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Meaning of Research Design: After deciding the basic aspects of research project (i.e.

formulating research problem, objectives of research, data requirement, sample design, etc) and before the commencement of work of research project, the researcher has to prepare research design. It is a major step in the research process /procedure. The research work will be conducted (i.e. data collection, etc) as per the research design prepared. Research design means to prepare detailed plan and procedures for the conduct of the research project. It is like preparing a master plan/blue print for the conduct of formal investigation. It is the basic plan that guides researcher in the execution of the research project undertaken. It is like road map which enables the researcher to conduct various activities for the completion of research project. In short, research design is a systematic planning, organising and executing a research project within specified time limit and resource allocation. Research design tells the type of data to be collected, the sources of data and the procedures to be followed in data collection. Research design provides suitable framework that guides the collection and analysis of data. Definitions of Research Design: 1. According to David J Luck and Ronald S Rubin, “A research design is the determination and statement of the general research approach or strategy adopted for the particular project. It is the heart of planning. If the design adheres to the research objective, it will ensure that the client’s needs will be served. 2. According to Kerlinger, “Research in the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. 3. According to Green and Tull, “ A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the over-all operational pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source by what procedures. Step in planning the Research design 1. Determining work involved in the project. 2. Estimating costs involved 3. Preparing time schedule 4. Verifying results Importance/utility of research design Research design is important as it prepares proper framework within which the research work/activity will be actually carried out. Research design acts as a blue print for the conduct of the whole.

Types of Research design: On the basis of information to be collected. research designs can be classified into the following three categories: a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Casual research .

. the hypothetical solutions or actions are explored and evaluated by the decision-maker. Exploratory research is undertaken to get the answer to the following question. b) It could also include sales managers. Types of Exploratory research 1) LITERARY SEARCH: a) Keep database of competitors as ‘competitor’s profile’ with the help of trade literature. sociological. product managers or sales representatives. Here. The purpose of Exploratory research is to define the Media/marketing/advertising problem precisely. What alternative courses of action might solve the problem and thereby reach the final objective? Exploratory research is conducted in order to find out causes/reasons behind a specific marketing. 2) EXPERIENCE SURVEY a) It focuses on architects and designers in a situation where a builder tries to comprehend competitors.a. personnel and marketing journals to understand employee satisfaction / dissatisfaction. The purpose of the exploratory research is to know the unknown. 3) FOCUS GROUPS a) It is used to generate a hypothesis that can be further tested b) It helps generate information in structuring consumer questionnaires c) It helps provide over all information on a product category. media. It is the starting point in all types of research projects. Exploratory research: Exploratory research is conducted when the researcher does not know how and why certain phenomenon occurs. b) Conceptual Literature: It is the works of psychological. The objective of exploratory research is to generate/discover new ideas.collect required information/data relating to the problem and identify alternative courses of action in order to deal with the Media/marketing/ advertising problem. and advertising problem.

Descriptive researches are normally factual and simple. Information/data on a number of characteristics are collected from the sample elements. The investigator’s integrative powers i. the researcher has to give adequate thought to framing research questions and deciding the data to be collected and the procedures to be used for this purpose. such research is undertaken to know the characteristics of certain groups or users of a product such as age. . Descriptive research can be divided into the following two categories: a) Cross-sectional b) Longitudinal Cross-sectional research: It is a study involving a sample of elements from the population of interest at a single point of time. intensive study of the background is imperative and important. For instance. income etc. However. sex. Cross-sectional research studies include field studies and surveys. The objective of descriptive research is to answer the “who. Can be used to make predictions about future marketing or social trends. where various attributes may be analyzed. income or education. Used/applied directly for marketing decision making. Uses of Descriptive research: 1. dealers.e.4) ANALYSIS OF SELECTED CASES It is an intensive study of selected cases. where and how” of the subject understudy/investigation. when. sex education. Descriptive research is designed to describe the present situation or the features of a group or users of a product. Useful for finding out views and attitudes of customers or target group. what. Such sample may deal with households. the capacity to put together different bits of information is analysed. such studies can be complex. An in-depth. It tends to be rigid and its approach cannot be changed often and again. 4. Such research studies are based on secondary data or survey research. the attitude of the investigator may be under scrutiny. It is a study concerned with a sample of elements from a given population. In Descriptive research. Useful to collect demographic information of consumers/users of a product or issue 2. retail stores and other entities. 5. 3. b. occupation. In marketing. Descriptive studies are well structured. Discovers the relationship between certain variables. Data collected may prove to be inadequate if the researcher is not careful in the initial stages of data collection. demanding scientific skill on the part of researcher. Descriptive research: Descriptive research is undertaken when the researcher desires to know the characteristics of certain groups such as age. Such data are analyzed for drawing conclusions.

for instance. for instance 1000 consumers of a product may be chosen then different brands manufacturing the same product conduct a sample survey. parker pens maintain a panel of 1100 individuals to evaluate writing instruments. e. Each sample is measured each time on the same characteristic.g. purchases.Longitudinal studies: Longitudinal studies are based on panel methods and panel data. The samples are asked. A panel is a sample is a sample of respondents who are interviewed not only once but thereafter from time to time. For instance AC Nielson has 40. each time a purchase is made. for instance. Here data to be collected relate to same variable but the measurements are taken repeatedly. Nickelodian maintains children of different age groups to evaluate programmes and concepts. For instance. b) OMNIBUS PANEL: The same sample is still selected and maintained but information collected is various. BRAND PURCHASED A B C D POPULATION OF USERS DURING THE 1ST TIME PERIOD 200 300 350 150 1000 POPULATION OF USERS DURING 2ND TIME PERIOD 250 270 330 150 1000 . Similarly. 2) CROSS SECTIONAL ANALYSIS This studies how different categories react to stimulus a no. those who use fountain pens are regarded as a sub sample and only they are called upon to evaluate a new fountain pen. the inclusion of many variables or many subcategories of variables.000 households as a basis of its ‘house scan’ service. for instance. TRP TYPES a) TRUE PANEL It checks how many people buy/react to a stimulus. a) SIMPLE SAMPLE SURVEYS. It repeatedly measures the same entities. once a product may be tested and the next time the ad copy. questions regarding where they purchased and the price paid. A sub sample from the total sample is chosen. An omnibus study suggests. It involves simultaneous occurrence of the variables of interest. Here. therefore. of times.

for example price and market demand relationship or relationship between market competition and sales performance. Casual Research designs attempt to specify the nature of functional relationship between two or more variables. This design measures the extent of relationship between the variables. AGE 20. Casual Research design is based on reasoning. As the name indicates.Another example would be a per-capita consumption of soft drinks in a month. Casual Research/Design Casual Research design is the third type of research design.29 30. casual design investigates the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables. Casual Research is useful to show the impact of one variable on the other. Date for Casual Research can be collected through field survey with the help of a questionnaire or by conducting laboratory experiments/controlled experiments. .39 PER-CAPITA CONSUMPTION 48 42 c.