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A Report

On
CIVIL engineering Submitted By

Ansari RaiS A. Nirav chaudhari

B.E. (H) 1st year Submitted To C.K. Pithawalla college of engineering & Technology, Surat

Submitted by Government Engineering College Rajkot

Kalawad Road, Rajkot.

Academic year

2012-2013

Introduction
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, biomechanics, nanotechnology, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and engineering Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. n past years, civil engineers focused on design and construction of new facilities, such as buildings, bridges and highways, water treatment and environmental facilities, foundations and tunnels. Today's civil engineer not only has to design new facilities but must also analyze the effects of deterioration on infrastructure elements, consider system interdependencies and evaluates life-cycle impacts while also considering environmental and economic sustainability within the context of society. Civil engineers must be equipped with in-depth knowledge of traditional, fundamental principals and new technologies in order to address the complex, interdisciplinary problems faced within society. The undergraduate program at CUA gives the students the necessary background to success within this new context and to become the future leaders of the profession.

History of civil engineering


Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.

Civil Engineering
Oldest branch of engineering, next to Military engineering. All engineering works other than for military purposes were grouped in to Civil Engineering. Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics & present day Information technology followed it.

A professional engineering discipline that deals with the analysis, design, construction and maintenance of infrastructural facilities such as buildings, bridges, dams, roads etc.

Constructions are against nature.

Application of physical, mathematical and scientific principles for the convenience of civilization.

Began b/w 4000 BC and 2000 BC (during Ancient Egypt, Mesapotamia, and Indus Valley Civilisations).

John Smeaton was the first self proclaimed Civil Engineer who built Eddystone Light House in 1771.

Civil Engineering is Everywhere

Civil Engineering is a composite of many specific disciplines that include structural engineering, water engineering, waste material management and engineering, foundation engineering etc. among many.

Structural & Solid Mechanics

Structural engineers design steel, concrete, or timber framed structures such as:

Tall buildings & towers, Bridges, Dams, Retaining walls, & foundations, &. Stadiums.

Waste Treatment & Environmental


Wastewater treatment engineers are civil or environmental engineers trained to design or analyze water treatment plants. Water treatment plants are categorized as follows: Sanitary waste treatment facilities, Industrial waste treatment facilities, Potable (drinking) water treatment facility.

Transportation

Transportation Engineers design and analyze Highways,

Railways, Airports,

Urban and Suburban Road Networks, Parking Lots, and

Traffic Control Signal Systems.

Geotechnical & Soil Mechanics

Geotechnical Engineers analyze the subterranean rock and soil to determine its suitability to support extreme loads. \

Proper geotechnical

engineering is essential for a safe and secure

structure.

Hydraulics & Water Management

Water management involves the use of Drainage systems, Detention/retention ponds, Navigational waterways, and

hydrologic and hydraulic principles to design:

Flood control levees, dams, and lakes.