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Kingdom Plantae

Plants are: a. Multicellular: has more than one cell. b. Eukaryotic: complex cells; possess nuclei and organelles. c. Photosynthetic: obtain ENERGY from sunlight. Able to synthesize food (i.e. organic compounds) directly from CO2 and H2O using energy from light. Solar energy Chemical energy

Formula for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

CO2: Carbon dioxide H2O: Water Light C6H12O6: Sugar (Glucose) O2: Oxygen d. Autotrophs: produce their own building blocks for nutrient. Able to make their own food, and do not need a living energy or organic carbon source. Obtain NUTRIENTS by forming complex organic compounds (glucose) from simple substances using energy from the sun. - Plants are generally non-motile. Plant cells: a. Cell walls: made of cellulose. b. Cell membrane c. Nucleus d. Chloroplast * Many plants are green because of the pigment chlorophyll found within chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain: i. Double membrane ii. Thylakoid *A stack of thylakoids is called a granum. iii. Granum (pl. grana) iv. Stroma: space within a chloroplast.

Complex life cycles that involve alternation of generations are characteristic of ALL members of the kingdom Plantae. The life cycles of all plants include both a diploid and a haploid generation. * Diploid cells have the normal number of chromosomes. * Haploid cells have HALF the normal number of chromosomes. Alternation of generations: the switching back and forth between the production of diploid and haploid cells. Sporophytes (Diploid plants): 2n; diploid stage of a plants life cycle. Involve the formation of SPORES. Gametophytes (Haploid plants): n; haploid stage of a plants life cycle. Involve the formation of GAMETES. - Spores are produced by meiosis (reduction division). - Gametes are produced by mitosis. Process of Alternation of Generations i. Multicellular diploid sporophyte (2N): specialized cells within the sporophyte reproduce asexually. Undergo meiosis and release haploid spores (N). ii. These spores then divide by mitosis. Grow into multicellular gametophytes (N). iii. The two different types of gametophytes produce their gametes (N) by mitosis. When gametes from two different mating types fuse, they form a zygote (2N). The zygote divides by mitosis to grow into a sporophyte (2N) and the cycle continues. (*Whenever plants grow up, cells are divided/increased by mitosis.)

Kingdom Plantae is divided into 5 main categories. a. 1. Algae 2. Mosses 3. Fern b. 4. Angiosperms (angio: covered, sperms: seeds): produce fruits eg. Apple trees 5. Gymnosperms (gymno: naked, sperms: seeds): do NOT produce fruit eg. Cone

Multicellular Algae Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta & Rhodophyta

Photosynthetic organisms that live in or near a water source. Classified by COLOUR green, brown, and red. * Green algae: phylum Chlorophyta * Brown algae: phylum Phaeophyta * Red algae: phylum Rhodophyta - Most algae are multicellular. Members in the phylum Euglenophyta, Pyrrophyta, and Chrysophyta (Kingdom Protista) are unicellular. Because they can be multicellular or unicellular, algae vary in size. Found only in or around water because they lack the adaptations to live on land. The water in which algae live: a. Fills their cells with CO2, oxygen, and nutrients b. Carries away wastes produced by the cells c. Provides them with food and structure d. Allows for reproduction. Algae are very important because: a. They produce 70% of the worlds oxygen. b. They are primary producers in aquatic environments. - Algae are used to make agar, toothpaste, ice cream, candy bars and sushi. - ALL algae contain the pigment chlorophyll a. - Lack the specialized root, stem, and leaf structures found in land plants. - Many algae have a complicated reproductive cycle in which stages of both sexual and asexual reproductions alternate. Alternation of generations Chlorophyll and accessory pigments - Chlorophyll traps the energy of sunlight. However, water absorbs much of the energy corresponding to red and violet wavelengths of sunlight. Therefore, light becomes much dimmer and bluer in color as the depth of water increases. Chlorophyll a also uses these two wavelengths for photosynthesis. The dim blue light that penetrates into deep water contains very little energy that chlorophyll a can use. - Algae have evolved different forms of chlorophyll. a. Chlorophyta (chlorophyll a, b) b. Phaeophyta (chlorophyll a, c) c. Rhodophyta (chlorophyll a, d) - These pigments absorb different wavelengths of light energy. More solar energy that is available for algae can be used.

Accessory pigments: compounds other than chlorophyll that absorb light energy and pass it on to the primary photosynthetic pigment i.e. chlorophyll.

The 3 Phyla of Algae:

1. Chlorophyta: green algae - Contain chlorophyll a and b. These pigments give their green color. - Members of Chlorophyta store food in the form of starch. Examples: Ulva (also known as sea lettuce), Volvox (live in colonies) and Spirogyra (form long, threadlike colonies called filaments). 2. Phaeophyta: brown algae - Contain chlorophyll a, c and a brown accessory pigment called fucoxanthin. The combination of chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin gives them brown color. - Store excess food in the form of special starches and oils. Examples: Fucus (also known as rockweed) & Bullwhip. Structure of Phaeophyta - Members of Phaeophyta have more complicated structure compare to the other two phyla of algae i.e. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. i. Air bladder: gas-filled swelling many brown algae have bladders, which keep the plants floating upright in the water. ii. Blade: leaf-like structure does most of the photosynthesis. iii. Stipe: flattened stem-like structure for support. iv. Holdfast: glues the plant to the bottom anchorage.

3. Rhodophyta: red algae - Contain chlorophyll a, d and reddish accessory pigments called phycobilins/phycoerythrin (Phycoerythrin is a type of phycobilins). Phycobilins/phycoerythrin: very efficient at absorbing the energy of blue light and making it available for photosynthesis. Red algae can live deeper in the water than other kinds of algae because of the pigments phycobilins and phycoerythrin. Able to trap whatever energy is left in the small amount of light that penetrates deep in the water. (Predominantly energy corresponding to the blue wavelength of sunlight) - Store food in the form of a special kind of starch. Example: Porphyra nori

The Requirements of Life on Land

- Living on land created many challenges for plants. The 5 adaptations plants need to have in order to live on land: 1. Obtaining water for all cells. All cells need a constant supply of water. Land plants must obtain water and deliver it to all of their cells, even those cells that grow above ground in dry air. Once plants provide water to their tissues, they must protect the water against loss by evaporation to the atmosphere. 2. Must have support structure (i.e. branches) to expose leaves to sunlight. The parts of the plant that make food (i.e. carry on photosynthesis) must be exposed to as much sunlight as possible. Land plants need rigid/firm supports to hold their leaves up to the sun. Aquatic plants that float on the surface of the water have no problem obtaining sunlight since there is little water above them to interfere with the absorption of suns energy. 3. Must move nutrients around the plants. Roots: gather water Leaves: carry on photosynthesis and produce nutrients (glucose). To supply all cells with the necessities of life, land plants must transport water upward (roots leaves) and nutrients downward (leaves roots). 4. Need to be able to exchange CO2 and O2 without losing too much water. [Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2] 5. Need to be able to reproduce without standing water. Fully terrestrial plants must be able to reproduce in environments that lack standing water in which the sperm can swim. In many terrestrial situations, the zygotes and young embryos are in danger of dying out.

Bryophyta: Mosses and Liverworts The First Land Plants

Phylum Bryophyta: includes mosses and liverworts. [Eg. Polytrichum] - Members of the phylum Bryophyta evolved from algae. - No longer need to be constantly submerged (go under water) in the water, but they do need to remain wet most of the time. Well-adapted to living in wet habitats, but have no adaptations to living in arid (very dry) environment. 2/5 Adaptations needed to living on land: i. Stem-like structure for support. ii. Root-like structure called rhizoids for anchorage and gathering water and minerals. Bryophyta does NOT have: i. Way of retaining water. Bryophytes lose a large amount of water; they cant keep water inside. ii. Transport mechanism (i.e. vascular tissue) for water and nutrients. iii. Way of reproducing without standing water. Life Cycle of Bryophytes (Mosses & Liverworts) - Have life cycles that involve an alternation of generations between a haploid gametophyte (n) and a diploid sporophyte (2n). a. A haploid moss spore germinates into a mass of tangled green filaments called protonema. Protonema then develops into male/female gametophyte. Gametophyte: Haploid stage of a moss life cycle (n) Has many leaves and root-like structure called rhizoids for anchorage. At the tip of gametophytes, there are 2 types of reproductive structures. Male gametophyte forms antheridium at the top. Antheridium produces and releases flagellated sperm cells. Female gametophyte forms archegonium at the top. Each archegonium houses one egg cell, which stays fixed inside. Mosses can reproduce sexually only when standing water is present. Sperm cells can swim to the archegonium (reproductive structure produced at the tip of female gametophyte) only when the gametophytes are covered with water. Archegonium produces chemicals that attract the sperm cells. b. When a sperm cell swims to an egg, fertilization and syngamy (fusion of two gametes) occur. A diploid zygote (2n) is produced inside the archegonium. c. The zygote germinates (begins to grow) and produces a mature sporophyte (2n) above the female gametophyte. As the sporophyte grows, it is supplied with water and nutrients from the parent gametophyte. In mosses, gametophyte (n) is the dominant generation. Gametophytes (n) can grow independently whereas sporophytes (2n) cannot.

Sporophyte: diploid part of a moss life cycle (2n). 1. Seta: a sporophyte has a stalk called seta for support. 2. Sporangium: at the end of the seta, there is a spore capsule called sporangium. Haploid spores (n) are produced within the sporangium by meiosis. 3. Calyptra: The sporangium has a cap called calyptra. The calyptra covers the sporangium and is easily removed at maturity. 4. Operculum: the top of the sporangium has a lid called operculum. 5. Peristone: once the operculum is removed, a hole called peristone is exposed. d. Peristone teeth: peristone is surrounded by teeth called peristone teeth. As the seta (stalk) twists, the spores are sprinkled through the peristone (hole).

Tracheophyta: Ferns the First True Plants

- Tracheophytes have over 11,000 species. - Well-adopted to living in on land (i.e. arid environments). Tracheophytes are the first plants to develop vascular tissue (circular system) and cuticles (waxy layer to prevent water loss). - Tracheophytes have 4/5 adaptations needed for land plants. i. Obtain water for all cells (vascular tissue xylem). ii. Move nutrients around (vascular tissue phloem). iii. Supporting structure such as [branches] to expose the photosynthetic part (leaves) of the plant to as much sunlight as possible. iv. Exchange CO2 and O2 without losing too much water (cuticles). - Tracheophytes do NOT have a way of reproducing without standing water. - They have underground stems called rhizomes. Vascular Tissue: transporting tisuse (circular system) within the plant. - There are two types of vascular tissue: Xylem and Phloem. Xylem: transports WATER upwards from the roots to leaves. Associated with the movement of water from the roots to all parts of the plant. The main type of cells in xylem is called tracheid cells. Tracheid cells: dead and hollow; acts like a straw so that water has a tube to go up. Carry water from the roots in the soil to leaves in the air. Have very thick cell walls that strengthen stems and help plants stand up. Tracheid cells also provide support for the plant. Phloem: transports the product of photosynthesis i.e. SUGAR (Glucose: C6H12O6). Usually sugar is moved downwards from the leaves to the roots as sugar is made in the leaves and stored in the roots. However, in the spring, sugars might need to be transferred upwards to create new leaves. (Phloem tissue can move sugar both downward/upward). The main type of cells in phloem is called sieve cells. Unlike tracheid cells in xylem, sieve cells are alive. Cuticles: waxy layer that prevents tracheophytes from losing water. - Mosses (Bryophta) lose significant amounts of water due to evaporation. - Ferns (Tracheophyta) have developed cuticles which are a waxy covering on their leaves. Allows gas exchange (CO2 & O2) but inhibits water loss. - Holes between cuticles are called stomata (Sing. stoma). Tracheophytes take in/absorb CO2 and release O2 through stomata. The waxy layer stops water from leaving.

Life Cycle of Tracheophytes (Ferns) - Like all plants, ferns have an alternation of generations. - Tracheophytes are the first plants to have a dominant sporophyte stage (2n). The dominant generation of bryophytes is gametophyte (n). Sporophytes grow above the gametophyte and are entirely dependent upon them. The main reason why ferns are NOT perfectly adapted to living on land is because they still need standing water (thin pool of H2O) for fertilization. Process of Reproduction: a. Fern sporophytes (2n) produce spores (n) on the underside of their fronds. Fronds: large leaves of ferns. Fronds are divided into smaller leaves called leaflets. Spores are produced in sporangium. Large clusters of sporangia are called sori (sing. sorus). b. Spores are released from sporangia/sori, and they germinate to form small, heartshaped gametophytes (n) called prothallia (sing. prothallium). c. Two types of reproductive structure: antheridia (produce sperm cells) and archegonia (produce egg cells) are found on the underside of the prothallium. d. Sperms are released from mature antheridia. Fertilization can take place only when the ground and the prothallia (contain archegonia and antheridia) are covered with a thin film of water (i.e. Standing water). e. As in bryophytes, fern sperm cells have to swim to the archegonium to undergo fertilization + syngamy. f. The diploid zygote produced by fertilization immediately begins to grow into a new sporophyte (2n) on the top of the prothallium (gametophyte). As the sporophyte grows, the prothallium withers away. g. The mature sporophyte develops fronds in the air and rhizomes underground. h. The sori (clusters of sporangia) on the underside of fronds/leaflets produce haploid spores (n) by meiosis and the cycle continues.

Human Uses of Mosses and Ferns

Mosses (Bryophyta) 1. Can be used for fuel after drying. 2. Used in gardening to add moisture to soil. 3. Allow organic material to be preserved longer. Often found in bogs. Ferns (Tracheophyta) 1. Some species such as fiddleheads are edible. 2. Azolla: used for crop rotation with rice. Azolla is good at taking nitrogen (N2) from the air and add it to the soil. Symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. Nitrogen fixing: N2 NO3- (Nitrate) NH4+ (Ammonia) Life Cycle of Algae - As in other plants, algaes life cycle involves both a diploid and a haploid generation. Alternation of generations - In addition to alternation of generations, algae shift back and forth between sexual reproduction (involves the production of gametes) and asexual reproduction (involves the production of haploid spores by meiosis). Many sporophytes (2N plants) and gametophytes (N plants) look the same. Algaes dominant generation is gametophytes. Characteristics of dominant generation: a. Longer living b. More adaptations (eg. photosynthetic make food by themselves) c. Independent d. Larger etc. Dominant Reliant Process of Algaes Alternation of Generation: a. Two different gametes (egg + sperm) fuse. Undergo fertilization and syngamy. b. A diploid zygote is created. c. The zygote (2n) develops into a multicellular diploid sporophyte. d. The sporophyte produces asexual spores (N) by meiosis (reduction division). e. These haploid spores grow into haploid gametophytes. f. Female gametophytes produce egg cells; male gametophytes produce sperm cells. And the cycle continues