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Application Note

Introduction

Figure 1 shows a zero sequence infeed source on the protected line. The source is a constant zero sequence impedance source such as a grounding transformer providing only zero sequence current for ground faults. The source provides no positive or negative sequence current to any fault. An example is a three-phase wye-grounded-delta transformer connected to the line on the wye side. This source will cause the zone-1 ground impedance reach of the relay at Bus L to underreach the normal setting for faults between the infeed location and the Z1 reach. Since this is an underreaching condition, caution is advised when compensating in order to prevent an overreaching scenario.

Application

The infeed effect can be compensated for with a multiplying factor, F, times the line zero sequence impedance reach value, Z0. The new value, Z0, is then used in all appropriate setting calculations.

Z 0 ' = FZ 0 1 m k0 Z 0T k0 = Z 0 S + mZ 0 + Z 0 T F = m+

The term m is the distance to the infeed source expressed in per unit of the Z1 reach, k 0 is the zero sequence circuit current distribution factor and Z0T is the zero sequence infeed source impedance as shown in Figure 2. Z1S, Z2S and Z0S are the respective equivalent system source impedances. Figure 3 shows the value of F as a function of m and k0. Derivation of the Factor F is provided later.

10 10

1 1

0 0 0.02 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 k Zero Seq. Current Distribution Factor 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1

Specific procedures applicable to MDAR, REL 301/2 and REL 512 follows:

1. Using the line impedance data, Z1 and Z 0, and the zero sequence infeed source impedance, Z0T, and location, m, compute k0.

k0 =

2. 3. 4.

Compute and set Z1P, PANG per the instruction book. Set Z1G to Z1P Compute GANG and ZR.

5. If ZR computes to be larger than 10, the maximum setting, then the Z1G setting can be modified. Compute the apparent impedance, ZAPP, using the computed large ZR value. Use the following equation to compute new Z1G and GANG values using a new ZR setting value that is within tolerance.

2

1. Using the line impedance data, Z1 and Z 0, and the zero sequence infeed source impedance, Z0T, and location, m, compute k0.

k0 =

2. 3.

Z 0T Z 0 S + mZ 0 + Z 0T

4.

Compute and set Z1 PH REACH, Z1 LINE ANG per the instruction book. Set Z1 GND REACH to Z1 PHASE REACH Compute Z1 K0 MAG and Z1 K0 ANG .

5. If Z1 K0 MAG computes to be larger than the maximum setting, then the Z1 GND REACH setting can be modified. Compute the apparent impedance, ZAPP, using the computed large Z1 K0 MAG and Z1 K0 ANG value of step 4. Use the following equation to compute a new Z1 GND REACH setting using a Z1 K0 MAG value of 10 and the Z1 K0 ANG value of step 4.

Z1 _ GND _ REACH =

ZAPP k0 1+ K 0 k0 + 2

6.

It is desired to have the angle of Z1 GND REACH computed in 5 to be within reasonable tolerance of the set LINE ANGLE. If necessary appropriately modify the Z1 K0 ANG value and recompute the equation of step 5. Set the relay with the resulting values.

The above procedures can be modified to accommodate any ground impedance relay. The relay can be set using the following equations where ZR is the zero to positive sequence line zone-1 impedance ratio and K0 is the zero sequence current compensation factor (not to be confused with k0 ).

ZR =

Z 0' Z1 K 0 = ZR 1

Derivation of Equations

The equation for VAG at the relay is computed with the symmetrical sequence components of Figure 2.

VAG = V AF1 + VAF 2 + V AF 0 VAG = IA1 Z 1 + IA 2 Z 2 + k 0 IA 0 mZ 0 + IA 0 (1 m) Z 0 1m VAG = IA1 Z 1 + IA 2 Z 2 + k 0 IA 0 Z 0( m + ) k0 1 m Z 0' = Z 0( m + ) k0 Z1 = Z 2 VAG = IA1 Z 1 + IA 2 Z 1 + k 0 IA 0 Z 0 ' VAG = Z 1 IA1 + IA 2 + k 0 IA 0

Z1 Z1

Z 0' Z1

Z 0' k 0 IA0 Z1

Z 0' 1 Z1

Substitute and solve for the apparent ground impedance VAG / IA:

Contributed by: Elmo Price Revision 0, 09/23/99

ABB, Inc.

7036 Snowdrift Road Allentown, PA 18106 800-634-6005 Fax 610-395-1055 Email: powerful.ideas@us.abb.com Web: www.abb.com/substationautomation 4

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