You are on page 1of 4

Susin Villanueva BSA-III Undergraduate Seminar 1

Title: The Growth and Yield Performance of Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) Using Different Kinds of Organic Fertilizer Under Sampaloc, Quezon Condition Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different organic fertilizers on the growth performance of okra. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate the organic fertilizer that will produce the tallest plant; that will have the least number of days to initiate; that will have the least number of days to bloom the flower; that will have the least number of days to bear fruits harvest; that will produce the greatest number of fruit per treatment; that will produce the greatest number of marketable; that will produce the greatest number of non-marketable fruit per treatment; and that will produce the highest fruit of okra of tons per hectare. This experimental study was conducted for a period of three months from July 30 to October 30 at Brgy. San Isidro Sampaloc, Quezon. The Randomized Complete Block Design or RCBD was used in this research. It was comprised with three replications or blocks in an experimental area of 120.25 square meters. Each block was divided into four plots where the four treatments were assigned randomly. Each plot measuring 1.5 x 4 meter consists of 2 rows and 24 hills in each plot at 0.03 x 0.08 meter spacing, with a canal of 0.05 meter. The treatments used were Treatment 1 chicken manure 39 gram per hill (1577.29 kilograms per hectare); Treatment 2 guano 28 grams per hill (1136.36 kilograms per hectare); Treatment 3 swine manure 30 grams per hill (2369.67 kilograms per hectare); and Treatment 4 control. Least Significant Design or LSD at 0.01 level of significance was used to compare the mean differences. Findings showed significant in the number of marketable fruit yield per plant the rest did not show any significant results. Upon application of guano the following were observed and recorded such as the tallest plant, the least number of days to initiate flower and the longest pods while upon application of chicken manure the least number of days to first harvest was obtained. Meanwhile, applying swine manure, the least number of days to bear fruits, the highest number of fruit yields per treatment, the highest number of marketable and non-marketable of fruit yield per plot and the highest in tons per hectare were obtained. Based on the findings, conclusion and recommendations were drawn and made. In terms of growth character like height of the plant in centimeter, least number of days to bloom the flower, and the longest pods was obtained upon the application of guano. Among the four treatments chicken manure performed best in the least number of days to first harvest. There is potential in using swine manure in terms of least number of days to bear fruits, highest number of fruit yield per plant, highest number of marketable and non-marketable fruit yield per plot and the highest yield in tons per hectare. The priority to use is swine manure as organic fertilizer in terms of the least number of days to bear fruits, highest number of fruit yield per treatment,

highest number of marketable and highest yield in tons per hectare. Use guano as organic fertilizer for the production of longest pods of okra plant. Keywords: okra, organic fertilizer, guano, swine manure, chicken manure, pods Brief Overview Organic farming remains a major factor in the Asian agricultural scene considering the adherents claim for higher productivity with less external inputs, more sustainable and safe environment, and healthier option for the farmers and the consumers alike (Carating & Tejada, 2011). A way of farming organically is through the use or applying of different organic fertilizers. Adding organic matter to the soil will not only improve the structure and waterholding capabilities of soil, will also benefit from the fact that worms are essential to break down the organic matter by ingesting it and then releasing pellets that make nutrients more easily available to the plants (Hamilton, 2007). Different organic fertilizers include guano, swine manure, chicken manure and other organic materials that originating from plant and animals. Guano is dung from bats. It is effective as an organic source of nitrogen and phosphorus (PCARR, 1976). Swine manure is manure from hogs. Chicken manure is manure from poultry. It contains much higher rates of nitrogen than other manures and will make fiery compost (Hamilton, 2007). A vegetable like okra is better to fertilize organic fertilizer than synthetic or chemical fertilizer. Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus belongs to Family Malvaceae. Okra is also known as ladys finger in English and okra in the Philippines. Okra is common in the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam but of little importance in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Okra is mainly grown for its young immature fruits and consumed as a vegetable, raw, cooked or fried. It is a common ingredient of soups and sauces. The fruits can be conserved by drying or pickling. The leaves are sometimes used as spinach or cattle feed, the fibers from the stem for cord, the mucilages for medical and industrial purposes, and the seeds as a substitute for coffee. Okra seeds contain a considerable amount of good quality oil and protein. Besides local market, okra is grown as fresh or frozen export product to Japan by Thailand and the Philippines (Justo). Discussion of Methodology This experimental study was conducted for a period of three months from at Brgy. San Isidro Sampaloc, Quezon. The Randomized Complete Block Design was used in this research. It was comprised with three replications in an experimental area of 120.25 square meters. Each block was divided into four plots where the four treatments were assigned randomly. Each plot measuring 1.5 x 4 meter consists of 2 rows and 24 hills in each plot at 0.03 x 0.08 meter spacing, with a canal of 0.05 meter. The treatments used were Treatment 1 chicken manure 39 gram per hill (1577.29 kilograms per hectare); Treatment 2 guano 28 grams per hill (1136.36 kilograms per hectare); Treatment 3 swine manure 30 grams per hill (2369.67 kilograms per hectare); and Treatment 4 control. The analysis of variance or ANOVA was used to compute the results of okra plant. Least Significant Design was used to compare the mean differences.

The cultural practices of the okra started with the land preparation such as plowing and harrowing of the soil. It was done one month before planting. Followed by, the planting preparation of the okra which is direct seeded. Row hill method was used in planting okra for easy facilitation of weeding, cultivation and pest control operations. The seeds were planted and sown 2 to 3 centimeter depth in furrows in drilling 2 to 3 centimeter hill. For the application of different organic fertilizer, it was applied by plot method. The chicken, guano and swine manure were applied 10 cm away from the plant and place around the base. The first application of manure was applied at the time of field preparation and the second application was applied one month after planting. Weeding was done manually. Cultivation which was hilled up the soil using bolo 30 days after planting and the plants are as high as knee. Sanitation practices are recommended to help in controlling pest. Pruning is also advice to prevent spread of infected parts. For the water management the daily water requirement of okra is depend upon on the intensity of the solar radiation and high evaporation rate using sprinkler. The practices ended with harvesting of okra pods when they are about 11 to 14 centimeter long and when the pods are still soft and snapping tip. They were harvested every through handpicking and cutting with the used of sharp knife. To avoid bruises and discoloration of the fruit, it must be out from the stalk. The following data was gathered such as height of plant in centimeter; number of days to initiate flower; number of days to bloom the flower; number of days to bear fruits; number of days to first harvest; length of pods; number of fruit per plant; number of marketable and nonmarketable per plant; and yield in tons per hectare. Presentation of Results In fertilizing guano, the okra plants were observe as the tallest with a mean height of 86.58 cm, have the longest pods (14.42 cm), the least number of days to initiate flower after planting (47.67), and the least number of days to bloom the flower (14.73). Based on the analysis of variance, all of these results applied with guano have no significant difference among treatments. Factors such as too much rain and strong winds were delayed the initiation of the flower and deformed the size and shape of the pods. Upon applying of swine manure, the plants have the least number of days to bear fruits (64.3), highest number of fruit yield (268.33), and highest number of non-marketable fruit (16.67). Based on the analysis of variance, average number of days to bear fruits and average number of non-marketable fruits applied with swine manure has no significant difference while average number of fruit yield has significant difference among treatments. Factors such rain, temperature, wind, humidity and pod bores might affect the development of pods. Meanwhile, application of chicken manure, the okra has the least number of days to first harvest (71.9). This result has no significant difference among treatments. Furthermore, both swine manure and guano has the highest number of fruit yield which was due to the organic fertilizer which supports and enhances the growth of beneficial bacteria

and microorganism in the soil which provided the plants with nutrients they needed for healthy and productive growth. The highest number of marketable fruits was also obtained from guano and swine manure. It is due to the fact that when you apply organic fertilizer the plant becomes resistant to pest and diseases. The plant becomes vigorous and it tends to produce greater number of marketable fruits. Presentation of Conclusion Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn. In terms of growth character like height of the plant in centimeter, least number of days to bloom the flower, and the longest pods was obtained upon the application of guano. Among the four treatments chicken manure performed best in the least number of days to first harvest. There is potential in using swine manure in terms of least number of days to bear fruits, highest number of fruit yield per plant, highest number of marketable and non-marketable fruit yield per plot and the highest yield in tons per hectare. Bibliography
Hamilton, N. (2007). Grow Organic. In N. Hamilton, Grow Organic. New Holland: Garfield House, 86-88 Edgware Road. Justo, V. P. (n.d.). FAO Inter-country Programme for Integrated pest in Management. Retrieved from ncpctvsu@laguna.net. Carating, R. B., & Tejada, S. Q. (2011, September 26-28). ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PRACTICES. PCARR. (1976). Studies on the use of guano and some organic industrial by-products as N and / or P sources for rice.