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Applicant Tracking System Candidate Submittal Employment agency Executive search e-recruitment Firing Human resource management Human resources Human resource consulting Job search Onboarding Personality-Job Fit Theory Recruitment advertising Recruitment process outsourcing Sourcing (personnel) Trends in pre-employment screening

Applicant tracking system
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Applicant Tracking System) Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2009) An applicant tracking system (ATS) is a software application that enables the electronic handling of recruitment needs. An ATS can be implemented on an enterprise or small business level, depending on the needs of the company. An ATS is very similar to customer relationship management systems, but are designed for recruitment tracking purposes. Nearly all major corporations use some form of applicant tracking system to handle job applications and to manage resume data. A dedicated ATS is not uncommon for recruitment specific needs. On the enterprise level it may be offered as a module or functional addition to a human resources suite or Human Resource Information System (HRIS). The ATS is expanding into small and medium enterprises through open source or software as a service offerings (SaaS). The principal function of an ATS is to provide a central location and database for a company's recruitment efforts. ATSs are built to better assist management of resumes and applicant information. Data is either collected from internal applications via the ATS frontend, located on the company website or is extracted from applicants on job boards. The majority of job and resume boards (Monster, Hotjobs, Career Builder) have partnerships with ATS software providers to provide parsing support and ease of data migration from one system to another. Recent enhancements include use of artifical intelligence (AI) tools and natural language processing (NLP) to facilitate intelligent guided semantic search capabilities offered through cloud based platforms that allow companies to score and sort resumes with

better alignment to the job requirements and descriptions. Modern ATSs allow applicants to be sourced from the company's own database of past job applicants. Functionality of an ATS is not limited to data mining and collection, ATS applications in the recruitment industry include the ability automate the recruitment process via a defined workflow. Another benefit of an applicant tracking system is analyzing and coordinating recruitment efforts - managing the conceptual structure known as human capital. A corporate career site or company specific job board module may be offered, allowing companies to provide opportunities to internal candidates prior to external recruitment efforts. Candidates may be identified via pre-existing data or through information garnered through other means. This data is typically stored for search and retrieval processes. Some systems have expanded offerings that include off-site encrypted resume and data storage, which are often legally required by equal opportunity employment laws. Applicant tracking systems may also be referred to as talent management systems (TMS) and are often provided via an application service provider or software as a service (SaaS) model. The level of service and cost can vary greatly across providers. In the UK and Ireland, Applicant Tracking Systems which are specifically for Agency Recruiters are often referred to as Recruitment Software and this is a term used mainly in the recruitment agency industry (representative bodies include the REC in the UK and the NRF in Ireland). Although proprietary systems dominate the ATS space, there are open-source alternatives. This table lists the available free and open-source ATS. As the data held within recruitment software is predominantly personal data it is often tightly controlled by data protection legislation, preventing the data from being held offshore, which frequently places a legal restriction on the use of SaaS offerings.

Candidate submittal
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Candidate Submittal) Jump to: navigation, search This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; suggestions may be available. (September 2012)

Candidate Submittal is an alternative recruitment process offered by companies whereby the candidate submittal agency provides 'coaching' for the job seeker with respect to his/her job application. With candidate submittal, the job seeker usually sources their own prospective job opportunity ( e.g. on Job Boards, Company Websites, Newspapers etc... ). The job seeker then applies for the job through the candidate submittal agency, which is usually run by ex-recruitment professionals or other industry veterans.

The candidate submittal service will often vett, edit or enhance the job seekers application before passing it on to the employer. The service will then act on behalf of the job seeker in the negotiations and would also may help prepare the job seeker for an interview process or other pre-interview engagement. They would also provide any relevant feedback to the job seeker with regards to his/her application. Once the job seeker is accepted by the employer, the candidate submittal agency then may then refund a portion of the sign-on fee back to the job seeker . Usually in recognition of the fact that the candidate has completed some of the recruitment process themselves by sourcing their own jobs.

Contents
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1 The Market 2 Candidate Submittal vs Agency Recruitment 3 Criticisms 4 References

The Market
With up to 80% of companies generally expecting to encounter difficulties in the recruitment process from year to year,.[1] It's obvious that there exists a market for broad recruitment solutions. Companies will generally employ a number of different methods to fill their recruitment needs including employee referral, company websites, recruitment agencies and job boards. Generally, it's found that around 27.1% of recruitment is done through employee referral - making it the largest source of company recruitment,[2] with standard recruitment making up around 5.2% of overall recruitment. The future of the recruitment industry is generally considered by industry analysts to be in 'Career Networks',[3] that can provide employee's with the backup necessary to optimize their job searching process - including having access to a 'career coach', utilizing niche recruitment channels, building a profile and receiving positive feedback.

Candidate Submittal vs Agency Recruitment
Candidate Submittal came about because the standard recruitment model was perceived by some in the recruitment industry as being wasteful and providing poor value to both employers and job seekers.[4] It was argued by these individuals that the standard recruitment model was never meant to be an extension of a company HR department, nor was it designed to accommodate the market share which it currently holds in the recruitment industry and to become the de facto standard for general mass-recruitment needs. They argued that the recruiter in a standard agency is cast both as a 'career coach' by the job seeker and as an 'industry specialist' by the employer. Whereas in fact the recruiter is ill-suited to fulfill either of these rules.

Candidate Submittal agencies aim to re-cast the role of a recruiter into more of a background setting. Using a candidate submittal service, the client will receive feedback and advice with regards to their application. They will not however be interviewed or matched to a position by the candidate submittal agency. A candidate submittal service will usually offer a substantial discount over standard agency recruitment. Also, because it aims to compensate job seekers for the time they spend sourcing their own opportunities. It means that job seekers are less inclined to leave this job matching process to a recruiter who may or may not be suitably qualified to determine whether a certain candidate fits a certain position. Also since candidate submittal effectively removes the middle man in the recruitment process ( the recruiter ). It can serve to speed up the process in general and provide more meaningful feedback to the job seeker.

Criticisms
While candidate submittal can help to cut down on recruitment costs for an employer and help to make the job hunting process more efficient, it does require the candidates to spend time sourcing their own employment opportunities, a job that would typically be left to the recruiter to complete. However it should also be noted that most job seekers only use recruitment agencies as one source of job finding and will typically use the Internet or company job sites to source their own opportunities anyway.[5]

Employment agency
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
(May 2012)

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can. (June 2012)

Journalist Nellie Bly investigating employment agencies

An employment agency is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which also act as employment agencies.

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1 Public employment agencies 2 Private employment agencies o 2.1 Legal status o 2.2 Executive recruitment o 2.3 Executive Agent 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

Public employment agencies
One of the oldest references to a public employment agency was in 1650, when Henry Robinson proposed an "Office of Addresses and Encounters" that would link employers to workers.[1] The British Parliament rejected the proposal, but he himself opened such a business, although it was short-lived.[2] Since the beginning of the twentieth century, every developed country has created a public employment agency as a way to combat unemployment and help people find work. In the United Kingdom the first agency began in London, through the Labour Bureau (London) Act 1902, and subsequently went nationwide, a movement prompted by the Liberal government through the Labour Exchanges Act 1909. The present public provider of job search help is called Jobcentre plus. In the United States, a federal programme of employment services was rolled out in the New Deal. The initial legislation was called the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 and more recently job services happen through one-stop centres established by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998.

Private employment agencies
The first private employment agency in the United States was opened by Fred Winslow who opened Engineering Agency in 1893.[citation needed] It later became part of General Employment Enterprises who also owned Businessmen's Clearing House (est. 1902). Another of the oldest agencies was developed by Katharine Felton as a response to the problems brought on by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.

Many temporary agencies specialize in a particular profession or field of business, such as accounting, health care, technical, or secretarial.
Legal status

For most of the twentieth century, private employment agencies were considered quasi illegal entities under international law[citation needed]. The International Labour Organization instead called for the establishment of public employment agencies. To prevent the abusive practices of private agencies, they were either to be fully abolished, or tightly regulated. In most countries they are legal but regulated. Probably inspired by the dissenting judgments in a US Supreme Court case called Adams v. Tanner, the International Labour Organization's first ever Recommendation was targeted at fee charging agencies. The Unemployment Recommendation, 1919 (No.1), Art. 1 called for each member to, "take measures to prohibit the establishment of employment agencies which charge fees or which carry on their business for profit. Where such agencies already exist, it is further recommended that they be permitted to operate only under government licenses, and that all practicable measures be taken to abolish such agencies as soon as possible." The Unemployment Convention, 1919, Art. 2 instead required the alternative of, "a system of free public employment agencies under the control of a central authority. Committees, which shall include representatives of employers and workers, shall be appointed to advise on matters concerning the carrying on of these agencies." In 1933 the Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention (No.34) formally called for abolition. The exception was if the agencies were licensed and a fee scale was agreed in advance. In 1949 a new revised Convention (No.96) was produced. This kept the same scheme, but secured an ‗opt out‘ (Art.2) for members that did not wish to sign up. Agencies were an increasingly entrenched part of the labor market. The United States did not sign up to the Conventions. The latest Convention, the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No.181) takes a much softer stance and calls merely for regulation. In most countries, agencies are regulated, for instance in the UK under the Employment Agencies Act 1973, or in Germany under the Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz (Employee Hiring Law of 1972).
Executive recruitment Main article: Executive search

An executive-search firm is a type of employment agency that specializes in recruiting executive personnel for companies in various industries. This term may apply to job-searchconsulting firms who charge job candidates a fee and who specialize in mid-to-upper-level executives. In the United States, some states require job-search-consulting firms to be licensed as employment agencies. Some third-party recruiters work on their own, while others operate through an agency, acting as direct contacts between client companies and the job candidates they recruit. They

can specialize in client relationships only (sales or business development), in finding candidates (recruiting or sourcing), or in both areas. Most recruiters tend to specialize in either permanent, full-time, direct-hire positions, or in contract positions, but occasionally in both. In an executive-search assignment, the employee-gaining client company – not the person being hired – pays the search firm its fee.
Executive Agent

An executive agent is a type of agency that represents executives seeking senior executive positions which are often unadvertised. In the United Kingdom, almost all positions up to £125,000 ($199,000) a year are advertised and 50% of vacancies paying £125,000 – £150,000 are advertised. However 5% of positions which pay more than £150,000 (with the exception of the public sector) are advertised and are often in the domain of around 4,000 executive recruiters in the United Kingdom.[3] Often such roles are unadvertised to maintain stakeholder confidence and to overcome internal uncertainties. The executive agent would identify the various head-hunters or recruiters who have been given the brief in seeking a candidate. A senior executive would typically pay the agent a fee in a similar fashion to an actor paying a talent agent. Whilst the Employment Agencies Act 1973 prohibited employment agencies charging in the UK, in November 2008, there was a European amendment to (c. 35), in section 9 (inspection), subsection (4), of the act[4].[4]

Executive search
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
(May 2012)

Executive search (informally headhunting) is a specialised recruitment service used to source candidates for senior, executive or other highly specialised positions in organizations. The method usually involves commissioning a third-party organization, typically an executive search firm, but alternatively a stand alone consultant, to research the availability of suitable candidates working for competitor or related businesses. Having identified possible recruits that match the clients requirements, the executive search firm may act as an intermediary to investigate whether the individual might be interested in moving to a new employer and also carry out initial screening of the candidate, negotiations on renumeration and the employment contract.

Contents

1 Executive search firms o 1.1 Retained search  1.1.1 Delimited or engaged search o 1.2 Contingent search o 1.3 Pros and cons of different executive search models 2 See also

Executive search firms
An executive search firm is a type of company that specializes in recruiting executive personnel for their client companies in various industries. Executive search agents/professionals typically have a wide range of personal contacts in their industry or field of specialty; detailed, specific knowledge of the area; and typically operate at the most senior level of executive positions. Executive search professionals are also involved throughout more of the hiring process, conducting detailed interviews and presenting candidates to clients selectively, when they feel the candidate meets all stated requirements and would fit into the culture of the hiring firm, as well. Executive search agencies typically have longlasting relationships with clients spanning many years, and in such cases the suitability of candidates is paramount. It is also important that such agencies operate with a high level of professionalism. When corporate entities elect to use an outside executive search firm, it is usually because they lack the internal research resources, networks, or evaluative skills to properly recruit for themselves. Using an outside firm also allows the corporate entity the freedom of recruiting from competitors without doing so directly, and the ability to choose among candidates that would not be available through internal or passive sourcing methodologies. Some executive search firms are regional, while others are global. Many specialize in a particular sector. The contractual relationship between client and executive search firm fall into two broad categories: contingent and retained. Contingent recruiters are paid only upon the successful completion of the "search." Retained recruiters are paid for the process, typically earning a recruiting fee in 3 stages.
Retained search

High-end executive search firms get a retainer (up-front fee) to perform a specific search for a corporate officer or other senior executive position. Typically, retained searches tend to be for positions that pay upwards of US$100,000 and often far more. Search fees are typically 30% of the annual compensation of the recruited executive. Fee payments may be made in thirds, 1/3 of fee paid on initiation of the search, 1/3 paid thirty days later, and the final 1/3 paid thirty days later or upon placement of the candidate. Alternatively the fee may be paid upon the new employee starting work with a clawback if they leave within a defined period, sometimes with a clause in the contract which states that the search firm will find an alternative if the first employee fails to remain with the employer for the initial period.

In a retained search the fee is for the time and expertise of the search firm. The firm is employed to conduct the entire recruitment effort from startup until the candidate has started working. Retained recruiters work for the organizations who are their clients, not for job candidates seeking employment, in some countries, such as the UK, recruiters are not legally permitted to charge candidates. In the U.S. job candidates may pay an up front retainer to consulting or counselling firms to assist them in their job search. Such firms are not typically known as retained recruiters but may provide recruiting services to organizations and therefore share the descriptive nature of the title. Search firms generally commit to off-limits agreements. These agreements prevent a firm from approaching employees of their current clients as candidates for other clients (for instance, if a headhunter recruits the new CEO into Boeing, they will agree not to recommend Boeing executives to other companies). Since they act as management consultants working in the best interests of the clients for whom they conduct searches, it would be counterproductive to simultaneously remove talented executives from those client companies. Search firms may decline assignments from certain companies, in order to preserve their ability to poach candidates from those companies. Some large search firms may insist on guarantees of a certain number or dollar value of searches before they will put an entire company "off-limits".
Delimited or engaged search

Another form of high-end executive search, delimited or engaged search, is often improperly categorized as retained search, although there are distinct differences. Similar to retained search firms, delimited/engaged search firms require an up-front fee before engaging the search. Unlike a conventional retainer, however, the delimited/engaged search commitment fee is refundable if the recruiter fails to achieve a hire or other deliverable specified in the contract. Moreover, the delimited/engaged search commitment fee does not follow the typical 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 model of retainers, but rather is a relatively small up-front fee which is discounted from the final placement fee of 25-35% of the successful candidate‘s first year compensation. Both retained and delimited/engaged searches involve partial payment prior to filling the job, and the contracted recruiter has the search exclusively. Therefore, the search can be customized to the client organization‘s needs, with the search professional providing a consultative service throughout the process. While both retained and delimited/engaged searches serve client employers rather than jobseeking executives, delimited/engaged search contracts always (as opposed to sometimes) state a future date when the project must be completed or the downpayment refunded.
Contingent search

As stated, contingent search firms are remunerated only upon the successful completion of the search—typically when the candidate accepts the position. These recruiters may earn 20% to 35% of the candidate's first-year base salary or total remuneration as a hiring fee; the fee may also be calculated to include the candidate's (that is, the successful hire's) median or

expected first-year bonus payout. In any case, the fee is (as always) paid by the hiring company, not the candidate/hire. Contingent firms in some of the emerging markets may quote fees in the range of 12% ro 20% as well.
Pros and cons of different executive search models

Clients (companies seeking to hire) often tend to work with contingent search firms when filling mid-level positions. As contingent search firms generally rely heavily on their contacts, and seldom work on an exclusive basis, it is not rare for a client to work with a large number of contingent recruiters on the same search at the same time, in order to maximize the volume of candidate (job seeker) resumes they receive. Beyond the increased volume of candidates that such an approach allows, contingent firms do not get paid until the placement is made (a candidate is successfully hired), and thus the search risk is shifted almost entirely to the search firms. Moreover, contingent search firms often work with clients on higher percentage fee basis, relative to retained and delimited search firms as they shoulder more risk. For senior level roles, clients often prefer to work with Recruiters who have performed in the past for them and usually will end up in the hands of a retained or delimited recruiter. By working exclusively with one firm on such searches, the client generally develops a much deeper relationship with the recruiter, and receives a much higher level of service. With all methods, retained, delimited, and contingency, clients rely on search professionals to provide not just resumes, but also insightful, consultative information about the market in general. A delimited search is often preferred by clients who are seeking a retainer-style service level, while not willing to accept the level of risk that retained search entails. While delimited search does entail up-front fees, they tend to be much smaller than total pre-placement fees that retained search entails. Moreover, delimited search professionals shoulder the risk of their own failure to execute the search within a specified time-frame, offering to refund the up-front fees in such an event. While delimited search is not as desirable for searches that are open-ended in nature, the ―ticking clock‖ is often seen by clients as an incentive that motivates delimited search recruiters to stay more active and involved throughout the hiring process.

e-recruitment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

E-Recruitment or eRecruitment is the process of personnel recruitment using electronic resources, in particular the internet.[1] Companies and recruitment agents have moved much of their recruitment process online so as to improve the speed by which candidates can be matched with live vacancies. Using database technologies, and online job advertising boards and search engines, employers can now fill posts in a fraction of the time previously possible. Using an online e-Recruitment system may potentially save the employer time as usually they can rate the eCandidate and several persons in HR independently review eCandidates. Some

recruiting companies have set up their own systems like Taleo, and even Unicef,[2] while also new companies were created to provide these services like Jobtrain, Ivy Exec, and HireServe. The internet, which reaches a large number of people and can get immediate feedback has become the major source of potential job candidates and well known as online recruitment or E-recruitment. However, it may generate many unqualified candidates and may not increase the diversity and mix of employees.[3] In terms of HRM, the internet has radically changed the recruitment function from the organisational and job seekers' perspective. Conventional methods of recruitment processes are readily acknowledged as being time-consuming with high costs and limited geographic reach. However, recruitment through World Wide Web (WWW) provides global coverage and ease. Likewise, the speedy integration of the internet into recruitment processes is primarily recognised due to the internet's unrivalled communications capabilities, which enable recruiters for written communications through e-mails, blogs and job portals.[4]

Some Facts about E-Recruitment
By 2005, expenditure on Internet-based recruiting will be $ 7 billion - Forrester Research Institute. 96% of all companies will use the Internet for their recruitment needs. In the U.S., some companies claim 30% of new hires are from the Internet and 77% of Internet users who are seeking a change, use the Net to do so. A recent survey conducted by Employment Management Association, U.S.A, the cost-per-hire of print Ads was estimated at $3295 and Online Ads, a mere $ 377. There are over 16 million resumes floating online.[5]

Dismissal (employment)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Firing) Jump to: navigation, search "Firing" redirects here. For other uses, see Firing (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
(July 2008)

Dismissal (referred to informally as firing or sacking) is the termination of employment by an employer against the will of the employee. Though such a decision can be made by an employer for a variety of reasons, ranging from an economic downturn to performancerelated problems on the part of the employee, being fired has a strong stigma in many cultures. To be fired, as opposed to quitting voluntarily (or being laid off), is often perceived as being the employee's fault,[1] and is therefore considered to be disgraceful and a sign of failure. Finding new employment may often be difficult after being fired, particularly if there is a history of being fired from previous jobs, if the reason for firing is for some serious infraction, or the employee did not hold the job very long. Job seekers will often not mention

jobs that they were fired from on their resumes; accordingly, unexplained gaps in employment are often regarded as a red flag.

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1 Usage 2 Reasons 3 Additional consequences 4 Problem employees o 4.1 Counteractions  4.1.1 Forced resignations 5 Discriminatory and retaliatory termination 6 Changes of conditions 7 Rehire following termination 8 High-profile firings 9 See also 10 References

Usage
"Firing" is a common colloquial term in the English language (particularly used in the U.S.) for termination. It is also often known as being "sacked", "canned", "axed", "given walking papers", or "boned".[2]

Reasons
Most US states have adopted the at-will employment contract that allows the employer to dismiss employees without having to provide a justified reason for firing, although the variety of court cases that have come out of "at-will" dismissals have made such at-will contracts ambiguous. Often, an at-will termination is handled as a "layoff". Sometimes, an employee will be dismissed if an employer can find better employees than the incumbent, even if the fired employee has not technically broken any rules. This is common with probationary employees who were recently hired, but who cannot adjust to the environment of the workplace, or those who have been around for a long time, but can be replaced with a less experienced employee who can be paid a lower salary. On the contrary, a dismissal in France is subjected to a just cause and a formal procedure.[3] Some firings are not so dishonorable. Some examples include conflict of interest, where the employee has done nothing wrong, but the presence of the employee on the employer's payroll may be harmful to the employer.[clarification needed] This may be the case when a family member also becomes employed by the firm. In other cases, those who report wrongdoing in the workplace, known as whistle blowers, put their job at risk because they might be retaliated on. There are many reasons why an employer may fire an employee. While many view firing as the employee's failure, firing in some cases can be the result of the employer seeing a lack of value in the employee, or the ease in replacing the employee, whereas there is no fault to the employee. Firing can be the result of a series of incidents, that when put into a larger picture,

make the employee look negative, or the result of a single incident that is considered so severe (known as gross misconduct), it is grounds for most serious action. In some cases, firing can be the result of a seemingly minor infraction, that following other violations, is viewed by the employer as the last straw. Some of the more common reasons for firing include attendance problems, poor work performance, problematic conduct, or off job-site conduct.[4] Attendance problems include frequent absenteeism or tardiness, or even worse, the "no call, no show" in which an employee does not come to work and fails to notify the employer. Other attendance problems involve improper taking of breaks, such as taking extended or unauthorized breaks or not returning on a timely manner from a break, or walking off the premises or area within of the job site without approval from the supervisor. Work performance problems can lead to termination even with good attendance at a job. An employee may be fired if their work performance does not meet the employer's standards. Some of these issues may be lack of necessary skills to perform duties, incompetence, failure to learn the required skills or processes, neglect of maintenance or safety procedures, refusal to perform duties, laziness, or negligence. Conduct problems can lead to firing if they continue over a long period. Behavioral issues may include unprofessional manners (especially in customer service jobs), constant or gross insubordination, inability to properly relate (i.e., get along) with co-workers, customers or both, arguing with supervisor, co-workers or customers, use of foul language while at work, or sleeping while on duty. With these conduct problems, the firing is frequently (but not always) part of a "progressive step" process, meaning the employee will have been warned and given an opportunity to improve before more severe measures are taken. Gross misconduct offenses can lead to immediate firing without any further warning. Gross misconduct includes damaging work equipment through negligence; discovery of false information on the job application (such as resume fraud), fighting or brawling at work; harassment of other employees, such as sexual or racial harassment; use of employer's equipment (e.g. vehicles and computers) to engage in non-work-related activity or other violations of employer policies, illegal activity, or to view pornography; testing positive for illegal drug usage; failure to submit to a mandatory drug test (especially for transportation or heavy equipment-related jobs such as machine operators); engaging in illegal activities on the job (such as embezzlement or illegal subordinate harassment); or cheating the employer out of wages by "padding" a time sheet. In some cases, an employee's off-the-job behavior could result in job loss. A common example is drunk driving, especially if the employee's principal responsibilities require driving. Often, an employee getting charged with a crime will affect the employer's ability to trust the employee. Whether off-the-job criminal charges will result in termination relates to several factors, including the nature of the offense, the nature of the job, and the values of the employer. In some types of jobs, minor convictions that are not related to the job activities may not lead to termination; a ditch digger who works with a shovel who is convicted of drunk driving may not lose their job. However, in some jobs, the perception of trust is very important, so even a non-job-related conviction, however minor, will result in termination, as in the case of banks, security firms, and schools. Another factor is the values of the employer; while some employers may believe that an employee should have a "second chance", other employers may have no tolerance for convicted individuals in their company, even if the employee has very little responsibility, as in the case of a manual labourer.

Additional consequences
Some fired employees may face additional consequences besides their dismissal. This may occur when the reason for the termination is a violation of criminal law, or if serious damages are caused to the employer as a result of the employee's actions. Such ex-employees may face criminal prosecution, a civil lawsuit, or a reporting to a database of those who have engaged in serious misconduct in such a position, so that the chances of ever obtaining a similar position with another employer are less likely. Some examples are a caregiver who engages in abuse, a bank teller who has stolen money from the cash drawer, or a member of law enforcement who has committed police brutality. For the most serious violations, especially when the employer's security may be at risk from the employee in question, a guard or officer may escort a fired employee from the workplace to the parking lot upon their dismissal. Such actions are often taken by government offices or large corporations that contain sensitive materials, and where the risk exists that the terminated employee may remove some of these materials or otherwise steal trade secrets in order to retaliate against the employer or use it to the advantage of a competing enterprise.

Problem employees
Though many employers would like to get rid of their "problem employees", some employers are reluctant to fire those who one would expect would be deserving of termination. There are many reasons for this, which may include:[5] Some positions may be hard to fill. This may be the case with a rare skilled position, or with certain low-wage jobs that are generally unattractive, where finding applicants is difficult. A person who has unusual skills, or who is doing a job that is considered undesirable, such as cleaning sewage from pipes may be hard to replace. As such, a person in this position may be retained even if they have absenteeism or conduct problems. Another reason that bosses do not fire some problem employees is from a fear of retaliation. Sometimes the employer must be concerned about various types of action the ex-employee may take against the company, such as filing a wrongful termination suit: The terminated employee may take legal action in response to the firing. While laws vary in each country and jurisdiction, many employers keep extensive documentation of disciplinary action, evaluations, attendance records, and correspondence from supervisors, co-workers and customers in order to defend themselves in the event of such a suit. Additionally, the at-will employment contract, where the law permits, allows the employer to dismiss employees without having to provide a reason, though this has sometimes been challenged in court. As well, the employer may be concerned that the employee could make a negative report to public: by divulging things about the company to others, thereby hurting their business; or that the employee may disclose trade secrets: An ex-employee may remove materials or divulge confidential information from the former employer and use it with another employer or in an independent business. Some employers may be afraid that a worker may make a report to law enforcement, in the event that the employer's practices are illegal to the law. Other fears include the risk of sabotage by damaging machinery, erasing computer files, or shredding documents; or even violence; In some most extreme cases, fired employees have attacked or even killed their former employers or the staff at their old company or organization, sometimes known in

slang as "going postal." In some cases, this has occurred several months or years after termination. Some employers terminate their staff off-site to avoid these issues. Other reasons include:

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Unemployment Insurance costs: In the United States and some other countries, such benefits are financed by employers(actually paid for from the wealth created by the employee). A firm's unemployment costs increase with each worker laid off or fired. Relationship: The problem employee may have a special relationship with the boss, which is not necessarily romantic, but the employee may be a family member or close friend, or the employee may provide other needed connections for the employer Dependence on the employee: Despite the hardships the employee brings to the organization, the employer may find the employee useful in other ways. The employee may hold some rare knowledge or skill that is not easily replaceable. Sympathy: A sympathetic boss may feel bad about firing an employee. Culture: In some cultures, it is against the values of the employer to fire a long-serving, hardworking employee, even during an economic downturn (e.g., in Japan)

Counteractions

Employers have several methods of countering some of these potential threats. A common method is forced resignation, and it allows the employee to resign as if by choice, thereby freeing the employer of the burden of a firing. Other methods used by employers include:

Termination by mutual agreement: The employer and employee make a joint decision to end employment. Though it may be debatable if the termination was truly mutual, the employer offers the employee a "softened firing" in order to reduce backlash. Severance package: The employee is offered some extended pay or benefits and a glowing reference in exchange for departure. In turn, the ex-employee agrees not to sue, file for unemployment, or take any other action that would hurt the employer. Demotion: The employee is moved to a lower position, their hours or pay are cut, or the working environment is made increasingly unattractive in hopes of getting the employee to depart voluntarily. In some cases, the employee is officially kept as an employee, but offered little or no work. Change of role: The employer may modify the employee's duties so the employee doesn't feel dishonored by the changes, but no longer performs the duties with which they were struggling. Unpaid leave: To avoid being fired as a cost-cutting measure, an employee may agree to take time off without pay, either spread out over a long period (e.g., taking off one day a week without pay over a year), or concentrated (e.g., taking off one month without pay).

Forced resignations

A forced resignation is when an employee is required to depart from their position due to some issue caused by their continued employment. A forced resignation may be due to the employer's wishes to dismiss the employee, but the employer may be offering a softened firing. Or, in a high profile position, the employee may want to leave before the press learns more negative information about one's controversial nature. To avoid this, and to allow the dismissed employee to "save face" in a more "graceful" exit, the employer will often ask the employee to resign "voluntarily" from their position. If the employee chooses not to resign, the processes necessary to fire them may be pursued, and the employee will usually be fired.

The resignation thus makes it unclear whether the resignation was forced or voluntary, and this opaqueness may benefit both parties.

Discriminatory and retaliatory termination
In some cases, the firing of an employee is a discriminatory act. Although an employer may often claim the dismissal was for "just cause", these discriminatory acts are often because of the employee's physical or mental disability, or perhaps their age, race, religion, gender, HIV status or sexual orientation. Other unjust firings may result from a workplace manager or supervisor wanting to retaliate against an employee. Often, this is because the worker reported wrongdoing (often, but not always sexual harassment or other misconduct) on the part of the supervisor. Such terminations are often illegal. Many successful lawsuits have resulted from discriminatory or retaliatory termination. Discriminatory or retaliatory termination by a supervisor can take the form of administrative process. In this form the rules of the institution are used as the basis for termination. For example, if a place of employment has a rule that prohibits personal phone calls, receiving or making personal calls can be the grounds for termination even though it may be a common practice within the organization.

Changes of conditions
Employers who wish for an employee to exit of their own accord, but do not wish to pursue firing or forced resignation, may degrade the employee's working conditions, hoping that he or she will leave "voluntarily". The employee may be moved to a different geographical location, assigned to an undesirable shift, given too few hours if part-time, demoted (or relegated to a menial task), or assigned to work in uncomfortable conditions. Other forms of manipulation may be used, such as being unfairly hostile to the employee, and punishing them for things that are deliberately overlooked with other employees. Such tactics may amount to constructive dismissal, which is illegal in some jurisdictions.

Rehire following termination
Depending on the circumstances, one whose employment has been terminated may or may not be eligible for rehired by the same employer. If the decision to terminate was the employee's, the willingness of the employer to rehire is often contingent upon the relationship the employee had with the employer, the amount of notice given by the employee prior to departure, and the needs of the employer. In some cases, when an employee departed on good terms, they may be given special priority by the employer when seeking rehire. An employee may be terminated without prejudice, meaning the fired employee may be rehired readily for the same or a similar job in the future. This is usually true in the case of layoff. Conversely, a person can be terminated with prejudice, meaning an employer will not rehire the former employee to a similar job in the future. This can be for many reasons: incompetence, misconduct (such as dishonesty or "zero tolerance" violations), insubordination or "attitude" (personality clashes with peers or bosses). Termination forms ("pink slips"in the U.S.) routinely include a set of check boxes where a supervisor can indicate "with prejudice" or "without prejudice". During the Vietnam War, the CIA used this

terminology with regard to its locally hired operatives. In the case of severe misconduct, it is alleged that the CIA would assassinate them or "terminate with extreme prejudice".[6]

High-profile firings
High-profile firing refers to the termination of an employee who is in the public spotlight. In such cases, though terminology may be similar, the rules may differ from the typical firing. For example, in professional sports, a coach's dismissal is generally referred to as a firing. However, though the employment will cease, the team may be required to pay the coach the remainder of his contract. A player on a team who faces the same action is generally not considered to be "fired", but rather "released" or "waived". In many countries and smaller jurisdictions, the chief executive reserves the right to dismiss certain officials who have been appointed to their positions, with the termination effective immediately and with no obligation for any further pay. In some cases, however, a severance package may be paid. There are times when the President of the United States will ask his entire Cabinet to submit their resignations.[citation needed] He can accept some of them and file the rest away. This is often done by a new President[citation needed] who has inherited his predecessor's Cabinet, as a way to reorganize with reduced hard feelings.
  

Layoff Turnover Employee exit management

Human resource management
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is the management of an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives (usually a labor union). HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advancement, and further research, HR now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. In startup companies, HR's duties may be performed by a handful of trained professionals or even by non-HR personnel. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HR tasks and functional

leadership engaging in strategic decision making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have created programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function. Academic and practitioner organizations likewise seek to engage and further the field of HR, as evidenced by several field-specific publications.

Contents

  

1 History o 1.1 Antecedent theoretical developments o 1.2 Birth and evolution of the discipline o 1.3 In popular media 2 Practice o 2.1 Business function o 2.2 Careers 3 Education o 3.1 Higher education o 3.2 Professional associations 4 Publications 5 See also 6 References

History
Antecedent theoretical developments

HR spawned from the human relations movement, which began in the early 20th century due to work by Frederick Taylor in lean manufacturing. Taylor explored what he termed "scientific management" (later referred to by others as "Taylorism"), striving to improve economic efficiency in manufacturing jobs. He eventually keyed in on one of the principal inputs into the manufacturing process—labor—sparking inquiry into workforce productivity.[1] The movement was formalized following the research of Elton Mayo, whose Hawthorne studies serendipitously documented how stimuli unrelated to financial compensation and working conditions—attention and engagement—yielded more productive workers.[2] Contemporaneous work by Abraham Maslow, Kurt Lewin, Max Weber, Frederick Herzberg, and David McClelland formed the basis for studies in organizational behavior and organizational theory, giving room for an applied discipline.
Birth and evolution of the discipline

By the time enough theoretical evidence existed to make a business case for strategic workforce management, changes in the business landscape (a là Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller) and in public policy (a là Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal) had transformed the employer-employee relationship, and the discipline was formalized as "industrial and labor relations". In 1913, one of the oldest known professional HR associations—the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development—was founded in

England as the Welfare Workers' Association, then changed its name a decade later to the Institute of Industrial Welfare Workers, and again the next decade to Institute of Labour Management before settling upon its current name.[3] Likewise in the United States, the world's first institution of higher education dedicated to workplace studies—the School of Industrial and Labor Relations—was formed at Cornell University in 1945.[4] During the latter half of the 20th century, union membership declined significantly, while workforce management continued to expand its influence within organizations. "Industrial and labor relations" began being used to refer specifically to issues concerning collective representation, and many companies began referring to the profession as "personnel administration". In 1948, what would later become the largest professional HR association— the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)—was founded as the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA).[5] Nearing the 21st century, advances in transportation and communications greatly facilitated workforce mobility and collaboration. Corporations began viewing employees as assets rather than as cogs in a machine. "Human resources management", consequently, became the dominant term for the function—the ASPA even changing its name to SHRM in 1998.[5] "Human capital management" is sometimes used synonymously with HR, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view of human resources; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used to describe the field include "organizational management", "manpower management", "talent management", "personnel management", and simply "people management".
In popular media

HR has been depicted in several popular media. On the U.S. television series of The Office, HR representative Toby Flenderson is sometimes seen as a nag because he constantly reminds coworkers of company policies and government regulations.[6] Long-running American comic strip Dilbert also frequently portrays sadistic HR policies through character Catbert, the "evil director of human resources".[7] Additionally, an HR manager is the title character in the 2010 Israeli film The Human Resources Manager, while an HR intern is the protagonist in 1999 French film Ressources humaines. Additionally, the BBC sitcom dinnerladies main character Philippa is an HR manager.

Practice
Business function

Dave Ulrich lists the functions of HR as: aligning HR and business strategy, re-engineering organization processes, listening and responding to employees, and managing transformation and change.[8] In practice, HR is responsible for employee experience during the entire employment lifecycle. It is first charged with attracting the right employees through employer branding. It then must select the right employees through the recruitment process. HR then onboards new hires and oversees their training and development during their tenure with the organization. HR assesses talent through use of performance appraisals and then rewards them accordingly. In fulfillment of the latter, HR may sometimes administer payroll and employee benefits, although such activities are more and more being outsourced, with HR playing a more

strategic role. Finally, HR is involved in employee terminations - including resignations, performance-related dismissals, and redundancies. At the macro-level, HR is in charge of overseeing organizational leadership and culture. HR also ensures compliance with employment and labor laws, which differ by geography, and often oversees health, safety, and security. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employee's representatives (usually a labor union). Consequently, HR, usually through industry representatives, engages in lobbying efforts with governmental agencies (e.g., in the United States, the United States Department of Labor and the National Labor Relations Board) to further its priorities. The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially pertaining to expatriates; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process. HR is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk.[9]
Careers

There are almost half a million HR practitioners in the United States and thousands more worldwide.[10] The Chief HR Officer is the highest ranking HR executive in most companies and typically reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer and works with the Board of Directors on CEO succession.[11][12] Within companies, HR positions generally fall into one of two categories: generalist and specialist. Generalists support employees directly with their questions, grievances, and projects. They "may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer's needs."[13] Specialists, conversely, work in a specific HR function. Some practitioners will spend an entire career as either a generalist or a specialist while others will obtain experiences from each and choose a path later. Being an HR manager consistently ranks as one of the best jobs, with a #4 ranking by CNN Money in 2006 and a #20 ranking by the same organization in 2009, due to its pay, personal satisfaction, job security, future growth, and benefit to society.[14][15] Human resource consulting is a related career path where individuals may work as advisers to companies and complete tasks outsourced from companies. In 2007, there were 950 HR consultancies globally, constituting a USD $18.4 billion market. The top five revenue generating firms were Mercer, Ernst & Young, Deloitte, Watson Wyatt (now part of Towers Watson), Aon (now merged with Hewitt), and PwC consulting.[16] For 2010, HR consulting was ranked the #43 best job in America by CNN Money.[17]

Education
Higher education Further information: List of human resource management graduate degree programs

The School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University was the world's first school for college-level study in HR.

Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HR and related fields. The School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University was the world's first school for college-level study in HR.[18] It continues to offer education at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels; and it operates a joint degree program with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, which HR Patriot termed the "crown jewel for aspiring HR professionals".[19] Other universities with entire colleges dedicated to the study of HR include Michigan State University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Renmin University of China. Dozens of other universities house departments and institutes related to the field, either within a business school or in another college.
Professional associations Main article: List of human resource management associations

HR education also comes by way of professional associations, which offer training and certification. The Society for Human Resource Management, which is based in the United States, is the largest professional association dedicated to HR,[10] with over 250,000 members in 140 countries.[20] It offers a suite of Professional in Human Resources (PHR) certifications through its HR Certification Institute. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, based in England, is the oldest professional HR association,with its predecessor institution being founded in 1918. Several associations also serve niches within HR. The Institute of Recruiters (IOR) is a recruitment professional association, offering members education, support and training.[21] WorldatWork focuses on "total rewards" (i.e., compensation, benefits, work life, performance, recognition, and career development), offering several certifications and training programs dealing with remuneration and work-life balance. Other niche associations include the American Society for Training & Development and Recognition Professionals International.

Human resources

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Human resource" and "Manpower" redirect here. For other uses, see Human resource (disambiguation) and Manpower (disambiguation).

Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector or an economy. "Human capital" is sometimes used synonymously with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view; i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used include "manpower", "talent", "labor" or simply "people". The professional discipline and business function that oversees an organization's human resources is called human resource management (HRM, or simply HR).

Contents

 

1 Overview o 1.1 The term in practice o 1.2 Concerns about the terminology 2 See also 3 References

Overview
The term in practice

From the corporate vision, employees are viewed as assets to the enterprise, whose value is enhanced by development. [1] Hence, companies will engage in a barrage of human resource management practices to capitalize on those assets. In governing human resources, three major trends are typically considered:
1. Demographics: the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings, insurance packages etc. 2. Diversity: the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Advocates of "workplace diversity" advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation etc. 3. Skills and qualifications: as industries move from manual to more managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "tight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc.

In regard to how individuals respond to the changes in a labor market, the following must be understood:

Geographical spread: how far is the job from the individual? The distance to travel to work should be in line with the pay offered, and the transportation and infrastructure of the area also influence who applies for a post. Occupational structure: the norms and values of the different careers within an organization. Mahoney 1989 developed 3 different types of occupational structure, namely, craft (loyalty to the profession), organization career (promotion through the firm) and unstructured (lower/unskilled workers who work when needed). Generational difference: different age categories of employees have certain characteristics, for example, their behavior and their expectations of the organization.

Concerns about the terminology

One major concern about considering people as assets or resources is that they will be commoditized and abused. Some analysis suggests that human beings are not "commodities" or "resources", but are creative and social beings in a productive enterprise. The 2000 revision of ISO 9001, in contrast, requires identifying the processes, their sequence and interaction, and to define and communicate responsibilities and authorities. In general, heavily unionised nations such as France and Germany have adopted and encouraged such approaches. Also, in 2001, the International Labour Organization decided to revisit and revise its 1975 Recommendation 150 on Human Resources Development.[2] One view of these trends is that a strong social consensus on political economy and a good social welfare system facilitates labor mobility and tends to make the entire economy more productive, as labor can develop skills and experience in various ways, and move from one enterprise to another with little controversy or difficulty in adapting. Another important controversy regards labor mobility and the broader philosophical issue with usage of the phrase "human resources". Governments of developing nations often regard developed nations that encourage immigration or "guest workers" as appropriating human capital that is more rightfully part of the developing nation and required to further its economic growth. Over time, the United Nations have come to more generally support the developing nations' point of view, and have requested significant offsetting "foreign aid" contributions so that a developing nation losing human capital does not lose the capacity to continue to train new people in trades, professions, and the arts.[3]

Human resource consulting
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Human resource consulting is an $18.4 billion industry (as of 2006) [1] that has emerged from management consulting and addresses human resource management tasks and decisions. HR Consultants are responsible for assisting clients with strategically integrating effective HR processes, programs and practices into their daily operations. Their role is also to maximize the client's performance related to human resources by introducing or marketing "best practice" products or services as well as to provide periodic feedback to clients regarding their performance related to annual management objectives. To accomplish this, the HR Consultant may need to perform needs assessments or audits and make recommendations or proposals, coordinate the creation and implementation of an action or corrective plan, and when required, organize and coordinate cross-functional Human Resource teams to assist the client with developing and implementing performance improvement corrective plans, programs or processes. The following are core fields around which most HR consultancies are based:
     

Human Capital, including remuneration (also called total rewards), employee rewards and incentive programs, and talent acquisition and management Health & Benefits; i.e., orchestrating optimal employee health plans with the carriers themselves Mergers & Acquisitions, examining fit across culture, job-type, transaction costs, etc. Communication, including surveying employee attitudes, satisfaction, engagement, and other employee behaviors Retirement Recruitment process outsourcing

Services may also include legal counseling, global initiatives, investments consulting, and the implementation of HR technologies to facilitate human capital management. The HR consulting industry also employs more actuaries than any other in order to assist in their services.

Contents
   

1 Companies in the field 2 Qualifications and certifications 3 See also 4 References

Companies in the field
HR consultancies vary in their ranges of services and sizes, with many consultants and academicians breaking off to form their own practices. In 2007, there were 950 HR consultancies globally, constituting a USD $18.4 billion market. List of major HR Consultancy firms are:[2]

           

Adecco Manpower Inc. Kenexa Corporation Randstad Holding Kelly Services Mercer Robert Half International Aon Hewitt Towers Watson Hay Group Buck Consultants Hays plc

Qualifications and certifications
Many human resource consultants have specialized qualifications or certifications, such as:
       

Accountancy: ACCA, CA, CPA, CCA Actuarial: EA, ASA, FSA, MAAA, FIA, FFA Educational: MS in Management/HR/Industrial Organizational psychology, MBA, Ph.D. in Management, DBA, J.D. Finance: CFA General consulting: CMC Health and benefits: CEBS, CBP, Compensation: CCP (Certified Compensation Professional) Human resources: Various certifications SHRM (US) CHRP (Canada) (e.g. PHR, SPHR, GPHR); MCIPD, PGDHR DHR

Job hunting
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Job search) Jump to: navigation, search For the Golden Girls episode, see List of The Golden Girls episodes#ep22. This business article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2010)

Job fair for new university graduates in Japan. See "Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates".

Job hunting, job seeking, or job searching is the act of looking for employment, due to unemployment or discontent with a current position. The immediate goal of job seeking is usually to obtain a job interview with an employer which may lead to getting hired. The job hunter or seeker typically first looks for job vacancies or employment opportunities.

Contents

1 Steps 1.1 Locating jobs 1.2 Researching the employers 1.3 Networking 1.4 Applying 1.5 Interviewing 2 Job hunting in economic theory 3 See also 4 References
o o o o o

  

Steps
Locating jobs

Common methods of job hunting are:
      

Finding a job through a friend or an extended business network, personal network, or online social network service Using an employment website Looking through the classifieds in newspapers Using a private or public employment agency or recruiter Looking on a company's web site for open jobs, typically in its applicant tracking system Going to a job fair Using professional guidance such as outplacement services that give training in writing a résumé, applying for jobs and how to be successful at interview.

As of 2010, less than 10% of U.S. jobs are filled through online ads.[1]

Researching the employers

Many job seekers research the employers to which they are applying, and some employers see evidence of this as a positive sign of enthusiasm for the position or the company, or as a mark of thoroughness. Information collected might include open positions, full name, locations, web site, business description, year established, revenues, number of employees, stock price if public, name of chief executive officer, major products or services, major competitors, and strengths and weaknesses.
Networking

Contacting as many people as possible is a highly effective way to find a job. It is estimated that 50% or higher of all jobs are found through networking.[2] Job recruiters and decision makers are increasingly using online social networking sites to gather information about job applicants, according to a mid-2011 Jobvite survey of 800 employers in the USA.[3] Job seekers need to begin to pay more attention to what employers and recruiters find when they do their pre-interview information gathering about applicants, according to this 2010 study by Microsoft, "Online Reputation in a Connected World".[4]
Applying

One can also go and hand out résumés or Curriculum Vitae to prospective employers. Another recommended method of job hunting is cold calling or emailing companies that one desires to work for and inquire to whether there are any job vacancies. After finding a desirable job, they would then apply for the job by responding to the advertisement. This may mean applying through a website, emailing or mailing in a hard copy of a résumé to a prospective employer. It is generally recommended that résumés be brief, organized, concise, and targeted to the position being sought. With certain occupations, such as graphic design or writing, portfolios of a job seeker's previous work are essential and are evaluated as much, if not more than the person's résumé. In most other occupations, the résumé should focus on past accomplishments, expressed in terms as concretely as possible (e.g. number of people managed, amount of increased sales or improved customer satisfaction).
Interviewing Main article: Job interview

Once an employer has received résumés, they will make a list of potential employees to be interviewed based on the résumé and any other information contributed. During the interview process, interviewers generally look for persons who they believe will be best for the job and work environment. The interview may occur in several rounds until the interviewer is satisfied and offers the job to the applicant.

Job hunting in economic theory
Economists use the term "frictional unemployment" to mean unemployment resulting from the time and effort that must be expended before an appropriate job is found. This type of unemployment is always present in the economy. [5] Search theory is the economic theory that studies the optimal decision of how much time and effort to spend searching, and which offers to accept or reject (in the context of a job hunt, or likewise in other contexts like searching for a low price).

Onboarding
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

A model of onboarding (adapted from Bauer & Erdogan, 2011).

Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, refers to the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders.[1] Tactics used in this process include formal meetings, lectures, videos, printed materials, or computer-based orientations to introduce newcomers to their new jobs and organizations. Research has demonstrated that these socialization techniques lead to positive outcomes for new employees such as higher job satisfaction, better job performance, greater organizational commitment, and reduction in stress and intent to quit.[2][3][4] These outcomes are particularly important to an organization looking to retain a competitive advantage in an increasingly mobile and globalized workforce. In the United States, for example, up to 25% of workers are organizational newcomers engaged in an onboarding process.[5]

Contents

      

1 Antecedents of success o 1.1 New employee characteristics o 1.2 New employee behaviors o 1.3 Organization socialization efforts  1.3.1 Socialization tactics  1.3.2 Jones's model (1986)  1.3.3 Formal orientations  1.3.4 Recruitment events  1.3.5 Mentorship 2 Employee adjustment o 2.1 Role clarity o 2.2 Self-efficacy o 2.3 Social acceptance o 2.4 Knowledge of organizational culture 3 Outcomes 4 Limits and criticisms of onboarding theory 5 Executive onboarding 6 Recommendations for practitioners 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading

Antecedents of success
Onboarding is a multifaceted operation influenced by a number of factors pertaining to both the individual newcomer and the organization. Researchers have separated these factors into three broad categories: new employee characteristics, new employee behaviors, and organizational efforts.[6] New employee characteristics are individual differences across incoming workers, ranging from personality traits to previous work experiences. New employee behaviors refer to the specific actions carried out by newcomers as they take an active role in the socialization process. Finally, organizational efforts help facilitate the process of acclimating a new worker to an establishment through activities such as orientation or mentoring programs.
New employee characteristics

Research has shown evidence that employees with certain personality traits and experiences adjust to an organization more quickly.[7] These are a proactive personality, the "Big Five", curiosity, and greater experience levels. "Proactive personality" refers to the tendency to take charge of situations and achieve control over one's environment. This type of personality predisposes some workers to engage in behaviors such as information seeking that accelerate the socialization process, thus helping them to adapt more efficiently and become high-functioning organizational members.[1] Empirical evidence also demonstrates that a proactive personality is related to increased levels of job satisfaction and performance.[8][9]

The Big Five personality traits—openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism—have been linked to onboarding success, as well. Specifically, new employees who are extraverted or particularly open to experience are more likely to seek out information, feedback, acceptance, and relationships with co-workers. They also exhibit higher levels of adjustment and tend to frame events more positively.[3] Curiosity also plays a substantial role in the newcomer adaptation process and is defined as the "desire to acquire knowledge" that energizes individual exploration of an organization's culture and norms.[10] Individuals with a curious disposition tend to frame challenges in a positive light and eagerly seek out information to help them make sense of their new organizational surroundings and responsibilities, leading to a smoother onboarding experience.[11] Employee experience levels also affect the onboarding process such that more experienced members of the workforce tend to adapt to a new organization differently from, for example, a new college graduate starting his or her first job. This is because seasoned employees can draw from past experiences to help them adjust to their new work settings and therefore may be less affected by specific socialization efforts because they have (a) a better understanding of their own needs and requirements at work[12] and (b) are more familiar with what is acceptable in the work context.[13][14] Additionally, veteran workers may have used their past experiences to seek out organizations in which they will be a better fit, giving them an immediate advantage in adapting to their new jobs.[15]
New employee behaviors

Certain behaviors enacted by incoming employees, such as building relationships and seeking information and feedback, can help facilitate the onboarding process. Newcomers can also quicken the speed of their adjustment by demonstrating behaviors that assist them in clarifying expectations, learning organizational values and norms, and gaining social acceptance.[1] Information seeking occurs when new employees ask questions of their co-workers and superiors in an effort to learn about their new job and the company's norms, expectations, procedures, and policies. Miller and Jablin (1991) developed a typology of information sought after by new hires. These include referent information, understanding what is required to function on the job (role clarity); appraisal information, understanding how effectively the newcomer is able to function in relation to job role requirements (self-efficacy); and finally, relational information, information about the quality of relationships with current organizational employees (social acceptance). By actively seeking information, employees can effectively reduce uncertainties about their new jobs and organizations and make sense of their new working environments.[16] Newcomers can also passively seek information via monitoring their surroundings or by simply viewing the company website or handbook.[1] Research has shown that information seeking by incoming employees is associated with social integration, higher levels of organizational commitment, job performance, and job satisfaction in both individualistic and collectivist cultures.[17] Feedback seeking is similar to information seeking, but it is focused on a new employee's particular behaviors rather than on general information about the job or company. Specifically, feedback seeking refers to new employee efforts to gauge how to behave in their new organization. A new employee may ask co-workers or superiors for feedback on how

well he or she is performing certain job tasks or whether certain behaviors are appropriate in the social and political context of the organization. In seeking constructive criticism about their actions, new employees learn what kinds of behaviors are expected, accepted, or frowned upon within the company or work group, and when they incorporate this feedback and adjust their behavior accordingly, they begin to blend seamlessly into the organization.[18] Instances of feedback inquiry vary across cultural contexts such that individuals high in selfassertiveness and cultures low in power distance report more feedback seeking than newcomers in cultures where self-assertiveness is low and power distance is high.[19] Also called networking, relationship building involves an employee's efforts to develop camaraderie with co-workers and even supervisors. This can be achieved informally through simply talking to their new peers during a coffee break or through more formal means such as taking part in pre-arranged company events. Research has shown relationship building to be a key part of the onboarding process, leading to outcomes such as greater job satisfaction and better job performance,[2] as well as decreased stress.[4]
Organization socialization efforts

Organizations also invest a great amount of time and resources into the training and orientation of new company hires. [20] Organizations differ in the variety of socialization activities they offer in order to integrate productive new workers. Possible activities include their socialization tactics, formal orientation programs, recruitment strategies, and mentorship opportunities.
Socialization tactics

Socialization tactics, or orientation tactics, are designed based on an organization's needs, values, and structural policies. Some organizations favor a more systematic approach to socialization, while others follow a more "sink or swim" approach in which new employees are challenged to figure out existing norms and company expectations without guidance.
Van Maanen and Schein model (1979)

John Van Maanen and Edgar H. Schein have identified at least six major tactical dimensions that characterize and represent all of the ways in which organizations may differ in their approaches to socialization.
Collective versus Individual socialization

Collective socialization refers to the process of taking a group of recruits who are facing a given boundary passage and putting them through the same set of experiences together. Examples of this include: basic training/boot camp for a military organization, pledging for fraternities/sororities, education in graduate schools, and so forth. Socialization in the Individual mode allows newcomers to accumulate unique experiences separate from other newcomers. Examples of this process include: Apprenticeship programs, specific internships, ―on-the-job‖ training, etc.[21]
Formal vs. Informal socialization

Formal socialization refers to those tactics in which newcomers are more or less segregated from others and trained of the job. These processes can be witnessed with such socialization programs as police academies, internships, and apprenticeships. Informal socialization processes, on the other hand, involve little separation between newcomers and the existing employees, nor is there any effort made to distinguish the newcomer‘s role specifically. Informal tactics provides a non-interventional environment for recruits to learn their new roles via trial and error. Examples of informal socialization include on-the-job training assignments, apprenticeship programs with no clearly defined role, and more generally, any situation in which a newcomer is placed into a work group with no recruit role.[21]
Sequential vs. Random socialization

Sequential socialization refers to the degree to which an organization or occupation specifies discrete and identifiable steps for the newcomers to know what phases they need to go through. Random socialization occurs when the sequences of steps leading to the targeted role are unknown, and the entire progression is quite ambiguous. In other words, while there are numerous steps or stages leading to specific organizational roles, there is necessarily no specific order in which the steps should be taken.[21]
Fixed vs. Variable socialization

This dimension refers to the extent to which the steps have a timetable developed by the organization and communicated to the recruit in order to convey when the socialization process is complete. Fixed socialization provides a recruit with the exact knowledge of the time it will take complete a given passage. For instance, some management trainees can be put on ― fast tracks‖ where they are required to accept new rotational assignment on an annual basis despite their own preferences. Variable socialization processes gives a newcomer no specific timetable, but a few clues as to when to expect a given boundary passage. This type of socialization is commonly associated upwardly mobile careers within business organizations because of several uncontrolled factors such as the state of the economy or turnover rates which determine whether any given newcomer will be promoted to a higher level or not.[21]
Serial vs. Disjunctive socialization

A serial socialization process refers to experienced members of the organization grooming the newcomers who are about to occupy similar positions within the organization. These experience members essentially serve as role models for the inexperienced newcomers. A prime example of serial socialization would be a rookie police officer getting assigned patrol duties with an experienced veteran who has been in law enforcement for a lengthy period of time. Disjunctive socialization, in contrast, refers to when newcomers are not following the guidelines of their predecessors, and there are no role models to inform new recruits on how to fulfill their duties.[21]
Investiture vs. Divestiture socialization

This tactic refers to the degree to which a socialization process either affirms or disaffirms the identity of the newly entering recruit. Investiture socialization processes sanction and document for newcomers the viability and efficacy of the personal characteristics that they

bring to the organization. When organizations use this socialization process it prefers that the recruit remains the exact way that he or she naturally behaves and the organization merely makes use of the skills, values, and attitudes that the recruit is believed to have in their possession. Divestiture socialization, on the other hand, is a process that organizations use to reject and remove the certain personal characteristics of a recruit. Many occupations and organizations require newcomers to sever previous ties, and forget old habits in order to create a new self-image based upon new assumptions.[21] Thus, tactics influence the socialization process by defining the type of information newcomers receive, the source of this information, and the ease of obtaining it.[21]
Jones's model (1986)

Building upon the work of Van Maanen and Schein, Jones (1986) proposed that the previous six dimensions could be reduced to two categories: institutionalized and individualized socialization. Companies that use institutionalized socialization tactics implement structured step-by-step programs, enter into an orchestrated orientation as a group, and receive help from an assigned role model or mentor. Examples of organizations using institutionalized tactics include the military, in which new recruits undergo extensive training and socialization activities through a participative cohort, as well as incoming freshmen at universities, who may attend orientation weekends before beginning classes. On the opposite end of the spectrum, other organizations use individualized socialization tactics in which the new employee immediately starts working on his or her new position and figures out company norms, values, and expectations along the way. In this orientation system, individuals must play a more proactive role in seeking out information and initiating work relationships.[22]
Formal orientations

Regardless of the socialization tactics utilized, formal orientation programs can facilitate understanding of company culture, and introduces new employees to their work roles and the organizational social environment. Formal orientation programs may consist of lectures, videotapes, and written material, while other organizations may rely on more usual approaches. More recent approaches such as computer-based orientations and Intranets have been used by organizations to standardize training programs across branch locations. A review of the literature indicates that orientation programs are successful in communicating the company's goals, history, and power structure.[citation needed]
Recruitment events

Recruitment events play a key role in identifying which prospective employees are a good fit with an organization. Recruiting events allow employees to gather initial information about an organization's expectations and company culture. By providing a realistic job preview of what life inside the organization is like, companies can weed out potential employees who are clearly a misfit to an organization and individuals can identify which employment agencies are the most suitable match for their own personal values, goals, and expectations. Research has shown that new employees who receive a great amount of accurate information about the job and the company tend to adjust better.[23] Organizations can also provide realistic job previews by offering internship opportunities.

Mentorship

Mentorship has demonstrated importance in the socialization of new employees.[24][25] Ostroff and Kozlowski (1993) discovered that newcomers with mentors become more knowledgeable about the organization than did newcomers without mentors. Mentors can help newcomers better manage their expectations and feel comfortable with their new environment through advice-giving and social support.[26] Chatman (1991) found that newcomers are more likely to have internalized the key values of their organization's culture if they had spent time with an assigned mentor and attended company social events. Literature has also suggested the importance of demographic matching between organizational mentors and protégés.[24] Enscher & Murphy (1997) examined the effects of similarity (race and gender) on the amount of contact and quality of mentor relationships. Results indicate that liking, satisfaction, and contact were higher in conditions of perceived mentor-protégé similarity.[27]

Employee adjustment
In order to increase the success of an onboarding program, it is important for an organization to monitor how well their new hires are adjusting to their new roles, responsibilities, peers, supervisors, and the organization at large. Researchers have noted that role clarity, selfefficacy, social acceptance, and knowledge of organizational culture are particularly good indicators of well-adjusted new employees who have benefitted from an effective onboarding system.
Role clarity

Role clarity describes a new employee's understanding of his or her job responsibilities and organizational role. One of the goals of an onboarding process is to aid newcomers in reducing ambiguity and uncertainty so that it is easier for them to get their jobs done correctly and efficiently. A poor onboarding program, for example, may produce employees who exhibit sub-par productivity because they are unsure of their exact roles and responsibilities. On the other hand, a strong onboarding program would produce employees who are especially productive because they know exactly what is expected of them in their job tasks and their organizational role. Given this information, it is easy to see why an organization would benefit substantially from increasing role clarity for a new employee. Not only does role clarity imply greater productivity, but it has also been linked to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment.[28]
Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy is the degree to which new employees feel capable of successfully completing their assigned job tasks and fulfilling their responsibilities. It makes logical sense that employees who feel as though they can get the job done would fare better than those who feel overwhelmed in their new positions, and unsurprisingly, researchers have found that job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover are all correlated with feelings of selfefficacy.[3]

Social acceptance

Social acceptance gives new employees the support needed to be successful. While role clarity and self-efficacy are important to a newcomer's ability to meet the requirements of a job, the feeling of "fitting in" can do a lot for one's perception of the work environment and has been demonstrated to increase commitment to an organization and decrease turnover.[3] If an employee feels well received by his or her peers, a personal investment in the organization develops, and leaving becomes less likely.
Knowledge of organizational culture

Knowledge of organizational culture refers to how well a new employee understands a company's values, goals, roles, norms, and overall organizational environment. For example, some organizations may have very strict, yet unspoken, rules of how interactions with superiors should be conducted or whether overtime hours are the norm and an expectation. Knowledge of one's organizational culture is important for the newcomer looking to adapt to a new company, as it allows for social acceptance and aids in completing work tasks in a way that meets company standards. Overall, knowledge of organizational culture has been linked to increased satisfaction and commitment, as well as decreased turnover.[29]

Outcomes
Historically, organizations have overlooked the influence of business practices in shaping enduring work attitudes and thus have continually underestimated their impact on financial success.[30] Employees' job attitudes are particularly important from an organization's perspective because of their link to employee engagement and performance on the job. Employee engagement attitudes, such as satisfaction with one's job and organizational commitment or loyalty, have important implications for an employee's work performance and intentions to stay with or quit an organization. This translates into strong monetary gains for organizations as research has demonstrated that individuals who are highly satisfied with their jobs and who exhibit high organizational commitment are likely to perform better and remain in an organization, whereas individuals who have developed negative attitudes (are highly dissatisfied and unattached to their jobs) are characterized by low performance and high turnover rates.[30][31] Unengaged employees are very costly to organizations in terms of slowed performance and rehiring expenses. Since, attitudinal formations begin from the initial point of contact with an organization, practitioners would be wise to take advantage of positive attitudinal development during socialization periods in order to ensure a strong, productive, and dedicated workforce.

Limits and criticisms of onboarding theory
Although the outcomes of socialization organization have been positively associated with the process of uncertainty reduction, they may not necessarily be desirable to all organizations. Jones (1986) as well as Allen and Meyer (1990) found that socialization tactics were related to commitment, but they were negatively correlated to role clarity.[22][32] Because formal socialization tactics insulate the newcomer from their full responsibilities while ―learning the ropes‖, there is a potential for role confusion once expected to fully enter the organization. In some cases though, organizations may even desire a certain level of person-organizational misfit in order to achieve outcomes via innovative behaviors.[6] Depending on the culture of

the organization, it may be more desirable to increase ambiguity despite the potentially negative connection with organizational commitment. Additionally, socialization researchers have had major concern over the length of time that it takes newcomers to adjust. There has been great difficulty determining the role that time plays, but once the length of the adjustment is determined, organizations can make appropriate recommendations regarding what matters most in various stages of the adjustment process.[6] Further criticisms include the use of special orientation sessions to educate newcomers about the organization and strengthen their organizational commitment. While these sessions have been found to be often formal and ritualistic, several studies have found them unpleasant or traumatic.[33] Orientation sessions are a frequently used socialization tactic, however, employees have not found them to be helpful, nor has any research provided any evidence for their benefits.[34][35][36][37][38]

Executive onboarding
Executive onboarding is the application of general onboarding principles to helping new executives become productive members of an organization. Practically, executive onboarding involves acquiring, accommodating, assimilating and accelerating new executives.[39] Proponents emphasize the importance of making the most of the "honeymoon" stage of a hire, a period which has been described by various sources as either the first 90 to 100 days or the first full year.[40][41][42] Effective onboarding of new executives can be one of the most important contributions any hiring manager, direct supervisor or human resources professional can make to long-term organizational success, because executive onboarding done right can improve productivity and executive retention, and build shared corporate culture. A study of 20,000 searches revealed that 40 percent of executives hired at the senior level are pushed out, fail, or quit within 18 months.[43] Onboarding may be especially valuable for externally recruited executives transitioning into complex roles, because it may be difficult for those individuals to uncover personal, organizational, and role risks in complicated situations when they don't have formal onboarding assistance.[44] Onboarding is also an essential tool for executives promoted into new roles and/or transferred from one business unit to another.[45] It is often valuable to have new executives start some onboarding activities in the "Fuzzy Front End" even before their first day.[46] This is one of ten steps executives can follow to accelerate their onboarding.[47]
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Position yourself for success Choose how to engage the context and culture Embrace and leverage the Fuzzy Front End before day one Take control of day one: Make a powerful first impression Drive action by activating and directing ongoing communication Embed a strong burning imperative Exploit key milestones to drive team performance Over-invest in early wins to build team confidence

9. Secure adept people in the right roles and deal with the inevitable resistance 10. Evolve people, plans, and practices to capitalize on changing circumstances.

Recommendations for practitioners
Ultimately, practitioners should seek to design an onboarding strategy that takes individual newcomer characteristics into consideration and encourages proactive behaviors, such as information seeking, that help facilitate the development of role clarity, self-efficacy, social acceptance, and knowledge of organizational culture. Research has consistently shown that doing so produces valuable outcomes such as high job satisfaction (the extent to which one enjoys the nature of his or her work), organizational commitment (the connection one feels to an organization), and job performance in employees, as well as lower turnover rates and decreased intent to quit. In terms of structure, empirical evidence indicates that formal institutionalized socialization is the most effective onboarding method. New employees who complete these kinds of programs tend to experience more positive job attitudes and lower levels of turnover in comparison to those who undergo individualized tactics.[6][48] Finally, it is also important to note that in-person onboarding techniques are more effective than virtual ones. Though it may initially appear to be less expensive for a company to use a standard computer-based orientation program to introduce their new employees to the organization, research has demonstrated that employees learn more about their roles and company culture through faceto-face orientation

Personality–job fit theory
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Personality-Job Fit Theory) Jump to: navigation, search This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (September
2011)

The personality–job fit theory postulates that a person's personality traits will reveal insight as to adaptability within an organization. The degree of confluence between a person and the organization is expressed as their Person-Organization (P-O) fit.[1] This is also referred to as a person–environment fit[2][3][4] A common measure of the P-O fit is workplace efficacy; the rate at which workers are able to complete tasks. These tasks are mitigated by workplace environs- for example, a worker who works more efficiently as an individual than in a team will have a higher P-O fit for a workplace that stresses individual tasks (such as accountancy).[5] By matching the right personality with the right company workers can achieve a better synergy and avoid pitfalls such as high turnover and low job satisfaction. Employees are more likely to stay committed to organisations if the fit is 'good'. In practice, P-O fit would be used to gauge integration with organizational competencies. The Individual is assessed on these competencies, which reveals efficacy, motivation, influence, and co-worker respect. Competencies can be assessed using various tools like psychological tests, competency based interview, situational analysis, etc.

If the Individual displays a high P-O fit,, we can say that the Individual would most likely be able to adjust to the company environment and work culture, and would be able to perform at an optimum level.

Recruitment advertising
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007) Recruitment advertising, also known as Recruitment communications and Recruitment agency, includes all communications used by an organization to attract talent to work within it. Recruitment advertisements may be the first impression of a company for many people, and the first impression the firm makes goes a long way to determining interest in the job opening being advertised. Recruitment advertisements typically have a uniform layout and contain the following elements:
     

the job title heading and location an explanatory paragraph describing the company, including the Employer Brand a description of the position entry qualifications the remuneration package (not always provided by the employer) further details and from where application forms may be sought

In the United Kingdom many recruitment advertisements fail to provide all the information listed above and this is frustrating for potential applicants. When faced with hiring many roles, corporate employers have many channels and options to choose from. They may:
         

A retained search firm A contingency search firm Retain a recruitment process outsourcing organization Use a candidate fulfillment service Retain a recruitment advertising agency Retain a specialist interactive recruitment advertising agency Leverage old media to advertise their openings (print, radio and television) Leverage job boards Leverage new media Invest in additional internal resources

Each of these channels has its benefits and many firms will use a mix of some or all of the above options.

The use of a specialist recruitment advertising agency enables organisations to receive professional advice on media, design and copywriting specifically related to the recruitment process. This enables their advertisement to stand out in the relevant publication and build an employment brand. Advertisers are now able to use micro-sites to put most of the job content and allowing the advert to be more creative with minimal copy. Recruitment advertising has now developed into a speciality service where most leading organisations use the services of a specialist agency. The way companies hunt for talent is changing[citation needed] and this had led to sites that freelancers can sign up to and get to bid on jobs advertised; they are normally free to join but the agency will take between 10% and 25% of what you[who?] earn.

Recruitment process outsourcing
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
(October 2006)

Recruitment Process Outsourcing is a form of business process outsourcing (BPO) where an employer outsources or transfers all or part of its recruitment activities to an external service provider. The Recruitment Process Outsourcing Association defines RPO as follows: "when a provider acts as a company's internal recruitment function for a portion or all of its jobs. RPO providers manage the entire recruiting/hiring process from job profiling through the onboarding of the new hire, including staff, technology, method and reporting. A properly managed RPO will improve a company's time to hire, increase the quality of the candidate pool, provide verifiable metrics, reduce cost and improve governmental compliance."[1] The RPO Alliance, a group of the Human Resources Outsourcing Association (HROA), approved this definition in February 2009: "Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) is a form of business process outsourcing (BPO) where an employer transfers all or part of its recruitment processes to an external service provider. An RPO provider can provide its own or may assume the company's staff, technology, methodologies and reporting. In all cases, RPO differs greatly from providers such as staffing companies and contingent/retained search providers in that it assumes ownership of the design and management of the recruitment process and the responsibility of results."[2] Occasional recruitment support, for example temporary, contingency and executive search services, is more analogous to out-tasking, co-sourcing or just sourcing. In this model, the service provider is just a source for certain types of recruitment activity.[3] The distinction

between RPO and other types of staffing is that in RPO, the service provider assumes control of the process.

Contents
   

1 History 2 Benefits 3 Risks 4 References

History
While temporary, contingency and executive search firms have operated for many decades, the outsourcing of part or all of a company's recruiting process was first realized on a consistent basis in the 1970s. In Silicon Valley's highly competitive high-tech labor market, fast-growing high-tech companies were hard-pressed to locate and hire the technical specialists they required, and so found themselves required to pay large fees to specialized external recruiters. Over time, companies began to examine how they might reduce the growing expenses of recruitment fees while still hiring hard-to-find technical specialists, and began to examine the steps in the recruiting process with an eye toward outsourcing only those portions that they had the greatest difficulty with and that added the greatest value to them. Initial RPO programs typically consisted of companies purchasing lists of potential candidates from RPO vendors. This "search/research" function, as it was called, generated names of competitors' employees for a company and served to augment the pool of potential candidates from which that company could hire. Over time, as business in general embraced the concept of outsourcing, RPO gained favor among human resource management, to reduce overhead costs from their budgets, and improve the company's competitive advantage in the labor market. As labor markets became more competitive, RPO became more of an acceptable option. Furthermore, through the advent in the 1980s and 1990s of human resources outsourcing (HRO) companies that began taking on the processes associated with benefits, taxes and payroll, companies began recognizing that recruiting should also be considered for outsourcing. In the early 2000s, more[citation needed] companies increasingly considered the outsourcing of recruitment for major portions of their recruiting need. Fundamental changes in the US labor market also serve to reinforce the use of RPO: The labor market has become increasingly dynamic: workers today change employers more often than in previous generations. De-regulated labor markets have also created a shift towards contract and part-time labor and shorter work tenures. These trends increase recruitment activity and may encourage the use of RPO.[citation needed] In the UK, James Caan (also known for his Dragons' Den role on BBC television) was the first to develop RPO in the 1990s and still offers global RPO solutions through his company, HB Retinue. RPO in the UK can now be considered to be in its third generation. With a much more flexible and consultitative approach, RPO providers are increasing their ability to implement changes with much less disruption to client's systems and processes, reducing risk whilst maintaining the values of an implementation.

Everest Group estimates the current size of the RPO market at US$1.4billion in annualized spend with a growth rate of over 25% in 2010-11.[4] The process has moved beyond a nascent stage to a highly competitive environment with multiple service providers and more complex forms of RPO such as multi-country RPO and blended RPO (managing permanent and temporary hires within the same arrangement).

Benefits
RPO providers claim the method has lower costs because the economies of scale enables them to offer recruitment processes at lower cost while economies of scope allow them to operate as high-quality specialists. Those economies of scale and scope arise from a larger staff of recruiters, databases of candidate resumes, and investment in recruitment tools and networks. RPO solutions are also claimed to change fixed investment costs into variable costs that flex with fluctuation in recruitment activity. Companies may pay by transaction rather than by staff member, thus avoiding under-utilization or forcing costly layoffs of recruitment staff when activity is low. They also claim higher quality, because the commercial relationship between an RPO provider and a client is likely to be based on specific performance targets. With remuneration dependent on the attainment of such targets, an RPO provider will concentrate their resources in the most effective way - at times to the exclusion of non-core activity. Traditional internal recruitment teams are less likely to have such clearly defined performance targets.

Risks
RPO can only succeed together with a well-defined corporate staffing strategy. A company must manage its RPO activities, providing initial direction and continued monitoring to assure good results. An RPO solution may not work if the company's existing recruitment processes are performing poorly, or if the service provider lacks the necessary recruitment processes or procedures to work with the client. In these situations, it is better for the company to undergo a recruitment optimisation programme. Cost and quality can be issues, The cost of engaging an RPO provider may be more than with internal recruiting staff, as the outside provider is likely to have higher business overhead. Poorly implemented RPO could reduce the effectiveness of recruitment, if the provider does not understand the business situation. Service providers may fail to provide the quality or volume of staff required, especially in industry sectors where there are staff shortages. RPO providers do not necessarily act as custodians of their clients' employer brand in the way that a strongly aligned retained search firm or internal recruiting resource would. Many RPO organisations perform their staffing functions and service offsite or offshore, disconnecting the provider from the client company's growth and recruiting strategy, and some of the momentum and energy associated with the rapid upscaling of a workforce through recruitment may dissipate. Additionally, placing all recruitment in the hands of a single outside provider may discourage the competition that would arise if multiple recruitment providers were used.

Sourcing (personnel)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
(May 2012)

Sourcing in personnel management work refers to the identification and uncovering of candidates (also known as talent) through proactive recruiting techniques.

Contents
 

       

1 Historical context 2 Detailed definition o 2.1 Primary sourcing/phone sourcing o 2.2 Secondary sourcing (internet sourcing) 3 Examples of sourcing techniques o 3.1 Proactive techniques 4 Examples of what sourcing is not o 4.1 Reactive techniques 5 Natural habitat 6 Specialization: internet researching 7 Specialization: Telephone Sourcing 8 Specialization: diversity sourcing 9 Specialization: Acquisourcing 10 References

Historical context
The evolution of recruiting has changed significantly over the last few decades. What started out as the responsibility of office managers to place job advertisements in newspapers or help wanted signs to attract potential employees has now grown into a multibillion-dollar industry, where the identification of talent requires internal corporate recruitment departments or employment agencies solely focused on this transaction through both proactive and new reactive recruiting techniques. Today the actual act of identifying candidates has even been split into dedicated roles and job functions, whereas historically sourcing was the sole and inclusive responsibility of the recruiter along with other job responsibilities (examples):
  

Screen and interview candidates against the position requirements Work closely with the hiring manager on hiring activities Help with the "offer letter" and interview

A third-party recruitment agency or corporate recruiting department may be made up of individuals dedicated to just the sourcing of candidates while recruiters can either focus on more account management responsibilities or leverage sourcing experts to supplement an additional volume of potential candidates. An increasing number of agencies and corporate recruiting departments outsource this work to a Recruitment Process Outsourcing vendor.

Detailed definition
The actual act of sourcing for candidates is performed by either a recruiter (be it an internal corporate recruiter or agency recruiter) or a dedicated recruiter just focused on the sourcing function. The definition of sourcing needs to be clearly defined by what it is, as much as what it is not. Candidate sourcing activity typically ends once the name, job title, job function and contact information for the potential candidate is determined by the candidate sourcer. To further develop a list of names that were sourced some companies have a second person then reach out to the names on the list to initiate a dialogue with them with the intention of prescreening the candidate against the job requirements and gauging the interest level in hearing about new job opportunitites. This activity is called "candidate profiling" or "candidate prescreening". The term candidate sourcing should not be confused with candidate research. In some situations a person that "sources" candidates can and will perform both 'primary' and 'secondary' sourcing techniques to identify candidates as well as the candidate profiling to further pre-screen candidates but there is a growing market for experts solely focused on "telephone sourcing", "internet sourcing/researching" and candidate profiling. The actual act to source candidates can usually be split out into two clearly defined techniques: primary sourcing and secondary sourcing.
Primary sourcing/phone sourcing

In recruiting and sourcing, this means the leveraging of techniques (primarily the phone) to identify candidates with limited to no presence of these individuals in any easily accessible public forum (the Internet, published list, etc.). It requires the uncovering of candidate information via a primary means of calling directly into organizations to uncover data on people, their role, title and responsibilities. The term "phone sourcers" or "phone name generator" or "telephone names sourcer" generally applies to the utilization of primary sourcing techniques.[1]
Secondary sourcing (internet sourcing)

In recruiting and sourcing, this means using of techniques (primarily Internet research and utilizing advanced Boolean operators) to identify candidates. Individuals in the recruiting industry that have deep expertise in uncovering talent in the harder to reach places on the internet (forums, blogs, alumni groups, conference attendee lists, personal home pages, social networks etc.). With the boom of social networks and the more people sharing information about themselves on the internet the amount of data has become unmanageable. Many time sourcers turn to application to help them data mine this information. There are application for every majors social site that allow you screen scrape information, or they turn to sites like http://www.namegeneration.net, http://www.data.com, http://www.repleaf.com for social data points.

The term "internet sourcer", "Internet name generator" or "internet researcher" generally applies to the use of secondary sourcing techniques.[2][3]

Examples of sourcing techniques
Sourcing for candidates refers to proactively identifying people who are either a) not actively looking for job opportunities (passive candidates) or b) candidates who are actively searching for job opportunities (active candidates), though the industry also recognizes the existence of 'active candidate sourcing' using candidate databases, job boards and the like. Though there has been much debate within the staffing community as to how to accurately define an "active candidate" versus a "passive candidate," typically either term is irrelevant to a candidate sourcer as the status of any particular candidate can change from moment to moment or with a simple phone call from a recruiter that happens to present a job opportunity. The status of being an "active" or "passive" candidate is fluid and changes depending on the circumstances, including the position being offered. Activities related to sourcing in recruiting can also be categorized into "push activities" and "pull activities." Push activities are activities undertaken to reach out to the target audience. This generally includes headhunting, HTML mailers, referral follow-ups, etc. Pull activities are activities that result in applicants coming to know of an opportunity on their own. Pull activities may include the following: advertising on a microsite with a registration process (this makes search engines index the ad), advertising (in newspapers, on cable TV, through flyers/leaflets, etc.), posting a job in job portals, etc. In summary, a push activity is akin to a direct marketing activity, whereas pull activities are more indirect marketing of the same concept. Both ideally result in applicants becoming interested and the interest triggering a response (applying, referring, calling, sending an SMS, etc.). These action triggers are also sometimes referred to as Call To Action (CTA) steps.
Proactive techniques 1. Using Boolean operators on major search engine sites (Google, Live.com, Yahoo!, etc.) to identify potential candidates who might meet the criteria of the position to be filled based on targeted keywords. Example string in Google: "SAP consultant" (resume | CV | "curriculum vitae").[4] 2. Searching for candidates in job board resume databases] using keywords related to the position requirements. 3. Looking in own recruitment database. 4. Networking with individuals to uncover candidates. This includes the use of social networking tools and sites such as LinkedIn. 5. "Phone sourcing" or cold calling into companies that might contain individuals that match the key requirements of the position that needs to be filled.

Examples of what sourcing is not
Reactive techniques 1. Reviewing candidates who have applied to positions through the corporate/agency web site

2. Processing an employee referral 3. Corporate recruiter receiving candidates from employment agencies 4. Screening candidates at a career fair

Natural habitat
By nature of the position, recruiters do not have the time to conduct primary research and initial candidate development. A typical recruiter is bombarded with calls all day from vendors, busy processing candidates, meeting with hiring managers, and talking with employees. Those distractions can throw off an otherwise excellent Internet search or telephone sourcer. Sourcers must remain focused on the search and development of leads just as recruiters must remain focused on maintaining communication with candidates in process, enforcing HR policies, attending meetings, negotiating, and handling the hiring from initial offer to onboarding.

Specialization: internet researching
Internet research is a highly specialized field that takes time to master. Many of the best sourcers started out as recruiters who found they enjoy the ―thrill of the hunt‖ more than the rest of the process and became successful because of their heightened research skills and abilities. Another common origin for strong sourcers is from professions where research or investigative skills are an imperative (journalists, librarians, fact-checkers, academic researchers, etc.), which is a common skillset within the field of competitive intelligence. Several recruiters can rely on the same sourcer to generate leads and fill their pipelines with pre-screened or pre-qualified candidates. Sourcers are often the initial point of contact with a candidate, qualifying whether they are a real job seeker or just a job shopper. As a result, sourcers are uniquely positioned to sell or ―pre-close‖ candidates before the candidates enter the rest of the recruitment process.[5]

Specialization: Telephone Sourcing
Phone sourcing is using the telephone to gain information about a topic or person. In personnel sourcing, the telephone is used to locate persons with specific titles or job functions inside specific organizations. It is considered "primary" research and as such is not to be confused with the practice of finding information elsewhere (on the Internet) and then using the telephone to "check" it for verification (is the person "still there"; has the person's title changed?). True phone sourcing is practiced by a minority in the personnel sourcing community and requires a mastery of verbal communication techniques. Telephone sourcing brings forth the majority of the existing workforce that are not locatable on the Internet. "Not locatable" means that a potential candidate cannot be located (tracked) on the Internet because that potential candidate has not left a footprint large enough to include information that would link them to a specific (boolean) inquiry. It is a recognized fact that some industries/professions are better represented than others on the Internet; Information Technology (IT) and Recruiting being some of the most well represented[citation needed].

Specialization: diversity sourcing
Corporate recruiters specializing in the sourcing of candidates for inclusion in a diverse candidate pool. Methods include searching for specific keywords [6] found on resumes, sourcing from affinity groups and researching other communities.

Specialization: Acquisourcing
Acqui-sourcing (adjective) meaning (acquisition + sourcing) translates to sourcing for acquisition; is a newly coined term, word or phrase, that is in the process of entering common use. Acquisourcing is a solution for companies that are interested in acquihiring. There is a school of thought that as demand increases for talent (especially technical talent) it becomes harder and harder to recruit (acquire) that talent. Some companies are turning to a technique called acquihiring wherein they acquire whole workforces by purchasing a company just to acquire that company's workforce. Many times product lines and market verticals are discarded in this process - the (only) objective being to acquire a talented workforce. acqui-hiring (acquisition + hiring) translates to hiring by acquisition. Acquisourcing is the function of searching out (sourcing) those companies to be purchased (specifically for their workforces) by identifying and speaking with their owners about their willingness to be acquired by another company. It is new terminology in the recruiting, market development, competitive intelligence and mergers & acquisitions (M&A) space. One feature that is driving acquihiring and the need for acquisourcing is the desire to acquire whole teams inside companies because there is recognition emerging that development efforts are many times enhanced by a team that already works well together. Acquisourcing is a process that identifies a potential acquisition candidate followed by a live approach to the owner(s) with an inquiry as to their interest in being acquired by (or partnering with) another company.

Trends in pre-employment screening
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Background check. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2010.

A number of companies publish annual research into pre-employment screening, applicant fraud and its effect on business.

Contents
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1 The market 2 Background Verification 3 Male/female 4 Impact of qualifications 5 Impact of seniority and age 6 References

The market
Larger companies are more likely to outsource than their smaller counterparts – the average staff size of the companies who outsource is 3,313 compared to 2,162 for those who carry out in-house checks. Primary step will be to screen the resume from a list of prospective applicants. A preliminary telephonic or web based interview is held to identify the range of discrepancy within the resume and the interviewee. Such a move also helps to identify whether the resume is professionally written, elaborated or involve resume fraud. Further a series of resumes are shortlisted. Financial services firms outsource the service the most, with over a quarter (26%) doing so, compared to an overall average of 16% who outsource vetting to a third party provider. However, recent research by Powerchex shows a reverse in the trend. They found that in the 2006/7 period CV discrepancies had fallen by 31% to 13%.[1]

Background Verification
Pre-screening background verification and post-interview background checks are two strategies that are involved in pre-employment screening. Pre-screening background verification is deployed when the even the interview will contain data or information which are vital for the organization to disclose. Such a strategy is used mostly in the Military, strategic industries and higher levels of employees. While post-hiring background verification occurs once the resumes are shortlisted for pre-employment screening. Third party background verification firms allow candidates to screen their own backgrounds on basis of identity, address, references, criminal background checks, drug test, financial records, court record checks and driving license verification and to verify the authenticity of their resume. Such a strategy allows candidates to gain a preferential advantage as it reduces background check expenses from the point of view of the recruiter.

Male/female
It is alleged that men stand a higher chance of clearing the pre-employment screening than women. However equality of opportunity gives women an equal platform for employment as some firms like Facebook, Google insist the candidates not to disclose about their gender during pre-employment screening. This reduces gender bias during stages of pre-employment

screening. Women are marginally more likely to have a discrepancy on their CV: 13% of applicants submitted by women have a discrepancy compared to only 10% of those for men

Impact of qualifications
Graduates have marginally less discrepancies: 13% of their CVs contain a discrepancy compared to 17% of non-graduates.

Impact of seniority and age
Since Equal Opportunity or Equality of Opportunity is considered important and ethical in the job market, seniority of age is left to question in the preliminary stages of preemployment screening. However the age of the candidate can be verified from various documents that are mandatory to be submitted. However the recent trend is to follow the equality of opportunity to all the candidates at the preliminary stages of screening. Someone in a junior administrative position is 23% more likely to have a discrepancy on their CV than in a managerial role. An applicant aged under 20 is 26% more likely to have a discrepancy than a 51-60 year old.[2]