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Use and Form: These structures can be used to compare two things. They are alternatives to the comparative form (-er / more ...). 1) Some phrases can be used to show that two things are identical. My pen is the same as yours. His house is the same size as ours. This phrase can be used with quantifiers: such as just, exactly, almost, and nearly. Your bag is exactly the same as mine! 2) Some phrases can be used to show that two things are the same or nearly the same. My bag was as expensive as yours. the same (noun) as
as (adjective / adverb) as He runs as quickly as me.
This structure is often used in literature to make similes. She’s as quiet as a mouse today. You’re as pretty as a picture! You can use quantifiers such as: just, almost, nearly with these phrases. He runs almost as fast as me. Your bag was nearly as expensive as mine. 3) Other phrases focus on differences. His results are a bit different from ours. Your jacket isn’t as new as mine. He doesn’t work as hard as I do. different from
This phrase can be used with quantifiers, such as slightly, a bit and a little. not as (adjective) as (negative verb) as (adverb) as
This structure be used with the quantifiers quite, half and nearly. My job isn’t half as interesting as yours. He doesn’t play the piano nearly as well as his sister. 4) When comparing adverbs and adjectives, we sometimes re-write the auxiliary verb at the end of the sentences. If there is not auxiliary, you can write do, does or did. Julia is just as sociable as Maria is. You can’t run as fast as I can! I didn’t sleep as well as I did on Sunday night. Common Mistakes: Some students try to use the –er / more comparative form to make negative comparisons. However, not as … as is more common. I’m not taller than you. => I’m not as tall as you.
BOTH AND NEITHER
1) Both Both means two of two things. I have two cats. I like both of them. 2) Neither Neither means not one or the other of two things. Neither of my cats is grey. Remember to use a singular verb after neither. Neither of the dogs are dangerous. => Neither of the dogs is dangerous. 3) Either Either means one or the other. There are two cakes. Please have one. You can have either one.
1) You can use both, neither and either directly before a noun. Both supermarkets are good. Neither supermarket sells electrical goods. We can go to either supermarket, I don’t mind. 2) Both, neither and either are often used with ‘of’. But you must always use a determiner(the, my, these, those, his etc) before the noun. Both of children like chocolate cake. => Both of the children like chocolate cake. However, you don’t have to use of with both. Both of the children like chocolate cake. Both children like chocolate cake. 3) You can use both, neither and either+ of + object pronoun(you, them, us). Both of them wore white dresses. Neither of us was late. Have either of you got a pen? 4) You can use both ... and ...; neither ... nor ..., and either ... or .... Examples: Both James and Diana work here. Neither James nor Diana works here. You can ask either James or Diana.
Don’t contract modal verbs when there is no infinitive verb present. (But the truth is. and so I need a car.. The second conditional structure is also used to talk about imaginary abilities and the consequences. However.. I would! could + verb (infinitive) .Use: The second conditional structure is used to talk about imaginary situations and the consequences. Example: If I could help you. I do not have a car. he wouldn’t break everything. use could. would / wouldn’t ‘d could / couldn’t verb (infinitive form) 2) The verb to be can use were for all subjects... Example: If I could fly. If he were more careful. (But the truth is.. I’d buy a bicycle. This is particularly true in the sentence: If I 4) Notice that the infinitive verb after the modal verbs is not necessary if the meaning is clear.. I could visit my friend.. . => If he was more careful. I wouldn’t need a car..) Form: 1) Make the second conditional in this way. If I you he she.. Example: were you… If I were you. If I you he she. If we had more money. we would buy that house. this rule is often overlooked. I you he she. Example: Or I you he she. Example: If I had a car.. and I cannot visit my friend). I you he she. he wouldn’t break everything. I cannot fly.. She’d be more successful if she worked harder. past simple past simple . 3) To talk about imaginary abilities.. would / wouldn’t ‘d verb (infinitive form) would / wouldn’t ‘d could / couldn’t verb (infinitive form) if I you he she.
I would. I’d join a band. Third Conditional Use: Use the third conditional to talk about past events. you wouldn’t have failed the test. I could’ve bought a computer. (But you didn’t work hard and you failed the test). I would buy that car! => If I had a lot of money. Therefore the third conditional describes hypothetical. imaginary situations. and we didn’t get stuck) Form: a) Make the third conditional structure this way: would have If past perfect (had + past participle) (hadn’t + past participle) EVENT A . (But I spend all my money and I couldn’t buy a computer). we’d have been stuck in the traffic jam for hours! (But we didn’t take that route. 2) Many students forget to use could to talk about abilities. I was not at home. => If I could play the drums. would’ve ‘d have wouldn’t have EVENT B past participle If you’d told me that Anna had put on weight.) The third conditional is often used to criticise: If you had worked harder. I’d. If I had been at home yesterday. I would buy that car! If I played the drums. Or it can be used to express relief: If I we’d taken that route.If I could pay. Or it can be used to express regret: If I hadn’t spent all my money. However. I’d have got your phone call. I wouldn’t have congratulated her on becoming pregnant. (But. neither event a nor event bhappened. and I didn’t receive your call. 1) Many students write would after If If I would have a lot of money. I’d join a band. Use it to describe what could have happened (event ‘b’) as a result of something else (event ‘a’). Or: . Common errors: => If I could pay.
In short sentences. ‘I’d have helped. c) Sometimes the if clause is implied but not spoken. → told her the news. If I would have seen Sally. therefore These words cannot be used interchangeably. because of. I’d have told her the news. Never start a sentence with But.I / you / he / she / we / it / they would have would’ve ‘d have wouldn’t have EVENT B past participle if past perfect (had + past participle) (hadn’t + past participle) EVENT A Jim wouldn’t have made those mistakes if you had trained him properly. The relationship can show: • a contrast Although. no punctuation is needed. as a result of. . I’d have CONNECTING WORDS: Use: Connectives join two clauses. Would does not go in the If clause.’ means ‘I’d have helped if you’d asked me. as a result. b) You can also use may have / may not have. temperatures are low.’ means ‘I wouldn’t have said that if I’d been there. and they may use a different grammar. consequently. and show the relationship between them. ii Although it is sunny. If I had seen Sally. might have / might not have or could have/ couldn’t have to describe less certain possibilities rather than certain consequences.’ ‘I wouldn’t have said that. due to • an effect so. thus. temperatures are low. in spite of • a cause because. it goes in the other clause. however. You might have had an accident if you’d driven home in the snow last night.). even though. You can use but after a comma(. Form: a) Connectives showing Contrast Compare these sentences with the same meaning: i It is sunny but temperatures are low. despite. / Even though it is sunny.’ Common Mistakes Some students write would after if. but. They may be located in different places with in the sentence.
Never start a sentence with So. even though / although it’s sunny. not a verb clause. OR Because of the bad traffic. I arrived late. It may also be seen after a semi-colon (.Although and Even though go before the known clause. We were late and consequently we missed the beginning of the show. Note the position of Despite and In spite of before the known clause. The order of clauses can be reversed: Temperatures are low despite / in spite of the sun. iv Despite the sun. and is most commonly used in writing. CORRECT Starting a sentence with Because is more formal than using it in the middle of a sentence. we missed the start of the show. Because we were late. temperatures are low. i We were late so we missed the beginning of the show. iii It is sunny. not speaking.Note how Although and Even though are located in a different part of the sentence from But. it is usually seen in longer sentences. In spite of the sun. Note how these expressions are followed by a noun. In short sentences. Because the traffic was bad. i I arrived late because the traffic was bad. temperatures are low. I arrived late. I arrived late. Temperatures are low. ii I arrived late because of the bad traffic. OR Due to the bad traffic. temperatures are low. You can also use the – ingform of the verb in these sentences. OR As a result of the bad traffic. temperatures are low. However. So can follow a comma(. Despite / In spite of it being sunny. I arrived late due to the bad traffic. c) Connectives showing Effect Compare these sentences with the same meaning. Consequently.). not a verb clause. no punctuation is needed. I arrived late. . I arrived late as a result of the bad traffic. ii We were late and thus we missed the beginning of the show. The order of clauses can be reversed. Note how however starts a sentence and is followed by a comma. INCORRECT Because we were late.). The two clauses are separated with a comma. Note you can ONLY start a sentence with Because if there are two clauses in the sentence. whereas but goes before the unknown clause. b) Connectives showing a Cause Compare these sentences with the same meaning. Also note that these words are followed by a noun.
I can’t remember. you must change the word order in the question. Therefore and Thus are more formal than So. Because I needed some bread. I’m not sure. Form: 1) If the question has an auxiliary verb. Consequently. We were late and therefore we missed the beginning of the show.? I don’t know. Joe went to university. What’s the time? =>Can you tell me what the time is? Where did he go? =>I don’t know where he went. What are they doing? =>I don’t know what they’re doing.. Example: When can you get here? Can is the auxiliary verb and you is the subject. They are common in formal sentences. → I went to the shop because I needed some bread. I went to the shop. .. EMBEDDED CUESTIONS Use: Whenever you use an introductory phrase before a question. 2. Some students begin sentences with But and So.. I wonder. As a result. Swap their positions when you add an introduction. =>Have you any idea what time it is? =>Do you know what time it is? You cannot contract the verb if it is the last word in the sentence. but they can be joined to the previous sentence with and.. 3... Some students write a sentence with because and only one clause. Introductions include: Can you tell me. → Joe went to university. but he didn’t like it. You can also do this in sentences with the verb to be.. Change the verb ending so that the verb is in the correct tense. I went indoors due to it was cold outside. Some students do not use nouns when they needed to.. But he didn’t like it... Common Mistakes: 1. swap the positions of the auxiliary verb and the subject. Do you know when you can get here? Other examples: Where has he gone? What time is it? =>I don’t know where he has gone..We were late and as a result we missed the beginning of the show. Do you know what time it’s? 2) If the question is in the present or past simple.. They often start a sentence. remove do / does / did from the question.? Do you know. → I went indoors due to the cold weather outside.
.Example: Where did he go? =>Did you see where he went? What time do you get up? =>Can you tell me what time you get up? Where does she work? =>I wonder where she works.. 3) If a question does not have a question word (Where. I forgot about the dinner! It’ll be burning. because I’m going to a meeting after work.) use if or whetherbefore the question. When you arrive.. This time next week. In __ years’ time. This time next week. Example: Does he live here? =>Do you know if he lives here? Are they coming to the party? FUTURE CONTINUOUS Use: a) Use the future continuous to talk about an event that will already be in progress at a specified time in the future. Make the future continuous this way: Positive and Negative I you he / she it we they will be won’t be am / are / is going to be verb + ing =>Do you know whether they are coming to the party? . Will you be going to Jane’s party? Yes. What. b) The future continuous can be used instead of the present continuous for future plans. I’ll be driving to my parents’ house. by the time + present simple.... he’ll be having dinner. I’ll be driving home. but I’ll be getting there a bit late. when + present simple. By the time I get home. Phrases often seen with this use of the future continuous include: By . I know it! These sentences are not about the future but we can use the future continuous to talk about what we assume is happening at the moment.. c) We can also use the future continuous to make a guess about something that is in progressat the moment. Why etc. you’ll probably be having a bath.. Don’t phone Richard now.. Form: a) You can make the future continuous with will or going to. Oh no.
Before a noun. belong. such. We don’t have enough food for everyone = some people don’t have chairs. . likes and dislikes: like. Enough Use: Enough means you have what you need. Form: Write enough before a noun. use too much (uncountable nouns) or many (countable nouns). enough Too Use: Too means there is a lot of something. cost. It shows a negative opinion. hate andother abstract verbs: seem. I ate too many sandwiches. want. It’s too cold.Questions Will Won’t Am Is Are b) Remember that some verbs are not used in continuous tenses. You walk too fast. We have enough food for everyone = everyone has some food. She isn’t tall enough to be a model. But write it after an adjective or verb. My trousers are too small. You can also use too much after a verb. Are you warm enough? He’s qualified enough. be. own. I ate too much. Paul drinks too much. You can also use it before an adverb. I you he / she it we they going to be be verb + ing? Grammar: So. These include verbs connected with possession: possess. James speaks too quietly. Form: You can use too before an adjective. We have enough chairs. It’s too hot = It is very hot and I don’t like it. love. I ate too much food. too.
Such can be used with a that clause. in modern English. to show a result of the first clause. I was so hot that I couldn’t sleep. not before. it is increasingly being used before nouns and verbs. It’s so hot! Form: So is generally used before an adjective or an adverb. Such Use: Such also means very. to show a result of the first clause. So Use: So means very. . Are you sleeping enough? Sentences with enough are sometimes followed by to + verb infinitive. go after such. Such is used before an adjective and noun. He’s so funny! He plays the piano so well! However. It was so hot that the sun was shining. That dress is so last year! (= That dress is last year’s fashion) I’m so going to shout at him when I see him! (so = really) So can be used with a that clause. Form: A / an. Do we have sugar enough? => Do we have enough sugar? 3) Some students use so / such…that incorrectly. Common mistakes 1) Some students use too with a positive meaning. if necessary. But use so or very here It’s too hot! I love the summer! => It’s so hot! I love the summer! 2) Some students write enough in the wrong place. I haven’t got enough money to buy that coat.You don’t work hard enough. I’m not tall enough to reach the book. I was such a nice day that we decided to go to the park. They are such nice children. That’s a such pretty dress. => That’s such a pretty dress! Like So.
This sentence is not correct because ‘the sun was shining’ is not a direct result of ‘It was so hot’. so they follow the same rules. May and Might meanmaybe will. However. I’ll probably go to the party. NOT She might staying. add not after may and might. Examples: I might have a pen in my bag. ( = present use) She may arrive tomorrow. like can. However. NOT She mights stay. She might stay. I’ll definitely go to the party. 1) Do not add ‘s’ to the third person singular. He may not come. 2) To form a negative. She might not stay. I’ll possibly go to the party. I might go. They can refer to the future or the present. I’ll probably see you later. questions with might are not common. 3) To form questions. invert may/might and the subject. NOT He mays come. He may come. May I have some chocolate? May we go to the party? 5) May and Might are always followed by a verb in the infinitive form. Might he be late? 4) May can be used with ‘I’ or ‘we’ to make requests. May Might and Adverbs of Probability May and Might Use: Use May and Might to talk about what will possibly happen in the future. Form: Note that will / ‘ll is used before the adverb. will and should. I probably won’t see you later . ( = future use) Form: May and Might are modal verbs. Will + adverbs of probability Use: You can use will and won’t with different adverbs to show how probable a future event is. but won’t is used after the adverb. The hot day did not cause the sun to shine. can and could are more common. She might stay. I’ll certainly go to the party. NOT I might to go.
. You shouldn’t walk home alone after dark. NOT I don’t should 3) To form questions. Have to is generally used to talk about rules and things beyond your control. 3) Use don’t / doesn’t / didn’t to form negative sentences. I should go. invert themodal verb and the subject. should Should and ought to are used to give a suggestion. / I should coming. NOT I should to go. don’t have to Don’t have to is used to say that something isn’t necessary. 1) Use Do / Does / Did to form questions. but must is more common. or you could stay at a guest house. You could stay in a hotel. could Could is used to give an option. add not after the verb. You don’t have to get a taxi. You must see the Empire State Building while you are in New York. You have to see the Empire State Building while you are in New York. I don’t have to go. Modals follow the following rules. Form: Must. Have to is a regular verb. the metro is really fast and efficient. You should try haggis while you are in Scotland. He must. Must you? NOT Do you must? 4) Modalsare always followed by a verb in the infinitive form. have to You can also use have to for recommendations. 1) Do not add ‘s’ to the third person singular. I have to go. mustn’t Mustn’t is used to warn someone strongly against doing something. NOT He musts 2) To form a negative. must Must can be used to give a strong recommendation. Do you have to go? NOT Have you to go? 2) Have to is followed by a verb in the infinitive form. should and could are modals. NOT I haven’t to go. shouldn’t Should is used to warn someone gently against doing something. You mustn’t go to that part of the city – it’s dangerous.Using Modals for Recommendations Use: The following modals can be used to give recommendations. I shouldn’t.
but you are only suggesting one possibility. There is no other way out. You are not certain you are correct. Some students write the question and negative form of have to incorrectly. . I fixed that yesterday.’ / ‘He might not have received the message. and you are almost certain that your guess is correct. Many students use to after modal verbs. You are not certain you are correct. must have + past participle verb Use this when you make a guess about the past. or they might have escaped through this hole in the fence.’ may not have + past participle verb might not have + past participle verb Use this when you make a guess about what didn’t happen in the past. 2. and might not is rarely contracted to mightn’t. You must to visit the museum. You haven’t to take the bus → You don’t have to take the bus. and you are almost certain that your guess is correct.’ may have + past participle verb might have + past participle verb could have + past participle verb Use this when you make a guess about the past. ‘Where’s John? Why isn’t he at the meeting?’ ‘He may not have got the message. ‘The chickens have escaped! How did they get out?’ ‘They can’t have got out under the gate. can’t have + past participle verb couldn’t have + past participle verb Use this when you make a guess about what didn’t happen in the past. → You must visit the museum.’ NOTE: may not is not contracted to mayn’t.Common Mistakes: 1. but you are only suggesting one possibility. ‘The chickens have escaped! How did they get out?’ ‘They must have got out under the gate.’ NOTE: you cannot use: mustn’t have + past participle verb to make deductions about the past. Have you to go now? → Do you have to go now? Past Modals for Deduction Use and Form: The following modals can be used to guess what happened in the past. ‘The chickens have escaped! How did they get out?’ ‘They may have got out under the gate.
He may not be at work today. He must be in the bathroom. Maybe I left my book at home. or he might be in the kitchen. in the negative form the meaning is not the same. Note that could have has the same meaning as might have and may have. (NOT could not) = Maybe he didn’t get your message.’ . → Robin must have gone to the restaurant without us. → I may have left my book at home. He may be in the bathroom. ‘Where’s John?’ ‘He’s not here.’ may not + infinitive might not + infinitive Use this when you make a guess about what is not true. However. ‘Where’s John?’ ‘He’s not here.Common Mistakes: 1. Why is Tom late? He may / might / could have got stuck in traffic. Many students do not take the opportunity to use these structures when they can. Couldn’t have has the same meaning as can’t have. must + infinitive Use this when you make a guess and you are almost certain that your guess is correct. Why is Tom late? He may / might not have got your message. or he could beoutside. 2. You are not certain you are correct. but you are only suggesting one possibility. You are not certain you are correct. Why is Tom late? I’m not sure! He can’t / couldn’t have forgotten about the party! = I’m sure he didn’t forget. ‘Where’s John?’ ‘He’s not here.’ may + infinitive might + infinitive could + infinitive Use this when you make a guess but you are only suggesting one possibility. I think Robin went to the restaurant without us. Modals for Deduction Use and Form: The following modals can be used to make guesses about a present situation.
can’t + infinitive Use this when you make a guess about what is not true. The ball is near (to) the box.’ NOTE: you cannot use: mustn’t + infinitive to make deductions about what is not true. and you are almost certain that your guess is correct. The ball is behind the box. ‘Where’s John? Is he in the kitchen?’ ‘No. The ball is in front of the box. => Your bag might be in the classroom. The ball is between the two boxes. The ball is underthe box. he can’t be. Prepositions and prepositional phrases of place Use: Use prepositions of place to describe where something is. The ball is over the box. Maybe your bag is in the classroom. The ball is on the box. Common Mistakes: 1. . The ball is next to the box. The ball is in the box.NOTE: Do not use could not here. I was in there a minute ago. Many students do not take the opportunity to use these structures when they can.
It’s the highest building in the world. What happened at the beginning / end of the film? I met him at a party / conference / football match I’ll meet you at the airport / the station / home . The nearest gas station is on the motorway. The post box is on the way to work.In is also used in these situations: Countries. What’s on the menu? Did you buy everything on the list? I live on Jackson street. Don’t swim in the sea / the river / the lake. He lives on the coast. On is also used in these situations: walls. cities. villages the world mountains and valleys buildings water the middle / centre books / films / newspaper We live in France / in Paris / in Madrid. Jim’s office is on the second floor. He lives in the middle of Paris / in the city centre. London is on the River Thames. doors. Directions: Position (next to something) the front / the back the beginning / the end events buildings Turn left at the traffic lights / roundabout / end of the street. At is also used in these situations: the top / bottom (of a page) Sign your name at the top / bottom. She works in a bank. They have a cottage in the mountains / in a valley. Which film was that actor in? I read about it in the newspaper. ceilings. Wait at the traffic lights / corner / tree. I wrote my name at the front / back of the book. floor: She hung the picture on the ceiling / the wall / the door. surfaces the front / side/ back left / right Floors lists / menus roads natural lines and borders There’s a dirty mark on the page / table There’s a label in on the box / bottle The school is on the left.
building. Night: I can’t sleep at night. tomorrow.=> Your bag is behind the door. Years: He was born in 1996. AT: Use before: Times: We’re leaving at 3 o’clock Lunchtime / bedtime: He’s arriving at lunchtime. I’ll will have finished this project. yesterday. I parked the car in front the I parked the car in front the building. ON: Dates: We arrived here on 4th August. . IN: the morning / afternoon / evening: See you in the morning! Months: My birthday’s in June. years and other time words.=> I live next to a small shop. Your bag is behind of the door. Use ON before a day + morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night.Common mistakes: 1. Some students add a second preposition where it is not necessary. months. Seasons: We always go on holiday in summer. tonight. The weekend: See you at the weekend! Festivals: We went away at Easter. Future perfect Use: • Use the future perfect to talk about an event that will be finished and complete before a specified time in the future. This time next week. Some students miss out part of the prepositional phrases. Single day events: We always eat out on Christmas Day. I live next a small shop. Prepositions of Time Use: Use prepositions of time before days. Days of the week: Let’s go to the zoo on Saturday. => 2. See you on Tuesday night! Don’t use a preposition before: today.
I’ll have prepared the dinner. by the time + present simple. Tom’s going to have finished his lecture by the time we get there. have past participle? Future perfect continuous Use: • Use the future perfect continuous to talk about an event that will be in progress for some time before a specified time in the future. When you arrive. • The future perfect is also use to make predictions about future events that will be complete before a specified future time.. They will have been unpacking boxes. She will have been looking after the children all day! • It can be used to make predictions about event that will be in progress before a specified time in the future.” • Both the fixed future time and the length of time of are often mentioned in future perfect continuous sentences... Janet will be really tired when we get home. . • It can be used to predict what was happening in the past. By the time I get home.. Joe won’t mind that we are late.Phrases often seen with this use of the future continuous include: By . In __ years’ time.. my mum will probably have tidied the house. “What do you think the men were doing in the store room?” “Don’t worry.. This time next week... when + present simple. He won’t have been waiting long.. she won’t have done that! Form: Make the future continuous this way: Positive and Negative I you he / she it we they will have won’t have past participle Questions I Will Won’t you he / she it we they Be going to is rarely used to make the future perfect tense. Do you think Mel will have eaten all the chocolate cake? No.
may I go out with my friends? If you switch the photocopier off and on again. If I finish my homework. Anne will be in a bad mood at the party this evening because she’ll have been doing housework. If + present simple. Form: Positive and Negative I you he / she it we they will have won’t have been + verb-ing Questions I Will Won’t you he / she it we they have been + verb-ing? Mixed Conditionals Use: Mixed conditional sentences combine two different conditional patterns. going to + verb (infinitive) If you don’t get ready soon. I can buy some milk. it should work. I’ll have been working here for five months. can / may / might / will / should + verb (infinitive) If you give me some money. Fixed future time: Length of time: the end of this week five months But this is not always the case. Several patterns can be used: • mixed first conditional sentences First conditional sentences can use a variety of modal verbs. as well as will. If + present simple. First conditional sentences can also use going to. we’re going to be late! .By the end of this week.
. The listener or reader NEEDS this information to understand the sentence. An architect is a person who designs buildings. Form: • • Use who to give more information about a person. would + verb (infinitive) If he'd taken the medicine. • mixed third / second conditional This combination describes an imagined event in the past and the present result. that or who. you can go home. the presentation would have been more successful. The man is my brother).The present continuous and Going to can also appear in the If clause If you’re going to the shop. Defining Relative Clauses Use: Use defining relative clauses to give information about a noun in a sentence. A corkscrew is a thing which you use to open bottles. make sure you get a receipt. • Use where to give more information about a place. • mixed second / third conditional This combination describes a situation which is never true. • • Because non-defining relative clauses give essential information. and the past consequence of this situation. he wouldn't still be sick. You is the subject of the sentence. The girl who sits next to me at work has a bag just like yours.) are needed. So youcan delete who. If you’ve finished your work. The man is the subject of the sentence. The town where my uncle lives is a few miles from here. Use which or that to give more information about a thing. (The sentence can be rewritten: George is talking to a man. If + past simple. can you buy me some cola? If you’re going to pay him. The man is the object of the sentence. you can delete which. He wouldn’t still be sick if he’d taken the medicine. The present perfect may also appear in the If clause. The man (who) George is talking to is my brother. The man who is wearing the blue suit is my brother. The book you lent me is really good. The book that you gave me for my birthday is really interesting. The presentation would have been more successful if you were better at speaking in public. If + past perfect. If the noun which the relative clause describes (usually at the beginning of the sentence) is the OBJECT of the sentence. no commas (. A doctor is a person who cures sick people. You cannot delete who. That’s the place where we got married. would have + verb (infinitive) If you were better at speaking in public. George is the subject of the sentence.
which. Past Perfect Continuous Use: The past perfect continuous is used when telling a story about the past. As non-defining relative clauses are not necessary to understanding the sentence. => The chemicals. who used to go to the same university as me. We met at Bristol University. ‘who lives to me’ is not necessary. where we both had steak. the sentence (‘The man has five motorbikes’) is meaningless because it is not clear which man is being talked about. We met at Bristol University. flow into rivers. which is in the west of England. has five motorbikes. where we both studied Biology.) The book which is on the table is really good. Common Mistakes Some Students do not put the non defining relative clause close to the noun it describes. Do not use that. Relative clauses can define the subject of the sentence: Miranda. or part of a sentence. It is generally used alongside other narrative tenses such as the past simple. Or the object of a sentence: We went to a lovely restaurant. The man who lives next to me has five motorbikes. ‘who lives to me’ is necessary. She gave me some money. Which / that isnot necessary.) Non Defining Relative Clauses Use: Use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information about a noun in a sentence. Tom. • • Who. and whichto give information about a thing. the sentence (‘Tom has five motorbikes’) still has meaning. It’s really good. Without it. In this sentence. ‘Who lives next to me’ adds more information. Without it. The book is really good. (The sentence can be rewritten: You lent me a book. The listener or reader does not need this information to understand the sentence. In this sentence. Use where to give information about a place ONLY if you introduce another subject after where. commas are NOT necessary. where and whose cannot be omitted in defining relative clauses. (The sentence can be rewritten: The book is on the table. You is the subject of the sentence. Use who to give information about a person. who lives next to me.The book is the object of the sentence. which are toxic. Or the sentence as a whole. use which. Which / that is necessary. commas ARE necessary. Otherwise. is having a baby. The chemicals flow into rivers. therefore. which was very nice of her. . Therefore. which are toxic. they are always placed within commas. Form: • • • Always put the relative clause as close as possible to the noun that you are describing. whose to introduce a possession.
Form: I you he / she / it we they had / ‘d hadn’t been + verb-ing will / be going to for prediction Use: • Use the future perfect continuous to talk about an event that will be in progress for some time before a specified time in the future. b) Write any adverbs between had and been They had already been waiting for half an hour. They will have been unpacking boxes. “What do you think the men were doing in the store room?” “Don’t worry.” • Both the fixed future time and the length of time of are often mentioned in future perfect continuous sentences. A sentence in which the events are NOT in order: John went to the doctor because he had been having trouble sleeping. She will have been looking after the children all day! • • It can be used to make predictions about event that will be in progress before a specified time in the future. Janet will be really tired when we get home. Form: Positive and Negative I you will have won’t have been + verb-ing .The past perfect continuous describes an event which was in progress for a period of time before another event in the past. The continuous event which happened before the other verb is in the past perfect tense. It can be used to predict what was happening in the past. Example: A sentence with the events in the order they happened: John was having trouble sleeping. He’d only been working there a week before he got fired. Anne will be in a bad mood at the party this evening because she’ll have been doing housework. Joe won’t mind that we are late. I’ll have been working here for five months. Fixed future time: Length of time: the end of this week five months But this is not always the case. By the end of this week. so he went to the doctor late. We use it when we do not want to say the events in the order they happened. He won’t have been waiting long.
I never used to eat vegetables. (A repeated action) Write adverbs before used to. (True for a long period of time) I used to go to the park every Friday. There used to be a park here. My grandmother used to have beautiful blonde hair. I always used to cycle to school. You can say used to to talk about states (things that were true for a long period of time) or repeated actions (things that happened several times). I used to live in Denver. Write adverbs after would. Would CANNOT be used to talk about states. Form: used to I / You / He / She / It / They / We didn’t use to / never used to would wouldn’t verb (infinitive) . but now her hair is grey. but is not true now. When I was a child. my dad would read to me every night. • You can use Would in a similar way to used to. but now there’s a shopping centre.he / she it we they Questions I Will Won’t you he / she it we they have been + verb-ing? Used to / Would Use: • We say Used to to talk about something that was true in the past. It can only be used to talk about repeated actions. There would be a park here. I would always talk to my grandma when I had a problem. => There used to be a park here. It describes things that were true in the past but are not true now.
Questions Did you / he / she / it / they use to + verb (infinitive) Would Common Mistakes: verb (infinitive) Many students confuse used to do and be used to doing. If only I were rich. . I wish I had studied for my exam! If only I hadn’t argues with him! Form: • To wish for an ability now or in the future. • To wish that something was happening at the moment. I am used to live near here. I wish (that) / If only + subject + past simple I wish I had a pony. I wish I could play the guitar! If only I could dance like that! I wish I could go to your wedding next week. or to wish it could stop happening. Wish / If only Use: Wish and If only can be used: a) To wish for an ability now or in the future. It means ‘be familiar with doing something’. I wish I were rich. I wish (that) / If only + subject + could + infinitive verb If only I could come to Australia too! • To wish that something could be true at the moment. This is another phrase. I wish (that) / If only + subject + past simple I wish I was rich. but I can’t. you can use ‘were’ for all persons. If only he wouldn’t shout so loudly. but I can’t. => I used to live near here. When using the verb ‘be’. I wish I had long hair! c) To wish that something was happening at the moment. I wish you wouldn’t shout so loudly. I wish I was lying on the beach right now! If only I was lying on the beach right now! If only I were taller! d) To wish that something kept happening again and again. e) To wish that something in the past had happened in a different way. I wish (that) / If only + subject + could + infinitive verb I wish that I could sing. If only I could see my grandmother more often. b) To wish that something could be true at the moment.
If only this traffic was/were moving! • To wish that something kept happening again and again. I wish (that) / If only + subject + would + past participle I wish you would tidy up more often.I wish (that) / If only + subject + past continuous I wish that this traffic was moving. I wish (that) / If only + past perfect I wish I had studied for my exam! If only I hadn’t argued with him! . • To wish that something in the past had happened in a different way. or to wish it could stop happening. I wish (that) / If only + subject + wouldn’t keep + verb-ing I wish you wouldn’t keep hitting me. Often: I wish (that) / If only + subject + would stop + verb-ing I wish he would stop shouting.
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