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1. LIATE An acronym that is very helpful to remember when using integration by parts is LIATE. Whichever function comes ﬁrst in the following list should be u: L I A T E Example 1. x sin(x)dx. Following the LIATE rule, u = x and dv = sin(x)dx since x is an algebraic function and sin(x) is a trigonometric function. u=x du = dx and so dv = sin(x)dx v = − cos(x) (− cos(x))dx Logatithmic functions Inverse trig. functions Algebraic functions Trig. functions Exponential functions ln(x), log2 (x), etc. tan−1 (x), sin−1 (x), etc. x, 3x2 , 5x2 5 etc. cos(x), tan(x), etc. ex , 2x , etc.

x sin(x)dx = −x cos(x) −

= −x cos(x) + sin(x) + C.

WARNING: This technique is not perfect! There are exceptions to LIATE. Some of these can be solved using the order “ILATE” instead. Sometimes, something completely diﬀerent needs to be considered. Example 2. x3 ex dx. Following the LIATE rule, u = x3 and dv = ex dx. However, we would actually 2 set u = x2 and dv = xex . u = x2 du = 2xdx dv = xex dx x2 v=1 2e

1

2 2 2

Tabular Integration By Parts When integration by parts is needed more than once you are actually doing integration by parts recursively. It might be helpful to draw in arrows to see the pairing as follows: Derivatives of u integrals of dv x3 sin(x) 3x2 − cos(x) 6x − sin(x) 6 cos(x) 0 sin(x) nd Now add these pairs with alternating signs (beginning with the positive sign).2 “LIATE” AND TABULAR INTERGRATION BY PARTS and so x3 ex dx = x2 = 2 1 x2 e 2 − 1 x2 e 2xdx 2 2 1 2 x2 x e − xex dx 2 2 1 1 2 = x2 ex − ex + C 2 2 1 2 = ex (x2 − 1) + C. 2 The LIATE method was ﬁrst mentioned by Herbert E. etc. the 2 entry of the left column with the 3rd entry of the right column. In the right column begin with dv = sin(x) and list each subsequent integral down to the same level as zero is in the left. We make two columns. In the left column list all subsequent derivatives until zero is reached. putting u in the left column. Example 3. Consider the integral x3 sin(x)dx. The result is the following (notice alternating signs): (+)(x3 )(− cos(x)) + (−)(3x2 )(− sin(x)) + (+)(6x)(cos(x)) + (−)(6)(sin(x)) + C With simpliﬁcation we have . Derivatives of u integrals of dv x3 sin(x) 3x2 − cos(x) 6x − sin(x) 6 cos(x) 0 sin(x) Now pair the 1st entry of the left column with the 2nd entry of right column. 2. Do this until no more pairs can be made. This leads to an alternative method which just makes the amount of writing signiﬁcantly less. I will explain this through the following example. Let u = x3 . Kasube in [1].

binghamton. References [1] Herbert E. NY 13902-6000.S. With a bit of work this can be extended to almost all recursive uses of integration by parts. Kasube.edu . E-mail address : reff@math. 210–211. Department of Mathematical Sciences. You can ﬁnd many more examples on the Internet and Wikipeida. Binghamton University (SUNY). The American Mathematical Monthly.A. Binghamton. 90 (1983). U. Nathan Reff. Even cases such as cos(x)ex dx where a derivative of zero does not occur. A Technique for Integration by Parts.“LIATE” AND TABULAR INTERGRATION BY PARTS 3 x3 sin(x)dx = −x3 cos(x) + 3x2 sin(x) + 6x cos(x) − 6 sin(x) + C.

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