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TOUR-310 Lesson Notes: Terms: Visitor Any person visiting a country other than that in which they usually

y reside for any reason other than following an occupation paid for within the country. Two types of Visitor: Tourist a temporary visitor staying at least 24 hours in the country whose purpose of journey can be classified under any one of the following: o o o o o o o o o o o Leisure Recreation Holiday Health Study Religion Sport Business Family Mission Meeting

Excursionist a temporary visitor staying less than 24 hours in the country visited, inclusive of cruise visitors.

Tourism In terms of balance of trade accounting tourism is defined as travel and transportation and is determined a business service export from the tourism recipient to the tourism generating economy; the entirety of the tourism industry. Tourism is also the practice of traveling and the business of providing associated products, services and facilities. Tourism is difficult to define because it encompasses so many different industries and services. It encompasses both supply and demand and incorporates social, cultural and environmental concerns beyond physical development and marketing. Tourism is also one of the most perishable commodities as hotel rooms, airline seats, and tour sales need to be sold daily and continuously to generate revenue for the businesses. Unsold space and services cannot be stored or resold.

Key to understanding Tourism is the fact that no other industry designation is so tightly linked to so many diverse products and services and other industrial segments of the economy. Tourism Policy a progressive course of actions, guidelines, directives, principles and procedures set in an ethical framework that is issues-focused ad best represents the intent of the community to effectively meet the its planning, development, product, service, marketing and sustainability goals and objectives for the future growth of tourism. The objective of tourism policy is to improve the progress of the nation and the lives of the citizens and maximize the positive benefits from the tourism activity. Tourism policy planning and development, to be effective has to be created within a framework where the public and private sectors of the economy work together to set goals and priorities for guiding the growth of the tourism industry. Research is key to determining how tourism policy should be shaped and how decisions will affect various tourism development issues. Policy Formulation Steps: Tourism Issue Research the Issue Document impacts on the Issue Economic Environmental Social Identify influences on the Issue: Public Sector Private Sector Non-Profit Sector Laws Regulations Barriers Establish Goals and Objectives for the Issue Formulate a Policy to define the goals and objectives that considers and addresses the all the influences and impacts on the Issue Make the Decision and implement the policy Evaluate the results and review / modify Benefits of Tourism: Creates new jobs

Spawns new businesses Adds new products Generates additional income and economic activity Promotes economic integration Diversifies the local economy

Public Sector Role: Developing governing legislation Financing Planning Policy making Coordination

Private Sector Role: Providing jobs Developing infrastructure Marketing Stimulating economic activity Business building

Class 2
Negative Impacts of Tourism Drives up real estate values Increases social tensions Increased stress on public infrastructure and services Over crowding Crime Destruction of natural resources due to over use Others

Tourism Policy should be future oriented and comprehensive as it incorporates the interests of a wide diversity of stakeholders. Policy makers need to be aware of all aspects of not only direct tourism services and developments but all the ancillary services and resources that can potentially be affected by tourist development. Some examples are: Water and sewage management programs

Roads and bridges Solid waste disposal Police and fire resources Telecommunications Schools Housing Immigration

The tourism industry, when looked at in its entirety presents the destination as a product. The product is the destination and all the components are aspects of the product. When you visit a place you are purchasing that product. For a country the entire country; the people, the culture, the language, the social structure and the entire tourism infrastructure is part of the overall tourism product. Like any product it must be promoted and sold in the market place to the end-users, tourists or visitors, before the benefits can realized. Traditional marketing will define a product in terms of the 4 Ps, Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Tourism adds five more Ps: The Marketing Ps: Product the item for sale r to be sold Price the cost to the target market for the Product Place the location of the product to be promoted Promotion the activities that raise awareness of the existence of the product Partnership the other businesses and components that together allow the product to exist or be made available for sale. Packaging not only how the product is defined and presented but what activities and components round out the experience. Programming defining the inter-relationships and coordination between he tourism components. Positioning placing the product in the marketplace and defining it to appeal to the target market population. People all the people, the people who buy the product, who participate in the delivery of the service and people who are impacted by the tourism activity. Planning the forward thinking policies and logistics that consider how the service will be delivered, opportunities exploited, threats mitigated and actions controlled and coordinated.

Market Differentiation Strategy of building a brand identity that is different from that of your competitors, superior, to give you a competitive advantage.

Market Segmentation Strategy of targeting your product to appeal to a specific, narrowly defined portion of a market where you can concentrate your efforts and tailor the message to fit the needs of that segment.

Some Types of Tourism, Tourism Segmentation: Mass tourism Agri-tourism Eco-tourism Experiential tourism Gambling Adventure tourism Cultural tourism Health tourism Medical tourism Sex tourism Religious tourism Leisure tourism Geo-tourism

What tourists want: Authenticity Variety Flexibility Value Quality Safety Culture

What is Responsible Tourism? In 2002, 280 representatives from all sectors of tourism from 20 countries attended the Cape Town Conference on Responsible Tourism in South Africa. They agreed in a declaration that responsible tourism: 1. Minimizes negative economic, environmental and social impacts. 2. Generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well being of host communities; improves working conditions and access to the industry.

3. Involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances. 4. Makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity. 5. Provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues. 6. Provides access for physically challenged people. 7. Is culturally sensitive, encourages respect between tourists and hosts, and builds local pride and confidence.

Historical Perspective: 1. People have always traveled and while it is not known what the true origins of planned, or formal tourism are, it can be assumed that religious pilgrimages probably formed the earliest instances of planned trips away form home. Both the sending area and the receiving destination would have had to prepare for the influx of visitors. 2. Trade was a great initiator of travel the need for some travel infrastructure; inns, restaurants, attractions, etc. People have travelled from the time of the early Sumerians right up to the present day. The Military provided another major reason for planned travel. 3. None of the early reasons for travel and the plans and works built to facilitate travel could be said to approximate tourism policy planning. The reasons were all mostly for other purposes and tourism just the by-product that benefited from the development. 4. Tourism Policy got its start in 1925 when the UNWTO got its start as the International Congress of official Tourist Traffic Associations. In 1934 it became the International Union of Official Tourist Propaganda Organizations and by 1947 it changed again in tthe International Union of Official Travel Organizations. It was not until 1979 that UNWTO was created. And its headquarters established in Madrid Spain. It was not until 2003 that it became a UN specialized agency. It is the leading International organization in most every aspect of Tourism including policy . It also serves as a global forum for tourism: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Policy issues Definitions Directives Data Research Education Crisis guidelines

h. Sustainability i. Development j. Worldwide economic cooperation 5. Tourism has proven the major role it can play in stimulating development and generating foreign currency when, after WWII it became the prime tool for rebuilding Europe and the European economy. Importance of national Tourism policy: a. Private interests tend to pursue narrow goals driven by self-interest b. National policies have a coordinating effect bringing public and private efforts together c. Promotes a more effective response to negative events that harm national image and tourism d. Provides a framework for enabling legislation to assist in tourism development. e. A policy framework can increase the economic benefits from tourism by giving direction to travel promotion initiatives. f. Reduces isolationism g. Promotes international cooperation h. Maximizes the development, economic and trade activities that tourism can provide. Tourisms role in the economic and technological development of nations: Stimulates the development of basic infrastructure Contributes to the growth of domestic industries that supply the tourist industry. Attracts foreign investment Facilitates the transfer of technology and technical knowhow Expands the local market for all goods and services allowing local businesses to grow and expand Works to raise the overall educational level of the populace.

Debate Question:

Carnival: Important, unrealized tourism asset or local cultural event that needs to be preserved
from exploitation?

Tourism Ethics:

All industries need an ethical framework within which policy can be developed. It provides the guidelines for what the framers want to achieve from the activity and the extent to which they will allow the activity to impact social, cultural and environmental aspects affected by the activity. An ethical framework will seek to achieve the following objectives: 1. Minimize negative impacts of the environment 2. Protect the social and cultural heritage of the area society 3. Promote sustainability in economic development 4. Alleviate poverty 5. Promote understanding

Types of Tourism Policy Evaluation stages: When creating or evaluating a policy there are distinct stages to the process that occur. When evaluating a policy it is helpful to understand which phase instigated the policy and from there determine what the objective are and if they are being met. Tourism policy is a dynamic and ever evolving process that reflects the changes in the tourism industry. The phases are: Stage 1: Formative Phase Policy Evaluation This phase means that some issues relating to the tourism industry have arisen that are not being adequately provided for in the existing policy, or may not be covered by a policy at all, that need to be addressed. The impetus for new or revised policy can come from any stakeholder at any time. The growth that tourism can create will often times lead to rapid and frequent changes in policy as the region seeks to cope with the many problems that that growth creates. Advances in technology that affect the tourism industry either directly or indirectly may also cause policy to be reformed. Stage 2: Development Phase Tourism Policy evaluation This phase seeks to evaluate policy implementation midstream to see if the objectives are being met or if the policy is lacking in some elements or if the policy is not generating the intended results. In Belize the Cruise Tourism Policy had the added objectives to cover regulation of live aboard vessels and their waste control as well as provisions to enhance the protection of sensitive environmental areas. Stage 3: Summative Phase Tourism Policy Evaluation This is a process where long standing norms and issues are evaluated for continued validity. It is a review of the basic policy issues and the underlying concepts and thinking to see if they still are applicable in the present circumstances. This type of evaluation has the advantage of looking back at results over a long period of time and measuring actual results and consequences against goals and objectives. Tourism Policy requires regular and frequent review and evaluation because of the industrys ability to generate rapid growth and to impact multiple sectors of the economy at once.

Complexity in Tourism Policy Issues: Because tourism can spur rapid growth in both the volume of activity and the number of stakeholders and participants in the activity the management and evaluation of tourism policy can be very complex. Often, actual result are not what the policy intended and may give rise to new, unforeseen problems. The tourism planner has some powerful tools to control and direct tourism growth. Zoning is one of the most powerful tools for control of tourism growth. Through zoning the government can specify where an activity can occur and limit the size and scope of the activity. Commercial businesses can be kept away from residential areas preserving social harmony and, in some cases, cultural integrity. Green laws requiring open spaces around buildings can promote a more human and environmentally balanced development. Parking requirements can alleviate traffic congestion and improve overall economic activity. The policy makers have to work with local and regional stakeholders to formulate enforceable zoning laws that protect as well as promote beneficial economic activity. Tax laws are another important tool that can be used to direct investment to areas that have tourism potential but need development and also to influence social behaviors. Organizations Involved in Tourism Planning, Research and Development: United Nations World Tourism Organization UNWTO The Organization of American States OAS Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC Caribbean Tourism Organization CTO The world travel and Tourism Council WTTC

Tourism as a Commercial & Economic Activity The concept of Tourism Supply and Demand: The Demand Side: Tourism is very sensitive to demand in the generating markets. In assessing tourist demand included are the elements of potential interests of the traveler, motivations to travel, location identification of markets, marketing and promotional activities and pricing. The demand for a destination may be heavily influenced by the ancillary amenities that the destination affords the traveler and directly impact the level of development. Demand analysis also has to consider the impact of seasonality of demand. The destination may have attributes that make it most attractive to the target market at only certain times of the year, thus limiting or constraining the desired development potential of the destination.

The demographic profile of the target visitor is key to understanding what will attract them to the destination and what services would appeal to them. Depending on the conditions of the location, the tourism planner must balance the needs of the market to the ability the location has to fulfill those needs. The Internet has made information transfer easier for both the traveler, who wants to find out what a destination has to offer and the destination who wants to spread their message to the widest possible segment of the market. Pricing of the destination is critical to attracting and maintaining a viable tourist industry. Value assessments need to be made to determine the relative price positioning the destination will sustain relative to competing destinations. Factors such as location, expense to reach the location, quality of amenities, uniqueness of the locale, profile of the target market, etc. are all determinates of the pricing strategy. Of primary importance will be the exchange rate differential between the tourist generating country and the host country. If the rate is not advantageous to the tourist then the propensity to spend will be constrained. Private investment will set rates and fees based on competitive forces but it is the responsibility of the tourism planner to guide development along lines that allow for a diversity of products and the broadest possible range of development projects. The Supply Side: Basic to the supply of the tourism product is the elements in the area that make the destination a draw to potential visitors. The factors of geography, development and sustainability will impose natural limits on the volume that can be reasonably accommodated within any given tourism area. The limits of supply also, to a large degree, will limit the growth potential and benefits derived from the tourism industry. Supply elements can be, natural resources like: Scenic land Mountains Rivers & Lakes Climate Flora & Fauna Beaches Or, they can be cultural: History Language Architecture Heritage Arts & Science Other considerations are infrastructure, like roads and accessibility, sewer, water availability and other infrastructure needed to accommodate large volumes of people. Additionally, the basic infrastructure of tourist supply includes hotels, attractions, restaurants, etc. and other amenities

that provide for the housing, accommodation and entertainment of tourists. Airline seats, is another factor to consider in determining the extent of a destinations tourism supply capacity. Some factors may detract from the potential supply capacity of tourism like: Pricing o Affordability o Unfavorable exchange rate o Declines in disposable income among the target market. Quality o Lack of adequate accommodations o Substitution of activities o Poor local environment Knowledge of Location o Lack of good transportation o Security and safety concerns o Little, or negative visitor information Leakage the reduction in the benefit derived from tourist investment by an over reliance on imported goods and materials to support and supply the tourism industry. Care must be taken to balance the need for familiar products and high quality goods with the need to keep foreign exchange and tourism profits in the local economy through the purchase and use of locally sourced materials.

Coopetition the need for cooperation among tourism destinations in order to better
market the tourism product effectively and meet the competition at the regional and global level. In effect this means that local communities that might otherwise compete against each other need to form partnerships or alliances to better market their tourism products and to increase the number of visitors from further distances. Comparative Advantage The theory that countries will specialize in producing and exporting those goods and services in which they have an advantage in terms of land, labor, capital, technology or other factors of production. Tourism may offer a country a comparative advantage over other export opportunities because of the tourism assets they have. Tourism has some advantages over other exports: The productive capacity of tourism is less exhaustible than other industries. Tourism can cause less pollution The export is easily accessible from the outside via the Internet. Tourism assets may be available even where the land is not contusive to industrial development.

Tourism Advantages: 1. Employment tourism is labor intensive and has the benefit of requiring huge pools of workers, thereby creating employment. The employment is concentrated in the services sector which does not require as much capital intensive investment to create jobs. Tourism also generates a wide range of jobs, from entry level to highly skilled and can be an engine for growth of add-on and support jobs in related industries. Tourism jobs also have the characteristics of being fast growing, able to absorb large amounts of people in a short amount of time. Lastly, tourism produces a large quantity of jobs in the hard to employ sectors of the economy. 2. Income Tourism is an important generator of national income. Visitors make large expenditures on a wide variety of goods and services which yield a substantial increase in income. Much of the expenditure is in the form of foreign exchange. Tourism activity affects and energizes the broadest range of services and activity within the host country as visitors and suppliers consume goods and services in support of the tourism effort. 3. The Multiplier Effect A number which indicates the magnitude of a particular macroeconomic policy measure. The multiplier effect seeks to quantify the additional effects of a policy beyond those that are immediately measureable. There are 5 main types of multipliers: 1. Transactions or Sale multipliers An increase in tourist expenditure will generate additional business revenue. This multiplier measures the ratio between he two changes. 2. Output multiplier This relates the amount of additional output generated in the economy as a consequence of an increase in tourist expenditure. The main difference with the transactions or sales multiplier is that the output multiplier is concerned with the changes in the actual levels of production and not with the volume of sales. 3. Income multiplier This measure the additional income created in the economy as a consequence of the increased tourist expenditure. 4. Government Revenue multiplier This measure the impact on government revenue as a consequence of an increase in tourist expenditure. 5. Employment multiplier This measure the total amount of employment created by an additional unit of tourism expenditure. Conversely, the multiplier works in reverse and the sudden drop in investment, export earnings or tourism receipts reduces national income by a multiplied amount. Trade in tourism is unique in that the product that is exported is consumed in the country in which it was produced. Tourism is intangible and is sold to the consumer without any actual visible product. Tourism exports also do not show up in the balance of trade figures of the country. Economic Development Tourism influences development plans and activities as both the tourist demand and supply influence the pace and nature of development. Technology transfer between developed and under-developed countries is fostered as tourism projects incorporate

new, advanced technology into their design and service mix, allowing the host country access to valuable technology and training. Tourism, reflective as it is of the norms and support services the tourist is accustomed to, allows the host country to develop the necessary technology infrastructure to improve not only its tourism services but the general technology base on the country. Marketing activities require access to websites and web services and this becomes available to population at large, credit cards and payment systems are developed to service the tourist industry as are improvements in communications, and other support services. The spillover of these services into the wider economy is a benefit to the economy at large. Impact of Tourism on Community Services: Tourism has the ability to exponentially raise the number and volume of an areas inhabitants. Both locals and visitors are consumers of local services and tourism activity can stress local resources. Crowding or Carrying Capacity refers to the ability of a location to hold or manage a given number of people. Crowding occurs when the too many people or vehicles or both are resident in an area that is not designed to accommodate such large numbers. In certain circumstances this is an expected temporary occurrence, in others it can be the result of rapid unplanned growth. In either case overcrowding and congestion detract from the tourist experience. UNWTO states that the following effects can arise from overcrowding: Reduction in visitor enjoyment Damage to the environment and unique characteristics of the destination that give it its tourist appeal Adverse impacts on conservation and preservation programs Reduction in the opportunities for tourists to spend money locally Generate stress on the local community due to increased competition for services Increase litter and pollution Strain the capacity of the local infrastructure Reduce the efficiency f tourism services. Growth of the tourism industry in an area has to be monitored to assess the impact that growth is having on the carrying capacity and infrastructure of the area. Signs that an area is being stressed are: Erosion of the natural environment due to over development Pollution of the ocean front or forest due to excessive litter or pollution from human development Visual, noise and air pollution from too much tourist traffic or poor traffic control systems Lack of availability of utilities or over burdened utility services due to over development High season traffic congestion at tourist areas during peak times Lack of adequate public facilities, bathrooms, parking trash disposal cans, etc. Inadequate or insufficient attention to safety issues for visitors, inadequate policing

Growing resentment and friction between the host community and the tourists, rise in crimes against tourists Increased social problems with crime, drug abuse and prostitution. Damage to national shrines and monuments from over exposure or excessive tourist intrusion.

Planning strategies must account for the growth of the tourist effort and the resultant problems that growth brings. Some things to consider and plan for are: Estimated carrying capacity or load a tourist site can accept without incurring adverse effects Preparation of the local area prior to the opening of a site to build in the infrastructure to handle the expected demand Investigation of alternative means of access to reduce traffic congestion, consideration of pedestrian ways, remote parking and shuttle busses, special lanes to reduce the tourist impact on local traffic patterns Close cooperation with public utilities to prepare them to make the necessary investments to supply power, water & sewage in quantities to meet the present and expected growth rates. Pollution and Environmental impact studies that address the question of pollution and recommend remediation solutions before any projects are started. Education programs to inform the local population of the tourism project and initiatives designed to engage local support. Careful planning to allow for set aside areas where the local population can be free from the tourist activity.

Tourism attractions and development must be managed to be effective and sustainable. Part of that management relies on the on-going involvement of all stakeholders in the development and the creation of forums and mechanisms that allow for input from stakeholders on current effects and solutions as the tourist project evolves and matures. Technology needs to be employed to assist in meeting some of the challenges of managing a tourist development and directed toward areas such as: Monitoring Measuring Awareness Forums

Sustainable Tourism along Coastlines: Economic development and tourism, especially in the coastal regions of an area pose a unique problem in that the development of the tourism infrastructure must be balanced against the

need to preserve the natural environment. Good planning and management techniques have to be used to make efficient use of the natural resources and also improve the life of the inhabitants. To be sustainable, tourism, particularly along coastlines needs to include the following: Good coastal management polices Clean air, water and healthy ecosystems Maintenance of safe and secure recreational environment Beach restoration and beach renourishment, also efforts to prevent erosion of the beach and coast (preservation of mangrove) Sound policy for wildlife and habitat preservation Protection of the built environment, history, heritage and culture Educational / awareness programs that promote good sustainable tourism practices.

Sustainable Development of Tourism Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long term sustainability. Sustainable tourism should: 1. Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity 2. Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. 3. Ensure viable, long term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income earning opportunities and social services to host communities and contributing to poverty alleviation To be successfully implemented sustainable tourism requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to insure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventative and or corrective measures whenever necessary. Sustainable tourism should maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourist, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices among them. World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC)

Headquartered in London, UK, this is global organization comprised of 100 private sector enterprises. Their July 2003 Blueprint for New Tourism contains a section that focuses on the need for tourism related business to balance economics with the environment, its local citizens and the culture of place. New Tourism provided the following key tasks for the private sector: Expanding markets while promoting and protecting natural resources and local heritage and lifestyles. Developing careers, education, employee relations, promoting smaller firms, raising environmental awareness and helping in its own way to narrow the gap between the ;haves and the have nots Sensitive provision of traditional tourism products and imaginative product diversification that reduce seasonality and increase yields Improving the quality of tourism products and services, adding value for money while increasing consumer choice. Agreeing and implementing quality standards at all levels and in all areas, including staff training. Transfer of industry skills and best practices that spread the benefits widely and efficiently. Increasingly sophisticated and more precise measurement of the sectors own activity to feed into strategic business decisions Communicating more effectively with the world in which it operates including energetic input from Travel & Tourism umbrella organizations to government at strategic and local levels.

Tourism as a Global Engine for Growth: Tourism has political as well as economic implications. Global tourism involves many international interactions and agreements between nations. To manage the flow of travel between regions and countries many international organizations and agencies have been established to encourage and promote national policy objectives. Tourism related agreements generally focus on the following criteria: Increasing two-way tourism Supporting efforts by National Tourism Organization travel promotion offices to promote visits Improving tourism facilitation. And easing travel restrictions Encouraging reciprocal investments among nations tourism industries. Promoting and sharing research, statistics and information

Recognizing the importance of safety and security of tourists Suggesting mutual cooperation on policy issues in international tourism Providing for regular consultations on tourism matters and establishing a mechanism for dialogue. Acknowledging the benefits from education and training in tourism and helping to establish training plans and opportunities. Enhancing mutual understanding and goodwill

Some of the items that international cooperation between countries in aid of easing tourism are: The agreement between Mexico and the US that cover ground transportation between the two countries and address concerns such as insurance, information sharing on liability and other matters relating to motor vehicle based tourism. The same agreement also clarifies the entry requirements and eases the paperwork by simplifying the documentation required to bring a vehicle into Mexico The US and Venezuela agreement provides for coordination between park services in the two countries to cooperate on tourism development policies. International and Inter-governmental Tourism Organizations: The UNWTO, the United Nations World Tourism Organization leading international organization in field of travel and tourism. Its primary mission is to play a central and decisive role in promoting the development f responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism with the aim of contributing to economic development, international understanding, peace, prosperity and universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms. The WTTC, the World Travel & Tourism Council the only organization representing the private sector in the global context of the travel and tourism industry. It is comprised of presidents, chairmen and CEOs of 100 of the worlds foremost travel and tourism companies representing almost all sectors of the industry. Their mission is to raise the awareness of the full economic impact of the worlds largest generator of wealth and jobs travel and tourism. OECD, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, serves as a forum in which governments can work together to focus effectively on the challenges of interdependence and globalization through economic, social and environmental segments. It produces global research data, analyses and forecasts to enable economic growth and stability, strengthen trading systems, expand financial services and cross border investments and promote best practices on the international forefront. The mission of the OECD is as follows: o To achieve sustainable economic growth and employment and rising standards of living in member countries while maintaining financial stability, hence contributing to the development of the world economy. o To assist sound economic expression in member countries and other countries in the process of economic development. o To contribute to the growth in world trade on a multilateral, nondiscriminatory basis.

The OAS, the Organization of American States is a regional organization consisting of the countries of north and central America as well as Caribbean states and countries in Latin America. The OAS has tourism as a major concern and through the IATC, the Inter-American Travel Congress, promotes development in travel and tourism in the Americas. It does this by conducting studies that maintain a dialogue between government and the private sector.. It also provides technical and research support for tourism development projects. The purposes and functions of the IATC are: o Aid and promote by all means at their disposal the development and progress of tourist travel in the Americas. o Organize and encourage regular meetings of technicians and experts for the study of special problems related to tourist travel. o Foster the harmonization of laws and regulations concerning tourist travel. o Take advantage of the cooperation offered by private enterprise through world and regional organizations concerned with tourist travel which hold consultative status with the United Nations or maintain relations with the OAS o Promote cooperative relations with similar world or regional organizations either governmental or private and to invite them to participate as observers at meetings of the congresses. o Serve as an advisory body of the organization and its organs in all matters related to tourism in the hemisphere. APEC, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, trade and investment in the Asia pacific region. They have a Tourism Working Group that has four policy goals to support its function of creating jobs, promoting investment and development and improving the tourist industry across the region. o Removal of impediments to tourism business and investment o Increase mobility of visitors and demand for tourist goods and services o Sustainable management of tourism outcomes and impacts o Embrace recognition and understanding of tourism as a vehicle for economic and social development. CTC, Caribbean Tourism Organization, is an international development agency and the official body for promoting and developing tourism throughout the Caribbean. The CTC provides information and assistance to its member countries and non-governmental members in order to achieve sustainable development. The organization promotes the Caribbean as a vacation destination and has been very successful in developing web based databases for information on tourist sites and in the support of sustainable tourism practices, development of tourism education and awareness programs.

Tourism & Foreign Policy: Tourism can create dependence by the host country on the tourist generating country. This dependence can influence the foreign policy between the countries and the need for hard currency and investment dollars for development. This dependence promotes treaties which

seek to open lines of communication, foster greater understanding and the alignment of interests, all designed to keep relations friendly. Tourism as a tool for Peace: By its nature the tourism industry relies on there being a safe and civil environment within which the industry can operate. Matters both internal and external, between host and generating country, have to be such that tourist feel comfortable going to the destination. Civil strife, international tensions and terrorist attacks all serve to have adverse impacts on the prosperity of the tourist industry. Travel contributes to greater understanding between peoples and that can lead to more peaceful relationships. The inter-dependence between tourist trading countries also contributes to peace and understanding, keeping the environment stable for the industry. The Democratic Theory - founded on the premise that democracies seldom if ever enter into armed conflict with one another due their common values. International tourism is the worlds largest export earner making it vital to global trade. Tourism growth is also positively correlated to growth n global GDP. The growth in trade and corresponding growth in incomes. Any decrease in tourism activity results in the decrease in travel and global GDP, making tourism the main beneficiary of peace. Cultural Tourism: Cultural tourism is a distinct subset within sustainable tourism and, along with eco-tourism, is the fast growing tourism travel trend. Cultural tourism can be defined by several areas: By destination: Museums Theatres Parks Art Galleries Historical sites Architectural treasures Ethnic and heritage events Or, it can be defined by the motivation of cultural tourists to seek an authentic experience with a different o unique cultural or ethnic history. Cultural assets are those aspects of a place and a people that can be leveraged for tourism purposes. These can be built items like museums and other buildings of ethnic or historical significance. Historical sites, ethnic rituals and/or cultural events or characteristics that give a place or a people something different.

Scope of Cultural Tourism: Estimates from studies performed in the US indicate that the US generates in excess of 118 million potential cultural travelers per year. A a group they tend to spend on average more than other types of tourists, $623 vs $457 for other traveler categories. While the classification of a cultural tourist is brad enough to include many types of traveler the fact remains that this is a significant trend and one worthy of pursuit and development. Benefits of Cultural Tourism: Cultural tourism has allowed many local, rural economies to diversify their economic base by opening up aspects of their unique culture to outside visitors. Some of the benfits are: Fostering a sense of local pride and identity Enhancing greater understanding among diverse peoples Promoting an entrepreneurial spirit. Preserving local cultures by assigning a value to them It builds upon existing assets and can require little outside investment. The negatives of cultural tourism are the same for any type of tourism is left unmanaged; congestion, social unrest, speculation of land values and stress on natural and man-made infrastructure. Additionally cultural tourism can also affect: Purity of cultural festivals and events due to over commercialization. Friction between local populations and visitors Stress on local infrastructure as volumes increase. Destruction of historical sites and buildings from increased traffic. Loss of quality of life from excessive tourist traffic. MID-TERM Managing Sustainable Tourism: Tourism, as it has developed in the market today, is composed of travelers who want to enjoy and experience a wide range of a destinations attractions. Regardless of the initial motivation for the visit; leisure, adventure, eco-tourism, etc. the experience will likely include elements from a wide spectrum of what the destination has to offer. At the least the visit will expose the visitor to the destinations: Language Culture Built tourist assets Climate People

Because of the diversity and interconnections between the various aspects of the tourist experience managing the tourist product can be very challenging. The goal is to maintain the aspects of the destination that make it unique and attractive to visitors, while maximizing on the potential these elements have to generate tourism revenue now and into the future. To be sustainable, the effort of managing tourism growth and development has to be a collaborative and thoughtful process that includes all of the direct and indirect stakeholders in the destination. As every aspect of a location can be considered a part of the tourism product this means that everyone has involvement in managing and planning for sustainable growth. In tourism, sustainable growth means:

Achieving quality growth in a manner that does not deplete the natural and built environment and preserves the culture, history and heritage of the local community. Sustainable tourism references the natural surroundings plus the built environment, which consists of a montage of influences from; history, heritage and culture.
The manner in which a sustainable tourism policy is achieved is by including the following elements into the development process: 1. Balancing the number of visitors with the estimated carrying capacity of the destination to allow for the greatest interaction with the least destruction. 2. Recognizing the interdependency of tourism with other industries both locally and worldwide and the part they play in the transportation, understanding, marketing and development of the local tourism industry. 3. Honing the tourism message and marketing to efforts to target those market segments that have the highest potential to generate visits and utilizing a wide range of communication channels to get that message out. 4. Recognizing the impact of competition at many levels and the importance of crafting a policy that can be both competitive and cooperative (coopetition) to expand the potential visitor market but preserve and build a fair share of that market. 5. Recognizing that no other industry is as dependent on the quality of the environment as tourism. The Social Impact of Tourism: Tourism can have negative impacts on the local community and the policy framework must address the concerns of these impacts if it is to be sustainable (in terms of being an accepted part of the local community and supported). Some key questions that have to be asked are: Are there sufficient key services to assist a local communitys understanding of developing and marketing their product and its subsequent delivery? Is there a plan in place to focus on stated provision of services? Is the community prepared for the influx of tourists?

Dose the product add to the quality of life for the communitys people? Any plan must address these and other questions because if it does not address the issues and quality of life for the local community, no amount of economic, developmental or environment benefit can be sustainably achieved. Tourism Code of Ethics from Canada Parks Vacation Planner: 1. Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage and help us preserve it. 2. Assist us in our efforts through the efficient use of resources including energy and water. 3. Experience the friendliness of our people and the welcoming spirit of our communities. Help us to preserve these attributes by respecting our traditions, customs and regulations 4. Avoid activities which threaten wildlife or plant population or which may be potentially damaging to our natural environment. 5. Select tourism products and services which demonstrate social, cultural and environmental sensitivity. Of Note:

Sustainable tourism practices and best practices are a two way street. The destination can plan for responsible and sustainable tourism, but the tourist also has a part to play in acting responsibly and supporting local sustainable initiatives by respecting local customs, preserving the environment, supporting sustainable products and enjoying tourist attractions in a responsible way. Good tourism policy will incorporate elements that encourage and educate the tourist on how to best enjoy the destination in a sustainable manner.
Planning for Tourism Growth & Sustainability: The general concept of planning implies the relationship to the future based on the understanding of: Current trends & the environments current condition Consumer demand Supply Industry environment Health Alerts Security threats All other influences The planning process focuses on all of the environmental, economic, social and cultural factors that affect both the destination and the tourist visitation.

Goeldner & Ritchie (2006) devised a systematic manner for proper planning: 1. Define the system a. What is the scale, size, market, character and purpose? b. Formulate objectives 2. Gather data a. Fact finding, or research provides basic data that are essential to develop the plan 3. Analyze and interpret a. Once collected the many fragments of information must be interpreted so that the facts gathered have meaning b. This step leads to a set of conclusions and recommendations 4. Create the preliminary plan a. Have alternatives considered and draw up alternative physical solutions and test them b. Frequently scale models are developed and sketches prepared as are financial projections and policy documents 5. Approve the Plan a. The parties involved can now look at the plans, drawings and other material and make a judgment on the viability of the project 6. Create the Final Plan a. Can include a definition of land use, infrastructure improvements, architectural improvements and standards, zoning and regulations, financial planning and incentives and financial projections as well as international considerations 7. Implement the Plan a. Carries out the plan and creates an operational tourist development b. Follow up and evaluate progress and results c. Build in mechanisms for continuous feedback on the project and levels of tourist satisfaction. The UNWTO offers the following comments and guidelines on policy and management strategy as it relates to tourism development: Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainable development principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development and a sustainable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long term sustainability. Sustainable tourism should then consider the following: 1. Make optimal use environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve national heritage and biodiversity.

2. Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. 3. Ensure viable long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities and contributing to poverty alleviation. Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. This is a continuous process and requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventative or corrective measures as needed. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them.

Quiz Questions: 1. You are a developer that has a tract of undeveloped land outside a small town in the Toledo district. You want to develop a tourist destination resort there with a 100 room hotel, jungle park and craft center. Describe to the local representative of the central government how you would proceed with the project, what you need from them and why you should be allowed to proceed. 2. The gigantic new cruise ship has been scheduled to make Belize its port of call starting in two months. You are in charge of the Belize District Destination. How would you prepare for the arrival of this new cruise ship and its passengers?

Education and Training in Tourism: The growth of a sustainable tourism industry relies to a large extent on the availability of a well trained labor pool from which to draw. Additionally the greater population will need to be aware of the tourism industry, and the role it plays in the general economy of the country, if the overall product is to be successfully marketed and implemented. Because tourism touches so many aspects of the general economy and because the components of the tourism product encompass almost every aspect of life, it is vital that tourism goals and objectives be widely understood. While it is understood that tourism is labor intensive and can be a powerful engine for job growth the lack of an universal definition of the tourism industry hampers a coordinated approach toward tourism training and education. Typically the industry is defined, in educational and

press, in terms of the various component industries that are sub-groups of the wider tourism industry; hospitality, food and beverage, tour, transportation etc. Defining tourism in terms of industrial activity has always been difficult. Without a clear definition of the industry it becomes hard to properly educate workers with the wide view required to fully understand the industry. The UNWTO and the WTTC have worked to create the Standard International Classification of Tourist Activities (SICA) to attempt to delineate the supply side of tourism. SICA was adopted by the United Nations Statistical Commission as a provisional classification in March 1993 The SICA classifications are based upon differentiating those businesses whose sales are totally derived from tourists and those partially derived from tourists. (Cruise ship revenue is totally derived from tourists but, car rentals are only partially derived from tourists) The business activities under education for tourism include adult education, tourism educations, hospitality schools, flying schools, etc. Defining tourism and being able to classify the component industry sub-groups is important for measuring the industrys size, performance and economic impact. Differences in definition can lead to misinterpretations of economic activity data. Further, there exists a controversy as to the difference between Tourism and Hospitality; is hospitality a component of tourism or are the two terms interchangeable? Despite the controversy the number of tourism and hospitality education courses have increased dramatically over the years. The education growth has been fragmented and can differ from country to country and within countries, whether industrialized or not and may reflect the level of development of the local economy which, in some circumstances, may not view international tourism as a significant economic sector. Education vs. Training Education is generally long term whereas tourism training produces benefits that are almost instantaneous. Education implies a long term and wide ranging development of knowledge. Training may be more focused and of shorter duration concentrating on skills development. In either case the advances made in the development of the tourism industry and its component sub-industries have made the necessity of education and training more acute. The pace of change has created a situation where learning of all types is a lifelong pursuit which creates a flexible and adaptable individual who is able to quickly accommodate new methods and procedures. In this new economic environment the lines between education and training have become blurred in respect to tourism and hospitality. Factors Contributing to the Dominant Role of Hospitality in Tourism:

1. The largest portion of jobs in tourism are to be found in the lodging and hospitality sectors. 2. The hospitality sectors showed an early awareness of the need to organize to issues pertaining to education and training. 3. The industry was one of the earliest industries to evolve and forms a foundation for most all other related travel industries. 4. The hospitality industry is a huge generator of a diverse range of occupations in a variety of organizational levels which has increased due to the enormous growth of the industry and its profitability. Human Resource Issues for /Education & Training in Tourism 1. Need for understanding and reducing misconceptions the tourism industry and its component industries have the stigma in some countries as providing only low-level service jobs and requiring little of no skills. In fact the tourism and hospitality industry is a great provider of transition jobs and entry level positions for people to get into the work force with little initial education or training and then to acquire the skills needed to progress. The industry also is a great generator of mid-level and management jobs 2. Need for Credibility of Post Secondary Education Programs because of the history of individuals entering the industry with no formal degree there has been a tendency on the part of the industry not to recognize the importance or relevance of advanced degrees in hospitality. The growth in the quality of the hospitality education programs and the rise of managers with an educational background in hospitality have helped to make the degree more accepted. Generally, hotel administration degrees are considered more relevant and valuable as they focus on the business aspects of the lodging industry. 3. Need for Investment In Human Resources In Tourism despite the recognition of the need for a workforce capable of providing a consistent high quality of service, many of the small operations that comprise the bulk of the tourism industry have not embraced the importance of investing in training and employee development. There is also a perception that educational programs do not adequately equip students with the skills the employers need. 4. Need for Education and Training Performance Standards and Accreditation Processes generally accepted entry credentials for any job in the hospitality and tourism industry is relatively new. The UNWTO and the European Center for the Development of Vocational Education have tried to develop standards. In 1990 the UNWTO formed the Education and Training Network, a consortium of schools to work with the UNWTO to develop a strategic plan to build a infrastructure for tourism education and training at every level. Worldwide, there are many different standards and the industry remains fragmented on this issue but programs are more plentiful. 5. Need for Coordinated Education and Training Infrastructure for Tourism the lack of consensus among education centers and the industry has allowed an immense number of institutions to develop each with their own definitions and standards as to what tourism is and how it should be taught. Industry and the educational sectors need

to decide on common elements that define tourism training and education and then develop standards that reflect this definition. 6. Need for Vertical and Horizontal Coordination among Key Stakeholders vertical linkages, government to industry to education, and horizontal linkages, between agencies within the government and education are weak or non-existent. To be relevant the education process must be a part of government policy planning and also incorporate industry participation. Each sector now tends to work in isolation and this has led to policies that ignore the need to develop better human resources, industries that are dethatched from the educational process so they do not get the type of potential employees they require and educators build training and educational infrastructures that lack involvement with either government or industry. Only through coordinated effort can the needs of each sector of the economy be addressed. 7. Need to Understand the Dynamics of a Rapidly Changing World and the Impact on Workforce Development. the rapidly changing technology and competitive environment have contributed to a changing workplace that places new demands on the skills, knowledge and attributes of the workforce. The workforce itself is also changing and becoming more diverse as demographics, social structures values and norms change. The disparity between the industrialized and non-industrialized countries and between he tourist generating countries and the host countries contribute to this change. Education systems have to account for this change and adapt accordingly to remain effective and relevant. Technology has had an enormous impact on the tourism industry and as a consequence the way work is performed and the time scales have also changed. Since both the industry and the people who work in it are constantly changing the challenge is for the education and training systems to keep up and provide the kind of training and education that the industry needs. The Importance of Education and Training in Tourism The growth of the tourism industry and the component industries it encompasses has been explosive over the past several decades and despite recent setbacks, still offers rapid growth for the foreseeable future. This growth, coupled with the ever changing needs of the marketplace and demand of the travelling public have put a tremendous strain on the tourism industry to find and train the human capital needed to service the industry. Because the bulk of the industry is serviced based it can only rely on technology to a certain degree, the bulk of the load has to be borne by people. To be sustainable, there must be a consensus among the stakeholders as to what defines tourism, all stakeholders have to be involved in determining the basic skill sets industry requires and programs have to be developed to train and educate the people who will work and manage the business that comprise the industry. To be successful there also needs to be a national agreement on the benefits of tourism and a view of the industry as a viable career choice that can enable a people to fulfill their aspirations and personal goals.

Affecting and Influencing Tourism Policy Tourism as an industry has to compete for political attention and resources with other sectors of the economy. Tourism policy options and decision making have to consider many factors: Foreign policy implications Socio-cultural impacts Political expediency The needs of other industries

Influencing and affecting the decision making process are the activities of stakeholders and the results of research and planning. At the political level there are two things that can be provided to elected officials to affect public policy decision making: Money Information

Tourism policy is important because it a common, agreed upon purpose for tourism and establishes the broad parameters for planning and coordinating the efforts of all stakeholders. Linking sound tourism policy planning to the economic impact tourism can have is an effective way to influence decision makers on the importance of strategic planning and having a comprehensive tourism policy. Key to making this happen is the involvement stakeholders in engaging in the political process to lobby for governmental support. Organizing the structure of the tourism office and policy administrative body requires careful consideration of the political realities that exist. In general the most effective tourism offices and the leadership are more effective when it is removed from politics. However, in some instances, having a high political profile can help in shaping tourism policy and recognizing the complexity of tourism planning. Because of the wide sweep of impacts tourism will always have to address a political component and policy will be heavily influenced by politics. The tendency of many tourism offices is to not have a firm understanding of tourism policy and for tourism policy makers to focus on the marketing aspects of tourism and neglect the other, more wide ranging and important policy elements that are concerned with development and product management. Having a written tourism policy that is constantly reviewed and monitored helps to insure that all aspects of tourism and tourism development receive equal attention. Tourism development, and the policy that guides development needs to work to spread the tourism infrastructure over as wide an area as possible, thus increasing the benefits to the overall population and across the full spectrum of political constituencies. Having a vested interest in the benefits of tourism will help to lessen the politicalization of the policy process and foster cooperation and consensus among political parties Additionally greater involvement in tourism brings greater understanding of the industry and more informed decision making.

The Political Decision Making Process . The Public Choice Theory provides a framework for understanding how political decisions are made. While politicians may claim to represent the will of the people, in reality, the decisions they make are often in their own self interest. This is the basis for the theory. The theory seeks to separate the ideals of political decision making process from the reality of how decisions are actually made. It also applies economic principles to the decision making process of elected officials. The theory makes several observations: 1. Majority decisions are not inherently fair and decisions made by the majority are not universally supported by the majority. Rather, decisions are made in the best interest of those making the decision as the interest of all voters cannot be served with a single decision. 2. Electorate masses do not have enough information about all of the issues to have a concerned opinion, or to be able to make a valid decision. 3. While politicians may intend to spend public money efficiently they are not necessarily inclined to do so because most of their decisions will not affect their own finances. 4. There are too many issues about which the voting public can be informed and when faced with the choice of deciding between the interests of a powerful interest group and an uninformed populace the group with the most influence will win. There fore the incentives for sound management are weak. 5. The relationship between bureaucrats and special interests are are important to understand. Bureaucrats do not have profit as a goal but are motivated by achieving the mission of their agencies. By relying on the legislature for funding, they will ally with special interests that support their agenda to influence policy decisions. 6. Economic principles play an important role in decision making and the use of competition can elevate disadvantaged stakeholder groups to gain wider influence over decision making. Cost Benefit analysis is a tool used in Public Choice Theory to help influence decision making in tourism related development funding decisions. Cost Benefit Analysis: The purpose of Cost Benefit Analysis is to compare the benefits and costs of a project to determine its feasibility, and to compare it to other projects in order to determine priorities. The steps involved are: 1. Define the project and alternatives answering the following questions will frame the project and allow you to make key assumptions about the project. These may change as the project progresses, but initially it provides the foundation for later steps. a. What is the problem the project addresses? b. What are the intended benefits of the project?

c. What will the project do and how will it be done? d. Who will do it and when? e. What is the purpose of the analysis? (Feasibility, prioritization or selection of projects) f. What is the appropriate level of effort that should be invested in the analysis considering the expected payoff of the project? g. Who will receive the benefits? h. Who will bear the direct and indirect costs? i. What will happen of the project does not happen? j. How else could the expected benefits be achieved? k. When will the costs be incurred? l. When will the benefits be realized? m. What type of analysis should be used? (Cost-benefit ratio, net present value, internal rate of return, other.) n. What geographic areas will be affected by the project and its alternatives? o. What is the time horizon for the project? 2. Indentifying, measuring and valuing costs and benefits of each alternative all costs and expected benefits need to be considered, including the cost of not doing something and the opportunity cost of using the money to do another project which also has some benefit. The analyst has to weigh the competing costs and benefits in relation to other priorities and consider the number of and to what extent the project will impact the area. This can be very complex. 3. Calculating Cost Benefit Values - There are various strategies and methods for calculating the relative value a particular investment in a project will have. Cost benefit, net present value and internal rate of return are but a few. In each system the effort seeks to measure the costs associate with a given project against the expected return and arrive at a number, or solution that indicates that the money or resources invested in the project return a higher net benefit than the total cost when compared against other uses for the invested resources. 4. Presenting the Results since the ultimate end product is to arrive at a conclusion for use in informed decision making the cost benefit analysis must provide a concise, informative report to the decision maker and all related parties. The report should highlight the following areas: a. All assumptions made in the analysis b. All value judgments embodied in the analytical technique c. Any technical choice made when performing the analysis d. Any biases or subjective influences that may have affected the outcome e. Possible errors and degree of variance in analytical procedures and estimates.

Contributions to political parties and elected officials are a common and accepted way for an industry, or group to influence policy making. In tourism, the various industries that make up the tourism sector; airlines, hotels, restaurants, etc. may each, through their industry groups make

contributions to influence policy and they may also combine to increase the impact of their voice, in direct proportion to the amount of their financial support. Tourism industry members should try to find common cause with other industries to present a more powerful voice to influence policy decisions. As a policy maker, it is the recognition of the reality of the impact special groups can have in shaping policy that is important to remember. Strategic Tourism Planning This is a process aimed to optimize the benefits of tourism so that the result is a balance of the appropriate quality and quantity of supply with the proper level of demand, without compromising either the locales socioeconomic and environmental development or its sustainability. It emphasizes quality, efficiency and effectiveness. It is accepted throughout the world that effective tourism planning includes integrating stakeholders concerns, having effective management, efficient development and innovative marketing and community interests within the tourism product. The process takes into account that a destination must be able to adjust to new trends, changing markets and competitive market environment. Strategic tourism planning when aimed at future sustainability of the tourism product will assure consistent quality of the tourism product and yield the most benefits to the community / destination and good planning will override short term goals aimed at profit motivations and emphasize many fo the important future attributes that are more positive for the entire community. Five Advantages of Good Tourism Planning: 1. These is a close relationship between policy and planning, tourism planning strengthens an areas tourism policy 2. Tourism planning is a highly organized effort of national thinking, concentrated on the goals and objectives of a given locale. 3. Tourism planning contains many steps, initiating from inventorying an areas tourism product to providing the blueprint for development; it is a highly integrative process. 4. Tourism planning balances economic goals with the need for conserving the environment and improving the quality of life for the residents. 5. Strategic tourism planning emphasizes quality, efficiency and effectiveness throughout the process Strategic planning as a process can focus on different needs that the destination may target for attention. When used as a tool for tourism policy development the planning process is useful in helping a destination to accomplish its goals and objectives by organizing the sectors of the economy to participate in the planning. There are several steps in the process:

Develop a Vision Statement Create a Mission Statement (used to explain the vision) Develop goals for the tourism plan Create Objectives Create Strategies for each objective Develop Tactics that lay out how the goals and objectives are to be reached.

The planning process should be created to include a team of interested individuals that represent the sectors of the community that will be most influenced by the tourism policy and plan. The planning process may also include some or all of the following sub-plans and analysis: Situational Analysis / Needs Assessment Competitive Analysis Research Tourism Asset Inventory Performance Metrics Monitoring Mechanisms SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) SMART Analysis (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-Bound)

Strategic plans have to be adaptable and flexible to account for the rapidly changing tourism environment where obstacles and opportunities can arise very quickly. It is important to consider that the form and actions that make up the strategic planning process is dependent on the conditions that exist in the destination and the priorities of the members of the planning team. Also, to make sound decisions the planning process must be based on solid and valid data considering both tourism supply and demand that incorporates scans of both the internal and external environments. Outline of Research Activities Included in a Comprehensive Strategic Tourism Plan Internal Analysis: This analysis reviews the factors that characterize the destination. It is important to not only understand the tourism product and supply but also the factors, organizations and structures that will influence tourism development. A. Analyze the destinations natural environment: 1. Assess the areas geography to identify opportunities and threats to tourism development

2. Evaluate previous and predicted climate issues that could affect visitation to the area 3. Gauge residents attitudes towards tourism and tourism development by enabling community members to voice their views and concerns through either town hall meeting or web survey. 4. Measure the general condition of service provided by the tourism industry workforce addressing relevant training needs. 5. Identify meaningful elements of the areas culture that could be incorporated into the overall tourism experience. 6. Review the history of the area to maintain or revive critical characteristics important to heritage tourism. B. Examine the Assembled Elements: 1. Identify current mission, goals, objectives, strategies and tactics of key community and civic organizations: areas of concordance, overlap and conflict and common shared human and financial resources related to tourism development. 2. Review budgets and funding of comparable Destination Management Organizations as a benchmark to identify enhanced and sustainable funding opportunities for destination related organizations 3. Identify specific tourism related infrastructure needs or opportunities that may not meet visitor expectations and may detract from the destinations appeal. 4. Analyze the signage and transportation routes to and through the destination to endure ease of access for visitors to the Welcome Centers, attractions and other tourism supple components. 5. Assess the use of technology by destination promoters in the areas of customer relationships, packaging, booking and travel planning, demographic information, promotion, communication and revenue management among other areas. 6. Review quality, availability and distribution of visitor information about the destination. 7. Evaluate the community existing crisis contingency plan to ensure it is proactive and can handle a wide aray of incidents that could arise at any time. C. Conduct Extensive Visitor Research 1. Plan visitor research study by working with destination management to establish and understand the survey objectives 2. Design and test telephone, online or paper based visitor survey instruments to collect data from visitors. 3. Complete interviews with the general population who possess certain demographic characteristics as well as additional interviews with thise who have visited the destination. 4. Prepare a summary report to include descriptive statistics of the data along with tests of the hypotheses stated in the original study design phase 5. Identify existing and new market segments and decision patterns that will increase visitation to the region. D. Investigate Industry Operating Sectors

1. It is necessary to inventory businesses in all tourism operating sectors, accommodations, meeting spaces, transportation, activities and entertainment, food services, etc. in order to determine quality and quantity. 2. Identify opportunities for improvement for improvement in all operating sectors 3. Meet with selected tourism industry members including supply operators, tourism managers and developers. 4. Conduct surveys of local industry members to identify tourism development issues and concerns important to the stakeholders. 5. Gather information on new attractions and expansions that may be planned. 6. Examine the potential to repackage existing and develop new special events and niche tourism supply that may bolster tourism in the shoulder and off-season months. 7. Evaluate the impacts of existing outdated facilities and inadequate supply including the aesthetic appeal of architectural design standards such as streetscape, gateway, signage and faade improvements. External Analysis This is designed to give the destination an idea of how it fits into the larger tourism industry and how the various factors at all levels affect the local tourism business performance. Studies are done to assess the state of tourism at the world, region and lower levels. Competitive analysis is crucial to the planning of successful tourism development. A. Explore Details of Larger Tourism Systems 1. Identify the outside; non-destination, stakeholders and design an effective and efficient means of outreach to them. This may be transportation companies, other destination management organizations and others external to the tourism destination. 2. Review current and anticipated Industry trends in terms of visitations, origin of demand, revenues, supply development, consumer preferences, safety and security and other indicators at the national and international levels. 3. Research trends in particular activities and industries important to the destination. B. Perform Competitive Analysis 1. Examine competitive destinations in the region 2. Determine the competitive position of the destination against similar areas in terms that may include current and historical visitation, tourism revenue, market segmentation, markets of origin, marketing expenditures and / or other pertinent data. The goal is use this data and results to optimize the destination and prepare the area for the future within the present and expected environmental, infrastructural and cultural constraints in the destination. It should also relate conclusions back to the goals and objectives of the tourism plan.

Strategic tourism planning can then be summed up as a practical, intensive, thoughtful and idea packed approach to improving a destinations opportunities for sustainability over a long period. A tactical planning system, part of the overall strategic planning process, has as its goal the objective of stretching the available resources through careful planning, monitoring and evaluation. It provides the action steps that can be taken to drive the industry forward and counter competitive forces while seeking to take advantage of opportunities in the short term. The overall goal is always to match supply with demand, providing appropriate facilities, amenities, services and events after identifying what visitors want and need. The Future of Tourism: Because tourism and travel encompasses so many aspects of an economy, and is very sensitive to trends and disruptions it is safe to say that the future of tourism will be one of change and vibrancy and growth. Critical to achieving the benefits from tourism will be the application of good planning and management on the part of governments and private sectors. Travelers are demanding more varied and flexible destination experiences. Experiences that combine a variety of entertainment options with a educational component that can make the tourist experience a more personal enriching experience. This trend represents a change from the past, where development centered on creating tourist Meccas which were largely divorced from the local destinations society and culture. Now the tourist industry is more invasive, in that it seeks to intrude deeper into the lives of the local population to learn about the socio-cultural aspects of their lives. Integration of the tourist experience into the local culture in a way that preserves the local culture while allowing outsiders to participate in a limited way is the new tourism industry challenge. Adding to the challenge is the requirement to balance an authentic cultural experience with the sometimes conflicting needs for safety and security, and luxury and comfort. The demands of the new class of traveler require careful planning on the part of the tourism policy makers. The success of the tourist product will depend on how well the destination can organize the various segments of the local community to accept the demands of the industry. The main factors that will affect tourism in the coming years are: Security and safety How well the destination can deal with the many aspects fo safety and security will be a major determinant of how sustainable the tourist industry will be. Many threats can arise and the tourism policy must have a mechanism for dealing with these issues to address travel concerns and reassure the public that the destination is safe. Some threats to be concerned about are: o Terrorism and terrorism attacks are but one concern that will have an effect on the desirability and success of the tourism industry. o Another is the health safety issues. SARS, Mad Cow disease and other public health threats can have a devastating impact on tourism.

Crime against tourists can give a destination a bad name and discourage travel Natural disasters, either pre-event or post event return to normal, as in the case of hurricanes, earthquakes and other disasters. When an event strikes it is important to the recovery effort if the tourism sector can get back on tract swiftly to capture much needed foreign exchange and keep the economy stimulated. Impact of World Economy Tourism does not exist in a vacuum and any disruptions, or economic downturns in the tourist generating countries can create severe consequences for the host destination countries. Planning should seek to diversify as much as practical to relieve over reliance on any one market or economy. Another aspect is the economic impact tourism can have on the internal economy, stimulating growth and diversity. Planning must also consider how to use tourism activity as an engine to spur other industries that create a diversity of sustainable industries. The Need for Responsible Management We have discussed the aspects of tourism that can lead to rapid growth and development. The future will hold more of this and it is important that policy makers take an active part in managing the tourism industry to maintain a sustainable pace of development and plan for a managed growth. Absent this kind of responsible management the risk is for growth and overcrowding to destroy the tourism experience and lead to a decline in tourist revenues, arrivals and quality of the experience. Partnership and Planning Increasing competition within the region, and the trend towards increasingly more diverse tourist experiences will force destinations to cooperate to cross market their products and stimulate demand to the region where each destination can then vie for a slice of the market. This effort will require careful planning of the tourism product, coordination of events and marketing efforts and intergovernmental cooperation to align marketing efforts and products to broaden appeal and maximize on investment dollars. Technology As the first world markets become technologically sophisticated the requirement for the destination areas will be to have the capability to utilize the technical sales and communication channels to reach the market and service the needs of the guests and the travelers. E-commerce has become an accepted way of doing business and this is a trend that is expected to grow. This means it is important for the various tourism industry components in the destination countries to be able to participate. This may require investments by the government in the necessary infrastructure to make this possible. Planners have to be aware of the part technology plays in the tourism selling proves and be ready to adapt to this new and growing medium. Tourism Education, Training and Capacity Building An informed population is one that can fully participate in the industry. Understanding of the industry will allow people to make informed decisions about the type and kind of tourism product they want to have which aspects of the tourism product will be most successful. People need to be educated about the nature of tourism, opportunities for receiving training in how the businesses that comprise the industry are operated need to be made available, and in sufficient numbers to meet the demand of the private sector. Planners have to incorporate a strategy for building awareness and providing the tools the people will need to take full advantage of, and participate in the tourism industry. o o