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emissions through their exhaust pipes, especially when they are not properly maintained. Many states require that vehicles pass emissions testing before they are deemed roadworthy. Special instrumentation is used to analyze emissions and detect gases like nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons(HC) Gas Analyzers Gas pipe exhaust is measured using special equipment such as the range of Dyne System five-gas portable analyzers. These instruments test and measure the amount of engine exhaust for specific gas components, including CO, CO2, NO, HC and oxygen. Equipment is first calibrated using ambient air prior to each use to ensure accurate measurements. Analyzers feature a sample line to collect exhaust gases and a two-stage filter system that is capable of detecting and capturing both large and small particles. Systems have touchscreen interfaces that offer control over manual operations. Wall-mounted enclosures are optional equipment to house instruments when not in use. Dynamometer A dynamometer is an electronic roller device used inside vehicle inspection bays to measure tailpipe emissions. The test vehicle is driven onto the dynamometer rollers and then testing begins. This instrument simulates the actual exhaust that the vehicle produces while in driving at low speed (15 mph) and when accelerating, all while still sitting in the bay. It's used in conjunction with a five-gas analyzer for instant data readout. Mostly with the help of engine &chassis dyanamometers analysising of emissions are carried out.
Chassis & engine dyanamometer used in automobile for measuring emission
Engine dynamometer An engine dynamometer measures power and torque directly from the engine's crankshaft (or flywheel), when the engine is removed from the vehicle. These dynos do not account for power losses in the drivetrain, such as the gearbox, transmission or differential etc Chassis dynamometer Emissions development and homologation dynamometer test systems often integrate emissions sampling, measurement, engine speed and load control, data acquisition, and safety monitoring into a complete test cell system. These test systems usually include complex emissions sampling equipment (such as constant volume samplers or raw exhaust gas sample preparation systems), and exhaust emissions analyzers. These analyzers are much more sensitive and much faster than a typical portable exhaust gas analyzer. Response times of well under one second are common and required by many transient test cycles Scanning Tools Many vehicles manufactured post-1980, and all models manufactured after 1996 have some form of on-board computerized diagnostic systems (OBDs). These computers can monitor vehicular subsystems like exhaust sensors and oxygen sensors. Scanning tools developed to exploit OBD technology can be readily connected to these on-board computers to test emissions. Hand-held electronic scanning instruments can provide real-time assessments when measuring vehicular emissions.
Gas Cap Testing Gas cap testing checks for leaks from around vehicle gas cap seals. Invisible gasoline or diesel fumes are volatile gases and seepage into the atmosphere may go otherwise undetected if inspections are not made. According to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, about 40 percent of hydrocarbon emissions in the air is due to evaporation of gasoline from leaky gas caps. The instrument used for testing consists of a short, wide tube with a pressurized gauge attached. One end of the tube connects to the uncovered gas cap on the vehicle, and the gas cap that was removed is screwed onto the other end. Pressure is applied and the reading on the gauge reveals any leaks. INDIAN DRIVING CYCLES & EMISSION NORMS Table 1: Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard India 2000 Reference Euro 1 Date 2000 2001 Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2003.04 2005.04 2005.04 Bharat Stage III Bharat Stage IV Euro 3 2010.04 Euro 4 2010.04 Nationwide NCR*, 13 Cities† Region Nationwide NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai NCR*, 13 Cities† Nationwide NCR*, 13 Cities†
* National Capital Region (Delhi) † Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Lucknow, Sholapur, Jamshedpur and Agra The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force from April 1, 2010.
TRUCKS AND BUSES
Exhaust gases from vehicles form a significant portion of air pollution which is harmful to human health and the environment Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 2. Table 2 Emission Standards for Diesel Truck and Bus Engines, g/kWh Year 1992 1996 2000 2005† 2010† Reference Euro I Euro II Euro III ETC ESC 2010‡ Euro IV ETC * 0.612 for engines below 85 kW † earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1
Test ECE R49 ECE R49 ECE R49 ECE R49 ESC
CO 17.3-32.6 11.20 4.5 4.0 2.1 5.45 1.5 4.0
HC 2.7-3.7 2.40 1.1 1.1 0.66 0.78 0.46 0.55
NOx 14.4 8.0 7.0 5.0 5.0 3.5 3.5
PM 0.36* 0.15 0.10 0.16 0.02 0.03
More details on Euro I-III regulations can be found in the EU heavy-duty engine standards page. LIGHT DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). Table 3 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year Reference CO 1992 1996 2000 Euro 1 2005† Euro 2 2010† Euro 3 HC HC+NOx NOx PM -
17.3-32.6 2.7-3.7 5.0-9.0 2.0-4.0
2.72-6.90 1.0-1.5 0.64 0.80 0.95 0.50 0.63 0.74 -
0.97-1.70 0.14-0.25 0.7-1.2 0.56 0.72 0.86 0.30 0.39 0.46 0.08-0.17 0.50 0.65 0.78 0.25 0.33 0.39 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.025 0.04 0.06
2010‡ Euro 4
† earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1 The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle. Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4.
Table 4 Emission Standards for Light-Duty Diesel Engines, g/kWh Year 1992 1996 2000 2005† Reference Euro I Euro II CO 14.0 11.20 4.5 4.0 HC 3.5 2.40 1.1 1.1 NOx 18.0 14.4 8.0 7.0 PM 0.36* 0.15
* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW † earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 Light duty gasoline vehicles 4-wheel vehicles Emissions standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ≤ 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). Table 5 Emission Standards for Gasoline Vehicles (GVW ≤ 3,500 kg), g/km Year 1991 1996 1998* 2000 2005† Reference Euro 1 Euro 2 CO 14.3-27.1 8.68-12.4 4.34-6.20 2.72-6.90 2.2-5.0 HC 2.0-2.9 HC+NOx 3.00-4.36 1.50-2.18 0.97-1.70 0.5-0.7 NOx
2.3 4.17 5.22 1.0 1.81 2.27
0.20 0.25 0.29 0.1 0.13 0.16
0.15 0.18 0.21 0.08 0.10 0.11
* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles † earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1 ‡ only in selected regions, see Table 1 Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000). 3- and 2-wheel vehicles Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables. Table 6 Emission Standards for 3-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year 1991 1996 2000 2005 (BS II) 2010.04 (BS III) CO 12-30 6.75 4.00 2.25 1.25 HC 8-12 HC+NOx 5.40 2.00 2.00 1.25
Table 7 Emission Standards for 2-Wheel Gasoline Vehicles, g/km Year 1991 CO 12-30 HC 8-12
1996 2000 2005 (BS II) 2010.04 (BS III)
5.50 2.00 1.5 1.0
3.60 2.00 1.5 1.0
Table 8 Emission Standards for 2- And 3-Wheel Diesel Vehicles, g/km Year 2005.04 2010.04 CO 1.00 0.50 HC+NOx 0.85 0.50 PM 0.10 0.05
Overview of the emission norms in India 1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles. 1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles. 1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline. 1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced. 2000 - India 2000 (Equivalent to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi. 2001 - Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles. 2003 - Bharat Stage II (Equivalent to Euro II) Norms for 13 major cities. 2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Equivalent to Euro III) Norms for 13 major cities.
2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Equivalent to Euro IV) for 13 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (similar to Euro III but diluted)
India’s auto sector accounts for about 18 per cent of the total CO2 emissions in the country. Relative CO 2 emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, but like the EU, currently there are no standards for CO2 emission limits for pollution from vehicles. Obligatory labeling There is also no provision to make the CO 2 emissions labeling mandatory on cars in the country. A system exists in the EU to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.
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