 1066) 5.3.18. Boats and ships from the post-Roman to Norman Conquest period are sufficiently rare that all examples are likely to be considered of special interest. 5.3.19. There are 40 records with a date range that falls within the post-Roman period: four boat burials, one designated wrecks, 28 logboats, six findspots and one undesignated wreck (Figure 7). 5.3.20. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the boat burials, designated wrecks or findspots were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.21. None of the 28 logboats were identified as surviving in an archaeological context. 5.3.22. The undesignated wreck, the Meols ‘Viking’ Ship (WA346) is identified as a site for selective investigation (Figure 7). This boat, buried beneath a pub car park in Meols, the Wirral, and initially discovered c.70 years ago, was surveyed in 2007 with ground penetrating radar by the University of Nottingham indicating that significant timber remains survive in an archaeological context at this site. The extent of disturbance from earlier construction activities at the site is uncertain. Medieval and Early Tudor (1066 – 1540) 5.3.23. Boats and ships from the Medieval and Early Tudor period are sufficiently rare that all examples are likely to be considered of special interest. 5.3.24. There are 51 records with a date range that falls within the Medieval and Early Tudor period: seven designated wrecks, 20 logboats, ten findspots, one historic vessel (WA369, the Mary Rose) and 13 undesignated wrecks (Figure 8). 5.3.25. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the designated wrecks, findspots or historic vessels were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.26. None of the 20 logboats were identified as surviving in an archaeological context. 5.3.27. Of the 13 undesignated wrecks, eight have been identified as sites for selective investigation (Figure 8).

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5.3.28. One is the Meols ‘Viking’ Boat (WA346) discussed above with a possible date range of 900 to 1600 AD suggested by sources. 5.3.29. Three have already been investigated as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act but each requires further investigation before a full assessment against the non-statutory criteria can be carried out: • • • WA178, Seaford Guns Site; WA345, Unknown Wreck: GAD 108; and WA425, Unknown Wreck: GAD 16.

5.3.30. Three are described as either buried or partially intact indicating a level of survival that would warrant further investigation: • • • WA175, Le Kateryn van Arnude; WA256, Axe Boat; and WA343, The Woolwich Ship.

5.3.31. The presence of remains at the Woolwich Ship site (WA343), however, is implicated in documentary sources that suggest not all of the boat was removed at the time. It is possible, however, that nothing remains at this site. Likewise, the ship discovered at Walney Island in 1839 (WA10) is still charted as Live by the UKHO but it is unclear what remains at this location. The UKHO record states that timbers and cannon were found but there are no subsequent reports of any archaeological material at this location. The date of the Walney Island wreck (WA10) is also nonspecific, recorded as medieval or post medieval in date. Mid to Late Tudor (1540 – 1603) 5.3.32. The majority of boats and ships from the Mid to Late Tudor period are also expected to be of special interest although marginally more is understood about shipbuilding from this period, than those of the preceding centuries, due to more frequent discoveries and documentary evidence. 5.3.33. There are 34 records with a date range that falls within the Mid to Late Tudor period: nine designated wrecks, two logboats, four findspots and 19 undesignated wrecks (Figure 9). 5.3.34. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the designated wrecks or findspots were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.35. Neither of the logboats were identified as surviving in an archaeological context. 5.3.36. Of the 19 undesignated wrecks, ten have been identified as sites for selective investigation (Figure 9). 5.3.37. Six of these have been attributed a date range that also falls within the preceding Medieval and Early Tudor period and are discussed above: • • • WA10, Unknown Wreck: Walney Island, possibly dating to the period 1366 to 1750 AD; WA178, Seaford Guns Site, dated by artefacts to 1500 to 1699 AD; WA256, Axe Boat, radiocarbon dated to 1400 to 1640 AD (and WA255, Unknown Wreck: Axmouth-Seaton Ferry dated by sources to the post-Medieval period, 1540 to 1900);

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• •

WA345, Unknown Wreck: GAD 108 of suspected Late Medieval of Early Post Medieval date (1400 to 1800); and WA425, Unknown Wreck: GAD 16 dated to the 16th century by reference to bronze cannon (1500 to 1600 AD).

5.3.38. The Meols ‘Viking’ Ship (WA346) falls in both the post-Roman and the Medieval and Early Tudor period (900 to 1600 AD). 5.3.39. The remaining three sites are all sites in the Goodwin Sands investigated by Wessex Archaeology as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act: • • • WA422, Unknown Wreck: GAD 12; WA423, Unknown Wreck: GAD 13; and WA424, Unknown Wreck: GAD 14.

5.3.40. Each requires further investigation before a full assessment against the nonstatutory criteria can be carried out. Stuart (1603 – 1714) 5.3.41. Discoveries of boats and ships from the Stuart period are more common than those of previous periods although known examples are still rare in comparison to post1840 sites. Many sites are characterised by very poor levels of survival due to a combination of marine processes and extensive salvage operations by ‘treasure hunters’ and amateur archaeologists. Therefore, most examples with even marginal survival may be considered of special interest. 5.3.42. There are 68 records with a date range that falls within the Stuart period: 23 designated wrecks, one logboat, four findspots, two historic vessels (WA368, Queen Mary’s Shallop in the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich and WA372, Charles’ II State Barge in the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard) and 38 undesignated wrecks (Figure 10). 5.3.43. As discussed in Section 5.2 above, none of the designated wrecks, findspots or historic vessels were identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.44. The logboat (WA243) was not found to survive in an archaeological context. 5.3.45. Of the 38 undesignated wrecks, 21 have been identified as sites for selective investigation (Figure 10). 5.3.46. Three of these have been attributed a date range that also falls within the preceding Mid to Late Tudor period and are discussed above: • • • WA422, Unknown Wreck: GAD 12; WA423, Unknown Wreck: GAD 13; and WA424, Unknown Wreck: GAD 14.

5.3.47. The available information for each of these newly investigated sites is currently insufficient to attribute a specific date and each is ascribed a suspected Post Medieval date 1540 to 1900 AD. 5.3.48. Four have been attributed a date range that also falls within the two preceding periods (Medieval and Early Tudor and Mid to Late Tudor) and are discussed above:

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• • • •

WA10, Unknown Wreck: Walney Island; WA178, Seaford Guns Site, dated by artefacts to 1500 to 1699 AD; WA256, Axe Boat, radiocarbon dated to 1400 to 1640 AD; and WA255, Unknown Wreck: Axmouth-Seaton Ferry dated by sources to the postMedieval period, 1540 to 1900.

5.3.49. Five of the remaining 15 sites have already been investigated as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act but each requires further investigation before a full assessment against the non-statutory criteria can be carried out: • • • • • WA100, Eagle; WA101, Royal James; WA184, Quadrant Wreck; WA344, Unknown Wreck: GAD 58; and WA420, Unknown Wreck: GAD 9.

5.3.50. Five of the wrecks are identified for selective investigation despite the fact that survival is expected to be limited. The sources suggest that three of these have been subject to salvage since discovery and that the remains are broken up, although wreckage remains (WA73, HMS Ramillies; WA84, HMS Association; and WA85, HMS Romney). Two further wrecks lack current condition reports although the sources indicate that survival is likely to be poor (WA83, Gilstone Rock; WA325, Prince Royal). 5.3.51. HMS Ramilles and HMS Association are both second rate ships of the line, a type represented in the ESB database by just two designated wrecks (WA97, HMS London and WA142/143 HMS Coronation), both also dating to the Stuart period, and two further undesignated wrecks (WA169, HMS Impregnable and WA215, HMS Boyne) which both date to the later Hanoverian period. HMS Namur (WA354), the timbers of which were incorporated into the construction of a workshop at Chatham dockyard, was also a Hanoverian second rate ship of the line. This indicates that although other examples are known, this remains a rare type in the archaeological record and there are no surviving examples of comparable historic vessels in England. 5.3.52. As a fourth rate ship of the line, HMS Romney is also a rare type with only one other from the Stuart period recorded in the ESB database, the designated wreck HMS Hazardous (WA123). The Hanoverian frigate Brielle (WA170) is also recorded as a fourth rate although Brielle was a Dutch naval vessel rather than English. 5.3.53. Association and Romney also have the significant historical association as two of the vessels (along with Eagle, WA136, and, Firebrand WA86) which formed part of Sir Cloudesley Shovell's ill-fated fleet, lost on the Western Rocks, Isles of Scilly, in 1707 and associated with extreme loss of life. 5.3.54. Each of these five sites will benefit from further investigation to establish the extent of remains although it is a possibility that at each site the survival may be insufficient to warrant designation. 5.3.55. The four remaining Stuart wrecks identified for selective investigation are those identified as having potential for better levels of survival. 5.3.56. The entry in the Isles of Scilly and North Cornwall Dive Guide (Larn and McBride, 2003) for the Dutch East Indiaman, Prinses Maria (WA82), states that ‘the wreck

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uncovers of its own accord, and 20ft beams and lengths of deck planking lie exposed most of the time, offering photographic opportunities or the possibility of finding artefacts if you dig deep enough’. This indicates that investigation should be carried out to ascertain the extent of these remains. There are seven other wrecks recorded as Dutch East Indiaman in the ESB database. Campen (WA67, lost 1627) and the Low Lee Ledges wreck (WA164, c.1600 to 1632) both exhibit poor levels of survival, insufficient to warrant designation. The remaining five Dutch East Indiamen in the ESB database were lost during the later Hanoverian period (Hollandia, WA87 lost 1743; the designated wreck Amsterdam, WA128 lost 1749; the designated wreck Rooswijk, WA168, lost 1739; de boot, WA 247, lost 1738; and the wreck at Westward Ho!, WA253, lost c.1770). This indicates that, despite many items having been removed from the wreck, Prinses Maria may be a unique example to study an early example of a Dutch East Indiaman in English waters. 5.3.57. The wreck at Western Rocks (WA417), previously thought to be HMS Firebrand, now identified elsewhere (WA86), is a wooden sailing vessel of post-medieval date. The nature and extent of the wreckage, spread over a wide area, is not described in the available sources but the extent of the spread, recorded as 200ft x 150ft, indicates that enough remains to warrant further investigation to attempt to identify the vessel. 5.3.58. The wreck at Western Rocks, identified as the English East Indiaman Royal Oak (WA434) by Todd Stevens, has been surveyed and recorded by IMAG but this research has not been formally assessed to identify special interest. The site reportedly comprises anchors, guns, iron shot and ballast. Only two other English East Indiaman from the Stuart period are recorded in the ESB database, the designated wreck Schiedam, originally a fluit in the Dutch East India service (WA124), and the designated wreck at Loe Bar (WA336) thought to be the English East Indiaman President. 5.3.59. Finally, the wreck at Lydney Docks (WA257) comprises the remains of an Upper Severn trow, one of only two ‘trows’ recorded in the ESB database. The wreck survives as a hulk embedded in the river bank at Lydney and is probably dated to the 18th century. As such this wreck may be considered to fall primarily within the following Hanoverian period. Hanoverian (1714-1837) 5.3.60. Boats and ships with a date range falling within the Hanoverian period account for the greatest number of records in the ESB database, 145 in total (Figure 11). Wrecks dating to this period are more common than preceding periods and wrecks may need to demonstrate a specific contribution in line with the selection guides to be considered of special interest. 5.3.61. Seventeen of the records are designated wrecks, five are findspots, 25 are historic vessels and two are logboats. None of these have been identified as sites for selective investigation. 5.3.62. Seventy-two of the 96 undesignated wrecks have been identified as warranting further investigation (Figure 11). 5.3.63. Of these 72, 13 have a date range than also falls within earlier periods and have been discussed above (WA10, WA73, WA178, WA184, WA255, WA257, WA344, WA345 WA417, WA420, WA422, WA423, WA424). The Seaford Guns Site (WA178) is traditionally associated with the wreck of HMS Harlequin in 1809 (NRHE record of loss 902694) but, as the guns have been assigned a much earlier date, so

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too the vessel is believed to have been lost during a much earlier period. The Hanoverian date of 1809 is kept in the database for reference. 5.3.64. As discussed previously, Forfarshire (WA191) is reported to be completely smashed but has sufficient historic associations to warrant further investigations. 5.3.65. Seven have already been investigated as part of archaeological services in relation to the Protection of Wrecks Act but each requires further investigation before a full assessment against the non-statutory criteria can be carried out: • • • • • • • WA167, Dollar Wreck; WA176, HMS Venerable; WA181, Bellona; WA185, Unknown Wreck: Knock Deep; WA324, Albion; WA338, HMS Nautilus; and WA421, Unknown Wreck: GAD 10.

5.3.66. The remaining 51 undesignated wrecks of Hanoverian date, that have been identified for selective investigation, exhibit varying levels of survival, as discussed in Section 5.2 above. 5.3.67. Thirty four of the wrecks were lost before 1840, eight are unidentified and the precise date of loss is unknown and nine relate to vessels that were lost post-1840 but with a date of build pre-1840. 5.3.68. Three of the unidentified losses are hulks that are recorded as either buried or mainly intact: • • • WA308, Unknown Wreck: River Itchen (collier); WA309, Unknown Wreck: Woolston Riverside (ketch); and WA427, Unknown Wreck: Bexley, The Saltings (Thames sailing barge).

5.3.69. Although these date to the later part of the ESB period, the good preservation of these early to mid-19th century transport vessels is expected to provide a rare opportunity to study the structure of these regional boat types. 5.3.70. The survival of two of the unidentified wrecks is unknown (WA172 and WA315) and further investigation to establish the nature and extent of the wrecks sites may be required. Two of the wrecks are partially buried, an East Indiaman at Westward Ho! lost c.1770 (WA253) and a trow recorded at Northam and believed to have sunk in the mid-18th century (WA254). Of particular interest is the recent discovery of a wreck on the beach at North Gare (WA353) which appears to have possible similarities to the designated wreck at Seaton Carew (WA156). 5.3.71. Of the nine vessels lost post-1840, the Hulk Daresbury (WA428) is reported as mainly intact and, as with the three unidentified hulks, will provide a rare opportunity to study the structure of these regional boat types. The lighter Devon (WA398) is also a mid-19th century regional transport barge although the survival is unknown. 5.3.72. The remaining seven post-1840 losses comprise an early paddle steamer packet (WA399, Thames), a slave ship (WA400, Douro) and emigrant ship (WA401, John), all of which may be regarded as having special interest with regard to their use, and four mid-19th century cargo vessels. Heroine (WA376) is reported to be partially intact. The current condition of James and Sarah (WA396) and Robert Seymour

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(WA390) is unknown while the last record of the survival of Black Prince (WA389) was recorded by the UKHO in 1989. 5.3.73. The thirty-four vessels lost pre-1840 comprise 15 cargo vessels, six East Indiamen and one West Indiaman, two packet vessels, seven warships, two troop ships and a storage hulk. All of these wrecks currently lack sufficient data concerning the survival or ship narrative and will require further investigation before assessment against the non-statutory criteria, 5.3.74. The 15 cargo vessels comprise: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • WA162, Pearle, British barquentine, brig, schooner or snow, built 1717, lost 1741; WA151, Hope, Dutch, built 1749, lost 1749; WA155, Fanny, lost 1780; WA154, Catharina von Flensburg, Danish brigantine, built 1782, lost 1786; WA93, Fanny, British Sloop, lost 1793; WA80, Juno, British Barque, built 1782, lost 1797; WA113, Diana, brig, lost 1803; WA335, Padstow, brig, lost 1804; WA330, Aurora, Swedish, lost 1808; WA329, Prosperity, lost 1808; WA94, Britannia, British, built 1806, lost 1809; WA171, Minerva, British armed cargo vessel, lost 1816; WA323, George and Mary, British brig, lost 1823; WA150, Ocean, English snow, lost 1829; and WA103, Ospra, Danish brigantine, lost 1832.

5.3.75. The six East Indiamen, the West Indiaman and the two packet vessels are ships which would have carried both passengers and cargo. 5.3.76. The West Indiaman Dragon (WA72) is the only example of this type recorded in the ESB database from any of the periods. 5.3.77. The two wrecks described as packet vessels are both British. The Bremen Packet (WA328) is represented by a slight magnetic anomaly recorded by the UKHO in 2000 while a large number of timbers uncovered by gales in 1975 represent the remains of Lamb (WA115), a wreck that has also been associated with the barque The American lost in 1881. 5.3.78. One of the wrecks classed by the NRHE as an East Indiamen is that of the Britannia (WA70). Another site which has been suggested as the Britannia is WA94, classed by the NRHE as a cargo vessel and not described as an East Indiaman. It is currently unknown which of the wrecks is the vessel Britannia. The remaining East Indiamen comprise: • • • • • WA90, Grantham, English, built 1727, lost 1744; WA247, de Boot, Dutch, built 1733, lost 1738; WA87, Hollandia, Dutch, built 1742, lost 1743; WA145, The Nancy Packet, British, built 1783, lost 1810; and WA261, Henry Addington, English, built 1796, lost 1798.

5.3.79. The remaining ten wrecks are all associated with war.

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5.3.80. The ship referred to as a ‘storage hulk’ by the NRHE (WA105) sank while under escort of the 14 gun HMS Caroline. The vessel was lost on the Runnelstone with a cargo of copper bolts, brass and other fittings destined for use in refitting men-o-war in the Mersey. 5.3.81. Of the two troop ships, Dispatch (WA331) is represented by cannon in a gulley with the remains of a later wreck (Clan Alpine). Queen (WA333) was carrying injured troops of Wellington’s army, and their families, from Lisbon and Cadiz for Portsmouth when lost in 1814 and a wooden keel and debris are reported to remain. 5.3.82. The seven warships comprise: • • • • • • • WA71, HMS Crocodile, Sixth Rate Ship of the Line, built 1781, lost 1784; WA75, HMS Weazle, brig, sloop of war, built 1783, lost 1799; WA107, HMS Primrose, gun brig, sloop built 1807, lost 1809; WA108, HMS Anson, Third Rate Ship of the Line, cut down and re-rated to a Fifth Rate frigate, built 1781, lost 1807; WA170, Brielle, Dutch Fourth Rate frigate, built 1786, lost 1791; WA177, HMS Savage, sloop of war, built 1762, lost 1762; and WA215, HMS Boyne, Second Rate Ship of the Line, built 1790, lost 1795.

Unknown 5.3.83. Seven of the records within the ESB database are of ‘unknown’ date although they can with confidence be declared as pre-1840 in character (Figure 12). 5.3.84. These comprise six logboats and one findspot, none of which are recommended for selective investigation. 5.4. 5.4.1. SUMMARY Three hundred and eighty four wrecks, monuments, finds and historic vessels from prehistory to 1840 have been identified and entered into the ESB database (Appendix II). Forty-seven records referring to designated wrecks were included in the database. However, as these are already protected by law, none of the wrecks in this category have been selected as suitable for selective investigation. There are 133 records of undesignated wrecks in the database. Forty-six were rejected as candidates for selective investigation because they were already subject to informal investigation and stewardship or lay within the boundary of a designated area, they had already been assessed for designation, they lay beyond the 12nm limit or their survival was expected to be insufficient to warrant investigation. This left 87 sites identified for selective investigation. All six of the records categorised as boat burials were eliminated as a category as these sites have already been recorded, excavated and any archaeological material removed. The 28 historic vessels recorded within the ESB database were all rejected as extant, mobile vessels are not addressed by the selection guide (English Heritage 2012b). Eighty-five of the 132 logboats are recorded as destroyed or removed and were thus considered irrelevant to this process. Forty-six of the logboats were rejected as

5.4.2.

5.4.3.

5.4.4.

5.4.5.

5.4.6.

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sites for selective investigation as their survival was expected to be insufficient although the current survival is recorded as unknown. Only one logboat at St.Mildred’s Bay was recommended for further investigation (WA219). 5.4.7. Twenty-seven of the 38 findspots are recorded as relating to remains that have been destroyed or removed and were thus considered irrelevant to the process. A single record related to timbers from HMS Namur discovered beneath the floorboards of a workshop at Chatham dockyard (WA354) and subsequently in curation at Chatham. The survival of the remaining 9 is recorded as unknown although their survival was expected to be unlikely or insufficient to warrant designation. The ESB project, therefore, has identified 88 of the sites for selective investigation and assessment against the non-statutory criteria for designation as set out by English Heritage (2010). In assessing a vessel as a candidate for designation (or scheduling), the non-statutory criteria, as outlined in section 5.1 of this report, are used to articulate the national importance of the site which forms the basis of arguments for designation (English Heritage, 2012). Under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973, the Secretary of State is allowed to designate restricted area around a wreck to prevent uncontrolled interference. Access to these designated wrecks is monitored through a system of licensing administered through English Heritage. The 87 undesignated wrecks and one logboat are summarised in the table below and are illustrated in Figure 13. Further details can be found in Appendix II.
WAID 10 70 71 72 73 75 80 82 83 84 85 87 90 93 94 100 101 103 105 107 108 113 115 Name Unknown Wreck: Walney Island Britannia HMS Crocodile Dragon HMS Ramillies HMS Weazle Juno Prinses Maria Unknown Wreck: Gilstone Rock HMS Association HMS Romney Hollandia Grantham Fanny Britannia Eagle Royal James Ospra Unknown Wreck: British Storage Hulk HMS Primrose HMS Anson Diana Lamb Min Date 1366 1806 1781 1757 1664 1783 1782 1682 1689 1696 1694 1742 1727 1793 1806 1696 1671 1832 1806 1807 1781 1803 1736 Max Date 1750 1809 09/05/1784 22/08/1757 15/02/1760 10/02/1799 10/01/1797 1686 10/11/1689 23/10/1707 22/10/1707 13/07/1743 1744 01/02/1793 1809 27/11/1703 28/05/1672 06/05/1832 07/03/1806 22/01/1809 29/12/1807 26/05/1803 21/02/1736 Easting 319427 646746 277143 268713 267095 241342 95800 83790 92070 83440 80926 84780 623960 404639 643448 481943 652247 168124 136883 181726 164169 539060 297680 Northing 464129 152625 34912 38079 39170 141198 15870 6160 9090 4580 6177 8200 135986 79063 147578 94547 277268 13029 20135 20808 23781 101230 146783

5.4.8.

5.4.9.

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WAID 145 150 151 154 155 160 162 167 170 171 172 174 176 177 178 181 184 185 191 215 219 247 253 254 255 256 257 259 261 308 309 315 323 324 325 328 329 330 331 333 335 338

Name The Nancy Packet Ocean Hope Catharina von Flensburg Fanny Unknown Wreck: Roman Tiles Pearle Dollar Wreck Brielle Minerva Unknown Wreck: Santaspery Neck Le Kateryn van Arnude HMS Venerable HMS Savage Seaford Guns Site Bellona Quadrant Wreck Unknown Wreck: Knock Deep Forfarshire HMS Boyne Logboat: St.Mildred's Bay de Boot Unknown Wreck: Westward Ho! Unknown Wreck: Northam Unknown Wreck: Axmouth-Seaton Ferry Axe Boat Unknown Wreck: Lydney Docks Unknown Wreck: Hayling Island Henry Addington Unknown Wreck: River Itchen Unknown Wreck: Woolston Riverside Unknown Wreck: Herd Sand George and Mary Albion Prince Royal Bremen Packet Prosperity Aurora Dispatch Queen Padstow HMS Nautilus

Min Date 1783 1829 1749 1782 1780 43 1717 1770 1786 1816 1790 1300 1784 1762 1500 1779 1704 1800 1838 1790 -4000 1733 1770 1750 1540 1400 1700 43 1796 1800 1800 1700 1823 1762 1610 1808 1808 1808 1809 1814 1804 1784

Max Date 15/02/1810 04/01/1829 16/01/1749 10/12/1786 1780 410 26/01/1741 31/12/1779 22/12/1791 01/09/1816 1810 1499 24/11/1804 28/02/1762 1809 05/09/1779 1733 31/12/1833 07/09/1838 04/05/1795 -1501 08/11/1738 1770 1750 1900 1640 1800 409 1798 1850 1850 1800 04/02/1823 1765 13/06/1666 28/03/1808 23/03/1808 28/03/1808 22/01/1809 14/01/1814 24/12/1804 1799

Easting 83460 181640 358140 246520 404500 527680 423730 165690 178496 455128 83479 158070 289927 289765 546945 295940 169200 649280 423910 462300 632700 277000 243200 243200 325300 325270 365180 472288 466266 443350 443431 436900 424174 647300 668260 543731 542046 541947 177290 182232 89708 515886

Northing 5730 20160 78970 52420 79660 103660 638370 20340 16211 66847 5901 27580 59873 60124 99158 74090 11550 195210 638260 95760 170400 35000 129700 129700 89900 90020 201480 97646 87578 112950 110749 568100 637840 211830 229621 412492 411824 411803 16020 33732 9209 475707

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WAID 343 344 345 346 353 376 389 390 396 398 399 400 401 417 420 421 422 423 424 425 427 428 434

Name The Woolwich Ship Unknown Wreck: GAD 58 Unknown Wreck: GAD 108 Unknown Wreck: Meols ‘Viking’ Ship Unknown Wreck: North Gare Heroine Black Prince Robert Seymour James and Sarah Devon Thames Douro John Unknown Wreck: Western Rocks Unknown Wreck: GAD 9 Unknown Wreck: GAD 10 Unknown Wreck: GAD 12 Unknown Wreck: GAD 13 Unknown Wreck: GAD 14 Unknown Wreck: GAD 16 Unknown Wreck: Bexley, The Saltings Daresbury Royal Oak

Min Date 1450 1600 1400 900 1700 1838 1838 1839 1830 1833 1827 1839 1810 1694 1600 1700 1540 1540 1540 1500 1800 1772 1663

Max Date 1602 1850 1800 1600 1900 27/12/1852 1890 15/05/1881 15/09/1880 23/10/1868 04/01/1841 28/01/1843 03/05/1855 22/10/1707 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1600 1900 1957 15/02/1665

Easting 543450 649366 636372 323000 454013 334120 501740 320250 324440 133969 83710 82660 181160 82840 649019 636919 649331 649258 649153 649160 552940 354180 83900

Northing 179250 159406 160557 390000 527581 91450 516522 391800 153490 30985 6140 7380 20180 8940 159378 157690 159318 159274 161004 159732 178010 378440 5300

Table 3: Ships and Boats Identified for Selective Investigation

6. 6.1.1.

STAGE 4: RECOMMENDATIONS Stage 4 of the ESB project was to refine existing, or recommend additional, terms and definitions for the Maritime Craft Thesaurus and NRHE. Only very few terms were identified: Skiff The West Mersea Boat (WA209) is described as an Essex Skiff by the Essex HER. The principal features of the West Mersea boat are that it is double ended, flat bottomed, clinker built with broad strakes held by mixed treenails and iron nails to the framing, and almost total reliance on treenails to hold the garboards to the keel. It has been suggested that the boat was a ‘haul-tow skiff’, a heavily built, double ended twenty foot ‘skiff’ hauled along a ground line through oyster beds with a dredge in tow (Dean, 1985: 225). It appeared that the West Mersea boat was a particular type of Essex Skiff, a class of British boat no longer in use. There is currently insufficient data to define an ‘Essex Skiff’ for inclusion in the maritime craft thesaurus. There are no references to an ‘Essex Skiff’ in the Chatham Directory of Inshore Craft (Greenhill and Mannering, 1997) or in Working Boats of Britain (McKee, 1997). There are, however, several references to the ‘skiff’, a craft type not currently included in the NRHE thesaurus.

6.1.2. 6.1.3.

6.1.4.

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6.1.5.

McKee (1997: 71) states that the term ‘skiff’ has more than one meaning: • • • • • • in fresh water a skiff is an oared boat, in form and period part way between a wherry and a racing shell; Ryde and Cowes skiffs were 15ft waterman’s boats, beamier than the river skiffs; the naval counterpart was 1 16ft skiff rigged as a gunter lug sloop and rowed randan; in Scotland the term skiff may indicated a small version of a larger type; on the west coast of Scotland the term skiff is used for a distinct type in p[laces (e.g. the Loch Fyne skiff); and in the 18th century there were Swansea skiffs, with a crew of three men and a boy, and the Bristol pilot cutters were also known as skiffs implying a local meaning for the word.

6.1.6.

The diversity of meaning for the term ‘skiff’ suggests that inclusion of the term in the thesaurus may require necessary subdivisions to clarify the type of skiff recorded. For example, a suggested definition for skiff may be: A term for a small, coastal or river boat characterised by a number of distinct types

6.1.7.

Further sub divisions will then incorporate definitions of the variable and distinct boat types. The formulation of these definitions will require further research. Guardship A guardship was a warship stationed at dockyards or ports, for example, to provide defence in the event of attack. There are two guardships within the ESB database. Charles V (WA221) was burnt by the Dutch while acting as a guardship at Chatham in 1667 and HMS Cornwall (WA391) was a Third Rate warship used as a guardship until 1854.

6.1.8. 6.1.9.

6.1.10. The use of guardships predated the Dutch attack on the Medway in 1667 but it was not applied with any planning or consistency (Davies, 2008: 246). The selection of guard ships depended upon what was available and upon cost, and the guardships were manned with a crew larger than those ‘in ordinary’ but smaller than those at sea. Guardships became a key component of the massive programme of enhanced defences following the Medway attack of 1667 and remained in use during the following centuries. 6.1.11. A suggested definition for the term Guardship is: Warship stationed at dockyards, ports or harbours to act as a guard. Ice Boat 6.1.12. The historic vessel Laplander (WA363) was built as a canal iceboat in c.1830 with a riveted, wrought iron hull. The boat was a Birmingham Canal Navigation ice breaker, in private ownership from 1963, and was last used to break ice in January 2001. The boat has been fitted with a steam engine by the current owner. 6.1.13. A suggested definition for the term Ice Boat is: Strongly built boat used on canals to break ice in winter, towed by horses.

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7. 7.1.1. 7.1.2.

STAGE 5: PREPARATION OF PROJECT PRODUCTS AND ARCHIVING The project products comprise this report, the ESB database and associated GIS, the project digital archive and project webpages. The project report, database and GIS are supplied to English Heritage in CD format with a hard copy of the project report. The final report is also available digitally via the project webpages and the Archaeological Data Service. A project archive will be submitted to OASIS.

7.1.3.

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8.

REFERENCES Bibliographic References Davies, J. D., 2008, Pepys’s Navy: Ships, Men and Warfare 1649-1689, Seaforth Publishing, Barnsley. Dean, M, 1985, A boat recovered from the foreshore at West Mersea in Essex International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 14.3: 217-226. English Heritage, 2010, Protected Wreck Sites: Moving towards a new way of managing England’s historic environment, English Heritage. English Heritage, 2011, A Project Brief for a Strategic Desk-based Assessment of Early Ships and Boats, EH 6440, NHPP3A1 Marine Data Management and Enhancement. English Heritage, 2012a, Ships and Boats: Prehistory to 1840, Introductions to Heritage Assets, English Heritage. English Heritage, 2012b, Designation Selection Guide, Ships and Boats: Prehistory to Present, English Heritage. McKee, Eric, 1997 (first published 1983), Working Boats of Britain: Their Shape and Purpose, Conway Maritime Press, London. Museum of London Archaeology, 2011, Hulk Assemblages: Assessing the National Context, Unpublished Report Ref: 5919. Greenhill, B. and Mannering, J (eds.), 1997. The Chatham Dictionary of Inshore Craft: Traditional Working Vessels of the British Isles, Chatham Publishing, London. Wessex Archaeology, 2008a, Marine Class Description and Principles of Selection in Aggreagte Areas, Unpublished Report Ref: 67040.02. Wessex Archaeology, 2008b, Selection Guide, Boats and Ships in Archaeological Contexts, Unpublished Report, Wessex Archaeology. Wessex Archaeology, 2009, South East of England Designated Wrecks, Marine geophysical survey and interpretation, Unpublished Report Ref: 699951.01 Wessex Archaeology, 2010a, East of England Designated Wrecks, Marine geophysical survey and interpretation, Unpublished Report Ref:71770.02. Wessex Archaeology, 2010b, The Goodwins Sands and the Downs, off Kent, Overview of Archaeological Investigations, Unpublished Report Ref: 53111.02k-23. Wessex Archaeology, 2011a, Assessing Boats and Ships 1860-1913: Archaeological Desk-based Assessment, Unpublished Report Ref: 70861.01. Wessex Archaeology, 2011b, Assessing Boats and Ships 1914-1938: Methdology Report, Unpublished Report Ref: 70861.02. Wessex Archaeology, 2011c, Assessing Boats and Ships 1939-1950: Methdology Report, Unpublished Report Ref: 70861.03. Wessex Archaeology, 2011d, Assessing Boats and Ships 1860-1950: Methdology Report, Unpublished Report Ref: 70861.04. Wessex Archaeology, 2011e, The Goodwins Sands and the Downs, Off Kent: Overview of Archaeological Investigations, Unpublished Report Ref: 53111.02k-23.

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Wessex Archaeology, 2012, The Goodwins Sands and the Downs, off Kent, Overview of Archaeological Investigations, Unpublished Report Ref: 53111.02k-27. Key Websites Charlestown Shipwreck and Heritage Centre http://www.shipwreckcharlestown.com/ Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Maritime Archaeology Society http://www.cismas.org.uk/index.php Grid Reference Finder http://gridreferencefinder.com/ Isles of Scilly Maritime Archaeology Group http://scillydivers.blogspot.co.uk/ Hastings Shipwreck Museum http://shipwreck-heritage.org.uk/ Merseyside Maritime Museum http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/ National Historic Ships UK http://www.nationalhistoricships.org.uk National Small Boat Register http://www.nmmc.co.uk/index.php?/collections/content/national_small_boat_register/ RNLI Historic Lifeboat Collection http://rnli.org/aboutus/historyandheritage/museums/Pages/The-RNLI-HistoricLifeboat-Collection.aspx The Isle of Wight Shipwreck Centre and Maritime Museum: http://www.iowight.com/shipwrecks/index.htm World of Boats (The EISCA) Collection http://www.worldofboats.org/home Wrecksite http://www.wrecksite.eu/Wrecksite.aspx

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APPENDIX I: HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT RECORD DATA SUMMARY
HER Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Borough Berkshire Birmingham City Black Country SMR Bristol City Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Canterbury UAD Central Bedfordshire Cheshire Chichester District City of York Colchester UAD Cornwall and Scilly Contact E-mail roderick_millard@bathnes.gov.uk geoff.saunders@bedford.gov.uk info@berkshirearchaeology.org.uk mike.hodder@birmingham.gov.uk mike.shaw@wolverhampton.gov.uk archaeology@bristol.gov.uk smr@buckscc.gov.uk arch.her@cambridgeshire.gov.uk richard.cross@canterbury.gov.uk stephen.coleman@centralbedfordshire.gov.uk robert.edwards@cheshirewestandchester.gov.uk iscrivener-lindley@chichester.gov.uk archaeology@york.gov.uk martin.winter@colchester.gov.uk btapper@cornwall.gov.uk Data Received No data No data No data No data No data 2 records as shapefile plus additional report data No response No response Survey reports only No data 26 records as GIS dataset No data No response No data 518 records as shapefile and text document Data Filter NRHE/UKHO reference Post-1840 and undated Post-1840 and undated NRHE reference Documented losses Findspots Post-1840 and undated Undated NRHE reference Post-1840 and undated Documented losses NRHE reference Undated Documented losses Records Post-Filter 0 18 9

Coventry Cumbria Dartmoor NPA HER Derbyshire Devon

anna.wilson@coventry.gov.uk jo.mackintosh@cumbria.gov.uk culturalheritage@dartmoor-npa.gov.uk gill.stroud@derbyshire.gov.uk archaeol@devon.gov.uk

No data 5 records as excel table and text documents No response 3 records as text document 6 text documents

3 3 19

Dorset

c.j.pinder@dorsetcc.gov.uk

7 records as shapefile

2

Dudley

pete.boland@dudley.gov.uk

No data

-

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HER Durham

Contact E-mail nick.boldrini@durham.gov.uk

Data Received 289 records as GIS dataset

Data Filter Unidentified maritime obstructions Post-1840 and undated Documented losses Non-wreck NRHE reference Aircraft Post-1840 and undated Non-wreck Post-1840 and undated Non-wreck Post-1840 and undated NRHE Reference Post-1840 and undated Post-1840 and undated Undated Documented losses Post-1840 and undated Insufficient data to distinguish wreck/documented loss NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated NRHE reference Documented losses Post 1840 and undated Non-wreck

Records Post-Filter 0

East Sussex

casper.johnson@eastsussex.gov.uk

1328 records as GIS dataset

0

Essex Exeter City HER Exmoor NPA HER Gloucester City Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire AHBR

heritage.conservation@essexcc.gov.uk andy.pye@exeter.gov.uk her@exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk jonathan.smith@gloucester.gov.uk archaeology.smr@gloucestershire.gov.uk glher@english-heritage.org.uk lesley.mitchell@manchester.ac.uk historic.environment@hants.gov.uk

133 records as GIS dataset No data 11 records as text documents No data 21 records as shapefiles and text document 3 records as shapefile and text document 1 record as shapefile and text document 424 records as shapefiles and text documents

4 7 1 0 0 22

Herefordshire Hertfordshire and St. Albans Humber SMR Isle of Wight SMR Kent

smrenquiries@herefordshire.gov.uk isobel.thompson@hertscc.gov.uk ruth.atkinson@hullcc.gov.uk rosie.edmunds@iow.gov.uk heritageconservation@kent.gov.uk

No data 2 records as text document 6 records as GIS dataset 12 records as GIS dataset 2616 records as GIS dataset

2 0 12 12

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HER Lake District NPA HER Lancashire

Contact E-mail john.hodgson@lakedistrict.gov.uk ken.davies@lancashire.gov.uk

Data Received 4 records as excel table and text documents 68 records as GIS dataset and text documents No data No data 1 record as text document 37 records as excel table and text document No response 1 record as excel table 18 records as GIS dataset and text documents 12 records as shapefile and text documents No response No data 7 records as shapefile and text documents No data 34 records as GIS dataset and text documents No data 6 records as shapefile and text documents Excavation report No data No data 2 records as excel table

Data Filter NRHE reference Post-1840 and undated Documented losses NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated Non-wreck Undated NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated Post 1840 and undated Documented losses Post 1840 and undated Documented losses Undated -

Records Post-Filter 4 9

Leicester City Leicestershire and Rutland Lincoln Heritage Database Lincolnshire

chris.wardle@leicester.gov.uk catherine.dove@leics.gov.uk heritage@lincoln.gov.uk lincssmr@lincolnshire.gov.uk

1 12

Merseyside Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset North Yorks Moors NPA HER North Yorkshire Northamptonshire SMR Northumberland Nottingham UAD Nottinghamshire Oxford UAD Oxfordshire Peterborough City SMR Plymouth

sarahjane.farr@liverpoolmuseums.org.uk nick.crank@milton-keynes.gov.uk hugh.winfield@nelincs.gov.uk alison.williams@northlincs.gov.uk archaeology@n-somerset.gov.uk g.lee@northyorkmoors-npa.gov.uk archaeology@northyorks.gov.uk caddison@northamptonshire.gov.uk archaeology@northumberland.gov.uk gordon.young@nottinghamcity.gov.uk heritage@nottscc.gov.uk dradford@oxford.gov.uk archaeology@oxfordshire.gov.uk rebecca.casa-hatton@peterborough.gov.uk rachel.broomfield@plymouth.gov.uk

1 1 0 0 2 6 0 2

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HER Portsmouth City SMR Sandwell Shropshire Somerset

Contact E-mail localhistory@portsmouthmuseums.co.uk graham_eyremorgan@sandwell.gov.uk historic.environment@shropshire.gov.uk heritage@somerset.gov.uk

Data Received No response No response 10 records as access table 26 records as shapefile and text document 23 records as GIS dataset 2 records as GIS dataset 9 records as shapefiles and text document No data 3 records as shapefiles and text document No data 110 records as shapefiles and text documents 4 records as shapefile and text document 1547 records as GIS dataset No data 544 records as excel table

Data Filter Non-wreck NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated Documented losses Post 1840 and undated NRHE reference NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated Undated Post 1840 and undated NRHE reference Post 1840 and undated Documented losses Insufficient data to determine wreck Non-wreck -

Records Post-Filter 9 4

South Gloucestershire South Yorkshire SMR Southampton Southend Borough SMR Staffordshire Stoke-on-Trent SMR Suffolk Surrey Tees Archaeology SMR Torbay Tyne and Wear

david.evans@southglos.gov.uk syorks.archservice@sheffield.gov.uk her@southampton.gov.uk kencrowe@southend.gov.uk her@staffordshire.gov.uk jon.goodwin@stoke.gov.uk colin.pendleton@suffolk.gov.uk emily.brants@surreycc.gov.uk alex.egginton@surreycc.gov.uk rachel.grahame@hartlepool.gov.uk hal.bishop@torbay.gov.uk jennifer.morrison@newcastle.gov.uk

0 0 2 3 4 3 4 17

Warwickshire West Berkshire

sitesandmonuments@warwickshire.gov.uk archaeology@westberks.gov.uk

No data 2 records as GIS dataset and text document No data 2 records as text document No data 1 record as shapefile and text document

0

West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire and Swindon Winchester

her@westsussex.gov.uk jdodds@wyjs.org.uk archaeology@wiltshire.gov.uk tmatthews@winchester.gov.uk

2 1

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HER Worcester City Worcestershire Yorkshire Dales HER

Contact E-mail archaeology@worcester.gov.uk orussell@worcestershire.gov.uk herinfo@yorkshiredales.org.uk

Data Received No data 5 records as GIS dataset No response

Data Filter Undated -

Records Post-Filter 1 -

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APPENDIX II: EARLY SHIPS AND BOATS PREHISTORY TO 1840
WA ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name Logboat: Branthwaite Boat Logboat: River Kent Logboat: Shildon Lough Logboat: Ryton Logboat: Scotswood Railway Bridge Logboat: West Dunstan Logboat: Hylton Logboat: River Wear Logboat: Tarn Bay Craft Type LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL TRANSPORT VESSEL WARSHIP LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT Min Date -2600 1190 -4000 -800 -800 -4000 -1200 -1200 -4000 Max Date -700 1450 43 43 43 43 43 -300 43 ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC Survival UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN Easting 305600 345680 402430 413880 419620 421400 435500 434300 307700 Northing 524630 502760 566520 565480 563810 563200 557500 556630 489900 Selected NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

10

Unknown Wreck: Walney Island

1366

1750

UNKNOWN

319427

464129

YES

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Logboat: Martin Mere Logboat: Blea Tarn Logboats: Preston Docks Logboat: Giggleswick Tarn Logboat: Stanley Ferry Logboat: Brigg Gasworks Logboat: Appleby

1066 1290 -2600 1295 920 -934 -1180

1540 1310 -700 1375 1060 -734 -1020

REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION)

340270 349300 352600 380730 435610 499740 497670

418970 458500 429100 464590 423050 407370 412330

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

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WA ID 18

Name Logboat: Marton Pool

Craft Type LOGBOAT

Min Date -800

Max Date 43

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC

Survival REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION)

Easting 329300

Northing 302800

Selected NO

19

Logboat: Weir Brook

LOGBOAT

-500000

410

333450

322250

NO

20 21 22

Logboat: Whattall Moss Logboat: Baddiley Mere Logboat: Cholmondeley Castle

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-2600 -800 -800

43 43 43

343480 359710 353500

330790 350390 351500

NO NO NO

23

Logboat: Oakmere

LOGBOAT

43

1540

357320

367680

NO

25

Logboat: Ironbridge

CANOE LOGBOAT

-500000

410

REMOVED (IN CURATION)

367186

303383

NO

26

Logboats: Warrington

LOGBOAT

900

1075

REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) DESTROYED REMOVED (IN CURATION)

360140

386500

NO

27 28

Logboat: Barton Logboat: Hulton Fishponds

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

965 1066

1095 1540

375300 390400

396810 349080

NO NO

29

Logboat: Hull Guild Hall

LOGBOAT

1501

1600

510000

428800

NO

30 31 32

Findspot: Congresbury Moor Findspot: Weston-super-Mere Logboat: Glastonbury Lake Village

CRAFT CRAFT LOGBOAT

260 -800 -200

440 1860 43

335450 332060 349800

165670 161970 141730

NO NO NO

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WA ID 33

Name Logboat: Shapwick

Craft Type LOGBOAT

Min Date -455

Max Date -215

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC

Survival REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION)

Easting 342300

Northing 141070

Selected NO

34

Logboat: Curdridge Creek

LOGBOAT

-500000

410

452080

111810

NO

35 36 37

Logboat: Bourne End Station Logboat: Windsor Logboat: Chapel Flat Dyke

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-800 -800 -1650

410 43 -1350

UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION)

489500 497500 440710

187500 176500 391480

NO NO NO

38

Logboats: River Trent

LOGBOAT

-2600

-700

455200

335980

NO

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

Logboats: Holme Pierrepoint Logboat: Gainsborough Logboat: Ipsley Logboat: Short Ferry Logboats: Stainfield Logboat: North Kyme Logboat: River Nene Logboat: Chatteris

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-340 -4000 -900 -946 -800 -2600 -1200 -2600

-120 43 -700 -746 43 -700 -300 -700

UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

462980 480500 406600 508950 509600 515500 519190 539500

339560 389500 265300 371200 371500 352500 298160 285500

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

47

Logboat: Warboys

LOGBOAT

-10000

-700

531720

282660

NO

56

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 48 49

Name Logboat: North Fen Logboat: Burpham

Craft Type LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

Min Date -2600 -800

Max Date -700 410

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN ROMAN ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC POST-ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN

Survival REMOVED (UNKNOWN) BURIED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN

Easting 544500 503330

Northing 277500 108190

Selected NO NO

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Logboat: Burpham Logboats: River Arun Logboats: Amberley Logboat: Wisley Findspot: Blackfriars Ship I Logboat: Waltham Cross Logboat: River Lea Logboat: Belvedere Station Logboat: Royal Albert Docks Findspot: Eastbourne Findspot: Bexhill Logboat: Tolcarne Logboat: Tuckingmill Logboat: Newnham Park Logboat: Poole Harbour

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CARGO VESSEL LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CRAFT CORACLE LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-800 245 570 1100 140 -4000 860 -4000 43 1101 410 43 -2600 43 -345

410 345 710 1300 160 43 1060 -1600 410 1400 1066 410 -700 410 -245

502850 504580 501870 506320 531670 537370 537980 549500 542700 562680 572870 146100 166500 255500 403300

107800 117000 113300 159880 180810 199990 198450 179200 180630 101030 106780 29200 40500 58500 87800

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

65

Logboat: Skinner Burn

LOGBOAT

-4000

1066

423800

562800

NO

57

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 66

Name

Craft Type FIFTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE FRIGATE (SAIL) WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL YACHT EAST INDIAMAN WARSHIP FIRST RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN SIXTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL WEST INDIAMAN SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP PRIVATEER WARSHIP BRIG SLOOP OF WAR WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL LOGBOAT

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period

Survival PARTIALLY INTACT

Easting

Northing

Selected

HMS Pomone (Alum Bay Wreck)

1805

1811

HANOVERIAN

430230

85320

NO

67

Campen

1627

17/10/1627

STUART

POOR REMOVED (UNKNOWN) DISPERSED PARTIALLY BURIED BROKEN UP

429000

84810

NO

68 69

Findspot: The Needles HMS Royal George

270 1756

290 29/08/1782

ROMAN HANOVERIAN

429130 462590

84290 95730

NO NO

70

Britannia

1806

1809

HANOVERIAN

646746

152625

YES

71

HMS Crocodile

1781

09/05/1784

HANOVERIAN

277143

34912

YES

72

Dragon

1757

22/08/1757

HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN

268713

38079

YES

73

HMS Ramillies

1664

15/02/1760

STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC

BROKEN UP

267095

39170

YES

74 75 76 77

Kingswear Castle Cannon Site HMS Weazle Portland Stone Sailing Barge Logboat: River Severn

1660 1783 1733 -4000

1680 10/02/1799 1766 410

BROKEN UP UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

289046 241342 373049 374500

50299 141198 75302 287500

NO YES NO NO

78

Logboat: Yarm

LOGBOAT

-500000

43

441700

513100

NO

58

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 79

Name

Craft Type

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC HANOVERIAN

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

Logboat: Middlesborough

LOGBOAT BARQUE CARGO VESSEL CRAFT SHIP OF THE LINE THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN CARGO VESSEL TRANSPORT VESSEL SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP FOURTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP FIRESHIP WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN PASSENGER VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN PASSENGER VESSEL

-500000

43

UNKNOWN

449500

520500

NO

80

Juno

1782

10/01/1797

UNKNOWN

95800

15870

YES

81

Designated Wreck: HMS Colossus

1787

10/12/1798

HANOVERIAN

POOR

87778

11442

NO

82 83 84

Prinses Maria Unknown Wreck: Gilstone Rock HMS Association

1682 1689 1696

1686 10/11/1689 23/10/1707

STUART STUART STUART

PARTIALLY INTACT UNKNOWN BROKEN UP

83790 92070 83440

6160 9090 4580

YES YES YES

85 86 87 88 89 90

HMS Romney HMS Firebrand Hollandia Logboat: River Frome Logboat: Mattersey Thorpe Grantham

1694 1694 1742 -4000 380 1727

22/10/1707 23/10/1707 13/07/1743 43 540 1744

STUART STUART HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP PARTIALLY INTACT UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN

80926 87250 84780 392500 468440 623960

6177 7850 8200 86500 390010 135986

YES NO YES NO NO YES

91

Halsewell

1786

06/01/1786

HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP

397940

76210

NO

92

Earl of Abergavenny

1789

05/02/1805

HANOVERIAN

PARTIALLY BURIED

371135

78156

NO

59

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Name Fanny Britannia Gunrocks Wreck Designated Wreck: London (King) Designated Wreck: London Logboat: Owthorne Logboat: Owthorne Eagle

Craft Type COASTER SLOOP CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CRAFT WARSHIP SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP LOGBOAT ADVICE BOAT SIXTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP FIRST RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP BRIGANTINE CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL GALLEON STORAGE HULK BRIG GUN BRIG SLOOP SLOOP OF WAR WARSHIP FIFTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE FRIGATE (SAIL) THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP WARSHIP BARGE CARGO VESSEL

Min Date 1793 1806 1650 1636 1656 -4000 1715 1696

Max Date 01/02/1793 1809 1715 1799 07/03/1665 43 1735 27/11/1703

ESB Period HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN STUART STUART HANOVERIAN STUART LATE PREHISTORIC HANOVERIAN STUART

Survival POOR UNKNOWN POOR PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP UNKNOWN UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT

Easting 404639 643448 423450 589857 590282 534200 534500 481943

Northing 79063 147578 637598 180957 180988 428200 428500 94547

Selected YES YES NO NO NO NO NO YES

101 103 104 105

Royal James Ospra Santo Christo de Castello Unknown Wreck: British Storage Hulk

1671 1832 1588 1806

28/05/1672 06/05/1832 1588 07/03/1806

STUART HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN BROKEN UP UNKNOWN UNKNOWN

652247 168124 166379 136883

277268 13029 17893 20135

YES YES NO YES

107

HMS Primrose

1807

22/01/1809

HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP

181726

20808

YES

108

HMS Anson

1781

29/12/1807

HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP

164169

23781

YES

109 110

Unknown Wreck: Crim Rocks Findspot: Blackfriars Ship III

1600 1485

1700 1600

STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR

BROKEN UP UNKNOWN

80200 532000

9510 180800

NO NO

60

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 111

Name Santo Christo de Castello

Craft Type CARGO VESSEL CARRACK

Min Date 1667

Max Date 03/10/1667

ESB Period STUART EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR HANOVERIAN

Survival POOR

Easting 166730

Northing 18660

Selected NO

112

Logboat: Hooe Level

LOGBOAT

-500000

410

UNKNOWN

569500

109500

NO

113 114 115 116 117 118 119

Diana Findspot: Blackfriars Ship IV Lamb Jenny Designated Wreck: Yarmouth Roads Designated Wreck: Studland Bay Designated Wreck: Rill Cove

BRIG CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL PACKET PASSENGER VESSEL CARGO VESSEL SCHOONER CARGO VESSEL CARRACK ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL

1803 1066 1736 1797 1550 1500 1600

26/05/1803 1600 21/02/1736 1797 1632 1525 1632

BROKEN UP UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP

539060 532000 297680 213060 435775 406140 167669

101230 180800 146783 145770 90079 84680 13447

YES NO YES NO NO NO NO

120

Designated Wreck: Brighton Marina Designated Wreck: HMS Assurance (The Needles) Designated Wreck: HMS Pomone (The Needles)

CRAFT FIFTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP FIFTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE FRIGATE (SAIL) WARSHIP FOURTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE PRIZE VESSEL WARSHIP

1500

31/12/1599

PARTIALLY INTACT

533280

102945

NO

121

1747

24/04/1753

BROKEN UP

428917

84810

NO

122

1805

14/10/1811

HANOVERIAN

PARTIALLY INTACT

428917

84810

NO

123

Designated Wreck: Hazardous

1698

19/11/1706

STUART

BROKEN UP

480560

95360

NO

61

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID

Name

Craft Type ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN FLUIT TRANSPORT VESSEL THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CARRACK WARSHIP CRAFT ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP CARGO VESSEL FRIGATE (SAIL) THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP CARRACK WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

124

Designated Wreck: Schiedam

1683

1684

STUART

BROKEN UP

165640

20620

NO

125

Designated Wreck: HMS Invincible

1744

19/02/1758

HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN HANOVERIAN

PARTIALLY INTACT

467930

93770

NO

126

Designated Wreck: Gull Rock

1400

1599

UNKNOWN

214351

146301

NO

127

Designated Wreck: Erme Ingot

-2600

1000

UNKNOWN

260660

46630

NO

128

Designated Wreck: Amsterdam

1748

1749

PARTIALLY BURIED BROKEN UP PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP BROKEN UP

577915

108159

NO

129

Designated Wreck: Stirling Castle Designated Wreck: Restoration and Mary Designated Wreck: Northumberland Designated Wreck: Langdon Bay

1679

27/11/1703

STUART

644689

158640

NO

130

1678

27/11/1703

STUART

644190

157138

NO

131 132

1679 -1600

27/11/1703 -1200

STUART LATE PREHISTORIC STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN

644192 634138

156860 141759

NO NO

133

Designated Wreck: Anne

1678

05/07/1690

BROKEN UP PARTIALLY BURIED BURIED

589770

113620

NO

134 135

Designated Wreck: Grace Dieu Designated Wreck: Admiral Gardner

1418 1797

07/01/1439 24/01/1809

450129 645130

110565 150440

NO NO

62

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 136

Name Designated Wreck: Tearing Ledge

Craft Type THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL GALLEY ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CARRACK FIFTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE GALLEY WARSHIP SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP

Min Date 1707

Max Date 22/10/1707

ESB Period STUART MID TO LATE TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR

Survival PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY INTACT UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT

Easting 80926

Northing 6176

Selected NO

137 138 139

Designated Wreck: Church Rocks Designated Wreck: Cattewater Wreck Designated Wreck: Bartholomew Ledges Designated Wreck: St.Anthony

1567 1530 1533

1599 31/12/1539 1624

294720 248725 89113

73220 53519 9535

NO NO NO

140

1527

19/01/1527

164900

22640

NO

141

Designated Wreck: Royal Anne

1709

10/11/1721

HANOVERIAN

POOR

169390

11397

NO

142

Designated Wreck: Coronation Offshore Designated Wreck: Coronation Inshore

1685

03/09/1691

STUART

PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP

243390

47889

NO

143

1685

03/09/1691

STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

243900

48600

NO

144

Designated Wreck: Erme Estuary

CRAFT

1490

31/12/1750

PARTIALLY INTACT

260930

47099

NO

145

The Nancy Packet

146

Designated Wreck: Hanover

147

Designated Wreck: Dunwich Bank

ARMED CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN PACKET PASSENGER VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL BRIGANTINE PACKET ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL WARSHIP

1783

15/02/1810

BROKEN UP

83460

5730

YES

1757

06/12/1763

HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART

UNKNOWN

173700

53201

NO

1536

1699

BROKEN UP

648439

267908

NO

63

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID

Name

Craft Type CARGO VESSEL CORSAIR PRIVATEER SLAVE SHIP XEBEC WARSHIP CARGO VESSEL SNOW CARGO VESSEL CRAFT LOGBOAT BRIGANTINE CARGO VESSEL BRIG CARGO VESSEL COLLIER SCHOONER SHIP OF THE LINE THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP CRAFT ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL COASTER FRIGATE (SAIL) PRIVATEER

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

148

Designated Wreck: Salcombe Cannon

1636

31/12/1640

STUART

PARTIALLY INTACT REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN BURIED REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT FLATTENED PARTIALLY INTACT

275531

36147

NO

149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156

Designated Wreck: Mary Rose Ocean Hope Findspot: The Dover Boat Logboat: Ramsgate Catharina von Flensburg Fanny Designated Wreck: Seaton Carew

1509 1829 1749 -1400 970 1782 1780 1700

19/07/1545 04/01/1829 16/01/1749 -1300 1160 10/12/1786 1780 31/12/1799

MID TO LATE TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN

463360 181640 358140 632010 634720 246520 404500 452990

95830 20160 78970 141280 157630 52420 79660 529570

NO YES YES NO NO YES YES NO

157

Designated Wreck: HMS Colossus Findspot: North West Wetlands Survey Designated Wreck: South Edinburgh Channel Unknown Wreck: Roman Tiles Designated Wreck: Filey Bay

1798

10/12/1798

HANOVERIAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN ROMAN HANOVERIAN

PARTIALLY INTACT

88433

11815

NO

158

903

31/12/1207

UNKNOWN

377260

320130

NO

159 160 161

1733 43 1779

1832 410 1779

BURIED UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT

625257 527680 515819

186158 103660 478800

NO YES NO

64

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 162

Name

Craft Type BARQUENTINE BRIG SCHOONER SNOW LOGBOAT ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN PASSENGER VESSEL ESCORT VESSEL SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP FOURTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE FRIGATE (SAIL) WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL CRAFT BARGE CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

Pearle

1717

26/01/1741

HANOVERIAN ROMAN POST-ROMAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART STUART STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) POOR PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP

423730

638370

YES

163 164 165 166 167

Logboat: Langstone Harbour Low Lee Ledges Designated Wreck: Swash Channel Designated Wreck: West Bay Dollar Wreck

400 1600 1630 1627 1770

600 31/12/1632 1699 31/12/1750 31/12/1779

470188 148002 405193 345034 165690

104076 27243 85098 89734 20340

NO NO NO NO YES

168

Designated Wreck: Rooswijk

1737

30/12/1739

HANOVERIAN

649360

158897

NO

169

HMS Impregnable

1786

19/10/1799

HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN

473435

96651

NO

170

Brielle

1786

22/12/1791

HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN

178496

16211

YES

171 172 173 174 175 176

Minerva Unknown Wreck: Santaspery Neck Designated Wreck: New Guy's House Le Kateryn van Arnude Unknown Wreck: Mewstone HMS Venerable

1816 1790 167 1300 1733 1784

01/09/1816 1810 200 1499 31/12/1799 24/11/1804

HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP UNKNOWN PARTIALLY BURIED BURIED UNKNOWN BROKEN UP

455128 83479 532810 158070 249796 289927

66847 5901 179924 27580 46988 59873

YES YES NO YES NO YES

65

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 177

Name HMS Savage

Craft Type SLOOP SLOOP OF WAR WARSHIP

Min Date 1762

Max Date 28/02/1762

ESB Period HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART STUART ROMAN ROMAN HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN

Survival UNKNOWN

Easting 289765

Northing 60124

Selected YES

178

Seaford Guns Site

ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL

1500

1809

UNKNOWN

546945

99158

YES

179 180 181 182 183 184 185

Unknown Wreck: Goodwin Sands Unknown Wreck: Goodwin Sands Bellona Unknown Wreck: Gimble Point Pendrathen Wreck Quadrant Wreck Unknown Wreck: Knock Deep

CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL BRIG PRIVATEER CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN WARSHIP BARGE CARGO VESSEL HULK CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL PADDLE STEAMER PASSENGER VESSEL PRIVATEER CARGO VESSEL

1700 1700 1779 1300 1700 1704 1800

31/12/1799 1799 05/09/1779 1540 31/12/1766 1733 31/12/1833

UNKNOWN BROKEN UP BROKEN UP UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT POOR REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) DESTROYED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN BROKEN UP UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION)

644595 644617 295940 88000 91245 169200 649280

158682 158423 74090 16000 13166 11550 195210

NO NO YES NO NO YES YES

187 188 189 190 191 192 193

Royal James Findspot: Blackfriars II Findspot: County Hall Pudding Pan Wreck Forfarshire Scarborough Findspot: Carrick Roads

1600 1650 296 167 1838 1650 1720

31/12/1699 1674 300 200 07/09/1838 1696 31/12/1799

656666 532048 530670 617220 423910 193040 182840

274550 180802 179780 174430 638260 36680 35050

NO NO NO NO YES NO NO

66

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 194 195 198 199 200 201 202

Name Unknown Wreck: Farndon Logboat: Astbury Logboat: Warrington Logboat 5 Logboat: Warrington Logboat 4 Logboat: Warrington Logboat 8 Logboats: Warrington Logboats 9 and 10 Logboat: Warrington Logboat 3

Craft Type CRAFT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

Min Date 1640 410 410 410 410 410 410

Max Date 1699 1065 1065 1065 1065 1065 1065

ESB Period MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART

Survival UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN

Easting 341220 384890 360700 361170 363620 361100 361030

Northing 353790 360540 386390 387720 388180 387700 387730

Selected NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

203 204 205 206

Logboat: Warrington Logboat 7 Logboat: Warrington logboat Logboat: Warrington Logboat 1 Logboat: Warrington Logboat 2

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

410 410 410 410

1065 1065 1065 1065

359850 362000 360140 360660

386570 388000 386500 386400

NO NO NO NO

207

Logboat: Warrington Logboat 6

LOGBOAT

410

1065

363100

387550

NO

208 209 212 214

Logboat: Warrington Logboat 11 Findspot: West Mersea Findspot: River Crouch Findspot: Fishbourne Beach ('Bulls Bay')

LOGBOAT CRAFT Essex Skiff CRAFT CRAFT

410 1750 -2000 1600

1090 1890 -701 1650

UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION)

358300 601500 592445 455750

387100 212500 195915 93060

NO NO NO NO

67

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 215

Name

Craft Type SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

HMS Boyne

1790

04/05/1795

HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR UNKNOWN UNKNOWN LATE PREHISTORIC UNKNOWN

DISPERSED REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

462300

95760

YES

217

Princes Channel Wreck

1574

1600

616333

181463

NO

218

Logboat: Seasalter

LOGBOAT

-500000

42

608000

165000

NO

219

Logboat: St.Mildred's Bay

LOGBOAT

-4000

-1501

BURIED

632700

170400

YES

220 221 222 224 225

Unknown Wrecks: Nayland Rock Charles V Old ships sunk with design to make new docks at Sheerness Unknown Wreck: Old Smack Hindostan

CRAFT Guardship HULK SMACK ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN

1066 1667 1725 1770 1796

1900 10/06/1667 1725 1770 1803

UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN DESTROYED

634500 576100 590866 609128 626200

170900 170300 175216 165798 176800

NO NO NO NO NO

229

Logboat: River Tern

LOGBOAT

-4000

1400

REMOVED (IN CURATION)

369845

336805

NO

230 231 233 235

Logboat: Marton Pool Logboat: Shomere Pool Logboat: Chetwynd Park Logboat: Bagley Moor

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-500000 -500000 -2600 -500000

1840 1840 -700 1840

REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

329555 350635 373885 340000

302975 307855 321645 327500

NO NO NO NO

68

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID

Name

Craft Type

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN LATE PREHISTORIC MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN ROMAN EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

238

Logboat: Murston Marshes

LOGBOAT

-500000

42

DESTROYED

592400

165900

NO

242

Logboat: Ehenside Tarn

LOGBOAT

-4000

-55

REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

300270

507050

NO

243

Logboat: Whinfell Tarn

LOGBOAT

1540

1900

355930

497900

NO

245 246 247 249 250

Designated Wreck: Moor Sand Findspot: Kingsteignton de Boot Logboat: Bovey Heathfield Logboat: Thurlestone Sands

CRAFT CANOE GALLEY EAST INDIAMAN LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-2500 1066 1733 43 -500000

-800 1539 08/11/1738 410 -55

275950 286370 277000 282500 267400

36150 72660 35000 76500 41700

NO NO YES NO NO

251

Logboat: Bovey Tracey

LOGBOAT

-500000

42

REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN PARTIALLY BURIED PARTIALLY BURIED

283200

76100

NO

252 253 254

Iona Unknown Wreck: Westward Ho! Unknown Wreck: Northam

CRAFT EAST INDIAMAN TROW

1300 1770 1750

1499 1770 1750

212000 243200 243200

145000 129700 129700

NO YES YES

255

Unknown Wreck: AxmouthSeaton Ferry

CRAFT

1540

1900

PARTIALLY INTACT

325300

89900

YES

256

Axe Boat

CRAFT

1400

1640

PARTIALLY INTACT

325270

90020

YES

69

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 257 259 260 261 262 263 264

Name Unknown Wreck: Lydney Docks Unknown Wreck: Hayling Island Holigost Henry Addington Unknown Wreck: Southampton Gresham Wreck Purbeck Marble Wreck

Craft Type TROW CRAFT HULK WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN GALLEY CRAFT CRAFT

Min Date 1700 43 1066 1796 43 1574 1066

Max Date 1800 409 1539 1798 409 1578 1639

ESB Period STUART HANOVERIAN ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN ROMAN MID TO LATE TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC UNKNOWN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC

Survival UNKNOWN UNKNOWN BURIED UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) BROKEN UP REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN

Easting 365180 472288 450130 466266 442564 463485 445590

Northing 201480 97646 110510 87578 109255 104425 98230

Selected YES YES NO YES NO NO NO

266

Logboat: Bossington

LOGBOAT CANOE LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CRAFT CANOE LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-10000

42

434500

130500

NO

267 270 271 274

Logboat: Thornby Canoe 1 Boat Burial: Old Parkbury Findspot: Saltcoats Boat Logboat: Shap Boat

-2400 -4500 -500000 1066

-700 -2501 1840 1539

444860 515900 307800 355700

516340 202300 496900 508000

NO NO NO NO

275

Logboat: Staining

-10000

42

335000

435000

NO

276

Logboat: Wennington Hall

LOGBOAT

-10000

42

REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN

361415

470639

NO

277 278 279 280

Logboat: Mere Sands Wood Logboat: Waring Ditch Logboat: Marsh Lane Quay Logboat: Penwortham New Bridge

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

-4000 -4000 -4000 -4000

42 42 42 42

343960 341000 352500 352500

415360 416000 429200 429000

NO NO NO NO

70

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 281 283 284 285 286 287 288 290 291 292 293 294 295

Name Logboat: Wellhouse Farm Findspot: Brayford Wharf East Logboat: Branston Fen Logboat: Nocton Delph (1) Logboat: Nocton Delph (2) Logboats: Scotter Logboat: Bardney Lock Logboat: Short Ferry Bridge Logboat: Branston Island Logboat: River Witham Logboat: Stixwould Logboat: Kirkstead Logboat: East Ferry

Craft Type LOGBOAT CRAFT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CANOE LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

Min Date -4000 1150 -2200 -2200 -2200 -2200 -2200 -2200 -2200 -2200 1066 1066 -2200

Max Date 42 1250 -801 -801 -801 -801 -801 -801 -801 -801 1539 1539 -801

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC UNKNOWN HANOVERIAN

Survival REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN DESTROYED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN)

Easting 338700 497347 507700 509900 509900 488870 510370 509750 510300 501100 515900 519550 482500

Northing 445780 371060 369700 364800 364800 400900 370040 371570 370900 370800 364800 362550 400800

Selected NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

296

Findspot: Caldecotte Boat

CRAFT

1400

1699

UNKNOWN

488940

234820

NO

297 303 307 308

Boat Burial: Grimsby Findspot: Attenborough Gravel Pit Logboat: Meare Unknown Wreck: River Itchen

LOGBOAT CRAFT LOGBOAT BARGE COLLIER HULK

-4000 -2300 -500000 1800

-2351 -701 1840 1850

REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN PARTIALLY INTACT

527270 452500 345200 443350

409940 334500 141700 112950

NO NO NO YES

71

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 309 312 314 315 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324

Name Unknown Wreck: Woolston Riverside Logboat: Bond End Findspot: Herd Sand Unknown Wreck: Herd Sand Logboat: Lobbmill Boat Burials: Sutton Hoo Findspot: Steering Board Findspot: Ashby Dell Boat Burials: Burrow Hill Findspot: Riverhead George and Mary Albion

Craft Type BARGE HULK KETCH LOGBOAT PASSENGER VESSEL TRANSPORT VESSEL CRAFT CANOE LOGBOAT CRAFT CRAFT CRAFT CRAFT LAUNCH BRIG ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN FIRST RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP BRIG CARGO VESSEL PACKET CARGO VESSEL CRAFT PASSENGER VESSEL TRANSPORT VESSEL TROOP SHIP SCHOONER YACHT

Min Date 1800 -500000 -54 1700 -4000 601 900 410 650 1066 1823 1762

Max Date 1850 1840 409 1800 409 700 1199 1065 849 1539 04/02/1823 1765

ESB Period HANOVERIAN UNKNOWN ROMAN HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

Survival BURIED DESTROYED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) DESTROYED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN DISPERSED

Easting 443431 424000 436700 436900 395410 628850 651835 648068 639050 526990 424174 647300

Northing 110749 323000 568200 568100 424580 248750 279295 298915 248550 409520 637840 211830

Selected YES NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES

325 327 328 329 330 331 332

Prince Royal Findspot: Forester Bremen Packet Prosperity Aurora Dispatch Dream

1610 1832 1808 1808 1808 1809 1837

13/06/1666 13/02/1833 28/03/1808 23/03/1808 28/03/1808 22/01/1809 1850

STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN BROKEN UP

668260 95497 543731 542046 541947 177290 428920

229621 13568 412492 411824 411803 16020 84810

YES NO YES YES YES YES NO

72

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 333 334 335 336 337

Name Queen Designated Wreck: Norman's Bay Padstow Designated Wreck: Loe Bar Innisidgen

Craft Type PASSENGER VESSEL TRANSPORT VESSEL TROOP SHIP WARSHIP BRIG CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN CRAFT SIXTH RATE SHIP OF THE LINE SLOOP SLOOP OF WAR WARSHIP CARGO VESSEL LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CRAFT

Min Date 1814 1667 1804 1600 1600

Max Date 14/01/1814 1703 24/12/1804 1684 1810

ESB Period HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN STUART STUART

Survival PARTIALLY INTACT PARTIALLY BURIED PARTIALLY INTACT POOR POOR

Easting 182232 569842 89708 164599 92022

Northing 33732 103209 9209 23350 13263

Selected YES NO YES NO NO

338

HMS Nautilus

1784

1799

HANOVERIAN

UNKNOWN

515886

475707

YES

339 340 341 342

Spittals Wreck Logboat: Aston-upon-Trent Logboat: Shardlow Quarry Findspot: Attenborough Quarry

1780 -1600 -2350 1320

1850 -1001 -701 1340

HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN

PARTIALLY INTACT REMOVED (IN CURATION) BURIED REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN

513608 443079 442400 450980

481113 329205 328600 331950

NO NO NO NO

343

The Woolwich Ship

CRAFT

1450

1602

543450

179250

YES

344

Unknown Wreck: GAD 58

CRAFT

1600

1850

BROKEN UP

649366

159406

YES

345

Unknown Wreck: GAD 108

CARGO VESSEL CRAFT

1400

1800

PARTIALLY INTACT

636372

160557

YES

73

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID

Name

Craft Type

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period POST-ROMAN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

346

Unknown Wreck: Meols ‘Viking’ Ship

TRANSPORT VESSEL

900

1600

BURIED

323000

390000

YES

347 348

Logboats: Must Farm Logboat: Fiskerton

LOGBOAT LOGBOAT

1300 -800

400 42

UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) BURIED REMOVED (IN CURATION) EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT

523600 505500

296800 371600

NO NO

349

Findspot: Jaywick

CRAFT

-10000

-4001

614800

212800

NO

350 351 352 353 354 355 356 358 359 360 361 363 364 365

Findspot: Jaywick Logboat: Clapton Logboat: Covehithe Unknown Wreck: North Gare Findspot: HMS Namur Historic Vessel: Light vessel 16 Inner Dowsing Historic Vessel: HMS Trincomalee Historic Vessel: HMS Victory Historic Vessel: Prince Frederick’s Barge Historic Vessel: Zetland Historic Vessel: Tyne Historic Vessel: Laplander Historic Vessel: Katie Historic Vessel: Boadicea CK 213

CRAFT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CRAFT SECOND RATE SHIP OF THE LINE CRAFT LIGHTSHIP FRIGATE (SAIL) WARSHIP FIRST RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP BARGE PASSENGER VESSEL LIFEBOAT LIFEBOAT Iceboat SMACK FISHING VESSEL SMACK

-4000 950 775 1700 1756 1840 1816 1765 1732 1802 1833 1830 1830 1808

-2351 1050 892 1900 1833 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012

615300 534950 653000 454013 576170 572859 451153 462932 538716 460760 437075 442611 601032

212900 187500 281000 527581 169500 167064 533079 100550 177690 525147 567539 264699 213004

NO NO NO YES NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

74

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 375 376

Name Historic Vessel: Royal Oak Historic Vessel: Oxford Boat Historic Vessel: Queen Mary’s Shallop Historic Vessel: Mary Rose Historic Vessel: William and Emily Historic Vessel: Bonnet Historic Vessel: Charles II’s State Barge Historic Vessel: Dove Historic Vessel: Grace Darling Heroine Historic Vessel: Lord St.Levan's Old Ceremonial Barge Historic Vessel: Margaret Historic Vessel: Maria Unknown Wreck: Antler Wreck Historic Vessel: West Greenland Kayak Historic Vessel: Eastern Canada kayak Historic Vessel: West Greenland Kayak Historic Vessel: Newquay Historic Vessel: Slippen Historic Vessel: Treffry

Craft Type GIG LEISURE CRAFT LEISURE CRAFT RACING CRAFT BARGE PASSENGER VESSEL SHALLOP CARRACK WARSHIP FISHING VESSEL SMACK GIG PILOT VESSEL BARGE SHALLOP GIG COBLE ARMED CARGO VESSEL BARQUE CARGO VESSEL EMIGRANT SHIP BARGE YACHT LEISURE CRAFT RACING CRAFT YACHT CARGO VESSEL CANOE CANOE CANOE GIG GIG GIG PILOT VESSEL

Min Date 1812 1812 1689 1511 1830 1830 1685 1820 1830 1838

Max Date 2012 1012 2012 19/07/1545 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 27/12/1852

ESB Period HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN STUART MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

Survival EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT PARTIALLY INTACT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT POOR EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT EXTANT

Easting 476703 476703 538716 462932 605148 91003 462932 180816 417609 334120

Northing 182064 182064 177690 100550 214167 10989 100550 61848 634825 91450

Selected NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES

377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 386 387

1740 1760 1827 1700 1800 1830 1833 1812 1830 1838

2012 2012 2012 1800 1900 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012

HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

151633 340369 637248 405396 509677 509677 509677 151633 91003 151633

30816 497798 324721 86123 428790 428790 428790 30816 10989 30816

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

75

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 388 389 390 391

Name Thomas Lawrence Black Prince Robert Seymour HMS Cornwall

Craft Type BRIG CARGO VESSEL SCHOONER BRIG CARGO VESSEL SCHOONER Guardship THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE TRAINING SHIP CARGO VESSEL SLOOP CARGO VESSEL SCHOONER CARGO VESSEL KETCH BARGE LIGHTER PACKET PADDLE STEAMER CARGO VESSEL SLAVE SHIP SNOW BARQUE CARGO VESSEL EMIGRANT SHIP PASSENGER VESSEL ADMIRALTY VESSEL HULK REFORMATORY SHIP TRAINING SHIP WARSHIP SCHOONER CRAFT CRAFT CRAFT

Min Date 1838 1838 1839 1815

Max Date 1862 1890 15/05/1881 14874

ESB Period HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

Survival BURIED BROKEN UP UNKNOWN REMOVED (UNKNOWN) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN UNKNOWN BROKEN UP BROKEN UP

Easting 583417 501740 320250 549180

Northing 94747 516522 391800 181250

Selected NO YES YES NO

393 394 396 398 399 400

Fanny Triton James and Sarah Devon Thames Douro

1834 1822 1830 1833 1827 1839

15/10/1877 25/09/1851 15/09/1880 23/10/1868 04/01/1841 28/01/1843

HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

511560 531230 324440 133969 83710 82660

428610 413350 153490 30985 6140 7380

NO NO YES YES YES YES

401

John

1810

03/05/1855

HANOVERIAN

BROKEN UP

181160

20180

YES

402

HMS Clarence

1833

26/07/1899

HANOVERIAN

DISPERSED

334488

386323

NO

403 405 406 407

Robert Findspot: Ferriby Findspot: Kilnsea Findspot: Brigg Raft

1840 -1200 -1870 -2600

29/07/1888 -700 -1670 -700

HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC

POOR REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION)

170792 499130 541750 499290

11522 425240 416650 407610

NO NO NO NO

76

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421

Name Logboat: Hasholme Logboat: Whittlesey Logboats: River Nene Boat Burial: Lockwood Reservoir Findspot: Maytham Wharf Boat Burial: Snape Findspot: Graveney Findspot: Hastens Camp Logboat: River Ant Unknown Wreck: Western Rocks HMS Lenox Designated Wreck: GAD 8 Unknown Wreck: GAD 9 Unknown Wreck: GAD 10

Craft Type CARGO VESSEL LOGBOAT LOGBOAT LOGBOAT CRAFT BARGE COG CRAFT CARGO VESSEL CRAFT LOGBOAT FIRESHIP WARSHIP THIRD RATE SHIP OF THE LINE WARSHIP ARMED CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL ARMED CARGO VESSEL

Min Date -277 -4000 -500000 867 1500 550 895 893 410 1694 1678 1650 1600 1700

Max Date 43 -700 1840 899 1623 650 895 893 1065 22/10/1707 01/04/1756 1750 1900 1900

ESB Period LATE PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC UNKNOWN POST-ROMAN MID TO LATE TUDOR POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN POST-ROMAN STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN

Survival REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) BURIED REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (IN CURATION) REMOVED (UNKNOWN) REMOVED (IN CURATION) UNKNOWN UNKNOWN PARTIALLY BURIED PARTIALLY BURIED PARTIALLY INTACT BROKEN UP

Easting 482200 526000 522200 535500 586510 640300 606600 577700 635300 82840 589940 639791 649019 636919

Northing 432600 297000 296200 190660 127580 259200 163900 185900 324400 8940 175010 153779 159378 157690

Selected NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO YES YES

422

Unknown Wreck: GAD 12

ARMED CARGO VESSEL

1540

1900

649331

159318

YES

423

Unknown Wreck: GAD 13

ARMED CARGO VESSEL

1540

1900

UNKNOWN

649258

159274

YES

424

Unknown Wreck: GAD 14

ARMED CARGO VESSEL

1540

1900

BROKEN UP

649153

161004

YES

77

Early Ships and Boats (Prehistory to 1840) EH 6440 Strategic Desk-based Assessment ref. 84130.01

WA ID 425

Name

Craft Type

Min Date

Max Date

ESB Period MEDIEVAL AND EARLY TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR MID TO LATE TUDOR STUART HANOVERIAN HANOVERIAN

Survival

Easting

Northing

Selected

Unknown Wreck: GAD 16

ARMED CARGO VESSEL

1500

1600

UNKNOWN

649160

159732

YES

426

Findspot: Bronze Age Way

CRAFT BARGE HULK THAMES SAILING BARGE BARGE HULK Mersey Flat LOGBOAT CANOE LOGBOAT

1540

1900

REMOVED (UNKNOWN) MAINLY INTACT MAINLY INTACT UNKNOWN

550400

179000

NO

427

Unknown Wreck: Bexley, The Saltings Daresbury Logboats: Wisbech

1800

1900

552940

178010

YES

428 429

1772 -500000

1957 42

HANOVERIAN EARLY PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC EARLY PREHISTORIC LATE PREHISTORIC POST-ROMAN STUART HANOVERIAN LATE PREHISTORIC

354180 545000

378440 309000

YES NO

430

Logboat: Waterbeach

-500000

42

UNKNOWN

549200

265200

NO

431

Logboat: West Molesey

LOGBOAT

-500000

42

REMOVED (IN CURATION)

513000

169000

NO

432

Logboat: East Molesey

LOGBOAT

-500000

42

UNKNOWN REMOVED (IN CURATION) BROKEN UP EXTANT REMOVED (IN CURATION)

515400

168400

NO

433 434 435 436

Logboat: Walton Royal Oak Historic Vessel: The Green Boat Findspot: Testwood Lakes

LOGBOAT CARGO VESSEL EAST INDIAMAN LEISURE CRAFT CRAFT

405 1663 1775 -1500

530 15/02/1665 2012 -1500

509900 83900 334055 434490

167100 5300 389838 116230

NO YES NO NO

78

WESSEX ARCHAEOLOGY LIMITED. Registered Head Office : Portway House, Old Sarum Park, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 6EB. Tel: 01722 326867 Fax: 01722 337562 info@wessexarch.co.uk Regional offices in Edinburgh , Rochester and Sheffield For more information visit www.wessexarch.co.uk
Wessex Archaeology Ltd is a company with limited liability registered in England, No. 1712772 and VAT No. 631943833. It is also a Registered Charity in England and Wales, No. 287786; and in Scotland, Scottish Charity No. SC042630.

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