# Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES

Section Properties
Centroid The centroid of an area is the point about which the area could be balanced if it was supported from that point. The word is derived from the word center, and it can be though of as the geometrical center of an area. For three-dimensional bodies, the term center of gravity, or center of mass, is used to define a similar point.

Centroid of Simple Areas For simple areas, the location of the centroid is easy to visualize.

B
B/2

x

C
H/2

x H
H/3

C

H

B y

S/2

C D D/2

C
S/2

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and therefore the centroid is at the intersection of these two axes.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Centroid of Complex Areas Most complex shapes can be considered to be made up by combining several simple shapes together. Some complex shapes have two axes of symmetry. the controid will be on that axis. C C C C C C Page 2 of 18 . If the area has an axis of symmetry.

the method of composite areas can be used to locate the centroid. Moment of area = ∫ydA =Σ(Aiyi) This can be stated mathematical as ATY = Σ(Aiyi) ⇒ Y = Σ(Aiyi)/AT Where AT = total area of the composite shape Y = distance to the centroid of the composite shape measured from some reference axis Ai= area of one component part of the shape Yi = distance to the centroid of the component part from the reference axis. consider the following shape. Page 3 of 18 . with the distances measured from the same reference axis.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Where two axes of symmetry do not occur. It has a vertical axis of symmetry but not a horizontal axis of symmetry. Such areas can be considered to be a composite of two or more simple areas for which the centroid can be found by applying the following principle: The product of the total area times the distance to the centroid of the total area is equal to the sum of the products of the area of each component part times the distance to its centroid. For example.

Solution ∑ Ai yi Y= 1 2 AT Y= 40 x50 x 25 + 60 x10 x55 40 x50 + 60 x10 = 31.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Find the location of the centroid of following composite area.9 mm Page 4 of 18 .

Solution Y = (100*10*60+100*10*5) / (100*10+100*10) = 32.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Find the location of centroid of the following T-section.5 mm Page 5 of 18 .

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Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Page 7 of 18 .

Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Page 8 of 18 .

the property of moment of inertia is an indication of the stiffness of a particular shape. a shape having a higher moment of inertia would deflect less when subject to bending moments than one having a lower moment of inertia. That is. it refers to Area moment of Inertia In dynamic. of the following area with respect to its centroidal axis. I. Moment of Inertia. I = ∫ y 2 dA dA = b * dy h/2 I = ∫ y 2 (b * dy ) −h / 2 bh 3 I= 12 Moment of inertia of a rectangle about centroidal axis: bd 3 I= 12 Page 9 of 18 . I Moment of inertia of simple shapes I = ∫ y 2 dA where I = ∫ y2dm In static.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Moment of Inertia (2 moment of area) nd In the study of strength of materials. it refers to Mass moment of Inertia Where y = distance from an element of area to the reference axis A = Area of an element Example Determine the moment of inertia.

Ix = I1 + I2 +I3 = 1. Compute the moment of inertia of the section with respect to the horizontal axis x-x. the total moment of inertia can be found by adding or subtracting the moments of inertia of the components parts with respect to the centroidal axis. Ix = I1 + I2 +I3 Example The cross-section of a beam shown in the following figure has its centroid at the intersection of its axes of symmetry.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Moment of inertia of complex shapes If the component parts of a composite area all have the same centroidal axis.28 x 106 mm4 I1 = I3 = 30*403/12 = 0.16 x 106 mm4 Then.6 x 106 mm4 Page 10 of 18 . Ix = I1 + I2 +I3 I2 = 30*803/12 = 1.

I2 I1 = 504/12 I2 = π*354/64 Then. Ix = I1 . Ix = I1 .7 x 103 mm4 = 447.I2 = 520.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Compute the moment of inertia for the following section with respect to the axis x-x.1 x 103 mm4 Page 11 of 18 .8 x 103 mm4 = 73.

this equation states that the polar moment of inertia for an area with respect to an axis perpendicular to its plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two mutually perpendicular axes in its plane that interest on the polar axis.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Polar Moment of Inertia (Perpendicular axis theorem) The moment of inertia for an area relative to a line or axis perpendicular to the plane of the area is called the polar moment of inertia and is denoted by the symbol J. The moment of inertia of an area in the xy plane with respect to the z axis is JZ = = = ∫ r2 dA ∫ (x2 + y2) dA ∫ x2 dA + ∫ y2 dA Therefore. Page 12 of 18 . (Perpendicular axis theorem) JZ = Ix + Iy Expressed in words.

Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Parallel axis theorem The theorem states that the second moment of an area with respect to any axis is equal to the second moment of the area with respect to a parallel axis through the centroid of the area added to the product of the area and the square of the distance between the two axes. Parallel axis theorem Ib Where = Ic +Ad2 Ic is the moment of inertia about centroidal axis Id is the ⊥ distance of Ib from Ic Page 13 of 18 . The second moment of the area in the following figure about the b axis is I b =∫ (y + d)2 dA =∫ y 2 dA + 2d ∫ y dA + d2 ∫ dA =Ic + 2d ∫ y dA + d2 A Where. 2d ∫ y dA = 0 Therefore.

Solution Y = (100*10*60+100*10*5)/(100*10+100*10) = 32.5-5)2 = 2.5)2 + 100*103/12 + 100*10*(32. I = 10*1003/12 + 100*10*(60-32.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Compute the moment of inertia for the following inverted T-section with respect to its centroidal axis.5 mm By using the Parallel Axis Theorem.35 x 106 mm4 Page 14 of 18 .

94 x 108 mm4 Page 15 of 18 . We divide the section into 3 small sections and apply the Parallel Axis Theorem.5-165)2] = 1.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Compute the moment of inertia for the following section with respect to its centroidal axis. I = 15*3003/12 + 2*[215*153/12 + 215*15*(322. Solution Method 1.

94 x 108 mm4 Page 16 of 18 . Moment Inertia of the I-section.Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Method 2. I = Iarea 1 – Iarea 2 – Iarea 3 = 215*3303/12 – 100*3003/12 – 100*3003/12 = 1.

9 x 106 = 464 x 106 mm4 Page 17 of 18 Ixx for part 3 Ixx for parts 1 and 5 Total Ixx .3 x 106 + 1.56 x 106 mm4 = 250*503/12 + 250*50*(150-25)2 = 197.3 x 106 mm4 = 150*503/12 = 1. Solution The x-x centroidal axis is shown. Only one transfer distance is required (part 1).Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Example Compute the moment of inertia for the following section with respect to its centroidal axis.56 x 106 + 2*197. Ixx for parts 2 and 4 = 50*2003/12 = 33. It is the axis of symmetry.9 x 106 mm4 = 2*33.

Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (Tsing Yi) Higher Diploma in Civil Engineering – Structural Mechanics Chapter 2 – SECTION PROPERTIES Page 18 of 18 .