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Chemistry Final

Atomic Structure Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus at the center of the atom

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Electrons surround the nucleus in the electron cloud

In a neutral atom, # of protons = # of electrons

Atomic number- number of protons

Mass number- sum of protons and neutrons

Avg. atomic mass- the average mass of atoms of an element

Nuclear Stability Depends on:

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  • Size of nucleus (over 83 protons unstable)

  • Neutron : proton ratio

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Mass Defect

 
  • The difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons (mass of atom is less)

  • The loss of mass is caused by the conversion of mass to energy upon formation of the nucleus

  • E = mc 2

 
 

E= energy

m= mass

c= speed of light (3.0 x 10 8 m/s)

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Atomic Mass

  • Weighted average of all known natural isotopes of an element

  • Average: isotopes mass (amu) x abundance (%) If the abundance of 85 Rb is 72.2% and the abundance of 87 Rb is 27.8% ... (85 amu x 0.722) + (87 amu x 0.278)= 85.56 amu = 86

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Graph

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  Too many  neutrons  Too many protons # of protons
Too many
neutrons
Too many
protons
# of protons
  Too many  neutrons  Too many protons # of protons Zone of stability

Zone of stability Stable isotopes fall in this area

Stable = not radioactive, nucleus will stay the same

Unstable = nucleus will undergo radioactive decay

Nuclear Forces

  • Attractive force between nucleons

Proton to proton

Proton to neutron

Neutron to Proton

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  • 2 protons within close range strong force of attraction is greater than the electrostatic force of repulsion

  • 2 protons in large nucleus far apart electrostatic force will be greater than strong force

  • All atoms with more than 83 protons are unstable

  • Nuclear binding energy- unstable atoms are easy to split Nuclear Reactions

 

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Beta Decay

 
  • If a nucleus contains too many neutrons… A neutron is changed into a proton by emitting a beta particle

 
  Nuclear binding energy- unstable atoms are easy to split Nuclear Reactions o Beta Decay
 

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Electron Capture

 
  • If a nucleus contains too many protons…

 

A proton is converted into a neutron

 
  Nuclear binding energy- unstable atoms are easy to split Nuclear Reactions o Beta Decay
 

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Positron Emission

 
  • If a nucleus contains too many protons…

 

A proton splits into a neutron and a positron

 

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Alpha Decay

o Alpha Decay
 
  • If a nucleus is very heavy (above the band of stability)…

Alpha particles are admitted (

 Alpha particles are admitted ( )

)

 
  Nuclear binding energy- unstable atoms are easy to split Nuclear Reactions o Beta Decay
 

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Gamma Emission

 
  • Usually occurs w/ other types of decay

 
 
  Nuclear binding energy- unstable atoms are easy to split Nuclear Reactions o Beta Decay
 

Half-Life

 
 

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The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay

Starting mass x (0.5 # of half lives )

Nuclear Reactors- Devices that maintain and control a nuclear reaction for the production of energy o Fission

  • The splitting of a nucleus into smaller, more stable fragments

  • Releases a large amt of energy

Uranium atoms split, create more neutrons at an escalating rate

  • Produces the energy generated by nuclear reactors

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Controlled vs. Uncontrolled

  • Control rods in nuclear reactors prevent overheating by absorbing excess neutrons

  • Uncontrolled can cause overheating, which could lead to an explosion

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Fusion

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Combining of atomic nuclei

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Capable of releasing very large amounts of energy (more energy than fission)

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Occurs in extreme heat (stars)

Light

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Visible light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation

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Electromagnetic radiation a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space

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Together, all the forms of electromagnetic radiation form the electromagnetic spectrum

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  • All forms of electromagnetic radiation travel at a constant speed (3.0 x 10 8 m/s) Properties of a wave:

 
  • Wavelength () The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves Units: m, cm, nm (nm = 10 -9 m), Å (Å = 10 -10 m)

  • Frequency (v) The number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time

Units: waves / s, Hertz (s -1 ) (1/s)

  • Continuous spectrum: The continuous series of colors seen as light passes through a prism

Red light: longer , lower v

Violet light: shorter , higher v

  • Relationship of wavelength and frequency

Inverse proportion

As increases, v decreases

x v = C

3.00 x 10 8 m/s

  • Atomic Emission Spectrum Lead to discovery of electron cloud

Each element has its own pattern of lines

Each line corresponds to exact amount of energy being emitted

Ground state the lowest energy state of an atom

 

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Excited state an electron becomes excited & moves up energy levels Photoelectric effect

 
  • The emission of electrons from a metal when a light shines on the metal

  • Certain colors of light would not effect the electrons on the metal

 

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Objects emit energy in small, specific amounts called quantum

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  • Quantum- the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom There is a direct relationship between quantum of energy and frequency

 
  • E = hf

  • h= Planck’s constant 6.626 x 10 -34 J x s

 

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Each particle carries a quantum of energy (photons)

 
  • Photon a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass & carrying a quantum of

energy

E = hc /

 

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c = speed of light 3.00 x 10 8 m/s

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= wavelength

 

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Bohr’s Model of the Atom

 
  • The electron can circle the nucleus only in allowed paths or orbits

  • The electron (hydrogen atom) is in the ground state when it is in the orbit closest to the nucleus

 

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  • Electrons in orbits farther from nucleus have greater amounts of energy Bohr’s Explanation of Spectral lines:

  • The electron can absorb energy and jump to a higher energy level (ground state to excited state)

  • The electron will fall back to the lower energy state and a photon of light is emitted

  • ** Bohr’s model could not explain:

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  • 1. Spectral lines in atoms other than hydrogen

  • 2. The chemical behavior of atoms

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De Broglie

  • Suggested electrons can be considered waves confined to the space around an atomic nucleus

  • De Broglie equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics

 

= h/ mv

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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

  • It is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time

  • Its impossible to assign fixed paths for electrons

Atomic Orbitals & Quantum Numbers Atomic Orbitals: region around the nucleus which describes the electrons’ probable location (fuzzy cloud)

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Quantum numbers specify the properties of electrons in orbitals

  • 1. Principle Quantum Number (n):

    • Indicates main energy level occupied by the electron

    • As n increases, the electron’s energy & avg distance from nucleus increases

  • 2. Angular Momentum of Quantum Number (l):

    • Indicates the shape of the sublevel

    • s orbitals: l=0 p orbitals: l=1 d orbitals: l=2 f orbitals: l=3

  • o Electron Configuration s 2 p 6 10 d f 14
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    Electron Configuration
    s 2
    p
    6
    10
    d
    f 14
    4 1. Spectral lines in atoms other than hydrogen 2. The chemical behavior of atoms o

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    For ions, go back or forward based on electrons lost or gained

     

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    Orbital Notation

     
     

    
     

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    Shorthand Notation

     
     

    Use Noble Gas that comes before the element

     

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    Three Rules for Electron Configuration

     
     

    Aufbau Principle

     

    Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first

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    Determines order of orbital filling

     

    Pauli Exclusion Principle

     

    An atomic orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons

    2 electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins

     

    Hund’s Rule

     

    When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain 1 electron

     For ions, go back or forward based on electrons lost or gained o Orbital Notation

    Atomic Radius

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    Def: ½ distance between nuclei of 2 adjacent atoms

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    Group Trend: Increases

     
     

    Reason- Energy levels increase, therefore there is greater distance between nucleus & valence energy level

     

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    Period trend: Decreases

     
     

    Reason- Since there is increased nuclear charge, there is a stronger attraction between nucleus

     

    & valence electrons (pulls it closer decreases radius)

    Ionic Radius

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    Def: size of an ion

     

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    Cation (group) Trend: Atoms become smaller when they form cations

     

    (+)

     

    Reason- Gets smaller bc it lost an energy level

     

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    Anion (period) Trend: Atoms become larger when they form anions

     

    ()

     

    Reason- More electrons in the same area, which increases repulsion, therefore increasing distance between electrons

    Ionization Energy

     

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    Def: Energy needed to remove an atom’s most loosely bound electron

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    Group Trend: Decreases

     
     

    Reason- # of energy levels increases therefore the attraction between the nucleus and valence

     

    electrons decreases

     

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    Period Trend: Increases

     

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    • Reason- Increased nuclear charge therefore increased attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons

    Electronegativity

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    Def: An atom’s ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond (electron attracting power)

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    Group Trend: Decreases

    • Reason- Increased shielding w/ more energy levels, so valence electrons are farther from nucleus therefore decreased attraction

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    Period Trend: Increases

    • Reason- The nuclear charge increases, therefore stronger attraction for negative electrons bc

    the atom is smaller

    **Group is DOWN (columns) Period is ACROSS (rows)

    Stable Octet

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    Inner energy levels have a more stable configuration (8 electrons)

    More energy is needed to break up something that is stable (remove electrons from an energy level completely filled w/ 8)

    Types of Chemical Bonds

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    Ionic- Metal & Nonmetal

     
    • Transfer of electrons

    • Very large electronegativity difference

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    Covalent- 2 Nonmetals

     
    • Sharing of electrons

    • Nonpolar Covalent- Equal sharing, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge

     

    Same nonmetals (except C-H)

    Little to no electronegativity difference

    • Polar Covalent- Unequal sharing

     

    Two different nonmetals

    Different electronegativities

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    Metallic- 2 Metals

    6  Reason- Increased nuclear charge therefore increased attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons 

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    Chemical Nomenclature

    • 1. Binary Compounds

      • 2 types of elements

      • ide ending

      • Ex: NaCl = sodium chloride Al 2 S 3 = aluminum sulfide

    Rules for all ionic compounds:

    • 1. Cation first, anion second

    • 2. Compounds are electrostatically neutral

    • Cations with more than one charge:

    Cu 1+ copper Cu 2+ copper

    CuCl copper (I) chloride CuCl 2 copper (II) chloride

    -ous ending: smaller charge

    -ic ending: higher charge

    • 2. Ternary Compounds (ionic)

      • 3 or more types of elements

      • Include Polyatomic Ions Typically end in ate or ite if oxygen is included

    Lattice Energy

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    o The energy required to separate one mole of the ions of an ionic compound (endothermic) The energy released when one mole of an ionic compound is formed is exothermic

    The greater the lattice energy the stronger the force of attraction between ions the stronger the

    ionic bond the more stable the ionic compound Each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions, & vice versa

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    Lattice energy depends on…

     
    • Size of ion (Smaller ions = stronger attraction)

    • Charge of ion (greater charge = stronger attraction)

    Properties of Ionic Compounds

    • 1. Most are crystalline solids (crystals) at room temp

     

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    Compounds of crystal are arranged in 3-D patterns

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    Ionic crystals are very stable

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    (+) ions Strong force of attraction(-) ions

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    Ions will arrange in different patterns (minimum repulsion, maximum attractions)

    • 2. Ionic compounds conduct electric current…

     

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    In the molten state (liquid)

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    When dissolved in water (in solution)

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    Crystal structures break downions can flowconducts an electric current Not when solid

     
    • 3. Ionic compounds have…

     

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    High melting points (NaCl, 500 C)

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    High boiling points

     
    • 4. Ionic compounds are brittle

    • 5. One unit of an ionic compound is called a formula unit

     

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    I mol NaCl = 6.02 x 10 23 formula units

    Special Ions

    • 1. Mercury Mercury (II) = Hg Mercury (I) = Hg 2

    Mercury (II) chloride = HgCl 2 Mercury (I) chloride = Hg 2 Cl 2

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    Hydrogen peroxide = H 2 O 2 Sodium peroxide = Na 2 O 2 Sodium oxide = Na 2 O Hydrates compounds with water associated with their crystal structure CuSO 4 5H 2 O copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate

    1

    Mono

    • 5 Penta

     

    2

    Di

    • 6 Hexa

     

    3

    Tri

    • 7 Hepta

     

    4

    Tetra

    • 8 Octa

     

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    Nona

    10

    Deca

    Mole Conversions 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23 particles

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    atoms

    ions

    formula units

    molecules

    Covalent Bonding & Orbital Overlap o Valence Bond Theory

    • Explains bonding in terms of atomic orbitals When atoms share electrons the electron density is concentrated between the

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    nuclei atomic orbitals from ea h of the 2 atoms merge overlap occurs and different atomic orbitals become a molecular orbital (orbitals share a region of space) Sigma Bond- A bond formed from when a line joining the 2 nuclei passes through the middle of the overlap region (internuclear axis)

    • All single bonds are sigma bonds

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    Pi bond- A covalent bond in which the overlap regions lie above or below the internuclear axis

    (sideways overlap of p orbitals)

     
    • Multiple bonds are made of a combination of sigma and pi bonds

     

    Double bonds: Sigma-Pi

    Triple bonds: Sigma-2Pi

     

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    Multiple bonds are made up of a combination of sigma and pi bonds

    • Single bond- 1 sigma bond

    • Double bond- 1 sigma & 1 pi bond

    • Triple bond- 1 sigma & 2 pi bonds

    Resonance

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    Occurs when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a single molecule or ion

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    Ex: Nitrate Ion (NO 3 )

     

    Coordinate Covalent Bond

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    When both electrons in a shared pair come from one atom

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    Ex: Formation of hydronium

     

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    Hybridization

     

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    Instead of 2 types of orbitals, it make 1 type

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    To determine type of hybridization, count number of domains around the atoms (domain- a bond or

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    lone pair) 1 domain: s

     

    2

    domains: sp

     

    3

    domains: sp 2

     

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    domains: sp 3 Ex:

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    Polar Bonds A type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally

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    Lower electroneg.

    Lower electroneg.

    Higher electroneg.

     

    Ex: C

    Cl

    Percent Composition mass of element

     
     

    x 100

    = percent by mass (%)

     

    mass of compound

     

    Molecular Geometry & Polarity

     
    Shape Number of atoms bonded to center atom Number of Lone Pairs of Electrons on center
    Shape
    Number of
    atoms bonded
    to center atom
    Number of
    Lone Pairs of
    Electrons on
    center atom
    Bond angle
    AX #
    Example
    Tetrahedral
    4
    0
    109.5
    AX
    4
    nonpolar
    Trigonal
    3
    1
    107
    AX
    3 E
    Pyramidal
    polar
    Trigonal Planar
    3
    0
    120
    AX
    3

    10

             

    nonpolar

    Bent (Angular)

     
    • 2 105

    • 2 AX 2 E 2

     
    Bent (Angular) 2 105  2 AX E

    polar

    Linear

     
    • 2 180

    • 0 AX 2

     
    Linear 2 180  0 AX

    nonpolar

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    Pyramidal & bent are typically polar

     

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    AX #

    • A = # of center atoms

    • X = # of attached ions

    • E = # of lone pairs on center atom

    States of Matter (Solids, Liquids, Gases) o Intramolecular Forces: a force of attraction within a molecule Intermolecular Forces (IMFs): a force of attraction between two molecules

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    • Dipole-Dipole

    Dipole- a molecule with 2 poles (+ / -)

    The attraction between the negative pole of one molecule & the positive pole of another molecule

     Dipole- a molecule with 2 poles (+ / -)  The attraction between the negative
    • Hydrogen Bond

    The attraction between the positive pole of one molecule (hydrogen) & the negative

    pole of another molecule (nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine) **Strongest IMF

    10 nonpolar Bent (Angular) 2 105  2 AX E polar Linear 2 180  0
    • London- Dispersion Forces

    Due to the movement of electrons

    L-D forces exist between all molecules

    The only force of attraction between nonpolar molecules

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    *Weakest IMF

    Moving electrons may form a temporary dipole Force of attraction between a temporary positive & temporary negative pole of

    another molecule Group 17 (Diatomics: H O Br F I N Cl)

    F 2 Gases Cl 2 Br 2 Liquid Solid I 2
    F 2
    Gases
    Cl
    2
    Br 2
    Liquid
    Solid
    I
    2

    L-D forces are getting stronger More electrons = stronger L-D force

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    Gases

    • Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)

    A theory explaining the states of matter

    Based on the concept that the particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion

    Provides a model of what is called an ideal gas

    • An ideal gas: an imaginary gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the KMT

    • Kinetic energy: energy of motion

    • 5 Assumptions of the KMT:

      • 1. Gases consist of large #’s of tiny particles spaced far apart relative to their size

      • 2. Gas particles are in constant, rapid, random motion. Therefore they possess kinetic energy

      • 3. Gas particles collide w/ each other & their container Collisions are considered elastic Elastic collisions: KE can be transferred between particles but total KE remains constant. (A collision in which there is no net loss of KE)

    • 4. There are no force of attraction or repulsion between gas particles (not true)

    • 5. The avg. kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature of the gas

    KE = ½ mv 2

    m= mass

    v= velocity

    All gases at the same temp have the same avg. KE

    • KMT & Nature of Gases

      • 1. Expansion: Gases expand to fit container

    Bc of lack of attractive forces & their constant motion

    • 2. Fluidity: The ability to flow

    Bc of lack of attractive forces

    • 3. Low Density:

    Bc the particles are spread for apart

    • 4. Compressibility: The ability to be compressed (pushed together)

    Bc density is low, there is more space for particles to be compressed

    • 5. Diffusion & Effusion:

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    Diffusion- The spontaneous mixing of particles of 2 substances caused by their constant motion

    Effusion- A process by which gas particles pass thru a tiny opening

    • Diffusion & Effusion

    Depends on the relative velocities of gas molecules

    The velocity of gas varies inversely with its mass

    Lighter molecules move faster than heavier molecules @ the same temp

    • Graham’s Law of Effusion:

    The rates of effusion of gases at the same temp & pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses

    Rate A

    M B M A
    M B
    M A
     The rates of effusion of gases at the same temp & pressure are inversely proportional
     

    =

     

    Rate B

     

    Pressure Force / unit area

    Caused by collision of gas particles w/ sides of container

    Gas pressure- gas particles colliding with the sides of a container

    Atmospheric pressure- air particles colliding with objects

    STP

    1 atm

    = 101.3 kPa = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr

    0C = 273 K

     

    Pressure exerted by each gas in an unreactive mixture is independent of that exerted by other gases in the mixture

    Partial pressure: the pressure of each gas in a mixture

    • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures:

    At a constant volume & temp the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of partial pressure of component gases

    P total = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 Mole ratio = gas pressure ratio mole A

    • total

    =

    pressure A

    12  Diffusion- The spontaneous mixing of particles of 2 substances caused by their constant motion

    mole

    total

    pressure

    • Boyle’s Law

    Pressure is inversely proportional to volume P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

    • Charles' Law

    Volume is directly proportional to Kelvin at constant pressure

    V 1

    V 2

    • =

    12  Diffusion- The spontaneous mixing of particles of 2 substances caused by their constant motion

    13

    T 1

    T 2

    • Gay-Lussac’s Law

    Pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin temp. at constant volume

    P 1

    P 2

    =

    13 T 1 T 2  Gay- Lussac’s Law  Pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin

    T 1

    T 2

    • Combined Gas Law

    Combines Boyle’s, Charles’s, & G-L Law No variable is constant

    P 1 V 1

    P 2 V 2

    =

    13 T 1 T 2  Gay- Lussac’s Law  Pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin
    • Avogadro’s Principle:

      • T 1

    T 2

    Equal volumes of gases @ the same temp & pressure contain equal numbers of molecules

    PV = nRT

    R: 0.0821 L atm / mol K (constant) Solve for molar mass:

     
     

    mRT

    DRT

     

    M=

    --------

    =

    ------

     

    PV

    P

    Solve for density:

     

    MP

     

    D=

    -------

     

    RT

    P= pressure V= volume n= number of moles R= ideal gas constant T= temperature M= molar mass m= mass D= density

    Liquids

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    Particles are not bound together in a fixed position (constant motion) Liquids are fluid take the shape of their container

    • 1. Relatively high density

    Strong force of attraction between particles, less space between them

    • 2. Incompressibility

    No empty space to be compressed

    • 3. Ability to diffuse

    The molecules are constantly moving & aren’t fixed so they move around other molecules

    • 4. Surface tension- a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size

    Capillary Action- spontaneous movement of liquid through tiny tubes

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    • Cohesion- molecules are attracted to each other

    • Adhesion- molecules are attracted to other things

    • 5. Viscosity- measure of resistance to flow

      • Stronger fore of attraction

    • 6. Evaporation and Boiling

      • Vaporization- the process by which a liquid changes to gas Evaporation- the process by which particle escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter gas state Boiling- the change of a liquid to bubbles of vapor that appear throughout the liquid

    o

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    • Different IMFs cause different substances to evaporate at different rates Strong IMF slow evaporation Medium IMF medium evaporation Weak IMF fast evaporation

    o

    o

    o

    • Why is evaporation a cooling process? Energy is needed to change the water form a liquid to a gas. The energy that is used is removed from the area where the water was. This removal of heat energy is cooling.

    o

     Vapor pressure- the pressure caused by the vapor particles above a liquid Vapor pressure equilibrium:
    Vapor pressure- the pressure caused by the vapor particles above a liquid
    Vapor pressure equilibrium: rate of evaporation = rate of condensation
    Low temp- more liquid, less vapor
    High temp- less liquid, more vapor
    o
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    o
    Phase Diagram

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    Phase diagrams- a graph of pressure as a function of temperature that shows the conditions under

    o

    which the phases of a substance exists Triple point- indicates the temp & pressure conditions at which a solid, liquid, and vapor of the

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    substance can coexist at equilibrium Critical point- indicates critical temp & pressure

    • Critical temperature- temp above which the substance can’t exist in liquid state

    • Critical pressure- the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

    Energy & States of Matter Energy- the ability to do work or produce heat

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    • Potential energy- energy due to composition or position of an object

    • Kinetic energy- energy of motion

    o

    Chemical systems have both PE and KE

    o

    Heat (q)- energy that is in the process of flowing from a warmer object to a cooler object

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    o

    Calorie (cal)- the amount of energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram of water by 1C

    o

    Joule (J)- 1 cal = 4.18 J

    o

    To determine heat absorbed or released:

    • Change in temp (T)

     
    • Mass (m)

    • Specific heat (c)

    o

    Specific heat (c)- J/ g C or cal/ g C

     
    • The amount of heat required to raise temp of 1 g of a substance by 1C

    • Each substance has its own specific heat (unique composition)

    • Specific heat of water = 4.18 J/ g C

     

    o

    Heat Curve

    q = mc T

    15 o Calorie (cal)- the amount of energy required to raise the temp of 1 gram
    • A, C, E: energy absorbed s converted to KE (temp increases)

    • B, D: energy absorbed is converted to PE (energy used to overcome force of attraction between particles, separation)

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    More energy is needed for separation of D

     

    o

    Heat of fusion- the energy needed to melt 1 g of a substance (or 1 mol of a substance)

     

    q = H fus mol

     
     

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    Heat of solidification-

     

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    • H fus = - H sol Heat of vaporization- energy needed to vaporize 1 g of a substance (or 1 mol of a substance)

    o

    Heat of condensation-

     
     
    • H vap = - H cond

     

    q = H vap mol

     

    Types of Mixtures

     
     

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    Homogenous mixture- uniform composition throughout

    • Solution

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    Salt in water, sugar in water

    o

    Heterogeneous mixture- No uniform composition. Larger particles, Tyndall Effect (scatters light)

    • Colloid

    Milk, shaving cream, fog

    • Suspension: particles settle out Oil & vinegar, salad dressing

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    Solute- the substance being dissolved (sugar)

    o

    Solvent- the substance in which a solute is dissolved (water)

    o

    Aqueous solution- a solution with water as a solvent

    The Dissolving Process (dissolution)

    o

    Dissolving takes place on the surface of the solute

    • Polar water molecules are attracted to the solute particles & pull the particles apart

     

    Molecules separate from other molecules (ex: sugar)

    Ions in an ionic compound separate or dissociate Dissociation- the separation of ions in ionic compounds by water

    • Solvation: the solvent particles surround the solute particles

     

    Hydration: the water molecules surround the solute particles

    Miscible: one liquid dissolves in another liquid

    Immiscible: one liquid does not dissolve in another liquid

    Heat of solution: the overall energy change that occurs during the solution formation process

     

    o

    Endothermic or Exothermic

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    Rate of Dissolution

    • Factors affecting the rate of dissolution:

      • 1. Stirring the solvent

    Solute comes in contact w/ solvent at a faster pace. Solute will separate quicker (increased KE)

    • 2. Increasing temperature

    Average KE of particles increases

    • 3. Decreasing the solute particle size

    Many small particles instead of 1 large particle results in increased surface area. More places for solvent to come in contact w/ solute

    o

    Solubility- the amt of solute that can be dissolved in a given amt of solvent

    • Depends on…

      • 1. Nature of solute

      • 2. Nature of solvent

      • 3. Temp. of solution

  • As NaCl is added to water…

    • The dissolution process begins

    • Water will become concentrated with ions

    • Re-crystallization will start to occur

    • Eventually equilibrium will be established Solution equilibrium- physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution & crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates

    • Saturated solutions

      • Equilibrium

      • Contains the max amt of dissolved solute

      • Particles fall to the bottom

  • Unsaturated solutions

  • 17

    Contain less dissolved solute than a saturated solution

    Particles dissolve

     
    • Supersaturated solutions

    Contain more dissolved solute than a saturated solution

    Particles crystallize

     

    o

    Dissociation Equations

     
    • Show the dissociation (separation) of ions when ionic compounds dissolve

    • Ex:

    NaCl (s) Na 1+ (aq) + Cl 1-

    (aq)

     

    (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4(s) 3NH 4 1+ (aq) + PO 4

    3-

    (aq)

    Effects of Pressure on Solubility As pressure of a gas increases, solubility of a gas in liquid increases

    o

    o

    Gas + Solvent ↔ Solution Le Chatelier’s Principle

    • When a system in equilibrium is disturbed by a stress, it attains a new equilibrium position that minimizes the stress (ex of stress: change in temp/ pressure)

    • Concentration

     

    Increase in concentration causes equilibrium to shift away from it

    Decrease in concentration causes equilibrium to shift towards it

    • Temperature

    Increase in temp will favor endothermic

     

    Decrease in temp will favor exothermic

    • Pressure

    Increasing pressure will ‘favor’ the forward reaction ()

    Rate of dissolution increases

    Amt of reactants decrease, amt of particles increase

    **Same as decreasing volume

    Decreasing pressure will ‘favor’ the reserve reaction ()

    Rate of crystallization increases

    Amt of reactants increase, amt of particles decrease

    **Same as increasing volume

    o

    Henry’s Law

    • The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid (at constant temp)

    • Ex: pressurized soda bottles Unopened bottle few bubbles high pressure above solution Opened bottle many bubbles low pressure above solution

    Solubility Curve

    For solids in water…

    As temp solubility For gases in water…

    o

    o

    As temp solubility

    Point on curve = saturated solution

    Point below curve= unsaturated solution

    Point above curve= supersaturated solution

    18

    Concentration of Solutions

     

    o

    Molarity- the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution (M)

     
    • M = moles of solute / L of solution

     

    o

    Molality- concentration used in colligative property calculations (m)

     
    • m = moles of solute / kg of solvent

     

    o

    The number of moles of solute does not change during a dilution M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2

    Colligative Properties of Solutions

    o

    Vapor Pressure Lowering

     
    • As the number of solute particles increases, the proportions of water molecules decrease.

    Few molecules can escape the liquid and therefore decreases vapor pressure

     

    o

    Freezing Point Depression

     
    • If you put solute in water, it lowers the freezing pt (bc it interferes with the crystal pattern

     

    o

    within a solid) t f = K f m i Boiling Point Elevation

     
    • If you put solute in water, it raises the boiling pt (bc IMF is stronger) t b = K b m i

    Electrolytes

    o

    Electrolyte

     
    • A compound that conducts an electric current in aqueous solution or molten state

    • All ionic compounds are electrolytes

    • Acids & bases are electrolytes

    • Weak electrolyte: only a fraction of the solute exists as ions

     

    o

    • Strong electrolyte: almost all of the solute exists as ions Nonelectrolyte

    • A compound that does not conduct electric current in either aqueous solution or the molten state

    • Many molecular compounds are nonelectrolytes (sucrose)

    • Some very polar compounds will ionize in water so they are electrolytes in aqueous solution (acids)

    Chemical Equations represent chemical reactions Must follow law of conservation of mass equations need to be balanced

    o

    o

    H 2 + O 2 H 2 O

    reactants

    products

    bonds break

    bonds form

    endothermic exothermic

    19

    Types of chemical reactions o Synthesis Reactions

     
     
    • 2 or more reactants

     
    • 1 product

     
    • A + B AB

     

    o

    • Ex: CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 Decomposition Reactions

     
     
    • 1 reactant

     
    • 2 or more products

     
    • AB A + B

     
    • Ex: CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2

     
     

    o

    Single Replacement Reaction

     
    • Atoms of an element replace atoms of a second element in a compound

    • Must check activity series (only higher elements can replace lower elements!)

    • A + BX AX + B (cationic replacement)

    • Y + BX BY + X (anionic replacement)

    • Ex:

     
     

    Zn + 2HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 (cationic)

     

    o

    Cl 2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br 2 (anionic) Double Replacement Reactions

     
    • Exchange of ions between two compounds

    • AX + BY BX + AY

     
    • Ex: AgNO 3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3

     
     

    o

    Combustion Reactions

     
     
    • Oxygen is a reactant

    • Release of heat and light

     
    • C X H Y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

    • Ex:

     

    Mg + O 2

    MgO

    C 6 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O

     

    Net Ionic Equations Complete ionic equation- ionic equation that shows all of the particles in a solution as they exist.

    o

     
    • Break up aqueous solutions

     
     

    o

    Spectator ions- ions that do not participate in a reaction

    o

    Net ionic equation- ionic equations that include only the particles that participate in a reaction

     
    • Ex:

    • Complete Ionic: CuCl 2 + 2Na + SO 4 Cu + SO 4 + 2Na + 2Cl

    • Spectator ions: Na and SO 4

     
    • Net Ionic: CuCl 2 Cu + 2Cl

    Thermochemical Reaction o A chemical rxn that includes energy (enthalpy) change

     
    • Exothermic 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O + 481.6 kJ

     
     

    2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O

    H = -481.6 kJ

     
    • Endothermic

     
     

    2H 2 O + 481.6 kJ 2H 2 + O 2

     

    2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2

    H = + 481.6 kJ

    Hess’s Law

     

    20

    o

    The overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process

    Heat of formation

     
     

    o

    The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements

    o

    with all substances in their standard states at 25C H F of all free elements & diatomic molecules = 0

     

    Entropy & Enthalpy Enthalpy: change in energy

    o

     
     
    • Exothermic: -H

    • Endothermic: +H

     

    o

    Entropy: a measure of the degree of randomness of the particles in a system

     
     
    • +S

    • -S

    -H

     

    +S

    Spontaneous

    -G

     

    +H

     

    -S

    Non-spontaneous

    +G

    +H

     

    +S

    Depends on which is dominant

    Undetermined

    -H

     

    -S

    Depends on which is dominant

    Undetermined

    Gibb’s free energy

     
     

    o G = H - TS

    Rates Potential Energy Diagrams

    20 o The overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of enthalpy

    21

    o

    Collision Theory

    • Atoms, ions, & molecules must collide in order to react

    • Reacting substances must collide w/ the correct orientation

    • Reactive substances must collide w/ sufficient energy to form the activated complex

    Effective collisions produce product

    • Activated complex

    Temporary, intermediate substance

    The arrangement of atoms that may form products or break apart to reform reactants

    • Activation energy (Ea)

    The min amt of energy that reacting particles must have to form the activated complex that becomes product

    o

    High Ea = slow rxn rate (less collisions will be effective)

    Factors affecting rate

     
     

    o

    Temperature

     
    • As temp increases, avg kinetic energy of the molecules increases

    • This increased motion results in more collisions between particles

    • Collisions also are more energetic

    • More collisions will be effective

    • Increasing temp will increase rxn rate

    • Ex: glow sticks

     

    o

    Concentration of Reactants

     
    • When the concentration (molarity) of reactant particles is increased there will be more

    particles in a given space

    • Frequency of collisions between particles increases

    • Increasing concentration will increase rxn rate

    Why is smoking where oxygen tanks are used very hazardous? A combustion rxn can occur & its a violent rxn because this an increased concentration of oxygen

     

    o

    Particle size

     
    • If reactant crystals are broken up, the surface are increases

    • Since collisions happen on the surface, increased surface area will increase the frequency of collisions

     

    o

    • Decreasing particle size will increase rxn rate Catalysts

     
    • Catalyst: a substance that increases the rxn rate without being used up itself in the rxn

    • The catalyst lowers the activation energy needed by the reactants for an effective collision

    • More of the collisions between reactant particles will be effective

     
    • Will increase rxn rate

     
    • Inhibitors: substances that interfere with the action of a catalyst (slows down rxn)

     

    o

    Nature of the Reactants (structure of particles)

     
    • In order for a collision to be effective, activation energy is needed to break the bonds of the

    reactants

    • Some bonds are easier to break than others

    • Compounds w/ weaker bonds will react faster than stronger bonds

    • Rxn rates may differ due to the chemical nature of reactants

    Reaction Mechanism

     

    22

    o

    Elementary rxn: when reactants are converted to products in 1 step

    o

    A “one step” rxn

    o

    Rxn mechanism: a sequence of steps by which a rxn occurs

    • Includes all elementary rxns of a complex rxn

    o

    Intermediate: a product of a rxn that becomes a reactant of another rxn within a rxn mechanism

    • Rxn order depends upon the mechanism by which the rxn takes place

    o

    Rate Determining Step

    • The slowest step in the rxn mechanism

    • Overall rate of rxn cannot exceed the rate of the slowest step

    Rate Law

    o

    [ ] = concentration (molarity)

    o

    Example problem:

    2H 2 + 2NO N 2 + 2H 2 O

    • Data showed that when… [H 2 ] doubles, rate doubles

    [H 2 ] triples, rate triples Therefore, R is proportional to [H 2 ] 1

    o

    [NO] doubles, rate increased 4 x (4 fold)

    [NO] triples, rate increased 9 x (9 fold)

    o

    Therefore, R is proportional to [NO] 2

    • R = k [H 2 ] 1 [NO] 2

    (3 rd order rxn)

    o

    Rate depends on the conditions at which rate was determined (temperature)

    o

    Rate Law: an equation that relates reaction rate & concentration of reactants for a chem. rxn

    o

    For one-step rxns

    • aA B

    o

    • Rate Law: R = k [A] a For one-step rxn with 2 reactants

    • aA + bB cC + dD

    o

    • Rate Law: R = k [A] a [B] b The order of rxn = sum of exponents

    Chemical Equilibrium: when the rate of the forward rxn = the rate of the reverse rxn Equilibrium Constant (k eq )

    o

    The ratio of product concentrations to the reactant concentrations

    o

    K eq indicates which part of the reaction is favored

    • If K eq >1 products are favored

    • If K eq <1 reactants are favored

    • If K eq =1 there is equilibrium

    K eq =

    [p]

    [r]

    Solution Equilibrium (k sp ) Will predict whether a precipitate is formed

    o

    o

    Ion product (Q sp ) > k sp (ppt formed)

    o

    Ion prodcut (Q sp ) < k sp

    (no ppt formed)

    o

    Ion product (Q sp ) = k sp soln is saturated and no ppt will form

    o

    Precipitate math

    Acids: sour, corrosive, conduct electricity, blue litmus paper turns red

    o

    Contain more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions

    23

    Bases: slippery, bitter, conduct electricity, red litmus paper turns blue

    o

    Contain more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions’

     

    pH Math:

    o

    H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH -

     
     

    K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH - ]

    k w = 1 x 10 -14 M

     

    o

    [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] = 1 x 10 -7 M pH = -log [H 3 O + ]

    *neutral soln [H 3 O + ] = 2 nd log (-pH)

    o

    o

    pOH = -log [OH - ]

    pH + pOH = 14

    Acid-Base Models

     
    • 1. Arrhenius Model

     
     

    Arrhenius Acid: chemical compound that increases the concentration of H + (hydronium)

     

    ions in aqueous soln

     

    Arrhenius Base: chemical compound that increases the concentration of OH - (hydroxide) ions in aqueous soln

     
    • 2. Bronsted-Lowry

     
     

    B-L Acid: hydrogen ion (proton) donor

    B-L Base: hydrogen ion (proton) accepter

     

    NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH -

    Base

    Acid

    Acid

    Base

    Conjugate acid-base pairs

    Conjugate acid-base pairs

     
    • 3. Lewis Model

     

    Lewis Acid: electron pair accepter

    Lewis Base: electron pair donor

    

    Strengths of Acids and Bases Acids

    o

     
     

    Strong Acids: completely ionize in aqueous soln (100% of molecules will ionize) HCl

     

    HBr

    4

    HI

    HNO 3

    HClO

    H 2 SO 4

    HClO 3

     

    Weak Acids: ionize slightly in aqueous soln (ex: 1% of molecules will ionize) At equilibrium, the molarity of acid is greater than the molarity of [H 3 O + ]

    K a

     

    Acid dissociation constant

    Reflects the fraction of acid that is in ionized form

    24

     The larger the K a , the stronger the acid   K a =
    The larger the K a , the stronger the acid
    K a = [H 3 O + ] [CH 3 COO - ]
    [CH 3 COOH + ]
    A 0.100 M soln of CH 3 COOH is partially ionized. [H + ] is 1.34 x
    10 -3 M. What is the acid ionization constant?
    Initial
    [CH 3 COOH + ]
    0.1000 M
    [H 3 O + ]
    ________
    [CH 3 COO - ]
    ____________
    Change -1.34 x 10 -3 M
    +1.34 x 10 -3 M
    +1.34 x 10 -3 M
    Equilibrium
    0.0987 M
    +1.34 x 10 -3 M
    +1.34 x 10 -3 M
    K a = [1.34 x 10 -3 M] [1.34 x 10 -3 M]
    [0.0987]
    K a = 1.82 x 10 -5
    o
    Bases
    Strong Bases: dissociate completely into metal ions and hydroxide ions
    Ex: Group 1 & 2 Metal Hydroxides
    NaOH
    KOH
    Ca(OH) 2
    Weak Bases: react with water to form the conjugate acid of the base & the hydroxide ion
    NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 + OH -
    K b = [NH 4 + ] [OH - ]
    [NH 3 ]
    K b
    Base dissociation constant
    The larger the K b , the stronger the base
    Neutralization
    o Double Replacement Rxn
    o Acid + Base  Salt + Water
    HCl + NaOH  NaCl + HOH
    Titration
    o
    A method for determining concentration of a soln by reacting a known volume of that soln with a
    soln of known concentration
    Standard soln: the soln of known concentration
    Equivalence point: [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ]
    The point at which the two solns used in a titration are present in chemically equal amts.
    o
    End point: the point in which the indicator changes color
    N a M a V a = N b M b V b
    o
    N
    =
    #
    of H + ions
    a
    o
    N b = # of OH - ions
    Salt Hydrolysis
    A reaction between water molecules and ions of a dissolved salt
    Anion hydrolysis: Anions of dissociated salt react w/ water
    o
    o
    • Anion of salt is conjugate base of the acid from which it was formed

    • Removes proton

    • Results in basic salt

    25

     

    Increase in [OH - ] (pH increases)

     
     

    o

    Cation hydrolysis: Cations of dissociated salt react w/ water

     

    Cation of salt is conjugate acid of the base from which it was formed

    Donates proton

     

    Results in acidic salt

    Increase in [H 3 O + ] (pH decreases)

     

    o

    o

    o

    o

    Strong acid + strong base neutral salt (no hydrolysis)

    Strong acid + weak base acidic salt

    Weak acid + strong base basic salt

    Weak acid + weak base undetermined

    Buffers

    o

    o

    A buffered solution- resists changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base are added

    Weak acid & salt of weak acid

     

    CH 3 COOH + H 2 O CH 3 COO - + H 3 O +

     

    If acid is added

     
     

    o

    Equilibrium shifts left

     
    • CH 3 COO - reacts with H 3 O + to form CH 3 COOH

     

    If base is added

     

    o

    Equilibrium shifts right

     
    • OH - react w/ & remove H 3 O + to form H 2 O.

     

    o

    Weak base & salt of weak base

     

    NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - If acid is added

    • OH - accept protons from H 3 O + to form H 2 O

     

    o Equilibrium shifts right

    If base is added

     
     

    o

    Equilibrium shifts left

     
    • NH 4 reacts with OH - to produce NH 3 and H 2 O

     

    o

    Buffer capacity

     
     

    The amt of acid or base buffer soln can absorb without a significant change in pH

    The greater the concentrations of buffering molecules & ions in soln, the greater the buffer capacity

    Redox Reactions

    o

    Oxidation Reaction:

     
     

    A rxn in which an element or ion becomes more positive

    Atom or ion loses electrons

     
     

    o

    Reduction Reaction

     
     

    A rxn in which an element or ion becomes more negative

    Atom or ion gains electrons

     
     

    o

    Oxidizing Agent

     
     

    The substance that oxidizes another substance by accepting electrons (reduced substance)

     

    o

    Reducing Agent

     
     

    The substance that reduces another substance by losing electrons (oxidized substance)

     

    o

    Half-Reaction

     
     

    Shows half of a redox reaction

     

    Oxidation:

    2Na 2Na + + 2e -

    Reduction:

    Cl 2 + 2e - 2Cl - Cl 2 + 2Na 2Na + + 2Cl -

    26

    o

    Assigning Oxidation Numbers

    • Atoms in a pure element have an oxidation number of 0

    • The more electronegative element in a binary compound is assigned the number equal to the negative charge it would have as an anion

    • F has an oxidation number of -1 in all compounds

    • O has an oxidation number of -2 in all compounds

    Except peroxides (oxidation number= -1)

    Except when bonded to F (OF 2 ) (oxidation number = +2)

    • H has an oxidation number of +1 in all compounds containing elements that are more electronegative than it

    • H has an oxidation number of -1 in all compounds with metals

    • The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a neutral compound is = 0

    • The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a monatomic or polyatomic ion is equal to the charge of the ion

    Electrochemistry: deals with electricity related applications of oxidation-reduction rxns Electrochemical cells- Any device that converts chemical potential energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical potential energy

    o

    o

    Voltaic cells

    • A type of electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by a spontaneous redox rxn

    • Electricity caused by the movement of ions from the oxidized substance to the reduced substance

    • Half cell: one part of a voltaic cell in which either oxidation or reduction occurs

    ** The more active of two metals (higher on the activity series) will be more easily oxidized)

    • Salt Bridge- A pathway constructed to allow the passage of ions from one side to another

    • Electrode- A conductor in a circuit that carries electrons to or from a substance

    Anode (-): An Ox

    o

    The electrode in which oxidation occurs

    27

    o

    Electrons are produced here Size decreases

    o Cathode (+): Red Cat o The electrode in which reduction occurs Electrons are consumed here o Size of electrode increases (Red cat gets fat)

    o

    • Electric Current- A flow of charged particles

    o

    Electrochemical Cell Potentials- The electrode with the more positive reduction potential will be reduced when connected to an electrode with a more negative reduction potential

    • Reduction Potential (v)- The tendency of a substance to gain electrons

     

    Standard Electrode Potential: E 0 = 0.00 V

    E 0 cell = E 0 red - E 0 ox

    + E 0 cell = spontaneous

    - E 0 cell = not spontaneous

    o

    Batteries- One or more electrochemical cells in a single package that generates electrical current

    • Corrosion- the loss of metal that results from an oxidation-reduction reaction of the metal with substances in the environment

    • Electrolysis- The process that used electrical energy to bring about a chemical reaction

    Electrolytic cells- An electrochemical cell in which electrolysis occurs