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I am very conscious that my thesis has had indispensable contributions from many other people whose inputs have been invaluable and would need too many words to fully describe here. Although this work is still far from perfect and open to thoughtful critiques, I am proud and delighted that finally the thesis is completed. Studying with four children and a husband (also studying) in a different country with a different culture, environment, language and way of life involved both enjoyment and pain. I am honoured to acknowledge those who have given me different ways of support, love and time that enabled me to accomplish every stage of this long journey. The ideas in this thesis are inspired by the work of my colleagues in the Citizen Forums and their supporting institutions. What they have done and were trying to do, their problems and successes continue to be my inspiration. I would, therefore, like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciations to my colleagues in FM2S and SOMPIS, IPGI, KOMPIP and Akatiga for their invaluable trust, time and assistance. Special acknowledgements should go to Wulandari and Suci Handayani for their unceasing support during my field work. I am indebted to my supervisors, Jim Schiller and Anton Lucas, who have transformed the process of my researching and thesis writing into an extraordinary intellectual experience. Not only have they encouraged me to work harder and more thoughtfully, but have also helped me with my problems during this thesis writing. The support and kindness from them and their families, Nella and Kadar, for me and my family indeed extended beyond their tasks as academic supervisors. A special acknowledgement should also go to the Ford Foundation which, through Hans Antlv and Suzanne Siskel, supported me with an individual grant to further my study. This generous support allowed me and my family to live and study in



Australia. I am sure that the education my husband and my children have had from this has been invaluable and multifold. The prompt technical support from Ms. Ina Jusuf and Ms. Nur Handoyoputro also streamlined my studying. I wish to thank The Asia Foundation, particularly to Roderick Brazier, for the funds provided to cover some unpredictable expenses during my study. I would also like to express my appreciation to several other people who have helped sustain my study. These include John Summers from the School of Politics and International Studies, Rhonda Domin from the Faculty of Social Science, Jane Horgan from the International Student Service Unit, and Marie Davies from the Finance Department in Flinders University. And to those who have inspired me in many ways; Janet McIntyre from the Flinders Institute of Public Policy and Management, Yvonne Corcoran-Nantes from Womens Studies, and Jason Pudsey from the Department of Sociology, with whom I explored ideas. Thank you for letting me sit in to your classes. I would like to acknowledge the dedication of those who made an essential contribution to the successful completion of this thesis. Roger Wiseman for providing me with an excellent, reliable, and almost unlimited assistance. I was fortunate to have worked with him. His extraordinary professional support meant more than I can express in words. Philip Thomas who had to work hard to correct my very first drafts in poor English. Salah Kutieleh and Sandra Egege, from the Student Learning Centre who helped guide me to realize my goals. Flinders University is a friendly place for international students. The International Student Service Unit, the Student Learning Centre, the Library, the Staff Development and Training Unit, the Higher Degree Administration and Scholarships Office, the Computer Help Desk, and the Security, I am grateful to be one of the international students who has benefited from their expertise and friendly support. Nevertheless, the main support has actually come from my family for they maintained my motivation, even in difficult times. My husband Siswanda H. Sumarto has been a very supportive, patient and good discussion partner who makes me feel secure and confident all the time. Without him, I wouldnt have started and xiii


finished this thesis. I will always remember the mature understandings of my older children Amirah Kaca and Amanda Kistilensa and the joys of Asanilta Fahda and Nahla Tetrimulya, which always cured my boredom. To my mother, Edih Sam Sjaifullah, goes my thanks for her unlimited support and visits to Adelaide. I would also like to thank my extended family in Bandung and Solo for their understandings and prayers. I should also recall with a sense of gratitude the stimulus, comments and inputs which I received during seminars and many other occasions from colleagues in Asian Studies: Firdaus, Liz Morell, Michele Ford, Jonni Mahroza, Vinsencio Dugis, Himawan Bayu Patriadi, Hajar Pramudyasono, Sudarmo, Masud Said and Afrizal. Their camaraderie and support made me proud to be part of the Department, now part of the School of Political and International Studies. I would like to express my special appreciation to Pat Huxtable in the Department office, who helped me get through with my work in the cold of winter and heat of summer. Special thanks go to Wawans family in Majalaya and to Nurmadis, Liliks and Supartis families in Solo for providing me with safe and comfortable accommodation during my field work. Finally, to my true fellow female students; Nur Nailah, Sri Kusumo Habsari, Jalina Widjaja, Siti Aisyah, Yuyu Komariah, Erni Kahfi, Arundina, Leah Briones, and Vandra Harris, you have accompanied me in going through the difficult terrain of womanhood with high academic ambition. I am very grateful to have true fellow travellers like them.

Adelaide, August 2005 Hetifah Sj Sumarto