Nicole Smith Annotated Bibliography Baria, Amy Greenwood.

“Within the Realm OF Possibility: Magic and Mediation in Native American and Chicano.” Diss. Louisiana State U, 2000. DAI 61. 12 (2001): 4771-4772. Abstract. ProQuest 1 April 2009 <http://www.proquest.com>. This article explores Magical Realism and how Native American women create rediscovery of their culture by writing fiction which shows Native American ideologies. Castor, Laura. “Hunting History and Myth in Linda Hogan's Power and William Faulkner's 'The Bear' Preview.” Nordlit: Arbeidstidsskriftilitteratur 12 (2007): 37-48. Examines the empathy of the characters in Solar Storms and other novels. Castor also explores how history is best developed by those who experience the wilderness for themselves or those who are actually a part of the culture being discussed. Johnson, Kelli Lyon. “Writing Deeper Maps: Mapmaking, Local Indigenous Knowledge, and Literary Nationalism in Native Women's Writing.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 19.4 (2007): 103-120. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/ journals/studies_in_american_indian_literatures/v019/19.4johnson.html>. Johnson discusses the concepts of maps in Hogan and many other Native American writers’ stories and how they show the oppression of the European culture. Lincoln, Kenneth. “Native Poetics” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 45.1 (1999): 146-184. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/ journals/modern _fiction_studies/v045/45.1lincoln.html>. Kenneth explains how poets are straight forward with their writing. He looks at how the poets are influenced by their own consciences and not manipulated by history. Miranda, Deborah A. "’Like melody or witchcraft’: Empowerment through Literature.” The American Indian Quarterly 28.1&2 (2004): 103-106. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/american_indian_quarterly /v028/28.1miranda.html>. This article describes how Linda Hogan is an inspiration for creative writing. The author describes her writing like a beating drum.

Manning, Pascale Mccullough. “A Narrative of Motives: Solicitation and Confession in Linda Hogan's Power.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 20.2 (2008): 1-21. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/studies_in_american_indian_ literatures/v020/20.2.manning.html>. Manning explains how the characters in Power cannot connect with the white world and its version of law because of their worlds being so different. Rainwater, Catherine. “Intertextual Twins and Their Relations: Linda Hogan's Mean Spirit and Solar Storms.” MFS Modern Fiction Studies 40. 1 (1999): 93-113. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/modern_fiction_studies /v045/45.1rainwater.html>. Rainwater shows how twins are revered in her novels and how Hogan’s books Solar Storms and Mean Spirit can be viewed as twins. Schultermandl, Silvia. “Fighting for the Mother/Land: An Ecofeminist Reading of Linda Hogan's Solar Storms.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 17.3 (2005): 67-84. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/studies_in_american_indian _literatures/v017/17.3schultermandl.html>. Schuletermandl’s main argument is that all three of Hogan’s novels are about women connecting to the land. She also implies that the women in her stories are able to connect their people to the rest of the human race. Udel, Lisa J. “Revising Strategies: The Intersection of Literature and Activism in Contemporary Native Women’s Writing.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 19.2 (2007): 62-82. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/studies_in_ american_indian_literatures/v019/19.2udel.html>. Udel explains how Winona LaDuke's novel Last Standing Woman, her essay collection All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life, the tentative affirmation of Elizabeth Cook-Lynn's Aurelia: A Crow Creek Trilogy, and the spiritual commitment of Linda Hogan's novels Mean Spirit, Solar Storms, and Power are women activist writers. Walter, Roland. “Pan-American (Re)Visions: Magical Realism and Amerindian Cultures in Susan Power's The Grass Dancer, Gioconda Belli's La Mujer Habitada, Linda Hogan's Power, and Mario Vargas Llosa's El Hablador.” American Studies International 37.3 (1999): 1-12. MLA International Bibliography. 1 April 2009 <http://www.ebscohost.com>. The article details how Linda Hogan’s Novel Power along with other novels can be considered Magical Realism because the stories are filled with mythology and legend. They are also put into this category because of the characters in the stories.

Nicole Smith Manning, Pascale Mccullough. “A Narrative of Motives: Solicitation and Confession in Linda Hogan's Power.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 20.2 (2008): 1-21. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/studies_in_american_indian_ literatures/v020/20.2.manning.html>. In Pascale Manning’s article entitled “A Narrative of Motives: Solicitation and Confession in Linda Hogan’s Power” she focuses on why the white world and Native American world cannot mix. In the article, the main argument is there can be no connection made “between anthropologist and Taiga Indian, between lawyer and witness, or between environmentalist and panther” (2). This article focuses primary on the trail of Ama. The main focus of this article is there can be no connection between Native Americans and white cultural because they can understand each other’s worlds. The article explains the trail in great detail. Manning picks apart the reasons behind why there could be no true understanding between Ama being honest about her deed should “purify” and “redeem” herself. However, she is still prosecuted for her misdeeds and no one views her as liberated by her confession. Ama cannot speak for herself because of her disconnect. A defense attorney must say an explanation for her. He also separates himself form her by saying “their world”. Manning points out the trial because it clearly shows the clash of the worlds. Manning believes that the lack of respect and understanding between the worlds is what leads to disconnect. This disconnect is in three in things: “law, anthropology, and environmentalism” (3).

Nicole Smith Udel, Lisa J. “Revising Strategies: The Intersection of Literature and Activism in Contemporary Native Women’s Writing.” Studies in American Indian Literatures 19.2 (2007): 62-82. Project Muse. 1 April 2009 <http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.selu.edu/journals/studies_in_ american_indian_literatures/v019/19.2udel.html>.

An author usually will have a clear purpose when writing their fiction. This is especially true when the author tells the story of a people who are usually left silent because of culture differences and years of abuse. Giving a voice to Native Americans is what Linda Hogan along with other women Native American writers have written novels that shed light on the sorrows, joys, hopes, loss, and loves of a people who have been ignored for many years. In Lisa Udel’s “Revising Strategies: The Interaction of Literature and Activism in Contemporary Native Women’s Writing” she explores how the novels of contemporary Native American writers shows the correct way to poetry the Native American people. The article is divided into several sections that explore how the novels portray Native American women. The first section is survival. Udel explains, “The questions of Indian survival in contemporary America runs throughout the work of these three authors” (66). The three authors discussed are Winona LaDuke, Elizabeth Cook-Lynn, and Linda Hogan. These women show the environmental and political problems in their novels and how the Native Americans deal with them. The women also address responsibility. LaDuke displays in her story the responsibility of passing on traditions to the children. Cook-Lynn looks to art. However, Hogan is not mentioned in this section. The responsibility of these Native Women writers ties into history. Cook- Lynn believes that “the story must be told in order to retrieve lost history and maintain Native Identity” (73). Winono LaDuke does this in her novel Last Standing Woman. Udel feels that Hogan “reexamination of Indian-white history reveals the dichotomies between the different cultures, raising questions about truth-telling and voice, as well as hegemony and resistance” (72). Udel suggests that Power shows how western culture tries to take the roots out of the Native American people and

how the connection to natural things can redeem the people like it did with Oshita. Udel believes the works of these three women should be described as a form of activism and not one to be analyzed. She concludes with this message to not criticize novels such as Power in a western light. They are there to show the history, survival, and responsibility of the people these women come from and hope to represent in a real light.

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